Dual-Specificity Phosphatases: A sub-class of protein tyrosine phosphatases that contain an additional phosphatase activity which cleaves phosphate ester bonds on SERINE or THREONINE residues that are located on the same protein.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases: A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Phosphatases: A subcategory of phosphohydrolases that are specific for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. They play a role in the inactivation of the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases: An enzyme group that specifically dephosphorylates phosphotyrosyl residues in selected proteins. Together with PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE, it regulates tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in cellular signal transduction and may play a role in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Dual Specificity Phosphatase 1: A dual specificity phosphatase subtype that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by inactivating MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. It has specificity for P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Sp Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding proteins that contain three ZINC FINGERS at their carboxy termini. They are transcription factors that have specificity for GC boxes.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases: Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) are serine-threonine protein kinases that initiate protein kinase signaling cascades. They phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKs) which in turn phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs).Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Sp1 Transcription Factor: Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).MAP Kinase Kinase 1: An abundant 43-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase subtype with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Kinase: A regulatory calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase that specifically phosphorylates CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE 1; CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE 2; CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE 4; and PROTEIN KINASE B. It is a monomeric enzyme that is encoded by at least two different genes.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Dual Specificity Phosphatase 6: A dual specificity phosphatase subtype that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by inactivating MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. It has specificity for EXTRACELLULAR SIGNAL-REGULATED MAP KINASES and is primarily localized to the CYTOSOL.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.MAP Kinase Kinase 4: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and the RETINOID X RECEPTORS. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to cellular stress.Dual Specificity Phosphatase 3: A dual specificity phosphatase subtype that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by inactivating MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. It has specificity for EXTRACELLULAR SIGNAL-REGULATED MAP KINASES.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3: A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase 1: A 195-kDa MAP kinase kinase kinase with broad specificity for MAP KINASE KINASES. It is found localized in the CYTOSKELETON and can activate a variety of MAP kinase-dependent pathways.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Sp3 Transcription Factor: A specificity protein transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27.Sp4 Transcription Factor: A specificity protein transcription factor that is expressed primarily in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.MAP Kinase Kinase 7: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to CYTOKINES.MAP Kinase Kinase 3: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for a subset of P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES that includes MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 12; MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 13; and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 14.MAP Kinase Kinase 2: A 44 kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.MAP Kinase Kinase 6: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Sp2 Transcription Factor: A ubiquitously expressed Sp transcription factor that binds to the consensus DNA sequence GGGCGGGAC.Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Flavonoids: A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.Plicamycin: A tricyclic pentaglycosidic antibiotic from Streptomyces strains that inhibits RNA and protein synthesis by adhering to DNA. It is used as a fluorescent dye and as an antineoplastic agent, especially in bone and testicular tumors. Plicamycin is also used to reduce hypercalcemia, especially that due to malignancies.Butadienes: Four carbon unsaturated hydrocarbons containing two double bonds.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.AMP-Activated Protein Kinases: Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Phosphoprotein Phosphatases: A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Naphthalimides: Compounds with three fused rings that appear like a naphthalene fused to piperidone or like a benz(de)isoquinoline-1,3-dione (not to be confused with BENZYLISOQUINOLINES which have a methyl separating the naphthyl from the benzyl rings). Members are CYTOTOXINS.Protein Kinase C-alpha: A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase 4: A 180-kDa MAP kinase kinase kinase with specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 4 and MAP KINASE KINASE 6.Protein Kinase C-delta: A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase 5: A 150-kDa MAP kinase kinase kinase that may play a role in the induction of APOPTOSIS. It has specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 3; MAP KINASE KINASE 4; and MAP KINASE KINASE 6.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Nitriles: Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases: A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Protein Phosphatase 1: A eukayrotic protein serine-threonine phosphatase subtype that dephosphorylates a wide variety of cellular proteins. The enzyme is comprised of a catalytic subunit and regulatory subunit. Several isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. A large number of proteins have been shown to act as regulatory subunits for this enzyme. Many of the regulatory subunits have additional cellular functions.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase 3: A 70-kDa MAPK kinase kinase with specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 5.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.p21-Activated Kinases: A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-raf: A ubiquitously expressed raf kinase subclass that plays an important role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. The c-raf Kinases are MAP kinase kinase kinases that have specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 1 and MAP KINASE KINASE 2.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase 2: A 70-kDa MAP kinase kinase kinase with specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 5. It is activated during the cellular response to GROWTH FACTORS, oxidative stress, and hyperosmotic conditions.Casein Kinase II: A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.Protein Kinase C-epsilon: A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.Protein Kinase C beta: PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Mitogens: Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.eIF-2 Kinase: A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Casein Kinases: A group of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally identified as being responsible for the PHOSPHORYLATION of CASEINS. They are ubiquitous enzymes that have a preference for acidic proteins. Casein kinases play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by phosphorylating a variety of regulatory cytoplasmic and regulatory nuclear proteins.ChromonesTranscriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.PhosphoproteinsCalcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2: A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 1: A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in a broad variety of mammalian cell types. Its expression is regulated by the action of CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE. Several isoforms of this enzyme subtype are encoded by distinct genes.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 8: A c-jun amino-terminal kinase that is activated by environmental stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Several isoforms of the protein with molecular sizes of 43 and 48 KD exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.MorpholinesModels, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.I-kappa B Kinase: A protein serine-threonine kinase that catalyzes the PHOSPHORYLATION of I KAPPA B PROTEINS. This enzyme also activates the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B and is composed of alpha and beta catalytic subunits, which are protein kinases and gamma, a regulatory subunit.Androstadienes: Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.Isoquinolines: A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Pyruvate Kinase: ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor): A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3: A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay: An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases: A group of hydrolases which catalyze the hydrolysis of monophosphoric esters with the production of one mole of orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.ortho-Aminobenzoates: Benzoic acids, salts, or esters that contain an amino group attached to carbon number 2 or 6 of the benzene ring structure.MaleimidesPyridines: Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.rho-Associated Kinases: A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.Thymidine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.21.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.PC12 Cells: A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.cdc25 Phosphatases: A subclass of dual specificity phosphatases that play a role in the progression of the CELL CYCLE. They dephosphorylate and activate CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesNF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Triterpenes1-Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 90-kDa: A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are structurally distinguished from RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 70-KDA by their apparent molecular size and the fact they contain two functional kinase domains. Although considered RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, members of this family are activated via the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM and have been shown to act on a diverse array of substrates that are involved in cellular regulation such as RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 and CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN.Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).CDC2-CDC28 Kinases: A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.MAP Kinase Kinase 5: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 7.Phorbol 12,13-Dibutyrate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL which, in addition to being a potent skin tumor promoter, is also an effective activator of calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C). Due to its activation of this enzyme, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate profoundly affects many different biological systems.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.raf Kinases: A family of closely-related serine-threonine kinases that were originally identified as the cellular homologs of the retrovirus-derived V-RAF KINASES. They are MAP kinase kinase kinases that play important roles in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Staurosporine: An indolocarbazole that is a potent PROTEIN KINASE C inhibitor which enhances cAMP-mediated responses in human neuroblastoma cells. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995;214(3):1114-20)Aurora Kinases: A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.DiglyceridesAntibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Transcription Factor AP-1: A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.Epidermal Growth Factor: A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 4: A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is primarily expressed in neuronal tissues; T-LYMPHOCYTES and TESTIS. The activity of this enzyme is regulated by its phosphorylation by CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Diacylglycerol Kinase: An enzyme of the transferase class that uses ATP to catalyze the phosphorylation of diacylglycerol to a phosphatidate. EC 2.7.1.107.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 13: A 38-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase found expressed at high levels in LUNG; KIDNEY; TESTIS; PANCREAS; and SMALL INTESTINE. It may play a role in regulating functions such as CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS of EPITHELIAL CELLS.Immediate-Early Proteins: Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Non-Receptor: A subcategory of protein tyrosine phosphatases that occur in the CYTOPLASM. Many of the proteins in this category play a role in intracellular signal transduction.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.ras Proteins: Small, monomeric GTP-binding proteins encoded by ras genes (GENES, RAS). The protooncogene-derived protein, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS), plays a role in normal cellular growth, differentiation and development. The oncogene-derived protein (ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS)) can play a role in aberrant cellular regulation during neoplastic cell transformation (CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.3-Phosphoinositide-Dependent Protein Kinases: Highly conserved protein-serine threonine kinases that phosphorylate and activate a group of AGC protein kinases, especially in response to the production of the SECOND MESSENGERS, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,-biphosphate (PtdIns(3,4)P2) and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3).Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Mice, Inbred C57BL1-(5-Isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-Methylpiperazine: A specific protein kinase C inhibitor, which inhibits superoxide release from human neutrophils (PMN) stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or synthetic diacylglycerol.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 12: A 38-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase found primarily in SKELETAL MUSCLE.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
"Extracellular signal-regulated kinases phosphorylate mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 3/DUSP6 at serines 159 and ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: DUSP6 dual specificity phosphatase 6". Muda M, Boschert U, Dickinson R, Martinou JC, ... a novel cytosolic protein-tyrosine phosphatase that exemplifies a new class of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase". ... a novel cytosolic protein-tyrosine phosphatase that exemplifies a new class of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase". ...
"The mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatases PAC1, MKP-1, and MKP-2 have unique substrate specificities and reduced ... Different members of the family of dual specificity phosphatases show distinct substrate specificities for various MAP kinases ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Guan KL, Butch E (Mar 1995). "Isolation and characterization of a novel dual specific phosphatase, ... affinity of mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily members for MAP kinase phosphatase-2 and their ability to activate the ...
1995). "Pro-inflammatory cytokines and environmental stress cause p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation by dual ... Different members of the family of dual specificity phosphatases show distinct substrate specificities for various MAP kinases ... 2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ... They negatively regulate members of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase superfamily (MAPK/ERK, SAPK/JNK, p38), which are ...
... mitogen-activated protein kinase) proteins ERK, JNK, and p38 with specificity distinct from that of individual MKP proteins. ... of Pyst2 as a cytosolic dual-specificity MAP kinase phosphatase and its catalytic activation by both MAP and SAP kinases". J. ... 2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ... Dual specificity protein phosphatase 7 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DUSP7 gene. Dual-specificity phosphatases ...
Dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 6 also known as MAP kinase kinase 6 (MAPKK 6) or MAPK/ERK kinase 6 is ... "Selective activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase isoforms by the MAP kinase kinases MKK3 and MKK6". The ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Han J, Lee JD, Jiang Y, Li Z, Feng L, Ulevitch RJ (Feb 1996). "Characterization of the structure and ... "Human mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase mediates the stress-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase ...
... a novel mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase, functions as a shuttle protein". J Biol Chem. 276 (42): 39002-11. doi: ... dual-specificity kinases phosphorylate both threonine and tyrosine residues in MAPK TXY motifs. MKPs are dual-specificity ... 2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ... a novel mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase, functions as a shuttle protein". J. Biol. Chem. United States. 276 (42): ...
Dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAP2K4 gene. This gene ... "Identification of a dual specificity kinase that activates the Jun kinases and p38-Mpk2". Science. 268 (5208): 286-90. doi: ... This kinase is phosphorylated, and thus activated by MAP3K1/MEKK. The knockout studies in mice suggested the roles of this ... "Human mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase mediates the stress-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase ...
They negatively regulate members of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase superfamily (MAPK/ERK, SAPK/JNK, p38), which is ... Different members of the family of dual specificity phosphatases show distinct substrate specificities for various MAP kinases ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: Dual specificity phosphatase 8". Retrieved 2017-09-08. Hink RL, Hokanson JE, Shah I, ... Dual specificity phosphatase 8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DUSP8 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ...
Dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAP2K2 gene. It is ... The activation of this kinase itself is dependent on the Ser/Thr phosphorylation by MAP kinase kinase kinases. The inhibition ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Zheng CF, Guan KL (Jun 1993). "Cloning and characterization of two distinct human extracellular ... The protein encoded by this gene is a dual specificity protein kinase that belongs to the MAP kinase kinase family. This kinase ...
... a dual specificity MAP kinase protein phosphatase". Proteins. 66 (1): 253-8. doi:10.1002/prot.21224. PMID 17078075. Sarközi R, ... They negatively regulate members of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase superfamily (MAPK/ERK, SAPK/JNK, p38), which are ... Different members of the family of dual specificity phosphatases show distinct substrate specificities for various MAP kinases ... "Entrez Gene: DUSP5 dual specificity phosphatase 5". Gerdin AK (2010). "The Sanger Mouse Genetics Programme: high throughput ...
View/Edit Mouse. Dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ... This protein kinase lies upstream of MAP kinases and stimulates the enzymatic activity of MAP kinases upon activation by a wide ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the dual-specificity protein kinase family that acts as a mitogen-activated ... protein tyrosine kinase activity. • nucleotide binding. • MAP kinase kinase activity. • protein kinase activity. • protein ...
They negatively regulate members of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase superfamily (MAPK/ERK, SAPK/JNK, p38), which is ... Different members of the family of dual specificity phosphatases show distinct substrate specificities for various MAP kinases ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Muda M, Manning ER, Orth K, Dixon JE (Sep 1999). "Identification of the human YVH1 protein-tyrosine ... Dual specificity protein phosphatase 12 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DUSP12 gene. The protein encoded by this ...
Dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAP2K3 gene. The ... the kinases that phosphorylate and activate the extracellular signal-regulated kinases". J. Biol. Chem. 268 (32): 23933-9. PMID ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Rampoldi L, Zimbello R, Bortoluzzi S, Tiso N, Valle G, Lanfranchi G, Danieli GA (Mar 1998). " ... "Human mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase mediates the stress-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase ...
"Pro-inflammatory cytokines and environmental stress cause p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation by dual ... dual-specificity protein tyrosine phosphatases". Molecules and Cells. 8 (1): 2-11. PMID 9571625. Keyse SM (Apr 1998). "Protein ... binding determinants for ERK2/p38alpha and JNK map kinases mediate catalytic activation and substrate selectivity of map kinase ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Keyse SM, Emslie EA (Oct 1992). "Oxidative stress and heat shock induce a human gene encoding a ...
They negatively regulate members of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase superfamily (MAPK/ERK, SAPK/JNK, p38), which are ... Different members of the family of dual specificity phosphatases show distinct substrate specificities for various MAP kinases ... A conditional knockout mouse line, called Dusp3tm1a(KOMP)Wtsi was generated as part of the International Knockout Mouse ... Dual specificity protein phosphatase 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DUSP3 gene. The protein encoded by this ...
Mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAPK3 gene. The protein encoded by this gene ... 1 and ERK2 are authentic substrates for the dual-specificity protein-tyrosine phosphatase VHR. A novel role in down-regulating ... isoforms with mitogen-activated protein kinases". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (47): 29773-9. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.47.29773. PMID 8939914 ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". García F, Zalba G, Páez G, Encío I, de Miguel C (15 May 1998). "Molecular cloning and ...
... both dual-specificity MAP kinase phosphatases and MAP-specific tyrosine phosphatases bind to MAP kinases through the same ... Mice that were genetically engineered to lack a functional JNK3 gene - the major isoform in brain - display enhanced ischemic ... A mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK or MAP kinase) is a type of protein kinase that is specific to the amino acids serine ... MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K or MKKK). *MAP kinase kinase kinases *MAP3K1 ...
Johnson GL, Lapadat R (Dec 2002). "Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways mediated by ERK, JNK, and p38 protein kinases". ... including ser-thr protein phosphatases (PPs), protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTP), and dual-specificity phosphatases (DUSP). ... During cardiomyocyte maturation in new born mouse heart, p38α MAPK activity can regulate myocyte cytokinesis and promote cell ... "Cell type-specific inhibition of the ETS transcription factor ER81 by mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase ...
"Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 is an activator of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94 ( ... "Dual-specificity phosphatase 1 ubiquitination in extracellular signal-regulated kinase-mediated control of growth in human ... "Mitogen-activated protein kinases activate the serine/threonine kinases Mnk1 and Mnk2". EMBO J. 16 (8): 1909-20. doi:10.1093/ ... A conditional knockout mouse line, called Mapk1tm1a(EUCOMM)Wtsi was generated as part of the International Knockout Mouse ...
Dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7, also known as MAP kinase kinase 7 or MKK7, is an enzyme that in ... "Activation of stress-activated protein kinases/c-Jun N-terminal protein kinases (SAPKs/JNKs) by a novel mitogen-activated ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: MAP2K7 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7". Tournier C, Whitmarsh AJ, Cavanagh J ... "Human mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 (MKK7) is a highly conserved c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein ...
"Pro-inflammatory cytokines and environmental stress cause p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation by dual ... Xu S, Cobb MH (December 1997). "MEKK1 binds directly to the c-Jun N-terminal kinases/stress-activated protein kinases". J. Biol ... Studies of the mouse counterpart of this gene suggested that this kinase play a key role in T cell proliferation, apoptosis and ... Tanoue T, Moriguchi T, Nishida E (July 1999). "Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel dual specificity phosphatase, ...
"Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Cascades". Retrieved 17 November 2012. Derynck R, Zhang YE (October 2003). "Smad-dependent and ... Mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) undergo phosphorylation via a signaling cascade where MAPKKK phosphorylates and ... Injection of Noggin into lens fiber cells in mice significantly reduces the BMP4 proteins in the cells. This indicates that ... Kriangkrai R, Iseki S, Eto K, Chareonvit S (March 2006). "Dual odontogenic origins develop at the early stage of rat maxillary ...
Buhl AM, Osawa S, Johnson GL (1995). "Mitogen-activated protein kinase activation requires two signal inputs from the human ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.. ... Focal adhesion protein-tyrosine kinase *PTK2. *PTK2B. *BTK. both. *Dual-specificity kinase ... phospholipase C-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • retina development in camera-type eye. • Ras protein ...
"Pro-inflammatory cytokines and environmental stress cause p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation by dual ... ATF-2 is normally activated in response to signals that converge on stress-activated protein kinases p38 and JNK. ATF-2 ... The protein ATF-2 has 505 amino acids. Studies in mice indicate a role for ATF-2 in the development of nervous system and the ... substrate specificity and sensitivity to inhibition by pyridinyl imidazoles". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 235 (3): 533-8. ...
One very important group of protein kinases are the MAP kinases (acronym from: "mitogen-activated protein kinases"). Important ... tyrosine kinases), and a number act on all three (dual-specificity kinases). There are also protein kinases that phosphorylate ... Curated database of protein kinase structures and related data Human and mouse protein kinases: classification and index The ... Hanks SK, Hunter T (May 1995). "Protein kinases 6. The eukaryotic protein kinase superfamily: kinase (catalytic) domain ...
Dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAP2K2 gene. It is more commonly known as MEK2, but has many alternative names including CFC4, MKK2, MAPKK2 and PRKMK2. The protein encoded by this gene is a dual specificity protein kinase that belongs to the MAP kinase kinase family. This kinase is known to play a critical role in mitogen growth factor signal transduction. It phosphorylates and thus activates MAPK1/ERK2 and MAPK3/ERK1. The activation of this kinase itself is dependent on the Ser/Thr phosphorylation by MAP kinase kinase kinases. The inhibition or ...
Mitogen-activated protein kinase 13 (MAPK 13), also known as stress-activated protein kinase 4 (SAPK4), is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAPK13 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals, and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development. This kinase is closely related to p38 MAP kinase, both of which can be activated by proinflammatory cytokines and cellular stress. MAP kinase kinases 3, and 6 can phosphorylate and activate this kinase. Transcription factor ATF2, and microtubule ...
Dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAP2K4 gene. This gene encodes a dual specificity protein kinase that belongs to the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. This kinase is a direct activator of MAP kinases in response to various environmental stresses or mitogenic stimuli. It has been shown to activate MAPK8/JNK1, MAPK9/JNK2, and MAPK14/p38, but not MAPK1/ERK2 or MAPK3/ERK1. This kinase is phosphorylated, and thus activated by MAP3K1/MEKK. The knockout studies in mice suggested the roles of this kinase in mediating survival signal in T cell development, as well as in the ...
Söderström T.S., Poukkula M., Holmström T.H., et al. Mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling in activated T cells abrogates TRAIL-induced apoptosis upstream of the mitochondrial amplification loop and caspase-8. (англ.) // J. Immunol. (англ.)русск. : journal. - 2002. - Vol. 169, no. 6. - P. 2851-2860. - PMID 12218097. ...
MAPKK 6 is a member of the dual specificity protein kinase family, which functions as a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase. MAP kinases, also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals. This protein phosphorylates and activates p38 MAP kinase in response to inflammatory cytokines or environmental stress. As an essential component of p38 MAP kinase mediated signal transduction pathway, this gene is involved in many cellular processes such as stress-induced cell cycle arrest, transcription activation and apoptosis.[6] ...
Yoshihara Y, Kawasaki M, Tamada A; et al. (1996). «Overlapping and differential expression of BIG-2, BIG-1, TAG-1, and F3: four members of an axon-associated cell adhesion molecule subgroup of the immunoglobulin superfamily.». J. Neurobiol. 28 (1): 51-69. PMID 8586965. doi:10.1002/neu.480280106 ...
Tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type 18 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PTPN18 gene.[5][6] The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains a PEST motif, which often serves as a protein-protein interaction domain, and may be related to protein intracellular half-live. This gene was found to be expressed in brain, colon tissues, and several different tumor-derived cell lines. The biological function of this PTP has not yet been determined.[6] ...
Aoki N., Matsuda T. (2002). A nuclear protein tyrosine phosphatase TC-PTP is a potential negative regulator of the PRL-mediated signaling pathway: dephosphorylation and deactivation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5a and 5b by TC-PTP in nucleus.. Mol. Endocrinol. 16: 58 - 69. PubMed DOI:10.1210/mend.16.1.0761 ...
The symptoms and/or signs of branchio-oto-renal syndrome are consistent with underdeveloped (hypoplastic) or absent kidneys with resultant chronic kidney disease or kidney failure. Ear anomalies include extra openings in front of the ears, extra pieces of skin in front of the ears (preauricular tags), or further malformation or absence of the outer ear (pinna). Malformation or absence of the middle ear is also possible, individuals can have mild to profound hearing loss. People with BOR may also have cysts or fistulae along the sides of their neck.[3]. In some individuals and families, renal features are completely absent. The disease may then be termed Branchio-oto Syndrome (BO syndrome)[4]. ...
3.0.CO;2-J. PMID 10940933. Peters CS, Liang X, Li S, et al. (2001). "ATF-7, a novel bZIP protein, interacts with the PRL-1 protein-tyrosine phosphatase". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (17): 13718-26. doi:10.1074/jbc.M011562200. PMID 11278933. Si X, Zeng Q, Ng CH, et al. (2001). "Interaction of farnesylated PRL-2, a protein-tyrosine phosphatase, with the beta-subunit of geranylgeranyltransferase II". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (35): 32875-82. doi:10.1074/jbc.M010400200. PMID 11447212. Nicolas G, Fournier CM, Galand C, et al. (2002). "Tyrosine Phosphorylation Regulates Alpha II Spectrin Cleavage by Calpain". Mol. Cell. Biol. 22 (10): 3527-36. doi:10.1128/MCB.22.10.3527-3536.2002. PMC 133798 . PMID 11971983. Wang J, Kirby CE, Herbst R (2003). "The tyrosine phosphatase PRL-1 localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and the mitotic spindle and is required for normal mitosis". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (48): 46659-68. ...
Receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase zeta also known as phosphacan is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PTPRZ1 gene. This gene is a member of the receptor tyrosine phosphatase family and encodes a single-pass type I membrane protein with two cytoplasmic tyrosine-protein phosphatase domains, an alpha-carbonic anhydrase domain and a fibronectin type III domain. Alternative splice variants that encode different protein isoforms have been described but their full-length nature has not been determined. Expression of this gene is induced in gastric cancer cells, in the remyelinating oligodendrocytes of multiple sclerosis lesions, and in human embryonic kidney cells under hypoxic conditions. Both the protein and transcript are overexpressed in glioblastoma cells, promoting their haptotactic migration. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
3.0.CO;2-P. PMID 10229072. Yablonski D, Kadlecek T, Weiss A (July 2001). "Identification of a phospholipase C-gamma1 (PLC-gamma1) SH3 domain-binding site in SLP-76 required for T-cell receptor-mediated activation of PLC-gamma1 and NFAT". Mol. Cell. Biol. 21 (13): 4208-18. doi:10.1128/MCB.21.13.4208-4218.2001. PMC 87082 . PMID 11390650. Binstadt BA, Billadeau DD, Jevremović D, Williams BL, Fang N, Yi T, Koretzky GA, Abraham RT, Leibson PJ (October 1998). "SLP-76 is a direct substrate of SHP-1 recruited to killer cell inhibitory receptors". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (42): 27518-23. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.42.27518. PMID 9765283. Mizuno K, Katagiri T, Hasegawa K, Ogimoto M, Yakura H (August 1996). "Hematopoietic cell phosphatase, SHP-1, is constitutively associated with the SH2 domain-containing leukocyte protein, SLP-76, in B cells". J. Exp. Med. 184 (2): 457-63. doi:10.1084/jem.184.2.457. PMC 2192711 . PMID 8760799. Lindholm CK, Henriksson ML, Hallberg B, Welsh M (July 2002). "Shb links ...
Huynh H, Bottini N, Williams S, Cherepanov V, Musumeci L, Saito K, Bruckner S, Vachon E, Wang X, Kruger J, Chow CW, Pellecchia M, Monosov E, Greer PA, Trimble W, Downey GP, Mustelin T (Sep 2004). "Control of vesicle fusion by a tyrosine phosphatase". Nature Cell Biology. 6 (9): 831-9. doi:10.1038/ncb1164. PMID 15322554 ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... RAF1 then further activates the dual-specificity protein kinases MAP2K1/MEK1 and MAP2K2/MEK2. Both MAP2K1/MEK1 and MAP2K2/MEK2 ... The Protein Feature View requires a browser that supports SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics). Mouse over tracks and labels for more ... Dual specificity protein kinase which acts as an essential component of the MAP kinase signal transduction pathway. Binding of ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... is the one of the only known kinase to directly activate the stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinases MAPK8/ ... The Protein Feature View requires a browser that supports SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics). Mouse over tracks and labels for more ... Dual specificity protein kinase which acts as an essential component of the MAP kinase signal transduction pathway. Essential ...
Activates the ERK1 and ERK2 MAP kinases (By similarity). ... residue in a Thr-Glu-Tyr sequence located in MAP kinases. ... Comprehensive resource for the study of protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) in human, mouse and rat. ... Dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2Add BLAST. 400. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). ... Dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 (EC:2.7.12.2By similarity. ,p>Manually curated information which has ...
p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases. *Phosphoprotein Phosphatases. *Protein Phosphatase 1. *Dual Specificity Phosphatase 1 ... MKP-1-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) displayed enhanced p38 MAPK activity and cAMP-response element-dependent ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphatases (MKPs) constitute a family of 11 dual-specificity phosphatases that ... Essential role for mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase phosphatase-1 in stress-responsive MAP kinase and cell survival ...
"Extracellular signal-regulated kinases phosphorylate mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 3/DUSP6 at serines 159 and ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: DUSP6 dual specificity phosphatase 6". Muda M, Boschert U, Dickinson R, Martinou JC, ... a novel cytosolic protein-tyrosine phosphatase that exemplifies a new class of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase". ... a novel cytosolic protein-tyrosine phosphatase that exemplifies a new class of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase". ...
SAPKK3 MKK6 is a dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase that was first cloned by PCR using degenerate primers... ... MAP2K6; MAPKK6; MEK6; Mitogen activated protein kinase kinase 6; PRKMK6; ... Expression and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases-3 and -6 in rheumatoid arthritis. Am J Pathol. 2004;164(1 ... 1996). Two MKK6 isoforms have been described in mouse and human (Cuenda et al. 1996; Han et al. 1996). The bigger isoform ...
MKK4 is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase group of dual specificity protein kinases that functions as an ... Targeted Disruption of the Mouse MKK4 Gene.. We used the positive-negative selection strategy (28) to inactivate the mouse MKK4 ... Disruption of the MKK4 gene blocked JNK activation caused by: (i) the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase MEKK1, and ... by the dual specificity protein kinase MKK4 (also known as SEK1/JNKK), a member of the MAP kinase kinase group (14-16). MKK4 is ...
... which is known to negatively regulate mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and which has never previously been implicated ... Mouse mutants lacking a functional Dusp16 gene (Dusp16-/-) developed fully-penetrant congenital obstructive hydrocephalus ... which is known to negatively regulate mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and which has never previously been implicated ... Mouse mutants lacking a functional Dusp16 gene (Dusp16-/-) developed fully-penetrant congenital obstructive hydrocephalus ...
Insulin-induced mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) attenuates insulin-stimulated MAP kinase activity ... Differential regulation of MAP kinase signalling by dual-specificity protein phosphatases. Oncogene 2007;26:3203-3213. ... Chromatin-bound mitogen-activated protein kinases transmit dynamic signals in transcription complexes in beta-cells. Proc Natl ... Mice lacking MAP kinase phosphatase-1 have enhanced MAP kinase activity and resistance to diet-induced obesity. Cell Metab 2006 ...
... and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Conversely, activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) negatively ... Deletion of Dual Specificity Phosphatase 1 Does Not Predispose Mice to Increased Spontaneous Osteoarthritis PloS One. 2015 , ... Mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) including ERK and p38 play important roles in the mediation of downstream pathways ... P38 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Protects Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells Exposed to Oxidative Stress Canadian ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the dual specificity protein phosphatase subfamily. These phosphatases ... They negatively regulate members of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase superfamily (MAPK/ERK, SAPK/JNK, p38), which is ... Different members of the family of dual specificity phosphatases show distinct substrate specificities for various MAP kinases ... Positive Control: Mouse Heart; Dusp11 antibody - N-terminal region (ARP40470_P050) in Mouse Heart cells using Western Blot. * ...
... a dual-specific threonine and tyrosine phosphatase with stringent substrate specificity for mitogen-activated protein kinase ( ... Differential activation of ERK and JNK mitogen-activated protein kinases by Raf-1 and MEKK. Science 1994;266:1719-23. ... In mouse embryo fibroblast cells, DUSP1 protein abundance is greatly increased after oxidative stress in a p53-dependent manner ... Essential role for mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase phosphatase-1 in stress-responsive MAP kinase and cell survival ...
Dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAP2K4 gene. This gene ... "Identification of a dual specificity kinase that activates the Jun kinases and p38-Mpk2". Science. 268 (5208): 286-90. doi: ... This kinase is phosphorylated, and thus activated by MAP3K1/MEKK. The knockout studies in mice suggested the roles of this ... "Human mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase mediates the stress-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase ...
View/Edit Mouse. Dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ... This protein kinase lies upstream of MAP kinases and stimulates the enzymatic activity of MAP kinases upon activation by a wide ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the dual-specificity protein kinase family that acts as a mitogen-activated ... protein tyrosine kinase activity. • nucleotide binding. • MAP kinase kinase activity. • protein kinase activity. • protein ...
ORIGENE UNIQUE VARIANT 1 of Human dual specificity phosphatase 3 (DUSP3) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene ... They negatively regulate members of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase superfamily (MAPK/ERK, SAPK/JNK, p38), which are ... DUSP3 Mouse Clones. SKU. Description. Price. Shipping. MC205780. Dusp3 (untagged) - Mouse dual specificity phosphatase 3 ( ... Different members of the family of dual specificity phosphatases show distinct substrate specificities for various MAP kinases ...
... otherwise known as mitogen-activated phosphatase 1 or MKP-1) dephosphorylates MAPKs, particularly p38, and negatively regulates ... mice. Here we show that GC-mediated dephosphorylation of ERK-1 and ERK-2 activated by IgE receptor cross-linking is unimpaired ... mice, suggesting a compensatory mechanism for the GC action in these mice. In both DUSP1+/+ and DUSP1-/- BMMCs, GC up-regulated ... mice show enhanced mast cell degranulation and are highly susceptible to anaphylaxis, but these effects are still down- ...
... and mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/Erk; 4, blue). Dual specificity phosphatases ( ... 2003). An essential function of the mitogen-activated protein kinase Erk2 in mouse trophoblast development. EMBO Rep. 4, 964- ... Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptor tyrosine kinases control a multitude of developmental processes, including ... 2003). Essential role for ERK2 mitogen-activated protein kinase in placental development. Genes Cells 8, 847-856. ...
... mitogen-activated protein kinase; MKK1, MAPK kinase-1; MES, mouse embryonic stem; MSK, mitogen- and stress-activated protein ... casein kinase-1; CREB, cAMP-response-element-binding protein; DYRK1a, dual-specificity tyrosine-phosphorylated and -regulated ... but does not signi-ficantly inhibit ten other AGC kinase members and over 40 other protein kinases tested at 100-fold higher ... cAMP-dependent protein kinase A; PKB, protein kinase B; PKC, protein kinase C; ROCK, Rho-dependent protein kinase; RSK, p90 ...
... is the one of the only known kinase to directly activate the stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinases MAPK8/ ... A similar protein in mouse has been reported to play a role in liver organogenesis. A pseudogene of this gene is located on the ... HCA RNA Cell Line for Dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4. ... Compartment GO Terms for Dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4. ...
Activation of MAP kinases requires phosphorylation of both Thr and Tyr in the catalytic domain by a family of dual-specificity ... MEK1 clonal lines confer metastatic potential in mice. A, histological appearance of lung metastases from mice that were i.v.- ... many of which activate extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases. Components of the ... mitogen-activated protein; ERK, extracellular signal-regulated kinase; MEK, MAP kinase/ERK kinase; DS, MEK1-DS; DD, MEK1-DD; ...
... are dual-specificity protein kinases that function in a mitogen activated protein kinase cascade controlling cell growth and ... The unconjugated antibody Phospho-MEK1/2 (Ser217/221) (41G9) Rabbit mAb #9154 reacts with human, mouse, rat, monkey and D. ... are dual-specificity protein kinases that function in a mitogen activated protein kinase cascade controlling cell growth and ... are dual-specificity protein kinases that function in a mitogen activated protein kinase cascade controlling cell growth and ...
ICC/IF and tested in Human and Mouse. Immunogen corresponding to synthetic peptide ... Mitogen activated protein kinase phosphatase x antibody. *Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase x antibody ... Belongs to the protein-tyrosine phosphatase family. Non-receptor class dual specificity subfamily.. Contains 1 tyrosine-protein ... Activates the Jnk signaling pathway. Dephosphorylates and deactivates p38 and stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal ...
... mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-SEK1 / MKK4 (phospho Ser80) pAb (GTX55115) is tested in ... mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4. Background. This gene encodes a dual specificity protein kinase that belongs to the ... This kinase is phosphorylated, and thus activated by MAP3K1/MEKK. The knockout studies in mice suggested the roles of this ... Ser/Thr protein kinase family. This kinase is a direct activator of MAP kinases in response to various environmental stresses ...
... are dual-specificity protein kinases that function in a mitogen activated protein kinase cascade controlling cell growth and ... and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in mouse cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species ... Pathways & Proteins. Explore pathways + proteins related to this product.. Select Your Pathway/Protein. Actin Dynamics. ... MEK activates p44 and p42 MAP kinase by phosphorylating both threonine and tyrosine residues at sites located within the ...
This analysis indicated that the highest similarity was to dual-specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (Table S1 ... Cells, mice, and parasites.. C57BL/6 mice (6-8 wk of age) were obtained from SLC. Peritoneal macrophages were collected from ... The model built on SCOP domain d1s9ja (dual-specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1) resulted in significantly ... in silico structural analysis revealed similarity to dual-specificity mitogen-activated kinase kinases, which are shown to be ...
  • RTKs are not the only kinases found along genes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • These sites are bound with specificity by the p53 protein, leading to the transcriptional control of these target genes ( 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The well-validated role of mutationally activated RAS genes in driving cancer development and growth has stimulated comprehensive efforts to develop therapeutic strategies to block mutant RAS function for cancer treatment. (sciencemag.org)
  • Besides acting as a genuine TF, activated GR can also influence target genes in the nucleus via other mechanisms (ref. 12 and discussed below). (jci.org)
  • An understanding of biological processes and genes that are perturbed during attempted fungal exposure, colonization, and/or invasion will help guide the identification of endogenous immunomodulators and/or small molecules that activate host-immune responses such as specialized adjuvants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We hypothesize that these genes belong to a pool of common immunomodulators that can potentially be activated or suppressed (agonized or antagonized) in order to render the host more tolerant to infections caused by A. fumigatus and C. albicans . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we discuss recent discoveries that implicate FGF/Erk signaling in the control of pluripotency and lineage specification in several different stem cell states, including the separation of pluripotent epiblast and primitive endoderm in the blastocyst, the lineage priming of embryonic stem (ES) cells, and in the stabilization of the metastable state of mouse epiblast and human ES cells. (biologists.org)
  • We have previously isolated the chicken and mouse orthologues of Mkp3 and studied their embryonic expression. (biologists.org)
  • Mouse embryonic stem cells can be maintained in a pluripotent state by culturing under a variety of defined conditions (reviewed in ). (prolekarniky.cz)
  • SAPKs/JNKs are activated in response to a variety of cellular stresses such as changes in osmolarity or metabolism, DNA damage, heat shock, ischemia, shear stress, inflammatory cytokines such as TNF and IL-1, and ceramide 3 4 7 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The knockout studies in mice suggested the roles of this kinase in mediating survival signal in T cell development, as well as in the organogenesis of liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dual specificity phosphatase 1 knockout mice show enhanced susceptibility to anaphylaxis but are sensitive to glucocorticoids. (semanticscholar.org)
  • As a consequence, iNOS knockout mice were found to exhibit a greater than two orders of magnitude increase in susceptibility to L. monocytogenes infection and bacterial load in the liver and spleen ( 4 ), while susceptibility to M. tuberculosis was increased approximately fivefold over control mice ( 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Myocardial apoptosis was assessed by multiple methods including DNA fragmentation and in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining, bax and bcl-2 protein expression, and caspase activity. (jove.com)
  • Proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine gene expression (CCL2, IL-6, TNFalpha) is still down-regulated by GCs in BMMCs from DUSP1-/- mice, suggesting a compensatory mechanism for the GC action in these mice. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The poplar genome is marked by extensive segmental and chromosomal duplications, and within both kinase families, some recently duplicated paralogous gene pairs often display markedly different patterns of expression, consistent with the rapid evolution of specialized protein functions in this highly adaptive species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We show that the levels of active, phosphorylated ERK protein in the developing somite are crucial for the expression of scleraxis and Mkp3 . (biologists.org)
  • To establish a pig kidney cell line LLC-PK1/BCRP in which human breast cancer resistance protein was highly expressed, the expression vector pcDNA3.1(+)-BCRP which contained BCRP gene was constructed and transfected into LLC-PKI cells via liposomes. (bvsalud.org)
  • The experiment results showed that the expression of BCRP protein increased in LLC-PK1/BCRP cell. (bvsalud.org)
  • 10 Moreover, increased expression of IRF4/MUM1, a protein associated with plasma cell differentiation, 15 has been described in FL without BCL2 rearrangement. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Abgent has over fifteen years of experience producing recombinant proteins in E. coli and mammalian cells (CHO and HEK293, etc), and we have added a powerful yeast expression platform to our menu of services. (abgent.com)
  • With state-of-the art molecular biology and protein biochemistry labs, we work with our clients to rapidly evaluate in parallel to identify the optimal expression system for candidate proteins. (abgent.com)
  • One of these signaling molecules is the extracellular signal‐regulated kinase (Erk‐1/2) that controls the release of allergic mediators and the induction of proinflammatory cytokine gene expression in mast cells. (embopress.org)
  • Recent work has shown that TNF-α activates members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family that subsequently trans -activate transcription factors implicated in the regulation of iNOS expression. (jimmunol.org)
  • In contrast, blockade of all three kinases with N -acetylcysteine completely blocked the induction of iNOS expression. (jimmunol.org)
  • Consistent with this observation, MKP-5-deficient mice exhibited increased circulating IL-6 expression as compared with wild type mice. (bireme.br)