Drug Therapy: The use of DRUGS to treat a DISEASE or its symptoms. One example is the use of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to treat CANCER.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Anti-Arrhythmia Agents: Agents used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. They may affect the polarization-repolarization phase of the action potential, its excitability or refractoriness, or impulse conduction or membrane responsiveness within cardiac fibers. Anti-arrhythmia agents are often classed into four main groups according to their mechanism of action: sodium channel blockade, beta-adrenergic blockade, repolarization prolongation, or calcium channel blockade.Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Pharmacogenetics: A branch of genetics which deals with the genetic variability in individual responses to drugs and drug metabolism (BIOTRANSFORMATION).Pharmacists: Those persons legally qualified by education and training to engage in the practice of pharmacy.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Drug Utilization Review: Formal programs for assessing drug prescription against some standard. Drug utilization review may consider clinical appropriateness, cost effectiveness, and, in some cases, outcomes. Review is usually retrospective, but some analysis may be done before drugs are dispensed (as in computer systems which advise physicians when prescriptions are entered). Drug utilization review is mandated for Medicaid programs beginning in 1993.Anticonvulsants: Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.Pharmaceutical Services: Total pharmaceutical services provided by qualified PHARMACISTS. In addition to the preparation and distribution of medical products, they may include consultative services provided to agencies and institutions which do not have a qualified pharmacist.Hypolipidemic Agents: Substances that lower the levels of certain LIPIDS in the BLOOD. They are used to treat HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions: Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.Drug Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.Community Pharmacy Services: Total pharmaceutical services provided to the public through community pharmacies.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Drug Costs: The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Primidone: An antiepileptic agent related to the barbiturates; it is partly metabolized to PHENOBARBITAL in the body and owes some of its actions to this metabolite. Adverse effects are reported to be more frequent than with PHENOBARBITAL. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p309)Insurance, Pharmaceutical Services: Insurance providing for payment of services rendered by the pharmacist. Services include the preparation and distribution of medical products.Managed Care Programs: Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.Antithyroid Agents: Agents that are used to treat hyperthyroidism by reducing the excessive production of thyroid hormones.Atrial Fibrillation: Abnormal cardiac rhythm that is characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the upper chambers of the heart (HEART ATRIA). In such case, blood cannot be effectively pumped into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES). It is caused by abnormal impulse generation.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Education, Pharmacy, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform graduate pharmacists of recent advances in their particular field.Drug Monitoring: The process of observing, recording, or detecting the effects of a chemical substance administered to an individual therapeutically or diagnostically.Flecainide: A potent anti-arrhythmia agent, effective in a wide range of ventricular and atrial ARRHYTHMIAS and TACHYCARDIAS.Leprostatic Agents: Substances that suppress Mycobacterium leprae, ameliorate the clinical manifestations of leprosy, and/or reduce the incidence and severity of leprous reactions.Cardiovascular Agents: Agents that affect the rate or intensity of cardiac contraction, blood vessel diameter, or blood volume.Phenytoin: An anticonvulsant that is used to treat a wide variety of seizures. It is also an anti-arrhythmic and a muscle relaxant. The mechanism of therapeutic action is not clear, although several cellular actions have been described including effects on ion channels, active transport, and general membrane stabilization. The mechanism of its muscle relaxant effect appears to involve a reduction in the sensitivity of muscle spindles to stretch. Phenytoin has been proposed for several other therapeutic uses, but its use has been limited by its many adverse effects and interactions with other drugs.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Phenylpropanolamine: A sympathomimetic that acts mainly by causing release of NOREPINEPHRINE but also has direct agonist activity at some adrenergic receptors. It is most commonly used as a nasal vasoconstrictor and an appetite depressant.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Medication Therapy Management: Assistance in managing and monitoring drug therapy for patients receiving treatment for cancer or chronic conditions such as asthma and diabetes, consulting with patients and their families on the proper use of medication; conducting wellness and disease prevention programs to improve public health; overseeing medication use in a variety of settings.Organogold Compounds: Organic compounds that contain GOLD as an integral part of the molecule. Some are used as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS. The term chrysotherapy derives from an ancient Greek term for gold.Graves Disease: A common form of hyperthyroidism with a diffuse hyperplastic GOITER. It is an autoimmune disorder that produces antibodies against the THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE RECEPTOR. These autoantibodies activate the TSH receptor, thereby stimulating the THYROID GLAND and hypersecretion of THYROID HORMONES. These autoantibodies can also affect the eyes (GRAVES OPHTHALMOPATHY) and the skin (Graves dermopathy).Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Societies, Pharmaceutical: Societies whose membership is limited to pharmacists.Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.Catheter Ablation: Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Methimazole: A thioureylene antithyroid agent that inhibits the formation of thyroid hormones by interfering with the incorporation of iodine into tyrosyl residues of thyroglobulin. This is done by interfering with the oxidation of iodide ion and iodotyrosyl groups through inhibition of the peroxidase enzyme.Anticholesteremic Agents: Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.Economics, Pharmaceutical: Economic aspects of the fields of pharmacy and pharmacology as they apply to the development and study of medical economics in rational drug therapy and the impact of pharmaceuticals on the cost of medical care. Pharmaceutical economics also includes the economic considerations of the pharmaceutical care delivery system and in drug prescribing, particularly of cost-benefit values. (From J Res Pharm Econ 1989;1(1); PharmacoEcon 1992;1(1))Diuretics: Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.Pharmacokinetics: Dynamic and kinetic mechanisms of exogenous chemical and DRUG LIBERATION; ABSORPTION; BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT; TISSUE DISTRIBUTION; BIOTRANSFORMATION; elimination; and DRUG TOXICITY as a function of dosage, and rate of METABOLISM. LADMER, ADME and ADMET are abbreviations for liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and toxicology.Polypharmacy: The use of multiple drugs administered to the same patient, most commonly seen in elderly patients. It includes also the administration of excessive medication. Since in the United States most drugs are dispensed as single-agent formulations, polypharmacy, though using many drugs administered to the same patient, must be differentiated from DRUG COMBINATIONS, single preparations containing two or more drugs as a fixed dose, and from DRUG THERAPY, COMBINATION, two or more drugs administered separately for a combined effect. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Epilepsy: A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)Amiodarone: An antianginal and class III antiarrhythmic drug. It increases the duration of ventricular and atrial muscle action by inhibiting POTASSIUM CHANNELS and VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS. There is a resulting decrease in heart rate and in vascular resistance.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Drug Information Services: Services providing pharmaceutic and therapeutic drug information and consultation.Pharmacy Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the receiving, storing, and distribution of pharmaceutical supplies.Individualized Medicine: Therapeutic approach tailoring therapy for genetically defined subgroups of patients.Epilepsy, Reflex: A subtype of epilepsy characterized by seizures that are consistently provoked by a certain specific stimulus. Auditory, visual, and somatosensory stimuli as well as the acts of writing, reading, eating, and decision making are examples of events or activities that may induce seizure activity in affected individuals. (From Neurol Clin 1994 Feb;12(1):57-8)Bisoprolol: A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic blocker. It is effective in the management of HYPERTENSION and ANGINA PECTORIS.Medication Adherence: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in taking drugs or medicine as prescribed. This includes timing, dosage, and frequency.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Hydrochlorothiazide: A thiazide diuretic often considered the prototypical member of this class. It reduces the reabsorption of electrolytes from the renal tubules. This results in increased excretion of water and electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, chloride, and magnesium. It is used in the treatment of several disorders including edema, hypertension, diabetes insipidus, and hypoparathyroidism.Clonazepam: An anticonvulsant used for several types of seizures, including myotonic or atonic seizures, photosensitive epilepsy, and absence seizures, although tolerance may develop. It is seldom effective in generalized tonic-clonic or partial seizures. The mechanism of action appears to involve the enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor responses.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.CresolsProspective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Tachycardia, Ventricular: An abnormally rapid ventricular rhythm usually in excess of 150 beats per minute. It is generated within the ventricle below the BUNDLE OF HIS, either as autonomic impulse formation or reentrant impulse conduction. Depending on the etiology, onset of ventricular tachycardia can be paroxysmal (sudden) or nonparoxysmal, its wide QRS complexes can be uniform or polymorphic, and the ventricular beating may be independent of the atrial beating (AV dissociation).Sulfasalazine: A drug that is used in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases. Its activity is generally considered to lie in its metabolic breakdown product, 5-aminosalicylic acid (see MESALAMINE) released in the colon. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p907)Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Drug Utilization: The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.United StatesPropafenone: An antiarrhythmia agent that is particularly effective in ventricular arrhythmias. It also has weak beta-blocking activity.Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Carbimazole: An imidazole antithyroid agent. Carbimazole is metabolized to METHIMAZOLE, which is responsible for the antithyroid activity.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Carbamazepine: An anticonvulsant used to control grand mal and psychomotor or focal seizures. Its mode of action is not fully understood, but some of its actions resemble those of PHENYTOIN; although there is little chemical resemblance between the two compounds, their three-dimensional structure is similar.Drugs, Generic: Drugs whose drug name is not protected by a trademark. They may be manufactured by several companies.Encainide: One of the ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS, it blocks VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS and slows conduction within the His-Purkinje system and MYOCARDIUM.Insurance Claim Review: Review of claims by insurance companies to determine liability and amount of payment for various services. The review may also include determination of eligibility of the claimant or beneficiary or of the provider of the benefit; determination that the benefit is covered or not payable under another policy; or determination that the service was necessary and of reasonable cost and quality.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Epilepsy, Tonic-Clonic: A generalized seizure disorder characterized by recurrent major motor seizures. The initial brief tonic phase is marked by trunk flexion followed by diffuse extension of the trunk and extremities. The clonic phase features rhythmic flexor contractions of the trunk and limbs, pupillary dilation, elevations of blood pressure and pulse, urinary incontinence, and tongue biting. This is followed by a profound state of depressed consciousness (post-ictal state) which gradually improves over minutes to hours. The disorder may be cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (caused by an identified disease process). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p329)Hypercholesterolemia: A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.Lipotropic Agents: Endogenous factors or drugs that increase the transport and metabolism of LIPIDS including the synthesis of LIPOPROTEINS by the LIVER and their uptake by extrahepatic tissues.Metoprolol: A selective adrenergic beta-1 blocking agent that is commonly used to treat ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS.Professional Role: The expected function of a member of a particular profession.Cost Sharing: Provisions of an insurance policy that require the insured to pay some portion of covered expenses. Several forms of sharing are in use, e.g., deductibles, coinsurance, and copayments. Cost sharing does not refer to or include amounts paid in premiums for the coverage. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Formularies as Topic: Works about lists of drugs or collections of recipes, formulas, and prescriptions for the compounding of medicinal preparations. Formularies differ from PHARMACOPOEIAS in that they are less complete, lacking full descriptions of the drugs, their formulations, analytic composition, chemical properties, etc. In hospitals, formularies list all drugs commonly stocked in the hospital pharmacy.Electrocardiography, Ambulatory: Method in which prolonged electrocardiographic recordings are made on a portable tape recorder (Holter-type system) or solid-state device ("real-time" system), while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It is useful in the diagnosis and management of intermittent cardiac arrhythmias and transient myocardial ischemia.Betahistine: A histamine analog and H1 receptor agonist that serves as a vasodilator. It is used in MENIERE DISEASE and in vascular headaches but may exacerbate bronchial asthma and peptic ulcers.Calcium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.Sotalol: An adrenergic beta-antagonist that is used in the treatment of life-threatening arrhythmias.Antirheumatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Pregnatrienes: Pregnane derivatives containing three double bonds in the ring structures.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Guideline Adherence: Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.Medication Errors: Errors in prescribing, dispensing, or administering medication with the result that the patient fails to receive the correct drug or the indicated proper drug dosage.ThiazinesCardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Tranquilizing Agents: A traditional grouping of drugs said to have a soothing or calming effect on mood, thought, or behavior. Included here are the ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS (minor tranquilizers), ANTIMANIC AGENTS, and the ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS (major tranquilizers). These drugs act by different mechanisms and are used for different therapeutic purposes.Hyperlipidemias: Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Cardiac Pacing, Artificial: Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Antipsychotic Agents: Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.Clinical Pharmacy Information Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of clinical pharmacy services.Tachycardia: Abnormally rapid heartbeat, usually with a HEART RATE above 100 beats per minute for adults. Tachycardia accompanied by disturbance in the cardiac depolarization (cardiac arrhythmia) is called tachyarrhythmia.Clomipramine: A tricyclic antidepressant similar to IMIPRAMINE that selectively inhibits the uptake of serotonin in the brain. It is readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and demethylated in the liver to form its primary active metabolite, desmethylclomipramine.Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Amlodipine: A long-acting dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It is effective in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS and HYPERTENSION.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Adrenal Cortex HormonesAntineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Sodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit SODIUM CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS. They act as DIURETICS. Excess use is associated with HYPOKALEMIA.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Arrhythmias, Cardiac: Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Immunoglobulins, Thyroid-Stimulating: Autoantibodies that bind to the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor (RECEPTORS, THYROTROPIN) on thyroid epithelial cells. The autoantibodies mimic TSH causing an unregulated production of thyroid hormones characteristic of GRAVES DISEASE.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Procainamide: A class Ia antiarrhythmic drug that is structurally-related to PROCAINE.Pain, Intractable: Persistent pain that is refractory to some or all forms of treatment.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.6-Mercaptopurine: An antimetabolite antineoplastic agent with immunosuppressant properties. It interferes with nucleic acid synthesis by inhibiting purine metabolism and is used, usually in combination with other drugs, in the treatment of or in remission maintenance programs for leukemia.Electric Countershock: An electrical current applied to the HEART to terminate a disturbance of its rhythm, ARRHYTHMIAS, CARDIAC. (Stedman, 25th ed)Nortriptyline: A metabolite of AMITRIPTYLINE that is also used as an antidepressive agent. Nortriptyline is used in major depression, dysthymia, and atypical depressions.Pharmacology: The study of the origin, nature, properties, and actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Disease Management: A broad approach to appropriate coordination of the entire disease treatment process that often involves shifting away from more expensive inpatient and acute care to areas such as preventive medicine, patient counseling and education, and outpatient care. This concept includes implications of appropriate versus inappropriate therapy on the overall cost and clinical outcome of a particular disease. (From Hosp Pharm 1995 Jul;30(7):596)Hyperthyroidism: Hypersecretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND. Elevated levels of thyroid hormones increase BASAL METABOLIC RATE.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Tachycardia, Supraventricular: A generic expression for any tachycardia that originates above the BUNDLE OF HIS.Defibrillators, Implantable: Implantable devices which continuously monitor the electrical activity of the heart and automatically detect and terminate ventricular tachycardia (TACHYCARDIA, VENTRICULAR) and VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION. They consist of an impulse generator, batteries, and electrodes.Gastrointestinal Diseases: Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Metabolic Detoxication, Drug: Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Valproic Acid: A fatty acid with anticonvulsant properties used in the treatment of epilepsy. The mechanisms of its therapeutic actions are not well understood. It may act by increasing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in the brain or by altering the properties of voltage dependent sodium channels.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cost Savings: Reductions in all or any portion of the costs of providing goods or services. Savings may be incurred by the provider or the consumer.Phenobarbital: A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Methylphenidate: A central nervous system stimulant used most commonly in the treatment of ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER in children and for NARCOLEPSY. Its mechanisms appear to be similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The d-isomer of this drug is referred to as DEXMETHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE.PropylaminesEducation, Pharmacy: Formal instruction, learning, or training in the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of drugs in the field of medicine.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Death, Sudden, Cardiac: Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)Azathioprine: An immunosuppressive agent used in combination with cyclophosphamide and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck Index, 11th ed)HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Barbiturates: A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Tachycardia, Ectopic Atrial: Abnormally rapid heartbeats originating from one or more automatic foci (nonsinus pacemakers) in the HEART ATRIUM but away from the SINOATRIAL NODE. Unlike the reentry mechanism, automatic tachycardia speeds up and slows down gradually. The episode is characterized by a HEART RATE between 135 to less than 200 beats per minute and lasting 30 seconds or longer.Pulmonary Veins: The veins that return the oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Atrioventricular Node: A small nodular mass of specialized muscle fibers located in the interatrial septum near the opening of the coronary sinus. It gives rise to the atrioventricular bundle of the conduction system of the heart.Quinidine: An optical isomer of quinine, extracted from the bark of the CHINCHONA tree and similar plant species. This alkaloid dampens the excitability of cardiac and skeletal muscles by blocking sodium and potassium currents across cellular membranes. It prolongs cellular ACTION POTENTIALS, and decreases automaticity. Quinidine also blocks muscarinic and alpha-adrenergic neurotransmission.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Mexiletine: Antiarrhythmic agent pharmacologically similar to LIDOCAINE. It may have some anticonvulsant properties.Antidepressive Agents: Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.Albendazole: A benzimidazole broad-spectrum anthelmintic structurally related to MEBENDAZOLE that is effective against many diseases. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p38)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Antiprotozoal Agents: Substances that are destructive to protozoans.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Atenolol: A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic blocker possessing properties and potency similar to PROPRANOLOL, but without a negative inotropic effect.PiperazinesHydralazine: A direct-acting vasodilator that is used as an antihypertensive agent.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Blood Pressure Determination: Techniques for measuring blood pressure.Health Maintenance Organizations: Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Pacemaker, Artificial: A device designed to stimulate, by electric impulses, contraction of the heart muscles. It may be temporary (external) or permanent (internal or internal-external).Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6: A cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of many drugs and environmental chemicals, such as DEBRISOQUINE; ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS; and TRICYCLIC ANTIDEPRESSANTS. This enzyme is deficient in up to 10 percent of the Caucasian population.Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic: Substances that contain a fused three-ring moiety and are used in the treatment of depression. These drugs block the uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin into axon terminals and may block some subtypes of serotonin, adrenergic, and histamine receptors. However the mechanism of their antidepressant effects is not clear because the therapeutic effects usually take weeks to develop and may reflect compensatory changes in the central nervous system.Propylthiouracil: A thiourea antithyroid agent. Propythiouracil inhibits the synthesis of thyroxine and inhibits the peripheral conversion of throxine to tri-iodothyronine. It is used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopeoia, 30th ed, p534)Niacin: A water-soluble vitamin of the B complex occurring in various animal and plant tissues. It is required by the body for the formation of coenzymes NAD and NADP. It has PELLAGRA-curative, vasodilating, and antilipemic properties.Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Anticoagulants: Agents that prevent clotting.Anthelmintics: Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
The acute phase requires complete bed rest; as the patient improves, activity can increase. A new combination drug therapy ( ... In patients who do not respond to sulfonamide treatment, other drugs, such as ampicillin, erythromycin, or minocycline, may be ... In patients with brain infection, mortality exceeds 80%; in other forms, mortality is 50%, even with appropriate therapy. It is ... cure rate with appropriate therapy. The cure rate falls to 63% with those infected with dissemented nocardiosis, with only half ...
The drug antibody eribulin combination therapy is a joint venture between Eisai and Merck. The clinical trials combine eribulin ... Two new eribulin based products are in the research and development phase; a liposomal formulation and antibody drug ... www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess/smallbusinessassistance/ucm447307.pdf[full citation needed] FDA approves ... A phase III trial reported: With Halaven the median overall survival for patients with liposarcoma was 15.6 months, compared to ...
... new combinations of drugs, or new approaches to surgery or radiation therapy. (NLM) Trial Site The location(s) where trial- ... Trials are in four phases: Phase I tests a new drug or treatment in a small group; Phase II expands the study to a larger group ... NCI) Drug-drug interaction A modification of the effect of a drug when administered with another drug. The effect may be an ... ICH E6) Investigational New Drug A new drug, antibiotic drug, or biological drug that is used in a clinical investigation. It ...
This study suggests that apatinib will be potentially effective in combination therapies with conventional anticancer drugs ... A phase IV study on safety of Apatinib started in April, 2015. The study aims to recruit 2,000 patients. As of November, 2010, ... It is an investigational cancer drug currently undergoing clinical trials as a potential targeted treatment for metastatic ... There is a Phase II/III study recruiting patients in China to determine whether apatinib can improve progression free survival ...
Fexofenadine, an antihistamine drug used in treatment of allergies, has shown promise in a combination therapy in some studies. ... There is evidence that etrolizumab is effective for ulcerative colitis, with phase 3 trials underway as of 2016.[7][143][144][ ... A series of drugs in development looks to disrupt the inflammation process by selectively targeting an ion channel in the ... Raithel M, Winterkamp S, Weidenhiller M, Müller S, Hahn EG (July 2007). "Combination therapy using fexofenadine, disodium ...
... may prove to be a valuable component for combination therapy and may help to prevent the apparition of drug ... A phase 1b, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, proof-of-concept trial". The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 14 (8): 706 ... Current Opinion in Investigational Drugs. 10 (8): 860-70. PMID 19649930. Low, Jenny G; Sung, Cynthia; Wijaya, Limin; Wei, Yuan ... Long-term toxicity studies are necessary to confirm the safety of this novel drug in humans. Although generally safe and well ...
Toca FC is a combination drug involving a gene therapy agent and a prodrug. By July 2017 the EMA had granted the combination ... as of 2017 all gene therapy drugs that had been tested in phase III clinical trials for glioblastoma had failed. Toca 511 & ... Gene therapy has been explored as a method to treat glioblastoma and while animal models and early phase clinical trials have ... Strebe, JK; Lubin, JA; Kuo, JS (December 2016). ""Tag Team" Glioblastoma Therapy: Results From a Phase 1 Trial of Toca 511 and ...
... drugs Data on TS-1 adjuvant therapy for gastric cancer published in NEJM 2008 Otsuka Holdings established Results of a phase ... "TAS-108: A Better Anti-Estrogen Drug for Treating Breast Cancer". SRI International. Retrieved 2013-02-24. Taiho Corporate Site ... III trial on combination chemotherapy of TS-1 and cisplatin for advanced gastric cancer (SPIRITS) published in UK medical ... Research results on UFT adjuvant therapy for lung cancer published in New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) Collaboration ...
Chemotherapy for ALL consists of three phases: remission induction, intensification, and maintenance therapy. ... in different multi-drug combinations: *vincristine ... chemotherapy for ALL combines multiple antileukemic drugs ... Radiation therapyEdit. Radiation therapy (or radiotherapy) is used on painful bony areas, in high disease burdens, or as part ... Chemotherapy, stem cell transplantation, radiation therapy, targeted therapy[1]. Prognosis. Children: 90% five-year survival ...
... a brief history of immunosuppressive drugs. Accessed on 21 August 2005. WSAVA 2001 - Immunosuppressive drug therapy, from the ... drugs that affect the first phase of T lymphocyte activation, sirolimus affects the second phase, namely signal transduction ... The most frequent combination is to use antibodies and ciclosporin simultaneously in order to prevent patients from gradually ... Immunosuppressive drugs or immunosuppressive agents or antirejection medications are drugs that inhibit or prevent activity of ...
A Phase 1b study to test the efficacy and safety of a combination of PEGPH20 with Halaven (eribulin) in participants with human ... company that develops novel oncology therapies designed to target the tumor microenvironment and licenses a novel drug delivery ... Drugs.com. https://www.drugs.com/history/enhanze-sc.html. Published March 28, 2005. Accessed October 19, 2016. Full Prescribing ... HALO Lung / Gastric 101 - A Phase 1b study to test the efficacy and safety of a combination of PEGPH20 and Keytruda ( ...
After training the patient to respond to hypnosis, LSD would be administered, and during the onset phase of the drug the ... Psycholytic therapy involves the use of low to medium doses of psychedelic drugs, repeatedly at intervals of 1-2 weeks. The ... Levine and Ludwig found the combination of these techniques to be more effective than the use of either of these two components ... One reason that psychedelic therapy was eventually restricted was concern about the use of drugs by the general public. In the ...
Research, Center for Drug Evaluation and. "Approved Drugs - Palbociclib (IBRANCE)". www.fda.gov. Retrieved 2017-12-16. Turner, ... In March 2017, the FDA also approved ribociclib, owned by Novartis, as a combination therapy with aromatase inhibitors for ... In the G1 phase of the cell cycle, mammalian cells must pass a checkpoint known as the restriction point, R, in order to ... Currently palbociclib is prescribed as a combination therapy with either letrozole or fulvestrant. Patients should also not ...
... has not been established beyond what is generally thought about cisplatin or carboplatin doublet drug therapy. Patients should ... A Phase III study showed benefits of maintenance use of pemetrexed for non-squamous NSCLC. Activity has been shown in malignant ... Pemetrexed, whether used alone or in combination with cisplatin, has these side effects: Low blood cell counts, as measured by ... Constipation Pemetrexed is chemically similar to folic acid and is in the class of chemotherapy drugs called folate ...
A breakthrough therapy is a drug: • intended alone or in combination with one or more other drugs to treat a serious or life ... require more than data from in vitro studies or animal models.174 FDA expects preliminary clinical evidence to come from Phase ... A breakthrough therapy designation can be assigned to a drug if "it is a drug which is intended alone or in combination with ... Breakthrough therapy is a United States Food and Drug Administration designation that expedites drug development that was ...
Drugs in these classes are important components of the HIV combination therapy called highly active antiretroviral therapy, ... Rilpivirine was undergoing phase III clinical trials in the end of 2009. Rilpivirine was approved by the FDA for HIV therapy in ... Drug resistant HIV-strains emerge if the virus is able to replicate in the presence of the antiretroviral drugs. NNRTI- ... The highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was introduced in 1996. The treatment regimen combines three drugs from at ...
... drugs that affect the first phase of T lymphocyte activation, sirolimus affects the second phase, namely signal transduction ... WSAVA 2001 - Immunosuppressive drug therapy, from the veterinary point of view. By Mark Papich. Accessed on 21 August 2005. ... The most frequent combination is to use antibodies and ciclosporin simultaneously in order to prevent patients from gradually ... Immunosuppressive drugs or immunosuppressive agents or antirejection medications are drugs that inhibit or prevent activity of ...
Light therapy, sleep deprivation and sleep time displacement (sleep phase advance therapy) are being used in combination ... Sleep deprivation and light therapy both target the same brain neurotransmitter system and brain areas as antidepressant drugs ... One drug, ketoconazole, currently under development has shown promise in treating MDD. Recent studies have called attention to ... Many antidepressant drugs increase synaptic levels of the monoamine neurotransmitter, serotonin, but they may also enhance the ...
Palbociclib, a drug with similar mechanism and indications FDA Clears Novartis Kisqali for Combination Breast Cancer Therapy. ... When used in combination with other drugs such as an ALK or an MEK inhibitor, ribociclib has been shown to have a synergistic ... "A phase 1b/2 study of LEE011 in combination with binimetinib (MEK162) in patients with NRAS-mutant melanoma: Early encouraging ... The unchanged drug accounts for 17% of the substance in the feces and 12% of the substance in the urine, the rest being ...
The drug has undergone a Phase II evaluation as first-line therapy for breast cancer however this study found no evidence to ... with Phase II trials indicating an effectiveness comparable to bevacizumab when they were both used in combination with ... Stafford, edited by Rongshi Li, Jeffrey A. (2009). "Chapter 5. Discovery of Motesanib". Kinase inhibitor drugs. Hoboken, N.J.: ... ISBN 978-0-470-27829-1. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) "Amgen and Takeda's NSCLC Drug Fails in Phase III Study". 30 ...
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Drugs.com Mobile Apps. The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own ... Home › News › Clinical Trials › Merck Announces New Phase 2 Data on Investigational Triple Combination Therapy MK-3682B for ... Merck Announces New Phase 2 Data on Investigational Triple Combination Therapy MK-3682B for Chronic Hepatitis C. Print this ... MK-3682B is Mercks investigational triple-combination therapy in Phase 2 development for the treatment of chronic HCV ...
Physiological Effects of Drugs. Analgesics, Non-Narcotic. Analgesics. Sensory System Agents. Peripheral Nervous System Agents. ... This Phase 2, open label, randomized study will investigate the virologic benefit, clinical efficacy, safety, and tolerability ... Oral Triple Combination Antiviral Drug Therapy for Treatment of Influenza A in Immunocompromised Subjects (PO206). The safety ... Drug Information available for: Amantadine hydrochloride Amantadine Ribavirin Oseltamivir Oseltamivir phosphate U.S. FDA ...
Phase HIV Infections Drug: Ritonavir Drug: Nelfinavir mesylate Drug: Nevirapine Drug: Lamivudine Drug: Stavudine Drug: ... Each regimen consists of 4 drugs that include a combination of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (stavudine, ... RAD-1: A Phase I/II Antiretroviral Management Algorithm for Pediatric Subjects of Four-Drug Combination Therapies Based on ... A Study on the Management of Combination Anti-HIV Drug Therapy in HIV-Positive Children With Prior Treatment. The safety and ...
Drug Therapy, Combination. Encephalitis. Foscarnet. Cytomegalovirus Infections. Antiviral Agents. Radiculopathy. Additional ... This study will provide key information regarding safety and CSF penetration of the drugs available for treatment of these ... Concurrent ZDV therapy will be started during maintenance therapy if tolerated. Bone marrow sparing antiretroviral therapy may ... Current evidence suggests that a combination of ganciclovir and foscarnet may be the most efficacious therapy and appears to be ...
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Home » Topics » The top 5 most promising drugs (February 2014) » Research » T-20 With Anti-HIV Combination Therapy for Patients ... We hypothesize that using a potent antiretroviral such as Enfuvirtide during the induction phase of HAART therapy will lead to ... T-20 With Anti-HIV Combination Therapy for Patients With Prior Anti-HIV Drug Treatment and/or Drug Resistance to Each of the ... More From BioPortfolio on "T-20 With Anti-HIV Combination Therapy for Patients With Prior Anti-HIV Drug Treatment and/or Drug ...
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Genomic approaches may help identify molecular markers for resistance to artemisinins and their partner drugs. Studies of ... drug-resistant malaria must be updated and optimized. In vitro methods for measuring resistance will be critical for confirming ... are replaced by more effective artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs), strategies for monitoring (and, if possible, ... Safety and allele-specific immunogenicity of a malaria vaccine in Malian adults: results of a phase I randomized trial. PLoS ...
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Learn about migraine triggers, causes, preventives, natural remedies, OTC and prescription drug treatment. ... drugs such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), or a combination of medicaitons and prescription drugs can treat ... What OTC (Over-the-Counter) Drugs Treat Migraine Pain?. *Abortive Prescription Drug Therapies for Migraine Headache Pain and ... www.fda.gov/drugs/news-events-human-drugs/new-drug-class-employs-novel-mechanism-migraine-treatment-and-prevention, ...
  • Existing pharmacological therapies, which have been previously described in this series, are focused on reducing insulin resistance, increasing insulin secretion, slowing carbohydrate digestion, restraining glucagon production, and supplying exogenous insulin. (bjcardio.co.uk)
  • The regulatory approval pathway for pharmacological therapies for NASH requires therapies to show clinical benefit in improving liver-related outcomes for full regulatory approval, which may take several years due to low event rates. (bmj.com)
  • Several medications are used to treat symptoms and bring about and maintain remission, including aminosalicylates such as mesalazine or sulfasalazine , steroids , immunosuppressants such as azathioprine , and biologic therapy . (wikipedia.org)
  • Main outcome measure Primary outcome: reduction in disability at 12 months measured with patient recorded heath assessment questionnaire (range 0.00-3.00) with a 0.22 non-inferiority margin for combination treatment versus the biologic strategy. (bmj.com)
  • It is an orally active, small molecule drug that has shown promise for the treatment of a range of advanced and frequently lethal cancers including non-small cell lung cancer and androgen-independent prostate cancer. (sri.com)
  • The results of our Phase 2a trial with MAP0005 demonstrate our ability to apply our proprietary technologies to combine two drugs within a single particle in a pre-specified ratio and deliver them to the lung,' said Timothy S. Nelson, President and Chief Executive Officer of MAP Pharmaceuticals. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • In addition, the Company's technology allows particles to be specifically designed to target relevant areas in the lung and to release drug at a desired rate. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • In the Phase II TOMORROW trial, treatment with 150 mg of nintedanib twice daily showed a trend to slow the decline in lung function and significantly decrease acute exacerbations in patients with IPF, while showing an acceptable safety profile. (dovepress.com)
  • While immune checkpoint therapy has been "a tremendous step forward, less than half of patients with lung cancer have benefited to date," he says. (news-medical.net)
  • In a series of experiments, researchers studied the combination of 5-azacytidine with the HDACis entinostat, mocetinostat or givinostat in human cancer cell lines and in mouse models of nonsmall cell lung cancers. (news-medical.net)
  • In one mouse model with a mutant form of nonsmall cell lung cancer, this drug combination given for three months yielded prevention of benign, precursor tumors from becoming cancers and caused 60 percent reduction of overall area of benign tumor appearance in the lungs. (news-medical.net)
  • In small doses, it is very efficient in the therapy of systemic lupus erythematosus , autoimmune hemolytic anemias , granulomatosis with polyangiitis , and other immune diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The value of high-dose systemic chemotherapy and intrathecal therapy for central nervous system prophylaxis in different risk groups of adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia. (medscape.com)
  • The drug is also being studied in patients with systemic light-chain amyloidosis and has previously received Breakthrough Therapy status for the indication ( OT 12/25/14 issue ). (lww.com)
  • Olaparib will provide similar outcomes but less toxicity than paclitaxel and that olaparib/cediranib combination might provide better outcomes. (isrctn.com)
  • A problem with this standard approach is that the fixed dose agent can induce substantial toxicity (as it is at its RP2D) and will only permit administration of a minimal amount of the additional drug to avoid exceeding the tolerated toxicity threshold. (springer.com)
  • Drug toxicity is an adverse reaction of the body towards a drug that results as a side effect of a drug, reaction to a drug or drug abuse. (medindia.net)
  • LAS VEGAS - Rapid advances in the treatment of hepatitis C have clinicians seeing outcomes they never thought possible, and experts are optimistic that more complex and challenging patients will respond to therapy. (medscape.com)
  • CAMBRIDGE, Mass.--( BUSINESS WIRE )--AVEO Oncology (NASDAQ: AVEO) today announced the presentation of updated data from the Phase 3 TIVO-3 trial. (businesswire.com)
  • Both Calquence and Lynparza are part of AstraZeneca's strong oncology portfolio of drugs. (yahoo.com)
  • The international phase III trial that paved the way to the drug's FDA approval was led by medical oncologist Howard I. Scher , Chief of Memorial Sloan Kettering's Genitourinary Oncology Service. (mskcc.org)
  • Oncology Repurposing Engine' uses artificial intelligence to identify potential drug candidates among generics and off-patent drugs that may be repurposed as cancer therapies. (in-pharmatechnologist.com)
  • When are cancer cells most sensitive to chemotherapy drugs? (brainscape.com)
  • The current emphasis in cancer treatment is use of what therapy? (brainscape.com)
  • 1. Female patients, age 16 years and older with epithelial ovarian, primary peritoneal or fallopian tube cancer who have relapsed within 12 months of previous platinum-based therapy. (isrctn.com)
  • By blocking CTLA-4, the drug unleashes the immune system to attack cancer cells. (medicinenet.com)
  • The results are even more impressive considering that many of the patients already had undergone as many as three rounds of drug therapy for their melanoma, said Dr. Len Lichtenfeld, deputy chief medical officer for the American Cancer Society. (medicinenet.com)
  • This report analyzes the Global market for Liver Cancer Drugs in US$ Million. (fiercepharma.com)
  • ImmunoGen's lead product candidate, the clinical-phase mirvetuximab soravtansine (IMGN853), will be studied with Merck & Co.'s Keytruda ® (pembrolizumab) as a combination therapy for folate receptor alpha (FRα)-positive ovarian cancer. (genengnews.com)
  • In November, ImmunoGen presented positive Phase I results showing two of 10 (90%) platinum-resistant ovarian cancer patients with high levels of FRα had a complete response on treatment with mirvetuximab soravtansine, while another seven patients showed partial responses. (genengnews.com)
  • The mesylate salt was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration on November 15, 2010, to treat patients with metastatic breast cancer who have received at least two prior chemotherapy regimens for late-stage disease, including both anthracycline- and taxane-based chemotherapies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metastatic breast cancer impacts about 150,000 people in the USA, due to the patient population, Eisai was able to file and New Drug Application (NDA) under the orphan and rare disease designation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The induction of apoptosis, a highly regulated and clearly defined mode of cell dying, is a vital tenet of modern cancer therapy. (mdpi.com)
  • First, we discuss which target to select for cancer therapy and argue that not the cancer cell as such, but its interaction with the microenvironment is a more promising and genetically stable site of attack. (mdpi.com)
  • Conclusion: Using a mathematical framework, we showed that the combination therapy of mTOR and STAT3 genes yields the best apoptosis in breast cancer. (medworm.com)
  • It is also likely that more personalised therapies, targeted at specific genetic mutations in cancer tissue, will be developed and trialled. (icr.ac.uk)
  • The approval of PARP inhibitors, which target BRCA mutations, is an example of this type of drug and the cancer world is excited about their implementation in 2015. (icr.ac.uk)
  • The American Society of Clinical Oncology's notable research advances include the approval of a new drug for men with advanced prostate cancer that was developed and studied by Memorial Sloan Kettering researchers. (mskcc.org)
  • Included in ASCO's top five advances of 2012 was the US Food and Drug Administration approval of the targeted therapy enzalutamide (Xtandi ® ) for men with advanced prostate cancer . (mskcc.org)
  • The ASCO report referred to the enzalutamide results as "remarkable," and noted that the drug has become the "new standard treatment option for men with chemotherapy-treated prostate cancer. (mskcc.org)
  • Dr. Baselga led a phase III trial involving the drugs trastuzumab (Herceptin ® ) and pertuzumab (Perjeta™) - two antibodies that work by inactivating a protein called HER2, which can be overproduced in some breast cancer cells. (mskcc.org)
  • NEW YORK (Reuters) - Bristol-Myers Squibb and Roche Holding AG said on Thursday they would evaluate their respective cancer drugs as a potential combination therapy for metastatic melanoma. (reuters.com)
  • Platform development will be based on combined, cross-informing technologies that will enable us to predict optimal 'maintenance therapies' for metastatic disease by targeting cancer evolution and spread through combination therapy. (europa.eu)
  • These anti-cancer mechanisms in turn pave the path for development of new drugs and strategies to tackle with the condition. (pitchengine.com)
  • In the recent years further investigation of the cancer genome has led to targeted therapies. (jcancer.org)
  • 5 ] In the recent years targeted therapies have emerged and based on the genome of cancer specific oral agents are being administered. (jcancer.org)
  • Additionally, these drugs enhance the normal tissue ability against cancer cell infiltration. (jcancer.org)
  • Novartis will acquire Endocyte for $2.1bn, with the core of the deal centering on the latter's experimental therapy for prostate cancer. (in-pharmatechnologist.com)
  • A natural substance found in stinging nettles and ants repeatedly attacks cancer within cells, say scientists developing low-dose alternatives to current chemotherapy drugs. (in-pharmatechnologist.com)
  • A treatment combining anti-malaria drug artemisinin and light-sensitive molecules could kill cancer cells and hinder tumour growth, say researchers. (in-pharmatechnologist.com)
  • Recipharm has installed a dedicated production line to make prostate cancer drug Liproca Depot for Swedish pharma firm LIDDS AB. (in-pharmatechnologist.com)
  • Newlink Genetics Corporation has expended its indoximod IP portfolio weeks after data suggested the cancer drug may make Provenge and Keytruda more effective. (in-pharmatechnologist.com)
  • We will finally discuss how studies on phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) signalling, as the paradigmatic pro-tumoural signal downstream of oncogenic Kras in pancreatic cancer, would benefit from exploratory proteomics to increase the efficiency of targeted therapies. (mdpi.com)
  • The first paper describing this class of agents was published by Andreeff and Konopleva in Cancer Cell in 2006, followed by many pre-clinical, mechanism-based combinations that resulted in the first AML trial, chaired by Konopleva. (mdanderson.org)
  • These so-called epigenetic therapy drugs, used together, achieved robust anti-tumor responses in human cancer cell lines and mice. (news-medical.net)
  • and senior author Stephen B. Baylin, M.D., combined a demethylating drug called 5-azacytidine that chemically reignites some cancer suppressor genes' ability to operate, with one of three histone deacetylase inhibitor drugs (HDACis). (news-medical.net)
  • The combination therapy triggered a chemical cascade that increased the attraction of immune cells to fight tumors and diminished the work of the cancer gene MYC. (news-medical.net)
  • Adding the HDACis further depleted MYC, and together the drugs subsequently caused actions that prevented cancer cell proliferation, simultaneously attracted more immune system T cells to the area of the tumor and activated these cells for tumor recognition. (news-medical.net)
  • AMGN ) today announced the submission of a supplemental New Drug Application (sNDA) to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to expand the Prescribing Information for KYPROLIS ® (carfilzomib) to include a once-weekly dosing option in combination with dexamethasone (Kd) for patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. (prnewswire.com)
  • Empliciti has been evaluated in the randomized, open-label, Phase III ELOQUENT-2 trial of 646 patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma ( OT 6/10/15 issue ). (lww.com)
  • Approval for the multiple myeloma indication will be based on results from the randomized, double-blind, Phase III TOURMALINE-MM1 trial, which is evaluating ixazomib plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone versus placebo plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone in adult patients with relapsed or refractory myeloma. (lww.com)
  • They said earlier studies had shown that a combination of the drugs lopinavir-ritonavir, normally used to treat HIV, and ribavirin, an oral hepatitis C virus drug, significantly reduced respiratory failure and death in patients hospitalised with SARS during the 2002-03 outbreak. (financialexpress.com)
  • The participants were randomly assigned to 14 days of either the triple combination of oral lopinavir-ritonavir and ribavirin every 12 hours, the researchers said. (financialexpress.com)
  • CPX-351 has been granted orphan drug status by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of AML and is currently being studied in a randomized trial comparing CPX-351 versus conventional cytarabine and daunorubicin therapy ("7+3") in patients 60-75 years of age with untreated AML. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Those agents include Johnson & Johnson/Janssen's Doxil ® (pegylated liposomal doxorubicin), Roche/Genentech's Avastin ® (bevacizumab), and the chemotherapy drug carboplatin. (genengnews.com)
  • The dosage or drugs chosen for salvage therapy are limited by doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Bortezomib (branded and marketed as Velcade by Millennium Pharmaceuticals) entered the armamentarium of new antiproliferative therapies with approval in May 2003 for the hematologic malignancy multiple myeloma (MM), in which B cell-derived plasma cells clonally proliferate and produce large quantities of monoclonal antibody. (jci.org)
  • It is being developed in phase III programs for larger CLL indication and the company expects to file regulatory applications based on data from the ASCEND and ELEVATE-TN studies later this year to get an approval for CLL. (yahoo.com)
  • The drug won market approval in China in May of last year and was launched three months later. (bioworld.com)
  • The FDA's priority review designation shortens the time to complete a drug's review and aims to deliver a decision on marketing approval designation for drugs that may offer major advances in treatment or provide a treatment where no adequate therapy exists within six months under the Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA). (lww.com)
  • Roche receives US FDA approval with two indications for Rozlytrek, prices the drug at almost half of Bayer's similar drug. (in-pharmatechnologist.com)
  • Acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage in Kawasaki disease occurring before aspirin therapy. (nih.gov)
  • Antibodies are sometimes used as a quick and potent immunosuppressive therapy to prevent the acute rejection reactions as well as a targeted treatment of lymphoproliferative or autoimmune disorders (e.g., anti-CD20 monoclonals). (wikipedia.org)
  • Induction therapy for adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: results of more than 1500 patients from the international ALL trial: MRC UKALL XII/ECOG E2993. (medscape.com)
  • Clinical effect of imatinib added to intensive combination chemotherapy for newly diagnosed Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia. (medscape.com)
  • A pivotal phase 2 trial of ponatinib with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ ALL) resistant or intolerant to dasatinib or nilotinib, or with the T315I BCR-ABL mutation: 12-month follow-up of the PACE trial. (medscape.com)
  • Pain management after a burn injury deals with how to treat the burn pain starting with the acute injury, through the healing and up to the rehabilitation phase. (medindia.net)
  • Researchers in MD Anderson's Leukemia department played central roles in the studies of two drugs, glasdegib and venetoclax, approved in November by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in patients not eligible for intensive chemotherapy . (mdanderson.org)
  • Migraine treatments include home remedies, over-the-counter (OTC) drugs, and presecription medications to prevent or relieve migraine pain. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Despite a variety of treatments available in the United States, asthma is still poorly controlled and many patients require daily maintenance treatment with combination therapy. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • After an inadequate response to methotrexate, several treatments were statistically superior to oral methotrexate for ACR50 response: triple therapy, methotrexate plus hydroxychloroquine, methotrexate plus leflunomide, methotrexate plus intramuscular gold, methotrexate plus most biologics, and methotrexate plus tofacitinib. (bmj.com)
  • Overall, MBAOD is a promising tool in the context of dose finding studies of combination treatments and was showed to be flexible enough to be associated with requirements imposed by clinical protocols. (springer.com)
  • The clinical relevance of this finding for patients with B-cell neoplasms was previously tested in a phase I trial in which the dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) and maximum tolerated dose of the combination of these agents was determined, with alvocidib administered by a "hybrid," pharmacologically derived infusional schedule. (aacrjournals.org)