Common Bile Duct: The largest bile duct. It is formed by the junction of the CYSTIC DUCT and the COMMON HEPATIC DUCT.Common Bile Duct Diseases: Diseases of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.Bile Ducts: The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.Gallstones: Solid crystalline precipitates in the BILIARY TRACT, usually formed in the GALLBLADDER, resulting in the condition of CHOLELITHIASIS. Gallstones, derived from the BILE, consist mainly of calcium, cholesterol, or bilirubin.Common Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumor or cancer of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde: Fiberoptic endoscopy designed for duodenal observation and cannulation of VATER'S AMPULLA, in order to visualize the pancreatic and biliary duct system by retrograde injection of contrast media. Endoscopic (Vater) papillotomy (SPHINCTEROTOMY, ENDOSCOPIC) may be performed during this procedure.Cholangiography: An imaging test of the BILIARY TRACT in which a contrast dye (RADIOPAQUE MEDIA) is injected into the BILE DUCT and x-ray pictures are taken.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Bile Duct Diseases: Diseases in any part of the ductal system of the BILIARY TRACT from the smallest BILE CANALICULI to the largest COMMON BILE DUCT.Choledocholithiasis: Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the COMMON BILE DUCT.Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic: Passages external to the liver for the conveyance of bile. These include the COMMON BILE DUCT and the common hepatic duct (HEPATIC DUCT, COMMON).Cholestasis: Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).Cholestasis, Extrahepatic: Impairment of bile flow in the large BILE DUCTS by mechanical obstruction or stricture due to benign or malignant processes.Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic: Excision of the gallbladder through an abdominal incision using a laparoscope.Sphincterotomy, Endoscopic: Incision of Oddi's sphincter or Vater's ampulla performed by inserting a sphincterotome through an endoscope (DUODENOSCOPE) often following retrograde cholangiography (CHOLANGIOPANCREATOGRAPHY, ENDOSCOPIC RETROGRADE). Endoscopic treatment by sphincterotomy is the preferred method of treatment for patients with retained or recurrent bile duct stones post-cholecystectomy, and for poor-surgical-risk patients that have the gallbladder still present.Cholecystectomy: Surgical removal of the GALLBLADDER.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Cystic Duct: The duct that is connected to the GALLBLADDER and allows the emptying of bile into the COMMON BILE DUCT.Jaundice, Obstructive: Jaundice, the condition with yellowish staining of the skin and mucous membranes, that is due to impaired BILE flow in the BILIARY TRACT, such as INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS, or EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS.Pancreatic Ducts: Ducts that collect PANCREATIC JUICE from the PANCREAS and supply it to the DUODENUM.Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic: Passages within the liver for the conveyance of bile. Includes right and left hepatic ducts even though these may join outside the liver to form the common hepatic duct.Cholangiopancreatography, Magnetic Resonance: Non-invasive diagnostic technique for visualizing the PANCREATIC DUCTS and BILE DUCTS without the use of injected CONTRAST MEDIA or x-ray. MRI scans provide excellent sensitivity for duct dilatation, biliary stricture, and intraductal abnormalities.Sphincter of Oddi: The sphincter of the hepatopancreatic ampulla within the duodenal papilla. The COMMON BILE DUCT and main pancreatic duct pass through this sphincter.Cholangitis: Inflammation of the biliary ductal system (BILE DUCTS); intrahepatic, extrahepatic, or both.Cholelithiasis: Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).Ampulla of Vater: A dilation of the duodenal papilla that is the opening of the juncture of the COMMON BILE DUCT and the MAIN PANCREATIC DUCT, also known as the hepatopancreatic ampulla.Hepatic Duct, Common: Predominantly extrahepatic bile duct which is formed by the junction of the right and left hepatic ducts, which are predominantly intrahepatic, and, in turn, joins the cystic duct to form the common bile duct.Biliary Tract Diseases: Diseases in any part of the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Biliary Tract: The BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Gallbladder: A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.Pancreatitis: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of CHRONIC PANCREATITIS (International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, 1992). The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS and gallstone pancreatitis.Sphincterotomy, Transhepatic: Surgery of the smooth muscle sphincter of the hepatopancreatic ampulla to relieve blocked biliary or pancreatic ducts.Choledochal Cyst: A congenital anatomic malformation of a bile duct, including cystic dilatation of the extrahepatic bile duct or the large intrahepatic bile duct. Classification is based on the site and type of dilatation. Type I is most common.Biliary Tract Surgical Procedures: Any surgical procedure performed on the biliary tract.Biliary Fistula: Abnormal passage in any organ of the biliary tract or between biliary organs and other organs.Adenoma, Bile Duct: A benign tumor of the intrahepatic bile ducts.Choledochostomy: Surgical formation of an opening (stoma) into the COMMON BILE DUCT for drainage or for direct communication with a site in the small intestine, primarily the DUODENUM or JEJUNUM.Drainage: The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.Thoracic Duct: The largest lymphatic vessel that passes through the chest and drains into the SUBCLAVIAN VEIN.Endoscopes: Instruments for the visual examination of interior structures of the body. There are rigid endoscopes and flexible fiberoptic endoscopes for various types of viewing in ENDOSCOPY.Cholecystitis: Inflammation of the GALLBLADDER; generally caused by impairment of BILE flow, GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, infections, or other diseases.Duodenoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the duodenum.Imino AcidsGallbladder Diseases: Diseases of the GALLBLADDER. They generally involve the impairment of BILE flow, GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, infections, neoplasms, or other diseases.Jaundice: A clinical manifestation of HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA, characterized by the yellowish staining of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA. Clinical jaundice usually is a sign of LIVER dysfunction.Lithotripsy: The destruction of a calculus of the kidney, ureter, bladder, or gallbladder by physical forces, including crushing with a lithotriptor through a catheter. Focused percutaneous ultrasound and focused hydraulic shock waves may be used without surgery. Lithotripsy does not include the dissolving of stones by acids or litholysis. Lithotripsy by laser is LITHOTRIPSY, LASER.Adenomyoma: A benign neoplasm of muscle (usually smooth muscle) with glandular elements. It occurs most frequently in the uterus and uterine ligaments. (Stedman, 25th ed)Dilatation, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being dilated beyond normal dimensions.Technetium Tc 99m Disofenin: A radiopharmaceutical used extensively in cholescintigraphy for the evaluation of hepatobiliary diseases. (From Int Jrnl Rad Appl Inst 1992;43(9):1061-4)Endoscopy: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.Endoscopy, Digestive System: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the digestive tract.Gallbladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the gallbladder.Cholestasis, Intrahepatic: Impairment of bile flow due to injury to the HEPATOCYTES; BILE CANALICULI; or the intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC).Salivary Ducts: Any of the ducts which transport saliva. Salivary ducts include the parotid duct, the major and minor sublingual ducts, and the submandibular duct.Pancreaticoduodenectomy: The excision of the head of the pancreas and the encircling loop of the duodenum to which it is connected.Cholecystitis, Acute: Acute inflammation of the GALLBLADDER wall. It is characterized by the presence of ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and LEUKOCYTOSIS. Gallstone obstruction of the CYSTIC DUCT is present in approximately 90% of the cases.Jejunostomy: Surgical formation of an opening through the ABDOMINAL WALL into the JEJUNUM, usually for enteral hyperalimentation.Sphincter of Oddi Dysfunction: Organic or functional motility disorder involving the SPHINCTER OF ODDI and associated with biliary COLIC. Pathological changes are most often seen in the COMMON BILE DUCT sphincter, and less commonly the PANCREATIC DUCT sphincter.Cholecystolithiasis: Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the GALLBLADDER.Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Duodenum: The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.Pancreatic Diseases: Pathological processes of the PANCREAS.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Intraoperative Period: The period during a surgical operation.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Wolffian Ducts: A pair of excretory ducts of the middle kidneys (MESONEPHROI) of an embryo, also called mesonephric ducts. In higher vertebrates, Wolffian ducts persist in the male forming VAS DEFERENS, but atrophy into vestigial structures in the female.Endosonography: Ultrasonography of internal organs using an ultrasound transducer sometimes mounted on a fiberoptic endoscope. In endosonography the transducer converts electronic signals into acoustic pulses or continuous waves and acts also as a receiver to detect reflected pulses from within the organ. An audiovisual-electronic interface converts the detected or processed echo signals, which pass through the electronics of the instrument, into a form that the technologist can evaluate. The procedure should not be confused with ENDOSCOPY which employs a special instrument called an endoscope. The "endo-" of endosonography refers to the examination of tissue within hollow organs, with reference to the usual ultrasonography procedure which is performed externally or transcutaneously.Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental: Experimentally induced chronic injuries to the parenchymal cells in the liver to achieve a model for LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Bile Reflux: Retrograde bile flow. Reflux of bile can be from the duodenum to the stomach (DUODENOGASTRIC REFLUX); to the esophagus (GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX); or to the PANCREAS.Lithotripsy, Laser: Fragmentation of CALCULI, notably urinary or biliary, by LASER.Cholecystostomy: Establishment of an opening into the gallbladder either for drainage or surgical communication with another part of the digestive tract, usually the duodenum or jejunum.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Intraoperative Care: Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.Calculi: An abnormal concretion occurring mostly in the urinary and biliary tracts, usually composed of mineral salts. Also called stones.Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Duodenal Diseases: Pathological conditions in the DUODENUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to obstruction of BILE flow (CHOLESTASIS) in the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC; BILE DUCTS, EXTRAHEPATIC). Primary biliary cirrhosis involves the destruction of small intra-hepatic bile ducts and bile secretion. Secondary biliary cirrhosis is produced by prolonged obstruction of large intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts from a variety of causes.Duodenal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the DUODENUM.Cholangiocarcinoma: A malignant tumor arising from the epithelium of the BILE DUCTS.Mullerian Ducts: A pair of ducts near the WOLFFIAN DUCTS in a developing embryo. In the male embryo, they degenerate with the appearance of testicular ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. In the absence of anti-mullerian hormone, mullerian ducts give rise to the female reproductive tract, including the OVIDUCTS; UTERUS; CERVIX; and VAGINA.Ascaridida: An order of nematodes of the subclass SECERNENTEA. Its organisms possess two or three pairs of dorsolateral caudal papillae.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Lithiasis: A condition characterized by the formation of CALCULI and concretions in the hollow organs or ducts of the body. They occur most often in the gallbladder, kidney, and lower urinary tract.Surgical Instruments: Hand-held tools or implements used by health professionals for the performance of surgical tasks.Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.Hepatopulmonary Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by the clinical triad of advanced chronic liver disease, pulmonary vascular dilatations, and reduced arterial oxygenation (HYPOXEMIA) in the absence of intrinsic cardiopulmonary disease. This syndrome is common in the patients with LIVER CIRRHOSIS or portal hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PORTAL).Intraoperative Complications: Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.Colic: A clinical syndrome with intermittent abdominal pain characterized by sudden onset and cessation that is commonly seen in infants. It is usually associated with obstruction of the INTESTINES; of the CYSTIC DUCT; or of the URINARY TRACT.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Pancreatitis, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS that is characterized by recurring or persistent ABDOMINAL PAIN with or without STEATORRHEA or DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the irregular destruction of the pancreatic parenchyma which may be focal, segmental, or diffuse.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Anastomosis, Roux-en-Y: A Y-shaped surgical anastomosis of any part of the digestive system which includes the small intestine as the eventual drainage site.Ursodeoxycholic Acid: An epimer of chenodeoxycholic acid. It is a mammalian bile acid found first in the bear and is apparently either a precursor or a product of chenodeoxycholate. Its administration changes the composition of bile and may dissolve gallstones. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.Laparoscopy: A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.Diverticulum: A pouch or sac developed from a tubular or saccular organ, such as the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Anastomosis, Surgical: Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.Cholecystography: Radiography of the gallbladder after ingestion of a contrast medium.Kidney Tubules, Collecting: Straight tubes commencing in the radiate part of the kidney cortex where they receive the curved ends of the distal convoluted tubules. In the medulla the collecting tubules of each pyramid converge to join a central tube (duct of Bellini) which opens on the summit of the papilla.Cholagogues and Choleretics: Gastrointestinal agents that stimulate the flow of bile into the duodenum (cholagogues) or stimulate the production of bile by the liver (choleretic).Adenocarcinoma, Papillary: An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)Adenoma, Villous: An adenoma of the large intestine. It is usually a solitary, sessile, often large, tumor of colonic mucosa composed of mucinous epithelium covering delicate vascular projections. Hypersecretion and malignant changes occur frequently. (Stedman, 25th ed)Postcholecystectomy Syndrome: Abdominal symptoms after removal of the GALLBLADDER. The common postoperative symptoms are often the same as those present before the operation, such as COLIC, bloating, NAUSEA, and VOMITING. There is pain on palpation of the right upper quadrant and sometimes JAUNDICE. The term is often used, inaccurately, to describe such postoperative symptoms not due to gallbladder removal.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Bile Canaliculi: Minute intercellular channels that occur between liver cells and carry bile towards interlobar bile ducts. Also called bile capillaries.Fascioliasis: Liver disease caused by infections with parasitic flukes of the genus FASCIOLA, such as FASCIOLA HEPATICA.Cholangitis, Sclerosing: Chronic inflammatory disease of the BILIARY TRACT. It is characterized by fibrosis and hardening of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary ductal systems leading to bile duct strictures, CHOLESTASIS, and eventual BILIARY CIRRHOSIS.Nasolacrimal Duct: A tubular duct that conveys TEARS from the LACRIMAL GLAND to the nose.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Preoperative Care: Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Portal Vein: A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.Technetium Tc 99m Lidofenin: A nontoxic radiopharmaceutical that is used in RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING for the clinical evaluation of hepatobiliary disorders in humans.Ejaculatory Ducts: Paired ducts in the human male through which semen is ejaculated into the urethra.Iatrogenic Disease: Any adverse condition in a patient occurring as the result of treatment by a physician, surgeon, or other health professional, especially infections acquired by a patient during the course of treatment.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Bile Pigments: Linear TETRAPYRROLES that give a characteristic color to BILE including: BILIRUBIN; BILIVERDIN; and bilicyanin.Carcinoid Tumor: A usually small, slow-growing neoplasm composed of islands of rounded, oxyphilic, or spindle-shaped cells of medium size, with moderately small vesicular nuclei, and covered by intact mucosa with a yellow cut surface. The tumor can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract (and in the lungs and other sites); approximately 90% arise in the appendix. It is now established that these tumors are of neuroendocrine origin and derive from a primitive stem cell. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1182)Dilatation: The act of dilating.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Cysts: Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM. Cysts can be of normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic, or neoplastic tissues.Duodenal Obstruction: Hindrance of the passage of luminal contents in the DUODENUM. Duodenal obstruction can be partial or complete, and caused by intrinsic or extrinsic factors. Simple obstruction is associated with diminished or stopped flow of luminal contents. Strangulating obstruction is associated with impaired blood flow to the duodenum in addition to obstructed flow of luminal contents.Video-Assisted Surgery: Endoscopic surgical procedures performed with visualization via video transmission. When real-time video is combined interactively with prior CT scans or MRI images, this is called image-guided surgery (see SURGERY, COMPUTER-ASSISTED).Amylases: A group of amylolytic enzymes that cleave starch, glycogen, and related alpha-1,4-glucans. (Stedman, 25th ed) EC 3.2.1.-.Hemobilia: Hemorrhage in or through the BILIARY TRACT due to trauma, inflammation, CHOLELITHIASIS, vascular disease, or neoplasms.Pancreatic Pseudocyst: Cyst-like space not lined by EPITHELIUM and contained within the PANCREAS. Pancreatic pseudocysts account for most of the cystic collections in the pancreas and are often associated with chronic PANCREATITIS.Hepatic Artery: A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.Taurocholic Acid: The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.Foreign-Body Migration: Migration of a foreign body from its original location to some other location in the body.Manometry: Measurement of the pressure or tension of liquids or gases with a manometer.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Incidental Findings: Unanticipated information discovered in the course of testing or medical care. Used in discussions of information that may have social or psychological consequences, such as when it is learned that a child's biological father is someone other than the putative father, or that a person tested for one disease or disorder has, or is at risk for, something else.Digestive System Fistula: An abnormal passage communicating between any components of the digestive system, or between any part of the digestive system and surrounding organ(s).Biliary Atresia: Progressive destruction or the absence of all or part of the extrahepatic BILE DUCTS, resulting in the complete obstruction of BILE flow. Usually, biliary atresia is found in infants and accounts for one third of the neonatal cholestatic JAUNDICE.Mixed Tumor, Malignant: A malignant tumor composed of more than one type of neoplastic tissue. (Dorland, 27th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Pancreatic Fistula: Abnormal passage communicating with the PANCREAS.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Digestive System Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Bacterial Translocation: The passage of viable bacteria from the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT to extra-intestinal sites, such as the mesenteric lymph node complex, liver, spleen, kidney, and blood. Factors that promote bacterial translocation include overgrowth with gram-negative enteric bacilli, impaired host immune defenses, and injury to the INTESTINAL MUCOSA resulting in increased intestinal permeability. Bacterial translocation from the lung to the circulation is also possible and sometimes accompanies MECHANICAL VENTILATION.Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.Hypertension, Portal: Abnormal increase of resistance to blood flow within the hepatic PORTAL SYSTEM, frequently seen in LIVER CIRRHOSIS and conditions with obstruction of the PORTAL VEIN.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
As the duodenum rotates to the right, it carries with it the ventral pancreatic bud and common bile duct. Upon reaching its ... At this point of fusion, the main ducts of the ventral and dorsal pancreatic buds fuse, forming the main pancreatic duct. The ... The intercalated ducts drain into larger ducts within the lobule, and finally interlobular ducts. The ducts are lined by a ... Diabetes mellitus type 2 is the most common form of diabetes. The causes for high blood sugar in this form of diabetes usually ...
Type II: Atresia of the common hepatic duct. Type III: Atresia involves the most proximal part of the bile ducts (>95% of all ... When the liver is unable to excrete bilirubin through the bile ducts in the form of bile, bilirubin begins to accumulate in the ... There are three main types of extra-hepatic biliary atresia: Type I: Atresia is restricted to the common bile duct. ... Some may be due to a defect in early bile duct development (particularly those with other abnormalities) and some may arise in ...
Obstruction of the common bile duct with gallstones can sometimes be relieved by endoscopic retrograde sphincterotomy (ERS) ... bile) + ang- (vessel) + itis- (inflammation), a serious infection of the bile ducts. Gallstones within the ampulla of Vater can ... A gallstone is a stone formed within the gallbladder out of bile components. The term cholelithiasis may refer to the presence ... Play media Gallstone disease refers to the condition where gallstones are either in the gallbladder or common bile duct. The ...
It receives and stores bile, produced by the liver, via the common hepatic duct, and releases it via the common bile duct into ... Most vertebrates have gallbladders, but the form and arrangement of the bile ducts may vary considerably. In many species, for ... The cystic duct unites with the common hepatic duct to become the common bile duct. At the junction of the neck of the ... example, there are several separate ducts running to the intestine, rather than the single common bile duct found in humans. ...
The pancreatic duct joins the common bile duct just prior to the ampulla of Vater, after which both ducts perforate the medial ... Pancreatic ductal carcinoma is a common form of pancreatic cancer. ERCP image showing the pancreatic duct and biliary tree. ... The most common cause for obstruction is the presence of gallstones in the common bile duct, a condition called ... The pancreatic duct, or duct of Wirsung (also, the major pancreatic duct due to the existence of an accessory pancreatic duct ...
... interlobular bile ducts → intrahepatic bile ducts → left and right hepatic ducts merge to formcommon hepatic duct exits ... formingcommon bile duct → joins with pancreatic ductforming ampulla of Vater → enters duodenum The bile duct is green ... which joins with the cystic duct (carrying bile to and from the gallbladder) to form the common bile duct, which opens into the ... A bile duct is any of a number of long tube-like structures that carry bile, and is present in most vertebrates. Bile, required ...
Bile is secreted by the liver into small ducts that join to form the common hepatic duct. Between meals, secreted bile is ... interlobular bile ducts >> left and right hepatic ducts >> These merge to form the common hepatic duct This exits the liver and ... form the common bile duct which joins the pancreatic duct These pass through the ampulla of Vater and enter the duodenum Bile ... is secreted by the liver into small ducts that join to form the common hepatic duct. Between meals, secreted bile is stored in ...
The common hepatic duct then joins the cystic duct coming from the gallbladder to form the common bile duct. The duct is ... Common hepatic duct The portal vein and its tributaries. The gall-bladder and bile ducts laid open. Common hepatic duct editor- ... The common hepatic duct is the duct formed by the convergence of the right hepatic duct (which drains bile from the right ... The common hepatic duct is about 6mm in diameter in adults, with some variation. A diameter of more than 8 mm is regarded as ...
It is later joined by the pancreatic duct to form the ampulla of Vater. There, the two ducts are surrounded by the muscular ... This conduction of bile is the main function of the common bile duct. The hormone cholecystokinin, when stimulated by a fatty ... The common bile duct, sometimes abbreviated CBD, is a duct in the gastrointestinal tract of organisms that have a gall bladder ... It is formed by the union of the common hepatic duct and the cystic duct (from the gall bladder). ...
The cystic duct from the gallbladder joins with the common hepatic duct to form the common bile duct. Bile either drains ... where they merge to form bile ducts. Within the liver, these ducts are termed intrahepatic bile ducts, and once they exit the ... or is temporarily stored in the gallbladder via the cystic duct. The common bile duct and the pancreatic duct enter the second ... They are cuboidal epithelium in the small interlobular bile ducts, but become columnar and mucus secreting in larger bile ducts ...
Bile is secreted by the liver into small ducts that join to form the common hepatic duct. Between meals, secreted bile is ... Bile ducts: 2. Intrahepatic bile ducts, 3. Left and right hepatic ducts, 4. Common hepatic duct, 5. Cystic duct, 6. Common bile ... Bile is secreted by the liver into small ducts that join to form the common hepatic duct. Between meals, secreted bile is ... Together these form the common bile duct which joins the pancreatic duct ...
... can be used to localize the bleeding to the pancreatic duct. It can be confused with bleeding from the common bile duct on ... a procedure to visualize the bile ducts and pancreatic duct on fluoroscopy, ... Pseudoaneurysms are complications of pancreatitis where a pseudocyst is formed, with one wall abutting an artery, usually the ... If the source of the bleeding also involves obstruction of the common bile duct (such as with some tumours of the head of the ...
The pH of common duct bile (7.50 to 8.05) is higher than that of the corresponding gallbladder bile (6.80 to 7.65). Bile in the ... Primarily, biliary obstruction is caused by blockage in the bile ducts. Bile ducts carry bile from the liver and gallbladder ... The cholesterol contained in bile will occasionally accrete into lumps in the gallbladder, forming gallstones. Cholesterol ... this stored bile is discharged into the duodenum. The composition of gallbladder bile is 97% water, 0.7% bile salts, 0.2% ...
Berci, G.; Cuschieri, A. (1996). Bile Ducts and Bile Duct Stones. Philadelphia: Saunders. "Alfred Cuschieri" (PDF). Retrieved ... Cuschieri, A.; Berci, G. (1984). Common Bile Duct Exploration. Boston: Martinus Nijhoff. Berci, G.; Cuschieri, A. (1986). ... A lack of appropriate training in this form of surgery, and instances of procedures going wrong even resulting in deaths, led ...
A cholangiocarcinoma occurring at the junction where the left and right hepatic ducts meet to form the common hepatic duct may ... Patient information on extrahepatic bile duct tumors, from the National Cancer Institute. Cancer.Net: Bile Duct Cancer The ... Cholangiocarcinoma, also known as bile duct cancer, is a form of cancer that is composed of mutated epithelial cells (or cells ... Distal cholangiocarcinomas (those arising from the common bile duct) are generally treated surgically with a Whipple procedure ...
... and ultimately fistula formation into the adjacent common hepatic duct (CHD) or common bile duct (CBD). As a result, the CHD / ... For types II-IV, subtotal cholecystectomy can be performed to avoid damage to the main bile ducts. Cholecystectomy and ... CHD diameter Mirizzi's syndrome has no consistent or unique clinical features that distinguish it from other more common forms ... in which a gallstone becomes impacted in the cystic duct or neck of the gallbladder causing compression of the common bile duct ...
This results when a cancer in the head of the pancreas obstructs the common bile duct as it runs through the pancreas. ... The most common form of pancreatic cancer (adenocarcinoma) is typically characterized by moderately to poorly differentiated ... which is by far the most common type, representing about 85% of all pancreatic cancers. Nearly all these start in the ducts of ... Signs and symptoms of the most common form of pancreatic cancer may include yellow skin, abdominal or back pain, unexplained ...
It supplies the gall bladder, common hepatic duct, cystic duct and upper part of bile duct. The lower part of bile duct is ... Parasympathetic nerves are motor to musculature of gall bladder and bile ducts, but inhibitory to the sphincters. Sympathetic ... Formed by the branches from celiac plexus, right and left vagi and right phrenic nerve. ...
... which then joins the common hepatic duct to form the common bile duct. At this junction is a mucosal fold called Hartmann's ... Bile flows from the liver through the bile ducts and into the gall bladder for storage. The bile is released in response to ... This duct joins with the cystic duct to connect in a common bile duct with the gallbladder. Bile is stored in the gallbladder ... so that it can discharge its bile into the bile duct. The gallbladder needs to store bile in a natural, semi-liquid form at all ...
High ALP levels can occur if the bile ducts are obstructed. Also, ALP increases if there is active bone formation occurring, as ... bile duct, kidney, bone, intestinal mucosa and placenta. In the serum, two types of alkaline phosphatase isozymes predominate: ... Some of the common genes found in this superfamily, are ones that encode phosphodiesterases as well as autotoxin. Acid ... In humans for example, it is found in many forms depending on its origin within the body - it plays an integral role in ...
Presence of gallstones in the common bile duct is called choledocholithiasis, from the Greek chol- (bile) + docho- (duct) + ... The bile components that form gallstones include cholesterol, bile salts, and bilirubin.[2] Gallstones formed mainly from ... bile) + ang- (vessel) + itis- (inflammation), a serious infection of the bile ducts. Gallstones within the ampulla of Vater can ... Gallstone disease refers to the condition where gallstones are either in the gallbladder or common bile duct.[5] The presence ...
Double gallstones with one falling and blocking the common bile duct (responsible for jaundice) and one at the cystic duct ( ... Where formation of stones are not strictly in gallbladder, hence not fibrotic, but in the intrahepatic bile ducts). To ... Typically gall bladder stones form slowly which allow time for the gall bladder to become tender. The exceptions to the law are ... in the case of recurrent pyogenic cholangitis complicated by calcium bilirubinate stone dislodging to the common bile duct ...
The resulting scarring of the bile ducts obstructs the flow of bile, which further perpetuates bile duct and liver injury. ... Various forms of gallbladder disease such as gallstones and gallbladder polyps are also common in those with PSC. Approximately ... The bile duct scarring which occurs in PSC narrows the ducts of the biliary tree and impedes the flow of bile to the intestines ... infection within the bile ducts) can be seen due to impaired drainage of the bile ducts, which increases the risk of infection ...
The pH of common duct bile (7.50 to 8.05) is higher than that of the corresponding gallbladder bile (6.80 to 7.65). Bile in the ... Biliary obstruction refers to a condition when bile ducts which deliver bile from the gallbladder or liver to the duodenum ... The cholesterol contained in bile will occasionally accrete into lumps in the gallbladder, forming gallstones. Cholesterol ... or other benign causes of bile duct narrowing. The most common cause of bile duct obstruction is when gallstone(s) are ...
... a yellowing of the skin and eyes caused by obstruction of the bile duct), or weight loss. These signs and symptoms are not ... The most common symptoms are very non-specific and include abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. In contrast to many of the ... In contrast to some of the other cyst-forming tumors of the pancreas (such as the intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm and ... The cysts do not communicate with the larger pancreatic ducts. In some cases a fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy can be ...
... , also known as bile duct cancer, is a type of cancer that forms in the bile ducts.[2] Symptoms of ... ERCP image of cholangiocarcinoma, showing common bile duct stricture and dilation of the proximal common bile duct ... A cholangiocarcinoma occurring at the junction where the left and right hepatic ducts meet to form the common hepatic duct may ... American Cancer Society Detailed Guide to Bile Duct Cancer.. *Patient information on extrahepatic bile duct tumors, from the ...
It is later joined by the pancreatic duct to form the ampulla of Vater. There, the two ducts are surrounded by the muscular ... This conduction of bile is the main function of the common bile duct. The hormone cholecystokinin, when stimulated by a fatty ... The common bile duct, sometimes abbreviated CBD, is a duct in the gastrointestinal tract of organisms that have a gall bladder ... It is formed by the union of the common hepatic duct and the cystic duct (from the gall bladder). ...
... common bile duct translation, English dictionary definition of common bile duct. n. The duct formed by the union of the cystic ... common bile duct synonyms, common bile duct pronunciation, ... duct and the hepatic duct that carries bile from the liver and ... common bile duct - a duct formed by the hepatic and cystic ducts; opens into the duodenum. bile duct ... common bile duct. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. common bile duct. n.. The duct formed ...
It is formed where the ducts from the liver and gallbladder are joined. ... A tube that carries bile from the liver and the gallbladder through the pancreas and into the duodenum (the upper part of the ... They are made up of the common hepatic duct (hilum region) and the common bile duct (distal region). Bile is made in the liver ... common bile duct listen (KAH-mun bile dukt) A tube that carries bile from the liver and the gallbladder through the pancreas ...
An operation to remove your gallbladder and any stones in your common bile duct should result in you being free of pain and ... Gallstones can move into your common bile duct. ... serious infection of your bile ducts or inflammation of your ... There is a total of 5 errors on this form, details are below. ... What are common bile-duct stones?. Common bile-duct stones are ... Gallstones can move into your common bile duct. An operation to remove your gallbladder and any stones in your common bile duct ...
Many small ducts drain into the right and left hepatic ducts, which unite to form the main bile duct, the common hepatic duct. ... any of the ducts that convey bile from the liver. ... which unite to form the main bile duct, the common hepatic duct ... bile duct n. any of the ducts that convey bile from the liver. Many small ducts drain into the right and left hepatic ducts, ... This joins the cystic duct, which leads from the gall bladder, to form the common bile duct, which drains into the duodenum.. ...
Traditionally, bile duct tumors located within the liver have been classified with hepatocellular carcinoma as primary liver... ... The true incidence of bile duct cancer is unknown, however, because establishing an accurate diagnosis is difficult. ... Cancer of the bile duct (also called cholangiocarcinoma) is extremely rare. ... left hepatic ducts exit the liver and join to form the common hepatic duct that is proximal to the origin of the cystic duct. ...
Cattano on distal common bile duct stricture: I believe that the ductal findings are nonspecific. Sludge in the gall bladder ... The common: Bile duct is formed by the coming together of the bile duct from the liver and the bile duct from the gallbaldder. ... There are areas of mild narrowing & irregularity of the intrahepatic ducts & proximal common duct. No dilation of common bile ... Dilated bile duct: The bile duct is the duct the drains bile out of the river and into the intestines. Dilated bile duct can be ...
... this tumor causes cystic dilation of the affected bile ducts as well as branched-type intraductal mucinous papillary neoplasm ... bile duct (● Fig.3). The filling defect in the intrahepatic bile duct was considered to be mucin. Therefore, we diagnosed this ... examination showed a malignant papillary proliferation within the dilated B4 bile duct and invasion into the bile duct wall on ... We herein report the first case of an IPNB occurring in an extrahepatic site communicating with the intrahepatic bile duct. The ...
The duct formed by the union of the hepatic and cystic ducts Explanation of Common bile duct neoplasms ... Find out information about Common bile duct neoplasms. ... common bile duct. (redirected from Common bile duct neoplasms) ... Related to Common bile duct neoplasms: Bile duct cancer. common bile duct. [¦käm·ən ′bīl ‚dəkt] (anatomy) The duct formed by ... Common bile duct neoplasms , Article about Common bile duct neoplasms by The Free Dictionary https://encyclopedia2. ...
carries bile into the duodenum. common bile duct. the combining form of the first part of the large intestine. cec/o. ... duct/o. ducts or tubes. flex/o. to bend. furc/o forking, braching. ... high blood levels of a pigment released by the liver with bile. hyperbilirubinemia. ...
common bile duct the duct formed by the joining of the cystic duct and the hepatic duct. ... a record, or X-ray film, of the bile ducts following the injection of a radiopaque contrast medium. ... an examination of the bile duct structure by using a needle to pass directly into an intraheptic bile duct to inject a contrast ... bile through the bile duct and urine through the ureters. ... the orange-yellow pigment of bile, formed principally by the ...
... which joins with the cystic duct to form the common bile duct opening... ... bile duct obstruction synonyms, bile duct obstruction pronunciation, bile duct obstruction translation, English dictionary ... definition of bile duct obstruction. n. Any of the excretory passages in the liver that carry bile to the hepatic duct, ... bile duct - a duct formed by the hepatic and cystic ducts; opens into the duodenum. common bile duct ...
common bile duct (anatomy). ...hepatis, these 1- to 2-cm (about half-inch) ducts join to form the hepatic duct, which proceeds ... The resulting common bile duct progresses downward through the head of the pancreas. There it is usually joined by the main ... common bugleweed (plant). Carpet, or common, bugleweed (Ajuga reptans) forms colonies of rosettes of dark green oval leaves in ... common blue violet (plant). Among the most common North American species are the common blue, or meadow, violet (V. ...
They are common, and usually have no symptoms. However, when they do occur, the most common symptoms are biliary colic and ... bile ducts, ( first into the two hepatic bile ducts, then into the single common hepatic duct, and finally, after the common ... they also may form anywhere there is bile - in the intrahepatic, hepatic, common bile, and cystic ducts. ... Biliary colic occurs when the bile ducts (cystic, hepatic ducts or common bile duct) are suddenly blocked by a gallstone. ...
What is submandibular duct? Meaning of submandibular duct medical term. What does submandibular duct mean? ... Looking for online definition of submandibular duct in the Medical Dictionary? submandibular duct explanation free. ... common bile duct a duct formed by the union of the cystic and hepatic ducts; see also bile ducts. ... common bile duct. a duct formed by the union of the cystic and hepatic ducts. See also bile duct. ...
... dilation of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts and multiple choleliths in the gallbladder and common bile duct. ... However, liver and bile duct involvement is usually observed in the disseminated form of LCH. We herein report a rare case of ... The common bile duct was not suitable for duct-to-duct anastomosis and was resected because of severe inflammation. Histologic ... LCH localized to the extrahepatic bile duct is extremely rare; however, LCH can still affect the extrahepatic bile ducts on ...
... nounThe duct formed by the union of the cystic duct and the hepatic duct that carries bile from the liver and the gallbladder ... common bile duct. common bile duct. noun. The duct formed by the union of the cystic duct and the hepatic duct that carries ... "common bile duct." YourDictionary, n.d. Web. 16 September 2018. ,http://www.yourdictionary.com/common-bile-duct,. ... common bile duct. (n.d.). Retrieved September 16th, 2018, from http://www.yourdictionary.com/common-bile-duct ...
Sclerosing cholangitis is a liver disease characterized by inflammation and scarring of bile ducts within and outside the liver ... The common hepatic duct in turn joins the cystic duct coming from the gall bladder to form the common bile duct.. The gall ... Bile Duct Cancer. Bile duct cancer occurs either within the liver or the point where the bile ducts emerge from the liver or ... The bile ducts could be more prone to bacterial infection.. *Gallbladder stones and polyps may form due to accumulation of bile ...
Bile duct tumours are rare. They are the 6th most common type of digestive cancer. Their therapeutic management is complex and ... Ampullary carcinoma or cancer of the pancreas with infiltration of the bile ducts or mixed tumours (hepatocholangiocarcinoma) ... For the locally advanced or metastatic forms, treatment has not been properly codified. With respect to chemotherapy, ... Bile Duct Neoplasms. Biliary Tract Neoplasms. Digestive System Neoplasms. Neoplasms by Site. Neoplasms. Bile Duct Diseases. ...
Caroli disease is a rare form of congenital biliary cystic disease manifested by cystic dilations of intrahepatic bile ducts. ... Ib: dilatation of extrahepatic bile duct (focal segment). * Ic: dilatation of the common bile duct portion of extrahepatic bile ... Todani classification of bile duct cysts. Todani classification of bile duct cysts divides cysts of the bile duct into 5 groups ... of all bile duct cysts. *represent protrusion of a focally dilated, intramural segment of the distal common bile duct into the ...
It does not remove stones in the common bile duct. Gallstones can form in the common bile duct years after the gallbladder is ... which shows the anatomy of the bile ducts. You will need general anesthesia for this surgery, which usually lasts 2 hours or ... Injury to the cystic duct, which carries bile from the gallbladder to the common bile duct. ... After surgery, bile flows from the liver (where it is made) through the common bile duct and into the small intestine. Because ...
Discusses most common causes, which include gallstones and alcohol misuse. Covers symptoms and treatment with medicines or ... This procedure allows the doctor to see the structure of the common bile duct , other bile ducts, and the pancreatic duct. ERCP ... the common bile duct.. *Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatogram (MRCP). This form of MRI can detect gallstones in the common ... Endoscopic ultrasound may reveal gallstones in the common bile duct.. * MRI . Sometimes an MRI is used to look for signs of ...
These stones are more common in Asia and tend to form within the bile ducts. They frequently are associated with periampullary ... a localized portion of the common bile duct is segmentally cystic. In subtype 1c (uncommon), the common bile duct is diffusely ... assessment of bile from gallbladder and common bile duct in control subjects and patients with gallstones and common duct ... Common bile duct stones are among the most frequent problems occurring in the biliary system. In this cholangiogram, the stones ...
Gallbladder Removal Surgery Injuries Cut Bile Duct Lawsuits. ... largely because this is a common form of surgery. Most ... Early on in a laparoscopic cholecystectomy, if there is any question as to where the ducts are, the surgeon can perform an ... Common defenses to bile duct injury lawsuits. The Common Bile Duct. Certainly, the goal is to avoid cutting any duct but ... the common bile duct causes the most medical malpractice lawsuits. When the common bile duct is compromised, there are often no ...
What two ducts unit to form the common bile duct before it enters the duodenum? ... Which vessel lies posterior to the bile duct and anterior to the Portal Vein? ... What is the most common location of aneurysms associated with the continuation of an abdominal aortic aneurysm?. ... What is an extrahepatic anechoic collection of bile located within the peritoneal cavity called? ...
  • Common imaging tests include ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), positron emission tomography (PET) scans, cholangiography, and angiography. (metromedicaldirect.com)
  • They underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography and bile duct stenting. (tsu.ge)
  • After endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography, there was a marked decrease in the amount of bile that drained outwards (by an average of 50.8% for the first day) with a cessation of bile leak after 4 - 6 days. (tsu.ge)
  • Endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography allows to determine the source of bile leaks, and endobiliary stenting is the method (surgery) of choice in the treatment of bile fistula. (tsu.ge)
  • Chinnery G.E, Krige J.E, Bornman P.C. Endoscopic management of bile leaks after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. (tsu.ge)
  • Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography demonstrated bile duct dilatation, polypoid intraductal masses (5 samples), clots/debris (2 samples), or strictures (4 samples). (elsevier.com)
  • mesonephric duct an embryonic duct of the mesonephros, which in the male becomes the epididymis, ductus deferens and its ampulla, seminal vesicles, and ejaculatory duct, and in the female is largely obliterated. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • At the site of endoscope in ampulla, the cannula passes through the endoscope and into this hollow with injected contrast media and the fluoroscopy taken by the radiographer to study the common bile duct. (phdessay.com)
  • Ampulla dilation with different sized balloons to remove common PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. (volgaspecteh.ru)
  • It happens because the tumor in the ampulla of Vater blocks the bile duct. (rochester.edu)
  • Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the procedure of choice for gallbladder removal and is one of the most common abdominal surgeries. (adam.com)
  • In the United States, appendicitis is the most common cause of abdominal pain resulting in surgery. (vegasrobotdoc.com)
  • Standard abdominal T2-weighted or intravenously administered contrast material-enhanced MR imaging and portal venous phase intravenous contrast-enhanced CT are both highly accurate for the detection of bile duct dilatation (4), and are better for imaging dilated ducts than non-dilated ducts. (volgaspecteh.ru)
  • The abdominal aorta (Fig. 531) begins at the aortic hiatus of the diaphragm, in front of the lower border of the body of the last thoracic vertebra, and, descending in front of the vertebral column, ends on the body of the fourth lumbar vertebra, commonly a little to the left of the middle line, (* 103 by dividing into the two common iliac arteries. (theodora.com)
  • The diaphragm, a muscle that aids in inhalation , forms a partition between the thoracic and abdominal cavities. (gafacom.website)
  • Despite the recent progress of diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, the prognosis for patients with middle and distal bile duct carcinoma remains poor. (elsevier.com)
  • Even in recent reports, the 5-year survival rate after resection of the middle-distal bile duct carcinoma is still not satisfactory (at around 35%) [1- (elsevier.com)
  • Since its introduction, EST + EPLBD has been used as the first-line therapy in patients, except those who are under 60 years of age and those in whom the distal bile duct cannot be sufficiently dilated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A Whipple procedure (pancreaticoduodenectomy) is used to treat extrahepatic distal bile duct cancer. (cancer.ca)
  • The current hypothesis establishes that chronic inflammation of the bile duct tissue will accumulate successive genomic mutations that over the years will lead to malignant transformation similar to other gastrointestinal cancers. (statpearls.com)
  • These entities are so discrete in nature that the person having these does not even know about them unless they obstruct a duct. (zovon.com)