Tumors or cancer of the DUODENUM.
Pathological conditions in the DUODENUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).
Hindrance of the passage of luminal contents in the DUODENUM. Duodenal obstruction can be partial or complete, and caused by intrinsic or extrinsic factors. Simple obstruction is associated with diminished or stopped flow of luminal contents. Strangulating obstruction is associated with impaired blood flow to the duodenum in addition to obstructed flow of luminal contents.
The abundant submucosal mucous glands in the DUODENUM. These glands secrete BICARBONATE IONS; GLYCOPROTEINS; and PEPSINOGEN II.
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the duodenum.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Inflammation of the DUODENUM section of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL). Erosive duodenitis may cause bleeding in the UPPER GI TRACT and PEPTIC ULCER.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
The region of the STOMACH at the junction with the DUODENUM. It is marked by the thickening of circular muscle layers forming the pyloric sphincter to control the opening and closure of the lumen.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
The region between the sharp indentation at the lower third of the STOMACH (incisura angularis) and the junction of the PYLORUS with the DUODENUM. Pyloric antral glands contain mucus-secreting cells and gastrin-secreting endocrine cells (G CELLS).
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
A pattern of gastrointestinal muscle contraction and depolarizing myoelectric activity that moves from the stomach to the ILEOCECAL VALVE at regular frequency during the interdigestive period. The complex and its accompanying motor activity periodically cleanse the bowel of interdigestive secretion and debris in preparation for the next meal.
A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.
A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
A peptide hormone of about 27 amino acids from the duodenal mucosa that activates pancreatic secretion and lowers the blood sugar level. (USAN and the USP Dictionary of Drug Names, 1994, p597)
A dilation of the duodenal papilla that is the opening of the juncture of the COMMON BILE DUCT and the MAIN PANCREATIC DUCT, also known as the hepatopancreatic ampulla.
The excision of the head of the pancreas and the encircling loop of the duodenum to which it is connected.
The fluid containing digestive enzymes secreted by the pancreas in response to food in the duodenum.
The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
4-Methoxy-2-(5-methoxy-3-methylpyrazol-1-yl)-6-methylpyrimidine. A pyrimidinyl pyrazole with antipyretic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activity.
The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.
A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.
The fourth stomach of ruminating animals. It is also called the "true" stomach. It is an elongated pear-shaped sac lying on the floor of the abdomen, on the right-hand side, and roughly between the seventh and twelfth ribs. It leads to the beginning of the small intestine. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
A peptide of about 22-amino acids isolated from the DUODENUM. At low pH it inhibits gastric motor activity, whereas at high pH it has a stimulating effect.
Passage of food (sometimes in the form of a test meal) through the gastrointestinal tract as measured in minutes or hours. The rate of passage through the intestine is an indicator of small bowel function.
Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
Fluids originating from the epithelial lining of the intestines, adjoining exocrine glands and from organs such as the liver, which empty into the cavity of the intestines.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central nervous system. It causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions. Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety.
The largest bile duct. It is formed by the junction of the CYSTIC DUCT and the COMMON HEPATIC DUCT.
A specialized proteolytic enzyme secreted by intestinal cells. It converts TRYPSINOGEN into its active form TRYPSIN by removing the N-terminal peptide. EC
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The sphincter of the hepatopancreatic ampulla within the duodenal papilla. The COMMON BILE DUCT and main pancreatic duct pass through this sphincter.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the gastrointestinal tract.
An abnormal anatomical passage between the INTESTINE, and another segment of the intestine or other organs. External intestinal fistula is connected to the SKIN (enterocutaneous fistula). Internal intestinal fistula can be connected to a number of organs, such as STOMACH (gastrocolic fistula), the BILIARY TRACT (cholecystoduodenal fistula), or the URINARY BLADDER of the URINARY TRACT (colovesical fistula). Risk factors include inflammatory processes, cancer, radiation treatment, and surgical misadventures (MEDICAL ERRORS).
A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.
Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.
The segment of GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the ESOPHAGUS; the STOMACH; and the DUODENUM.
DUODENAL OBSTRUCTION by the superior mesenteric artery (MESENTERIC ARTERY, SUPERIOR) which travels in the root of the MESENTERY and crosses over the DUODENUM. The syndrome is characterized by the dilated proximal duodenum and STOMACH, bloating, ABDOMINAL CRAMPS, and VOMITING. Often it is observed in patient with body casts after spinal surgery.
Calcium-binding proteins that are found in DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES, INTESTINES, BRAIN, and other tissues where they bind, buffer and transport cytoplasmic calcium. Calbindins possess a variable number of EF-HAND MOTIFS which contain calcium-binding sites. Some isoforms are regulated by VITAMIN D.
The hindering of output from the STOMACH into the SMALL INTESTINE. This obstruction may be of mechanical or functional origin such as EDEMA from PEPTIC ULCER; NEOPLASMS; FOREIGN BODIES; or AGING.
A SOMATOSTATIN-secreting tumor derived from the pancreatic delta cells (SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS). It is also found in the INTESTINE. Somatostatinomas are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS; CHOLELITHIASIS; STEATORRHEA; and HYPOCHLORHYDRIA. The majority of somatostatinomas have the potential for METASTASIS.
Surgical formation of an opening into the DUODENUM.
A syndrome that is characterized by the triad of severe PEPTIC ULCER, hypersecretion of GASTRIC ACID, and GASTRIN-producing tumors of the PANCREAS or other tissue (GASTRINOMA). This syndrome may be sporadic or be associated with MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA TYPE 1.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
The insertion of a tube into the stomach, intestines, or other portion of the gastrointestinal tract to allow for the passage of food products, etc.
The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.
Cells found throughout the lining of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that contain and secrete regulatory PEPTIDE HORMONES and/or BIOGENIC AMINES.
Bleeding in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.
A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.
The contents included in all or any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
A mercaptoethylamine compound that is endogenously derived from the COENZYME A degradative pathway. The fact that cysteamine is readily transported into LYSOSOMES where it reacts with CYSTINE to form cysteine-cysteamine disulfide and CYSTEINE has led to its use in CYSTINE DEPLETING AGENTS for the treatment of CYSTINOSIS.
A mass of histologically normal tissue present in an abnormal location.
A compound used as an x-ray contrast medium that occurs in nature as the mineral barite. It is also used in various manufacturing applications and mixed into heavy concrete to serve as a radiation shield.
Proposed spasmolytic with possible local anesthetic action used in gastrointestinal disorders.
Pathological processes involving the STOMACH.
The black, tarry, foul-smelling FECES that contain degraded blood.
A family of gastrointestinal peptide hormones that excite the secretion of GASTRIC JUICE. They may also occur in the central nervous system where they are presumed to be neurotransmitters.
Congenital obliteration of the lumen of the intestine, with the ILEUM involved in 50% of the cases and the JEJUNUM and DUODENUM following in frequency. It is the most frequent cause of INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION in NEWBORNS. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The liquid secretion of the stomach mucosa consisting of hydrochloric acid (GASTRIC ACID); PEPSINOGENS; INTRINSIC FACTOR; GASTRIN; MUCUS; and the bicarbonate ion (BICARBONATES). (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p651)
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Tumor or cancer of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus is located between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the gut. Its neurons project to the circular muscle, to other myenteric ganglia, to submucosal ganglia, or directly to the epithelium, and play an important role in regulating and patterning gut motility. (From FASEB J 1989;3:127-38)
Discrete abnormal tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the INTESTINE. A polyp is attached to the intestinal wall either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.
HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.
A GASTRIN-secreting neuroendocrine tumor of the non-beta ISLET CELLS, the GASTRIN-SECRETING CELLS. This type of tumor is primarily located in the PANCREAS or the DUODENUM. Majority of gastrinomas are malignant. They metastasize to the LIVER; LYMPH NODES; and BONE but rarely elsewhere. The presence of gastrinoma is one of three requirements to be met for identification of ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME, which sometimes occurs in families with MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA TYPE 1; (MEN 1).
Antimuscarinic quaternary ammonium derivative of scopolamine used to treat cramps in gastrointestinal, urinary, uterine, and biliary tracts, and to facilitate radiologic visualization of the gastrointestinal tract.
Absorptive cells in the lining of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA. They are differentiated EPITHELIAL CELLS with apical MICROVILLI facing the intestinal lumen. Enterocytes are more abundant in the SMALL INTESTINE than in the LARGE INTESTINE. Their microvilli greatly increase the luminal surface area of the cell by 14- to 40 fold.
Tumors or cancer in the JEJUNUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).
Agents that cause vomiting. They may act directly on the gastrointestinal tract, bringing about emesis through local irritant effects, or indirectly, through their effects on the chemoreceptor trigger zone in the postremal area near the medulla.
The consumption of edible substances.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Opening or penetration through the wall of the INTESTINES.
Hydrochloric acid present in GASTRIC JUICE.
Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the digestive tract.
Surgery performed on the digestive system or its parts.
Ducts that collect PANCREATIC JUICE from the PANCREAS and supply it to the DUODENUM.
INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of CHRONIC PANCREATITIS (International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, 1992). The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS and gallstone pancreatitis.
A focal malformation resembling a neoplasm, composed of an overgrowth of mature cells and tissues that normally occur in the affected area.
Pathological development in the JEJUNUM region of the SMALL INTESTINE.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A segment of the LOWER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the CECUM; the COLON; and the RECTUM.
Techniques, procedures, and therapies carried out on diseased organs in such a way to avoid complete removal of the organ and preserve the remaining organ function.
A usually small, slow-growing neoplasm composed of islands of rounded, oxyphilic, or spindle-shaped cells of medium size, with moderately small vesicular nuclei, and covered by intact mucosa with a yellow cut surface. The tumor can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract (and in the lungs and other sites); approximately 90% arise in the appendix. It is now established that these tumors are of neuroendocrine origin and derive from a primitive stem cell. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1182)
A carbonic anhydrase inhibitor that is used as a diuretic and in the treatment of glaucoma.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.
A malabsorption syndrome that is precipitated by the ingestion of foods containing GLUTEN, such as wheat, rye, and barley. It is characterized by INFLAMMATION of the SMALL INTESTINE, loss of MICROVILLI structure, failed INTESTINAL ABSORPTION, and MALNUTRITION.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Pathological processes in any segment of the INTESTINE from DUODENUM to RECTUM.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.
Vomiting of blood that is either fresh bright red, or older "coffee-ground" in character. It generally indicates bleeding of the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Surgical removal of the pancreas. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Ulcer that occurs in the regions of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT which come into contact with GASTRIC JUICE containing PEPSIN and GASTRIC ACID. It occurs when there are defects in the MUCOSA barrier. The common forms of peptic ulcers are associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI and the consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Surgical formation of an opening through the ABDOMINAL WALL into the JEJUNUM, usually for enteral hyperalimentation.
Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.
One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the enteric nervous system. The submucous (Meissner's) plexus is in the connective tissue of the submucosa. Its neurons innervate the epithelium, blood vessels, endocrine cells, other submucosal ganglia, and myenteric ganglia, and play an important role in regulating ion and water transport. (From FASEB J 1989;3:127-38)
The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Ulceration of the GASTRIC MUCOSA due to contact with GASTRIC JUICE. It is often associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI infection or consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
Inflammation of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, a lesion observed in a number of unrelated disorders.
A condition in which there is a change of one adult cell type to another similar adult cell type.
Young, unweaned mammals. Refers to nursing animals whether nourished by their biological mother, foster mother, or bottle fed.
Proteins that specifically bind to IRON.
Incision into the side of the abdomen between the ribs and pelvis.
Two ganglionated neural plexuses in the gut wall which form one of the three major divisions of the autonomic nervous system. The enteric nervous system innervates the gastrointestinal tract, the pancreas, and the gallbladder. It contains sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. Thus the circuitry can autonomously sense the tension and the chemical environment in the gut and regulate blood vessel tone, motility, secretions, and fluid transport. The system is itself governed by the central nervous system and receives both parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation. (From Kandel, Schwartz, and Jessel, Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p766)
A pouch or sac developed from a tubular or saccular organ, such as the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.
Abstaining from all food.
Non-invasive, endoscopic imaging by use of VIDEO CAPSULE ENDOSCOPES to perform examination of the gastrointestinal tract, especially the small bowel.
L-Tryptophyl-L-methionyl-L-aspartyl-L-phenylalaninamide. The C-terminal tetrapeptide of gastrin. It is the smallest peptide fragment of gastrin which has the same physiological and pharmacological activity as gastrin.
Excision of the whole (total gastrectomy) or part (subtotal gastrectomy, partial gastrectomy, gastric resection) of the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
An alpha adrenergic antagonist.
A movement, caused by sequential muscle contraction, that pushes the contents of the intestines or other tubular organs in one direction.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.
The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
An adenoma of the large intestine. It is usually a solitary, sessile, often large, tumor of colonic mucosa composed of mucinous epithelium covering delicate vascular projections. Hypersecretion and malignant changes occur frequently. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Recycling through liver by excretion in bile, reabsorption from intestines (INTESTINAL REABSORPTION) into portal circulation, passage back into liver, and re-excretion in bile.
The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.
Surgery of the smooth muscle sphincter of the hepatopancreatic ampulla to relieve blocked biliary or pancreatic ducts.
All tumors in the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT arising from mesenchymal cells (MESODERM) except those of smooth muscle cells (LEIOMYOMA) or Schwann cells (SCHWANNOMA).
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.
Fodder converted into succulent feed for livestock through processes of anaerobic fermentation (as in a silo).
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.
Congenital structural abnormalities of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the body.
Dilatation of the intestinal lymphatic system usually caused by an obstruction in the intestinal wall. It may be congenital or acquired and is characterized by DIARRHEA; HYPOPROTEINEMIA; peripheral and/or abdominal EDEMA; and PROTEIN-LOSING ENTEROPATHIES.
Colipase I and II, consisting of 94-95 and 84-85 amino acid residues, respectively, have been isolated from porcine pancreas. Their role is to prevent the inhibitory effect of bile salts on the lipase-catalyzed intraduodenal hydrolysis of dietary long-chain triglycerides.
The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.
A subtype of enteroendocrine cells found in the gastrointestinal MUCOSA, particularly in the glands of PYLORIC ANTRUM; DUODENUM; and ILEUM. These cells secrete mainly SEROTONIN and some neuropeptides. Their secretory granules stain readily with silver (argentaffin stain).
Abnormal passage communicating with the STOMACH.
A plant genus of the family CLUSIACEAE. Members contain costatolide, calanolides and 4-phenylfuranocoumarins (FUROCOUMARINS).
An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.
A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
A plant species of the genus CYNARA, family ASTERACEAE. The flower bud is the familiar artichoke eaten as a vegetable.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Calcium-transporting ATPases found on the PLASMA MEMBRANE that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM from the CYTOPLASM into the extracellular space. They play a role in maintaining a CALCIUM gradient across plasma membrane.
Electroneutral chloride bicarbonate exchangers that allow the exchange of BICARBONATE IONS exchange for CHLORIDE IONS across the cellular membrane. The action of specific antiporters in this class serve important functions such as allowing the efficient exchange of bicarbonate across red blood cell membranes as they passage through capillaries and the reabsorption of bicarbonate ions by the kidney.
Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
A group of amylolytic enzymes that cleave starch, glycogen, and related alpha-1,4-glucans. (Stedman, 25th ed) EC 3.2.1.-.
Forms of hepcidin, a cationic amphipathic peptide synthesized in the liver as a prepropeptide which is first processed into prohepcidin and then into the biologically active hepcidin forms, including in human the 20-, 22-, and 25-amino acid residue peptide forms. Hepcidin acts as a homeostatic regulators of iron metabolism and also possesses antimicrobial activity.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
An octapeptide hormone present in the intestine and brain. When secreted from the gastric mucosa, it stimulates the release of bile from the gallbladder and digestive enzymes from the pancreas.
Differentiated tissue of the central nervous system composed of NERVE CELLS, fibers, DENDRITES, and specialized supporting cells.
New World marsupials of the family Didelphidae. Opossums are omnivorous, largely nocturnal and arboreal MAMMALS, grow to about three feet in length, including the scaly prehensile tail, and have an abdominal pouch in which the young are carried at birth.
Migration of a foreign body from its original location to some other location in the body.
Aquaporin 5 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed primarily in alveolar, tracheal, and upper bronchial EPITHELIUM. It plays an important role in maintaining water HOMEOSTASIS in the LUNGS and may also regulate release of SALIVA and TEARS in the SALIVARY GLANDS and the LACRIMAL GLAND.
A synthetic pentapeptide that has effects like gastrin when given parenterally. It stimulates the secretion of gastric acid, pepsin, and intrinsic factor, and has been used as a diagnostic aid.
A slowly hydrolyzing muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Bethanechol is generally used to increase smooth muscle tone, as in the GI tract following abdominal surgery or in urinary retention in the absence of obstruction. It may cause hypotension, HEART RATE changes, and BRONCHIAL SPASM.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the stomach.
A variety of surgical reconstructive procedures devised to restore gastrointestinal continuity, The two major classes of reconstruction are the Billroth I (gastroduodenostomy) and Billroth II (gastrojejunostomy) procedures.
Measurement of the pressure or tension of liquids or gases with a manometer.
Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Infections caused by infestation with worms of the class Trematoda.
A subtype of G-protein-coupled SEROTONIN receptors that preferentially couple to GS STIMULATORY G-PROTEINS resulting in increased intracellular CYCLIC AMP. Several isoforms of the receptor exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.
A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).

Observations on some additional abnormalities in situs inversus viscerum. (1/3075)

The abnormal findings in a case of Situs inversus totalis are described. The duodenum was placed abnormally and retained its primitive mesentery. The proximal 22 in of jejunum were retroperitoneal. The attachment of the root of the mesentery to the posterior abdominal wall had a 7-shaped appearance, and there was a partial failure of the primitive mesocolon to adhere to the posterior abdominal wall. The common hepatic artery arose from the superior meseneric artery, which also provided a branch to the proximal jejunal loop. The right vagus nerve was found anterior to the oesophagus at the oesophageal hiatus in the diaphragm, and the left vagus was posterior. A double ureter was present on the right side. The findings are discussed in relation to mid-gut development.  (+info)

Indirect evidence for cholinergic inhibition of intestinal bicarbonate absorption in humans. (2/3075)

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that in the fasting state, proximal intestinal HCO3- absorption, which depends on villus Na+/H+ exchanger activity, is tonically inhibited by a cholinergic atropine sensitive mechanism. SUBJECTS: The experiments were performed in 34 healthy volunteers and in eight patients with intestinal villus atrophy. METHODS: HCO3- absorption was measured with a modified triple lumen perfusion technique in the distal duodenum, the most proximal portion of the small intestine. The study was designed to compensate for the inhibitory effects of atropine on intestinal motor activity. RESULTS: Atropine had three effects on HCO3- transport: it reduced HCO3- concentration at the proximal aspiration site, it displaced the relation between HCO3- concentration and HCO3- absorption to the left, and it induced a significant acidification of the perfusate at the distal aspiration site. The magnitude of the stimulatory effect on HCO3- absorption was similar to the difference between patients with intestinal villus atrophy and healthy controls. CONCLUSION: The data suggest that, in the fasting state, duodenal HCO3- absorption, which depends on villus Na+/H+ exchanger activity, may be tonically inhibited by an atropine sensitive cholinergic mechanism.  (+info)

Intestinal prokinesia by two esters of 4-amino-5-chloro-2- methoxybenzoic acid: involvement of 5-hydroxytryptamine-4 receptors and dissociation from cardiac effects in vivo. (3/3075)

In five fasting, conscious dogs, we compared the prokinetic action of two selective 5-hydroxytryptamine-4 (5-HT4) receptor agonists with low affinity for 5-HT3 receptors ML10302 (2-piperidinoethyl 4-amino-5-chloro-2-methoxybenzoate) and SR59768 (2-[(3S)-3-hydroxypiperidino]ethyl 4-amino-5-chloro-2-methoxybenzoate) in the duodenum and jejunum, using cisapride as a reference compound. Heart rate and rate-corrected QT (QTc) also were monitored to assess whether or not the cardiac effects of cisapride are shared by other 5-HT4 receptor agonists. Both ML10302 and SR59768 dose-dependently stimulated spike activity in the duodenum with similar potencies (dose range, 3-300 nmol/kg i.v.; ED50 values: 24 and 23 nmol/kg i.v., respectively), mimicking the effect of cisapride (30-3000 nmol/kg i.v.). The maximal effect was achieved with the dose of 100 nmol/kg i.v. for both compounds. Similar findings were obtained in the jejunum. Atropine and GR125487 (1-[2-[(methylsulfonyl)amino]ethyl]-4-piperidinyl-methyl 5-fluoro-2-methoxy-1H-indole-3-carboxylate, selective 5-HT4 receptor antagonist), at doses having no effect per se, antagonized intestinal prokinesia by maximal doses of ML10302 and SR59768. Neither ML10302 nor SR59768 had any effect on heart rate or QTc at any of the doses tested, whereas cisapride, at the highest dose (3000 nmol/kg), induced tachycardia and lengthened the QTC (p <.01). In conclusion, ML10302 and SR59768 share with cisapride a similar prokinetic action in the canine duodenum and jejunum in vivo. This effect is mediated by pathways involving activation of 5-HT4 and muscarinic receptors. Unlike cisapride, which induces tachycardia and prolongs the QTc by a mechanism probably unrelated to 5-HT4 receptor activation, ML10302 and SR59768 are devoid of cardiac effects in this model.  (+info)

Developmental changes in mucosubstances revealed by immunostaining with antimucus monoclonal antibodies and lectin staining in the epithelium lining the segment from gizzard to duodenum of the chick embryo. (4/3075)

The mucosubstances in the epithelium lining the segment from gizzard to duodenum during development of the chick embryo was studied histochemically using monoclonal antibodies against gizzard mucus and lectins, with attention to the regional differentiation of the epithelium in this segment. The anterior limit of epithelial CdxA mRNA expression detected by in situ hybridisation, which served as the position of the gizzard-duodenal boundary, was clearly found from d 3. Granules positive for some antibodies or lectins were found in the region ranging from the posterior part of the gizzard to the duodenum at d 3, which was followed by an increase in the number of granules and a gradual enlargement of the granule-positive area to the anterior part of the gizzard over 4-6 d. From d 4, the epithelia of the gizzard body and of the pyloric or duodenal region came to be differently stained with some antibodies or lectins. From d 10, each region showed a specific pattern of staining. The epithelia of the gizzard body and pyloric region contained abundant mucus granules with a different staining pattern. In the duodenum the number of stained granules was low except in occasional goblet cells. Thus the epithelia of the gizzard body, pyloric region and duodenum may produce different mucosubstances and the regional differentiation in these epithelia may start at rather early stages soon after the formation of digestive tube.  (+info)

CFTR channel insertion to the apical surface in rat duodenal villus epithelial cells is upregulated by VIP in vivo. (5/3075)

cAMP activated insertion of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channels from endosomes to the apical plasma membrane has been hypothesized to regulate surface expression and CFTR function although the physiologic relevance of this remains unclear. We previously identified a subpopulation of small intestinal villus epithelial cells or CFTR high expressor (CHE) cells possessing very high levels of apical membrane CFTR in association with a prominent subapical vesicular pool of CFTR. We have examined the subcellular redistribution of CFTR in duodenal CHE cells in vivo in response to the cAMP activated secretagogue vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). Using anti-CFTR antibodies against the C terminus of rodent CFTR and indirect immunofluorescence, we show by quantitative confocal microscopy that CFTR rapidly redistributes from the cytoplasm to the apical surface upon cAMP stimulation by VIP and returns to the cytoplasm upon removal of VIP stimulation of intracellular cAMP levels. Using ultrastructural and confocal immunofluorescence examination in the presence or absence of cycloheximide, we also show that redistribution was not dependent on new protein synthesis, changes in endocytosis, or rearrangement of the apical cytoskeleton. These observations suggest that physiologic cAMP activated apical membrane insertion and recycling of CFTR channels in normal CFTR expressing epithelia contributes to the in vivo regulation of CFTR mediated anion transport.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of alkenyl hydrolase (lysoplasmalogenase) in microsomes and identification of a plasmalogen-active phospholipase A2 in cytosol of small intestinal epithelium. (6/3075)

A lysoplasmalogenase (EC; EC that liberates free aldehyde from 1-alk-1'-enyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine or -choline (lysoplasmalogen) was identified and characterized in rat gastrointestinal tract epithelial cells. Glycerophosphoethanolamine was produced in the reaction in equimolar amounts with the free aldehyde. The microsomal membrane associated enzyme was present throughout the length of the small intestines, with the highest activity in the jejunum and proximal ileum. The rate of alkenyl ether bond hydrolysis was dependent on the concentrations of microsomal protein and substrate, and was linear with respect to time. The enzyme hydrolyzed both ethanolamine- and choline-lysoplasmalogens with similar affinities; the Km values were 40 and 66 microM, respectively. The enzyme had no activity with 1-alk-1'-enyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine or -choline (intact plasmalogen), thus indicating enzyme specificity for a free hydroxyl group at the sn-2 position. The specific activities were 70 nmol/min/mg protein and 57 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively, for ethanolamine- and choline-lysoplasmalogen. The pH optimum was between 6.8 and 7.4. The enzyme required no known cofactors and was not affected by low mM levels of Ca2+, Mg2+, EDTA, or EGTA. The detergents, Triton X-100, deoxycholate, and octyl glucoside inhibited the enzyme. The chemical and physical properties of the lysoplasmalogenase were very similar to those of the enzyme in liver and brain microsomes. In developmental studies the specific activities of the small intestinal and liver enzymes increased markedly, 11.1- and 3.4-fold, respectively, in the first approximately 40 days of postnatal life. A plasmalogen-active phospholipase A2 activity was identified in the cytosol of the small intestines (3.3 nmol/min/mg protein) and liver (0.3 nmol/min/mg protein) using a novel coupled enzyme assay with microsomal lysoplasmalogenase as the coupling enzyme.  (+info)

Administration of an unconjugated bile acid increases duodenal tumors in a murine model of familial adenomatous polyposis. (7/3075)

Intestinal carcinogenesis involves the successive accumulation of multiple genetic defects until cellular transformation to an invasive phenotype occurs. This process is modulated by many epigenetic factors. Unconjugated bile acids are tumor promoters whose presence in intestinal tissues is regulated by dietary factors. We studied the role of the unconjugated bile acid, chenodeoxycholate, in an animal model of familial adenomatous polyposis. Mice susceptible to intestinal tumors as a result of a germline mutation in Apc (Min/+ mice) were given a 10 week dietary treatment with 0.5% chenodeoxycholate. Following this, the mice were examined to determine tumor number, enterocyte proliferation, apoptosis and beta-catenin expression. Intestinal tissue prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels were also assessed. Administration of chenodeoxycholate in the diet increased duodenal tumor number in Min/+ mice. Promotion of duodenal tumor formation was accompanied by increased beta-catenin expression in duodenal cells, as well as increased PGE2 in duodenal tissue. These data suggest that unconjugated bile acids contribute to periampullary tumor formation in the setting of an Apc mutation.  (+info)

Effect of fast duration on disposition of an intraduodenal glucose load in the conscious dog. (8/3075)

The effects of prior fast duration (18 h, n = 8; 42 h, n = 8) on the glycemic and tissue-specific responses to an intraduodenal glucose load were studied in chronically catheterized conscious dogs. [3-3H]glucose was infused throughout the study. After basal measurements, glucose spiked with [U-14C]glucose was infused for 150 min intraduodenally. Arterial insulin and glucagon were similar in the two groups. Arterial glucose (mg/dl) rose approximately 70% more during glucose infusion after 42 h than after an 18-h fast. The net hepatic glucose balance (mg. kg-1. min-1) was similar in the two groups (basal: 1.8 +/- 0.2 and 2.0 +/- 0.3; glucose infusion: -2.2 +/- 0.5 and -2.2 +/- 0.7). The intrahepatic fate of glucose was 79% glycogen, 13% oxidized, and 8% lactate release after a 42-h fast; it was 23% glycogen, 21% oxidized, and 56% lactate release after an 18-h fast. Net hindlimb glucose uptake was similar between groups. The appearance of intraduodenal glucose during glucose infusion (mg/kg) was 900 +/- 50 and 1,120 +/- 40 after 18- and 42-h fasts (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: glucose administration after prolonged fasting induces higher circulating glucose than a shorter fast (increased appearance of intraduodenal glucose); liver and hindlimb glucose uptakes and the hormonal response, however, are unchanged; finally, an intrahepatic redistribution of carbons favors glycogen deposition.  (+info)

The duodenal lumen is exposed to aggressive factors with a high potential to cause damage to the mucosa. Bicarbonate secretion by the duodenal mucosa is accepted as the primary important defense mechanism against the hydrochloric acid intermittently expelled from the stomach.. The present thesis concerns the influence of the central nervous system and the effects of the hormone melatonin on bicarbonate secretion in anesthetized rats in vivo. Effects of melatonin on intracellular calcium signaling by duodenal enterocyte in vitro were examined in tissues of both human and rat origin. The main findings were as follows:. Melatonin is a potent stimulant of duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion and also seems to be involved in the acid-induced stimulation of the secretion. Stimulation elicited in the central nervous system by the α1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine induced release of melatonin from the intestinal mucosa and a four-fold increase in alkaline secretion. The melatonin antagonist ...
Title: Gas Mediators Involved in Modulating Duodenal HCO3- Secretion. VOLUME: 19 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):K. Takeuchi, E. Aihara, M. Kimura, K. Dogishi, T. Hara and S. Hayashi. Affiliation:Division of Pathological Sciences, Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Misasagi, Yamashina, Kyoto 607-8414, Japan.. Keywords:Carbon monoxide, duodenal HCO3 secretion, gas mediators, hydrogen sulfide, nitric oxide, prostaglandin, sensory neurons, exogenously, stimulate, duodenal mucosa, inhibiting PG, duodenal HCO3-secretion. Abstract: The secretion of HCO3 - in the duodenum is increased by mucosal acidification, and this process is modulated by gas mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and carbon monoxide (CO), in addition to prostaglandins (PGs). The secretion is increased by NOR3 (NO donor), NaHS (H2S donor), and CORM-2 (CO donor). The HCO3 - responses to NOR3 and CORM-2 are attenuated by indomethacin, while that to NaHS is mitigated by ...
K B Raja, D Pountney, A Bomford, R S Williams, R J Simpson, T J Peters; Reduction and Uptake of Ferric Iron by Human Duodenum in vitro. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 March 1993; 84 (s28): 34P. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs084034Pa. Download citation file:. ...
In 73 patients the occurrence of dyspeptic symptoms were correlated with the presence of a normal duodenal loop (29 patients) and an abnormal duodenal loop (44 patients). An abnormal duodenal loop was associated with a significantly higher incidence of symptoms provoked by meals, vomiting, regurgitation, heartburn, and the irritable bowel syndrome ...
BACKGROUND: This study investigates bradykinin and nitric oxide as potential mediators of AT2-receptor-stimulated duodenal mucosal alkaline secretion. Duodenal mucosal alkaline secretion was measured in methohexital- and alpha-chloralose-anaesthetised rats by means of in situ pH-stat titration. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot were used to identify the BK2 receptors. RESULTS: The AT2 receptor agonist CGP42112A (0.1 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) administered intravenously increased the duodenal mucosal alkaline secretion by approximately 50 %. This increase was sensitive to the selective BK2 receptor blocker HOE140 (100 ng/kg i.v.), but not to luminal administration of the NOS blocker L-NAME (0.3 mM). Mean arterial pressure did not differ between groups during the procedures. Immunohistochemistry showed a distinct staining of the crypt epithelium and a moderate staining of basal cytoplasm in villus enterocytes. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the AT2-receptor-stimulated alkaline secretion is ...
Pal, Siddhartha and A.K. Nag Chaudhuri (1989) Studies on the effects of Pluchea indica Less. root extract on gastroduodenal ulcer models in rats and guineapigs. [Publication] Full text not available from this repository ...
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The duodenal epithelium secretes HC03-at higher rates than does the stomach (or more distal small intestine) and the duodenal secretion is currently accepted as the most important defence mechanism...
R.J. Simpson, K. Raja, T.J. Peters; Studies of Iron Uptake by Duodenal Brush Boeder Membrane Vesicles Prepared Prom Normal and Hypoxic Mice. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 September 1983; 65 (3): 68P. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs065068P. Download citation file:. ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a cell membrane protein that may be involved in iron export from duodenal epithelial cells. Defects in this gene are a cause of hemochromatosis type 4 (HFE4 ...
As shown in Fig. 8, during intraduodenal glucose infusion without the inclusion of fructose, the cumulative net glucose uptake by the liver for the 240-min infusion period was 4.06 mmol/kg. In a net sense, the liver also took up 0.76 mmol glucose equivalent (C6)/kg of gluconeogenic amino acids and 0.15 mmol C6/kg of glycerol. Net glycogen deposition in the liver was 2.44 mmol C6/kg, and in a net sense the liver produced 0.69 mmol C6/kg of lactate; 49% of the deposited glycogen (1.12 mmol C6/kg) was synthesized via the direct pathway Therefore, the rest of the deposited glycogen (1.24 mmol C6/kg) was synthesized via the indirect pathway. The inclusion of fructose with glucose increased the cumulative NHGU by 50% (6.22 mmol C6/kg), but did not affect the cumulative net amino acid (0.79 mmol C6/kg) or glycerol (0.08 mmol C6/kg) uptake. The net glycogen deposition (3.68 mmol C6/kg) in the liver was also increased by 50%, with an increase in the contribution of the direct pathway for glycogen ...
An LBI report was produced alongside the EUnetHTA assessment. Due to time restrictions the LBI report had to be finished before it was possible to publish the EUnetHTA report. However, after the EUnetHTA assessment had been completed, the information provided therein was used to update the LBI report ...
H. pylori is a spiral-shaped bacterium found in the stomach, which (along with acid secretion) damages stomach and duodenal tissue, causing inflammation and peptic ulcers.
This suggests that the influx of inflammatory cells during the metaplasia to BE is not mainly caused by an inflammatory http://www.selleckchem.com/products/chir-99021-ct99021-hcl.html process but in fact is the consequence of alterations due to the metaplastic tissue more resembling duodenal tissue. Further studies on the role of these ��intestinal�� lymphocytes in BE may result in a better understanding of the pathogenesis and/or prognosis of BE. Materials and Methods Patient characteristics Fifty-nine patients were included in our study. Of these, 41 patients had BE, as defined by the presence of specialised intestinal metaplasia (IM) containing goblet cells in at least one of the biopsies.. Eleven patients were excluded from the BE group due to the presence of macroscopic esophagitis (ulcers and erosions) proximal to the Barretts segment (n=1), BE segments being smaller then C0M2 because of the risk of biopsying squamous esophageal epithelium or gastric tissue instead of BE tissue ...
In the analyses of FLI, macronutrient infusions as a whole had their greatest effect on the region of the NTS immediately subjacent to the AP, with fewer cells expressing Fos in the NTS rostral to the AP and in the AP itself and even fewer cells showing Fos in the NTS caudal to the AP. This result was not surprising, because the NTS is larger and contains more neurons in the region of the AP than in its more rostral or caudal regions. Duodenal nutrient infusions had no detectable effect on Fos in the dmnX. These results agree with work by Zittel et al. (33), where lipid and glucose infusions induced greater Fos labeling in the more rostral NTS (subjacent to the AP and the 4th ventricle) than in the caudal NTS (at obex). In an earlier study by Olson et al. (13), Fos expression was determined after treatments that inhibited food intake (e.g., CCK, food ingestion) or potentiated food intake (deprivation or insulin). Although the rostrocaudal distribution of Fos expression was not described, ...
I consider the upper gut to be your oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, bile ducts, and your spleen.
The details surrounding upper gut symptoms are often very important in arriving at a correct and timely diagnosis. Therefore describe symptoms such as chest pain with care. None of these are specific, however, and further evaluation is always required - cardiac disease must be ruled out. Your life could depend upon it. Read more.
possible components that can then be processed by the enzymes in your upper gut so that no undigested protein remains to penetrate the compromised wall of your gut. It takes about 30 minutes for the protein component of your meal to be broken down. Since so many treatments of GI problems involve taking medicines like Omeprazole that act to reduce stomach acid, if you are taking any of these drugs you may need to look into natural digestive aids like enzymes to help you break this protein down once it makes it into your upper gut. It is important not to drink liquids during the time your protein meal is in your stom- ach - this dilutes the stomach acid and defeats the goal of complete breakdown of the proteins.. Once youre confident that your stomach has emptied go ahead and enjoy the your veggies and, if you can tolerate them, maybe non-gluten grains like rice and quinoa - although some people simply have to get all grains out of their diet. If you have had a compromised gut for a while you ...
When running in vivo experiments, it is imperative to keep arterial blood pressure and acid-base parameters within the normal physiological range. The aim of this investigation was to explore the consequences of anesthesia-induced acidosis on basal and PGE2-stimulated duodenal bicarbonate secretion. Mice (strain C57bl/6J) were kept anesthetized by a spontaneous inhalation of isoflurane. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), arterial acid-base balance, and duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion (DMBS) were studied. Two intra-arterial fluid support strategies were used: a standard Ringer solution and an isotonic Na2CO3 solution. Duodenal single perfusion was used, and DMBS was assessed by back titration of the effluent. PGE2 was used to stimulate DMBS. In Ringer solution-infused mice, isoflurane-induced acidosis became worse with time. The blood pH was 7.15-7.21 and the base excess was about -8 mM at the end of experiments. The continuous infusion of Na2CO3 solution completely compensated for the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Absence of inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery compensated by dorsal pancreatic artery. T2 - A case report. AU - Deepthinath, R.. AU - Nayak, S.. AU - Vollala, V. R.. AU - Bhat, S.. AU - Rao, M.. AU - Prasad, AU - Samuel, V. P.. PY - 2006/8/9. Y1 - 2006/8/9. N2 - Consideration of new aspects of vascular anatomy of the pancreaticoduodenal region is required for further improvement of surgical procedures. Awareness of variations in arteries supplying the duodenum and pancreas can help in minimizing the blood loss during surgery. We report the absence of inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery, which was compensated by a large dorsal pancreatic artery arising from proximal part of the splenic artery. This artery replaced inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery and formed a large loop of anastomosis with the gastroduodenal artery.. AB - Consideration of new aspects of vascular anatomy of the pancreaticoduodenal region is required for further improvement of surgical procedures. Awareness of ...
Background.Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) infections are usually asymptomatic reactivations in adult liver transplant recipients, but they may also cause fever or graft dysfunction. HHV-6 infection can also present symptoms of gastroenteritis. In this study, we investigated the presence of HHV-6 in the gastroduodenal mucosa of liver transplant recipients and in immunocompetent patients undergoing gastroscopic examination because of dyspeptic symptoms.. Methods.HHV-6 and cytomegalovirus (CMV) examinations were performed on gastroduodenal biopsy specimens obtained during upper gastrointestinal endoscopic examinations from 90 liver transplant recipients and from 31 immunocompetent patients with upper gastrointestinal symptoms. In the gastroduodenal mucosa, HHV-6 and CMV was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry in frozen sections using monoclonal antibodies against HHV-6- and CMV-specific antigens.. Results.HHV-6-positive cells were found in biopsy specimens from 21 (23%) of the liver transplant ...
Tony Lam and his colleagues show that the middle intestine senses glucose and has a role in a gut-brain-liver axis to regulate hepatic glucose production. They also show that an experimental form of bariatric surgery quickly ameliorates hyperglycemia in two rat models of type 1 diabetes, and the intestinal sensing of glucose they have identified probably contributes to this metabolic effect. Gastrointestinal bypass surgeries restore metabolic homeostasis in patients with type 2 diabetes and obesity1, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Duodenal-jejunal bypass surgery (DJB), an experimental surgical technique that excludes the duodenum and proximal jejunum from nutrient transit1,2, lowers glucose concentrations in nonobese type 2 diabetic rats2,3,4,5. Given that DJB redirects and enhances nutrient flow into the jejunum and that jejunal nutrient sensing affects feeding6,7, the repositioned jejunum after DJB represents a junction at which nutrients could regulate glucose homeostasis. Here we
The effects of the nitric oxide donor nitroglycerin on gastric emptying and antropyloroduodenal motility were evaluated in nine healthy male subjects (ages 19-36 yr). Antropyloroduodenal pressures were recorded with a manometric assembly that had nine side holes spanning the antrum and proximal duodenum and a pyloric sleeve sensor; gastric emptying was quantified scintigraphically. In each subject, the emptying of 300 ml of 25% glucose labeled with 99mTc was assessed on two separate days during intravenous infusion of either nitroglycerin (5 micrograms/min in 5% dextrose) or 5% dextrose (control). Studies were performed with the subject in the supine position; blood pressure and heart rate were monitored. Nitroglycerin had no significant effect on blood pressure or heart rate. Nitroglycerin slowed gastric emptying (P , 0.02), and this was associated with greater retention of the drink in the proximal stomach (P , 0.05). In both nitroglycerin and control studies, ingestion of the drink was ...
AIM--To study the ultrastructural appearances of Helicobacter pylori in antral and duodenal biopsy specimens and its relation with the epithelial cells. METHODS--Endoscopically obtained antral and duodenal biopsy specimens were examined using transmission electron microscopy and freeze fracture analysis. RESULTS--Most bacteria looked curved, but in the duodenal bulb coccoid bacteria were relatively common. Bacteria were often found around intercellular junctions. freeze fracture examination indicated abnormalities of the tight junction complexes in patients with H pylori infection. In many biopsy specimens bacteria were seen closely attached to the epithelial cell membrane by different forms of adhesion. In addition to what looked like intracytoplasmic penetration by bacteria, several examples of genuine penetration were observed. CONCLUSION--H pylori is commonly found adhering to epithelial cells. Occasionally, H pylori may also penetrate cells. These features may contribute to the pathogenic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pseudomelanosis duodena. AU - Arguedas, M. R.. AU - Lazenby, A.. AU - Wilcox, C. M.. PY - 2000/1/1. Y1 - 2000/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0033670216&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0033670216&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1067/mge.2000.110739. DO - 10.1067/mge.2000.110739. M3 - Article. C2 - 11115910. AN - SCOPUS:0033670216. VL - 52. JO - Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. JF - Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. SN - 0016-5107. IS - 6. ER - ...
The Ol Answers: (A) Hepatic artery proper (B) Gastroduodenal artery (C) Supraduodenal artery (D) Posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal artery (E) Right gastro-omental artery (F) Anterior superior pancreaticoduodenal artery (G) Anterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery (H) posterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery (I) Superior mesenteric artery (J) Abdominal ...
Intestinal glucose stimulates secretion of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). The mechanisms underlying this pathway have not been fully investigated in humans. In this study, we showed that a 30 minute intraduodenal glucose infusion activated half of all duodenal L cells in humans. This infusion was sufficient to increase plasma GLP-1. With an ex vivo model using human gut tissue specimens, we showed a dose-responsive GLP-1 secretion in ileum at 200mM glucose or above. In ex vivo tissue from duodenum and ileum, but not colon, 300mM glucose potently stimulated GLP-1 release. In ileum, this response was independent of osmotic influences and required delivery of glucose via GLUT2 and mitochondrial metabolism. Requirement of voltage-gated Na+ and Ca2+ channel activation indicates that membrane depolarization occurs. KATP channels do not drive this, as tolbutamide did not trigger release. The sodium glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT1) substrate, α-MG, induced secretion, and the ...
Results The patients median age was 60 (range 16-97); 55% were female. Anaemia was the commonest indication for biopsy (in 51% of patients) followed by weight loss and abdominal pain.. 76% of biopsies were normal. LD was found in 155 patients (15%), of whom 64% were female. Biopsy appearances of CD with positive TTG were found in 13 patients (1.2%). Documentation of serology was not always available and so the incidence of CD in this population may be underestimated. Crohns disease was diagnosed in 3 biopsies (0.29%). Graft versus host disease, drug effect, lymphangiectasia and infection were seen (1 Giardia, 1 atypical mycobacteria, 1 Strongyloides).. 70 duodenal biopsies (7%) targeted specific abnormalities, including 6 malignancies (3 adenocarcinoma, 1 carcinoid tumour and 1 lymphoma) and 6 benign polyps including 2 adenomas. Of the 973 non-targeted biopsies, 772 (79%) were normal.. There were no statistical differences between positive biopsy results and specific indications.. ...
This gene is a member of the cytochrome b(561) family that encodes an iron-regulated protein. It highly expressed in the duodenal brush border membrane. It has ferric reductase activity and is believed to play a physiological role in dietary iron absorption. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008] ...
Hugon, J and Borgers, M, The ultrastructural localization of acid phosphatase in the crypt epithelium of the irradiated mouse duodenum. (1965). Subject Strain Bibliography 1965. 465 ...
Motilin is a 22-amino-acid peptide secreted by endocrinocytes in the mucosa of the proximal small intestine. Motilin is a gastrointestinal regulatory polypeptide produced by motilin cells in the duodenal epithelium. Motilin is an intestinal peptide that stimulates contraction of gut smooth musc...
The role of the migrating motor complex (MMC) of the small intestine in the absorption of an enterally administered marker (tolfenamic acid, TA) used to investigate enterohepatic recycling was studied in the fasted dog. TA was rapidly and extensively absorbed in the duodenum as well as in the ileum. In contrast, the conjugated form of TA (CTA) was not absorbed in the duodenum but only in the ileum, i.e., after bacterial hydrolysis. By administering CTA in the duodenum at different phases (I and II) of the MMC, it was shown that CTA had to be propelled from the duodenum to the ileum by the motor activity of the MMC. Under these conditions, the peak plasma TA concentration was only observed when phase II of the MMC present in the duodenum at the time of CTA administration arrived in the ileum. The estimated mean transit time of CTA from the duodenum to ileum was 45 min and the mean hydrolysis time of CTA to TA was about 75 min. It was concluded that 1) in the fasted dog, a relatively long delay ...
The efficacy of Cimetidine in the prevention and treatment of stress-induced gastroduodenal lesions was evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in which serial endoscopy was used to examine patients without clinical evidence of bleeding who were admitted to a medical intensive care unit. Endoscopy showed that 14 of 21 patients treated with Cimetidine, compared with 5 of 18 patients treated with placebo, had normal or improved gastroduodenal mucosa (p , 0.05). Endoscopic signs of bleeding cleared or did not develop in 20 patients treated with Cimetidine and in 11 patients treated with placebo (p , 0.01). Significantly fewer blood transfusions were given to patients with endoscopic signs of bleeding in the cimetidine-treated group (0.5 ±0.3 [SE] units) than in placebo-treated patients (4.5 ±1.5 units; p , 0.05). The mortality rate was not statistically different between treatment groups. By preventing established gastroduodenal stress lesions from progressing in ...
[The effect of resection of the proximal small intestine on the inhibition of gastric secretion induced by gastrotsepin].: The removal of the proximal 1/3 part
Values of endoscopic ultrasonography for diagnosis and treatment of duodenal protruding lesions.: EUS is an effective and reliable diagnostic method for duodena
Enterokináza je enzym produkovaný buňkami stěny duodena. Je důležitý pro proces trávení, protože dokáže aktivovat neaktivní proenzym trypsinogen tvořený ve slinivce břišní na aktivní formu trypsin. Trypsin umožňuje trávení bílkovin a aktivaci dalších pankreatických enzymů ...
The foregut is the anterior part of the alimentary canal from the mouth to the duodenum at the entrance of the bile duct and is attached to the abdominal wa
foveolar metaplasia of the duodenal mucosa; duodenal foveolar metaplasia Gastric-type epithelium and islands of oxyntic mucosa in duodenal (...)
In one half of the specimen the duodenal mucosa is interrupted abruptly by ulceration, which extends past the muscular layer and penetrates the pancreatic tissue. At the bottom of the ulcer the four intertwining layers can be seen: exudates, necrosis, granulation tissue and scar tissue ...
BOSTON - An ablative procedure intended to promote regrowth of duodenal mucosa was safe and had disease-modifying metabolic effects in a randomized study includ
The stomach is distended with granular, mineral, and striated material. The striated material continues into the proximal duodenum which appears enlarged. There is segmental dilation of several small intestinal loops. The spleen is mildly enlarged and rounded. The remainder of the abdominal organs appear normal ...
Vitamin D-dependent calcium binding proteins were discovered in the cytosolic fractions of chicken intestine, and later in mammalian intestine and kidney, by workers including Robert Wasserman of Cornell University. They bound calcium in the micromolar range and were greatly reduced in vitamin D-deficient animals. Expression could be induced by treating these animals with vitamin D metabolites such as calcitriol. They were found to exist in two distinct sizes with a molecular weight of approximately 9 kDa and 28 kDa. They were renamed calbindin. Calbindin-D9k (S100G) is found in mammalian intestine and calbindin-D28k is in avian intestine and in mammalian kidney and other tissues. Calcium-binding protein Wasserman, RH; Taylor, AN (1966). Vitamin D3-induced calcium-binding protein in chick intestinal mucosa. Science. 152 (3723): 791-3. doi:10.1126/science.152.3723.791. PMID 17797460. Wasserman, RH; Corradino, RA; Taylor, AN (1969). Binding proteins from animals with possible transport ...
This study was done to determine the severity and extent of abnormalities of duodenal mucosal architecture in non-specific (non-ulcerative) and ulcer-associated duodenitis. The effect of successful treatment with cimetidine on these changes has also been assessed. A method of microdissection and measurement of villus height, crypt depth, and mitotic figure count per crypt was applied to endoscopic biopsies from the duodenum. Five groups of patients were studied: untreated ulcer-associated duodenitis, untreated non-specific duodenitis, healed ulcer-associated and non-specific duodenitis after cimetidine treatment, and controls. Significant reduction in villus height, increase in crypt length, and increase in mitotic figure count per crypt were all found in both ulcer-associated and severe non-specific duodenitis as compared with controls. These changes were localised to visually inflamed areas and regressed after healing of these lesions with cimetidine. This is the first quantitative comparison ...
Extremely low birth weight (ELBW) is a risk factor for various gastrointestinal complications. In the recent decades, advances in medicine have increased the survival of ELBW infants with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). To our knowledge, there have been no reports of neonates or infants developing simultaneous gastric and duodenal perforations and later developing NEC. We report a case of an extremely low birth weight infant (ELBWI) who developed both gastric and duodenal perforations at the same time and developed NEC after operation for gastric and duodenal perforations. The patient was a female infant with ELBW who developed both gastric and duodenal perforations at the same time and developed NEC after operation for gastric and duodenal perforations. After birth, endotracheal intubation was performed. However, barotrauma occurred during positive pressure ventilation, resulting in a large area of emphysema in the left lower lung field, leading to collapse of the left lung. This giant bulla may have
A 75-year-old man who was diagnosed as having mucin-producing pancreatic cystic lesion ofthe main pancreatic duct by duodenoscopic examination was reported. Because of the low malignant potential of such lesions, duodenum-preserving resection of the head of the pancreas was performed, and the intra-operative histological examination showed no malig-nancy of the resected pancreatic head and no other surgical procedures, such as lymph-adenectomy nor pancreato-duodenectomy were necessary. The significance of this case report lies in that a less invasive operation should be selected at first to diagnose whether the lesion is malignant or not, and als0 that the selected operation itself must be sufficient to resect an adequate part of the pancreatic tissue involving the cystic lesion, ifnot malignant. Here, we report the process to select the procedure and the surgical technique.
Definition of duodenal branches of posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal artery. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions.
The small intestine is an important human organ that plays a central role in many physiological functions including digestion, absorption, secretion and defense. Duodenal pathologies include, for instance, the ulcer associated to Helicobacter Pylori infection, adenoma and, in genetically predisposed individuals, celiac disease. Alterations in the bowel reduce its capability to absorb nutrients, minerals and fat-soluble vitamins. Anemia and osteopenia or osteoporosis may develop as a consequence of vitamins malabsorption. Adenoma is a benign tumor that has the potential to become cancerous. Adult celiac disease patients present an overall risk of cancer that is almost twice than that found in the general population. These disease processes are not completely known. To date, a two dimensional (2D) reference map of proteins expressed in human duodenal tissue is not yet available: the aim of our study was to characterize the 2D protein map, and to identify proteins of duodenal mucosa of adult individuals
Counts of lamina propria and intraepithelial cells, lymphoid and polymorphonuclear, have been performed on semithin sections of endoscopic biopsies from the duodenum of patients with ulcer-associated duodenitis, with non-specific duodenitis, and from controls. In both types of duodenitis there were significant increases in lamina propria counts of plasma cells, lymphocytes and eosinophils, and in intraepithelial lymphocyte counts, when compared with controls. In control specimens, neutrophil polymorphs were very infrequent but a substantial neutrophil polymorph infiltration of the epithelium and lamina propria was present in both types of duodenitis. In biopsies from areas of duodenitis scanning electron microscopy showed the presence of cells, which are probably neutrophil polymorphs, on the luminal surface of the mucosa. Abnormalities in cell counts were present only in biopsies taken from visually inflamed areas of the duodenal bulb. These values returned to normal after healing of duodenitis ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of duodenography in the diagnosis of blunt duodenal injuries. AU - Timaran, C. H.. AU - Daley, B. J.. AU - Enderson, B. L.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Background: The differentiation of duodenal perforation from duodenal hematoma is not always possible with computed tomography (CT). Our diagnostic guideline has included duodenography to investigate CT findings of periduodenal fluid or wall thickening. However, the utility of duodenography as a diagnostic study in blunt abdominal trauma is not defined. We evaluated duodenography as a diagnostic test in patients with suspected blunt duodenal injuries (BDIs). Methods: During a 10-year period, 96 patients out of 25,608 trauma admissions had CT findings of possible BDI and underwent duodenography. Demographic and clinical data, diagnostic methods, and management were derived from prospectively collected data. CT and duodenography studies were reviewed and correlated with surgical findings and outcome. All CT scans were obtained ...
Hyperglycemia attenuates the stimulation of antral pressures and propagated antral sequences by erythromycin, but not the effects of erythromycin on pyloric or duodenal motility.
Only a quarter of upper gastrointestinal endoscopies performed in our institution result in duodenal biopsies, which reinforces the fact that, when taken, the main aim probably remains to diagnose or exclude CD. The results of our initial audit thus demonstrate poor adherence to established national recommendations in patients with no known diagnosis of CD, in whom this diagnosis is being considered at endoscopy. This remained suboptimal even when the clinical indication for biopsies was suspected coeliac disease. Although compliance only reached 60.8% in the reaudit, we have been able to demonstrate that simple interventional measures to raise awareness among endoscopists can be successful in significantly improving compliance to guidance. Potential barriers to adherence, as previously suggested in the literature7 include lack of awareness among clinicians of these guidelines and the extra time required to take a larger number of samples due to multiple passes of the biopsy forceps.. Of the ...
Conclusions: Almost one quarter of new cases of CD presented with atypical symptoms and half of the new cases had unremarkable duodenal mucosa. At least 10% of new cases of celiac disease are likely to be undiagnosed at routine upper endoscopy, particularly patients over 60 years who more commonly present atypically. All new CD patients could be identified in this study by performing pre-operative celiac antibody testing on all patients presenting for OGD and proceeding to biopsy only positive antibody patients and those presenting with either Major CI or abnormal duodenal mucosa for an estimated cost of AUS$4,629 and AUS$3,710 respectively ...
Vater乳頭遠位十二指腸病変に対するPancreas-sparing Distal Duodenectomy―3例の経験―Vater乳頭遠位十二指腸病変に対するPancreas-sparing Distal Duodenectomy―3例の経験―AN00161368 ...
Celiac disease is considered an under-recognized cause of iron deficiency. Small intestinal biopsy is proposed to be part of routine evaluation for iron deficiency. To determine the prevalence of celi
The authors describe the case of a man aged 88 years hospitalized in their department, with marked anemia, without macroscopic blood loss, with positive occult blood in the stool. The endoscopy showed an ulcerative lesion of the gastric antrum and the anterior wall of the duodenal bulb, the histology and morphology of endoscopic biopsies was compatible with a diagnosis of Not Hodgkins lymphoma, B cell, small cell or mantle.. ...
Figures 3 to 5 show different in-between states of the implant during this movement. Moving the two holders 3, 4 together at first causes the first and second portions 11,12 of the inextensible elongate members 1 to assume a gently outwardly bowed configuration each with respect to the longitudinal axis A. The third portions 13 are bend as well-Further moving the first holder 3 towards the second holder 4 causes the first and second portions 11, 12 of the elongate members 1 to assume a more bowed, almost semicircular shape. At some stage, the non-bendable elongate members 1 pass through a critical point, whereupon the first and second portions 11,12 snap into a generally radially-extending loops, yielding a somewhat concave petalshaped structure each. This means that the first and second portions 11, 12 finally twist and each portion 11, 12 form together with same portion of the other elongate members 1 a first and second fixation structure respectively. These fixations structures have a shape ...
Portal Absorption of Feed Oligo-peptides in Chickens - Chickens;Oligo-peptide;Intestinal Absorption;Duodenal Infusion;Portal Amino Acid;
Compared to healthy dogs, dogs with IBD had significantly decreased concentrations of IgA in fecal and duodenal samples. The number of IgA+ CD21+ PBMCs and IgA+ cells in duodenal lamina propria was significantly lower in dogs with IBD than in healthy dogs or dogs with intestinal lymphoma. Duodenal BAFF and APRIL mRNA expression was significantly higher in IBD dogs than in the healthy controls. Duodenal TGF-β mRNA expression was significantly lower in dogs with IBD than in healthy dogs and dogs with intestinal lymphoma ...
A clearer look at how how excess works might help people know very well what causes duodenitis.. The acidity thats created within our stomachs is extremely corrosive, yet needed for digestion. Simultaneously, it is able to digest human tissue. The stomach usually prevents this though, as it features a mucus barrier that protects the interior wall from the stomach. Which means that when contents of the stomach are correctly digested, it will get passed in to the duodenum together with acidity.. A number of different natural mechanisms kick-in combined with the acidity, for example water in the pancreas and digestive support enzymes, which prevents any harm to the duodenum. This mix of fluid dilutes stomach acidity. Bile in the gall bladder can also be secreted in to the duodenum, thus assisting to neutralize the stomach acidity. If among the mechanisms becomes impaired, then problems can arise.. Duodenitis causes could be associated with 1 of 3 factors: compromises within the protective ...
A clearer look at how how excess works might help people know very well what causes duodenitis.. The acidity thats created within our stomachs is extremely corrosive, yet needed for digestion. Simultaneously, it is able to digest human tissue. The stomach usually prevents this though, as it features a mucus barrier that protects the interior wall from the stomach. Which means that when contents of the stomach are correctly digested, it will get passed in to the duodenum together with acidity.. A number of different natural mechanisms kick-in combined with the acidity, for example water in the pancreas and digestive support enzymes, which prevents any harm to the duodenum. This mix of fluid dilutes stomach acidity. Bile in the gall bladder can also be secreted in to the duodenum, thus assisting to neutralize the stomach acidity. If among the mechanisms becomes impaired, then problems can arise.. Duodenitis causes could be associated with 1 of 3 factors: compromises within the protective ...
WKP Components duodenal mucosa duodenal submucosa Brunner glands duodenal muscularis externa duodenal adventitia / subserosa (...)
A method of imaging an object that includes subjecting an object to a beam of radiation that is directed along a first direction and analyzing a first portion of the beam of radiation that is transmitted through the object along the first direction so that the intensity of the first portion is suppressed. Analyzing a second portion of the beam of radiation that is refracted from the object. Generating an image of the object based on the suppressed first portion of the beam of radiation and the second portion of the beam of radiation.
A computer system includes a host processor, a first PCI bus, a second PCI bus and a PCI-to-PCI bridge. The first PCI bus is coupled with the host processor. The PCI-to-PCI bridge interconnects the first and second PCI buses. The PCI-to-PCI bridge includes a first portion and a second portion. The first portion includes a first configuration register and the second portion includes a second configuration register. A method is also taught.
Doctors give trusted, helpful answers on causes, diagnosis, symptoms, treatment, and more: Dr. Jones on upper part of stomach bloated: Depends what kind of stomach pain it is and how long and if there are other sympotms?( nausea, fever, ..) is the pain like burning, stabbing..? Recommend strongly any lasting stomach pain to discuss with your primary care physician on earliset opportunity.
Can you please fill in all the blanks plz thank you :) A large vein called the 6.------- -brings blood from the upper part of the body to the hear...
in the duodenum). Many Epsilonproteobacteria are motile with flagella. Numerous environmental sequences and isolates of ...
The duodenum and pancreas. Interior of the cecum and the lower end of ascending colon, showing colic valve. Transverse section ...
In the region of the duodenum, it forms the dorsal mesoduodenum; and in the region of the colon, it forms the dorsal mesocolon ... The foregut gives rise to the esophagus, the trachea, lung buds, the stomach, and the duodenum proximal to the entrance of the ... The midgut forms the primary intestinal loop, from which originates the distal duodenum to the entrance of the bile duct. The ... Different regions of the gut tube such as the esophagus, stomach, duodenum, etc. are specified by a retinoic acid gradient that ...
... and duodenum and the prostate by northern blotting; and in duodenum, jejunum, placenta, pancreas, testis, kidney, brain, and ... Peng et al identified TRPV6 in 1999 from rat duodenum in an effort to search for Ca2+ transporting proteins involved in Ca2+ ... In mouse, TRPV6 transcript abundance measured by RT-PCR is as follows: prostate > stomach, brain > lung > duodenum, cecum, ... It is believed that estrogen could be differentially regulating Ca2+ absorption in the duodenum by increasing TRPV6 expression ...
... is inflammation of the duodenum. It may persist acutely or chronically. Known symptoms of duodenitis include: ...
The pancreas and duodenum from behind. Arteries and veins around the pancreas and spleen. Coeliac artery compression syndrome ... and the superior half of both the duodenum and the pancreas. These structures correspond to the embryonic foregut. (Similarly, ...
A diagram of a compressed duodenum due to a reduced mesenteric angle. SMA syndrome can present in acute, acquired form (e.g. ... Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome is a gastro-vascular disorder in which the third and final portion of the duodenum is ... Retroperitoneal fat and lymphatic tissue normally serve as a cushion for the duodenum, protecting it from compression by the ... Goin, L. S.; Wilk, S.P. (1956). "Intermittent arteriomesenteric occlusion of the duodenum". Radiology. 67 (5): 729-737. doi: ...
The pancreas and duodenum from behind. Pirog, T. P. (December 2019). "POST-HARVEST TREATMENT OF VEGETABLES WITH EXOMETABOLITES ...
"Radiology of the Pancreas and Duodenum." (1973). Eaton, S. Boyd, Stanley B. Eaton III, and Loren Cordain. "Evolution, diet, and ...
The partially digested food enters the duodenum as a thick semi-liquid chyme. In the small intestine, the larger part of ... For example, trypsin is secreted by pancreas in the form of trypsinogen, which is activated in the duodenum by enterokinase to ... Protein digestion occurs in the stomach and duodenum in which 3 main enzymes, pepsin secreted by the stomach and trypsin and ... When the pyloric sphincter valve opens, chyme enters the duodenum where it mixes with digestive enzymes from the pancreas and ...
It is also called a duodenum.) Goguryeo music had its own side, which was different from Western music. In other words, ...
... and which same organ is known anatomically as the duodenum. The fat on the duodenum is primarily the edge of the greater ... The very beginning of the duodenum also has part of the lesser omentum attached to it. Any fat, or suet, beyond the first cubit ... The reference here is to the duodenum. After food is broken down in the abomasum (the fourth ruminant stomach), it passes into ... specifically the duodenum. The fat upon the innards is characteristic in that it is covered with a membrane which can be easily ...
Duodenectomy is the removal of the duodenum. Embolectomy is the removal of any type of embolism. Encephalectomy is the removal ... Pancreaticoduodenectomy is the surgical removal involving the pancreas and the duodenum. Panniculectomy is the removal of a ...
Torticollis in a mallard Same symptom in a broiler PM lesions on proventriculus, gizzard, and duodenum Petechiae in the ... proventriculus and on the submucosae of the gizzard are typical; also, severe enteritis of the duodenum occurs. The lesions are ...
The duodenum is responsible for absorbing thiamine. The liver can store thiamine for 18 days. Prolonged and frequent ... consumption of alcohol causes a decreased ability to absorb thiamine in the duodenum. Thiamine deficiency is also related to ...
It can also present in the duodenum. Kawachi K, Nakatani Y, Inayama Y, Kawano N, Toda N, Misugi K (April 2002). " ... "Interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma of the duodenum with rapidly fatal course: a case report and review of the literature". ...
Peptic ulcers are also common in the duodenum. Chronic diseases of malabsorption may affect the small intestine, including the ... The small intestine consists of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Inflammation of the small intestine is called enteritis, which ... endoscopy and biopsy of the duodenum, and barium swallow. Treatments may include renutrition, and antibiotics for infections. ...
All versions of the GBP bypass the duodenum, which is the primary site of absorption of both iron and calcium. Iron replacement ... It involves the implantation of a duodenal-jejunal bypass liner between the beginning of the duodenum (first portion of the ... Calcium is primarily absorbed in the duodenum, which is bypassed by the surgery. Most patients can achieve adequate calcium ... Again, it is normally absorbed in the duodenum. Ferrous sulfate can cause considerable GI distress in normal doses; ...
The duodenum is particularly sensitive to the toxin. Injection into dogs resulted in extreme oedema of the submucosal tissues ... of the duodenum while leaving the stomach uninjured. Injection into the eye resulted in lesions similar to flame haemorrhages ...
A special tube can be implanted surgically to connect the stomach to the duodenum so as to facilitate the passage of food from ... It is near the bottom of the stomach, proximal to the pyloric sphincter, which separates the stomach and the duodenum. It may ... The canal (Latin: canalis pyloricus) is the opening between the stomach and the duodenum. The wall thickness of the pyloric ... The pylorus, through the pyloric sphincter, regulates entry of food from the stomach into the duodenum. In such conditions as ...
Suzuki Y, Uchida K (1985). "Multiple forms of alpha-glycosidase from pig duodenum". Agric. Biol. Chem. 49 (6): 1573-1581. doi: ...
Splenic flexure syndrome Intestines The duodenum and pancreas. Double Contrast Barium Enema - Using Positive and Negative ...
The signs of duodenum can vary amongst patients. A high rate of chromosomal damage found in blood lymphocytes can indicate the ... Megaduodenum does not let the muscles of the duodenum function properly, the movement of waste material in the intestines gets ... The treatment mainly depends on the underlying conditions and the degree of distention of the duodenum. It can be symptomatic ... Posturing maneuvers during meals may be helpful in some patients, also to relive any compression of the duodenum the patient ...
In: Surgery of the Stomach and Duodenum, ed. H. N. Harkins and L. M. Nyhus, pp. 461-72. Boston: Little, Brown. 1963 With E. R. ...
nov., a new species identified in human duodenum". New Microbes and New Infections. 17: 43-44. doi:10.1016/j.nmni.2016.11.024. ... Duodenibacillus massiliensis has been isolated from the human duodenum. "Duodenibacillus". Www.uniprot.org. Mailhe, M.; ...
Subsequently, the duodenum is transected respecting the pylorus. A duodenum-intestinal anastomosis is carried out, 250 ...
It has three parts, the duodenum, jejunum and ileum. The majority of digestion occurs in the duodenum while the majority of ... Bile from the liver aids in digesting fats in the duodenum combined with enzymes from the pancreas and small intestine. Horses ...
The G cells are mostly found in pyloric glands in the antrum of the pylorus; some are found in the duodenum and other tissues. ...
In the duodenum, gastric acid is neutralized by bicarbonate. This also blocks gastric enzymes that have their optima in the ... This polypeptide hormone gets activated and secreted from so-called S cells in the mucosa of the duodenum and jejunum when the ... In the absorptive upper intestine, such as the duodenum, both the dissolved carbon dioxide and carbonic acid will tend to ... The pancreas further produces large amounts of bicarbonate and secretes bicarbonate through the pancreatic duct to the duodenum ...
Localization of CCK-A receptor in the human duodenum". Digestion. 60 Suppl 1: 75-80. doi:10.1159/000051459. PMID 10026437. ...
Dog Duodenum 100X Duodenum with amyloid deposition in lamina propria Section of duodenum of cat. X 60 Micrograph showing ... showing the relations of the pancreas The pancreatic duct Region of pancreas Duodenum Duodenum Duodenum Pancreas Nosek, Thomas ... In mammals the duodenum may be the principal site for iron absorption. The duodenum precedes the jejunum and ileum and is the ... The duodenum wall consists of a very thin layer of cells that form the muscularis mucosae. Ulcers of the duodenum commonly ...
"Duodenum" is a song by Frank Zappa that first appeared as part of "Lumpy Gravy Part One" on the Verve Records edition of Lumpy ... The duodenum, in anatomy, is part of the digestive system and connects the stomach to the small intestine. Fillmore East - June ... "Duodenum" also appears in its instrumental form on the 1991 live double album Make a Jazz Noise Here as "Theme from Lumpy Gravy ... "Duodenum" as their album opener on their 2000 Zappa tribute, "Frankly A Cappella: The Persuasions Sing Zappa." The Spotnicks ...
duodenum (plural duodena or duodenums) *(anatomy) The first part of the small intestine, starting at the lower end of the ... The duodena open into a common pouch just below the entrance of the gall-ducts. The intestine was single from the confluence of ... The ſlender is Duodenum or whole gut, which is next to the ſtomacke, ſome twelue inches long (ſaith Fuſchius.). ... The duodenum receives the chyme from the stomach, and has generally been believed to accomplish the second digestion, or the ...
first part of the small intestine that receives digesting material from the ...
... duodenum: The horizontal duodenum, because of its location between the liver, pancreas, and major blood vessels, can become ... In duodenum. The horizontal duodenum, because of its location between the liver, pancreas, and major blood vessels, can become ... Other articles where Horizontal duodenum is discussed: ...
The duodenum is the first part of the small intestine. It is located between the stomach and the middle part of the small ... The duodenum is the first part of the small intestine. It is located between the stomach and the middle part of the small ... After foods mix with stomach acid, they move into the duodenum, where they mix with bile from the gallbladder and digestive ... Anatomy, histology, and developmental anomalies of the stomach and duodenum. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. ...
The duodenum is the shortest segment of the intestine and is about 23 to 28 cm (9 to 11 inches) long. It is roughly horseshoe- ... Duodenum, the first part of the small intestine, which receives partially digested food from the stomach and begins the ... digestive system disease: Duodenum. The duodenum is often involved in the diseases of its neighbours, in particular the ... duodenum; Brunner glandA cross section of the superior duodenum, showing the myenteric nerve plexus (*), large clusters of ...
Duodenum (fi); duodenum, dvanácterník (cs); Duodenum (bs); Duodenum, Gastroduodénal (fr); Duodenum (jv); Duodenum, Dvanaesterac ... Duodenum (id); duodenum (nn); 12-fingertarmen, Duodendum, Tolvfingertarmen, Duodenum (nb); Duodenum, twaalfvingerdarm (nl); ... Duodenum, ดูโอดีนัม, ลำไส้เล็กตอนต้น, ดูโอดินัม (th); Zwölffingerdarm (de); Duodenum, XII-nica (pl); الأثنى عشر, عفج, Duodenum ... Duodenum (de-ch); Duodenum (de); Duodenum (pam); Տասներկումատնյա աղիք
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Hugh J Freeman, "Nonceliac Diaphragm Disease of the Duodenum," Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 453- ... Nonceliac Diaphragm Disease of the Duodenum. Hugh J Freeman Department of Medicine (Gastroenterology), University of British ...
Subsequent studies, including endoscopic examination, revealed diaphragm-like strictures in the descending duodenum. Other ... Nonceliac Diaphragm Disease of the Duodenum,. Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology,. vol. 14. ,. Article ID ... Nonceliac Diaphragm Disease of the Duodenum. Hugh J Freeman1. 1Department of Medicine (Gastroenterology), University of British ... Subsequent studies, including endoscopic examination, revealed diaphragm-like strictures in the descending duodenum. Other ...
From outside the duodenum, digestive enzymes from the pancreas and bile from gall bladder flow into the duodenum, via ducts, to ... While in the duodenum, the chyme is acted upon by enzymes and juices both from outside the duodenum and from cells that are ... In addition, the duodenum is lined with cells that secrete alkaline fluid and enzymes for digestion. The pH in the duodenum is ... The name duodenum is from the Latin duodenum digitorum, meaning "twelve fingers breadths," because it is about twelve ...
... has been diagnosed with a tumor in the duodenum that has protruded the intestinal wall and is now bleeding. The GI doctor ... Bleeding Tumor protruding duodenum wall. My father, age 87,through endoscopys and capsule studies, has been diagnosed with a ... My father, age 87,through endoscopys and capsule studies, has been diagnosed with a tumor in the duodenum that has protruded ... tumor in the duodenum that has protruded the intestinal wall and is now bleeding. The GI doctor believes this is a fast growing ...
A new operation, duodenum‐ and spleen‐preserving total pancreatectomy, is described.. Methods: Nineteen consecutive patients ... Duodenum‐ and spleen‐preserving total pancreatectomy has a role in selected patients with medically intractable pain from ... with chronic pancreatitis who had duodenum‐ and spleen‐preserving total pancreatectomy were studied.. Results: There were 15 ...
The duodenum receives the semi-digested food from the stomach. ... Duodenum. The duodenum is the first part of the small intestine ... The stomach and duodenum are part of the upper gastrointestinal tract. The stomach is a muscular pouch located in the upper ... Most of the digestion of the protein, fats and carbohydrate in the chyme is done by the enzymes in the duodenum, before the ... The entry of chyme triggers the release of digestive pancreatic enzymes and bile which enter the duodenum via the pancreatic ...
... - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view ... TUKAK DUODENUM (Ulkus Duodenum. ) Insiden : Laki-laki 4 kali lebih banyak dari wanita Usia 20-60 tahun, indonesia 30-50 tahun ... Asam ini melakukan auto digesti pada mukosa duodenum sehingga mukosa duodenum menjadi rentan. ... Mukosa duodenum dapat rusak oleh as bikarbonat yang dihasilkan mukosa lambung dan pankreas. ...
Video Atlas of Endoscopy: Duodenum. Learning Themes. Colorectal, Flexible Endoscopy. Sources. Surgeon Submitted, Video Atlas of ...
The symptoms of an inflamed duodenum include abdominal pain and bloating, appetite loss and nausea, which may or may not be ... Inflamed duodenum is a condition in which the duodenal lining becomes swollen, usually as a result of H pylori infection, ... The symptoms of an inflamed duodenum include abdominal pain and bloating, appetite loss and nausea, which may or may not be ... It is advisable to visit a doctor immediately when the symptoms of inflamed duodenum appear to ensure early diagnosis and ...
confirmed the presence of the resveratrol target Sirt1, an NAD+-dependent deacetylase, in the duodenum. Intraduodenal infusion ... Two papers report that metformin and resveratrol act within the duodenum to stimulate this gut-brain-liver axis and reduce HGP ... an effect that was blocked by adenoviral-mediated introduction of dominant-negative AMPK into the duodenum or coinfusion of ...
Stomach, greater omentum, Duodenum, Winslow Foramen, Lesser omentum, Duodenal ulcer, Sanjoy sanyal, Hepatogastric ligament, ... Stomach-Duodenum Peritoneal Spaces-Arteries-Surgical Aspects and Syndromes - Sanjoy Sanyal Educational Video created by Dr. ... Stomach-Duodenum Peritoneal Spaces-Arteries-Surgical Aspects and Syndromes - Sanjoy Sanyal is categorized in the following ... If you know the author of Stomach-Duodenum Peritoneal Spaces-Arteries-Surgical Aspects and Syndromes - Sanjoy Sanyal, please ...
Part of the NBL Cell Line Collection. This cell line is neither produced nor fully characterized by ATCC. We do not guarantee that it will maintain a specific morphology, purity, or any other property upon passage.
"Melanosis" of the duodenum associated with a gastric ulcer and folic acid deficiency. Sharp, J.R., Insalaco, S.J., Johnson, L.F ... Ulcer formation and associated tumor production in multiple sites within the stomach and duodenum of rats treated with N-methyl ... Histochemical patterns in early lesions and infiltrating adenocarcinomas induced in mouse duodenum by n-ethyl-n-nitro-n- ... Effect of graded amounts of acid instilled into the duodenum on pancreatic bicarbonate secretion and plasma secretin in ...
... duodenum? Find a list of current medications, their possible side effects, dosage, and efficacy when used to treat or reduce ... the symptoms of bleeding+from+stomach,+esophagus+or+duodenum ... esophagus or duodenum? Below is a list of common medications ... used to treat or reduce the symptoms of bleeding from stomach, esophagus or duodenum. Follow the links to read common uses, ...
Biopsy of the duodenum? Whatever did that entail?!. I have become an endoscopy veteran by now and have had more than I care to ... So, I went ahead and got the endoscopy and the duodenum biopsy done. I was advised to do a heparin-free dialysis that night. A ... The day before yesterday, the gastroenterologist suggested that we do an endoscopy and a biopsy of the duodenum.. This sounded ... How can something called biopsy of the duodenum be anything pleasant?!. Anyway, these days I have stopped thinking about all ...
... Trial Phase:. N/A. Minimum Age:. 18 Years. Maximum Age:. N/A ... Pancreatic Juice Diagnosis From Duodenum. Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the most lethal of all major cancers with a five year ... collect pancreatic juice from duodenum, it is called "duodenal juice" ,if we collect them. without additional invasion. The ...
... and antonyms of the term DUODENUM in the Online Dictionary. What is a 8 letter word that starts with D? ... DUODENUM: Review the definition, meaning, pronunciation, explanation, synonyms, ... F. duodenum. So called because its length is about twelve fingers breadth.] (Anat.) The part of the small intestines between ...
The authors describe a case of primary ALCL of the duodenum... ... The authors describe a case of primary ALCL of the duodenum in ... Primary CD30 (Ki-1)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma of the duodenum. ...
The duodenum joins the jejunum and ileum as one of the three major sections of the human small intestine in the lower ... View a second image of human lower duodenum.. Characteristic of the duodenum or upper small intestine, Brunners glands are ... Human Lower Duodenum. The duodenum joins the jejunum and ileum as one of the three major sections of the human small intestine ... External to this muscular layer, the duodenum is covered by the outermost layer of connective tissue known as the adventitia. ...
Lrp5 controls bone formation by inhibiting serotonin synthesis in the duodenum.. Yadav VK1, Ryu JH, Suda N, Tanaka KF, Gingrich ... By identifying duodenum-derived serotonin as a hormone inhibiting bone formation in an Lrp5-dependent manner, this study ... Lrp5 controls bone formation by inhibiting serotonin synthesis in the duodenum: an entero-bone endocrine axis ... Lrp5 controls bone formation by inhibiting serotonin synthesis in the duodenum: an entero-bone endocrine axis ...
  • The duodenum is the first section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fish, the divisions of the small intestine are not as clear, and the terms anterior intestine or proximal intestine may be used instead of duodenum. (wikipedia.org)
  • The duodenum is the first part of the small intestine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Duodenum , the first part of the small intestine , which receives partially digested food from the stomach and begins the absorption of nutrients. (britannica.com)
  • The mucous lining of the last two segments of the duodenum begins the absorption of nutrients, in particular iron and calcium, before the food contents enter the next part of the small intestine, the jejunum . (britannica.com)
  • The duodenum is the first section of the small intestine in vertebrates . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Food from the stomach is allowed into the duodenum by a muscle called the pylorus, or pyloric sphincter, and is then pushed through the small intestine by a process of muscular-wavelike contractions called peristalsis. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The duodenum is largely responsible for the breakdown of food in the small intestine . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The stomach is a muscular pouch located in the upper left abdomen, and the duodenum leads off the stomach, forming the beginning of the small intestine. (mydr.com.au)
  • Most of the digestion of the protein, fats and carbohydrate in the chyme is done by the enzymes in the duodenum, before the resultant mixture is passed further into the small intestine. (mydr.com.au)
  • The duodenum joins the jejunum and ileum as one of the three major sections of the human small intestine in the lower gastrointestinal ( GI ) system. (fsu.edu)
  • Characteristic of the duodenum or upper small intestine, Brunner's glands are situated in the submucosa as are Meissner's nerve plexuses. (fsu.edu)
  • Close-up view of the duodenum which is the first section of the small intestine. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The duodenum extends from the pylorus at the bottom of the stomach to the jejunum, the second part of the small intestine. (lymphedemapeople.com)
  • For decades, this writer knew the duodenum as a short but troubled sector of the small intestine. (lymphedemapeople.com)
  • The jejunum is either the first part of the small intestine, or the second part if you consider the duodenum to be the first part of the small intestine. (actforlibraries.org)
  • The duodenal is the duodenum which is a short piece of intestine that connects the stomach to the small intestine where all the nutrients are absorbed. (healthtap.com)
  • The first part of the small intestine is referred to as duodenum. (laparoscopic.md)
  • The duodenum lies at the beginning of the small intestine. (laparoscopic.md)
  • The duodenum plays an important role in regulating the emptying of stomach contents into the rest of the small intestine. (laparoscopic.md)
  • It lies beneath the stomach and is connected to the small intestine at the duodenum (see digestive system). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The duodenum is the first of the three parts of the small intestine and continues from the pylorus of the stomach. (healthhype.com)
  • It is the shortest part of the small intestine, measuring approximately 25 centimeters in length and is also the most important site of digestion as the pancreatic enzymes and bile empty into the duodenum. (healthhype.com)
  • The duodenum runs a C-shaped course cupping the head of the pancreas and terminates at the duodenojejunal junction (flexure) where the jejunum (second part of the small intestine) arises. (healthhype.com)
  • Most of the duodenum is fixed in its position unlike the other parts of the small intestine that are fairly mobile. (healthhype.com)
  • stomach or the first part of the small intestine, known as the duodenum. (1000friends-ct.org)
  • All this then enters the digestive tract and begins its passage from esophagus to stomach to duodenum to small intestine to colon. (lexico.com)
  • You may have to have part of your stomach, gall bladder and duodenum (the first bit of your small intestine) removed too. (lexico.com)
  • Bile is drained from the gallbladder into this portion of the duodenum. (actforlibraries.org)
  • The largest of these being a 2cm mass in the second portion of the duodenum, along with numerous subcutaneous soft-tissue nodules (Figure 1). (appliedradiology.com)
  • In the wall of the upper portion of the duodenum are the so-called Brun-ner's glands, which, in structure and in the composition of the juice they secrete, are closely related to the glands of the pyloric portion of the stomach. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery arising from the superior mesenteric artery supplies the portion of the duodenum distal to the duodenal papilla. (healthhype.com)
  • She underwent MRCP without contrast that showed a possible mass or inflammatory process in the region of the second portion of the duodenum and pancreatic head, with a possible perforated duodenal ulcer. (scirp.org)
  • She underwent a CT scan, which showed a collection of air and debris medial to the second/third portion of the duodenum, along with mild surrounding induration with fluid/induration extending along the right paracolic gutter (Figures 1-3). (scirp.org)
  • The lesser curvature and lesser sac were entered and the stomach was then followed down to the first and second portion of the duodenum, the adhesions were lysed, finding no evidence of perforation. (scirp.org)
  • The third and fourth portions of the duodenum were exposed using a Kocher maneuver, and a duodenal diverticulum was identified at the fourth portion of the duodenum, which had a large perforation. (scirp.org)
  • Considering taking medication to treat bleeding from stomach, esophagus or duodenum? (webmd.com)
  • Below is a list of common medications used to treat or reduce the symptoms of bleeding from stomach, esophagus or duodenum. (webmd.com)
  • The ICD-10 code range for ICD-10 Diseases of esophagus, stomach and duodenum K20-K31 is medical classification list by the World Health Organization (WHO). (aapc.com)
  • ICD-10 Code range (K00-K95), Diseases of oral cavity and salivary glands, contains ICD-10 codes for Diseases of esophagus, stomach and duodenum, appendix, Noninfective enteritis and colitis, Other diseases of intestines, peritoneum and retroperitoneum, Diseases of liver. (aapc.com)
  • Multiple biopsies were taken from the duodenum, the gastric antrum, and the distal esophagus. (lexico.com)
  • It is the site of nutrient absorption and is subdivided into 3 segments: the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. (blausen.com)
  • 05) were also confirmed in height and the surface area of villi as well as crypt depth in the jejunum and ileum in day-old broiler chickens, but these differences were not as predominant as in the case of the duodenum (Table 2). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • There are many different types of cell in the epithelium of the human duodenum, including simple columnar cells with microvilli that function in absorption, undifferentiated columnar cells in crypts that are very active mitotically, goblet cells that produce mucus, Paneth cells at the base of the crypts, and scattered peptide hormone-producing cells known as entero-endocrine cells. (fsu.edu)
  • Coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of a section through the human duodenum, showing secretory cells of the surface epithelium (lining). (sciencephoto.com)
  • This comparative study was performed in both rat and human duodenum because samples of human duodenum mucosa can be easily and safely taken during gastrointestinal endoscopy. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Human Duodenum Biopsy Specimens. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The pancreatic duct and common bile duct enter the descending duodenum, through the major duodenal papilla. (wikipedia.org)
  • The intestine was single from the confluence of the duodena to the termination of the jejunum. (wiktionary.org)
  • The duodenum is the shortest segment of the intestine and is about 23 to 28 cm (9 to 11 inches) long. (britannica.com)
  • The duodenum / ˌ d uː ə ˈ d i n əm / is the first section o the smaa intestine in maist heicher vertebrates , includin mammals , reptiles , an birds . (wikipedia.org)
  • In German, the popular term for duodenum is Zwölffingerdarm, the 12-finger intestine. (lymphedemapeople.com)
  • What are the primary functions of the stomach, duodenum, and large intestine? (healthtap.com)
  • 4. In both the antrum and proximal duodenum, 60-70% of the G17 was in the sulphated form. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Preoperative chemoradiation for adenocarcinoma of the pancreas and duodenum. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The unit illustrates the anatomy of the liver with the gall bladder, pancreas, and duodenum. (wardsci.com)
  • Anatomy, histology, and developmental anomalies of the stomach and duodenum. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Under microscopy, the duodenum has a villous mucosa. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is distinct from the mucosa of the pylorus, which directly joins to the duodenum. (wikipedia.org)
  • H. pylori increases the susceptibility of the duodenal mucosa to damage from unneutralized digestive acids and is a major cause of peptic ulcers , the most common health problem affecting the duodenum. (britannica.com)
  • These glandular secretions pass through the muscularis mucosa via ducts, on their way to the lumen of the duodenum. (fsu.edu)
  • We measured short circuit current (I sc ) and cyclic AMP (cAMP) content in muscle-stripped mucosa of rat duodenum after stimulation with troglitazone. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The duodenum was opened longitudinally into a flat sheet, and the mucosa was separated from the underlying connective tissue and musculature. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Relations:[citation needed] Anterior Gallbladder Quadrate lobe of liver Posterior Bile duct Gastroduodenal artery Portal vein Inferior vena cava Head of pancreas Superior Neck of gallbladder Hepatoduodenal ligament (lesser omentum) Inferior Neck of pancreas Greater omentum Head of pancreas The second part, or descending part, of the duodenum begins at the superior duodenal flexure. (wikipedia.org)
  • After foods mix with stomach acid , they move into the duodenum, where they mix with bile from the gallbladder and digestive juices from the pancreas. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Ducts from the pancreas and gallbladder enter at the major duodenal papilla (papilla of Vater) in the descending duodenum, bringing bicarbonate to neutralize the acid in the gastric secretions, pancreatic enzymes to further digestion , and bile salts to emulsify fat. (britannica.com)
  • Bile is passed to the gallbladder and then into the duodenum to help with the digestion of fat. (mydr.com.au)
  • Because of the duodenum's close proximity to the gallbladder, gallstones may have an effect on the duodenum. (actforlibraries.org)
  • In addition to bile from the gallbladder, there are many enzymes in the duodenum which are responsible for breaking down much of the food you eat. (actforlibraries.org)
  • In the duodenum the food is mixed with bile (secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder) and digestive juices from the pancreas. (laparoscopic.md)
  • In order to gain the most nutrients from the plant and animal matter consumed by a person, the duodenum utilizes digestive enzymes from the pancreas , bile from the gall bladder , and enzymes from duodenal cells, while hormones help to coordinate those actions as well as the emptying of the stomach's contents into the duodenum. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • From outside the duodenum, digestive enzymes from the pancreas and bile from gall bladder flow into the duodenum, via ducts, to help in digestion, stimulated by hormones from the duodenum itself in response to the arrival of the chyme (Judge 2001). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The entry of chyme triggers the release of digestive pancreatic enzymes and bile which enter the duodenum via the pancreatic and common bile ducts , respectively. (mydr.com.au)
  • The chyme is gradually pushed down the duodenum by peristaltic waves which flow down the length of the digestive tract. (mydr.com.au)
  • opens, chyme enters the duodenum where it mixes with digestive enzymes from the. (1000friends-ct.org)
  • Overexpression of genes for acute phase reactants in the liver and a strong induction of digestive enzyme genes in the duodenum were characteristic of the Hfe-deficient genotype. (uta.fi)
  • The stomach and duodenum are part of the upper gastrointestinal tract. (mydr.com.au)
  • Schematic diagram o the gastrointestinal tract , heichlichtin the duodenum. (wikipedia.org)
  • The duodenum is located in your gastrointestinal tract just past the stomach. (actforlibraries.org)
  • The prevention of dyskinesia of the stomach and duodenum consists in timely treatment of the diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, you should prevent stress situations, competently combine labor and rest, eat right. (oxford-med.com.ua)
  • Proximal to the 2nd part of the duodenum (approximately at the major duodenal papilla - where the bile duct enters) the arterial supply is from the gastroduodenal artery and its branch the superior pancreaticoduodenal artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surgery revealed a neuroendocrine neoplasm of the ampulla of Vater and five tumors in the duodenum and proximal jejunum, the largest measuring 3.7cm. (appliedradiology.com)
  • Low gastrin concentration in the proximal duodenum was associated with a reduced percentage of G17. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The gastroduodenal artery arising from the celiac trunk and its superior pancreaticoduodenal branch supply the superior part of the duodenum and portion of the descending part proximal to the duodenal papilla. (healthhype.com)
  • Celiac.com 03/15/2010 - A team of researchers recently set out to investigate mucosal expression of claudins 2, 3 and 4 in the proximal and distal parts of duodenum in children with celiac disease. (celiac.com)
  • To address the situation, the team performed a comparative study to examine the CLDN 2, 3 and 4 expressions in both the proximal and distal parts of duodenum in children with celiac disease and in control subjects. (celiac.com)
  • The team took biopsies from proximal and distal part of duodenum, and used immunohistochemistry to detect CD3+ intraepithelial lymphocytes and CLDN 2, 3 and 4 protein expressions. (celiac.com)
  • Whether taken from proximal or distal part of duodenum, biopsies revealed no differences under macroscopic imaging, routine histology and Marsh grading. (celiac.com)
  • Among 3 cases of duodeno-leaks happened after the operations, 2 cases were cured and one died.Conclusion Strengthening surgeons' responsibilities and improving the quality of surgeries is the key to prevent iatrogenic duodenum injury. (cnki.com.cn)
  • With a normal diet, the expression of most tight junction genes in the duodenum was significantly increased in CaBP-9k knockout (KO) mice compared to wild-type (WT) animals. (mdpi.com)
  • There were 173 and 108 differentially expressed genes in the duodenum of Hfe−/− mice and mice with dietary iron overload, respectively. (uta.fi)
  • Duodenal bulb were 2 areas of erosion with erythema and denuding of folds into the second and third portions of the duodenum? (healthtap.com)
  • The first part of the duodenum is mobile, and connected to the liver by the hepatoduodenal ligament of the lesser omentum. (wikipedia.org)
  • The horizontal duodenum, because of its location between the liver, pancreas, and major blood vessels, can become compressed by those structures in people who are severely thin, requiring surgical release to eliminate painful duodenal dilatation, nausea, and vomiting. (britannica.com)
  • Two papers report that metformin and resveratrol act within the duodenum to stimulate this gut-brain-liver axis and reduce HGP, thereby improving glucose metabolism in several rodent models of type 2 diabetes. (sciencemag.org)
  • The first part of the duodenum is located very close to the liver and pancreas. (actforlibraries.org)
  • The enzymes which break food down into nutrients mix with the food in the duodenum, as does the bile from the liver. (healthtap.com)
  • Duodenum and liver were stained for iron and duodenal TfR immunohistochemistry was performed. (wisconsin.edu)
  • The aim of this study was to explore and compare the genome-wide transcriptome response to Hfe deficiency and dietary iron overload in murine liver and duodenum. (uta.fi)
  • A liquid mixture of food and gastric secretions enters the superior duodenum from the pylorus of the stomach , triggering the release of pancreas -stimulating hormones (e.g., secretin ) from glands (crypts of Lieberkühn) in the duodenal wall. (britannica.com)
  • Contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) of the abdomen revealed a right renal subcapsular hematoma and multiple masses in the duodenum. (appliedradiology.com)
  • Low tissue gastrin content in the ovine distal duodenum is associated with increased percentage of G34. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 3. The proportion of G34 increased progressively down the duodenum from a mean of 7% proximally to 47% in the most distal segment, and correlated negatively in any segment with the gastrin content. (biomedsearch.com)
  • However, in comparison to controls, patients with severe celiac disease showed significantly higher CLDN 2 expression in bulb and in distal duodenum, while non-severe celiac patients showed higher distal CLDN 2 expression. (celiac.com)
  • The distal duodenum and duodenal jejunal junction is especially susceptible to damage because it is fixed in position. (lexico.com)
  • When food enters the duodenum, there are multiple feed-back pathways and nervous reflexes that will affect how fast the stomach empties as well as the secretion of other hormones. (laparoscopic.md)
  • Glands line the duodenum, known as Brunner's glands, which secrete mucus and bicarbonate in order to neutralise stomach acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brunner's glands, which secrete mucus, are found in the duodenum. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Pig duodenum stained to differentiate carboxylated mucus in Brunner's glands (yellow) from sulfonated mucus in gobletcells (blue-green). (histology-world.com)
  • the duodenum also produce mucus that protect them from the effects of the acid. (1000friends-ct.org)
  • While in the duodenum, the chyme is acted upon by enzymes and juices both from outside the duodenum and from cells that are part of the duodenum. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In addition, the duodenum is lined with cells that secrete alkaline fluid and enzymes for digestion. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Within the wall are BRUNNER'S GLANDS and PANETH CELLS which, together with secretions from the pancreas entering the duodenum via the bile duct, produce a whole range of enzymes to complete digestion. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The acidic, gruel-like food mass (chyme) passing from the stomach continues to be digested in the duodenum under the influence of enzymes of the alkaline pancreatic and intestinal juices. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The duodenum is a common site for the formation of peptic ulcers. (lymphedemapeople.com)
  • Due to the exposure to acidic contents of the stomach, the duodenum, especially the upper segment is quite prone to develop peptic ulcers, a disease that is characterized by symptoms of abdominal pain, regurgitation of food, weight loss, and loss of appetite. (laparoscopic.md)
  • Most peptic ulcers are in the duodenum. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The duodenum is often involved in the diseases of its neighbours, in particular the pancreas and the biliary tract. (britannica.com)
  • Lee J.H., Chung W.C. (2018) Other Diseases of the Duodenum. (springer.com)
  • The Duodenum-Its Structure and Function, Its Diseases and Their Medical and Surgical Treatment. (annals.org)
  • The Acute and Chronic Peptic Lesions of the Stomach and the Duodenum: Their Frequency, Mutual Relation and Correlation with Other Diseases. (annals.org)
  • The following are the current most viewed articles on Wikipedia within Wikipedia's Diseases of oesophagus, stomach and duodenum category. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Think of it as a What's Hot list for Diseases of oesophagus, stomach and duodenum. (thefullwiki.org)
  • These 2 ducts join the duodenum at the ampulla of Vater, or the hepatopancreatic ampulla. (mydr.com.au)
  • The duodenal papilla which is the opening of the hepatpancreatic ducts (bile + pancreatic ducts) is located in the descending part of the duodenum. (healthhype.com)
  • Once food is semi-digested it is known as chyme and is passed through the pyloric sphincter , a ring of smooth muscle at the lower part of the stomach, by muscular contractions into the duodenum. (mydr.com.au)
  • The pyloric sphincter controls this exit of partially-digested food from the stomach into the duodenum, so that only small amounts are passed through at a time. (mydr.com.au)
  • The partially digested food mixed with acid is passed to the duodenum via the pyloric sphincter. (laparoscopic.md)
  • The rostral duodenum shows a local absence of the normal columnar epithelial lining, villi, and Brunner's glands, which are replaced by a GLUT2-positive cuboidal epithelium resembling the bile duct lining. (biologists.org)
  • My father, age 87,through endoscopys and capsule studies, has been diagnosed with a tumor in the duodenum that has protruded the intestinal wall and is now bleeding. (medhelp.org)
  • In this study, we have measured the concentrations of individual bile salts in human intestinal fluids (n=6) collected from two different locations (duodenum and jejunum) in the fasted state. (ovid.com)
  • It was observed in every intestinal segment, but was highest in the duodenum. (biochemj.org)
  • Digestion continues in the duodenum once the chyme enters from the stomach. (mydr.com.au)
  • The absorption of vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients begins in the duodenum. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Stomach acids are neutralized and numerous folds in the duodenum help in absorption of nutrients. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In exchange for these benefits, the duodenum plays a critical role securing the nutrients for the health of the body and its cells. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The absorption of various nutrients such as the minerals and vitamins starts in the duodenum. (laparoscopic.md)
  • Evidence from recent animal studies suggests that the rapid return to euglycemia seen in T2DM patients after GBP might in part result from excluding the duodenum from the flow of nutrients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The day before yesterday, the gastroenterologist suggested that we do an endoscopy and a biopsy of the duodenum . (globaldialysis.com)
  • So, I went ahead and got the endoscopy and the duodenum biopsy done. (globaldialysis.com)
  • Duodenum specimens were obtained at biopsy by consent from patients who underwent gastrointestinal endoscopy in Kyoto University Hospital. (aspetjournals.org)
  • duodenum Endoscopic image of the duodenum. (britannica.com)
  • Subsequent studies, including endoscopic examination, revealed diaphragm-like strictures in the descending duodenum. (hindawi.com)
  • The first part of the duodenum lies within the peritoneum but its other parts are retroperitoneal. (wikipedia.org)
  • The duodenum is almost entirely retroperitoneal, with the exception of the very first part. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • It has a mesentery and is intraperitoneal, while the rest of the duodenum is retroperitoneal. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The objective of this study is to characterize the commensal microbiome present in the lumen and the mucosal surface of the duodenum of cattle, as we hypothesize that due to metabolic processes and or host proprieties, there are differences in the natural microbiota present in the mucosal surface and luminal contents of the bovine duodenum. (frontiersin.org)
  • METHODS: All mucosal biopsy specimens of the second part of the duodenum which were reported as showing features of peptic duodenitis and on which a serum EMA test had been done between January 1990 and January 1995 were reviewed. (bmj.com)
  • A biopsy involved cutting off a tiny little piece of the tissue in the duodenum and examining it under the microscope. (globaldialysis.com)
  • External to this muscular layer, the duodenum is covered by the outermost layer of connective tissue known as the adventitia. (fsu.edu)
  • The rat duodenum tissue section illustrated in the digital image above was labeled with wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) conjugated to Oregon Green 488. (microscopyu.com)
  • Acquired diverticula are commonly located near the ampulla of Vater in the duodenum. (scirp.org)
  • The duodenum receives arterial blood from two different sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coeliac artery is the brach from front of abdominal aorta beginning at t12, L1 spine level and its 3 branches -left gastric artery, common hepatic artery and spenic artery give the main arterial supply as branches to pancreas , duodenum and stomach -major part.Part of the duodenum , stomach and pancreas are also supplied by superior mesenteric artery , which is a separate branch of abdominal aorta. (healthtap.com)
  • The duodenum receives the chyme from the stomach, and has generally been believed to accomplish the second digestion, or the conversion of chyme into chyle . (wiktionary.org)
  • The colon is the most common site for gastrointestinal perforations, with the duodenum being the second most common. (scirp.org)
  • The second part of the duodenum also contains the minor duodenal papilla, the entrance for the accessory pancreatic duct. (wikipedia.org)
  • A gallstone which jams into the bile duct can ulcerate into the duodenum, causing a significant obstruction in your gastrointestinal system. (actforlibraries.org)
  • Vascular obstruction of the duodenum has been reported as a consequence of the application of a cast or the correction of a spinal curvature following severe bum or combat injuries and complicating treatment of a fractured femur with balanced traction. (journals.co.za)
  • CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis of peptic duodenitis on biopsy specimens of the second part of the duodenum was not substantiated in 92% of cases. (bmj.com)
  • Abdominal Surgery - Roux-en-Y Procedure to Correct Damaged Common Bile Duct. (indexedvisuals.com)
  • The duodenum wall is composed of a very thin layer of cells that form the muscularis mucosae. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Primary cancer of the duodenum is an infrequent disease. (britannica.com)
  • Pathology of the Stomach and Duodenum comprehensively surveys gastric and duodenal disease, including clinical findings, pathophysiology, and epidemiology, and emphasizing diagnostic gross and microscopic pathology. (indigo.ca)
  • Topics discussed include anomalies, gastritis, peptic ulceration, hyperplasias and benign epithelial tumors, carcinoma of the stomach and duodenum, carcinoid tumors, reactive and neoplastic lymphoid lesions, gastric smooth muscle and nerve sheath tumors, and miscellaneous lesions and rare conditions reflecting gastroduodenal participation in systemic disease. (indigo.ca)
  • Any ulceration through the duodenum, which is a form of peptic ulcer disease, can damage many of the organs around the duodenum. (actforlibraries.org)
  • Ulcer is the most common disease of the duodenum. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Inflammation of the duodenum is known as duodenitis, which has various causes, prominent among them infection by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori . (britannica.com)
  • The symptoms of duodenum inflammation may occur occasionally or continuously. (reference.com)
  • What causes "inflammation" of the duodenum? (healthtap.com)
  • The wall of the duodenum consists of three layers: the inner layer of mucous membrane, the middle layer of muscular membrane, and the external layer of serous membrane. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It begins with the duodenal bulb and ends at the suspensory muscle of duodenum. (wikipedia.org)
  • The duodenal bulb about 2 cm long, is the very first part of the duodenum and is slightly dilated. (wikipedia.org)
  • On anatomic and functional grounds, the duodenum can be divided into four segments: the superior (duodenal bulb), descending, horizontal, and ascending duodenum. (britannica.com)