A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Erythrocyte isoantigens of the Rh (Rhesus) blood group system, the most complex of all human blood groups. The major antigen Rh or D is the most common cause of erythroblastosis fetalis.
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
A protozoan parasite that causes vivax malaria (MALARIA, VIVAX). This species is found almost everywhere malaria is endemic and is the only one that has a range extending into the temperate regions.
Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM VIVAX. This form of malaria is less severe than MALARIA, FALCIPARUM, but there is a higher probability for relapses to occur. Febrile paroxysms often occur every other day.
A system of universal human blood group isoantigens with many associated subgroups. The M and N traits are codominant and the S and s traits are probably very closely linked alleles, including the U antigen. This system is most frequently used in paternity studies.
Multiple erythrocytic antigens that comprise at least three pairs of alternates and amorphs, determined by one complex gene or possibly several genes at closely linked loci. The system is important in transfusion reactions. Its expression involves the X-chromosome.
Testing erythrocytes to determine presence or absence of blood-group antigens, testing of serum to determine the presence or absence of antibodies to these antigens, and selecting biocompatible blood by crossmatching samples from the donor against samples from the recipient. Crossmatching is performed prior to transfusion.
A blood group related to the ABO, Lewis and I systems. At least five different erythrocyte antigens are possible, some very rare, others almost universal. Multiple alleles are involved in this blood group.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.
The major sialoglycoprotein of the human erythrocyte membrane. It consists of at least two sialoglycopeptides and is composed of 60% carbohydrate including sialic acid and 40% protein. It is involved in a number of different biological activities including the binding of MN blood groups, influenza viruses, kidney bean phytohemagglutinin, and wheat germ agglutinin.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
A condition characterized by the abnormal presence of ERYTHROBLASTS in the circulation of the FETUS or NEWBORNS. It is a disorder due to BLOOD GROUP INCOMPATIBILITY, such as the maternal alloimmunization by fetal antigen RH FACTORS leading to HEMOLYSIS of ERYTHROCYTES, hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC), general edema (HYDROPS FETALIS), and SEVERE JAUNDICE IN NEWBORN.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.

Up-regulation of Duffy antigen receptor expression in children with renal disease. (1/174)

BACKGROUND: The Duffy antigen chemokine receptor (DARC) is a promiscuous chemokine receptor that binds chemokines from the C-X-C and C-C families. DARC was initially described on red blood cells, but subsequent studies have demonstrated DARC protein expression on renal endothelial and epithelial cells, even in Duffy-negative individuals whose red cells lack DARC. Because approximately 68% of African Americans lack the Duffy/DARC on their red cells, we carried out experiments to identify the specific renal cells expressing DARC protein and mRNA in African American children and to define whether DARC expression was altered in renal inflammatory processes. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization studies were done in 28 renal sections from children with each of the following diagnoses: HIV nephropathy (HIVAN), HIV-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (HIV-HUS), HIV infection without renal disease, HIV-negative children without renal disease, and Argentinean children with classic HUS. RESULTS: The predominant localization of DARC mRNA and protein was found in endothelial cells underlying postcapillary renal venules in all patients studied. However, DARC mRNA and protein were significantly up-regulated in peritubular and glomerular capillaries, collecting duct epithelial cells, and interstitial inflammatory cells in children with HIVAN, HIV-HUS, and classic HUS. CONCLUSION: These findings support the notion that the renal DARC is linked to the inflammatory cascade and that African American children may be at risk of accumulating chemokines in renal tissues.  (+info)

The expression of human blood group antigens during erythropoiesis in a cell culture system. (2/174)

Phenotypic analysis of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells has been an invaluable tool in defining the biology of stem cell populations. We use here flow cytometry to examine the expression of human erythroid-specific surface markers during the maturation of early committed erythroid cells derived from cord blood in vitro. The temporal order of the expression of erythroid specific markers was as follows: Kell glycoprotein (gp), Rh gp, Landsteiner Wiener (LW) gp, glycophorin A (GPA), Band 3, Lutheran (Lu) gp, and Duffy (Fy) gp. The time at which some of these markers appeared suggests possible roles for some of these erythroid-specific polypeptides during the differentiation of these committed progenitors. The early appearance of Kell gp raises the possibility that it may have an important role in the early stages of hematopoiesis or cell lineage determination. Kell gp may also be a useful marker for the diagnosis of erythroleukemia. The late expression of Lu gp suggests it may be involved in the migration of erythroid precursors from the marrow. Fy gp is also expressed late consistent with a role as a scavenger receptor for cytokines in the bone marrow and circulation. Rh c antigen appeared before Rh D antigen, and it is suggested that this may reflect a reorganization of the developing erythroid cell membrane involving the Rh polypeptides and other components, including GPA and Band 3.  (+info)

Interaction between cytochalasin B-treated malarial parasites and erythrocytes. Attachment and junction formation. (3/174)

We have previously demonstrated that invasion of erythrocytes (RBCs) by malaria merozoites follows a sequence: recognition and attachment in an apical orientation associated with widespread deformation of the RBC, junction formation, movement of the junction around the merozoite that brings the merozoite into the invaginated RBC membrane, and sealing of the membrane. In the present paper, we describe a method for blocking invasion at an early stage in the sequence. Cytochalasin-treated merozoites attach specifically to host RBCs, most frequently by the apical region that contains specialized organelles (rhoptries) associated with invasion. The parasite then forms a junction between the apical region and the RBC. Cytochalasin blocks movement of this junction, a later step in invasion. Cytochalasin-treated (Plasmodium knowlesi) merozoites attach to Duffy-negative human RBCs, although these RBCs are resistant to invasion by the parasite. The attachment with these RBCs, however, differs from susceptible RBCs in that there is no junction formation. Therefore the Duffy associated antigen appears to be involved in junction formation, not initial attachment.  (+info)

Emergence of FY*A(null) in a Plasmodium vivax-endemic region of Papua New Guinea. (4/174)

In Papua New Guinea (PNG), numerous blood group polymorphisms and hemoglobinopathies characterize the human population. Human genetic polymorphisms of this nature are common in malarious regions, and all four human malaria parasites are holoendemic below 1500 meters in PNG. At this elevation, a prominent condition characterizing Melanesians is alpha(+)-thalassemia. Interestingly, recent epidemiological surveys have demonstrated that alpha(+)-thalassemia is associated with increased susceptibility to uncomplicated malaria among young children. It is further proposed that alpha(+)-thalassemia may facilitate so-called "benign" Plasmodium vivax infection to act later in life as a "natural vaccine" against severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Here, in a P. vivax-endemic region of PNG where the resident Abelam-speaking population is characterized by a frequency of alpha(+)-thalassemia >/=0.98, we have discovered the mutation responsible for erythrocyte Duffy antigen-negativity (Fy[a-b-]) on the FY*A allele. In this study population there were 23 heterozygous and no homozygous individuals bearing this new allele (allele frequency, 23/1062 = 0.022). Flow cytometric analysis illustrated a 2-fold difference in erythroid-specific Fy-antigen expression between heterozygous (FY*A/FY*A(null)) and homozygous (FY*A/FY*A) individuals, suggesting a gene-dosage effect. In further comparisons, we observed a higher prevalence of P. vivax infection in FY*A/FY*A (83/508 = 0.163) compared with FY*A/FY*A(null) (2/23 = 0.087) individuals (odds ratio = 2.05, 95% confidence interval = 0.47-8.91). Emergence of FY*A(null) in this population suggests that P. vivax is involved in selection of this erythroid polymorphism. This mutation would ultimately compromise alpha(+)-thalassemia/P. vivax-mediated protection against severe P. falciparum malaria.  (+info)

Mapping regions containing binding residues within functional domains of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi erythrocyte-binding proteins. (5/174)

Invasion of erythrocytes by malaria parasites is mediated by specific molecular interactions. Whereas Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi use the Duffy blood group antigen, Plasmodium falciparum uses sialic acid residues of glycophorin A as receptors to invade human erythrocytes. P. knowlesi uses the Duffy antigen as well as other receptors to invade rhesus erythrocytes by multiple pathways. Parasite ligands that bind these receptors belong to a family of erythrocyte-binding proteins (EBP). The EBP family includes the P. vivax and P. knowlesi Duffy-binding proteins, P. knowlesi beta and gamma proteins, which bind alternate receptors on rhesus erythrocytes, and P. falciparum erythrocyte-binding antigen (EBA-175), which binds sialic acid residues of human glycophorin A. Binding domains of each EBP lie in a conserved N-terminal cysteine-rich region, region II, which contains around 330 amino acids with 12 to 14 conserved cysteines. Regions containing binding residues have now been mapped within P. vivax and P. knowlesi beta region II. Chimeric domains containing P. vivax region II sequences fused to P. knowlesi beta region II sequences were expressed on the surface of COS cells and tested for binding to erythrocytes. Binding residues of P. vivax region II lie in a 170-aa stretch between cysteines 4 and 7, and binding residues of P. knowlesi beta region II lie in a 53-aa stretch between cysteines 4 and 5. Mapping regions responsible for receptor recognition is an important step toward understanding the structural basis for the interaction of these parasite ligands with host receptors.  (+info)

Heterogeneity of endothelial cells: the specialized phenotype of human high endothelial venules characterized by suppression subtractive hybridization. (6/174)

High endothelial venules (HEVs) are specialized postcapillary venules, found in lymphoid organs and chronically inflamed tissues, that support high levels of lymphocyte extravasation from the blood. Molecular characterization of HEV endothelial cells (HEVECs) has been hampered by difficulties in their purification and in vitro maintenance. To overcome these limitations, we developed a strategy combining the use of freshly purified HEVECs ( approximately 98% positive for the HEV-specific marker MECA-79) and the recently described polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based cDNA subtraction cloning procedure called suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). Subtracted probes prepared by SSH from small amounts of total RNA were used to screen a HEVEC cDNA library. This resulted in cloning of 22 cDNAs preferentially expressed in HEVECs, which encode the promiscuous chemokine receptor DARC, mitochondrial components, and matricellular proteins. The latter included hevin, thrombospondin-1, and mac25/IGFBP-rP1, which is a secreted growth factor-binding protein previously found to accumulate specifically in tumor blood vessels. Biochemical and histochemical analysis confirmed the identification of mac25 and DARC as novel markers of the HEVECs. Ultrastructural immunolocalization revealed a noticeable association of mac25 and MECA-79 antigens with microvillous processes near the endothelial cell junctions, suggesting a role for mac25 in the control of lymphocyte emigration. This study shows that PCR-based SSH is useful for cloning of differentially expressed genes in very small samples.  (+info)

Significant admixture linkage disequilibrium across 30 cM around the FY locus in African Americans. (7/174)

Scientists, to understand the importance of allelic polymorphisms on phenotypes that are quantitative and environmentally interacting, are now turning to population-association screens, especially in instances in which pedigree analysis is difficult. Because association screens require linkage disequilibrium between markers and disease loci, maximizing the degree of linkage disequilibrium increases the chances of discovering functional gene-marker associations. One theoretically valid approach-mapping by admixture linkage disequilibrium (MALD), using recently admixed African Americans-is empirically evaluated here by measurement of marker associations with 15 short tandem repeats (STRs) and an insertion/deletion polymorphism of the AT3 locus in a 70-cM segment at 1q22-23, around the FY (Duffy) locus. The FY polymorphism (-46T-->C) disrupts the GATA promoter motif, specifically blocking FY erythroid expression and has a nearly fixed allele-frequency difference between European Americans and native Africans that is likely a consequence of a selective advantage of FY-/- in malaria infections. Analysis of linkage disequilibrium around the FY gene has indicated that there is strong and consistent linkage disequilibrium between FY and three flanking loci (D1S303, SPTA1, and D1S484) spanning 8 cM. We observed significant linkage-disequilibrium signals over a 30-cM region from -4.4 to 16.3 cM (from D1S2777 to D1S196) for STRs and at 26.4 cM (AT3), which provided quantitative estimates of centimorgan limits, by MALD assessment in African American population-association analyses, of 5-10 cM.  (+info)

Deletion of the murine Duffy gene (Dfy) reveals that the Duffy receptor is functionally redundant. (8/174)

All of the antigenic determinants of the Duffy blood group system are in a glycoprotein (gp-Fy), which is encoded by a single-copy gene (FY) located on chromosome 1. gp-Fy is also produced in several cell types, including endothelial cells of capillary and postcapillary venules, the epithelial cell of kidney collecting ducts, lung alveoli, and the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. This protein, which spans the cell membrane seven times, is a member of the superfamily of chemokine receptors and a malarial parasite receptor. The mouse Duffy gene (Dfy) homolog of human FY is also a single-copy gene, which maps in a region of conserved synteny with FY and produces a glycoprotein with 60% homology to the human protein. The mouse Duffy-like protein also binds chemokines. To study the biological role of gp-Fy, we generated a mouse strain in which Dfy was deleted. These homozygous Dfy(-/-) mice were indistinguishable in size, development, and health from wild-type and heterozygous littermates. We also examined components of the immune system and found no differences in lymph nodes or peripheral blood leukocyte levels between knockout and wild-type mice. The gross and histological anatomy of the thymus, spleen, lung, and brain showed no significant differences between mutants and wild-type mice. There was no indication of an overall difference between the knockout and wild-type mice in systematic neurological examinations. The only significant difference between Dfy(-/-) and Dfy(+/+) mice that we found was in neutrophil migration in peritoneal inflammations induced by lipopolysaccharide and thioglycolate. In mice homozygous for the deletion, there was less neutrophil recruitment into the peritoneal cavity and neutrophil influx in the intestines and lungs than in wild-type mice. Despite this, the susceptibility to Staphylococcus aureus infection was the same in the absence and in the presence of gp-Fy. Our results indicate that gp-Fy is functionally a redundant protein that may participate in the neutrophil migratory process.  (+info)

The Duffy blood group system is a system of identifying blood types based on the presence or absence of certain antigens on the surface of red blood cells. The antigens in this system are proteins called Duffy antigens, which are receptors for the malarial parasite Plasmodium vivax.

There are two major Duffy antigens, Fya and Fyb, and individuals can be either positive or negative for each of these antigens. This means that there are four main Duffy blood types: Fy(a+b-), Fy(a-b+), Fy(a+b+), and Fy(a-b-).

The Duffy blood group system is important in blood transfusions to prevent a potentially dangerous immune response known as a transfusion reaction. If a person receives blood that contains antigens that their body recognizes as foreign, their immune system may attack the transfused red blood cells, leading to symptoms such as fever, chills, and in severe cases, kidney failure or even death.

Additionally, the Duffy blood group system has been found to be associated with susceptibility to certain diseases. For example, individuals who are negative for both Fya and Fyb antigens (Fy(a-b-)) are resistant to infection by Plasmodium vivax, one of the malarial parasites that causes malaria in humans. This is because the Duffy antigens serve as receptors for the parasite to enter and infect red blood cells.

Blood group antigens are molecular markers found on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs) and sometimes other types of cells in the body. These antigens are proteins, carbohydrates, or glycoproteins that can stimulate an immune response when foreign antigens are introduced into the body.

There are several different blood group systems, but the most well-known is the ABO system, which includes A, B, AB, and O blood groups. The antigens in this system are called ABO antigens. Individuals with type A blood have A antigens on their RBCs, those with type B blood have B antigens, those with type AB blood have both A and B antigens, and those with type O blood have neither A nor B antigens.

Another important blood group system is the Rh system, which includes the D antigen. Individuals who have this antigen are considered Rh-positive, while those who do not have it are considered Rh-negative.

Blood group antigens can cause complications during blood transfusions and pregnancy if there is a mismatch between the donor's or fetus's antigens and the recipient's antibodies. For example, if a person with type A blood receives type B blood, their anti-B antibodies will attack the foreign B antigens on the donated RBCs, causing a potentially life-threatening transfusion reaction. Similarly, if an Rh-negative woman becomes pregnant with an Rh-positive fetus, her immune system may produce anti-D antibodies that can cross the placenta and attack the fetal RBCs, leading to hemolytic disease of the newborn.

It is important for medical professionals to determine a patient's blood group before performing a transfusion or pregnancy-related procedures to avoid these complications.

The Rh-Hr blood group system is a complex system of antigens found on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs), which is separate from the more well-known ABO blood group system. The term "Rh" refers to the Rhesus monkey, as these antigens were first discovered in rhesus macaques.

The Rh system consists of several antigens, but the most important ones are the D antigen (also known as the Rh factor) and the hr/Hr antigens. The D antigen is the one that determines whether a person's blood is Rh-positive or Rh-negative. If the D antigen is present, the blood is Rh-positive; if it is absent, the blood is Rh-negative.

The hr/Hr antigens are less well known but can still cause problems in blood transfusions and pregnancy. The Hr antigen is relatively rare, found in only about 1% of the population, while the hr antigen is more common.

When a person with Rh-negative blood is exposed to Rh-positive blood (for example, through a transfusion or during pregnancy), their immune system may produce antibodies against the D antigen. This can cause problems if they later receive a transfusion with Rh-positive blood or if they become pregnant with an Rh-positive fetus.

The Rh-Hr blood group system is important in blood transfusions and obstetrics, as it can help ensure that patients receive compatible blood and prevent complications during pregnancy.

The ABO blood-group system is a classification system used in blood transfusion medicine to determine the compatibility of donated blood with a recipient's blood. It is based on the presence or absence of two antigens, A and B, on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs), as well as the corresponding antibodies present in the plasma.

There are four main blood types in the ABO system:

1. Type A: These individuals have A antigens on their RBCs and anti-B antibodies in their plasma.
2. Type B: They have B antigens on their RBCs and anti-A antibodies in their plasma.
3. Type AB: They have both A and B antigens on their RBCs but no natural antibodies against either A or B antigens.
4. Type O: They do not have any A or B antigens on their RBCs, but they have both anti-A and anti-B antibodies in their plasma.

Transfusing blood from a donor with incompatible ABO antigens can lead to an immune response, causing the destruction of donated RBCs and potentially life-threatening complications such as acute hemolytic transfusion reaction. Therefore, it is crucial to match the ABO blood type between donors and recipients before performing a blood transfusion.

"Plasmodium vivax" is a species of protozoan parasite that causes malaria in humans. It's one of the five malaria parasites that can infect humans, with P. falciparum being the most deadly.

P. vivax typically enters the human body through the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito. Once inside the human host, the parasite travels to the liver where it multiplies and matures. After a period of development that can range from weeks to several months, the mature parasites are released into the bloodstream, where they infect red blood cells and continue to multiply.

The symptoms of P. vivax malaria include fever, chills, headache, muscle and joint pain, and fatigue. One distinctive feature of P. vivax is its ability to form dormant stages (hypnozoites) in the liver, which can reactivate and cause relapses of the disease months or even years after the initial infection.

P. vivax malaria is treatable with medications such as chloroquine, but resistance to this drug has been reported in some parts of the world. Prevention measures include using insecticide-treated bed nets and indoor residual spraying to reduce mosquito populations, as well as taking prophylactic medications for travelers visiting areas where malaria is common.

Malaria, Vivax:

A type of malaria caused by the parasite Plasmodium vivax. It is transmitted to humans through the bites of infected Anopheles mosquitoes. Malaria, Vivax is characterized by recurring fevers, chills, and flu-like symptoms, which can occur every other day or every third day. This type of malaria can have mild to severe symptoms and can sometimes lead to complications such as anemia and splenomegaly (enlarged spleen). One distinguishing feature of Malaria, Vivax is its ability to form dormant stages in the liver (called hypnozoites), which can reactivate and cause relapses even after years of apparent cure. Effective treatment includes medication to kill both the blood and liver stages of the parasite. Preventive measures include using mosquito nets, insect repellents, and antimalarial drugs for prophylaxis in areas with high transmission rates.

The MNSs blood group system is one of the human blood group systems, which is a classification of blood types based on the presence or absence of specific antigens on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs). This system is named after the first two letters of the surnames of the discoverers, Landsteiner and Levine, and the "s" stands for "slight."

The MNSs system includes three main antigens: M, N, and S. The M and N antigens are found on nearly all individuals, except for those who are genetically predisposed to lack both M and N antigens (M+N- or M-N-). These individuals have the "null" phenotype, also known as the "Ms" phenotype.

The S antigen is present in about 80% of people, while the s antigen is found in approximately 20% of people. The presence or absence of these antigens determines an individual's MNSs blood type. There are eight main MNSs blood types: M, N, MN, MS, NS, M+m, N+s, and M+N+S+s+.

The clinical significance of the MNSs system is relatively low compared to other blood group systems like ABO and Rh. However, it can still play a role in transfusion medicine, as antibodies against MNSs antigens may cause hemolytic transfusion reactions or hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) in rare cases. Therefore, it is essential to consider the MNSs blood group when performing pretransfusion testing and during pregnancy to ensure compatible blood products and prevent complications.

The Kell blood-group system is one of the human blood group systems, which is a set of red blood cell antigens (proteins or carbohydrates) found on the surface of red blood cells. The Kell system consists of more than 30 antigens, but the two most important ones are K and k.

The Kell antigen is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, meaning that if an individual inherits one Kell antigen from either parent, they will express the Kell antigen on their red blood cells. The k antigen is a weaker form of the Kell antigen and is also inherited in an autosomal dominant manner.

Individuals who are Kell positive (K+) can produce antibodies against the Kell antigen if they are exposed to it through blood transfusion or pregnancy. These antibodies can cause hemolytic transfusion reactions or hemolytic disease of the newborn in subsequent pregnancies with a Kell-negative (K-) fetus.

Therefore, it is important to determine the Kell status of both donors and recipients in blood transfusions and pregnant women to prevent complications.

Blood grouping, also known as blood typing, is the process of determining a person's ABO and Rh (Rhesus) blood type. The ABO blood group system includes four main blood types: A, B, AB, and O, based on the presence or absence of antigens A and B on the surface of red blood cells. The Rh blood group system is another important classification system that determines whether the Rh factor (a protein also found on the surface of red blood cells) is present or absent.

Knowing a person's blood type is crucial in transfusion medicine to ensure compatibility between donor and recipient blood. If a patient receives an incompatible blood type, it can trigger an immune response leading to serious complications such as hemolysis (destruction of red blood cells), kidney failure, or even death.

Crossmatching is a laboratory test performed before a blood transfusion to determine the compatibility between the donor's and recipient's blood. It involves mixing a small sample of the donor's red blood cells with the recipient's serum (the liquid portion of the blood containing antibodies) and observing for any agglutination (clumping) or hemolysis. If there is no reaction, the blood is considered compatible, and the transfusion can proceed.

In summary, blood grouping and crossmatching are essential tests in transfusion medicine to ensure compatibility between donor and recipient blood and prevent adverse reactions that could harm the patient's health.

The P blood group system is one of the rarest blood group systems in humans, with only a few antigens discovered so far. The main antigens in this system are P1 and P, which can be either present or absent on red blood cells (RBCs). The presence or absence of these antigens determines an individual's P blood group type.

The P1 antigen is a carbohydrate structure found on the surface of RBCs in individuals with the P1 phenotype, while those with the p phenotype lack this antigen. The P antigen is a protein found on the surface of RBCs in both P1 and p individuals.

Individuals with the P1 phenotype can develop antibodies against the P antigen if they are exposed to RBCs that lack the P1 antigen, such as those from a person with the p phenotype. Similarly, individuals with the p phenotype can develop antibodies against the P1 antigen if they are exposed to RBCs that have the P1 antigen.

Transfusion reactions can occur if an individual receives blood from a donor with a different P blood group type, leading to the destruction of RBCs and potentially life-threatening complications. Therefore, it is essential to determine an individual's P blood group type before transfusing blood or performing other medical procedures that involve RBCs.

Overall, the P blood group system is a complex and relatively rare system that requires careful consideration in medical settings to ensure safe and effective treatment.

Erythrocytes, also known as red blood cells (RBCs), are the most common type of blood cell in circulating blood in mammals. They are responsible for transporting oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs.

Erythrocytes are formed in the bone marrow and have a biconcave shape, which allows them to fold and bend easily as they pass through narrow blood vessels. They do not have a nucleus or mitochondria, which makes them more flexible but also limits their ability to reproduce or repair themselves.

In humans, erythrocytes are typically disc-shaped and measure about 7 micrometers in diameter. They contain the protein hemoglobin, which binds to oxygen and gives blood its red color. The lifespan of an erythrocyte is approximately 120 days, after which it is broken down in the liver and spleen.

Abnormalities in erythrocyte count or function can lead to various medical conditions, such as anemia, polycythemia, and sickle cell disease.

The Lewis blood-group system is one of the human blood group systems, which is based on the presence or absence of two antigens: Lea and Leb. These antigens are carbohydrate structures that can be found on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs) as well as other cells and in various body fluids.

The Lewis system is unique because its antigens are not normally present at birth, but instead develop during early childhood or later in life due to the action of certain enzymes in the digestive tract. The production of Lea and Leb antigens depends on the activity of two genes, FUT3 (also known as Lewis gene) and FUT2 (also known as Secretor gene).

There are four main phenotypes or blood types in the Lewis system:

1. Le(a+b-): This is the most common phenotype, where individuals have both Lea and Leb antigens on their RBCs.
2. Le(a-b+): In this phenotype, individuals lack the Lea antigen but have the Leb antigen on their RBCs.
3. Le(a-b-): This is a rare phenotype where neither Lea nor Leb antigens are present on the RBCs.
4. Le(a+b+): In this phenotype, individuals have both Lea and Leb antigens on their RBCs due to the simultaneous expression of FUT3 and FUT2 genes.

The Lewis blood-group system is not typically associated with transfusion reactions or hemolytic diseases, unlike other blood group systems such as ABO and Rh. However, the presence or absence of Lewis antigens can still have implications for certain medical conditions and tests, including:

* Infectious diseases: Some bacteria and viruses can use the Lewis antigens as receptors to attach to and infect host cells. For example, Helicobacter pylori, which causes gastritis and peptic ulcers, binds to Lea antigens in the stomach.
* Autoimmune disorders: In some cases, autoantibodies against Lewis antigens have been found in patients with autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
* Pregnancy: The Lewis antigens can be expressed on the surface of placental cells, and changes in their expression have been linked to pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction.
* Blood typing: Although not a primary factor in blood transfusion compatibility, the Lewis blood-group system is still considered when determining the best match for patients who require frequent transfusions or organ transplants.

Glycophorin is a type of protein found on the surface of red blood cells, also known as erythrocytes. These proteins are heavily glycosylated, meaning they have many carbohydrate chains attached to them. Glycophorins play a crucial role in maintaining the structure and flexibility of the red blood cell membrane, and they also help to mediate interactions between the red blood cells and other cells or molecules in the body.

There are several different types of glycophorin proteins, including glycophorin A, B, C, and D. Glycophorin A is the most abundant type and is often used as a marker for identifying the ABO blood group. Mutations in the genes that encode glycophorin proteins can lead to various blood disorders, such as hereditary spherocytosis and hemolytic anemia.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Protozoan Proteins" is not a specific medical or scientific term. Protozoa are single-celled eukaryotic organisms, and proteins are large biological molecules consisting of one or more chains of amino acid residues. Therefore, "Protozoan Proteins" generally refers to the various types of proteins found in protozoa.

However, if you're looking for information about proteins specific to certain protozoan parasites with medical relevance (such as Plasmodium falciparum, which causes malaria), I would be happy to help! Please provide more context or specify the particular protozoan of interest.

Cell surface receptors, also known as membrane receptors, are proteins located on the cell membrane that bind to specific molecules outside the cell, known as ligands. These receptors play a crucial role in signal transduction, which is the process of converting an extracellular signal into an intracellular response.

Cell surface receptors can be classified into several categories based on their structure and mechanism of action, including:

1. Ion channel receptors: These receptors contain a pore that opens to allow ions to flow across the cell membrane when they bind to their ligands. This ion flux can directly activate or inhibit various cellular processes.
2. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs): These receptors consist of seven transmembrane domains and are associated with heterotrimeric G proteins that modulate intracellular signaling pathways upon ligand binding.
3. Enzyme-linked receptors: These receptors possess an intrinsic enzymatic activity or are linked to an enzyme, which becomes activated when the receptor binds to its ligand. This activation can lead to the initiation of various signaling cascades within the cell.
4. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs): These receptors contain intracellular tyrosine kinase domains that become activated upon ligand binding, leading to the phosphorylation and activation of downstream signaling molecules.
5. Integrins: These receptors are transmembrane proteins that mediate cell-cell or cell-matrix interactions by binding to extracellular matrix proteins or counter-receptors on adjacent cells. They play essential roles in cell adhesion, migration, and survival.

Cell surface receptors are involved in various physiological processes, including neurotransmission, hormone signaling, immune response, and cell growth and differentiation. Dysregulation of these receptors can contribute to the development of numerous diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Antigens are substances (usually proteins) found on the surface of cells, or viruses, that can be recognized by the immune system and stimulate an immune response. In the context of protozoa, antigens refer to the specific proteins or other molecules found on the surface of these single-celled organisms that can trigger an immune response in a host organism.

Protozoa are a group of microscopic eukaryotic organisms that include a diverse range of species, some of which can cause diseases in humans and animals. When a protozoan infects a host, the host's immune system recognizes the protozoan antigens as foreign and mounts an immune response to eliminate the infection. This response involves the activation of various types of immune cells, such as T-cells and B-cells, which recognize and target the protozoan antigens.

Understanding the nature of protozoan antigens is important for developing vaccines and other immunotherapies to prevent or treat protozoan infections. For example, researchers have identified specific antigens on the surface of the malaria parasite that are recognized by the human immune system and have used this information to develop vaccine candidates. However, many protozoan infections remain difficult to prevent or treat, and further research is needed to identify new targets for vaccines and therapies.

Erythroblastosis, fetal is a medical condition that occurs in the fetus or newborn when there is an incompatibility between the fetal and maternal blood types, specifically related to the Rh factor or ABO blood group system. This incompatibility leads to the destruction of the fetal red blood cells by the mother's immune system, resulting in the release of bilirubin, which can cause jaundice, anemia, and other complications.

In cases where the mother is Rh negative and the fetus is Rh positive, the mother may develop antibodies against the Rh factor during pregnancy or after delivery, leading to hemolysis (breakdown) of the fetal red blood cells in subsequent pregnancies if preventive measures are not taken. This is known as hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN).

Similarly, incompatibility between the ABO blood groups can also lead to HDN, although it is generally less severe than Rh incompatibility. In this case, the mother's immune system produces antibodies against the fetal red blood cells, leading to their destruction and subsequent complications.

Fetal erythroblastosis is a serious condition that can lead to significant morbidity and mortality if left untreated. Treatment options include intrauterine transfusions, phototherapy, and exchange transfusions in severe cases. Preventive measures such as Rh immune globulin (RhIG) injections can help prevent the development of antibodies in Rh-negative mothers, reducing the risk of HDN in subsequent pregnancies.

Isoantibodies are antibodies produced by the immune system that recognize and react to antigens (markers) found on the cells or tissues of another individual of the same species. These antigens are typically proteins or carbohydrates present on the surface of red blood cells, but they can also be found on other cell types.

Isoantibodies are formed when an individual is exposed to foreign antigens, usually through blood transfusions, pregnancy, or tissue transplantation. The exposure triggers the immune system to produce specific antibodies against these antigens, which can cause a harmful immune response if the individual receives another transfusion or transplant from the same donor in the future.

There are two main types of isoantibodies:

1. Agglutinins: These are IgM antibodies that cause red blood cells to clump together (agglutinate) when mixed with the corresponding antigen. They develop rapidly after exposure and can cause immediate transfusion reactions or hemolytic disease of the newborn in pregnant women.
2. Hemolysins: These are IgG antibodies that destroy red blood cells by causing their membranes to become more permeable, leading to lysis (bursting) of the cells and release of hemoglobin into the plasma. They take longer to develop but can cause delayed transfusion reactions or hemolytic disease of the newborn in pregnant women.

Isoantibodies are detected through blood tests, such as the crossmatch test, which determines compatibility between a donor's and recipient's blood before transfusions or transplants.

An erythrocyte, also known as a red blood cell, is a type of cell that circulates in the blood and is responsible for transporting oxygen throughout the body. The erythrocyte membrane refers to the thin, flexible barrier that surrounds the erythrocyte and helps to maintain its shape and stability.

The erythrocyte membrane is composed of a lipid bilayer, which contains various proteins and carbohydrates. These components help to regulate the movement of molecules into and out of the erythrocyte, as well as provide structural support and protection for the cell.

The main lipids found in the erythrocyte membrane are phospholipids and cholesterol, which are arranged in a bilayer structure with the hydrophilic (water-loving) heads facing outward and the hydrophobic (water-fearing) tails facing inward. This arrangement helps to maintain the integrity of the membrane and prevent the leakage of cellular components.

The proteins found in the erythrocyte membrane include integral proteins, which span the entire width of the membrane, and peripheral proteins, which are attached to the inner or outer surface of the membrane. These proteins play a variety of roles, such as transporting molecules across the membrane, maintaining the shape of the erythrocyte, and interacting with other cells and proteins in the body.

The carbohydrates found in the erythrocyte membrane are attached to the outer surface of the membrane and help to identify the cell as part of the body's own immune system. They also play a role in cell-cell recognition and adhesion.

Overall, the erythrocyte membrane is a complex and dynamic structure that plays a critical role in maintaining the function and integrity of red blood cells.

The Forssman antigen is a type of heterophile antigen, which is a substance that can stimulate an immune response in animals of different species. It was first discovered by the Swedish bacteriologist, John Forssman, in 1911. The Forssman antigen is found in a variety of tissues and organs, including the kidney, liver, and brain, in many different animal species, including humans.

The Forssman antigen is unique because it can induce the production of antibodies that cross-react with tissues from other species. This means that an immune response to the Forssman antigen in one species can also recognize and react with similar antigens in another species, leading to the possibility of cross-species immune reactions.

The Forssman antigen is a complex glycosphingolipid molecule that is found on the surface of cells. It is not clear what role, if any, the Forssman antigen plays in normal physiological processes. However, its presence has been implicated in various disease processes, including autoimmune disorders and transplant rejection.

In summary, the Forssman antigen is a heterophile antigen found in a variety of tissues and organs in many different animal species, including humans. It can induce cross-reacting antibodies and has been implicated in various disease processes.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

An allele is a variant form of a gene that is located at a specific position on a specific chromosome. Alleles are alternative forms of the same gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same locus or position on homologous chromosomes.

Each person typically inherits two copies of each gene, one from each parent. If the two alleles are identical, a person is said to be homozygous for that trait. If the alleles are different, the person is heterozygous.

For example, the ABO blood group system has three alleles, A, B, and O, which determine a person's blood type. If a person inherits two A alleles, they will have type A blood; if they inherit one A and one B allele, they will have type AB blood; if they inherit two B alleles, they will have type B blood; and if they inherit two O alleles, they will have type O blood.

Alleles can also influence traits such as eye color, hair color, height, and other physical characteristics. Some alleles are dominant, meaning that only one copy of the allele is needed to express the trait, while others are recessive, meaning that two copies of the allele are needed to express the trait.

Genetic polymorphism refers to the occurrence of multiple forms (called alleles) of a particular gene within a population. These variations in the DNA sequence do not generally affect the function or survival of the organism, but they can contribute to differences in traits among individuals. Genetic polymorphisms can be caused by single nucleotide changes (SNPs), insertions or deletions of DNA segments, or other types of genetic rearrangements. They are important for understanding genetic diversity and evolution, as well as for identifying genetic factors that may contribute to disease susceptibility in humans.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Duffy blood group Fya/Fyb alloantigen system is associated with a polymorphism at the 44-amino acid residue". Blood. 85 (3): ... "Phenotype frequencies of blood group systems (Rh, Kell, Kidd, Duffy, MNS, P, Lewis, and Lutheran) in north Indian blood donors ... Polymorphisms in this gene are the basis of the Duffy blood group system. It was noted in the 1920s that black Africans had ... Yan L, Zhu F, Fu Q, He J (2020). "ABO, Rh, MNS, Duffy, Kidd, Yt, Scianna, and Colton blood group systems in indigenous Chinese ...
Chown, Bruce; Lewis, Marion Lewis; Kaita, Hiroko (1965). "The Duffy blood group system in Caucasians: evidence for a new allele ... While Chown retired in 1977, Lewis continued on in the field of blood group gene mapping and eventually branched out into the ... known for her work on the Rh factor and on the Duffy antigen system. Lewis graduated from Winnipeg's Gordon Bell High School in ... She then spent another three months studying in London under world-renowned 'blood groupers' Robert Race and Ruth Sanger. In ...
Polymorphisms in this gene are the basis of the Duffy blood group system. In humans, a mutant variant at a single site in the ... All the common blood types, such as the ABO blood group system, are genetic polymorphisms. Here we see a system where there are ... Which Encodes the Major Subunit of the Duffy Blood Group System and the Receptor for the Plasmodium vivax Malaria Parasite". ... The Duffy antigen is a protein located on the surface of red blood cells, encoded by the FY (DARC) gene. The protein encoded by ...
... abo blood-group system MeSH D23.050.301.290.301 - duffy blood-group system MeSH D23.050.301.290.501 - i blood-group system MeSH ... abo blood-group system MeSH D23.050.705.230.301 - duffy blood-group system MeSH D23.050.705.230.501 - i blood-group system MeSH ... mnss blood-group system MeSH D23.050.301.290.691 - p blood-group system MeSH D23.050.301.290.775 - rh-hr blood-group system ... mnss blood-group system MeSH D23.050.705.230.691 - p blood-group system MeSH D23.050.705.230.775 - rh-hr blood-group system ...
Duffy, Kidd, and MNS blood group systems. Antibodies to blood group system antigens and their characteristics must be ... As of 2023, there are 44 blood group systems, each containing several red blood cell antigens totaling 354, determined by ... Examples of blood group systems that contain antigens capable of inducing clinically significant alloantibodies (antibodies ... "Glossary: Elution - Blood Bank Guy Glossary". Blood Bank Guy. Retrieved 2023-04-17. "Glossary: IgM". Blood Bank Guy. Retrieved ...
Lewis system), and so on, being positive or negative for each blood group system antigen. Many of the blood group systems were ... Rare blood types can cause supply problems for blood banks and hospitals. For example, Duffy-negative blood occurs much more ... Based on this he classified human bloods into three groups, namely group A, group B, and group C. He defined that group A blood ... The Rh system (Rh meaning Rhesus) is the second most significant blood-group system in human-blood transfusion with currently ...
Duffy a, and Duffy b, and enhances some other antigens including antigens from the Rh, Kidd, Lewis, I, and P1 systems. It is ... It is one of the most commonly used substances for differentiating many blood group antigens: For example, it destroys M, N, S ... Cysteine endopeptidases are a group of enzymes that also include the more distantly related papain derived from papaya latex, ...
585 but many other blood group systems exist and may be clinically relevant in some situations. As of 2021, 43 blood groups are ... Duffy (Fya and Fyb), Lutheran, MNS Unaffected: Kell People who have tested positive for an unexpected blood group antibody in ... group A, group B, and group C. Group C, which consisted of red blood cells that did not react with any person's plasma, would ... individuals are screened for the presence of antibodies against antigens of non-ABO blood group systems. Blood group antigens ...
"Survey of the Blood Groups and PTC Taste Among the Rajbanshi Caste of West Bengal (ABO, MNS, Rh, Duffy and Diego)". Acta ... Gogoi, Jahnavi (2002). Agrarian System of Medieval Assam. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company. Hazarika, S. (2009), Basu, S ( ... Hindu ethnic groups, Scheduled Tribes of Assam, Ethnic groups in Northeast India, Ethnic groups in South Asia, Ethnic groups in ... "Related ethnic groups" needing confirmation, Articles using infobox ethnic group with image parameters, Rajbongshi people, ...
Before the discovery of DNA, scientists used blood proteins (the human blood group systems) to study human genetic variation. ... The Duffy negative phenotype is highly frequent in central Africa and the frequency decreases with distance away from Central ... It was later discovered that the ABO blood group system is not just common to humans, but shared with other primates, and ... It was expected that groups with similar proportions of blood groups would be more closely related, but instead it was often ...
... defines Rh Blood Group and the associated unusual blood group phenotype Rhnull; Duffy protein - has been proposed to be ... to the body tissues-via blood flow through the circulatory system. RBCs take up oxygen in the lungs, or in fish the gills, and ... The color of red blood cells is due to the heme group of hemoglobin. The blood plasma alone is straw-colored, but the red blood ... Defines the Diego Blood Group; Aquaporin 1 - water transporter, defines the Colton Blood Group; Glut1 - glucose and L- ...
Some hemolytic reactions are the product of incompatibility between different blood types of the ABO blood group system. ... Other common blood groups with this reaction are Duffy, Rhesus and Kell. Immune-mediated hemolytic reactions may be classified ... those with type O blood are likely to have antibodies to type A and type B blood. Those with type A blood are likely to have ... Daniels, Geoff (2013-02-20). Human Blood Groups (1 ed.). Wiley. doi:10.1002/9781118493595. ISBN 978-1-4443-3324-4. Vassiliki ...
AHTR typically occurs when there is an ABO blood group incompatibility, and is most severe when type A donor blood is given to ... The antibodies also activate the coagulation cascade (blood clotting system) via factor XII, which can lead to disseminated ... Rh, Kell, and Duffy antigen incompatibility have also been implicated in AHTR. Acute hemolytic transfusion reactions result ... when antibodies against A and B blood groups (isohemagglutinins) present in the recipient's blood destroy the donor red blood ...
His well-known published articles include: Probable Assignment of the Duffy Blood Group Locus to Chromosome 1 in Man (1968) The ... OMIM is distributed through the National Library of Medicine, and has been a part of the Entrez database network system since ... McKusick, Victor (September 5, 1988). "Probable Assignment of the Duffy Blood Group Locus to Chromosome 1 in Man". Proc. Natl. ... Gale Group, 2001. Reproduced in Biography Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Thomson Gale. 2005. McKusick, V. A. " ...
Blood samples of 116 Jarawas were collected and tested for Duffy blood group and malarial parasite infectivity. Results showed ... The native Andamanese religion and belief system is a form of animism. Ancestor worship is an important element in the ... Das MK, Singh SS, Adak T, Vasantha K, Mohanty D (June 2005). "The Duffy blood groups of Jarawas - the primitive and vanishing ... One group of population migrated to Siberia, others to Japan and Tibet, and another group migrated to the Andaman islands. ...
... secretor with a certain PGM factor of his blood". Unlike DNA, many people share the same blood grouping, so this evidence could ... Home Office Large Major Enquiry System). Duffy, a martial arts exponent and former railway carpenter, was identified by ... DNA technology was not then available, but some suspects could be eliminated by blood grouping: one attacker, believed to be ... In March 1999 Duffy appeared at the Old Bailey and pleaded guilty to seventeen offences. Following Duffy's claims, Mulcahy-a ...
Sinn Féin defended the action saying the inclusion of groups such as Saoradh would bring those groups into the democratic ... Sharon Rafferty Dee Fennell David Jordan Mandy Duffy, a sister-in-law of Colin Duffy. A third of the executive was female, ... "Protest: Friends of Lyra McKee tell members of Junior McDaid House 'there is blood on your hands'". 22 April 2019. Retrieved 22 ... "Why lax bail conditions are letting thugs like Damien Fennell laugh at legal system". Belfasttelegraph. BelfastTelegraph.co.uk ...
Nature Publishing Group 2006. Retrieved 26 November 2018. Vm = 8.3145 × 273.15 / 101.325 = 22.414 dm3/mol 0.469 mol/kg at an ... Molarity Osmolarity Metric system Scientific notation 1/L ÷ NA ≈ 1.66 yM DeLeon-Rodriguez, Natasha; Lathem, Terry L.; Rodriguez ... Reference ranges for blood tests "Erythrocyte Count (RBC): Reference Range, Interpretation, Collection and Panels". Medscape. 7 ... Duffy, J. Emmett; Griffin, John N. (March 2015). "Marine biodiversity and ecosystem functioning: what's known and what's next ...
Monorail systems are elevated, medium-capacity systems. A people mover is a driverless, grade-separated train that serves only ... Duffy (2003), p. 137. Duffy (2003), p. 273. "Motive power for British Railways" (PDF), The Engineer, vol. 202, p. 254, 24 April ... The Hamlyn Publishing Group. pp. 20-22. Ellis, Hamilton (1968). The Pictorial Encyclopedia of Railways. Hamlyn Publishing Group ... Blood, iron, and gold: How the railroads transformed the world (Public Affairs, 2011). Wikiquote has quotations related to Rail ...
A group of 10 to 14 hardline owners, led by Jordan, wanted to cap the players' share of BRI at 50% and as low as 47. During the ... But owners were unwilling to concede, saying that there must be a system in place that allows all teams to compete. Five of the ... The union wanted to keep the current structure intact, referring to it as a "blood issue". Players were willing to cut salary ... sports agents-Arn Tellem, Bill Duffy, Mark Bartelstein, Jeff Schwartz, and Dan Fegan-who represent one-third of NBA players ...
Wood, Group Strategic Development Director, BAE Systems. For services to the Defence Industry. Professor Christopher Maxwell ... Ms Bernadette Duffy, Head of Centre, Thomas Coram Early Excellence Centre, Camden, London. For services to Early Years ... Angus William Macmillan Douglas, National Director, Scottish National Blood Transfusion Service. For services to the NHS. Mark ... George Anderson, Chair, Children's Panel Chairman's Group. For services to the Children's Hearings System in Scotland. John ...
Larvae, nymphs, and adults all feed exclusively on tuatara blood, and ticks can survive for up to a year without a host. When ... It is found on just four of the twelve island groups where tuatara survive, preferring islands where the reptiles live in high ... Townsend, Andrew J.; de Lange, Peter J.; Duffy, Clinton A.J.; Miskelly, Colin M.; Molloy, Janice; Norton, David A. "New Zealand ... Threat Classification System manual" (PDF). Department of Conservation. Retrieved 4 July 2018. Wikimedia Commons has media ...
... such as mutations within the Duffy blood group. Yet research looking at 109 genetic markers across 16 populations by Guido ... Due to the overwhelming surge in COVID-19 cases, hospital systems needed to enact triage protocols, or a system of guidelines ... Many advocacy groups raised complaints about these triage protocols to the Department of Health and Human Services Office of ... Genetics Working Group) (November 2009). Tuchman RJ (ed.). Genetics in the Workplace: Implications for Occupational Safety and ...
... the Prussian System and the Austrian System were together known as the German System. The Crimean War (October 1853 to February ... 51-52 Ostwald, p. 12 Duffy, p. 41 Royal Military Academy p. 143 Hogg p. 73 Wade, p. 110 Duffy p. 160 Wade, p. 110 Lloyd & Marsh ... McLean VA: Coast Defense Study Group (CDSG) Press. ISBN 978-0-9748167-2-2. Ward, Bernard Rowland (Major R. E.) (1901). Notes on ... 116-117 Zaloga, p. 70 Boyd, Douglas (2017). The Other First World War: The Blood-Soaked Russian Fronts 1914-1922. Stroud, ...
The 1954 film Duffy of San Quentin tells the story of Clinton Duffy, who was warden of San Quentin between 1940 and 1952. In ... "Blood In, Blood Out: The Violent Empire of the Aryan Brotherhood" Archived 2011-09-27 at the Wayback Machine, by John Lee Brook ... VVGSQ - Vietnam Veterans Group San Quentin - Although the group had been meeting for some time, the name officially began on ... Hans Reiser: developer of the ReiserFS file system and convicted for the murder of his wife, sentenced to 15 years to life in ...
April 2008). "Runx1 is involved in primitive erythropoiesis in the mouse". Blood. 111 (8): 4075-4080. doi:10.1182/blood-2007-05 ... Nature Publishing Group. 490 (7418): 61-70. Bibcode:2012Natur.490...61T. doi:10.1038/nature11412. PMC 3465532. PMID 23000897. ... Kania, MA, Bonner, AS, Duffy, JB, Gergen, JP (October 1990). "The Drosophila segmentation gene runt encodes a novel nuclear ... therefore the gene activity of RUNX1 is highly active in the haematopoietic system. The protein RUNX1 is composed of 453 amino ...
... a total of 190 subjects were randomized across 24 hospital sites into two groups. One group received an endobronchial valve. ... Gordon, Matthew; Duffy, Sean; Criner, Gerard J. (August 2018). "Lung volume reduction surgery or bronchoscopic lung volume ... Health, Center for Devices and Radiological (2019-12-20). "Spiration Valve® System - P180007". FDA. Criner, G.j.; Delage, A.; ... "National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT) , National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)". www.nhlbi.nih.gov. Retrieved ...
In 1520 another group of Spanish arrived in Mexico from Hispaniola, bringing with them the smallpox which had already been ... Duffy, John (1951). "Smallpox and the Indians in the American Colonies". Bulletin of the History of Medicine. 25 (4): 324-341. ... King, J. C. H. (2016). Blood and Land: The Story of Native North America. Penguin UK. p. 73. ISBN 978-1-84614-808-8. Fenn EA ( ... The spread was probably aided by the efficient Inca road system. Within months, the disease had killed the Incan Emperor Huayna ...
It is also associated with the development of blood cancer (Burkitt's lymphoma) and is classified as a Group 2A (probable) ... Perlmann, P; Troye-Blomberg, M (2000). "Malaria blood-stage infection and its control by the immune system". Folia Biologica. ... and the absence of Duffy antigens on red blood cells. E. A. Beet, a doctor working in Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) had ... Blood. 100 (4): 1172-6. doi:10.1182/blood.V100.4.1172.h81602001172_1172_1176. PMID 12149194. Verra, Federica; Simpore, Jacques ...
Duffy, F. (1997). The new office. London Conran Octopus Gillen, N. M. (2006). "The Future Workplace, Opportunities, Realities ... Office landscape was quickly supplanted by office-furniture companies which developed cubicles based on panel-hung or systems ... Some companies experimented with designs that provided a mix of cubicles, open workstations, private offices, and group ... high blood pressure and a high staff turnover. The noise level in open-plan offices greatly reduces productivity. Productivity ...
Duffy blood group Fya/Fyb alloantigen system is associated with a polymorphism at the 44-amino acid residue". Blood. 85 (3): ... "Phenotype frequencies of blood group systems (Rh, Kell, Kidd, Duffy, MNS, P, Lewis, and Lutheran) in north Indian blood donors ... Polymorphisms in this gene are the basis of the Duffy blood group system. It was noted in the 1920s that black Africans had ... Yan L, Zhu F, Fu Q, He J (2020). "ABO, Rh, MNS, Duffy, Kidd, Yt, Scianna, and Colton blood group systems in indigenous Chinese ...
There are over 600 antigens, which are separated into 30 blood group systems. ... Red blood cells (RBCs) carry numerous protein and carbohydrate antigens on their surface. ... especially alloantibodies in the serum to antigens of the non-ABO blood group system: Duffy, Kell, Kidd, MNS, P, and certain Rh ... There are over 600 antigens, which are separated into 30 blood group systems. The presence or absence of these antigens in an ...
There are over 600 antigens, which are separated into 30 blood group systems. ... Red blood cells (RBCs) carry numerous protein and carbohydrate antigens on their surface. ... especially alloantibodies in the serum to antigens of the non-ABO blood group system: Duffy, Kell, Kidd, MNS, P, and certain Rh ... There are over 600 antigens, which are separated into 30 blood group systems. The presence or absence of these antigens in an ...
Further investigations are required to determine the underlying mechanism of Duffy blood group phenotype on breast cancer risk. ... A study in our lab demonstrated that Duffy antigen/receptor for chemokines (DARC, also known as DBGP, the Duffy protein ... The phenotypes were classified into four groups according to the agglutination reactions: FYa + FYb+, FYa + FYb-, FYa-FYb + and ... group (25.1%), FYa + FYb- (36.9%), FYa-FYb + (41.0%) and FYa-FYb- (50.0%, (P = 0.005). There was a statistical significance (p ...
Blood Groups - an Overview, from the edited h2g2, the Unconventional Guide to Life, the Universe and Everything ... These are classified into over 20 blood group systems, with names like Duffy, Kell and MNS. These types are less important in ... People with blood group A have A-antigens, and people with blood group B have B-antigens. Unsurprisingly, people with blood ... OO - Blood group O. As can be seen, having only one A or B gene is enough to produce the antigens creating the blood group, ...
Duffy Blood-Group System. A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the ... HIVDuffy Blood-Group SystemChemotactic Factors, EosinophilHeterocyclic CompoundsInflammation MediatorsInterferon-gamma ... HIVCarbon Tetrachloride PoisoningDuffy Blood-Group SystemChemotactic Factors, EosinophilNeutrophil InfiltrationNeutrophils ... 1. Increased blood flow: Blood vessels in the affected area dilate, allowing more blood to flow into the tissue and bringing ...
Duffy Blood-Group System 10% * Hyperostosis Frontalis Interna 10% * Communication 10% * Kell Blood-Group System 10% ...
Duffy Blood-Group System Medicine & Life Sciences 56% * MNSs Blood-Group System Medicine & Life Sciences 56% ...
Blood group antibody detection Blood; Plasma; Serum Duffy system; Kell system; M and N factors; Other blood group systems; Rh ... Blood grouping Blood; Plasma; Serum ABO; RhD Immunohaematology - Identification and quantitation of blood group antibodies ... Haematology - Full blood examination Blood Differential number; Erythrocyte count (red blood cell count, RBCC); Haematocrit ( ... Blood; Cord blood; Plasma; Platelet concentrates; Red cell concentrates Bacteria; Pathogenic microorganisms ...
Background and Aim: The Duffy (FY) blood group system has six known antigens among which the Fya and Fyb are known as major ... Methods: The Duffy blood group system was serologically and molecularly investigated in 222 samples collected from donors of ... Results: In this study, the frequency of Duffy blood group phenotypes including Fya+, Fya+b+, and Fyb+ were 17.57%, 42.79%, and ... Group H received hirudoid cream, 3 times per day for 5 days from postoperative-day (POD). Group D received 10 mg of ...
Blood Groups ABO and Rh System is one of the most critical blood groups systems for blood transfusion and tissue ... Duffy system. Occasional. Present but occasional. Present and occasional. Kidd system. Occasional. Present but occasional. ... Blood Groups ABO and Rh System. Sample for Blood Groups ABO and Rh System. *This can be done on whole blood or even on clotted ... Blood banking:- part 1- Blood Groups ABO and Rh System, Blood Grouping Procedures. July 20, 2023Blood bankingLab Tests ...
Blood group systems : ABO, Rh. Duffy, Kidd. Lewis, R MNS, Bombay blood group. etc. ... Antigen on Blood Cells: Antigens (A, B, D) on the surface of human red blood cells : responsible for different blood groups. ... Immune system : The ability to resist almost all types of these foreign bodies is possible due. to immune system. It protects ... Blood : Blood transfusions or sharing syringes, needles, etc.. *Transplacental (From mother to child during pregnancy via ...
Examples: human leukocyte antigen, Duffy system (other Duffy systems except those listed in the rule as Class D are in Class C ... The rule divides blood grouping devices into two subsets, Class C or D, depending on the nature of the blood group antigen the ... Kell system [Kel1 (K)], Kidd system [JK1 (Jka), JK2 (Jkb)] and Duffy system [FY1 (Fya), FY2 (Fyb)] determinations which are ... Devices intended to be used to detect the presence of, or exposure to, a transmissible agent in blood, blood components, blood ...
... has been identified with a unique blood group, said to be the first in the country and 10th in the world. ... B and AB are the common blood groups found in human bodies. "There are more than 40 blood systems like Rh and Duffy and more ... It took a year for researchers to come to the conclusion that the blood group was AB+ blood group with EMM negative frequency ... Indian man identified with rare blood group, only the 10th case in the world. Health And Wellness, News July 13, 2022July 13, ...
Development and production of molecular biology tests for blood group genotyping, diagnosis of genetic complex diseases and ... Blood Group Genotyping. BLOODchip is an effective and innovative solution for the identification of clinically relevant ... Duffy, MNS, Diego, Dombrock, Colton, Cartwright and Lutheran systems. ... BIDS XT is a powerful software tool specially designed for use with our range of Blood Group Genotyping ID XT Tests which makes ...
... expecially of the blood groups Kell, Kidd, Duffy and MNS. If further transfusions are necessary molecular blood group detection ... The RBC-Ready Gene vERYfy system offers a combined solution for the parallel analysis of the blood group systems RHD, RHCE, MNS ... Genotyping of Rare Blood Groups In many cases antisera against rare blood groups are not available or difficult to identify and ... You have the choice: the RBC-Ready Gene Rare Screen system screens with only one reaction for five different blood group ...
They also specifically cover blood grouping or tissue typing when this involves markers of the following systems: ABO, Rhesus, ... Quality Management System (QMS) and ISO 13485. 15 May 2023 This blog is about quality management systems (ISO 13485), one of ... Even though the IVDs have retained a residue of the old system (similar to the FDA regulations), new medical device regulations ... specifically, transmissible agents in blood and biological materials intended to be transplanted or re-administered into the ...
Antigens, Surface - Duffy Blood-Group System * Antigens, Surface - E-Selectin * Antigens, Surface - Epithelial Cell Adhesion ...
Demonstrate and apply knowledge of the Rh, Lewis, Kell, Duffy, MNS, P, I, Kidd and Lutheran blood group systems. ... Emphasis is placed on the genetic basis and immunological interaction of the major blood group antigens and antibodies. Topics ... Discuss the basic theories of human genetics and apply them to major blood groups. ... Discuss the acceptability of a donor in accordance with AABB standards for whole blood and component donations. ...
Human DARC(Duffy Blood Group Chemokine Receptor) ELISA Kit. *Human DAT(Dopamine Transporter) ELISA Kit ... systems biology jhu, systems biology jobs, systems biology lab, systems biology mit, systems biology pdf, systems biology phd, ... systems biology jhu, systems biology jobs, systems biology lab, systems biology mit, systems biology pdf, systems biology phd, ... systems biology ppt, systems biology tools, systems biology vt, systems biology wiki, systems biology yale, systems biology.org ...
The Duffy-blood-group genotype, FyFy. The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 295, no. 6, pp. 302-304. http://dx.doi.org/ ... massive irrigation system, and monsoon rainfall. No use of anti-malarial sprays, poor hygienic system, sharing of the housing ... The Duffy-blood-group genotype, FyFy. The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 295, no. 6, pp. 302-304. http://dx.doi.org/ ... Mardan has a huge water system framework. District Mardan has vast irrigation system, after heavy rainfall in monsoon a lot of ...
Bartoshuk LM, Duffy VB, Green BG, Hoffman HJ, Ko CW, Lucchina LA, Marks LE, Snyder DJ, Weiffenbach JM. Valid across-group ... blood sugar (BIOPRO, GHB); blood pressure (BPX); body weight (BMQ, WHQ); diet and nutrition (DTQ, DRXDOC, DSQDOC, DBQ); smoking ... All data were captured into a computerized database system, and automatically uploaded. The 2012 NHANES taste and smell ... AHFS (American Hospital Formulary Service & American Society of Health-System Pharmacists) Drug Information. Quinine Sulfate. ...
... that works by priming a hosts immune system to a parasitic protein complex required to form a junction with red blood cells, ... The groups vaccine conferred more effective protection in monkeys than prior candidates that targeted only one component of ... A vaccine targeting a protein complex that allows malaria-causing parasite to enter red blood cells has been produced. Malaria ... to initiate junction formation with the erythrocyte and is essential for merozoite invasion during the blood stage of infection ...
Red blood cell transfusion Genotyping RhD Pulmonary nodule RHD-CE-D hybrid Intravenous immunoglobulins Duffy blood group system ... Red blood cells Cryopreservation Signet ring cell carcinoma Metastasis Blood grouping reagent High-glycerol method ... Rh blood group Functional assay Report Standardization Variant interpretation Early infantile epileptic encephalopathy ... Complete blood cell count Peripheral blood smear Automated hematology analyzer Troponin Copeptin ...
Fortunately, Duffy Group specializes in recruiting top healthcare talent-from C-suite executives to clinical and administrative ... She manages the systems core system supply chain operations, like sourcing and contracting, logistics, customer service, ... But Yuma Regional Medical Center is a prime example of the kind of jump start that some new blood can bring to an organization ... At Cleveland Clinic, Hatchett and her team have been integral in how the health system views acquisition systems, working to ...
... systems do cause severe hemolytic disease of the newborn. [3] The Rh blood group system uses Fisher-Race nomenclature, and the ... Duffy (Fya), Kidd (Jka and Jkb), and MNSs (M, N, S, and s) ... Prenatal typing of Rh and Kell blood group system antigens: the ... Levine later determined the cause after Landsteiner and Weiner discovered the Rh blood group system in 1940. In 1953, Chown ... Failure to predict hemolysis and hyperbilirubinemia by IgG subclass in blood group A or B infants born to group O mothers. ...
... var gene transcription and ABO blood group in children with severe or uncomplicated malaria Barua P, Duffy MF, Manning L, Laman ... Measuring national immunization system performance: A systematic assessment of available resources. Patel C, Rendell N, Sargent ...
... the Duffy blood group; (5) immunogenetic variants such as HLA alleles; and (6) immunological components such as complement ... the pulmonary system (respiratory failure), the renal system (acute renal failure), and the hematopoietic system (severe anemia ... Under physiological conditions, microparticles derived from platelets, white blood cells, red blood cells, and endothelial ... Blood-stage Plasmodium infection induces CD8+ T lymphocytes to parasite-expressed antigens, largely regulated by CD8alpha+ ...
  • The antibody screening test performed in a clinical laboratory and/or blood bank is designed to detect the presence of unexpected antibodies, especially alloantibodies in the serum to antigens of the non-ABO blood group system: Duffy, Kell, Kidd, MNS, P, and certain Rh types that are considered clinically significant. (medscape.com)
  • As a result the recipients have a mixture of blood that makes blood group detection difficult, expecially of the blood groups Kell, Kidd, Duffy and MNS. (inno-train.de)
  • Beside the standard RBC-Ready Gene MNS and RBC-Ready Gene KKD test systems we offer the RBC-Ready Gene KELplus kit for detection of further Kell alleles, as well as the RBC-Ready Gene JKplusFY for detection of further Kidd alleles in combination with Duffy detection. (inno-train.de)
  • The RBC-Ready Gene vERYfy system offers a combined solution for the parallel analysis of the blood group systems RHD, RHCE, MNS, Kell, Kidd, Duffy, Dombrock and Vel. (inno-train.de)
  • Although the Rh antibody was and still is the most common cause of severe hemolytic disease of the newborn, other alloimmune antibodies belonging to Kell (K and k), Duffy (Fya), Kidd (Jka and Jkb), and MNSs (M, N, S, and s) systems do cause severe hemolytic disease of the newborn. (medscape.com)
  • When both pairs are + (heterozygous cases), they are both excluded (here marked by X), except for C/c, E/e, Duffy, Kidd and MNS antigens (where antibodies of the patient may still react towards blood cells with homozygous antigen expression, because homozygous expression results in a higher dosage of the antigen). (patholines.org)
  • Duffy antigen/chemokine receptor (DARC), also known as Fy glycoprotein (FY) or CD234 (Cluster of Differentiation 234), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACKR1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Duffy antigen is located on the surface of red blood cells, and is named after the patient in whom it was discovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Duffy antigen gene was the fourth gene associated with the resistance after the genes responsible for sickle cell anaemia, thalassemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] In 1950, the Duffy antigen was discovered in a multiply-transfused hemophiliac named Richard Duffy, whose serum contained the first example of anti-Fya antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Fy4 antigen, originally described on Fy (a-b-) RBCs, is now thought to be a distinct, unrelated antigen and is no longer included in the FY system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene was first localised to chromosome 1 in 1968, and was the first blood system antigen to be localised. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study in our lab demonstrated that Duffy antigen/receptor for chemokines (DARC, also known as DBGP, the Duffy protein phenotype), led to the inhibition of tumorigenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An antigen is any protein or carbohydrate molecule that can be recognised by the immune system. (h2g2.com)
  • So the basic principle of blood donation is that there should be no antibody to match the RBCs' surface antigen. (labpedia.net)
  • Antigen on Blood Cells: Antigens (A, B, D) on the surface of human red blood cells : responsible for different blood groups. (balbhartisolutions.com)
  • Blood Group Genotyping Test , from human genomic DNA, allowing simultaneous identification of the most relevant human erythrocyte antigens (antigen D), detecting polymorphisms that determine 6 RHD and HPA-1 variants. (progenika.com)
  • Acute simple transfu- tance of providing antigen-matched blood sions are usually used to treat sequestration for chronic transfusion patients, such as crisis, aplastic crisis, blood loss and in pre- those with thalassaemia and SCA, in order operative preparation. (who.int)
  • Correlate population genetics and antigen frequency differences within indigenous groups and apply this knowledge to compatibility testing and the application of DNA probing to parentage testing and forensic science. (bristolcc.edu)
  • The Plasmodium falciparum protein, apical membrane antigen 1 forms a complex with another parasite protein, rhoptry neck protein 2, to initiate junction formation with the erythrocyte and is essential for merozoite invasion during the blood stage of infection. (nature.com)
  • Upon direct testing by adding antibodies against A, B and/or Rh to patient blood, agglutination means that the patient has the antigen tested. (patholines.org)
  • By examining the antigen profiles of the red blood cells the person's plasma reacts with, it is possible to determine the antibody's identity. (patholines.org)
  • Kappe didn't find the homologs (those were identified later by another group), but he uncovered something else: a paralog of the Duffy protein that his group named MAEBL, for membrane antigen-1-erythrocyte binding-like protein. (the-scientist.com)
  • The Plasmodium falciparum reticulocyte-binding protein homolog 5 (PfRH5) has recently emerged as a leading candidate antigen against the blood-stage human malaria parasite. (nature.com)
  • If you treat this cell with papain, the Duffy antigen is destroyed and the reaction disappears. (transfusion.at)
  • If he has Rh-negative blood and is negative for the antigen corresponding to the antibody identified in the mother, no further testing is necessary. (msdmanuals.com)
  • If this cell does not react with the test serum, I can rule out an antibody against Duffy b. (transfusion.at)
  • The results from this prevali- the field of cancer biomarkers (11-13), and that approach was dation study showed that patients could be classified into high- adopted here to define predictive serum biomarkers associated versus low-risk groups for developing metastatic breast cancer with tumor relapse in breast cancer patients. (lu.se)
  • SAN DIEGO, Calif., Oct. 20, 2015 -- Agena Bioscience™ today announced expanded use of its MassARRAY ® System. (agenabio.com)
  • SAN DIEGO, Calif., Feb. 24, 2015 -- Agena Bioscience today released the MassARRAY ® 24-Well System for mass spectrometry-based. (agenabio.com)
  • The other important blood group is known as the rhesus group, after the monkeys in which it was discovered. (h2g2.com)
  • In principle, the rhesus blood group is simpler than ABO, having only two groups: positive and negative. (h2g2.com)
  • The same general principles apply as for the ABO system, so rhesus-negative blood can be given to anyone, while rhesus-positive blood can only be given to other rhesus-positive people. (h2g2.com)
  • In 1940, Karl Landsteiner and Winner discovered Rh factor in red blood cells (RBCs) of the Rhesus monkey ( Macca rhesus ). (medicallabnotes.com)
  • It carries the antigenic determinants of the Duffy blood group system which consist of four codominant alleles-FY*A and FY*B-coding for the Fy-a and Fy-b antigens respectively, FY*X and FY*Fy, five phenotypes (Fy-a, Fy-b, Fy-o, Fy-x and Fy-y) and five antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different ethnicities have different distribution of Duffy blood group (DBG) phenotypes and different breast cancer morbidity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Anti-FYa and anti-FYb antibodies define four red blood cell (RBC) phenotypes: FYa + FYb-, FYa-FYb+, FYa + FYb+, and FYa-FYb- [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Red blood cells (RBCs) carry numerous protein and carbohydrate antigens on their surface. (medscape.com)
  • Antibody screening is routinely used in conjunction with typing and crossmatch before the administration of blood products, especially RBCs, to avoid transfusion reactions and to prevent notably decreased survival of transfused RBCs. (medscape.com)
  • Blood grouping is done based on the presence of antigens on the surface of RBCs. (labpedia.net)
  • Clinical disease is caused by the asexual forms of the parasite that replicate within red blood cells (RBCs). (nature.com)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) technical report in 1971 recommended that a dose of 25 mcg (125 IU) of anti-D immunoglobulin G (IgG) should be given intramuscularly for every 1 mL of fetomaternal hemorrhage of Rh-positive packed RBCs or 2 mL of whole blood. (medscape.com)
  • Expression is limited to RBCs, with an increasing density during their maturation, unlike the ABH system, which exists in a wide variety of tissues. (medscape.com)
  • Blood obtained from finger-prick may be tested directly by the slide method quickly without making 10% RBCs suspension to avoid clotting and drying. (medicallabnotes.com)
  • Fetal red blood cells (RBCs) normally move across the placenta to the maternal circulation throughout pregnancy. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In women who have Rh-negative blood and who are carrying a fetus with Rh-positive blood, fetal RBCs stimulate maternal antibody production against the Rh antigens. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The A- and B-antigens all begin life as a protein called H, which is found on red blood cells from people with all four blood groups. (h2g2.com)
  • For Lexington, Massachusetts-based Quanterix, which to date has deployed assays for protein analysis on its Single Molecule Array, or Simoa, platform, the approach demonstrates the applicability of its technology in nucleic acid detection, and miRNA detection in particular, as it prepares to launch a new system. (genomeweb.com)
  • Adams had identified the Duffy binding protein that is essential for Plasmodium to dock to red blood cells and then enter them. (the-scientist.com)
  • Here we report the production of full-length PfRH5 protein using a cGMP-compliant platform called ExpreS 2 , based on a Drosophila melanogaster Schneider 2 (S2) stable cell line system. (nature.com)
  • A new study by NINR researchers and others, however, shows that measuring concentrations of a protein called tau in the blood could potentially provide an unbiased tool to help prevent athletes from returning to action too soon and risking further neurological injury. (nih.gov)
  • Blood grouping is done for the donor and the recipient (Crossmatch). (labpedia.net)
  • If further transfusions are necessary molecular blood group detection gives clear result because the colume of donor DNA in the transfusedblood units dies not influence the test. (inno-train.de)
  • Discuss the acceptability of a donor in accordance with AABB standards for whole blood and component donations. (bristolcc.edu)
  • For example: Donor has inherited a Duffy b from mother and father. (transfusion.at)
  • Perform routine serological procedures inclusive of ABO grouping, Rh typing, compatibility testing, antibody detection and identification, solving of ABO discrepancies, Rh typing and antibody identification problems. (bristolcc.edu)
  • For Edinburgh, UK-based Destina Genomics, meantime, the study showcases the use of its chemistry for the PCR-free detection of miRNA on a commercial system. (genomeweb.com)
  • EDP carries out research on resource- The Section designs and conducts appropriate public health policies research studies in collaboration with and feasible, quality-assured, and investigators in national cancer organiza- cost-effective prevention and early tions, health services, universities, and detection strategies for the control other key groups within and outside of common cancers such as breast, the Agency. (who.int)
  • HPV)-related cancers and the evaluation and early detection services within local of the impact of Helicobacter pylori health systems. (who.int)
  • technologies and alternative screening The Section continues to expand its approaches, as well as the impact of activities to implementation research, improved awareness and access to to support the efforts of national health health services for the early detection of systems to translate scientific findings major cancers such as breast, cervical, into the wel -being of the population. (who.int)
  • Different hemolytic diseases e. g. sickle cell anemia or thalassemia, but also complex courses of diseases following multiple operations due to accidents or chronic diseases require continuous blood transfusions. (inno-train.de)
  • If you expect to get questions regarding blood products, get a copy of the local cutoffs for approving transfusions of red blood cells, platelets and plasma, and keep it so that you can quickly look it up when needed. (patholines.org)
  • They code for 5 major antigens denoted by letters, C, c, E, e, and D. Rh blood group antigens are inherited as determined by at least 2 homologous but distinct membrane-associated proteins. (medscape.com)
  • Beyond the 5 major antigens, more than 100 antigenic variants of Rh group system have been identified. (medscape.com)
  • Blood Group Genotyping Test, from human genomic DNA, allowing simultaneous identification of multiple allelic variants from the major platelet antigens (HPA) from HPA 1 to HPA11 and HPA 15 systems. (progenika.com)
  • BIDS XT is a powerful software tool specially designed for use with our range of Blood Group Genotyping ID XT Tests which makes for an easier, more efficient and safer process of blood sample genotyping in the laboratory. (progenika.com)
  • Genetic test services for Blood Group Genotyping with the entire BLOODchip product portfolio. (progenika.com)
  • Emphasis is placed on the genetic basis and immunological interaction of the major blood group antigens and antibodies. (bristolcc.edu)
  • Hemolytic disease of the fetus and neonate is hemolytic anemia in the fetus (or neonate, as erythroblastosis neonatorum) caused by transplacental transmission of maternal antibodies to fetal red blood cells. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Polymorphisms in this gene are the basis of the Duffy blood group system. (wikipedia.org)
  • As can be seen, having only one A or B gene is enough to produce the antigens creating the blood group, while two copies of the O gene are needed to produce group O. If someone has the A and B genes, they have the AB blood group 1 . (h2g2.com)
  • The O gene is very common, which is why more people have blood group O than any other. (h2g2.com)
  • While O-gene encodes for inactive transferase enzyme and ultimately leads to the formation of blood group O. (labpedia.net)
  • Red Blood Cell-Ready Gene is inno-train's product line for analysis of erythrocyte blood groups based on the SSP-PCR method. (inno-train.de)
  • RBC-Ready Gene Rare ID detects rare blood group alleles without a doubt and in an economical way. (inno-train.de)
  • You have the choice: the RBC-Ready Gene Rare Screen system screens with only one reaction for five different blood group alleles. (inno-train.de)
  • The RBC-Ready Gene 4-Screen seaches in four reaction of seven different rare blood group alleles in parallel with the confirmation of D positivity or D negativity. (inno-train.de)
  • Further identification of the detected rare allele after such a screening test can be completed with the RBC-Ready Gene Rare ID system. (inno-train.de)
  • For clarification of serologically weak D typings in patients and donors inno-train's system RBC-Ready Gene CDE and RBC-Ready Gene D weak can be used individually or in combination. (inno-train.de)
  • The RBC_Ready Gene D AddOn system detects additional RHD sequences and further D negative alleles, which are not caused by a deletion of the whole RHD gene, i. e. (inno-train.de)
  • With the RBC-Ready Gene cDE system a clear result of the RHCE alleles C, c, E, e and C w is obtained. (inno-train.de)
  • [ 3 ] The Rh blood group system uses Fisher-Race nomenclature, and the Rh gene complex consists of 3 genetic loci each with 2 major alleles. (medscape.com)
  • The researchers studied the genetic control of gene expression in cultured white blood-cell lines from women with PMDD and control subjects. (nih.gov)
  • 1992. Determining volatile organic compounds in human blood from a large sample population by using purge and trap gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. (cdc.gov)
  • An antibody against Duffy a (Fya) will react with a Duffy a positive cell. (transfusion.at)
  • Further investigations are required to determine the underlying mechanism of Duffy blood group phenotype on breast cancer risk. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Complicated malaria or severe malaria involves the central nervous system (cerebral malaria), the pulmonary system (respiratory failure), the renal system (acute renal failure), and the hematopoietic system (severe anemia). (biomedcentral.com)
  • While many pathogenic microorganisms are taken into cells by passive phagocytosis, "malaria parasites actively move into a host cell, and they use their own actin-myosin system to do that," Kappe explains. (the-scientist.com)
  • Most Duffy negative Black people carry a silent Fy-b allele with a single T to C substitution at nucleotide -33, impairing the promoter activity in erythroid cells by disrupting a binding site for the GATA1 erythroid transcription factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Everyone in the world can be classified into four categories: A, B, AB and O. Definition of each category depends on the 'antigens' present on red blood cells, and the 'antibodies' present in the blood plasma. (h2g2.com)
  • The antigens of the ABO system are present on the surface of red blood cells. (h2g2.com)
  • The important outcome of all this is that if you give B blood to someone of A blood group, then the anti-B antibodies cause all the new blood cells to stick together and block up all the blood vessels. (h2g2.com)
  • Activated B-lymphocyte → multiplies rapidly → Clone of plasma cells and memory B-cells produced → Plasma cells produce → Glycoproteins, called antibodies → Antibodies circulated through humor/ body fluids like blood and lymph → The antibody → bind to a cell membrane or they remain free. (balbhartisolutions.com)
  • There are more than 40 blood systems like Rh and Duffy and more than 350 antigens connected with red cells. (indicanews.com)
  • In the antibody screening procedure, an individual's plasma is added to a panel of two or three sets of red blood cells which have been chosen to express most clinically significant blood group antigens. (patholines.org)
  • Agglutination of the screening cells by the plasma, with or without the addition of anti-human globulin, indicates that an unexpected blood group antibody is present. (patholines.org)
  • The "result" column to the right displays reactivity when mixing reference red blood cells with plasma from the patient in 3 different phases: room temperature, 37°C and AHG (with anti-human globulin, by the indirect antiglobulin test). (patholines.org)
  • Since Kappe's discovery of MAEBL, it's been shown that, besides helping merozoites invade red blood cells, the molecule is also important for mosquito salivary gland infection in the sporozoite stage. (the-scientist.com)
  • North America ( 6 ), have been unable of genomic DNA, equivalent to 7.5 of XMRV or polytropic MLV-related to detect XMRV sequences in patients × 104 nucleated blood cells, in a fi nal viruses with fi bromyalgia. (cdc.gov)
  • Anti-merozoite vaccine studies have long relied on the standardized in vitro assay of growth inhibition activity (GIA) 12 , whereby purified IgG antibodies are tested against parasites cultured in human red blood cells (RBC) in the absence of other cell types. (nature.com)
  • Many people begin to lose their Y chromosome in some of their cells as they age , particularly those cells that undergo rapid turnover, such as blood cells. (cnn.com)
  • His cells only express Duffy b on the surface - double dose. (transfusion.at)
  • Duffy a is not expressed on his cells at all. (transfusion.at)
  • So if you suspect it might be an anti-Duffy a, another test can be done with the same cells and papain. (transfusion.at)
  • The most common blood sion sera with a positive antibody screen groups were in rank order: O+ (n = 25 pa- were subjected to antibody identifica- tients), A+ (n = 7), B+ (n = 12), AB+ (n = tion. (who.int)
  • Topics will include compatibility testing, antibody screen and identification techniques, blood donations and transfusion therapy, record keeping and quality control techniques. (bristolcc.edu)
  • Levine later determined the cause after Landsteiner and Weiner discovered the Rh blood group system in 1940. (medscape.com)
  • Discuss the history of blood transfusion services, the major contributors, recent advantages and trends. (bristolcc.edu)
  • Karl Landsteiner opened the door of blood banking. (labpedia.net)
  • In many cases antisera against rare blood groups are not available or difficult to identify and that can be directed against rare blood groups. (inno-train.de)
  • Put very simply, antibodies are proteins that make up part of the immune system . (h2g2.com)
  • Their job is to bind to anything that the body does not recognise, thus labelling it as an invader and directing other parts of the immune system to destroy it. (h2g2.com)
  • Immune system : The ability to resist almost all types of these foreign bodies is possible due to immune system. (balbhartisolutions.com)
  • 2. Immunology: Study of immune system, immune responses to foreign substances and their role in resisting infection by pathogens. (balbhartisolutions.com)
  • The formation of auto-antibodies is to be seen as a malfunction of the immune system. (transfusion.at)
  • Objective: To document the evolution and optimization of the Zika virus (ZIKV) disease surveillance system in southern Viet Nam in 2016 and to describe the characteristics of the identified ZIKV-positive cases. (who.int)
  • Methods: We established a sentinel surveillance system to monitor ZIKV transmission in eight sites in eight provinces and expanded the system to 71 sites in 20 provinces in southern Viet Nam in 2016. (who.int)
  • Discussion: The surveillance system for ZIKV disease underwent several phases of optimization in 2016, guided by the most up-to-date local data. (who.int)
  • Here we demonstrate an adaptable surveillance system that detected ZIKV-positive cases in southern Viet Nam. (who.int)
  • Recommendations for Establishing a National Maternal Near-miss Surveillance System in Latin America and the Caribbean. (bvsalud.org)
  • If a person is exposed to blood with different antigens than his or her own, he or she may form antibodies that can result in extravascular and/or intravascular hemolysis when the recipient is reintroduced to the same antigens in a future transfusion. (medscape.com)
  • Sometimes this worked, but on many occasions the recipient of the blood became very ill and, more often than not, died. (h2g2.com)
  • Hialeah-based Entopsis has developed a microscope-slide-sized device that quickly and cheaply identifies a wide range of molecules in a smear of urine, saliva, blood or other liquid. (floridatrend.com)
  • Cancer-associated DNA methylation changes can also be detected with accuracy in the cell-free DNA present in blood, stool, urine, and other biosamples. (frontiersin.org)
  • Blood and urine samples from patients who met the case definition at the sentinel sites were tested for ZIKV using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction at the Pasteur Institute in Ho Chi Minh City (PI-HCMC). (who.int)
  • WHO's risk-based assessment approach for in vitro diagnostics (IVDs) uses an internationally accepted classification system that was created by the Global Harmonization Task Force (GHTF) and continues to be maintained by the International Medical Device Regulators Forum. (who.int)
  • The outcome of the system is to group IVDs into one of four risk classes (A to D). (who.int)
  • Even though the IVDs have retained a residue of the old system (similar to the FDA regulations), new medical device regulations came with a classification system of the IVDR that was based on specific rules. (eurodev.com)
  • It took a year for researchers to come to the conclusion that the blood group was AB+ blood group with EMM 'negative' frequency. (indicanews.com)
  • Significant different numbers of breast cancer patients had metastases to the axillary lymph nodes in the FYa + FYb + group (25.1%), FYa + FYb- (36.9%), FYa-FYb + (41.0%) and FYa-FYb- (50.0%, (P = 0.005). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Especially Duffy and MNS blood group antigens are sensitive to enzymes. (transfusion.at)
  • Discuss the types of blood components that are available for transfusion therapy including collection, preparation, storage and appropriate use of each component. (bristolcc.edu)
  • The intervention group consisted of 35 patients who were injected with 300 units of BoNT-A (Dysport®) into the detrusor muscles at the same time as TURP. (bvsalud.org)
  • In contrast to IPSS score, storage irritative score and Qmax, which improve similarly in both groups, the PVR and urgency incontinence episodes will improve more in patients receive intradetrusor BoNT-A injection. (bvsalud.org)
  • GHTF created the risk classification system to determine the level of pre-market regulatory control that is required for an IVD, with the purpose that these controls are sufficient for each class to safeguard the health and safety of patients, users and other persons. (who.int)
  • After ABO and Rh blood grouping by the patients develop multiple alloantibodies, standard tube method, the following were which further complicate their situation. (who.int)
  • Blood samples of 200 P. vivax malarial patients were collected after taking their written informed consent. (scielo.br)
  • XMRV is group of patients with fi bromyalgia. (cdc.gov)
  • Founded by University of Edinburgh researchers in 2010, Destina's core technology is based on pairing its aldehyde-modified Smart Nucleobases with peptide nucleic acid capture probes containing an abasic position that can be made to complement any nucleic acid system. (genomeweb.com)
  • Blood-stage vaccines seek to induce antibodies against the merozoite form of the parasite that invades erythrocytes 2 , and could complement pre-erythrocytic immunity afforded by RTS,S/AS01, protect against disease severity and/or reduce transmission by accelerating the control and clearance of blood-stage parasitemia. (nature.com)
  • After briefly trying out chemistry, history, and law, he found a loophole in the system: "You could enter the biology program if you went into the teaching track, not into the research track," says Kappe, who is now an assistant member of the Seattle Biomedical Research Institute (SBRI). (the-scientist.com)
  • Molecular diagnostics of disorders of sexual development: an Indian survey and systems biology perspective. (cdc.gov)
  • The lab testing the blood sample found something strange, and subsequently sent it to a lab in New York for testing. (indicanews.com)
  • the Section waS SubSequently reStructureD anD now conSiStS of only two grouPS: Pri anD Scr. (who.int)
  • Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes in a mouse blood smear (Giemsa, x625). (medscape.com)
  • The DBGP system is embodied by proteins that carry blood group antigens on the surfaces of RBC. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A group of 632 soccer, football, basketball, hockey, and lacrosse athletes from the University of Rochester (Rochester, New York) first underwent preseason blood-plasma sampling and cognitive testing to establish a baseline. (nih.gov)
  • Lowes R. FDA Okays Blood Plasma Product for Clotting Disorders. (medscape.com)
  • Relationship of blood groups, susceptibility to various diseases e.g. blood group A is more prone to gastric carcinoma whereas blood group O is more prone to systemic lupus erythematosus. (medicallabnotes.com)
  • Tests for the ABH secretion may help establish the true ABO group of an individual whose red blood cell antigens are poorly developed. (labpedia.net)
  • Swiss Learning Health System: A national initiative to establish learning cycles for continuous health system improvement. (lipidx.org)
  • Blood group ABO system antibodies are stimulated by the bacteria and the other substances in our surroundings. (labpedia.net)
  • Alcohol is the most common drug used in this age group, followed by abuse of medication, although the use of illicit substances has increased progressively. (bvsalud.org)
  • Anwendung download leibniz and clarke: correspondence (hackett Pflege des neuen Systems dienen fetalis, grands are entscheidenden Vorgaben uses durch are Deckelung gegeben innovation. (sbcoastalconcierge.com)
  • Incompatibilities of ABO blood types do not cause erythroblastosis fetalis. (msdmanuals.com)
  • At the first prenatal visit, all women are screened for blood type, Rh type, and anti-Rho(D) and other antibodies that are formed in response to antigens and that can cause erythroblastosis fetalis (reflex antibody screening). (msdmanuals.com)
  • If women have Rh-negative blood and test positive for anti-Rho(D) or they test positive for another antibody that can cause erythroblastosis fetalis, the father's blood type and zygosity (if paternity is certain) are determined. (msdmanuals.com)
  • MSDs MSDs are injuries and disorders of the musculoskeletal system such as: muscles, tendons and tendon sheathes, nerves, bursa, blood vessels, joints/spinal discs, and ligaments. (slideshare.net)
  • WHO has adopted the GHTF classification system to guide the level of stringency and scope of the assessment required for an IVD product undergoing WHO prequalification. (who.int)
  • WHO applies this classification system by considering the risks posed when the IVD is used in WHO Member States, with particular emphasis on resource-limited settings. (who.int)
  • There are nine globally registered persons in the world with EMM negative blood type. (indicanews.com)
  • All zygosities with known D negative alleles are detected safely by the combination of both systems. (inno-train.de)
  • In 1966, 2 groups from the United Kingdom and the United States demonstrated, in a combined study, that anti-D immunoglobulin G (IgG) prophylaxis soon after delivery prevented sensitization in Rh-negative women. (medscape.com)
  • So he joined the lab of Victor Nussenzweig at New York University, whose group "did a lot of pioneering work on the sporozoite stages to find the first surface molecule of this transmission stage," Kappe says. (the-scientist.com)
  • Ripal Shah, medical director at Prathama Laboratory in Ahmedabad, said that the patient had AB+ blood group, which was cross-checked with 40 to 50 samples which the lab had. (indicanews.com)
  • All the reactions that indicated an antibody to Duffy a should now be gone. (transfusion.at)
  • The disorder usually results from incompatibility between maternal and fetal blood groups, often Rho(D) antigens. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Other causes of maternal anti-Rh antibody production include injection with needles contaminated with Rh-positive blood and inadvertent transfusion of Rh-positive blood. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The trypomastigote is the infective flagellated form of the parasite found in the blood of the mammalian hosts (blood trypomastigote) and in the hindgut of vectors (metacyclic trypomastigote). (medscape.com)
  • According to Juan Diaz Mochon, cofounder and CSO of Destina, the company evaluated several platforms for Dear's project, looking at alternatives to "time-consuming PCR," and ultimately decided on using the Quanterix platform, given the ability of the Simoa system to provide digital results at single-molecule resolution without a need for amplification. (genomeweb.com)
  • Our screening concepts for rare blood group alleles support you in fining the suitable blood unit. (inno-train.de)
  • For XMRV and North America that also failed found XMRV sequences and specifi c screening, we used DNA extracted to confi rm XMRV in blood samples antibody responses in 67% of a large from 400 L of whole blood collected ( 3 - 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Prevention anD imPlementation grouP (Pri), the quality aSSurance grouP (qaS), anD the Screening grouP (Scr). (who.int)