Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level: The highest dosage administered that does not produce toxic effects.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions: Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Anticonvulsants: Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Toxicity Tests: An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Gastrointestinal Diseases: Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Antipsychotic Agents: Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Endocrine Disruptors: Exogenous agents, synthetic and naturally occurring, which are capable of disrupting the functions of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM including the maintenance of HOMEOSTASIS and the regulation of developmental processes. Endocrine disruptors are compounds that can mimic HORMONES, or enhance or block the binding of hormones to their receptors, or otherwise lead to activating or inhibiting the endocrine signaling pathways and hormone metabolism.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Nausea: An unpleasant sensation in the stomach usually accompanied by the urge to vomit. Common causes are early pregnancy, sea and motion sickness, emotional stress, intense pain, food poisoning, and various enteroviruses.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Vomiting: The forcible expulsion of the contents of the STOMACH through the MOUTH.Benzhydryl Compounds: Compounds which contain the methyl radical substituted with two benzene rings. Permitted are any substituents, but ring fusion to any of the benzene rings is not allowed.Analgesics, Non-Narcotic: A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Dermatologic Agents: Drugs used to treat or prevent skin disorders or for the routine care of skin.Toxicology: The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Herbal Medicine: The study of medicines derived from botanical sources.Tramadol: A narcotic analgesic proposed for severe pain. It may be habituating.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Adrenal Cortex HormonesOintments: Semisolid preparations used topically for protective emollient effects or as a vehicle for local administration of medications. Ointment bases are various mixtures of fats, waxes, animal and plant oils and solid and liquid hydrocarbons.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Amiodarone: An antianginal and class III antiarrhythmic drug. It increases the duration of ventricular and atrial muscle action by inhibiting POTASSIUM CHANNELS and VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS. There is a resulting decrease in heart rate and in vascular resistance.Toxicity Tests, Acute: Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of one-time, short-term exposure to a chemical or chemicals.Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems: Systems developed for collecting reports from government agencies, manufacturers, hospitals, physicians, and other sources on adverse drug reactions.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Dyskinesia, Drug-Induced: Abnormal movements, including HYPERKINESIS; HYPOKINESIA; TREMOR; and DYSTONIA, associated with the use of certain medications or drugs. Muscles of the face, trunk, neck, and extremities are most commonly affected. Tardive dyskinesia refers to abnormal hyperkinetic movements of the muscles of the face, tongue, and neck associated with the use of neuroleptic agents (see ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1199)Toxicity Tests, Chronic: Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of a long-term exposure to a chemical or chemicals.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Drug Eruptions: Adverse cutaneous reactions caused by ingestion, parenteral use, or local application of a drug. These may assume various morphologic patterns and produce various types of lesions.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Sialorrhea: Increased salivary flow.Toxicity Tests, Subchronic: Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of mid-term (a few months) exposure to a chemical or chemicals.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Psychoses, Substance-Induced: Psychotic organic mental disorders resulting from the toxic effect of drugs and chemicals or other harmful substance.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Product Surveillance, Postmarketing: Surveillance of drugs, devices, appliances, etc., for efficacy or adverse effects, after they have been released for general sale.Prednisolone: A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Antiemetics: Drugs used to prevent NAUSEA or VOMITING.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Acetaminophen: Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.Psychotropic Drugs: A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).Constipation: Infrequent or difficult evacuation of FECES. These symptoms are associated with a variety of causes, including low DIETARY FIBER intake, emotional or nervous disturbances, systemic and structural disorders, drug-induced aggravation, and infections.United StatesAdministration, Cutaneous: The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.Benzodiazepines: A group of two-ring heterocyclic compounds consisting of a benzene ring fused to a diazepine ring.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Maximum Allowable Concentration: The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)Plant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.Epilepsy: A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)Acne Vulgaris: A chronic disorder of the pilosebaceous apparatus associated with an increase in sebum secretion. It is characterized by open comedones (blackheads), closed comedones (whiteheads), and pustular nodules. The cause is unknown, but heredity and age are predisposing factors.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Administration, Intravenous: Delivery of substances through VENIPUNCTURE into the VEINS.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Drug Monitoring: The process of observing, recording, or detecting the effects of a chemical substance administered to an individual therapeutically or diagnostically.Pharmacogenetics: A branch of genetics which deals with the genetic variability in individual responses to drugs and drug metabolism (BIOTRANSFORMATION).Risperidone: A selective blocker of DOPAMINE D2 RECEPTORS and SEROTONIN 5-HT2 RECEPTORS that acts as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It has been shown to improve both positive and negative symptoms in the treatment of SCHIZOPHRENIA.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Akathisia, Drug-Induced: A condition associated with the use of certain medications and characterized by an internal sense of motor restlessness often described as an inability to resist the urge to move.Abnormalities, Drug-Induced: Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Radiotherapy: The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors: A subclass of cyclooxygenase inhibitors with specificity for CYCLOOXYGENASE-2.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Drug Evaluation: Any process by which toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, preferred route of administration, safe dosage range, etc., for a drug or group of drugs is determined through clinical assessment in humans or veterinary animals.Methylmercury Compounds: Organic compounds in which mercury is attached to a methyl group.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Sperm Count: A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.Neurotoxicity Syndromes: Neurologic disorders caused by exposure to toxic substances through ingestion, injection, cutaneous application, or other method. This includes conditions caused by biologic, chemical, and pharmaceutical agents.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Piracetam: A compound suggested to be both a nootropic and a neuroprotective agent.Ibuprofen: A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic properties used in the therapy of rheumatism and arthritis.Ketoprofen: An IBUPROFEN-type anti-inflammatory analgesic and antipyretic. It is used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors: Compounds that specifically inhibit the reuptake of serotonin in the brain.Dimenhydrinate: A drug combination that contains diphenhydramine and theophylline. It is used for treating VERTIGO, MOTION SICKNESS, and NAUSEA associated with PREGNANCY.Teratogens: An agent that causes the production of physical defects in the developing embryo.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Mercury PoisoningFlushing: A transient reddening of the face that may be due to fever, certain drugs, exertion, stress, or a disease process.Lead: A soft, grayish metal with poisonous salts; atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.19, symbol Pb. (Dorland, 28th)Mice, Inbred C57BLEstrogens, Non-Steroidal: Non-steroidal compounds with estrogenic activity.Sulfasalazine: A drug that is used in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases. Its activity is generally considered to lie in its metabolic breakdown product, 5-aminosalicylic acid (see MESALAMINE) released in the colon. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p907)Radiation Injuries: Harmful effects of non-experimental exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation in VERTEBRATES.Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Meta-Analysis as Topic: A quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc., with application chiefly in the areas of research and medicine.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Diclofenac: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) with antipyretic and analgesic actions. It is primarily available as the sodium salt.Androgen Antagonists: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of androgens.Skin DiseasesRespiratory Tract DiseasesAnalgesia: Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.Bone Density Conservation Agents: Agents that inhibit BONE RESORPTION and/or favor BONE MINERALIZATION and BONE REGENERATION. They are used to heal BONE FRACTURES and to treat METABOLIC BONE DISEASES such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Maternal-Fetal Exchange: Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.Carbamazepine: An anticonvulsant used to control grand mal and psychomotor or focal seizures. Its mode of action is not fully understood, but some of its actions resemble those of PHENYTOIN; although there is little chemical resemblance between the two compounds, their three-dimensional structure is similar.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Cannabis: The plant genus in the Cannabaceae plant family, Urticales order, Hamamelidae subclass. The flowering tops are called many slang terms including pot, marijuana, hashish, bhang, and ganja. The stem is an important source of hemp fiber.Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Clozapine: A tricylic dibenzodiazepine, classified as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It binds several types of central nervous system receptors, and displays a unique pharmacological profile. Clozapine is a serotonin antagonist, with strong binding to 5-HT 2A/2C receptor subtype. It also displays strong affinity to several dopaminergic receptors, but shows only weak antagonism at the dopamine D2 receptor, a receptor commonly thought to modulate neuroleptic activity. Agranulocytosis is a major adverse effect associated with administration of this agent.Antidepressive Agents: Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.Leprosy, Multibacillary: A form of LEPROSY classified by the World Health Organization for the purpose of treatment, based on clinical manifestations and skin smear results. Patients with multibacillary leprosy have six or more lesions with or without positive skin smear results for the causative agent MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE. Multibacillary leprosy encompasses borderline lepromatous, midborderline, and lepromatous leprosy.Dizziness: An imprecise term which may refer to a sense of spatial disorientation, motion of the environment, or lightheadedness.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Anti-Arrhythmia Agents: Agents used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. They may affect the polarization-repolarization phase of the action potential, its excitability or refractoriness, or impulse conduction or membrane responsiveness within cardiac fibers. Anti-arrhythmia agents are often classed into four main groups according to their mechanism of action: sodium channel blockade, beta-adrenergic blockade, repolarization prolongation, or calcium channel blockade.Headache: The symptom of PAIN in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of HEADACHE DISORDERS.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Drug Hypersensitivity: Immunologically mediated adverse reactions to medicinal substances used legally or illegally.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Endocrine System: The system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system. In addition to the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, included are the CHROMAFFIN SYSTEM and the NEUROSECRETORY SYSTEMS.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Valproic Acid: A fatty acid with anticonvulsant properties used in the treatment of epilepsy. The mechanisms of its therapeutic actions are not well understood. It may act by increasing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in the brain or by altering the properties of voltage dependent sodium channels.Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Methylprednisolone: A PREDNISOLONE derivative with similar anti-inflammatory action.Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic: Substances that contain a fused three-ring moiety and are used in the treatment of depression. These drugs block the uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin into axon terminals and may block some subtypes of serotonin, adrenergic, and histamine receptors. However the mechanism of their antidepressant effects is not clear because the therapeutic effects usually take weeks to develop and may reflect compensatory changes in the central nervous system.Bupivacaine: A widely used local anesthetic agent.Child Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Clobetasol: A derivative of PREDNISOLONE with high glucocorticoid activity and low mineralocorticoid activity. Absorbed through the skin faster than FLUOCINONIDE, it is used topically in treatment of PSORIASIS but may cause marked adrenocortical suppression.Erythema: Redness of the skin produced by congestion of the capillaries. This condition may result from a variety of causes.Promethazine: A phenothiazine derivative with histamine H1-blocking, antimuscarinic, and sedative properties. It is used as an antiallergic, in pruritus, for motion sickness and sedation, and also in animals.Ecotoxicology: The study of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION and the toxic effects of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS on the ECOSYSTEM. The term was coined by Truhaut in 1969.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
2 Effects *2.1 Adverse effects. *3 Drug prohibition laws *3.1 Australia. *3.2 Canada ... Adverse effects[edit]. Adverse effects include tachycardia, hypertension, agitation, delirium, and hallucinations.[3] At least ... Drug prohibition laws[edit]. Australia[edit]. In Queensland, 2C-E was added to the 'Dangerous Drugs' list of the 'Drugs Misuse ... The Misuse Of Drugs Act was amended in 2002 to include a "catch most" clause outlawing every drug, and possible future drug, ...
Drug interactions[edit]. Huperzine A may have additive effects if taken with drugs causing bradycardia, such as beta-blockers.[ ... Adverse effects[edit]. Huperzine A may present with mild cholinergic side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.[5] ... Pharmacological effects[edit]. Huperzine A is extracted from Huperzia serrata.[2] It is a reversible acetylcholinesterase ... Tang X, He X, Bai D (1999). "Huperzine A: A novel acetylcholinesterase inhibitor". Drugs of the Future. 24 (6): 647. doi: ...
2 Adverse effects *2.1 Drug interactions. *3 Mechanism. *4 Society and culture *4.1 Availability ... Adverse effects[edit]. Mebendazole sometimes causes diarrhea, abdominal pain, and elevated liver enzymes. In rare cases, it has ... "International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Archived from the original on 5 March 2017. Retrieved 18 August 2015.. ... Drug interactions[edit]. Carbamazepine and phenytoin lower serum levels of mebendazole. Cimetidine does not appreciably raise ...
Perucca, P; Gilliam, FG (September 2012). "Adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs". Lancet Neurology. 11 (9): 792-802. doi: ... Both medication and drug overdoses can result in seizures,[18] as may certain medication and drug withdrawal.[18] Common drugs ... This may be repeated if there is no effect after 10 minutes. If there is no effect after two doses, barbiturates or propofol ... Stress exposure results in hormone release that mediates its effects in the brain. These hormones act on both excitatory and ...
2012). Adverse Effects of Herbal Drugs. 3. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 978-3642603679. .. ... Yohimbine is a drug used in veterinary medicine to reverse the effects of xylazine in dogs and deer.[3] It is used as a ... Effect on sexual function[edit]. History, research and literature[edit]. Yohimbe is used in folk medicine as an aphrodisiac. In ... but the effect has been modest... It cannot be excluded that orally administered yohimbine may have a beneficial effect in some ...
Adverse effects[edit]. Further information: Penicillin drug reaction. Phenoxymethylpenicillin is usually well tolerated but may ... "International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved 8 December 2016.. *^ a b c Sweetman S., ed. (2002). Martindale: The ... Side effects include diarrhea, nausea, and allergic reactions including anaphylaxis.[1] It is not recommended in those with a ... Greenwood, David (2008). Antimicrobial Drugs: Chronicle of a Twentieth Century Medical Triumph. OUP Oxford. p. 121. ISBN ...
The effect of tolerance means that frequent use of the drug may result in its diminished effect. When safe to do so, the dosage ... Research suggested most of the adverse effects of NSAIDs to be mediated by blocking the COX1 (constitutive) enzyme, with the ... Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (usually abbreviated to NSAIDs), are a drug class that groups together drugs that decrease ... Many of these drugs combat the side-effects of opioid analgesics, an added bonus. For example, antihistamines including ...
1997). Adverse Effects of Herbal Drugs, Volume 3. Germany: Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. ISBN 978-3-540-60181-4. Retrieved ... psychoactive drugs, or money.[17] The pleasure experience is driven by the chemical dopamine, which produces physical effects ... Ghodse, Hamid (2010). Ghodse's Drugs and Addictive Behaviour: A Guide to Treatment. Cambridge University Press. p. 77. ISBN ... The same effect is manifested in the root word "horror" in English, which is derived from Latin horrere, which means "to ...
Adverse effects[edit]. A number of accidental overdoses and well-documented adverse effects suggested caution in children.[30] ... "Codeine Cough-and-Cold Medicines in Children: Drug Safety Communication - FDA Evaluating Potential Risk of Serious Side Effects ... "Drugs with anticholinergic effects and cognitive impairment, falls and all-cause mortality in older adults: A systematic review ... Cough medicines can be used as recreational drugs.[32] History[edit]. Heroin was originally marketed as a cough suppressant in ...
"Selected adverse effects of antipsychotic medications for schizophrenia". UpToDate. Wolters Kluwer Health. Retrieved 24 October ... Thioridazine (Mellaril or Melleril) is a piperidine typical antipsychotic drug belonging to the phenothiazine drug group and ... A possible mechanism of action for the drug's antibiotic activity is via the inhibition of bacterial efflux pumps. "SHARED CARE ... "Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference". Medicines Complete. The Pharmaceutical Press. 18 August 2010. Retrieved 28 October ...
Adverse effects[edit]. While typical drug side effects reactions are mild to moderate; sometimes serious adverse effects occur ... with typical drug side effects being mild to moderate.[26] Common side effects include gastrointestinal effects such as nausea ... "Fluoroquinolone Adverse Effects and Drug Interactions". Pharmacotherapy. 21 (10 Suppl): 253S-272S. doi:10.1592/phco.21.16.253S. ... FDA Adverse Effects Reporting System at the time of the 20 September 2011 U.S. FDA Pediatric Drugs Advisory Committee included ...
David M, Hodak E, Lowe NJ (1988). "Adverse effects of retinoids". Medical Toxicology and Adverse Drug Experience. 3 (4): 273-88 ... Adverse effects[edit]. Increasingly higher dosages will result in higher toxicity, resembling vitamin A toxicity. Adverse ... "FDA information, side effects, and uses / Accutane (isotretinoin) : Drug Interactions". U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA ... "U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Retrieved 20 January 2014.. *^ "FDA information, side effects, and uses / Accutane ( ...
link) "Codeine - adverse effects". Medscape reference - Drugs, Diseases & Procedures. WebMD LLC. Archived from the original on ... are at increased risk of adverse drug effects related to morphine toxicity. Guidelines released by the Clinical ... By 1972, the effects of the War On Drugs had caused widespread shortages of illicit and licit opiates because of a scarcity of ... Drugs bearing resemblance to codeine in effects due to close structural relationship are variations on the methyl groups at the ...
ISBN 978-0-8032-6205-8. G., Abel editor1 (1997). Adverse Effects of Herbal Drugs. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. pp. 123-127. ... It is banned in the United States for use in commercially mass-produced foods and drugs by the FDA as a potential carcinogen. ... Drug Digest, "Sassafras" U of Arkansas: Division of Agriculture Plant of the Week: Sassafras GardenGuides.com Sassafras - Shrub ... Safrole is a precursor for the clandestine manufacture of the drugs MDA and MDMA, and as such, sales and import of sassafras ...
Bromide was introduced as the first anti-epileptic drug 150 years ago. Because of the adverse effects mentioned above, bromide ... These adverse effects are a major source of disability, morbidity, and mortality. Some of the adverse effects, such as serious ... doi: 10.1684/epd.2012.0482 PMID 22426353 Perucca, P., Gilliam, F. (2012). Adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs. The Lancet ... They can bring about serious adverse drug reactions so physicians need to be aware of the safety and admissibility for each ...
Adverse effects[edit]. See also: List of adverse effects of paroxetine. Common side effects include drowsiness, dry mouth, loss ... "Drugs.com. Retrieved 3 March 2019.. *^ Food and Drug Administration (2011). Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence ... "Top 200 generic drugs by units in 2006. Top 200 brand-name drugs by units". Drug Topics, Mar 5, 2007. Retrieved 2007-04-08.. ... Food and Drug Administration (2011). Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations - FDA Orange Book 31st ...
In the United States, antibiotics and anti-infectives are the leading cause of adverse effect from drugs. In a study of 32 ... Weiss AJ, Elixhauser A. Origin of Adverse Drug Events in U.S. Hospitals, 2011. HCUP Statistical Brief #158. Agency for ... Beringer PM, Wong-Beringer A, Rho JP (January 1998). "Economic aspects of antibacterial adverse effects". PharmacoEconomics. 13 ... many prior over the counter drugs) become classified as Veterinary Feed Directive drugs (VFD). This action requires that ...
While typical drug side effects reactions are mild to moderate; sometimes serious adverse effects occur. As of 2016, the U.S. ... with typical drug side effects being mild to moderate. Common side effects include gastrointestinal effects such as nausea, ... Fish DN (2001). "Fluoroquinolone Adverse Effects and Drug Interactions". Pharmacotherapy. 21 (10 Suppl): 253S-272S. doi:10.1592 ... Research, Center for Drug Evaluation and. "Antimicrobial Drugs Advisory Committee (formerly known as the Anti-Infective Drugs ...
Adverse effects[edit]. Application of procaine leads to the depression of neuronal activity. The depression causes the nervous ... Procaine is a local anesthetic drug of the amino ester group. It is used primarily to reduce the pain of intramuscular ... Procaine is an occasional additive in illicit street drugs, such as cocaine. MDMA manufacturers also use procaine as an ... Ruetsch, Y.A., Böni, T., and Borgeat, A. "From cocaine to ropivacaine: the history of local anesthetic drugs." Current Topics ...
"Adverse effects of stimulant drugs in a community sample of drug users". Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 44 (2-3): 87-94. doi: ... However, there is only limited research into the adverse effects of benzodiazepines in drug misusers and further research is ... Nevertheless, as long as the drug is present it will exert subtle effects within the body. These effects may become apparent ... The abuse potential or drug-liking effects appears to be dose related, with low doses of benzodiazepines having limited drug ...
In psychopharmacology, GABAA receptor PAMs used as drugs have mainly sedative and anxiolytic effects. Examples of GABAA PAMs ... But this was not used for long because of adverse side effects.[1] ... Gringauz A (1997). Medicinal Chemistry How drugs act and why. United States of America: WILEY-VCH. pp. 578-579. ISBN 0-471- ... Gringauz A (1997). Medicinal Chemistry How drugs act and why. United States of America: Wiley-VCH. pp. 572-574. ISBN 0-471- ...
Adverse Effects and Clinical Efficacy in Asthma". Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 5 (3): ... The drug, alone or in co-administration with theophylline, doesn't show cardiotoxic effect. The U.S. Food and Drug ... The drug was withdrawn from the market by Élan Pharmaceuticals in 2001. Nathan RA, Bodman SF, Storms WW, Mingo TS (June 1986 ... A new long-acting bronchodilator with reduced chronotropic effects". Chest. 78 (2): 283-7. doi:10.1378/chest.78.2.283. PMID ...
Hempfling, W; Dilger, K; Beuers, U (15 November 2003). "Systematic review: ursodeoxycholic acid--adverse effects and drug ... Adverse effects[edit]. Diarrhea was the most frequent adverse event seen in trial of UDCA in gallstone dissolution, occurring ... "U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Retrieved 29 April 2020.. *^ "Actigall Orphan Drug Designation and Approval". U.S. ... Effects on fetal distress and other adverse outcomes are unlikely to be great.[13][14] ...
Adverse effects[edit]. Serious adverse drug reactions associated with clopidogrel therapy include: *Thrombotic thrombocytopenic ... In CAPRIE, itching was the only adverse effect seen more frequently with clopidogrel than aspirin. In CURE, there was no ... Common side effects include headache, nausea, easy bruising, itching, and heartburn.[2] More severe side effects include ... "FDA Drug Safety Communication: Reduced effectiveness of Plavix (clopidogrel) in patients who are poor metabolizers of the drug" ...
"Adverse effects of statins - mechanisms and consequences". Curr Drug Saf. 4 (3): 209-28. doi:10.2174/157488609789006949. PMID ...
The several classes of hypolipidemic drugs may differ in both their impact on the cholesterol profile and adverse effects. For ... Staff (29 January 2013) FDA approves new orphan drug Kynamro to treat inherited cholesterol disorder U.S. Food and Drug ... They are called lipid-lowering drugs. These are drugs which lower the level of lipids and lipoproteins in blood. ... Hypolipidemic agents, cholesterol-lowering drugs or antihyperlipidemic agents, are a diverse group of pharmaceuticals that are ...
... or adverse effects. If you have any questions about the drugs you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse or pharmacist. ... Children may be more sensitive to the side effects of this drug, especially slowed breathing see Warning section. This drug can ... The absence of a warning for a given drug or drug combination in no way should be construed to indicate that the drug or ... Along with its needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if ...
... or adverse effects. If you have questions about the drugs you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse or pharmacist. When ... The absence of a warning for a given drug or drug combination in no way should be construed to indicate that the drug or drug ... Multum is accurate, up-to-date, and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. Drug information contained herein may ... Older adults may be more sensitive to the side effects of this drug, especially drowsiness, confusion, constipation, or trouble ...
Amongst adverse drug reactions blood dyscrasias are not frequent, but they may have serious consequences. Compared with Sweden ... Identification of adverse reactions to new drugs. I. What have been the important adverse reactions since thalidomide? Br Med J ... Adverse drug reactions: an analysis of 310 consecutive reports to the Swedish Drug Reaction Committee. J Clin Pharmacol 1973;13 ... Drug-induced oxidative haemolysis. In: Gordon-Smith EC, ed. Haematological effects of drug therapy. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, ...
Adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs in North Indian pediatric outpatients.. Bansal D1, Azad C, Kaur M, Rudroju N, Vepa P, ... The present study investigates the pattern and predictors of treatment-emergent adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in children ... Antiepileptic drug (AED)-associated ADRs, demographic and clinical characteristics, AED regimen, and so on were recorded. ...
The number of hospitalizations due to side effects from drugs -- including accidental overdoses -- increased by more than 50% ... Adverse Rx Drug Effects on Increase. by Kristina Fiore, Staff Writer, MedPage Today April 14, 2011 ... Taken separately, adverse drug events were culprits in 1.8 million hospital stays and 838,000 treat-and-release emergency ... The number of hospitalizations due to side effects from drugs -- including accidental overdoses -- increased by more than 50% ...
... willingness to take drugs for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease, researchers found. ... Adverse effects hold greater sway than the magnitude of potential benefits on older patients ... Adverse effects hold greater sway than the magnitude of potential benefits on older patients willingness to take drugs for ... as long as there were no adverse effects.. However, introducing the risk of mild side effects -- fatigue, nausea, or fuzzy ...
As there are a number of drugs, there are a number of adverse effects. Any drug taken in injection form will cause the adverse ... There are certain medical conditions which can be potentiated by use of a particular drug due to its adverse effects. ... People should be aware that the medicine they are taking can produce some adverse effects. Every drug has product information ... But apart from their main therapeutic actions, many drugs produce adverse effects which cause other problems, apart from the ...
Potential harms of proton pump inhibitor therapy: rare adverse effects of commonly used drugs. Amine Benmassaoud, Emily G. ... Potential harms of proton pump inhibitor therapy: rare adverse effects of commonly used drugs ... Potential harms of proton pump inhibitor therapy: rare adverse effects of commonly used drugs ... Potential harms of proton pump inhibitor therapy: rare adverse effects of commonly used drugs ...
The estimated prevalence of using medications with depression as an adverse effect is 37.2 percent, according to a study ... Reported use of three or more concurrent medications with a potential for depression as an adverse effect was estimated at 6.9 ... The overall estimated prevalence was 37.2 percent for use of medications with depression as an adverse effect, which increased ... Drugs.com Mobile Apps. The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own ...
Physicians must be alert for adverse effects and drug interactions associated with herbal remedies, and they should ask all ... For this reason, the adverse effects and drug interactions associated with herbal remedies are largely unknown. Ginkgo biloba ... The manufacturers of these products are not required to submit proof of safety and efficacy to the U.S. Food and Drug ... Ginseng, widely used for its purported physical and mental effects, is generally well tolerated, but it has been implicated as ...
Reducing the Risk of Adverse Drug Events in Older Adults [Article] Adverse drug events occur in 15 percent or more of older ... The Importance of Physicians Identifying and Reporting Adverse Drug Events [Editorials] By identifying and reporting adverse ... Reducing Adverse Effects of Proton Pump Inhibitors [Article] Proton pump inhibitors effectively treat gastroesophageal reflux ... Proton pump inhibitors cause few adverse effects with short-term use; however, long-term use has been scrutinized for ...
Intensive monitoring for adverse drug effects in patients discharged from acute medical wards.. Kellaway GS, McCrae E. ... Drug Therapy, Combination/adverse effects. *Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions* ...
... the impact on adverse drug events remains less certain. Overriding of drug-drug interaction alerts and inclusion of free-text ... Serious adverse drug events reported to the FDA: analysis of the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System 2006-2014 database. Get ... This retrospective study reviewed serious and fatal adverse drug events (ADEs) reported to the Food and Drug Administration ... This cohort study identified patient- and drug-specific factors that increased the risk of adverse drug events in intensive ...
An Analysis of Adverse Behavioral Effects of Benzodiazepines With a Discussion on Drawing Scientific Conclusions from the FDAs ... An analysis of the adverse behavioral effects of benzodiazepines. Full title: "An Analysis of Adverse Behavioral Effects of ... Methods for safely withdrawing from psychiatric drugs are discussed in Dr. Breggins book: Psychiatric Drug Withdrawal: A Guide ... Most psychiatric drugs can cause withdrawal reactions, including life-threatening emotional and physical reactions. So it is ...
The adverse health effects of chronic cannabis use. Authors. *. Wayne Hall,. Corresponding author. *The University of ... These most probable adverse effects of regular use include a dependence syndrome, impaired respiratory function, cardiovascular ... The focus is on those adverse health effects of greatest potential public health significance - those that are most likely to ... This paper summarizes the most probable of the adverse health effects of regular cannabis use sustained over years, as ...
... helping researchers develop safer medications and potentially save billions of dollars spent on developing drugs that fail. ... A set of computer models holds promise to predict negative side effects in drugs, ... They set out to create a model to predict which drug prospects were most likely to have adverse side effects, according to a ... A set of computer models holds promise to predict negative side effects in drugs, helping researchers develop safer medications ...
What is adverse drug effect? Meaning of adverse drug effect medical term. What does adverse drug effect mean? ... Looking for online definition of adverse drug effect in the Medical Dictionary? adverse drug effect explanation free. ... Synonym(s): adverse drug effect. adverse drug effect,. n a harmful, unintended reaction to a drug administered at normal dosage ... Adverse drug effect , definition of adverse drug effect by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/ ...
Drugs , Tagged Drug Safety, FDA, Informed Consent, Clinical Practice, Adverse Drug Effects, Advisory Committee, New England ... Dangerous Deception: Hiding the Evidence of Adverse Drug Effects_NEJM. The drug industrys undue influence-on the FDA and its ... Hiding the Evidence of Adverse Drug Effects. Jerry Avorn, M.D. September 30 is becoming a day of infamy for drug safety. On ... We should be able to muster at least a fraction of that concern to address more clinically relevant adverse drug effects that ...
Drugs.com Mobile Apps. The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own ... Study Finds Estrogen Therapy Improves Depression and Anxiety in Recently Menopausal Women Without Adverse Cognitive Effects. ... The Womens Health Initiative Memory Study had found adverse effects of HT on the risk of cognitive decline and dementia in ... Drugs.com provides accurate and independent information on more than 24,000 prescription drugs, over-the-counter medicines and ...
Keywords: Pharmacology; Physiological effects of drugs; Rebound effect; Adverse effects; Law of similars; Homeopathy ... Potential adverse effects of discontinuing psychotropic drugs: part 2: antidepressant drugs. J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv ... Potential adverse effects of discontinuing psychotropic drugs. Part 1: Adrenergic, cholinergic, and histamine drugs. J ... Potential adverse effects of discontinuing psychotropic drugs. Part 3: Antipsychotic, dopaminergic, and mood-stabilizing drugs ...
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is warning the public that the use of benzocaine, the main ingredient in over-the-counter ( ... Drug Safety and Availability FDA Drug Safety Communication: Reports of a rare, but serious and potentially fatal adverse effect ... FDA Drug Safety Communication: Reports of a rare, but serious and potentially fatal adverse effect with the use of over-the- ... FDA Drug Safety Communication: FDA continues to receive reports of a rare, but serious and potentially fatal adverse effect ...
Assessment and Classification of Expected Effects and Adverse Drug Reactions. All mistletoe-related expected effects and ... "Adverse drug reactions for CAM and conventional drugs detected in a network of physicians certified to prescribe CAM drugs," ... Adverse Drug Reactions and Expected Effects to Therapy with Subcutaneous Mistletoe Extracts (Viscum album L.) in Cancer ... Expected Effects and Adverse Drug Reactions Attributed to Mistletoe Extract Therapy. Of the 1923 patients treated with ...
Poisoning by, adverse effects of and underdosing of drugs, medicaments and biological substances ICD-10-CM Code range T36-T50. ... Poisoning by, adverse effect of and underdosing of diuretics and other and unspecified drugs, medicaments and biological ... Poisoning by, adverse effect of and underdosing of drugs primarily affecting the autonomic nervous system ... The ICD-10 code range for ICD-10 Poisoning by, adverse effects of and underdosing of drugs, medicaments and biological ...
Adverse Effect : Contraindicated in patients hypersensitive to acyclovir. In high doses, polyuric renal failure has occurred ...
Adverse Effect : Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, hypersensitivity.. Hypertension, myocardial damage, ...
  • In the USA several reporting systems have been built, such as the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) , the Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience Database (MAUDE) and thee Special Nutritionals Adverse Event Monitoring System. (livemedinfo.com)
  • The prospect of adverse effects severe enough to have an impact on activities of daily living scared off all but 3% of the surveyed older adults. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Narcotic analgesics used for severe pain, cause constipation and visual disturbances as side effects. (co.rw)
  • Although the rebound effect is a type of AE with potentially severe or even fatal consequences, this effect is scarcely disseminated and discussed among health professionals, who are thus deprived of crucial knowledge for safe modern drug management. (scielo.br)
  • The potential for drug-related severe morbidity and mortality is compounded during periods of hospitalization, when high-risk drugs such as anticoagulants or insulin are used, and when care in an intensive care unit is required. (elsevier.com)
  • Common adverse effects may be fever, malaise and local reactions in the vaccination site, such as eczema vaccinatum, a severe, sometimes fatal complicaiton which may result in persons who have eczema or atopic dermatitis, and, as such, should not be vaccinated, even if the condition is currently not active. (livemedinfo.com)
  • In light of the expanding role for these agents, it is essential that we learn to recognize both common and less common but severe AEs associated with these powerful drugs. (medscape.com)
  • The mechanism that underlies the occurrence of the rebound effect is not yet fully elucidated. (scielo.br)
  • But the mechanism of discovery was unacceptably inefficient since an estimated 9,000 babies were born with thalidomide-caused phocomelia before the toxic effect was recognized and described in 1960. (jameslindlibrary.org)
  • The approach to a patient with a potential adverse effect involves awareness of mechanism of action of these drugs and recognizing that the side effects can present as multi-system involvement. (clinicalpainadvisor.com)
  • The mechanism of action is via repression of gene transcription-encoding inflammatory markers, and the adverse effects are mostly because of either positively- or negatively-regulating gene expression and involve several organ systems. (clinicalpainadvisor.com)
  • Even though the drug is not "new", we utilize FDA's Investigational New Drug (IND) status as a mechanism to provide these drugs in the US, where a critical need for them may exist. (cdc.gov)
  • The rebound effect occurs after discontinuation of numerous classes of drugs that act contrary to the disease disorders, exacerbating them at levels above those prior to treatment. (scielo.br)
  • This occurs with numerous drugs including phenobarbitone and phenytoin. (news-medical.net)
  • The onset of effect occurs after the first administration and is maintained during long-term treatment. (nih.gov)
  • The rate at which this occurs develops at different rates for different effects, with tolerance to the constipation-inducing effects developing particularly slowly for instance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pain killers are one of the most commonly used drugs for muscular-skeletal pains. (co.rw)
  • With more than four million prescriptions in Canada in 2010, esomeprazole became the sixth most commonly prescribed drug in the country. (cmaj.ca)
  • A commonly cited cost for bringing a drug to market is $1.2 billion across 15 years, although that can swell to $4 billion to $12 billion per drug, depending upon how many failures are included in the estimate. (fiercehealthcare.com)
  • Another term 'Adverse drug event' - Any untoward (unexpected and inappropriate or inconvenient) medical occurrence that may present during treatment with a medicine but which does not necessarily have a casual relationship with the treatment. (pharmadiagnosis.com)
  • Nonetheless, the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 allows these products to be labeled with statements explaining their purported effect on the structure or function of the human body (e.g., alleviation of fatigue) or their role in promoting general well-being (e.g., enhancement of mood or mentation). (aafp.org)
  • Drugs.com provides accurate and independent information on more than 24,000 prescription drugs, over-the-counter medicines and natural products. (drugs.com)
  • Before you know it you are caught in a vicious cycle Put an end to the dependence on inhalers, buying expensive prescription drugs and avoidance of allergenic situations and animals. (clicktocurecancer.info)
  • Background: The abuse, misuse, and adverse effects to topical drugs have been widespread in Korea due to lack of awareness of seriousness of drug abuse and misuse, and improper designation of prescription and non-prescription drugs. (elsevier.com)
  • Ohjective: This study was conducted to bring Korean people to an awareness of the abuse, misuse, and adverse effects of topical drugs, and to stress the importance of proper designation of non-prescription drugs. (elsevier.com)
  • Discount Prescription Drugs Store. (uniformesvaga.com)
  • books.google.com - The revised and updated 2011 edition of the most accessible, comprehensive and affordable guide to prescription and nonprescription drugs. (google.com)
  • The classic guide to all major prescription and nonprescription drugs, featuring revised, up-to date FDA information and an A-Z list of medical conditions and. (google.com)
  • thus the amount of drug reabsorbed from the renal tubular lumen by passive diffusion can be very much affected by the prevailing urine pH. (clicktocurecancer.info)
  • Availability was severely limited, however, by the difficulty of manufacturing large quantities of penicillin and by the rapid renal clearance of the drug necessitating frequent dosing. (bionity.com)
  • Recognizing some of these harms, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Health Canada have issued safety advisories regarding the use of PPIs related to Clostridium difficile , fracture risk and profound hypomagnesemia. (cmaj.ca)
  • The manufacturers of these products are not required to submit proof of safety and efficacy to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration before marketing. (aafp.org)
  • Herbal products are not tested with the scientific rigor required of conventional drugs, and they are not subject to the approval process of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (aafp.org)
  • However, [the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) adverse event Reporting System (FAERS)] data analysis has important limitations because there is no definite causal link between drug exposure and adverse event. (drug-injury.com)
  • Etanercept, the first biological agent with Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved labelling for use in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), has shown efficacy and can be associated with injection-site reactions. (clinicalpainadvisor.com)
  • Search by medical condition for drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for sale in the United States. (centerwatch.com)
  • It is now approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for treatment of discoid lupus, systemic lupus erythematosus, and rheumatoid arthritis. (ccjm.org)
  • It is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration ( FDA ) for the treatment of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. (livestrong.com)
  • MedWatch is the main reporting center, operated by the Food and Drug Administration . (bionity.com)
  • The National Resources Defense Council (NRDC) says in a lawsuit that that so-called antibacterial soaps contain toxic chemicals that put consumers at risk, and that the Food and Drug Administration has failed to move forward on a decades-old proposal to regulate them. (consumeraffairs.com)
  • A dozen states have appealed to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to adopt a uniform labeling program for the front of food packages, to ensure that it provides unbiased nutritional information and encourages food manufacturers to offer healthier products. (consumeraffairs.com)
  • The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) first approved prednisolone in 1955. (everydayhealth.com)
  • 6 The powerful effect of hydroxychloroquine on the cell-mediated pattern of inflammation found in lupus is consistent with this theory. (ccjm.org)
  • The effects of entacapone on central COMT activity in humans have not been studied. (nih.gov)
  • Their attempts to treat humans failed due to insufficient volumes of penicillin (the first patient treated was Reserve Constable Albert Alexander ), but they proved its harmlessness and effect on mice. (bionity.com)
  • In 1900, it attracted scientific interest in Germany, where an initial report claimed that yohimbe exerted a strong aphrodisiacal effect in animals and humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antimalarial drugs were discovered shortly before World War II. (ccjm.org)
  • Atabrine (quinacrine), the first antimalarial widely used, had numerous side effects including yellowing of the skin. (ccjm.org)
  • Antimalarial drugs such as hydroxychloroquine prevent Toll-like receptor activation by binding directly to nucleic acids in the activation pathway. (ccjm.org)
  • She wanted to determine whether antimalarial drugs, particularly quinoline antimalarials, caused cardiovascular side effects such as prolongation of the QT interval on the electrocardiogram. (ox.ac.uk)