Gene Duplication: Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.Segmental Duplications, Genomic: Low-copy (2-50) repetitive DNA elements that are highly homologous and range in size from 1000 to 400,000 base pairs.Chromosome Duplication: An aberration in which an extra chromosome or a chromosomal segment is made.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Genes, Duplicate: Two identical genes showing the same phenotypic action but localized in different regions of a chromosome or on different chromosomes. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Synteny: The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Centrioles: Self-replicating, short, fibrous, rod-shaped organelles. Each centriole is a short cylinder containing nine pairs of peripheral microtubules, arranged so as to form the wall of the cylinder.Tandem Repeat Sequences: Copies of DNA sequences which lie adjacent to each other in the same orientation (direct tandem repeats) or in the opposite direction to each other (INVERTED TANDEM REPEATS).Gene Dosage: The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.Vertebrates: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Pseudogenes: Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.Centrosome: The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).Digestive System Abnormalities: Congenital structural abnormalities of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Gene Rearrangement: The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Comparative Genomic Hybridization: A method for comparing two sets of chromosomal DNA by analyzing differences in the copy number and location of specific sequences. It is used to look for large sequence changes such as deletions, duplications, amplifications, or translocations.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease: A rare, slowly progressive disorder of myelin formation. Subtypes are referred to as classic, congenital, transitional, and adult forms of this disease. The classic form is X-chromosome linked, has its onset in infancy and is associated with a mutation of the proteolipid protein gene. Clinical manifestations include TREMOR, spasmus nutans, roving eye movements, ATAXIA, spasticity, and NYSTAGMUS, CONGENITAL. Death occurs by the third decade of life. The congenital form has similar characteristics but presents early in infancy and features rapid disease progression. Transitional and adult subtypes have a later onset and less severe symptomatology. Pathologic features include patchy areas of demyelination with preservation of perivascular islands (trigoid appearance). (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p190)Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.DNA Copy Number Variations: Stretches of genomic DNA that exist in different multiples between individuals. Many copy number variations have been associated with susceptibility or resistance to disease.fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3: A receptor tyrosine kinase that is involved in HEMATOPOIESIS. It is closely related to FMS PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN and is commonly mutated in acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.Abnormalities, MultiplePolyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.Intellectual Disability: Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Chromosome Inversion: An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Esophageal Cyst: Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac (CYSTS) that is lined by an EPITHELIUM and found in the ESOPHAGUS region.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.Chromosome Breakage: A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Chordata, Nonvertebrate: A portion of the animal phylum Chordata comprised of the subphyla CEPHALOCHORDATA; UROCHORDATA, and HYPEROTRETI, but not including the Vertebrata (VERTEBRATES). It includes nonvertebrate animals having a NOTOCHORD during some developmental stage.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease: A hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy transmitted most often as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by progressive distal wasting and loss of reflexes in the muscles of the legs (and occasionally involving the arms). Onset is usually in the second to fourth decade of life. This condition has been divided into two subtypes, hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) types I and II. HMSN I is associated with abnormal nerve conduction velocities and nerve hypertrophy, features not seen in HMSN II. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1343)Cysts: Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM. Cysts can be of normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic, or neoplastic tissues.Genome, Fungal: The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Gene Order: The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Chromosomes, Human, X: The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Tetraodontiformes: A small order of primarily marine fish containing 340 species. Most have a rotund or box-like shape. TETRODOTOXIN is found in their liver and ovaries.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Trisomy: The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.Chromosome Banding: Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.Takifugu: A genus of pufferfish commonly used for research.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Chromosome Breakpoints: The locations in specific DNA sequences where CHROMOSOME BREAKS have occurred.Chordata: Phylum in the domain Eukarya, comprised of animals either with fully developed backbones (VERTEBRATES), or those with notochords only during some developmental stage (CHORDATA, NONVERTEBRATE).DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Gene Conversion: The asymmetrical segregation of genes during replication which leads to the production of non-reciprocal recombinant strands and the apparent conversion of one allele into another. Thus, e.g., the meiotic products of an Aa individual may be AAAa or aaaA instead of AAaa, i.e., the A allele has been converted into the a allele or vice versa.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Translocation, Genetic: A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.Crossing Over, Genetic: The reciprocal exchange of segments at corresponding positions along pairs of homologous CHROMOSOMES by symmetrical breakage and crosswise rejoining forming cross-over sites (HOLLIDAY JUNCTIONS) that are resolved during CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION. Crossing-over typically occurs during MEIOSIS but it may also occur in the absence of meiosis, for example, with bacterial chromosomes, organelle chromosomes, or somatic cell nuclear chromosomes.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Smith-Magenis Syndrome: Complex neurobehavioral disorder characterized by distinctive facial features (FACIES), developmental delay and INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Behavioral phenotypes include sleep disturbance, maladaptive, self-injurious and attention-seeking behaviors. The sleep disturbance is linked to an abnormal circadian secretion pattern of MELATONIN. The syndrome is associated with de novo deletion or mutation and HAPLOINSUFFICIENCY of the retinoic acid-induced 1 protein on chromosome 17p11.2.Hominidae: Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Physical Chromosome Mapping: Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Retroelements: Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.Likelihood Functions: Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.Mosaicism: The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Contig Mapping: Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.Pongo pygmaeus: A species of orangutan, family HOMINIDAE, found in the forests on the island of Borneo.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Gorilla gorilla: This single species of Gorilla, which is a member of the HOMINIDAE family, is the largest and most powerful of the PRIMATES. It is distributed in isolated scattered populations throughout forests of equatorial Africa.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Chromosomes, Human: Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Mental Retardation, X-Linked: A class of genetic disorders resulting in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY that is associated either with mutations of GENES located on the X CHROMOSOME or aberrations in the structure of the X chromosome (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS).Sex Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Some sex chromosome aberrations are associated with SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS and SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS OF SEX DEVELOPMENT.Pan troglodytes: The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.Fish Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of fish (FISHES).Sorghum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.Sex Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).Methyl-CpG-Binding Protein 2: A DNA-binding protein that interacts with methylated CPG ISLANDS. It plays a role in repressing GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and is frequently mutated in RETT SYNDROME.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Genes, Homeobox: Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.Hagfishes: Common name for a family of eel-shaped jawless fishes (Myxinidae), the only family in the order MYXINIFORMES. They are not true vertebrates.Prader-Willi Syndrome: An autosomal dominant disorder caused by deletion of the proximal long arm of the paternal chromosome 15 (15q11-q13) or by inheritance of both of the pair of chromosomes 15 from the mother (UNIPARENTAL DISOMY) which are imprinted (GENETIC IMPRINTING) and hence silenced. Clinical manifestations include MENTAL RETARDATION; MUSCULAR HYPOTONIA; HYPERPHAGIA; OBESITY; short stature; HYPOGONADISM; STRABISMUS; and HYPERSOMNOLENCE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p229)Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Caenorhabditis: A genus of small free-living nematodes. Two species, CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS and C. briggsae are much used in studies of genetics, development, aging, muscle chemistry, and neuroanatomy.Diploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Onagraceae: The evening primrose plant family of the order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. Flower parts are mostly in fours and the ovary is inferior.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Centromere: The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.Genome, Insect: The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Facies: The appearance of the face that is often characteristic of a disease or pathological condition, as the elfin facies of WILLIAMS SYNDROME or the mongoloid facies of DOWN SYNDROME. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Gene Components: The parts of the gene sequence that carry out the different functions of the GENES.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).Chromosomes, Human, Y: The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Tetraploidy: The presence of four sets of chromosomes. It is associated with ABNORMALITIES, MULTIPLE; and MISCARRAGES.Karyotype: The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Developmental Disabilities: Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)Populus: A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Balm of Gilead is a common name used for P. candicans, or P. gileadensis, or P. jackii, and sometimes also used for ABIES BALSAMEA or for COMMIPHORA.Ciona intestinalis: The only species of a cosmopolitan ascidian.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Ureterocele: A cystic dilatation of the end of a URETER as it enters into the URINARY BLADDER. It is characterized by the ballooning of the ureteral orifice into the lumen of the bladder and may obstruct urine flow.Angelman Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by multiple abnormalities, MENTAL RETARDATION, and movement disorders. Present usually are skull and other abnormalities, frequent infantile spasms (SPASMS, INFANTILE); easily provoked and prolonged paroxysms of laughter (hence "happy"); jerky puppetlike movements (hence "puppet"); continuous tongue protrusion; motor retardation; ATAXIA; MUSCLE HYPOTONIA; and a peculiar facies. It is associated with maternal deletions of chromosome 15q11-13 and other genetic abnormalities. (From Am J Med Genet 1998 Dec 4;80(4):385-90; Hum Mol Genet 1999 Jan;8(1):129-35)Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Genetic Speciation: The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Cosmids: Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)DNA Breaks: Interruptions in the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Fungal: Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Eukaryotic Cells: Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Oryzias: The only genus in the family Oryziinae, order BELONIFORMES. Oryzias are egg-layers; other fish of the same order are livebearers. Oryzias are used extensively in testing carcinogens.Invertebrates: Animals that have no spinal column.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Hylobates: A genus of the family HYLOBATIDAE consisting of six species. The members of this genus inhabit rain forests in southeast Asia. They are arboreal and differ from other anthropoids in the great length of their arms and very slender bodies and limbs. Their major means of locomotion is by swinging from branch to branch by their arms. Hylobates means dweller in the trees. Some authors refer to Symphalangus and Nomascus as Hylobates. The six genera include: H. concolor (crested or black gibbon), H. hoolock (Hoolock gibbon), H. klossii (Kloss's gibbon; dwarf siamang), H. lar (common gibbon), H. pileatus (pileated gibbon), and H. syndactylus (siamang). H. lar is also known as H. agilis (lar gibbon), H. moloch (agile gibbon), and H. muelleri (silvery gibbon).Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Cytogenetic Analysis: Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.Myelin Proteolipid Protein: A myelin protein that is the major component of the organic solvent extractable lipoprotein complexes of whole brain. It has been the subject of much study because of its unusual physical properties. It remains soluble in chloroform even after essentially all of its bound lipids have been removed. (From Siegel et al., Basic Neurochemistry, 4th ed, p122)Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Homologous Recombination: An exchange of DNA between matching or similar sequences.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute: Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.MADS Domain Proteins: A superfamily of proteins that share a highly conserved MADS domain sequence motif. The term MADS refers to the first four members which were MCM1 PROTEIN; AGAMOUS 1 PROTEIN; DEFICIENS PROTEIN; and SERUM RESPONSE FACTOR. Many MADS domain proteins have been found in species from all eukaryotic kingdoms. They play an important role in development, especially in plants where they have an important role in flower development.Genetic Loci: Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Lampreys: Common name for the only family (Petromyzontidae) of eellike fish in the order Petromyzontiformes. They are jawless but have a sucking mouth with horny teeth.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Duplication and divergence[edit]. Several theoretical models exist to predict the order of duplication and specialisation ... before becoming a specialist again-presumably after gene duplication according to the IAD model-and secondly that promiscuous ... reconstructed enzyme suggests that the order of the events where the novel activity is improved and the gene is duplication is ... be gained as the promiscuous activity could confer a fitness benefit under a new selective pressure leading to its duplication ...
Character duplication[edit]. For compatibility or other reasons, Unicode sometimes assigns two different code points to ...
Research topics include whole genome genetic mapping and physical mapping; polyploidy; ancient whole genome duplications; ...
"Gene Duplications and Divergence". Boundless Biology. Boundless. 8 August 2016. Retrieved 12 January 2017. Note: this material ...
Duplications may also occur. Recent work has been done by virologists to learn more about the interference in infection of host ...
... duplication?] Regulation of electronic cigarettes Positions of medical organizations on electronic cigarettes McNeill, A; Brose ...
Scientists believe the origin of snake venom began with gene duplication of genes that had been expressed in the body tissues ... Extensive research on platypuses shows that their toxin was initially formed from gene duplication, but data provides evidence ... Wong, E. S., & Belov, K. (2012). Venom evolution through gene duplications. Gene 496:1-7.. ... Restriction and recruitment-gene duplication and the origin and evolution of snake venom toxins.BioRxiv. Daltry Jennifer C.; ...
Scores of duplications are common; hundreds are possible. Bug fixes, in particular, become very difficult and costly in such ... Being a form of code duplication, copy-and-paste programming has some intrinsic problems; such problems are exacerbated if the ...
Wong ES, Belov K (March 2012). "Venom evolution through gene duplications". Gene. 496 (1): 1-7. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2012.01.009 ... and thus are less conserved and more likely to experience gene duplication events and nonsynonymous mutations which lead to the ...
... on chromosome 6 and inherited duplication of 6q24 (inherited duplication is a small chromosomal change in which a very little ... Resulting,in an increased expression of the imprinted gene by UPD or inherited duplication that leads to the onset of diabetes ... "16p11.2 duplication". Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved 2017-12-10. "DNA methylation". Wikipedia. 2017-10-18. Das, S.; Lese, C ... Chromosome duplication can found by that technique also. Medical Professionals of NDM Physician Endocrinologist Geneticist ...
22q11.2 duplication syndrome Asymmetric crying facies Contiguous gene syndrome DGCR2 List of radiographic findings associated ... Firth HV (February 17, 2009). "22q11.2 Duplication". In Pagon RA, Bird TD, Dolan CR, Stephens K. GeneReviews. PMID 20301749. ... uses a large number of probes embossed in a chip to screen the entire genome for deletions or duplications. It can be used in ...
Duplication Dangers. To Navigation". Cairns Post. 29 March 1938. p. 12. "Life Above the Sharks". Townsville Daily Bulletin. 12 ...
Eliminate duplication. The book illustrates the use of unit testing as part of the methodology, including examples in Java and ...
After duplication one of the paralogs began to accumulate mutations that lead to the replacement of SAS domains of the gene ... Following the gene duplication event there are two identical copies of the ancestral gene performing exactly the same function ... R. De Smet and Y. Van de Peer, "Redundancy and rewiring of genetic networks following genome-wide duplication events.," Current ... The process of Neofunctionalization begins with a gene duplication event, which is thought to occur as a defense mechanism ...
2. Duplication. Having to re-enter data, repeat details on forms, copy information across, answer queries from several sources ... wasting time finding a location that may result in misuse or duplication. 5. Incorrect inventory. Being out-of-stock, unable to ...
Packet duplication. Packet reordering. Fragmentation of packets. VLAN, MPLS tags can be added to the packets. TCP and UDP ...
For example, both species have lost one of the centrin subfamilies that are usually associated with centriole duplication. ... Jaspersen, S. L.; Winey, M. (2004). "THE BUDDING YEAST SPINDLE POLE BODY: Structure, Duplication, and Function". Annual Review ... Stearns, T. (May 2001). "Centrosome duplication. A centriolar pas de deux". Cell. 105 (4): 417-420. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(01) ... Centrins participate in calcium signaling and are required for centriole duplication. There exist two main subfamilies of ...
Duplication was completed by December 1901. Trains to Sandgate originally travelled via what is now the Exhibition line prior ... "Sandgate Duplication". The Brisbane Courier. Qld. 1901-12-03. p. 2. Retrieved 2012-01-01. Kerr, J. 'Brunswick St, Bowen Hills ...
The final duplication works joined at Wallerawang, the current end of double track, and was extended first to Sodwalls ... "RAILWAY DUPLICATION". The Sydney Morning Herald. 12 July 1915. p. 6. Retrieved 14 October 2014 - via National Library of ... "TELEPHONE DUPLICATION". The Leader. Orange, NSW. 15 May 1914. p. 2. Retrieved 12 October 2014 - via National Library of ... "RAILWAY DUPLICATION". The National Advocate. Bathurst, NSW. 9 January 1922. p. 2. Retrieved 23 August 2015 - via National ...
... (TAGs) are a gene cluster created by tandem duplications, a process in which one gene is duplicated and ... Barker, Michael S.; Baute, Gregory J.; Liu, Shao-Lun (5 March 2012). "Duplications and turnover in plant genomes". In Wendel, ...
Duplications such as the second Confiteor. Another objective of the Movement was the introduction of the vernacular language ( ...
"Pappus's solution of the duplication problem". School Science and Mathematics. 15 (3): 216-217. 1915. (See Pappus of Alexandria ... See Platonic solid.) "The duplication problem". The American Mathematical Monthly. 23 (4): 106-113. 1916. (See doubling the ...
Duplication is possible. Fungibility of informational content (or, in other words, the ability to be replaced by another ...
Some lines are built as single-track with provision for duplication, but the duplication is never carried out. Examples include ... is an example of a duplication line that was reduced to single-track in most locations, but has since undergone re-duplication ... The process of expanding a single track to double track is called duplication or doubling, unless the expansion is to restore ... The Flanders campaign saw duplication of the Hazebrouck-Ypres line, amongst other works. Severe gradients made the headway in ...
Duplication between Balmoral Road West and Burrup Peninsula Road, turning the road into a dual carriageway, was completed on 28 ... Main Roads Western Australia (20 December 2013). "Dampier Highway Duplication". Government of Western Australia. Retrieved 23 ...
Analysis of the Tetraodon and human genomes shows that whole-genome duplication occurred in the teleost fish lineage, ... Genome duplication in the teleost fish Tetraodon nigroviridis reveals the early vertebrate proto-karyotype *Jaillon, Olivier ... Analysis of the Tetraodon and human genomes shows that whole-genome duplication occurred in the teleost fish lineage, ...
Gene duplications. Approximately 60-70% of cases of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease result from duplications of the region of the ... Transgenic mice with extra copies of PLP1 develop a syndrome that effectively models the PLP1 duplication form of Pelizaeus- ... Patients with classic Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (such as that caused by PLP1 gene duplications) can live into the fifth or ... T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of a man aged 41 years with duplication of the proteolipid protein (PLP) gene ...
... What is a ureterocele and ureteral duplication in children?. A ureterocele is ... Key points about ureterocele and ureteral duplication in a child. * A ureterocele is a problem with a ureter. The ureters are 2 ... Which children are at risk for ureterocele and ureteral duplication?. These problems are much more common in girls than in boys ... How is ureterocele and ureteral duplication diagnosed in a child?. A ureterocele may be first seen on a prenatal ultrasound, ...
Esophageal duplication cyst in a dog.: A cranial cervical mass was surgically removed from a dog. On histologic examination, ... On histologic examination, the mass was consistent with an esophageal duplication cyst, a condition rare in humans and not ...
Incidental finding of a cystic lesion related to the distal esophageal wall. The patient has also liver cirrhosis, splenomegaly, portal hypertension, gall bladder stone and ascites. ...
Computed tomography scan of esophageal duplication cysts. (A) Transverse and (B) sagittal views of the large-sized cyst; and (C ... Double esophageal duplication cysts, with ectopic gastric mucosa: a case report. Zhang Z, Jin F, Wu H, Tan S, Tian Z, Cui Y - J ... Double esophageal duplication cysts, with ectopic gastric mucosa: a case report. Zhang Z, Jin F, Wu H, Tan S, Tian Z, Cui Y - J ... Esophageal duplication cyst (EDC) is a congenital malformation of the posterior primitive foregut, which mainly occurs in the ...
... three-hole esophagectomy as well as a modified Heller myotomy for treatment of achalasia and excision of esophageal duplication ...
duplication* (in genetics) The doubling or repetition of part of a chromosome, which generally originates during the crossing ... usually the term is preceded by the unit of duplication (e.g. exon duplication, gene duplication, partial gene duplication).. ... duplication A chromosomal aberration in which more than one copy of a particular chromosomal segment is produced within a ... duplication A chromosomal aberration in which more than one copy of a particular chromosomal segment is produced within a ...
Gastrointestinal duplications are rare congenital malformations that may vary greatly in presentation, size, location, and ... Tubular colonic duplications can also occur with duplication or triplication of the colon. Tubular duplication of the colon is ... Cervical duplications - Cervical esophageal duplication cysts are the most unusual GI duplication, with fewer than 10 cases ... Small-intestine duplications - The small intestine is the most frequent site of GI duplications, accounting for 44% of cases [3 ...
17q12 duplication is a chromosomal change in which a small piece of chromosome 17 is copied (duplicated) abnormally in each ... 17q12 duplications have an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, which means one copy of the duplication in each cell is ... Most 17q12 duplications are inherited from a parent. . In these cases, the parent most often has only mild signs and symptoms ... Less commonly, 17q12 duplications represent a new (de novo) chromosomal change. and occur in people with no history of the ...
The duplication occurs near the middle of the chromosome at a location designated q11.2.The features of this condition vary ... 22q11.2 duplication is a condition caused by an extra copy of a small piece of chromosome 22. ... 22q11.2 duplication is a condition caused by an extra copy of a small piece of chromosome 22. The duplication. occurs near the ... About 70 percent of affected individuals inherit the duplication from a parent. . In other cases, the duplication is not ...
Species Tree Gene Duplication Gene Tree Duplication Event Gene Duplication Event These keywords were added by machine and not ... Fellows, M., Hallet, M., Stege, U.: On the multiple gene duplication problem. ISAAC, pp. 347-356 (1998)Google Scholar ... Rensing, S.A., Ick, J., Fawcett, J.A., Lang, D., Zimmer, A., Van de Peer, Y., Reski, R.: An ancient genome duplication ... Simillion, C., Vandepoele, K., Van Montagu, M.C.E., Zabeau, M., Van de Peer, Y.: The hidden duplication past of Arabidopsis ...
... * 1. China Innovation: Disruption, not Duplication Bruno Bensaid 15 July 2015 ...
Find chromosome duplication information, treatments for chromosome duplication and chromosome duplication symptoms. ... MedHelps chromosome duplication Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for chromosome duplication. ... Posts on chromosome duplication. duplication of7q21.13 {large 1.68 -1.73mb} and deletion of 6p25.1 {large 208.45 - 240.91kb} - ... My daughter has a 1q44 duplication, as well as a 16p13.2 duplication. I have been told by g... ...
Micro-duplications of 1q32.1 associated with neurodevelopmental delay.. Olson HE1, Shen Y, Poduri A, Gorman MP, Dies KA, ... The two micro-duplications largely overlap and both patients exhibited cognitive and motor delays. Case 1 is a 5-year-old boy ... The top panel shows the two duplications reported here. Refseq genes, DECIPHER cases and Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) ... FISH confirmation of the 1q32.1 duplication. Chromosome 1 centromere specific alpha-satellite probe D1Z5 (green signals) was ...
Duplication Guidelines If a course is completed before a prerequisite is taken, credit will not later be allowed for the ...
Segmental duplications (SDs) are segments of DNA with near-identical sequence. Segmental duplications, also known as low copy ... Genome-wide detection of segmental duplications Bailey, Jeffrey A.; Eichler, EE (2006). "Primate segmental duplications: ... Copy number variation Pseudogenes Molecular evolution Human genome Comparative genomics Inparanoid Tandem exon duplication ...
Major genome duplication events can be quite common. It is believed that the entire yeast genome underwent duplication about ... Gene duplication (or chromosomal duplication or gene amplification) is a major mechanism through which new genetic material is ... It can be defined as any duplication of a region of DNA that contains a gene. Gene duplications can arise as products of ... Gene duplications are an essential source of genetic novelty that can lead to evolutionary innovation. Duplication creates ...
The MECP2 duplication syndrome.. Ramocki MB1, Tavyev YJ, Peters SU.. Author information. 1. Department of Pediatrics, Baylor ... MECP2 duplication syndrome is 100% penetrant in affected males and is associated with infantile hypotonia, severe to profound ... Eight photos of boys affected by the MECP2 duplication syndrome are published with parental consent. These photos are ... In this review, we detail the history, molecular diagnosis, epidemiology, and clinical features of the MECP2 duplication ...
Genome Duplication provides a comprehensive and readable overview of the underlying principles that govern genome duplication ... Genome Duplication explains how mistakes in genome duplication are associated with genetic disorders and cancer, and how ... Genome Duplication provides a comprehensive and readable overview of the underlying principles that govern genome duplication ... Using examples from the three domains of life - bacteria, archaea, and eukarya - Genome Duplication shows how all living ...
Many forensic investigations require forensic copies of USB storage devices. This course will teach you how to use the FTDI Vinculum II microcontroller to create a pocket USB forensic duplicator for under $50.
Historic duplications of the prion gene. Human-mouse prion gene synteny relationships. Prion gene syntenies in other species. ... Duplications of the prion gene. webmaster 5 Dec 98 The hox genes [that determine anterior-posterior axial cell fate in ... Local duplications also could not be detected. However, at this point, the best match about the mouse prion gene corresponds to ... Ray-finned fish such as pufferfish and zebrafish had a third duplication; salmonids and goldfish had a fourth. In other words, ...
In spite of the consequences of the deletion and the duplication mediated by the segmental duplication are quite different, the ... The chimera generated by the duplication contains the promoter region of ZNF451 and most of the coding region of KIAA1586 ... Chimeric Genes in Deletions and Duplications Associated with Intellectual Disability. Sonia Mayo, Sandra Monfort, Mónica ... Patient 3 is the only case we present with a chimeric gene due to an inherited duplication. As in patient 1, the fusion gene ...
Gene duplication has played an important role in the history of the human genome and the genomes of ancestors. Gene duplication ... Proteins with more than a few members are very unlikely to be due to duplications of large regions, because these duplications ... The relationships suggest many ancient events of gene duplication. It is well known that gene duplication has been a major ... The implication is that the duplications occurred within the last few million years, and, thus, the duplications are possibly ...
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  • however, two-thirds of patients with PMD carry PLP1 duplications and present typical manifestations of the disorder, recognized as the classical form. (medscape.com)
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