A congenital heart defect characterized by the persistent opening of fetal DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS that connects the PULMONARY ARTERY to the descending aorta (AORTA, DESCENDING) allowing unoxygenated blood to bypass the lung and flow to the PLACENTA. Normally, the ductus is closed shortly after birth.
A fetal blood vessel connecting the pulmonary artery with the descending aorta.
A congenital anomaly caused by the failed development of TRUNCUS ARTERIOSUS into separate AORTA and PULMONARY ARTERY. It is characterized by a single arterial trunk that forms the outlet for both HEART VENTRICLES and gives rise to the systemic, pulmonary, and coronary arteries. It is always accompanied by a ventricular septal defect.
An infant during the first month after birth.
A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
The arterial trunk arising from the fetal heart. During development, it divides into AORTA and the PULMONARY ARTERY.
'Infant, Premature, Diseases' refers to health conditions or abnormalities that specifically affect babies born before 37 weeks of gestation, often resulting from their immature organ systems and increased vulnerability due to preterm birth.
A CATHETER-delivered implant used for closing abnormal holes in the cardiovascular system, especially HEART SEPTAL DEFECTS; or passageways intentionally made during cardiovascular surgical procedures.
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.
A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic properties used in the therapy of rheumatism and arthritis.
Heart sounds caused by vibrations resulting from the flow of blood through the heart. Heart murmurs can be examined by HEART AUSCULTATION, and analyzed by their intensity (6 grades), duration, timing (systolic, diastolic, or continuous), location, transmission, and quality (musical, vibratory, blowing, etc).
Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.
Inflammation of the inner endothelial lining (TUNICA INTIMA) of an artery.
Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
Echocardiography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image.
Developmental abnormalities in any portion of the VENTRICULAR SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communications between the two lower chambers of the heart. Classification of ventricular septal defects is based on location of the communication, such as perimembranous, inlet, outlet (infundibular), central muscular, marginal muscular, or apical muscular defect.
Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1500 grams (3.3 lbs), regardless of gestational age.
Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The heart of the fetus of any viviparous animal. It refers to the heart in the postembryonic period and is differentiated from the embryonic heart (HEART/embryology) only on the basis of time.
Use of a balloon CATHETER to block the flow of blood through an artery or vein.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.
A birth defect characterized by the narrowing of the AORTA that can be of varying degree and at any point from the transverse arch to the iliac bifurcation. Aortic coarctation causes arterial HYPERTENSION before the point of narrowing and arterial HYPOTENSION beyond the narrowed portion.
Radiographic visualization of the aorta and its branches by injection of contrast media, using percutaneous puncture or catheterization procedures.
A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
A species of baboon in the family CERCOPITHECIDAE, often used as an animal model for cognitive studies.
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.
The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.
'Abnormalities, Multiple' is a broad term referring to the presence of two or more structural or functional anomalies in an individual, which may be genetic or environmental in origin, and can affect various systems and organs of the body.
An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1000 grams (2.2 lbs), regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE.
Surgery performed on the heart or blood vessels.
Agents that affect the rate or intensity of cardiac contraction, blood vessel diameter, or blood volume.
Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.
A condition of the newborn marked by DYSPNEA with CYANOSIS, heralded by such prodromal signs as dilatation of the alae nasi, expiratory grunt, and retraction of the suprasternal notch or costal margins, mostly frequently occurring in premature infants, children of diabetic mothers, and infants delivered by cesarean section, and sometimes with no apparent predisposing cause.
A syndrome of persistent PULMONARY HYPERTENSION in the newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN) without demonstrable HEART DISEASES. This neonatal condition can be caused by severe pulmonary vasoconstriction (reactive type), hypertrophy of pulmonary arterial muscle (hypertrophic type), or abnormally developed pulmonary arterioles (hypoplastic type). The newborn patient exhibits CYANOSIS and ACIDOSIS due to the persistence of fetal circulatory pattern of right-to-left shunting of blood through a patent ductus arteriosus (DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS, PATENT) and at times a patent foramen ovale (FORAMEN OVALE, PATENT).
Pathological outpouching or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any blood vessel (ARTERIES or VEINS) or the heart (HEART ANEURYSM). It indicates a thin and weakened area in the wall which may later rupture. Aneurysms are classified by location, etiology, or other characteristics.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.
A chronic lung disease developed after OXYGEN INHALATION THERAPY or mechanical ventilation (VENTILATION, MECHANICAL) usually occurring in certain premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE) or newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME, NEWBORN). Histologically, it is characterized by the unusual abnormalities of the bronchioles, such as METAPLASIA, decrease in alveolar number, and formation of CYSTS.
Congenital structural abnormalities of the LOWER EXTREMITY.
A potent vasodilator agent that increases peripheral blood flow.
Surgery performed on the heart.
A condition associated with VENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECT and other congenital heart defects that allow the mixing of pulmonary and systemic circulation, increase blood flow into the lung, and subsequent responses to low oxygen in blood. This complex is characterized by progressive PULMONARY HYPERTENSION; HYPERTROPHY of the RIGHT VENTRICLE; CYANOSIS; and ERYTHROCYTOSIS.
Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.
Decreased URINE output that is below the normal range. Oliguria can be defined as urine output of less than or equal to 0.5 or 1 ml/kg/hr depending on the age.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Hospital units providing continuing surveillance and care to acutely ill newborn infants.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
ENTEROCOLITIS with extensive ulceration (ULCER) and NECROSIS. It is observed primarily in LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANT.
Traumatic injuries to the RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE that may result in vocal cord dysfunction.
Radiography of the heart and great vessels after injection of a contrast medium.
The pathologic narrowing of the orifice of the PULMONARY VALVE. This lesion restricts blood outflow from the RIGHT VENTRICLE to the PULMONARY ARTERY. When the trileaflet valve is fused into an imperforate membrane, the blockage is complete.
A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Any drug treatment modality designed to inhibit UTERINE CONTRACTION. It is used in pregnant women to arrest PREMATURE LABOR.
An assessment of a person's personality based on their facial and other external features.
This structure includes the thin muscular atrial septum between the two HEART ATRIA, and the thick muscular ventricular septum between the two HEART VENTRICLES.
A congenital heart defect characterized by the narrowing or complete absence of the opening between the RIGHT VENTRICLE and the PULMONARY ARTERY. Lacking a normal PULMONARY VALVE, unoxygenated blood in the right ventricle can not be effectively pumped into the lung for oxygenation. Clinical features include rapid breathing, CYANOSIS, right ventricle atrophy, and abnormal heart sounds (HEART MURMURS).
Abnormalities in any part of the HEART SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communication between the left and the right chambers of the heart. The abnormal blood flow inside the heart may be caused by defects in the ATRIAL SEPTUM, the VENTRICULAR SEPTUM, or both.
Conditions resulting from abnormalities in the arteries branching from the ASCENDING AORTA, the curved portion of the aorta. These syndromes are results of occlusion or abnormal blood flow to the head-neck or arm region leading to neurological defects and weakness in an arm. These syndromes are associated with vascular malformations; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; TRAUMA; and blood clots.
Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.
Developmental abnormalities in any portion of the ATRIAL SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. Classification of atrial septal defects is based on location of the communication and types of incomplete fusion of atrial septa with the ENDOCARDIAL CUSHIONS in the fetal heart. They include ostium primum, ostium secundum, sinus venosus, and coronary sinus defects.
An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.
A combination of congenital heart defects consisting of four key features including VENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECTS; PULMONARY STENOSIS; RIGHT VENTRICULAR HYPERTROPHY; and a dextro-positioned AORTA. In this condition, blood from both ventricles (oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor) is pumped into the body often causing CYANOSIS.
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.
A spectrum of congenital, inherited, or acquired abnormalities in BLOOD VESSELS that can adversely affect the normal blood flow in ARTERIES or VEINS. Most are congenital defects such as abnormal communications between blood vessels (fistula), shunting of arterial blood directly into veins bypassing the CAPILLARIES (arteriovenous malformations), formation of large dilated blood blood-filled vessels (cavernous angioma), and swollen capillaries (capillary telangiectases). In rare cases, vascular malformations can result from trauma or diseases.
A valve situated at the entrance to the pulmonary trunk from the right ventricle.
The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Drugs that prevent preterm labor and immature birth by suppressing uterine contractions (TOCOLYSIS). Agents used to delay premature uterine activity include magnesium sulfate, beta-mimetics, oxytocin antagonists, calcium channel inhibitors, and adrenergic beta-receptor agonists. The use of intravenous alcohol as a tocolytic is now obsolete.
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of five named species: PAPIO URSINUS (chacma baboon), PAPIO CYNOCEPHALUS (yellow baboon), PAPIO PAPIO (western baboon), PAPIO ANUBIS (or olive baboon), and PAPIO HAMADRYAS (hamadryas baboon). Members of the Papio genus inhabit open woodland, savannahs, grassland, and rocky hill country. Some authors consider MANDRILLUS a subgenus of Papio.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Congenital structural abnormalities of the UPPER EXTREMITY.
Surgical incision into the chest wall.
A respiratory distress syndrome in newborn infants, usually premature infants with insufficient PULMONARY SURFACTANTS. The disease is characterized by the formation of a HYALINE-like membrane lining the terminal respiratory airspaces (PULMONARY ALVEOLI) and subsequent collapse of the lung (PULMONARY ATELECTASIS).
Artery arising from the brachiocephalic trunk on the right side and from the arch of the aorta on the left side. It distributes to the neck, thoracic wall, spinal cord, brain, meninges, and upper limb.
Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.
A congenital heart defect characterized by downward or apical displacement of the TRICUSPID VALVE, usually with the septal and posterior leaflets being attached to the wall of the RIGHT VENTRICLE. It is characterized by a huge RIGHT ATRIUM and a small and less effective right ventricle.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.

Prenatal features of ductus arteriosus constriction and restrictive foramen ovale in d-transposition of the great arteries. (1/253)

BACKGROUND: Although most neonates with d-transposition of the great arteries (TGA) have an uncomplicated preoperative course, some with a restrictive foramen ovale (FO), ductus arteriosus (DA) constriction, or pulmonary hypertension may be severely hypoxemic and even die shortly after birth. Our goal was to determine whether prenatal echocardiography can identify these high-risk fetuses with TGA. METHODS AND RESULTS: We reviewed the prenatal and postnatal echocardiograms and outcomes of 16 fetuses with TGA/intact ventricular septum or small ventricular septal defect. Of the 16 fetuses, 6 prenatally had an abnormal FO (fixed position, flat, and/or redundant septum primum). Five of the 6 had restrictive FO at birth. Five fetuses had DA narrowing at the pulmonary artery end in utero, and 6 had a small DA (diameter z score of <-2.0). Of 4 fetuses with the most diminutive DA, 2 also had an abnormal appearance of the FO, and both died immediately after birth. One other fetus had persistent pulmonary hypertension. Eight fetuses had abnormal Doppler flow pattern in the DA (continuous high-velocity flow, n=1; retrograde diastolic flow, n=7). CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal features of the FO, DA, or both are present in fetuses with TGA at high risk for postnatal hypoxemia. These features may result from the abnormal intrauterine hemodynamics in TGA. A combination of restrictive FO and DA constriction in TGA may be associated with early neonatal death.  (+info)

Inducible NO synthase inhibition attenuates shear stress-induced pulmonary vasodilation in the ovine fetus. (2/253)

Recent studies have suggested that type II (inducible) nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS II) is present in the fetal lung, but its physiological roles are uncertain. Whether NOS II activity contributes to the NO-mediated fall in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) during shear stress-induced pulmonary vasodilation is unknown. We studied the hemodynamic effects of two selective NOS II antagonists [aminoguanidine (AG) and S-ethylisothiourea (EIT)], a nonselective NOS antagonist [nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA)], and a nonselective vasoconstrictor (U-46619) on PVR during partial compression of the ductus arteriosus (DA) in 20 chronically prepared fetal lambs (mean age 132 +/- 2 days, term 147 days). At surgery, catheters were placed in the left pulmonary artery (LPA) for selective drug infusion, an ultrasonic flow transducer was placed on the LPA to measure blood flow, and an inflatable vascular occluder was placed loosely around the DA for compression. On alternate days, a brief intrapulmonary infusion of normal saline (control), AG, EIT, L-NNA, or U-46619 was infused in random order into the LPA. The DA was compressed to increase mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP) 12-15 mmHg above baseline values and held constant for 30 min. In control studies, DA compression reduced PVR by 42% from baseline values (P < 0.01). L-NNA treatment completely blocked the fall in PVR during DA compression. AG and EIT attenuated the decrease in PVR by 30 and 19%, respectively (P < 0.05). Nonspecific elevation in PVR by U-46619 did not affect the fall in PVR during DA compression. Immunostaining for NOS II identified this isoform in airway epithelium and vascular smooth muscle in the late-gestation ovine fetal lung. We conclude that selective NOS II antagonists attenuate but do not block shear stress-induced vasodilation in the fetal lung. We speculate that stimulation of NOS II activity, perhaps from smooth muscle cells, contributes in part to the NO-mediated fall in PVR during shear stress-induced pulmonary vasodilation.  (+info)

Cyclooxygenase-2 plays a significant role in regulating the tone of the fetal lamb ductus arteriosus. (3/253)

Nonselective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors are potent tocolytic agents but have adverse effects on the fetal ductus arteriosus. We hypothesized that COX-2 inhibitors may not affect the ductus if the predominant COX isoform is COX-1. To examine this hypothesis, we used ductus arteriosus obtained from late-gestation fetal lambs. In contrast to our hypothesis, fetal lamb ductus arteriosus expressed both COX-1- and COX-2-immunoreactive protein (by Western analysis). Although COX-1 was found in both endothelial and smooth muscle cells, COX-2 was found only in the endothelial cells lining the ductus lumen (by immunohistochemistry). The relative contribution of COX-1 and COX-2 to PGE2 synthesis was consistent with the immunohistochemical results: in the intact ductus, PGE2 formation was catalyzed by both COX-1 and COX-2 in equivalent proportions; in the endothelium-denuded ductus, COX-2 no longer played a significant role in PGE2 synthesis. NS-398, a selective inhibitor of COX-2, was 66% as effective as the selective COX-1 inhibitor valeryl salicylate and the nonselective COX inhibitor indomethacin in causing contraction of the ductus in vitro. At this time, caution should be used when recommending COX-2 inhibitors for use in pregnant women.  (+info)

The effects of maternal indomethacin therapy on human fetal branch pulmonary arterial vascular impedance. (4/253)

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether maternal indomethacin therapy affects human fetal pulmonary arterial vascular impedance without constriction of the ductus arteriosus and to determine the changes in the pulmonary arterial vascular impedance in the presence of ductal constriction. STUDY DESIGN: In this cross-sectional study, 52 normal fetuses without maternal medication (control group), 33 fetuses without ductal constriction (Study group I) and 11 fetuses with ductal constriction (Study group II) during maternal indomethacin therapy between 24 and 34 weeks of gestation were examined by Doppler echo-cardiography. Blood velocity waveforms across the proximal right or left pulmonary artery were obtained and the pulsatility index (PI) of the proximal pulmonary arteries was calculated. RESULTS: In the control group, the proximal pulmonary artery PI was higher (p < 0.0001) at 24-25 weeks (n = 7) (3.73 +/- 0.33; mean +/- SD) than at 33-34 week of gestation (n = 11) (2.98 +/- 0.27). The PI was constantly greater (p < 0.005) in Study group I than in the control group. However, in this group the mean average weekly decrease in the PI of the proximal pulmonary arteries was similar to that in the control group. After 26 weeks of gestation, the PI values in Study group II were significantly higher than in the control group (27 weeks: 4.12 vs. 3.34 (p < 0.005); 30 weeks: 4.48 vs. 3.14 (p < 0.0001); 34 weeks: 4.96 vs. 3.00 (p < 0.0001), respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Human fetal pulmonary arterial vascular impedance is increased by maternal indomethacin therapy even without ductal constriction. In the presence of ductal constriction, the magnitude of the increase in the vascular impedance is related to the gestational age.  (+info)

Biventricular repair approach in ducto-dependent neonates with hypoplastic but morphologically normal left ventricle. (5/253)

OBJECTIVES: Increased afterload and multilevel LV obstruction is constant. We assumed that restoration of normal loading conditions by relief of LV obstructions promotes its growth, provided that part of the cardiac output was preoperatively supported by the LV, whatever the echocardiographic indexes. BACKGROUND: Whether to perform uni- or biventricular repair in ducto dependent neonates with hypoplastic but morphologically normal LV (hypoplastic left heart syndrome classes II & III) remains unanswered. Echocardiographic criteria have been proposed for surgical decision. METHODS: Twenty ducto dependent neonates presented with this anomaly. All had aortic coarctation associated to multilevel LV obstruction. Preoperative echocardiographic assessment showed: mean EDLW of 12.4 +/- 3.03 ml/m2 and mean Rhodes score of -1.73 +/-0.8. Surgery consisted in relief of LV outflow tract obstruction by coarctation repair in all associated to aortic commissurotomy in one and ASD closure in 2. RESULTS: There were 3 early and 2 late deaths. Failure of biventricular repair and LV growth was obvious in patients with severe anatomic mitral stenosis. The other demonstrated growth of the left heart. At hospital discharge the EDLVV was 19.4+/-3.12 ml/m2 (p = 0.0001) and the Rhodes score was -0.38+/-1.01 (p = 0.0003). Actuarial survival and freedom from reoperation rates at 5 years were 72.5% and 46%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Biventricular repair can be proposed to ducto dependent neonates with hypoplastic but morphologically normal LV provided that all anatomical causes of LV obstruction can be relieved. Secondary growth of the left heart then occurs; however, the reoperation rate is high.  (+info)

Coanda effect on ductal flow in the pulmonary artery. (6/253)

The Coanda effect (the tendency of a jet stream to adhere to a boundary wall), and the relevant anatomy, may explain the location of ductal jets within the main pulmonary artery. With the usual insertion of the duct close to the left pulmonary artery, during right ventricular ejection, the ductal jet adheres to the left wall of the main pulmonary artery. When right ventricular ejection is absent in pulmonary atresia, the ductal jet streams down the right wall of the pulmonary artery to the pulmonary valve, reverses, and maintains a parallel column back toward the bifurcation. If the reversed flow is mistaken for ejection from the right ventricle, the diagnosis of pulmonary atresia may be missed.  (+info)

Fate of the stented arterial duct. (7/253)

BACKGROUND: The technical aspects of ductal stenting have been reported, but little is known of the fate of the duct after stent implantation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Nineteen patients underwent stent implantation to maintain ductal patency. Eight had hypoplastic left heart (HLH) syndrome, 10 had pulmonary atresia, and 1 had tricuspid atresia. Median survival with HLH was 57 (12 to 907) days. Stent implantation was successful in all cases of HLH, but there were no long-term survivors. Two well-palliated infants died at transplantation. Median survival with duct-dependent pulmonary flow was 183 (0 to 1687) days, with 3 patients well at latest follow-up (56, 55, and 9 months, respectively). There were 2 operative deaths due to ductal spasm and 4 late deaths, 1 due to duct thrombosis, 1 due to chronic lung disease, and 2 of unknown cause. Stent implantation failed in 4 of the 11 cases. Assessment of endothelialization was possible in 13 cases; the stent was partially covered in 3 and fully endothelialized in all 10 cases assessed >8 weeks after implantation. In patients stented for inadequate pulmonary flow, ductal intimal hyperplasia occurred by 9 months in all 3 survivors but responded to repeated dilation. CONCLUSIONS: Ductal stenting cannot be recommended. In patients with HLH, it provides only short-term palliation even when combined with pulmonary artery banding. With duct-dependent pulmonary blood flow, the procedure carries high risk, and duration of palliation is poor. In patients with bilateral ducts and absent central pulmonary arteries, good palliation may be achieved, but repeated angioplasty is necessary to counteract intimal hyperplasia.  (+info)

Ductus venosus blood velocity in persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. (8/253)

AIMS: To investigate the ductus venosus flow velocity (DVFV) in infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN); to evaluate the DVFV pattern as a possible diagnostic supplement in neonates with PPHN and other conditions with increased right atrial pressure. METHODS: DVFV was studied in 16 neonates with PPHN on days 1-4 of postnatal life using Doppler echocardiography. DVFV was compared with that in mechanically ventilated neonates with increased intrathoracic pressure, but without signs of PPHN (n=11); with neonates with congenital heart defects resulting in right atrial pressure (n=6); and with preterm neonates without PPHN (n=46); and healthy term neonates (n=50). RESULTS: Infants with PPHN and congenital heart defects with increased right atrial pressure were regularly associated with an increased pulsatile pattern and a reversed flow velocity in ductus venosus during atrial contraction. A few short instances of reversed velocity were also noted in normal neonates before the circulation had settled during the first day after birth. CONCLUSIONS: A reversed velocity in the ductus venosus during atrial contraction at this time signifies that central venous pressure exceeds portal pressure. This negative velocity deflection is easily recognised during Doppler examination and can be recommended for diagnosing increased right atrial pressure and PPHN.  (+info)

Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) is a congenital heart defect in which the ductus arteriosus, a normal fetal blood vessel that connects the pulmonary artery and the aorta, fails to close after birth. The ductus arteriosus allows blood to bypass the lungs while the fetus is still in the womb, but it should close shortly after birth as the newborn begins to breathe and oxygenate their own blood.

If the ductus arteriosus remains open or "patent," it can result in abnormal blood flow between the pulmonary artery and aorta. This can lead to various cardiovascular complications, such as:

1. Pulmonary hypertension (high blood pressure in the lungs)
2. Congestive heart failure
3. Increased risk of respiratory infections

The severity of the symptoms and the need for treatment depend on the size of the PDA and the amount of blood flow that is shunted from the aorta to the pulmonary artery. Small PDAs may close on their own over time, while larger PDAs typically require medical intervention, such as medication or surgical closure.

The Ductus Arteriosus is a fetal blood vessel that connects the pulmonary trunk (the artery that carries blood from the heart to the lungs) and the aorta (the largest artery in the body, which carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body). This vessel allows most of the blood from the right ventricle of the fetal heart to bypass the lungs, as the fetus receives oxygen through the placenta rather than breathing air.

After birth, with the first breaths, the blood oxygen level increases and the pressure in the lungs rises. As a result, the circulation in the newborn's body changes, and the Ductus Arteriosus is no longer needed. Within the first few days or weeks of life, this vessel usually closes spontaneously, turning into a fibrous cord called the Ligamentum Arteriosum.

Persistent Patency of the Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) occurs when the Ductus Arteriosus does not close after birth, which can lead to various complications such as heart failure and pulmonary hypertension. This condition is often seen in premature infants and may require medical intervention or surgical closure of the vessel.

Persistent Truncus Arteriosus is a rare congenital heart defect that is characterized by the failure of the truncus arteriosus to divide into the separate pulmonary artery and aorta during fetal development. This results in a single large vessel, the truncus arteriosus, which gives rise to both the systemic and pulmonary circulations.

The truncus arteriosus contains a single semilunar valve, instead of the two separate semilunar valves (pulmonary and aortic) found in a normal heart. Additionally, there is often a ventricular septal defect (VSD), a hole in the wall between the two lower chambers of the heart, present.

This condition leads to mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood within the truncus arteriosus, resulting in cyanosis (bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes) and decreased oxygen delivery to the body. Symptoms typically appear soon after birth and may include difficulty breathing, poor feeding, rapid heart rate, and failure to thrive.

Persistent truncus arteriosus is usually treated with surgical repair in infancy or early childhood to separate the pulmonary and systemic circulations, close the VSD, and reconstruct the great vessels as needed.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

A premature infant is a baby born before 37 weeks of gestation. They may face various health challenges because their organs are not fully developed. The earlier a baby is born, the higher the risk of complications. Prematurity can lead to short-term and long-term health issues, such as respiratory distress syndrome, jaundice, anemia, infections, hearing problems, vision problems, developmental delays, and cerebral palsy. Intensive medical care and support are often necessary for premature infants to ensure their survival and optimal growth and development.

Indomethacin is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is commonly used to reduce pain, inflammation, and fever. It works by inhibiting the activity of certain enzymes in the body, including cyclooxygenase (COX), which plays a role in producing prostaglandins, chemicals involved in the inflammatory response.

Indomethacin is available in various forms, such as capsules, suppositories, and injectable solutions, and is used to treat a wide range of conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, gout, and bursitis. It may also be used to relieve pain and reduce fever in other conditions, such as dental procedures or after surgery.

Like all NSAIDs, indomethacin can have side effects, including stomach ulcers, bleeding, and kidney damage, especially when taken at high doses or for long periods of time. It may also increase the risk of heart attack and stroke. Therefore, it is important to use indomethacin only as directed by a healthcare provider and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

Truncus Arteriosus is a congenital heart defect where a single large vessel arises from the heart, instead of separate pulmonary and aortic trunks. This results in the mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood within the truncus. The truncus then divides into systemic, coronary, and pulmonary arteries. It's usually associated with a ventricular septal defect. This condition is often diagnosed early in life due to cyanosis (bluish discoloration of the skin) and heart murmurs. Surgical correction is required for survival.

A "premature infant" is a newborn delivered before 37 weeks of gestation. They are at greater risk for various health complications and medical conditions compared to full-term infants, due to their immature organ systems and lower birth weight. Some common diseases and health issues that premature infants may face include:

1. Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS): A lung disorder caused by the lack of surfactant, a substance that helps keep the lungs inflated. Premature infants, especially those born before 34 weeks, are at higher risk for RDS.
2. Intraventricular Hemorrhage (IVH): Bleeding in the brain's ventricles, which can lead to developmental delays or neurological issues. The risk of IVH is inversely proportional to gestational age, meaning that the earlier the infant is born, the higher the risk.
3. Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC): A gastrointestinal disease where the intestinal tissue becomes inflamed and can die. Premature infants are at greater risk for NEC due to their immature digestive systems.
4. Jaundice: A yellowing of the skin and eyes caused by an accumulation of bilirubin, a waste product from broken-down red blood cells. Premature infants may have higher rates of jaundice due to their liver's immaturity.
5. Infections: Premature infants are more susceptible to infections because of their underdeveloped immune systems. Common sources of infection include the mother's genital tract, bloodstream, or hospital environment.
6. Anemia: A condition characterized by a low red blood cell count or insufficient hemoglobin. Premature infants may develop anemia due to frequent blood sampling, rapid growth, or inadequate erythropoietin production.
7. Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP): An eye disorder affecting premature infants, where abnormal blood vessel growth occurs in the retina. Severe ROP can lead to vision loss or blindness if not treated promptly.
8. Developmental Delays: Premature infants are at risk for developmental delays due to their immature nervous systems and environmental factors such as sensory deprivation or separation from parents.
9. Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA): A congenital heart defect where the ductus arteriosus, a blood vessel that connects two major arteries in the fetal heart, fails to close after birth. Premature infants are at higher risk for PDA due to their immature cardiovascular systems.
10. Hypothermia: Premature infants have difficulty maintaining body temperature and are at risk for hypothermia, which can lead to increased metabolic demands, poor feeding, and infection.

A septal occluder device is a type of medical implant used to close defects or holes in the heart, specifically within the septum, which is the wall that separates the two sides of the heart. The device typically consists of two disc-shaped components connected by a waist, resembling a button or an umbrella.

The procedure for implanting a septal occluder device involves inserting it through a catheter, which is introduced into a vein in the leg and guided to the heart. Once in position, the discs of the device expand and are pressed against the septum on both sides of the hole, effectively closing it. Over time, tissue grows over the device, permanently sealing the defect.

Septal occluder devices are commonly used to treat atrial septal defects (ASD) and patent foramen ovale (PFO), which are two types of congenital heart defects that can cause symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and heart palpitations. The use of these devices has revolutionized the treatment of these conditions, allowing for less invasive procedures and faster recovery times compared to traditional surgical methods.

The pulmonary artery is a large blood vessel that carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs for oxygenation. It divides into two main branches, the right and left pulmonary arteries, which further divide into smaller vessels called arterioles, and then into a vast network of capillaries in the lungs where gas exchange occurs. The thin walls of these capillaries allow oxygen to diffuse into the blood and carbon dioxide to diffuse out, making the blood oxygen-rich before it is pumped back to the left side of the heart through the pulmonary veins. This process is crucial for maintaining proper oxygenation of the body's tissues and organs.

Cardiac catheterization is a medical procedure used to diagnose and treat cardiovascular conditions. In this procedure, a thin, flexible tube called a catheter is inserted into a blood vessel in the arm or leg and threaded up to the heart. The catheter can be used to perform various diagnostic tests, such as measuring the pressure inside the heart chambers and assessing the function of the heart valves.

Cardiac catheterization can also be used to treat certain cardiovascular conditions, such as narrowed or blocked arteries. In these cases, a balloon or stent may be inserted through the catheter to open up the blood vessel and improve blood flow. This procedure is known as angioplasty or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Cardiac catheterization is typically performed in a hospital cardiac catheterization laboratory by a team of healthcare professionals, including cardiologists, radiologists, and nurses. The procedure may be done under local anesthesia with sedation or general anesthesia, depending on the individual patient's needs and preferences.

Overall, cardiac catheterization is a valuable tool in the diagnosis and treatment of various heart conditions, and it can help improve symptoms, reduce complications, and prolong life for many patients.

Ibuprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) often used for its analgesic (pain-relieving), antipyretic (fever-reducing), and anti-inflammatory effects. It works by inhibiting the enzyme cyclooxygenase, which is involved in the production of prostaglandins that cause inflammation and induce pain and fever. Ibuprofen is commonly used to alleviate symptoms of various conditions such as headaches, menstrual cramps, arthritis, mild fever, and minor aches and pains. It is available over-the-counter in various forms, including tablets, capsules, suspensions, and topical creams or gels.

A heart murmur is an abnormal sound heard during a heartbeat, which is caused by turbulent blood flow through the heart. It is often described as a blowing, whooshing, or rasping noise. Heart murmurs can be innocent (harmless and not associated with any heart disease) or pathological (indicating an underlying heart condition). They are typically detected during routine physical examinations using a stethoscope. The classification of heart murmurs includes systolic, diastolic, continuous, and functional murmurs, based on the timing and auscultatory location. Various heart conditions, such as valvular disorders, congenital heart defects, or infections, can cause pathological heart murmurs. Further evaluation with diagnostic tests like echocardiography is often required to determine the underlying cause and appropriate treatment.

Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are structural abnormalities in the heart that are present at birth. They can affect any part of the heart's structure, including the walls of the heart, the valves inside the heart, and the major blood vessels that lead to and from the heart.

Congenital heart defects can range from mild to severe and can cause various symptoms depending on the type and severity of the defect. Some common symptoms of CHDs include cyanosis (a bluish tint to the skin, lips, and fingernails), shortness of breath, fatigue, poor feeding, and slow growth in infants and children.

There are many different types of congenital heart defects, including:

1. Septal defects: These are holes in the walls that separate the four chambers of the heart. The two most common septal defects are atrial septal defect (ASD) and ventricular septal defect (VSD).
2. Valve abnormalities: These include narrowed or leaky valves, which can affect blood flow through the heart.
3. Obstruction defects: These occur when blood flow is blocked or restricted due to narrowing or absence of a part of the heart's structure. Examples include pulmonary stenosis and coarctation of the aorta.
4. Cyanotic heart defects: These cause a lack of oxygen in the blood, leading to cyanosis. Examples include tetralogy of Fallot and transposition of the great arteries.

The causes of congenital heart defects are not fully understood, but genetic factors and environmental influences during pregnancy may play a role. Some CHDs can be detected before birth through prenatal testing, while others may not be diagnosed until after birth or later in childhood. Treatment for CHDs may include medication, surgery, or other interventions to improve blood flow and oxygenation of the body's tissues.

Endarteritis is a medical condition that refers to the inflammation of the inner lining (intima) of an artery, particularly the portion that comes into contact with the heart. This condition can affect any artery in the body and is often caused by bacterial or fungal infections that spread through the bloodstream.

Endarteritis can lead to the narrowing or complete blockage of the affected artery, which can result in tissue damage or even death in severe cases. The symptoms of endarteritis depend on the location and extent of the inflammation, but they may include fever, chills, fatigue, weight loss, and pain or weakness in the affected area. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to eliminate the underlying infection and may also include surgery to remove damaged tissue or restore blood flow.

Ligation, in the context of medical terminology, refers to the process of tying off a part of the body, usually blood vessels or tissue, with a surgical suture or another device. The goal is to stop the flow of fluids such as blood or other substances within the body. It is commonly used during surgeries to control bleeding or to block the passage of fluids, gases, or solids in various parts of the body.

Gestational age is the length of time that has passed since the first day of the last menstrual period (LMP) in pregnant women. It is the standard unit used to estimate the age of a pregnancy and is typically expressed in weeks. This measure is used because the exact date of conception is often not known, but the start of the last menstrual period is usually easier to recall.

It's important to note that since ovulation typically occurs around two weeks after the start of the LMP, gestational age is approximately two weeks longer than fetal age, which is the actual time elapsed since conception. Medical professionals use both gestational and fetal age to track the development and growth of the fetus during pregnancy.

Echocardiography, Doppler, color is a type of ultrasound test that uses sound waves to create detailed moving images of the heart and its blood vessels. In this technique, color Doppler is used to visualize the direction and speed of blood flow through the heart and great vessels. The movement of the red blood cells causes a change in frequency of the reflected sound waves (Doppler shift), which can be used to calculate the velocity and direction of the blood flow. By adding color to the Doppler image, it becomes easier for the interpreting physician to understand the complex three-dimensional motion of blood through the heart. This test is often used to diagnose and monitor various heart conditions, including valve disorders, congenital heart defects, and cardiac muscle diseases.

A ventricular septal defect (VSD) is a type of congenital heart defect that involves a hole in the wall separating the two lower chambers of the heart, the ventricles. This defect allows oxygenated blood from the left ventricle to mix with deoxygenated blood in the right ventricle, leading to inefficient oxygenation of the body's tissues. The size and location of the hole can vary, and symptoms may range from none to severe, depending on the size of the defect and the amount of blood that is able to shunt between the ventricles. Small VSDs may close on their own over time, while larger defects usually require medical intervention, such as medication or surgery, to prevent complications like pulmonary hypertension and heart failure.

Prostheses: Artificial substitutes or replacements for missing body parts, such as limbs, eyes, or teeth. They are designed to restore the function, appearance, or mobility of the lost part. Prosthetic devices can be categorized into several types, including:

1. External prostheses: Devices that are attached to the outside of the body, like artificial arms, legs, hands, and feet. These may be further classified into:
a. Cosmetic or aesthetic prostheses: Primarily designed to improve the appearance of the affected area.
b. Functional prostheses: Designed to help restore the functionality and mobility of the lost limb.
2. Internal prostheses: Implanted artificial parts that replace missing internal organs, bones, or tissues, such as heart valves, hip joints, or intraocular lenses.

Implants: Medical devices or substances that are intentionally placed inside the body to replace or support a missing or damaged biological structure, deliver medication, monitor physiological functions, or enhance bodily functions. Examples of implants include:

1. Orthopedic implants: Devices used to replace or reinforce damaged bones, joints, or cartilage, such as knee or hip replacements.
2. Cardiovascular implants: Devices that help support or regulate heart function, like pacemakers, defibrillators, and artificial heart valves.
3. Dental implants: Artificial tooth roots that are placed into the jawbone to support dental prostheses, such as crowns, bridges, or dentures.
4. Neurological implants: Devices used to stimulate nerves, brain structures, or spinal cord tissues to treat various neurological conditions, like deep brain stimulators for Parkinson's disease or cochlear implants for hearing loss.
5. Ophthalmic implants: Artificial lenses that are placed inside the eye to replace a damaged or removed natural lens, such as intraocular lenses used in cataract surgery.

A fetus is the developing offspring in a mammal, from the end of the embryonic period (approximately 8 weeks after fertilization in humans) until birth. In humans, the fetal stage of development starts from the eleventh week of pregnancy and continues until childbirth, which is termed as full-term pregnancy at around 37 to 40 weeks of gestation. During this time, the organ systems become fully developed and the body grows in size. The fetus is surrounded by the amniotic fluid within the amniotic sac and is connected to the placenta via the umbilical cord, through which it receives nutrients and oxygen from the mother. Regular prenatal care is essential during this period to monitor the growth and development of the fetus and ensure a healthy pregnancy and delivery.

A very low birth weight (VLBW) infant is a baby born weighing less than 1500 grams (3 pounds, 5 ounces). This category includes babies who are extremely preterm (born at or before 28 weeks of gestation) and/or have intrauterine growth restriction. VLBW infants often face significant health challenges, including respiratory distress syndrome, brain bleeds, infections, and feeding difficulties. They may require extended hospital stays in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and have a higher risk of long-term neurodevelopmental impairments compared to infants with normal birth weights.

Doppler echocardiography is a type of ultrasound test that uses high-frequency sound waves to produce detailed images of the heart and its blood vessels. It measures the direction and speed of blood flow in the heart and major blood vessels leading to and from the heart. This helps to evaluate various conditions such as valve problems, congenital heart defects, and heart muscle diseases.

In Doppler echocardiography, a small handheld device called a transducer is placed on the chest, which emits sound waves that bounce off the heart and blood vessels. The transducer then picks up the returning echoes, which are processed by a computer to create moving images of the heart.

The Doppler effect is used to measure the speed and direction of blood flow. This occurs when the frequency of the sound waves changes as they bounce off moving objects, such as red blood cells. By analyzing these changes, the ultrasound machine can calculate the velocity and direction of blood flow in different parts of the heart.

Doppler echocardiography is a non-invasive test that does not require any needles or dyes. It is generally safe and painless, although patients may experience some discomfort from the pressure applied by the transducer on the chest. The test usually takes about 30 to 60 minutes to complete.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

The fetal heart is the cardiovascular organ that develops in the growing fetus during pregnancy. It starts to form around 22 days after conception and continues to develop throughout the first trimester. By the end of the eighth week of gestation, the fetal heart has developed enough to pump blood throughout the body.

The fetal heart is similar in structure to the adult heart but has some differences. It is smaller and more compact, with a four-chambered structure that includes two atria and two ventricles. The fetal heart also has unique features such as the foramen ovale, which is a hole between the right and left atria that allows blood to bypass the lungs, and the ductus arteriosus, a blood vessel that connects the pulmonary artery to the aorta and diverts blood away from the lungs.

The fetal heart is responsible for pumping oxygenated blood from the placenta to the rest of the body and returning deoxygenated blood back to the placenta for re-oxygenation. The rate of the fetal heartbeat is faster than that of an adult, typically ranging from 120 to 160 beats per minute. Fetal heart rate monitoring is a common method used during pregnancy and childbirth to assess the health and well-being of the developing fetus.

Balloon occlusion is a medical procedure that involves the use of a small, deflated balloon at the end of a catheter, which can be inserted into a blood vessel or other tubular structure in the body. Once the balloon is in position, it is inflated with a fluid or gas to create a blockage or obstruction in the vessel. This can be used for various medical purposes, such as:

1. Controlling bleeding: By inflating the balloon in a blood vessel, doctors can temporarily stop the flow of blood to a specific area, allowing them to treat injuries or abnormalities that are causing excessive bleeding.
2. Vessel narrowing or blockage assessment: Balloon occlusion can be used to assess the severity of narrowing or blockages in blood vessels. By inflating the balloon and measuring the pressure differences upstream and downstream, doctors can determine the extent of the obstruction and plan appropriate treatment.
3. Embolization therapy: In some cases, balloon occlusion is used to deliver embolic agents (such as coils, particles, or glue) that block off blood flow to specific areas. This can be useful in treating conditions like tumors, arteriovenous malformations, or aneurysms.
4. Temporary vessel occlusion during surgery: During certain surgical procedures, it may be necessary to temporarily stop the flow of blood to a specific area. Balloon occlusion can be used to achieve this quickly and safely.
5. Assisting in the placement of stents or other devices: Balloon occlusion can help position and deploy stents or other medical devices by providing temporary support or blocking off blood flow during the procedure.

It is important to note that balloon occlusion procedures carry potential risks, such as vessel injury, infection, or embolism (the blockage of a blood vessel by a clot or foreign material). These risks should be carefully weighed against the benefits when considering this type of treatment.

Pulmonary circulation refers to the process of blood flow through the lungs, where blood picks up oxygen and releases carbon dioxide. This is a vital part of the overall circulatory system, which delivers nutrients and oxygen to the body's cells while removing waste products like carbon dioxide.

In pulmonary circulation, deoxygenated blood from the systemic circulation returns to the right atrium of the heart via the superior and inferior vena cava. The blood then moves into the right ventricle through the tricuspid valve and gets pumped into the pulmonary artery when the right ventricle contracts.

The pulmonary artery divides into smaller vessels called arterioles, which further branch into a vast network of tiny capillaries in the lungs. Here, oxygen from the alveoli diffuses into the blood, binding to hemoglobin in red blood cells, while carbon dioxide leaves the blood and is exhaled through the nose or mouth.

The now oxygenated blood collects in venules, which merge to form pulmonary veins. These veins transport the oxygen-rich blood back to the left atrium of the heart, where it enters the systemic circulation once again. This continuous cycle enables the body's cells to receive the necessary oxygen and nutrients for proper functioning while disposing of waste products.

Aortic coarctation is a narrowing of the aorta, the largest blood vessel in the body that carries oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the rest of the body. This condition usually occurs in the part of the aorta that is just beyond where it arises from the left ventricle and before it divides into the iliac arteries.

In aortic coarctation, the narrowing can vary from mild to severe, and it can cause a variety of symptoms depending on the severity of the narrowing and the age of the individual. In newborns and infants with severe coarctation, symptoms may include difficulty breathing, poor feeding, and weak or absent femoral pulses (located in the groin area). Older children and adults with mild to moderate coarctation may not experience any symptoms until later in life, when high blood pressure, headaches, nosebleeds, leg cramps, or heart failure develop.

Aortic coarctation is typically diagnosed through physical examination, imaging tests such as echocardiography, CT angiography, or MRI, and sometimes cardiac catheterization. Treatment options include surgical repair or balloon dilation (also known as balloon angioplasty) to open the narrowed section of the aorta. If left untreated, aortic coarctation can lead to serious complications such as high blood pressure, heart failure, stroke, and rupture or dissection of the aorta.

Aortography is a medical procedure that involves taking X-ray images of the aorta, which is the largest blood vessel in the body. The procedure is usually performed to diagnose or assess various conditions related to the aorta, such as aneurysms, dissections, or blockages.

To perform an aortography, a contrast dye is injected into the aorta through a catheter that is inserted into an artery, typically in the leg or arm. The contrast dye makes the aorta visible on X-ray images, allowing doctors to see its structure and any abnormalities that may be present.

The procedure is usually performed in a hospital or outpatient setting and may require sedation or anesthesia. While aortography can provide valuable diagnostic information, it also carries some risks, such as allergic reactions to the contrast dye, damage to blood vessels, or infection. Therefore, it is typically reserved for situations where other diagnostic tests have been inconclusive or where more invasive treatment may be required.

Therapeutic embolization is a medical procedure that involves intentionally blocking or obstructing blood vessels to stop excessive bleeding or block the flow of blood to a tumor or abnormal tissue. This is typically accomplished by injecting small particles, such as microspheres or coils, into the targeted blood vessel through a catheter, which is inserted into a larger blood vessel and guided to the desired location using imaging techniques like X-ray or CT scanning. The goal of therapeutic embolization is to reduce the size of a tumor, control bleeding, or block off abnormal blood vessels that are causing problems.

I apologize, but "sheep" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is a common animal with the scientific name Ovis aries. If you have any medical or health-related questions, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

The thoracic aorta is the segment of the largest artery in the human body (the aorta) that runs through the chest region (thorax). The thoracic aorta begins at the aortic arch, where it branches off from the ascending aorta, and extends down to the diaphragm, where it becomes the abdominal aorta.

The thoracic aorta is divided into three parts: the ascending aorta, the aortic arch, and the descending aorta. The ascending aorta rises from the left ventricle of the heart and is about 2 inches (5 centimeters) long. The aortic arch curves backward and to the left, giving rise to the brachiocephalic trunk, the left common carotid artery, and the left subclavian artery. The descending thoracic aorta runs downward through the chest, passing through the diaphragm to become the abdominal aorta.

The thoracic aorta supplies oxygenated blood to the upper body, including the head, neck, arms, and chest. It plays a critical role in maintaining blood flow and pressure throughout the body.

"Papio papio" is not a medical term, but a scientific name for an animal species. It refers to the Guinea baboon, which is a type of old world monkey found in western and central Africa. The Guinea baboon is not commonly associated with medical definitions or health-related topics. If you have any questions about primatology or veterinary medicine related to this species, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Echocardiography is a medical procedure that uses sound waves to produce detailed images of the heart's structure, function, and motion. It is a non-invasive test that can help diagnose various heart conditions, such as valve problems, heart muscle damage, blood clots, and congenital heart defects.

During an echocardiogram, a transducer (a device that sends and receives sound waves) is placed on the chest or passed through the esophagus to obtain images of the heart. The sound waves produced by the transducer bounce off the heart structures and return to the transducer, which then converts them into electrical signals that are processed to create images of the heart.

There are several types of echocardiograms, including:

* Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE): This is the most common type of echocardiogram and involves placing the transducer on the chest.
* Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE): This type of echocardiogram involves passing a specialized transducer through the esophagus to obtain images of the heart from a closer proximity.
* Stress echocardiography: This type of echocardiogram is performed during exercise or medication-induced stress to assess how the heart functions under stress.
* Doppler echocardiography: This type of echocardiogram uses sound waves to measure blood flow and velocity in the heart and blood vessels.

Echocardiography is a valuable tool for diagnosing and managing various heart conditions, as it provides detailed information about the structure and function of the heart. It is generally safe, non-invasive, and painless, making it a popular choice for doctors and patients alike.

Prenatal ultrasonography, also known as obstetric ultrasound, is a medical diagnostic procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of the developing fetus, placenta, and amniotic fluid inside the uterus. It is a non-invasive and painless test that is widely used during pregnancy to monitor the growth and development of the fetus, detect any potential abnormalities or complications, and determine the due date.

During the procedure, a transducer (a small handheld device) is placed on the mother's abdomen and moved around to capture images from different angles. The sound waves travel through the mother's body and bounce back off the fetus, producing echoes that are then converted into electrical signals and displayed as images on a screen.

Prenatal ultrasonography can be performed at various stages of pregnancy, including early pregnancy to confirm the pregnancy and detect the number of fetuses, mid-pregnancy to assess the growth and development of the fetus, and late pregnancy to evaluate the position of the fetus and determine if it is head down or breech. It can also be used to guide invasive procedures such as amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling.

Overall, prenatal ultrasonography is a valuable tool in modern obstetrics that helps ensure the health and well-being of both the mother and the developing fetus.

'Abnormalities, Multiple' is a broad term that refers to the presence of two or more structural or functional anomalies in an individual. These abnormalities can be present at birth (congenital) or can develop later in life (acquired). They can affect various organs and systems of the body and can vary greatly in severity and impact on a person's health and well-being.

Multiple abnormalities can occur due to genetic factors, environmental influences, or a combination of both. Chromosomal abnormalities, gene mutations, exposure to teratogens (substances that cause birth defects), and maternal infections during pregnancy are some of the common causes of multiple congenital abnormalities.

Examples of multiple congenital abnormalities include Down syndrome, Turner syndrome, and VATER/VACTERL association. Acquired multiple abnormalities can result from conditions such as trauma, infection, degenerative diseases, or cancer.

The medical evaluation and management of individuals with multiple abnormalities depend on the specific abnormalities present and their impact on the individual's health and functioning. A multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals is often involved in the care of these individuals to address their complex needs.

An "Extremely Low Birth Weight" (ELBW) infant is a newborn with a birth weight below 1000 grams (2 pounds, 3 ounces), according to the World Health Organization (WHO). This classification is part of the broader category of low birth weight infants, which includes those born weighing less than 2500 grams (about 5.5 pounds). ELBW infants often face significant health challenges due to their prematurity and small size, which can include issues with breathing, feeding, temperature regulation, and potential long-term neurodevelopmental impairments. It is crucial for these infants to receive specialized care in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) to optimize their chances of survival and promote healthy development.

Cardiovascular surgical procedures refer to a range of surgeries performed on the heart and blood vessels to treat or manage various cardiovascular conditions. These surgeries can be open or minimally invasive, and they aim to correct structural abnormalities, improve blood flow, or replace damaged or diseased parts of the cardiovascular system.

Some common types of cardiovascular surgical procedures include:

1. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG): This surgery involves taking a healthy blood vessel from another part of the body and using it to create a detour around a blocked or narrowed coronary artery, improving blood flow to the heart muscle.
2. Heart valve repair or replacement: When one or more heart valves become damaged or diseased, they may not open or close properly, leading to reduced blood flow or leakage of blood backward through the valve. In these cases, surgeons may repair or replace the affected valve with a mechanical or biological prosthetic valve.
3. Aneurysm repair: An aneurysm is a weakened area in the wall of an artery that can bulge and potentially rupture, causing severe bleeding. Surgeons can repair an aneurysm by reinforcing the weakened area with a graft or by replacing the affected section of the blood vessel.
4. Heart transplant: In cases where heart failure is irreversible and all other treatment options have been exhausted, a heart transplant may be necessary. This procedure involves removing the damaged heart and replacing it with a healthy donor heart.
5. Ventricular assist devices (VADs): These are mechanical pumps that can be implanted to help support heart function in patients with advanced heart failure who are not candidates for heart transplants. VADs can help improve blood flow, reduce symptoms, and increase the patient's quality of life.
6. Minimally invasive procedures: Advances in technology have led to the development of several minimally invasive cardiovascular surgical procedures, such as robotic-assisted heart surgery, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS), and transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). These techniques typically involve smaller incisions, reduced blood loss, shorter hospital stays, and faster recovery times compared to traditional open-heart surgeries.

Cardiovascular agents are a class of medications that are used to treat various conditions related to the cardiovascular system, which includes the heart and blood vessels. These agents can be further divided into several subcategories based on their specific mechanisms of action and therapeutic effects. Here are some examples:

1. Antiarrhythmics: These drugs are used to treat abnormal heart rhythms or arrhythmias. They work by stabilizing the electrical activity of the heart and preventing irregular impulses from spreading through the heart muscle.
2. Antihypertensives: These medications are used to lower high blood pressure, also known as hypertension. There are several classes of antihypertensive drugs, including diuretics, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors.
3. Anticoagulants: These drugs are used to prevent blood clots from forming or growing larger. They work by interfering with the coagulation cascade, which is a series of chemical reactions that lead to the formation of a blood clot.
4. Antiplatelet agents: These medications are used to prevent platelets in the blood from sticking together and forming clots. They work by inhibiting the aggregation of platelets, which are small cells in the blood that help form clots.
5. Lipid-lowering agents: These drugs are used to lower cholesterol and other fats in the blood. They work by reducing the production or absorption of cholesterol in the body or increasing the removal of cholesterol from the bloodstream. Examples include statins, bile acid sequestrants, and PCSK9 inhibitors.
6. Vasodilators: These medications are used to widen blood vessels and improve blood flow. They work by relaxing the smooth muscle in the walls of blood vessels, causing them to dilate or widen. Examples include nitrates, calcium channel blockers, and ACE inhibitors.
7. Inotropes: These drugs are used to increase the force of heart contractions. They work by increasing the sensitivity of heart muscle cells to calcium ions, which are necessary for muscle contraction.

These are just a few examples of cardiovascular medications that are used to treat various conditions related to the heart and blood vessels. It is important to note that these medications can have side effects and should be taken under the guidance of a healthcare provider.

Fetal diseases are medical conditions or abnormalities that affect a fetus during pregnancy. These diseases can be caused by genetic factors, environmental influences, or a combination of both. They can range from mild to severe and may impact various organ systems in the developing fetus. Examples of fetal diseases include congenital heart defects, neural tube defects, chromosomal abnormalities such as Down syndrome, and infectious diseases such as toxoplasmosis or rubella. Fetal diseases can be diagnosed through prenatal testing, including ultrasound, amniocentesis, and chorionic villus sampling. Treatment options may include medication, surgery, or delivery of the fetus, depending on the nature and severity of the disease.

Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS), Newborn is a common lung disorder in premature infants. It occurs when the lungs lack a substance called surfactant, which helps keep the tiny air sacs in the lungs open. This results in difficulty breathing and oxygenation, causing symptoms such as rapid, shallow breathing, grunting noises, flaring of the nostrils, and retractions (the skin between the ribs pulls in with each breath). RDS is more common in infants born before 34 weeks of gestation and is treated with surfactant replacement therapy, oxygen support, and mechanical ventilation if necessary. In severe cases, it can lead to complications such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia or even death.

Persistent Fetal Circulation Syndrome (PFCS), also known as Persistent Truncus Arteriosus or Failure of Infant Pulmonary Circulation to Develop, is a rare and complex congenital heart defect. It is a condition where the fetal circulatory patterns persist after birth, preventing the normal transition from fetal to neonatal circulation.

In a healthy newborn, the circulation changes so that oxygenated blood flows to the body through the aorta and deoxygenated blood returns to the lungs through the pulmonary artery. However, in PFCS, the blood bypasses the lungs because of a lack of communication between the systemic and pulmonary circulations. This results in insufficient oxygen supply to the body and cyanosis (bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes).

The main features of PFCS include:

1. Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA): A persistent opening between the pulmonary artery and the aorta, which should normally close after birth.
2. Persistent Foramen Ovale (PFO): An opening between the two atria of the heart that should also close after birth.
3. Reversed or absent flow in the ductus arteriosus or ligamentum arteriosum.
4. Intact ventricular septum, meaning there is no hole between the lower chambers (ventricles) of the heart.
5. Underdevelopment or absence of the pulmonary arterial tree and/or decreased pulmonary blood flow.

PFCS can vary in severity, and its diagnosis typically requires a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies such as echocardiography, and sometimes cardiac catheterization. Treatment usually involves surgical intervention to establish normal circulation and improve oxygenation. The prognosis depends on the severity of the condition and the timeliness and effectiveness of the treatment.

An aneurysm is a localized, balloon-like bulge in the wall of a blood vessel. It occurs when the pressure inside the vessel causes a weakened area to swell and become enlarged. Aneurysms can develop in any blood vessel, but they are most common in arteries at the base of the brain (cerebral aneurysm) and the main artery carrying blood from the heart to the rest of the body (aortic aneurysm).

Aneurysms can be classified as saccular or fusiform, depending on their shape. A saccular aneurysm is a round or oval bulge that projects from the side of a blood vessel, while a fusiform aneurysm is a dilated segment of a blood vessel that is uniform in width and involves all three layers of the arterial wall.

The size and location of an aneurysm can affect its risk of rupture. Generally, larger aneurysms are more likely to rupture than smaller ones. Aneurysms located in areas with high blood pressure or where the vessel branches are also at higher risk of rupture.

Ruptured aneurysms can cause life-threatening bleeding and require immediate medical attention. Symptoms of a ruptured aneurysm may include sudden severe headache, neck stiffness, nausea, vomiting, blurred vision, or loss of consciousness. Unruptured aneurysms may not cause any symptoms and are often discovered during routine imaging tests for other conditions.

Treatment options for aneurysms depend on their size, location, and risk of rupture. Small, unruptured aneurysms may be monitored with regular imaging tests to check for growth or changes. Larger or symptomatic aneurysms may require surgical intervention, such as clipping or coiling, to prevent rupture and reduce the risk of complications.

Blood flow velocity is the speed at which blood travels through a specific part of the vascular system. It is typically measured in units of distance per time, such as centimeters per second (cm/s) or meters per second (m/s). Blood flow velocity can be affected by various factors, including cardiac output, vessel diameter, and viscosity of the blood. Measuring blood flow velocity is important in diagnosing and monitoring various medical conditions, such as heart disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease.

Cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors are a class of drugs that work by blocking the activity of cyclooxygenase enzymes, which are involved in the production of prostaglandins. Prostaglandins are hormone-like substances that play a role in inflammation, pain, and fever.

There are two main types of COX enzymes: COX-1 and COX-2. COX-1 is produced continuously in various tissues throughout the body and helps maintain the normal function of the stomach and kidneys, among other things. COX-2, on the other hand, is produced in response to inflammation and is involved in the production of prostaglandins that contribute to pain, fever, and inflammation.

COX inhibitors can be non-selective, meaning they block both COX-1 and COX-2, or selective, meaning they primarily block COX-2. Non-selective COX inhibitors include drugs such as aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen, while selective COX inhibitors are often referred to as coxibs and include celecoxib (Celebrex) and rofecoxib (Vioxx).

COX inhibitors are commonly used to treat pain, inflammation, and fever. However, long-term use of non-selective COX inhibitors can increase the risk of gastrointestinal side effects such as ulcers and bleeding, while selective COX inhibitors may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events such as heart attack and stroke. It is important to talk to a healthcare provider about the potential risks and benefits of COX inhibitors before using them.

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung disease that primarily affects premature infants. It is defined as the need for supplemental oxygen at 28 days of life or beyond, due to abnormal development and injury to the lungs.

The condition was first described in the 1960s, following the introduction of mechanical ventilation and high concentrations of oxygen therapy for premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). These treatments, while lifesaving, can also cause damage to the delicate lung tissue, leading to BPD.

The pathogenesis of BPD is complex and involves an interplay between genetic factors, prenatal exposures, and postnatal injury from mechanical ventilation and oxygen toxicity. Inflammation, oxidative stress, and impaired lung development contribute to the development of BPD.

Infants with BPD typically have abnormalities in their airways, alveoli (air sacs), and blood vessels in the lungs. These changes can lead to symptoms such as difficulty breathing, wheezing, coughing, and poor growth. Treatment may include oxygen therapy, bronchodilators, corticosteroids, diuretics, and other medications to support lung function and minimize complications.

The prognosis for infants with BPD varies depending on the severity of the disease and associated medical conditions. While some infants recover completely, others may have long-term respiratory problems that require ongoing management.

Congenital Lower Extremity Deformities refer to abnormal structures or development in the lower limbs (including thighs, legs, and feet) that are present at birth. These deformities can vary greatly in severity, from mild differences in shape or position to severe defects that significantly limit mobility or function.

Congenital lower extremity deformities can be caused by genetic factors, environmental influences during pregnancy, or a combination of both. Some common examples include:

1. Congenital Talipes Equinovarus (Clubfoot): A deformity where the foot is turned inward and downward at birth.
2. Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (DDH): A condition where the hip joint does not form properly, leading to instability or dislocation.
3. Congenital Femoral Deficiency: A rare condition where there is a deficiency or absence of the femur (thigh bone) or abnormal development of the hip joint.
4. Fibular Hemimelia: A congenital absence or shortening of the fibula bone, which can lead to foot and ankle deformities.
5. Tibial Hemimelia: A rare condition where there is a partial or complete absence of the tibia bone, leading to significant leg length discrepancies and joint instability.

Treatment for congenital lower extremity deformities can range from non-surgical interventions such as bracing, casting, or physical therapy to surgical procedures aimed at correcting the deformity and improving function.

Alprostadil is a synthetic form of prostaglandin E1, which is a naturally occurring substance in the body. It is used medically for several purposes, including:

1. Treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED): Alprostadil can be administered directly into the penis as an injection or inserted as a suppository into the urethra to help improve blood flow and achieve an erection.
2. Prevention of closure of a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in premature infants: Alprostadil is used to keep the PDA open, allowing for proper blood flow between the pulmonary artery and the aorta, until surgery can be performed.
3. Treatment of peripheral arterial disease: Alprostadil can be administered intravenously to help improve blood flow in patients with peripheral arterial disease.

Alprostadil works by relaxing smooth muscle tissue in blood vessels, which increases blood flow and helps to lower blood pressure. It may also have other effects on the body, such as reducing the risk of blood clots and modulating inflammation.

It is important to note that alprostadil should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider, as it can have serious side effects if not used properly.

Cardiac surgical procedures are operations that are performed on the heart or great vessels (the aorta and vena cava) by cardiothoracic surgeons. These surgeries are often complex and require a high level of skill and expertise. Some common reasons for cardiac surgical procedures include:

1. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG): This is a surgery to improve blood flow to the heart in patients with coronary artery disease. During the procedure, a healthy blood vessel from another part of the body is used to create a detour around the blocked or narrowed portion of the coronary artery.
2. Valve repair or replacement: The heart has four valves that control blood flow through and out of the heart. If one or more of these valves become damaged or diseased, they may need to be repaired or replaced. This can be done using artificial valves or valves from animal or human donors.
3. Aneurysm repair: An aneurysm is a weakened area in the wall of an artery that can bulge out and potentially rupture. If an aneurysm occurs in the aorta, it may require surgical repair to prevent rupture.
4. Heart transplantation: In some cases, heart failure may be so severe that a heart transplant is necessary. This involves removing the diseased heart and replacing it with a healthy donor heart.
5. Arrhythmia surgery: Certain types of abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) may require surgical treatment. One such procedure is called the Maze procedure, which involves creating a pattern of scar tissue in the heart to disrupt the abnormal electrical signals that cause the arrhythmia.
6. Congenital heart defect repair: Some people are born with structural problems in their hearts that require surgical correction. These may include holes between the chambers of the heart or abnormal blood vessels.

Cardiac surgical procedures carry risks, including bleeding, infection, stroke, and death. However, for many patients, these surgeries can significantly improve their quality of life and longevity.

Eisenmenger Complex is a term used in cardiology to describe a congenital heart defect characterized by the presence of a large ventricular septal defect (a hole in the wall between the two lower chambers of the heart) or a patent ductus arteriosus (an abnormal blood vessel connecting the pulmonary artery and the aorta) along with severe pulmonary hypertension.

In this condition, the high pressure in the pulmonary arteries leads to reversal of blood flow from the lungs to the rest of the body, resulting in cyanosis (bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes due to lack of oxygen in the blood) and other symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and digital clubbing.

The name "Eisenmenger Complex" comes from the German physician Victor Eisenmenger, who first described the condition in 1897. It is a severe and life-threatening congenital heart defect that typically requires surgical intervention to improve symptoms and prolong survival.

Pulmonary hypertension is a medical condition characterized by increased blood pressure in the pulmonary arteries, which are the blood vessels that carry blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs. This results in higher than normal pressures in the pulmonary circulation and can lead to various symptoms and complications.

Pulmonary hypertension is typically defined as a mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) greater than or equal to 25 mmHg at rest, as measured by right heart catheterization. The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies pulmonary hypertension into five groups based on the underlying cause:

1. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH): This group includes idiopathic PAH, heritable PAH, drug-induced PAH, and associated PAH due to conditions such as connective tissue diseases, HIV infection, portal hypertension, congenital heart disease, and schistosomiasis.
2. Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease: This group includes conditions that cause elevated left atrial pressure, such as left ventricular systolic or diastolic dysfunction, valvular heart disease, and congenital cardiovascular shunts.
3. Pulmonary hypertension due to lung diseases and/or hypoxia: This group includes chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), interstitial lung disease, sleep-disordered breathing, alveolar hypoventilation disorders, and high altitude exposure.
4. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH): This group includes persistent obstruction of the pulmonary arteries due to organized thrombi or emboli.
5. Pulmonary hypertension with unclear and/or multifactorial mechanisms: This group includes hematologic disorders, systemic disorders, metabolic disorders, and other conditions that can cause pulmonary hypertension but do not fit into the previous groups.

Symptoms of pulmonary hypertension may include shortness of breath, fatigue, chest pain, lightheadedness, and syncope (fainting). Diagnosis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, imaging studies, and invasive testing such as right heart catheterization. Treatment depends on the underlying cause but may include medications, oxygen therapy, pulmonary rehabilitation, and, in some cases, surgical intervention.

Oliguria is a medical term that refers to a condition where the urine output is significantly reduced, typically defined as less than 400 milliliters (or about 13 ounces) in 24 hours for an adult. This condition can be a sign of underlying kidney dysfunction or other medical conditions that affect urine production, such as dehydration, shock, or obstruction of the urinary tract. It is important to note that oliguria can be a serious symptom and requires prompt medical attention to determine the cause and initiate appropriate treatment.

"Newborn animals" refers to the very young offspring of animals that have recently been born. In medical terminology, newborns are often referred to as "neonates," and they are classified as such from birth until about 28 days of age. During this time period, newborn animals are particularly vulnerable and require close monitoring and care to ensure their survival and healthy development.

The specific needs of newborn animals can vary widely depending on the species, but generally, they require warmth, nutrition, hydration, and protection from harm. In many cases, newborns are unable to regulate their own body temperature or feed themselves, so they rely heavily on their mothers for care and support.

In medical settings, newborn animals may be examined and treated by veterinarians to ensure that they are healthy and receiving the care they need. This can include providing medical interventions such as feeding tubes, antibiotics, or other treatments as needed to address any health issues that arise. Overall, the care and support of newborn animals is an important aspect of animal medicine and conservation efforts.

A Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) is a specialized hospital unit that provides advanced, intensive care for newborn babies who are born prematurely, critically ill, or have complex medical conditions. The NICU staff includes neonatologists, neonatal nurses, respiratory therapists, and other healthcare professionals trained to provide specialized care for these vulnerable infants.

The NICU is equipped with advanced technology and monitoring systems to support the babies' breathing, heart function, temperature regulation, and nutrition. The unit may include incubators or radiant warmers to maintain the baby's body temperature, ventilators to assist with breathing, and intravenous lines to provide fluids and medications.

NICUs are typically classified into levels based on the complexity of care provided, ranging from Level I (basic care for healthy newborns) to Level IV (the highest level of care for critically ill newborns). The specific services and level of care provided in a NICU may vary depending on the hospital and geographic location.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a serious gastrointestinal condition that primarily affects premature infants. It is characterized by the inflammation and death of intestinal tissue, which can lead to perforations (holes) in the bowel wall. Here's a brief medical definition:

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEK-roh-tiz-ing en-ter-koh-li-TIE-tis): A gastrointestinal emergency in which the inner lining of the intestinal wall undergoes necrosis (tissue death) due to inflammation, often affecting premature infants. The condition may result in bowel perforations, sepsis, and other systemic complications, requiring surgical intervention and intensive care management.

The exact cause of NEC is not fully understood, but it's thought to be associated with factors such as prematurity, formula feeding, intestinal immaturity or injury, and disturbed blood flow in the intestines. Symptoms may include abdominal distention, bloody stools, feeding intolerance, lethargy, and temperature instability. Early recognition and prompt treatment are crucial for improving outcomes in affected infants.

Recurrent laryngeal nerve injuries refer to damages or trauma inflicted on the recurrent laryngeal nerve, which is a branch of the vagus nerve that supplies motor function to the intrinsic muscles of the larynx, except for the cricothyroid muscle. This nerve plays a crucial role in controlling vocal fold movement and swallowing.

Injuries to this nerve can result in voice changes, hoarseness, or even complete loss of voice, depending on the severity and location of the injury. Additionally, it may also lead to breathing difficulties, coughing, and choking while swallowing due to impaired laryngeal function.

Recurrent laryngeal nerve injuries can occur due to various reasons, such as surgical complications (particularly during thyroid or neck surgeries), tumors, infections, inflammation, or direct trauma to the neck region. In some cases, these injuries may be temporary and resolve on their own or through appropriate treatment; however, severe or prolonged injuries might require medical intervention, including possible surgical repair.

Angiocardiography is a medical procedure used to examine the heart and blood vessels, particularly the chambers of the heart and the valves between them. It involves injecting a contrast agent into the bloodstream and taking X-ray images as the agent flows through the heart. This allows doctors to visualize any abnormalities such as blockages, narrowing, or leakage in the heart valves or blood vessels.

There are different types of angiocardiography, including:

* Left heart catheterization (LHC): A thin tube called a catheter is inserted into a vein in the arm or groin and threaded through to the left side of the heart to measure pressure and oxygen levels.
* Right heart catheterization (RHC): Similar to LHC, but the catheter is threaded through to the right side of the heart to measure pressure and oxygen levels there.
* Selective angiocardiography: A catheter is used to inject the contrast agent into specific blood vessels or chambers of the heart to get a more detailed view.

Angiocardiography can help diagnose and evaluate various heart conditions, including congenital heart defects, coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, and valvular heart disease. It is an invasive procedure that carries some risks, such as bleeding, infection, and damage to blood vessels or heart tissue. However, it can provide valuable information for diagnosing and treating heart conditions.

Pulmonary Valve Stenosis is a cardiac condition where the pulmonary valve, located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery, has a narrowed opening. This stenosis (narrowing) can cause obstruction of blood flow from the right ventricle to the lungs. The narrowing can be caused by a fusion of the valve leaflets, thickened or calcified valve leaflets, or rarely, a dysplastic valve.

The severity of Pulmonary Valve Stenosis is classified based on the gradient pressure across the valve, which is measured during an echocardiogram. A mild stenosis has a gradient of less than 30 mmHg, moderate stenosis has a gradient between 30-59 mmHg, and severe stenosis has a gradient of 60 mmHg or higher.

Mild Pulmonary Valve Stenosis may not require treatment, while more severe cases may need to be treated with balloon valvuloplasty or surgical valve replacement. If left untreated, Pulmonary Valve Stenosis can lead to right ventricular hypertrophy, heart failure, and other complications.

'Alloys' is not a medical term. It is a term used in materials science and engineering to describe a mixture or solid solution composed of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal. The components are typically present in significant amounts (>1% by weight). The properties of alloys, such as their strength, durability, and corrosion resistance, often differ from those of the constituent elements.

While not directly related to medicine, some alloys do have medical applications. For example, certain alloys are used in orthopedic implants, dental restorations, and other medical devices due to their desirable properties such as biocompatibility, strength, and resistance to corrosion.

Oxygen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that constitutes about 21% of the earth's atmosphere. It is a crucial element for human and most living organisms as it is vital for respiration. Inhaled oxygen enters the lungs and binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells, which carries it to tissues throughout the body where it is used to convert nutrients into energy and carbon dioxide, a waste product that is exhaled.

Medically, supplemental oxygen therapy may be provided to patients with conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, heart failure, or other medical conditions that impair the body's ability to extract sufficient oxygen from the air. Oxygen can be administered through various devices, including nasal cannulas, face masks, and ventilators.

Tocolysis is a medical intervention used to suppress preterm labor. It involves the use of medications that aim to relax the uterus and stop contractions, thereby delaying or preventing preterm delivery. The goal of tocolysis is to give time for corticosteroid administration to promote fetal lung maturity and allow for the transfer of the mother to a facility with a higher level of neonatal care, if necessary. Commonly used tocolytic agents include calcium channel blockers, beta-adrenergic agonists, and nitric oxide donors. It's important to note that tocolysis is not always successful in preventing preterm birth, and its use should be carefully considered based on the individual circumstances and gestational age of the pregnancy.

Physiognomy is not generally considered a valid medical concept in modern times. Historically, it referred to the practice of assessing a person's character or personality from their external appearance, particularly the face. However, this practice is widely discredited and considered pseudoscience, as there is no scientific evidence supporting the idea that one's physical features can reliably predict their personality traits or abilities.

The heart septum is the thick, muscular wall that divides the right and left sides of the heart. It consists of two main parts: the atrial septum, which separates the right and left atria (the upper chambers of the heart), and the ventricular septum, which separates the right and left ventricles (the lower chambers of the heart). A normal heart septum ensures that oxygen-rich blood from the lungs does not mix with oxygen-poor blood from the body. Any defect or abnormality in the heart septum is called a septal defect, which can lead to various congenital heart diseases.

Pulmonary atresia is a congenital heart defect where the pulmonary valve, which controls blood flow from the right ventricle to the lungs, doesn't form properly and instead of being open, there is a membranous obstruction or atresia. This results in an absence of communication between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery.

The right ventricle is often small and underdeveloped due to this condition, and blood flow to the lungs can be severely limited. In some cases, there may be additional heart defects present, such as a ventricular septal defect (a hole between the two lower chambers of the heart) or patent ductus arteriosus (an abnormal connection between the pulmonary artery and the aorta).

Pulmonary atresia can range from mild to severe, and treatment options depend on the specific anatomy and physiology of each individual case. Treatment may include medications, catheter-based procedures, or open-heart surgery, and in some cases, a heart transplant may be necessary.

A heart septal defect is a type of congenital heart defect, which means it is present at birth. It involves an abnormal opening in the septum, the wall that separates the two sides of the heart. This opening allows oxygen-rich blood to leak into the oxygen-poor blood chambers in the heart.

There are several types of heart septal defects, including:

1. Atrial Septal Defect (ASD): A hole in the atrial septum, the wall between the two upper chambers of the heart (the right and left atria).
2. Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD): A hole in the ventricular septum, the wall between the two lower chambers of the heart (the right and left ventricles).
3. Atrioventricular Septal Defect (AVSD): A combination of an ASD and a VSD, often accompanied by malformation of the mitral and/or tricuspid valves.

The severity of a heart septal defect depends on the size of the opening and its location in the septum. Small defects may cause no symptoms and may close on their own over time. Larger defects can lead to complications, such as heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, or infective endocarditis, and may require medical or surgical intervention.

Aortic arch syndromes are a group of conditions that affect the aortic arch, which is the curved portion of the aorta that arises from the left ventricle of the heart and gives rise to the major branches of the arterial system. These syndromes are typically caused by congenital abnormalities or degenerative changes in the aorta and can result in various complications, such as obstruction of blood flow, aneurysm formation, and dissection.

There are several types of aortic arch syndromes, including:

1. Coarctation of the Aorta: This is a narrowing of the aorta at the point where it leaves the heart, just distal to the origin of the left subclavian artery. It can cause hypertension in the upper extremities and reduced blood flow to the lower extremities.
2. Aortic Arch Aneurysm: This is a localized dilation or bulging of the aorta in the region of the aortic arch. It can lead to dissection, rupture, or embolism.
3. Aortic Arch Dissection: This is a separation of the layers of the aortic wall, which can result from hypertension, trauma, or genetic disorders such as Marfan syndrome. It can cause severe chest pain, shortness of breath, and shock.
4. Kommerell's Diverticulum: This is an outpouching or bulge in the aorta at the origin of the ligamentum arteriosum, which is a remnant of the ductus arteriosus. It can cause compression of the airways or esophagus and increase the risk of dissection or rupture.
5. Abernethy Malformation: This is a rare congenital anomaly in which there is an abnormal connection between the portal vein and systemic venous circulation, leading to the bypass of the liver. It can cause various complications such as hepatic encephalopathy, pulmonary hypertension, and liver tumors.

The diagnosis and management of aortic arch syndromes require a multidisciplinary approach involving cardiologists, radiologists, surgeons, and other specialists. Treatment options may include medications, endovascular procedures, or surgical interventions depending on the severity and location of the lesion.

Angiography is a medical procedure in which an x-ray image is taken to visualize the internal structure of blood vessels, arteries, or veins. This is done by injecting a radiopaque contrast agent (dye) into the blood vessel using a thin, flexible catheter. The dye makes the blood vessels visible on an x-ray image, allowing doctors to diagnose and treat various medical conditions such as blockages, narrowing, or malformations of the blood vessels.

There are several types of angiography, including:

* Cardiac angiography (also called coronary angiography) - used to examine the blood vessels of the heart
* Cerebral angiography - used to examine the blood vessels of the brain
* Peripheral angiography - used to examine the blood vessels in the limbs or other parts of the body.

Angiography is typically performed by a radiologist, cardiologist, or vascular surgeon in a hospital setting. It can help diagnose conditions such as coronary artery disease, aneurysms, and peripheral arterial disease, among others.

Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a type of congenital heart defect that involves the septum, which is the wall that separates the two upper chambers of the heart (atria). An ASD is a hole or abnormal opening in the atrial septum, allowing oxygen-rich blood to leak into the oxygen-poor blood chambers in the heart. This leads to an overload of blood in the right side of the heart, which can cause enlargement of the heart and increased work for the right ventricle.

ASDs can vary in size, and small defects may not cause any symptoms or require treatment. Larger defects, however, can result in symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and heart rhythm abnormalities. Over time, if left untreated, ASDs can lead to complications like pulmonary hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and stroke.

Treatment for ASD typically involves surgical closure of the defect or catheter-based procedures using devices to close the hole. The choice of treatment depends on factors such as the size and location of the defect, the patient's age and overall health, and the presence of any coexisting conditions.

Low birth weight is a term used to describe babies who are born weighing less than 5 pounds, 8 ounces (2,500 grams). It's often defined as a birth weight of 2,499 grams or less. This can be further categorized into very low birth weight (less than 1,500 grams) and extremely low birth weight (less than 1,000 grams). Low birth weight is most commonly caused by premature birth, but it can also be caused by growth restriction in the womb. These babies are at risk for numerous health complications, both in the short and long term.

Tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital heart defect that consists of four components: ventricular septal defect (a hole between the lower chambers of the heart), pulmonary stenosis (narrowing of the pulmonary valve and outflow tract), overriding aorta (the aorta lies directly over the ventricular septal defect), and right ventricular hypertrophy (thickening of the right ventricular muscle). This condition results in insufficient oxygenation of the blood, leading to cyanosis (bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes) and other symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and poor growth. Treatment typically involves surgical repair, which is usually performed during infancy or early childhood.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) are a class of medications that reduce pain, inflammation, and fever. They work by inhibiting the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, which are involved in the production of prostaglandins, chemicals that contribute to inflammation and cause blood vessels to dilate and become more permeable, leading to symptoms such as pain, redness, warmth, and swelling.

NSAIDs are commonly used to treat a variety of conditions, including arthritis, muscle strains and sprains, menstrual cramps, headaches, and fever. Some examples of NSAIDs include aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and celecoxib.

While NSAIDs are generally safe and effective when used as directed, they can have side effects, particularly when taken in large doses or for long periods of time. Common side effects include stomach ulcers, gastrointestinal bleeding, and increased risk of heart attack and stroke. It is important to follow the recommended dosage and consult with a healthcare provider if you have any concerns about using NSAIDs.

The aorta is the largest artery in the human body, which originates from the left ventricle of the heart and carries oxygenated blood to the rest of the body. It can be divided into several parts, including the ascending aorta, aortic arch, and descending aorta. The ascending aorta gives rise to the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle. The aortic arch gives rise to the brachiocephalic, left common carotid, and left subclavian arteries, which supply blood to the head, neck, and upper extremities. The descending aorta travels through the thorax and abdomen, giving rise to various intercostal, visceral, and renal arteries that supply blood to the chest wall, organs, and kidneys.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Transcription Factor AP-2 is a specific protein involved in the process of gene transcription. It belongs to a family of transcription factors known as Activating Enhancer-Binding Proteins (AP-2). These proteins regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences called enhancers, which are located near the genes they control.

AP-2 is composed of four subunits that form a homo- or heterodimer, which then binds to the consensus sequence 5'-GCCNNNGGC-3'. This sequence is typically found in the promoter regions of target genes. Once bound, AP-2 can either activate or repress gene transcription, depending on the context and the presence of cofactors.

AP-2 plays crucial roles during embryonic development, particularly in the formation of the nervous system, limbs, and face. It is also involved in cell cycle regulation, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). Dysregulation of AP-2 has been implicated in several diseases, including various types of cancer.

Vascular malformations are abnormalities in the development and growth of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels that can occur anywhere in the body. They can be present at birth or develop later in life, and they can affect both the form and function of the affected tissues and organs. Vascular malformations can involve arteries, veins, capillaries, and/or lymphatic vessels, and they can range from simple, localized lesions to complex, multifocal disorders.

Vascular malformations are typically classified based on their location, size, flow characteristics, and the type of blood or lymphatic vessels involved. Some common types of vascular malformations include:

1. Capillary malformations (CMs): These are characterized by abnormal dilated capillaries that can cause red or pink discoloration of the skin, typically on the face or neck.
2. Venous malformations (VMs): These involve abnormal veins that can cause swelling, pain, and disfigurement in the affected area.
3. Lymphatic malformations (LMs): These involve abnormal lymphatic vessels that can cause swelling, infection, and other complications.
4. Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs): These involve a tangled mass of arteries and veins that can cause high-flow lesions, bleeding, and other serious complications.
5. Combined vascular malformations: These involve a combination of different types of blood or lymphatic vessels, such as capillary-lymphatic-venous malformations (CLVMs) or arteriovenous-lymphatic malformations (AVLMs).

The exact cause of vascular malformations is not fully understood, but they are believed to result from genetic mutations that affect the development and growth of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels. Treatment options for vascular malformations depend on the type, size, location, and severity of the lesion, as well as the patient's age and overall health. Treatment may include medication, compression garments, sclerotherapy, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

The pulmonary valve, also known as the pulmonic valve, is a semilunar valve located at the exit of the right ventricle of the heart and the beginning of the pulmonary artery. It has three cusps or leaflets that prevent the backflow of blood from the pulmonary artery into the right ventricle during ventricular diastole, ensuring unidirectional flow of blood towards the lungs for oxygenation.

The third trimester of pregnancy is the final stage of pregnancy that lasts from week 29 until birth, which typically occurs around the 40th week. During this period, the fetus continues to grow and mature, gaining weight rapidly. The mother's body also prepares for childbirth by dilating the cervix and producing milk in preparation for breastfeeding. Regular prenatal care is crucial during this time to monitor the health of both the mother and the developing fetus, as well as to prepare for delivery.

Vasoconstriction is a medical term that refers to the narrowing of blood vessels due to the contraction of the smooth muscle in their walls. This process decreases the diameter of the lumen (the inner space of the blood vessel) and reduces blood flow through the affected vessels. Vasoconstriction can occur throughout the body, but it is most noticeable in the arterioles and precapillary sphincters, which control the amount of blood that flows into the capillary network.

The autonomic nervous system, specifically the sympathetic division, plays a significant role in regulating vasoconstriction through the release of neurotransmitters like norepinephrine (noradrenaline). Various hormones and chemical mediators, such as angiotensin II, endothelin-1, and serotonin, can also induce vasoconstriction.

Vasoconstriction is a vital physiological response that helps maintain blood pressure and regulate blood flow distribution in the body. However, excessive or prolonged vasoconstriction may contribute to several pathological conditions, including hypertension, stroke, and peripheral vascular diseases.

Equipment design, in the medical context, refers to the process of creating and developing medical equipment and devices, such as surgical instruments, diagnostic machines, or assistive technologies. This process involves several stages, including:

1. Identifying user needs and requirements
2. Concept development and brainstorming
3. Prototyping and testing
4. Design for manufacturing and assembly
5. Safety and regulatory compliance
6. Verification and validation
7. Training and support

The goal of equipment design is to create safe, effective, and efficient medical devices that meet the needs of healthcare providers and patients while complying with relevant regulations and standards. The design process typically involves a multidisciplinary team of engineers, clinicians, designers, and researchers who work together to develop innovative solutions that improve patient care and outcomes.

Tocolytic agents are a type of medication used in obstetrics to suppress premature labor. They work by relaxing the smooth muscle of the uterus, thereby reducing contractions and delaying delivery. Commonly used tocolytic agents include beta-adrenergic agonists (such as terbutaline), calcium channel blockers (such as nifedipine), and prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors (such as indomethacin). It's important to note that the use of tocolytic agents is typically reserved for specific clinical situations, and their benefits must be weighed against potential risks to both the mother and fetus.

"Papio" is a term used in the field of primatology, specifically for a genus of Old World monkeys known as baboons. It's not typically used in human or medical contexts. Baboons are large monkeys with robust bodies and distinctive dog-like faces. They are native to various parts of Africa and are known for their complex social structures and behaviors.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Hemodynamics is the study of how blood flows through the cardiovascular system, including the heart and the vascular network. It examines various factors that affect blood flow, such as blood volume, viscosity, vessel length and diameter, and pressure differences between different parts of the circulatory system. Hemodynamics also considers the impact of various physiological and pathological conditions on these variables, and how they in turn influence the function of vital organs and systems in the body. It is a critical area of study in fields such as cardiology, anesthesiology, and critical care medicine.

Congenital Upper Extremity Deformities refer to physical abnormalities or malformations of the upper limb (arm, elbow, forearm, wrist, and hand) that are present at birth. These deformities can vary greatly in severity, complexity, and impact on function and appearance. They may result from genetic factors, environmental influences, or a combination of both during fetal development. Examples of congenital upper extremity deformities include:

1. Radial club hand: A condition where the radius bone in the forearm is underdeveloped or absent, causing the hand to turn outward and the wrist to bend inward.
2. Club foot of the arm: Also known as congenital vertical talus, this deformity affects the ankle and foot, causing them to point upwards. In the upper extremity, it can lead to limited mobility and function.
3. Polydactyly: The presence of extra fingers or toes, which can be fully formed or rudimentary.
4. Syndactyly: Fusion or webbing of fingers or toes.
5. Radial longitudinal deficiency: A spectrum of radial ray anomalies that includes radial club hand and other associated malformations.
6. Ulnar longitudinal deficiency: Underdevelopment or absence of the ulna bone, which can lead to deformities in the forearm, wrist, and hand.
7. Amniotic band syndrome: A condition where fibrous bands in the amniotic sac entangle and restrict the growth of fetal parts, including the upper limbs.
8. Cleidocranial dysplasia: A genetic disorder characterized by underdeveloped or absent collarbones, delayed closing of the skull bones, and other skeletal abnormalities, including shortened or deformed upper extremities.
9. Arthrogryposis: A group of conditions characterized by joint contractures and stiffness, which can affect any part of the body, including the upper extremities.

Treatment for congenital upper extremity deformities typically involves a combination of surgical interventions, physical therapy, bracing, or prosthetics to improve function, appearance, and quality of life.

Thoracotomy is a surgical procedure that involves making an incision on the chest wall to gain access to the thoracic cavity, which contains the lungs, heart, esophagus, trachea, and other vital organs. The incision can be made on the side (lateral thoracotomy), back (posterolateral thoracotomy), or front (median sternotomy) of the chest wall, depending on the specific surgical indication.

Thoracotomy is performed for various indications, including lung biopsy, lung resection, esophagectomy, heart surgery, and mediastinal mass removal. The procedure allows the surgeon to directly visualize and access the organs within the thoracic cavity, perform necessary procedures, and control bleeding if needed.

After the procedure, the incision is typically closed with sutures or staples, and a chest tube may be placed to drain any accumulated fluid or air from the pleural space around the lungs. The patient will require postoperative care and monitoring in a hospital setting until their condition stabilizes.

Hyaline Membrane Disease (HMD) is a medical condition primarily seen in newborns, also known as Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome (IRDS). It's characterized by the presence of hyaline membranes, which are made up of proteins and cellular debris, on the inside surfaces of the alveoli (air sacs) in the lungs.

These membranes can interfere with the normal gas exchange process, making it difficult for the newborn to breathe effectively. The condition is often associated with premature birth, as the surfactant that coats the inside of the lungs and keeps them inflated isn't fully produced until around the 35th week of gestation.

The lack of sufficient surfactant can lead to collapse of the alveoli (atelectasis), inflammation, and the formation of hyaline membranes. HMD is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in premature infants, but with early detection and proper medical care, including the use of artificial surfactant, oxygen therapy, and mechanical ventilation, many babies can recover.

The subclavian artery is a major blood vessel that supplies the upper limb and important structures in the neck and head. It arises from the brachiocephalic trunk (in the case of the right subclavian artery) or directly from the aortic arch (in the case of the left subclavian artery).

The subclavian artery has several branches, including:

1. The vertebral artery, which supplies blood to the brainstem and cerebellum.
2. The internal thoracic artery (also known as the mammary artery), which supplies blood to the chest wall, breast, and anterior mediastinum.
3. The thyrocervical trunk, which gives rise to several branches that supply the neck, including the inferior thyroid artery, the suprascapular artery, and the transverse cervical artery.
4. The costocervical trunk, which supplies blood to the neck and upper back, including the posterior chest wall and the lower neck muscles.

The subclavian artery is a critical vessel in maintaining adequate blood flow to the upper limb, and any blockage or damage to this vessel can lead to significant morbidity, including arm pain, numbness, weakness, or even loss of function.

Catheterization is a medical procedure in which a catheter (a flexible tube) is inserted into the body to treat various medical conditions or for diagnostic purposes. The specific definition can vary depending on the area of medicine and the particular procedure being discussed. Here are some common types of catheterization:

1. Urinary catheterization: This involves inserting a catheter through the urethra into the bladder to drain urine. It is often performed to manage urinary retention, monitor urine output in critically ill patients, or assist with surgical procedures.
2. Cardiac catheterization: A procedure where a catheter is inserted into a blood vessel, usually in the groin or arm, and guided to the heart. This allows for various diagnostic tests and treatments, such as measuring pressures within the heart chambers, assessing blood flow, or performing angioplasty and stenting of narrowed coronary arteries.
3. Central venous catheterization: A catheter is inserted into a large vein, typically in the neck, chest, or groin, to administer medications, fluids, or nutrition, or to monitor central venous pressure.
4. Peritoneal dialysis catheterization: A catheter is placed into the abdominal cavity for individuals undergoing peritoneal dialysis, a type of kidney replacement therapy.
5. Neurological catheterization: In some cases, a catheter may be inserted into the cerebrospinal fluid space (lumbar puncture) or the brain's ventricular system (ventriculostomy) to diagnose or treat various neurological conditions.

These are just a few examples of catheterization procedures in medicine. The specific definition and purpose will depend on the medical context and the particular organ or body system involved.

Ebstein anomaly is a congenital heart defect that affects the tricuspid valve, which is the valve between the right atrium and right ventricle of the heart. In Ebstein anomaly, the tricuspid valve is abnormally formed and positioned, causing it to leak blood back into the right atrium. This can lead to various symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and cyanosis (bluish discoloration of the skin). Treatment for Ebstein anomaly may include medication, surgery, or a combination of both. It is important to note that the severity of the condition can vary widely among individuals, and some people with Ebstein anomaly may require more intensive treatment than others.

Ultrasonography, Doppler refers to a non-invasive diagnostic medical procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to create real-time images of the movement of blood flow through vessels, tissues, or heart valves. The Doppler effect is used to measure the frequency shift of the ultrasound waves as they bounce off moving red blood cells, which allows for the calculation of the speed and direction of blood flow. This technique is commonly used to diagnose and monitor various conditions such as deep vein thrombosis, carotid artery stenosis, heart valve abnormalities, and fetal heart development during pregnancy. It does not use radiation or contrast agents and is considered safe with minimal risks.

Dinoprostone is a prostaglandin E2 analog used in medical practice for the induction of labor and ripening of the cervix in pregnant women. It is available in various forms, including vaginal suppositories, gel, and tablets. Dinoprostone works by stimulating the contraction of uterine muscles and promoting cervical dilation, which helps in facilitating a successful delivery.

It's important to note that dinoprostone should only be administered under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as its use is associated with certain risks and side effects, including uterine hyperstimulation, fetal distress, and maternal infection. The dosage and duration of treatment are carefully monitored to minimize these risks and ensure the safety of both the mother and the baby.

Failure of the ductus arteriosus to close after birth results in a condition called patent ductus arteriosus, which results in ... The ductus arteriosus, also called the ductus Botalli, named after the Italian physiologist Leonardo Botallo, is a blood vessel ... Upon closure at birth, it becomes the ligamentum arteriosum.[clarification needed] The ductus arteriosus is formed from the ... A patent ductus arteriosus affects approximately 4% of infants with Down syndrome (DS). A failure to thrive is a very common ...
... (PDA) is a medical condition in which the ductus arteriosus fails to close after birth: this allows a ... Patent Ductus Arteriosus Causes from US Department of Health and Human Services Patent Ductus Arteriosus from Merck Patent ... Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). 22 Dec. 2009 Ohlsson A, Walia R, Shah SS (2015). "Ibuprofen for the treatment of patent ductus ... The ductus arteriosus is a fetal blood vessel that normally closes soon after birth. In a PDA, the vessel does not close, but ...
with D. C. Muir: Muir, D. C.; Brown, J. W. (December 1932). "Patent ductus arteriosus". Arch Dis Child. 7 (42): 291-302. doi: ... with William Whitaker and Donald Heath: Whitaker, W.; Heath, D.; Brown, J. W. (April 1955). "Patent ductus arteriosus with ...
Patent ductus arteriosus . Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is an abnormal connection between the aorta and the pulmonary artery ...
Patent ductus arteriosus, where blood is channelled back from the heart into the lungs, is also seen and can lead to heart ... "Patent Ductus Arteriosus". American Kennel Club Canine Health Foundation. Archived from the original on 3 July 2011. Retrieved ...
If the ductus arteriosus fails to close after birth, a condition known as patent ductus arteriosus can develop. This is a ... The ductus arteriosus becomes the ligamentum arteriosum within three weeks of birth, so that deoxygenated blood can be ... In adults, the ligamentum arteriosum has no useful function. It is a vestige of the ductus arteriosus, a temporary fetal ... Ligamentum teres Ligamentum venosum Pirie, Egle (February 28, 2022). "Ligamentum arteriosum and ductus arteriosus". Kenhub. ...
Borow KM, Hessel SJ, Sloss LJ (1 April 1981). "Fistulous aneurysm of ductus arteriosus". Heart. 45 (4): 467-470. doi:10.1136/ ... "Paralyzed left vocal cord associated with ligation of patent ductus arteriosus". The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular ... Atrial septal defect Aortopulmonary window Ebstein's Anomaly Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) Surgical intervention: ...
Patent ductus arteriosus is particularly frequent. The majority of such conditions resolve without surgical treatment, although ...
Burke, Redmond (29 Feb 2008). "Thoracoscopic Approach to Patent Ductus Arteriosus". Operative Techniques in Thoracic and ...
Campbell, M. (January 1968). "Natural history of persistent ductus arteriosus". British Heart Journal. 30 (1): 4-13. doi: ...
In 1940 he was the first surgeon in Britain to ligate an uninfected patent ductus arteriosus. Fraser, whose parents both came ... Tubbs, Oswald S. (1 July 1944). "The effect of ligation on infection of the patent ductus arteriosus". British Journal of ... ISSN 1365-2168.(subscription required) Gross, Robert; Hubbard, John (1939). "Surgical Ligation of a Patent Ductus Arteriosus". ... 19 October 1940 he became the first surgeon in the British Isles to successfully ligate an uninfected patent ductus arteriosus ...
October - Robert Edward Gross becomes the first surgeon successfully to ligate an uninfected patent ductus arteriosus, in ... Gross, Robert; Hubbard, John (1939). "Surgical Ligation of a Patent Ductus Arteriosus". Journal of the American Medical ...
... and eventual closing of the ductus arteriosus. For an infant with an interrupted aortic arch, a patent (open) ductus arteriosus ... If the diagnosis is made prenatally, prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) is started after birth to avoid closure of the ductus arteriosus. ... While PGE1 is the standard of care for maintaining the ductus arteriosus, there is insufficient data on the proper dose, ... Awaiting surgery, prostaglandin can be administered to keep the ductus arteriosus open, thereby allowing blood flow to the ...
Truncus arteriosus (embryology) Patent ductus arteriosus Ruan, Wen; Loh, Yee Jim; Guo, Kenneth Wei Qiang; Tan, Ju Le (2016). " ... Persistent truncus arteriosus (PTA), often referred to simply as truncus arteriosus, is a rare form of congenital heart disease ... arising from a patent ductus arteriosus. Type A4: Common arterial trunk in association with interrupted aortic arch. As both of ... Persistent truncus arteriosus is a rare cardiac abnormality that has a prevalence of less than 1%. Diagrams to illustrate the ...
Patent ductus arteriosus also appears in the breed. It is a condition where a small blood vessel connecting two major arteries ...
... helps ductal closure in patent ductus arteriosus. It is as effective for this purpose as ibuprofen or indomethacin ... Jasani B, Mitra S, Shah PS (December 2022). "Paracetamol (acetaminophen) for patent ductus arteriosus in preterm or low birth ...
As the oxygen-rich blood from the aorta flows across the ductus arteriosus to the pulmonary artery, the ductus arteriosus will ... While oxygen serves as a vasoconstrictor of the ductus arteriosus, prostaglandins can keep the ductus arteriosus open to ... most of the blood flows across the ductus arteriosus away from the lungs. Once the blood goes through the ductus arteriosus, it ... In the fetus, there is a special connection between the pulmonary artery and the aorta, called the ductus arteriosus. Because ...
Sekar KC, Corff KE (May 2008). "Treatment of patent ductus arteriosus: indomethacin or ibuprofen?". Journal of Perinatology. 28 ... possibly resulting in fetal death via premature closing of the Ductus arteriosus. In October 2020, the U.S. Food and Drug ... with the exception of neonates with patent ductus arteriosus) Severe pre-existing renal and liver damage Caution: pre-existing ... "Idiopathic constriction of the fetal ductus arteriosus: three cases and review of the literature". Journal of Ultrasound in ...
Patent ductus arteriosus is the most common defect. Septal defects (ventricular septal defects and atrial septal defects) are ...
2008). "Novel TFAP2B mutation in nonsyndromic patent ductus arteriosus". Genet. Test. 12 (3): 457-9. doi:10.1089/gte.2008.0015 ... 2009). "Determination of Genetic Predisposition to Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Preterm Infants". Pediatrics. 123 (4): 1116-23. ...
Postductal coarctation: The narrowing is distal to the insertion of the ductus arteriosus. Even with an open ductus arteriosus ... The narrowing occurs at the insertion of the ductus arteriosus. This kind usually appears when the ductus arteriosus closes. ... ductus arteriosus) into an elastic artery (aorta) during fetal life, where the contraction and fibrosis of the ductus ... usually in the area where the ductus arteriosus (ligamentum arteriosum after regression) inserts. The word coarctation means " ...
The ductus arteriosus is a small, artery-like structure which allows blood to flow from the trunk of the pulmonary artery into ... With simple d-TGA, if the foramen ovale and ductus arteriosus are allowed to close naturally, the newborn will likely not ... and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Stenosis of valves or vessels may also be present. When no other heart defects are present ... it prevents the ductus arteriosus from closing, therefore providing an additional shunt through which to provide the systemic ...
Treatment is based on: PGE1 to maintain patent ductus arteriosus. First operation: modified Blalock-Taussig shunt to maintain ... connecting the left ventricle to the pulmonary artery or by a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) connecting the aorta to the ...
It may also be used to close a patent ductus arteriosus in a premature baby. It can be used orally (by mouth) or intravenously ... It is also used for pericarditis and patent ductus arteriosus. In some countries, ibuprofen lysine (the lysine salt of ... Rostas SE, McPherson CC (2016). "Pharmacotherapy for Patent Ductus Arteriosus: Current Options and Outstanding Questions". ... for closure of patent ductus arteriosus in premature infants weighing between 500 and 1,500 g (1 and 3 lb), who are no more ...
188 In patent ductus arteriosus, a congenital disorder, the fetal ductus arteriosus fails to close, leaving an open vessel ... MedlinePlus > Patent ductus arteriosus Update Date: 21 December 2009 Seeley, Rod; Stephens, Trent; Philip Tate (1992). "20". In ... A failure of the aorticopulmonary septum to divide the great vessels results in persistent truncus arteriosus. The aorta is an ... which loops under the aortic arch just lateral to the ligamentum arteriosum. It then runs back to the neck. The aortic arch has ...
This is seen in patients with a patent ductus arteriosus. Patients with a large ductus develop progressive pulmonary vascular ... Gillam-Krakauer, Maria; Mahajan, Kunal (2021), "Patent Ductus Arteriosus", StatPearls, Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls ...
"Determination of genetic predisposition to patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infants". Pediatrics. 123 (4): 1116-23. doi: ...
A small vessel, the ductus arteriosus allows blood from the pulmonary artery to pass to the aorta. The ductus arteriosus stays ... In both conditions, the presence of a patent ductus arteriosus (and, when hypoplasia affects the right side of the heart, a ... Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) Scimitar syndrome (SS) Partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection (PAPVC) Total anomalous ... Less common defects in the association are truncus arteriosus and transposition of the great arteries.[citation needed] The ...
"Determination of genetic predisposition to patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infants". Pediatrics. 123 (4): 1116-23. doi: ...
Jan SL, Chan SC, Fu YC, Lin SJ (June 2009). "Elastin gene study of infants with isolated congenital ductus arteriosus aneurysm ...
Failure of the ductus arteriosus to close after birth results in a condition called patent ductus arteriosus, which results in ... The ductus arteriosus, also called the ductus Botalli, named after the Italian physiologist Leonardo Botallo, is a blood vessel ... Upon closure at birth, it becomes the ligamentum arteriosum.[clarification needed] The ductus arteriosus is formed from the ... A patent ductus arteriosus affects approximately 4% of infants with Down syndrome (DS). A failure to thrive is a very common ...
... is a condition in which the ductus arteriosus does not close. The word patent means open. ... is a condition in which the ductus arteriosus does not close. The word patent means open. ... Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a condition in which the ductus arteriosus does not close. The word "patent" means open. ... The ductus arteriosus is a blood vessel that allows blood to go around the babys lungs before birth. Soon after the infant is ...
Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), in which there is a persistent communication between the descending thoracic aorta and the ... pulmonary artery that results from failure of normal physiologic closure of the fetal ductus (see image below), is one of the ... more common congenital heart defects.{file42617}The patient presentation of patent ductus arter... ... Failure of ductus arteriosus to contract. Failure of ductus arteriosus contraction in preterm neonates has been suggested to be ...
The ductus arteriosus is an important blood vessel that ensures that blood does not go to the lungs unnecessarily as the fetus ... Patent ductus arteriosus (also called PDA) is a birth defect in the heart. It is caused by incomplete changes in the hearts ... Patent Ductus Arteriosus. CAUSE: Patent ductus arteriosus (also called PDA) is a birth defect in the heart. It is caused by ... Having a patent ductus arteriosus is not usually compatible with a normal life span unless the patent ductus arteriosus is ...
The ductus arteriosus is a connection between the left pulmonary artery and the descending aorta that is present in the embryo ...
Patent Ductus Arteriosis (6) PDA (2) pulmonary atresia (8) pulmonary stenosis (2) Pulmonary Valve Stenosis (2) Pulmonary Vein ... Truncus Arteriosus (5) vascular ring (2) Vlogs (2) VSD (49) Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome (1) ...
It remains open, or patent, usually because the muscles in the ductus failed to form properly. ... Sometimes the ductus arteriosus fails to close in a newborn. ... Patent ductus arteriosus, often called PDA, is one of the most ... the ductus arteriosus fails to close and become a ligament. "Patent" means open, so a patent ductus arteriosus remains open ... Meanwhile, oxygen and other hormones cause the ductus arteriosus to close almost immediately; the ductus is lined with muscles ...
History of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), which was confirmed by echocardiography. She was brought to the cardiac ... This case demonstrates a technique of transcatheter coil occlusion of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and the radiographic ... Transcatheter occlusion of patent ductus arteriosus in pre-term infants. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2010;3 (5): 550-5. doi:10.1016 ... Advantages and disadvantages of coils for transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus. J Interv Cardiol. 2003;16 (2): 157 ...
Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - ... Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) (Persistent Ductus Arteriosus). By Lee B. Beerman , MD, Childrens Hospital of Pittsburgh of the ... Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a persistence of the fetal connection (ductus arteriosus) between the aorta and pulmonary ... Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a persistence after birth of the normal fetal connection (ductus arteriosus) between the ...
Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) obstruction in full-term infants is different from PDA in preterm infants. This pathology, ... Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a relatively common pathological condition, accounting for about 5-10% of all congenital ... A complication of Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) can be Eisenmenger syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by the closure of ... Nevertheless, a wide open ductus arteriosus produces symptoms such as increased sweating during breastfeeding, difficulty ...
Kelainan Bawaan Patent Ductus Arteriosus dan Bahayanya. Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) merupakan salah satu jenis kelainan ... Kelainan Bawaan Patent Ductus Arteriosus dan Bahayanya Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) merupakan salah satu jenis kelainan ...
N2 - Background - Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a relatively common form of congenital heart disease. Although polygenic ... AB - Background - Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a relatively common form of congenital heart disease. Although polygenic ... Background - Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a relatively common form of congenital heart disease. Although polygenic ... Char syndrome, an inherited disorder with patent ductus arteriosus, maps to chromosome 6p12-p21. Circulation. 1999 Jun 15;99(23 ...
ObjectivesAfter participating in this educational activity, attendees should be able to:1. Cite the basics of manageemnt of PDA2. Describe the controversies of PDA management3. Discuss the use of acetaminophen in PDA managementFacultyRuben Vaidya, MDAssistant Professor of PediatricsUMMS - BaystateNone of the members of the faculty and planning committee for this educational
... constriction of the ductus arteriosus prenatally, tricuspid incompetence, and pulmonary hypertension; nonclosure of the ductus ... Premature Closure of Fetal Ductus Arteriosus Use of NSAIDs, including sulindac, at about 30 weeks gestation or later in ... Premature Closure of Fetal Ductus Arteriosus:. Avoid use of NSAIDs in women at about 30 weeks gestation and later in pregnancy ... Premature Closure of Fetal Ductus Arteriosus: Avoid use of NSAIDs, including sulindac, in pregnant women at about 30 weeks ...
Cerbo, R.M., Borellini, M., Pozzi, M. et al. Hemodynamically significant ductus arteriosus:a new targeted approach. Ital J ... Hemodynamically significant ductus arteriosus:a new targeted approach. *Rosa Maria Cerbo. 1, ... Schena F, Ciarmoli E, Mosca F: Patent ductus arteriosus: wait and see?. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2011, 24 (Suppl 3): 2-4. ... Lemmers PM, Toet MC, van Bel F: Impact of patent ductus arteriosus and subsequent therapy with indomethacin on cerebral ...
PRADO, Renán et al. Preterm newborns undergoing selective correction surgery of the patent ductus arteriosus: is there still ... INTRODUCTION: The ductus arteriosus is a small fetal structure that connects two large arteries (aorta and pulmonary) but ... Keywords : patent ductus arteriosus; cardiac surgery; preterm newborn; congenital heart disease; low birth weigth newborn. ... Morbidities associated with persistent patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) may lead to the conclusion that the best approach is ...
Patent ductus arteriosus 0.80 (CI: 0.08−7.55). Li et al., 2014 [8]. Right−sided obstructive heart defects 1.40 (CI: 0.80−2.45) ... Patent ductus arteriosus, CAs of aorta, CAs of pulmonary valve, Others or unspecified, Brachial cyst, cleft, fistula, ...
Dilation of Ductus Arteriosus with Drug-eluting Intraluminal Device, Open Approach. 027R0DT. Dilation of Ductus Arteriosus with ... Dilation of Ductus Arteriosus, Open Approach. 027R34T. Dilation of Ductus Arteriosus with Drug-eluting Intraluminal Device, ... Occlusion of Ductus Arteriosus with Intraluminal Device, Open Approach. 02LR0ZT. Occlusion of Ductus Arteriosus, Open Approach ... Dilation of Ductus Arteriosus, Percutaneous Approach. 027R44T. Dilation of Ductus Arteriosus with Drug-eluting Intraluminal ...
This can happen with a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) or atrial septal defect (ASD), as these defects may resolve on their own ...
... scan demonstrating an 3.5 cm large aneurysm of a patent ductus arteriosus ([PDA]surrounded by arrows). The left pulmonary ... 2 Fig 1 (A) Computed tomography (CT) scan demonstrating an 3.5 cm large aneurysm of a patent ductus arteriosus ([PDA]surrounded ... 3 Fig 2 (A) Preoperative angiogram shows the aneurysm of the patent ductus arteriosus ([PDA] surrounded by arrows) and the left ... 1 Aortic stent-graft for patent ductus arteriosus in adults: the aortic exclusion technique François Roques, MD, Jean-Luc ...
Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA). A problem with a babys heart that occurs when a small blood vessel that passes between the two ...
D. Ligamentous Arteriosis Explanation. In an adult, the ductus arteriosus becomes ligamentous arteriosus. The ductus arteriosus ... the ductus arteriosus gradually closes and eventually becomes a ligamentous structure known as the ligamentous arteriosus. This ...
Cyclooxygenase isoenzymes and patency of ductus arteriosus. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2005 Feb. 72(2):71-7. [ ...
Ductus Arteriosus Aneurysm - Chest CT. radRounds Team - May 20, 2021. 0. 123...17Page 1 of 17. ...
The ductus arteriosus should close soon after birth. If it does not, it is called a patent (open) ductus arteriosus, or PDA. A ... PATENT DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS (PDA). The ductus arteriosus is a blood vessel connecting the pulmonary artery and the aorta. Before ... Many preemies have a cardiac ultrasound if the doctor is looking for evidence of a patent ductus arteriosus. ...
... to maintain patency of the ductus arteriosus: The effects of ECMO on the pharmacokinet … ... to maintain patency of the ductus arteriosus: The effects of ECMO on the pharmacokinetics of PGE1 are discussed. ...
View other providers who treat Patent Ductus Arteriosus Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO) ...
Patent Ductus Arteriosus. High. $2,500-$5,000. Legg-Perthes Disease. High. $1,500-$3,000. ...
  • Failure of the ductus arteriosus to close after birth results in a condition called patent ductus arteriosus, which results in the abnormal flow of blood from the aorta to the pulmonary artery: a left-to-right shunt. (wikipedia.org)
  • A patent ductus arteriosus affects approximately 4% of infants with Down syndrome (DS). (wikipedia.org)
  • Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a condition in which the ductus arteriosus does not close. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), in which there is a persistent communication between the descending thoracic aorta and the pulmonary artery that results from failure of normal physiologic closure of the fetal ductus (see image below), is one of the more common congenital heart defects. (medscape.com)
  • Schematic diagram of a left-to-right shunt of blood flow from the descending aorta via the patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) to the main pulmonary artery. (medscape.com)
  • The patient presentation of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) varies widely. (medscape.com)
  • In isolated patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), signs and symptoms are consistent with left-to-right shunting. (medscape.com)
  • Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) may also exist with other cardiac anomalies, which must be considered at the time of diagnosis. (medscape.com)
  • In many cases, the diagnosis and treatment of a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is critical for survival in neonates with severe obstructive lesions to either the right or left side of the heart. (medscape.com)
  • However, it was not until 1888 that Munro conducted the dissection and ligation of the ductus arteriosus in an infant cadaver, and it would be another 50 years before Robert E. Gross successfully ligated a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in a 7-year-old child. (medscape.com)
  • See also Patent Ductus Arteriosus Surgery and Eisenmenger Syndrome . (medscape.com)
  • Structures that have been mistaken for the patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in surgical procedures include the aorta, the pulmonary artery, and the carotid artery. (medscape.com)
  • Patent ductus arteriosus (also called PDA) is a birth defect in the heart. (cornell.edu)
  • In some puppies and kittens, the ductus arteriosus remains open (patent). (cornell.edu)
  • Most cases of patent ductus arteriosus are found when a perfectly healthy-looking puppy or kitten is brought to the veterinarian for a routine examination, and a heart murmur is detected. (cornell.edu)
  • If there is a concern that the murmur may indicate a patent ductus arteriosus (these PDA murmurs produce a very distinctive sound), then tests are warranted to evaluate the possibility of patent ductus arteriosus. (cornell.edu)
  • Having a patent ductus arteriosus is not usually compatible with a normal life span unless the patent ductus arteriosus is corrected (closed). (cornell.edu)
  • Patent ductus arteriosus, often called PDA, is one of the most common congenital heart defects in dogs. (vin.com)
  • Patent" means open, so a patent ductus arteriosus remains open after it should have closed. (vin.com)
  • History of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), which was confirmed by echocardiography. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Descending aortogram in the lateral and 30 degree right anterior oblique (RAO) projections were taken to identify the patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). (radiopaedia.org)
  • This case demonstrates a technique of transcatheter coil occlusion of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and the radiographic appearance of the device used. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Transcatheter occlusion of patent ductus arteriosus in pre-term infants. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Advantages and disadvantages of coils for transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Overview of Patent Ductus. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a persistence of the fetal connection (ductus arteriosus) between the aorta and pulmonary artery after birth. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a relatively common pathological condition, accounting for about 5-10% of all congenital heart defects. (ohc.global)
  • Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) obstruction in full-term infants is different from PDA in preterm infants. (ohc.global)
  • A complication of Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) can be Eisenmenger syndrome. (ohc.global)
  • Background - Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a relatively common form of congenital heart disease. (umn.edu)
  • The association between patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and the most adverse outcomes and comorbidities in preterms (peri-intraventricular haemorrhage, necrotizing enterocolitis, chronic lung disease, pulmonary haemorrhage and mortality) has led to the integration of ductal closure into neonatal intensive care. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Schena F, Ciarmoli E, Mosca F: Patent ductus arteriosus: wait and see? (biomedcentral.com)
  • Evans N: Preterm patent ductus arteriosus: A continuing conundrum for the neonatologist? (biomedcentral.com)
  • Evans N: Current controversies in the diagnosis and treatment of patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lemmers PM, Toet MC, van Bel F: Impact of patent ductus arteriosus and subsequent therapy with indomethacin on cerebral oxygenation in preterm infants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Preterm newborns undergoing selective correction surgery of the patent ductus arteriosus: is there still space for these procedures? (bvsalud.org)
  • Morbidities associated with persistent patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) may lead to the conclusion that the best approach is early surgical treatment. (bvsalud.org)
  • To analyze the clinical and surgical profile of preterm newborns submitted to selective correction surgery of the patent ductus arteriosus. (bvsalud.org)
  • This can happen with a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) or atrial septal defect (ASD), as these defects may resolve on their own as the child grows. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • 2 Fig 1 (A) Computed tomography (CT) scan demonstrating an 3.5 cm large aneurysm of a patent ductus arteriosus ([PDA]surrounded by arrows). (slideplayer.com)
  • 3 Fig 2 (A) Preoperative angiogram shows the aneurysm of the patent ductus arteriosus ([PDA] surrounded by arrows) and the left to right shunt with immediate pulmonary trunk opacification. (slideplayer.com)
  • We also examined relations between birth size, gestational age, neonatal diagnoses of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) with cardiac outcomes. (lu.se)
  • Although a left ductus arteriosus is a normal structure during normal fetal development, the presence of a right ductus arteriosus is usually associated with other congenital abnormalities of the cardiovascular system, most typically involving the aortic arch or conotruncal development. (medscape.com)
  • EGME caused a dose dependent increase in fetal cardiovascular malformations, primarily ventricular septal defects and right ductus arteriosus. (cdc.gov)
  • Debate on hemodynamically significant ductusarteriosus (hsDA) in premature infants remains unresolved. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The ductus arteriosus, also called the ductus Botalli, named after the Italian physiologist Leonardo Botallo, is a blood vessel in the developing fetus connecting the trunk of the pulmonary artery to the proximal descending aorta. (wikipedia.org)
  • clarification needed] The ductus arteriosus is formed from the left 6th aortic arches during embryonic development and attaches to the final part of the aortic arch (the isthmus of aorta) and the first part of the pulmonary artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ductus arteriosus evolved with the lung in the ancestors of the lungfish as a connection between the pulmonary arteries and dorsal aorta. (wikipedia.org)
  • During fetal life, the ductus arteriosus is a normal structure that allows most of the blood leaving the right ventricle to bypass the pulmonary circulation and pass into the descending aorta. (medscape.com)
  • The ductus arteriosus is a remnant of the distal sixth aortic arch and connects the pulmonary artery at the junction of the main pulmonary artery and the origin of the left pulmonary artery to the proximal descending aorta just after the origin of the left subclavian artery. (medscape.com)
  • An anatomic marker of the ductus is the recurrent laryngeal nerve, which nerve typically arises from the vagus nerve just anterior and caudal to the ductus and loops posteriorly around the ductus to ascend behind the aorta en route to the larynx. (medscape.com)
  • The ductus arteriosus is a connection between the left pulmonary artery and the descending aorta that is present in the embryo and usually closes naturally in the first week of life. (dhzb.de)
  • Thus, in all mammals the developing fetus has a short bypass vessel called the ductus arteriosus, which is similar to a shunt, and is a wide-open, low-resistance channel in which blood coming from the right side of the heart through the first part of the pulmonary artery is diverted from the lungs directly into the aorta and then out to the body. (vin.com)
  • Now that the ductus is open, and the lungs have blood flowing through them, blood shunts across the PDA from the aorta to the pulmonary artery (remember that in utero it went the other way, from the pulmonary artery to the aorta). (vin.com)
  • This anomaly occurs when the blood vessel connecting the pulmonary artery and the aorta (Ductus Botalli), which should be open before birth and close immediately after birth, remains open. (ohc.global)
  • The ductus arteriosus is a small fetal structure that connects two large arteries (aorta and pulmonary) but becomes pathological when it is maintained after birth. (bvsalud.org)
  • This recurrent laryngeal branch wraps around the aorta, posterior to the ligamentum arteriosum, and ascends towards the larynx on the right-hand side of the aortic arch. (elsevier.com)
  • Upon closure at birth, it becomes the ligamentum arteriosum. (wikipedia.org)
  • This squeezing ultimately fuses the ductus lining to create a ligamentum: in other words, the tube becomes a ligament! (vin.com)
  • The ligamentum arteriosum sits inferior to the aortic arch and connects it to the bifurcation of the pulmonary trunk. (elsevier.com)
  • The superficial cardiac plexus resides between the bifurcation of the pulmonary trunk and the aortic arch, in the region of the ligamentum arteriosum. (elsevier.com)
  • In the presence of complex congenital heart defects, the usual anatomy of the ductus may not be present. (medscape.com)
  • We describe a neonate with ductal-dependent congenital heart disease on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for persistent pulmonary hypertension, who required markedly high doses of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) to maintain patency of the ductus arteriosus: The effects of ECMO on the pharmacokinetics of PGE1 are discussed. (nih.gov)
  • During embryonic development, reptiles, birds, and mammals all have either one or two paired ductus arteriosi that provide a fetal shunt of blood away from the lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ductus arteriosus is a blood vessel that allows blood to go around the baby's lungs before birth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Soon after the infant is born and the lungs fill with air, the ductus arteriosus is no longer needed. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The ductus arteriosus is an important blood vessel that ensures that blood does not go to the lungs unnecessarily as the fetus is developing in the uterus. (cornell.edu)
  • Ductus arteriosus closure may be induced by administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which inhibit prostaglandin production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pulmonary stenosis and left-to-right shunt through the ductus), it may be advisable to improve oxygenation by maintaining the ductus open with prostaglandin treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • At birth, the rise in PaO2 and decline in prostaglandin concentration cause closure of the ductus arteriosus, typically beginning within the first 10 to 15 hours of life. (msdmanuals.com)
  • It's a remnant of the ductus arteriosus that is found during fetal development. (elsevier.com)
  • However, if the baby has certain other heart problems or defects, keeping the ductus arteriosus open may be lifesaving. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Sehgal A, McNamara PJ: Does echocardiography facilitate determination of hemodynamic significance attributable to the ductus arteriosus? (biomedcentral.com)
  • Persistence of the ductus may be associated with other abnormalities, and is much more common in females. (wikipedia.org)
  • The "E" series of prostaglandins are responsible for maintaining the openness of the ductus arteriosus (by dilation of vascular smooth muscle) throughout the fetal period. (wikipedia.org)
  • PGE1 and PGE2 keep the ductus arteriosus open via involvement of specific PGE-sensitive receptors (such as EP4 and EP2). (wikipedia.org)
  • A small ductus rarely causes symptoms. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Nevertheless, a wide open ductus arteriosus produces symptoms such as increased sweating during breastfeeding, difficulty eating, silent crying and poor weight gain. (ohc.global)
  • In most animals, the ductus closes within the first three days of life and is securely closed by day 7 to 10. (vin.com)
  • A more logical approach should considerthe ductus as a clinical continuum, from thephysiological PDA to the pathological hsDA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Typically, the ductus has a conical shape with a large aortic end tapering into the small pulmonary connection. (medscape.com)
  • Botallus ductus incompletion is a condition in which this arterial canal remains open even though functional closure should occur 12-15 hours after birth and physiological closure should occur 2-4 weeks later. (ohc.global)
  • The goal of treatment is to close the ductus arteriosus. (cornell.edu)
  • At least, that's what happens to a normal, healthy ductus arteriosus. (vin.com)
  • Sometimes, however, the ductus arteriosus fails to close and become a ligament. (vin.com)
  • To identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in specific candidate genes associated with patent ductus arteriosus in term infants. (nih.gov)
  • Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), in which there is a persistent communication between the descending thoracic aorta and the pulmonary artery that results from failure of normal physiologic closure of the fetal ductus (see image below), is one of the more common congenital heart defects. (medscape.com)
  • During fetal life, the ductus arteriosus is a normal structure that allows most of the blood leaving the right ventricle to bypass the pulmonary circulation and pass into the descending aorta. (medscape.com)
  • Although a left ductus arteriosus is a normal structure during normal fetal development, the presence of a right ductus arteriosus is usually associated with other congenital abnormalities of the cardiovascular system, most typically involving the aortic arch or conotruncal development. (medscape.com)
  • Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a persistence of the fetal connection (ductus arteriosus) between the aorta and pulmonary artery after birth. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The ductus arteriosus is a small fetal structure that connects two large arteries (aorta and pulmonary) but becomes pathological when it is maintained after birth. (bvsalud.org)
  • Avoid use of NSAIDs in women at about 30 weeks gestation and later in pregnancy due to the risks of oligohydramnios/fetal renal dysfunction and premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus. (drugs.com)
  • EGME caused a dose dependent increase in fetal cardiovascular malformations, primarily ventricular septal defects and right ductus arteriosus. (cdc.gov)
  • The classic triad of clinical manifestations associated with CRS among surviving neonates are hearing impairment, congenital heart defects - in particular, branch pulmonary artery stenosis and patent ductus arteriosus - and eye anomalies such as cataract(s), pigmentary retinopathy (salt and pepper type), chorioretinitis or congenital glaucoma. (cdc.gov)
  • McCarthy JS, Zies LG, Gelband H. Age-dependent closure of the patent ductus arteriosus by indomethacin. (medscape.com)
  • Although intravenous indomethacin and ibuprofen are widely used for closure of patent ductus arteriosus in premature infants, these formulations are unavailable in the Islamic Republic of Iran. (who.int)
  • At birth, the rise in PaO2 and decline in prostaglandin concentration cause closure of the ductus arteriosus, typically beginning within the first 10 to 15 hours of life. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A ductal aneurysm can be either congenital or acquired, as a complication of surgical closure of a patent ductus arteriosus. (pedecho.org)
  • Morbidities associated with persistent patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) may lead to the conclusion that the best approach is early surgical treatment. (bvsalud.org)
  • It is given intravenously to newborns to close persistent patent ductus arteriosus. (memory.com)
  • Treatment of patent ductus arteriosus: indomethacin or ibuprofen? (medscape.com)
  • Early Treatment of Patent Ductus Arteriosus with Ibuprofen. (nih.gov)
  • Conservative treatment for patent ductus arteriosus in the preterm. (medscape.com)
  • Preterm newborns undergoing selective correction surgery of the patent ductus arteriosus: is there still space for these procedures? (bvsalud.org)
  • To analyze the clinical and surgical profile of preterm newborns submitted to selective correction surgery of the patent ductus arteriosus. (bvsalud.org)
  • See also Patent Ductus Arteriosus Surgery and Eisenmenger Syndrome . (medscape.com)
  • In many cases, the diagnosis and treatment of a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is critical for survival in neonates with severe obstructive lesions to either the right or left side of the heart. (medscape.com)
  • Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) may also exist with other cardiac anomalies, which must be considered at the time of diagnosis. (medscape.com)
  • Patent Ductus Arteriosus Aneurysm (DAA) is a saccular or fusiform dilatation of the ductus arteriosus. (pedecho.org)
  • Typically, the aneurysm presents as a large, thin walled, saccular dilatation of the ductus arteriosus often ending as a small tortuous PDA on the pulmonary side. (pedecho.org)
  • Surgical treatment of patent ductus arteriosus: a new historical perspective. (medscape.com)
  • mirror image of the pulmonary artery, normal prominent ductal bump, a left SVC, dilated atrial appendage and a vertical ductus arteriosus. (pedecho.org)
  • Soon after the infant is born and the lungs fill with air, the ductus arteriosus is no longer needed. (medlineplus.gov)
  • However, it was not until 1888 that Munro conducted the dissection and ligation of the ductus arteriosus in an infant cadaver, and it would be another 50 years before Robert E. Gross successfully ligated a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in a 7-year-old child. (medscape.com)
  • The ductus may take many shapes and forms, from short and tubular to long and tortuous. (medscape.com)
  • Isolated patent ductus arteriosus is a rare condition that occurs approximately once in 2,500 to 5,000 live births. (medscape.com)
  • It occurs when a blood vessel (ductus arteriosus) does not close. (healthychildren.org)
  • Clinical presentation depends on patent ductus arteriosus size and gestational age at delivery. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Patients' clinical characteristics and prevalence of main perinatal and neonatal risk factors for patent ductus arteriosus. (elsevier.es)
  • His ductus was successfully closed using Talent prostheses (Medtronic AVE, Santa Rosa, CA, USA). (elsevierpure.com)
  • Normal heart and heart with patent ductus arteriosus. (nih.gov)
  • Figure B shows a heart with patent ductus arteriosus. (nih.gov)
  • the doctors determined today that the hole in his heart, called patent ductus arteriosis has returned after being closed a few days after his birth. (snowdeal.org)
  • The authors present a family with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) involving three generations, in the absence of consanguinity. (tau.ac.il)
  • We describe the case of a large patent ductus arteriosus in a 52-year old man, which was deemed unsuitable for coil occlusion or Amplatzer duct occluder. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a malady usually identified during childhood. (medscape.com)
  • The patient presentation of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) varies widely. (medscape.com)
  • In P2, 24.5% patients were discharged with patent ductus arteriosus. (elsevier.es)
  • The ductus arteriosus is a blood vessel that allows blood to go around the baby's lungs before birth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The probability of the appearance of a widened carina angle on X rays is increased by the presence of patent ductus arteriosus. (uwi.edu)
  • We aimed to assess whether the widened carina angle displayed on X-ray supports the presumptive presence of patent ductus arteriosus. (uwi.edu)