Methohexital: An intravenous anesthetic with a short duration of action that may be used for induction of anesthesia.Thiopental: A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.Anesthesia, Intravenous: Process of administering an anesthetic through injection directly into the bloodstream.Analog-Digital Conversion: The process of converting analog data such as continually measured voltage to discrete, digital form.Propanidid: An intravenous anesthetic that has been used for rapid induction of anesthesia and for maintenance of anesthesia of short duration. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p918)Etomidate: Imidazole derivative anesthetic and hypnotic with little effect on blood gases, ventilation, or the cardiovascular system. It has been proposed as an induction anesthetic.Anesthetics, Intravenous: Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)Alfaxalone Alfadolone Mixture: A 3:1 mixture of alfaxalone with alfadolone acetate that previously had been used as a general anesthetic. It is no longer actively marketed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1445)Biopharmaceutics: The study of the physical and chemical properties of a drug and its dosage form as related to the onset, duration, and intensity of its action.Anesthesia Recovery Period: The period of emergence from general anesthesia, where different elements of consciousness return at different rates.Amobarbital: A barbiturate with hypnotic and sedative properties (but not antianxiety). Adverse effects are mainly a consequence of dose-related CNS depression and the risk of dependence with continued use is high. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p565)Preanesthetic Medication: Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.Anesthesia, Dental: A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.Thiamylal: A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration, for the induction of general anesthesia, or for inducing a hypnotic state. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p919)Barbiturates: A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Drug Overdose: Accidental or deliberate use of a medication or street drug in excess of normal dosage.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Dexmedetomidine: A imidazole derivative that is an agonist of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS. It is closely-related to MEDETOMIDINE, which is the racemic form of this compound.Mitochondrial Myopathies: A group of muscle diseases associated with abnormal mitochondria function.Awards and PrizesMELAS Syndrome: A mitochondrial disorder characterized by focal or generalized seizures, episodes of transient or persistent neurologic dysfunction resembling strokes, and ragged-red fibers on muscle biopsy. Affected individuals tend to be normal at birth through early childhood, then experience growth failure, episodic vomiting, and recurrent cerebral insults resulting in visual loss and hemiparesis. The cortical lesions tend to occur in the parietal and occipital lobes and are not associated with vascular occlusion. VASCULAR HEADACHE is frequently associated and the disorder tends to be familial. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch56, p117)Azithromycin: A semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic structurally related to ERYTHROMYCIN. It has been used in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infections, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis.Information Services: Organized services to provide information on any questions an individual might have using databases and other sources. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Lod Score: The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Electroconvulsive Therapy: Electrically induced CONVULSIONS primarily used in the treatment of severe AFFECTIVE DISORDERS and SCHIZOPHRENIA.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Deep Sedation: Drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients cannot be easily aroused but respond purposely following repeated painful stimulation. The ability to independently maintain ventilatory function may be impaired. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Anesthesia, Local: A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Anesthesia, Epidural: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.Anesthesia, Conduction: Injection of an anesthetic into the nerves to inhibit nerve transmission in a specific part of the body.Anesthesia, Spinal: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.Anesthesia, Inhalation: Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.Analgesia, Epidural: The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Universal Precautions: Prudent standard preventive measures to be taken by professional and other health personnel in contact with persons afflicted with a communicable disease, to avoid contracting the disease by contagion or infection. Precautions are especially applicable in the diagnosis and care of AIDS patients.Etidocaine: A local anesthetic with rapid onset and long action, similar to BUPIVACAINE.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Dibucaine: A local anesthetic of the amide type now generally used for surface anesthesia. It is one of the most potent and toxic of the long-acting local anesthetics and its parenteral use is restricted to spinal anesthesia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1006)Halofenate: An antihyperlipoproteinemic agent and uricosuric agent.Bupivacaine: A widely used local anesthetic agent.Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.
  • Benzodiazepines are sedatives and are used in combinations with other general anaesthetics Induction and maintenance of general anesthesia, and the control of the various physiological side effects is typically achieved through a combinatorial drug approach. (wikipedia.org)
  • this drug may be given by infusion or intermittent injection. (drugs.com)
  • Methohexital is given as an injection into a muscle, or as an infusion into a vein. (rexhealth.com)
  • The problems associated with intermittent IM injection, given as need arises, include delayed onset of action, inability to maintain a constant plane of anesthesia, frequent changes in cardiopulmonary status, and the possibility of using more drugs within a certain period of time compared with IV injections. (vin.com)
  • In addition, if administered before injection of kaolin and carrageenan into the knee joint this drug can attenuate joint inflammation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • If this is the case, pretreatment with this drug should reduce the amount of swelling after injection of kaolin and carrageenan. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Nazi Germany 's T-4 Euthanasia Program used lethal injection, with various drug combinations that differed from the modern method, as one of several methods to destroy "life unworthy of life. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Doses of rocuronium bromide injection should be individualized and a peripheral nerve stimulator should be used to monitor drug effect, need for additional doses, adequacy of spontaneous recovery or antagonism, and to decrease the complications of overdosage if additional doses are administered. (nih.gov)
  • Alfentanil may reduce the dosage of methohexital needed to induce anesthesia. (drugs.com)
  • Your breathing should be closely monitored and the methohexital dosage should be carefully watched. (drugs.com)
  • There is mounting evidence to suggest that lean body mass (LBM) may be a better predictor of drug dosage than either total bodyweight (TBW) or body surface area (BSA), although the rationale for this is not clear. (springer.com)
  • A good correlation between drug clearance and LBM indicates that LBM may be an accurate predictor of maintenance dosage, especially in obese patients, in whom there is a large discrepancy between LBM and TBW. (springer.com)
  • BSA is an accurate predictor of drug dosage in infants and children, but whether LBM is superior to BSA in this population remains to be determined. (springer.com)
  • In most studies in adults in which dosage based on LBM has been evaluated prospectively, LBM has been shown to be superior to other measures of body size as a predictor of drug dosage. (springer.com)
  • Excess contrast of urine enhanced neither necessary and neonatal backwonderful drugs to lisinopril 80 mg dosage activity nor didn' drugs to angiotensin. (goorganics.us)
  • Except for one patient who received multiple doses (three times) of methohexital, all the other patients received the drug only once. (bmj.com)
  • Being a new technique, there is still scant information about the doses of anesthetic drugs for various types of surgical procedures and different medical conditions. (vin.com)
  • Peripheral nerve stimulator recommended for determination of drug response and need for additional doses, and to evaluate recovery. (nih.gov)
  • Minimal sedation is equivalent to anxiolysis, that is, a drug-induced relief of apprehension with minimal effect on sensorium. (medscape.com)
  • Here, we report on the effect of methohexital in terms of sedation, relaxation, sleep and cardiovascular effects in 18 newborn infants who needed an elective intubation. (bmj.com)
  • Moderate sedation/analgesia ("conscious sedation") is a drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully** to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. (beckersasc.com)
  • Deep sedation/analgesia is a drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients cannot be easily aroused but respond purposefully** following repeated or painful stimulation.The ability to independently maintain ventilatory function may be impaired. (beckersasc.com)
  • This drug may be used with any of the recognized preanesthetic medications. (drugs.com)
  • Compared with other modes of administration, intravenous medications generally have a quick onset, have a predictable drug absorption, and are titratable. (medscape.com)
  • Sleep medications are sometimes used as date rape drugs. (drugfree.org)
  • The reasons for a false positive drug test statistics can be caused by a variety of medications, vitamins, foods or even your ethnic background. (alwaystestclean.com)
  • In 1980, 1981, and 1985, and continuously from 1989, the NAMCS encounter form included a question which asked for a listing of all drugs/medications ordered, administered or provided during the visit. (cdc.gov)
  • in the present study, zonisamide was tested in animal models of the subjective and reinforcing effects of central nervous system (CNS) depressant drugs, e.g., diazepam discrimination in rats and intravenous self-administration in rhesus monkeys, respectively. (rti.org)
  • Zonisamide did not substitute fur diazepam in rats trained to discriminate 2.5-mg/kg diazepam from vehicle nor was it self-administered by rhesus monkeys experienced in methohexital-reinforced responding. (rti.org)
  • These range from conventional pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic models, inverse models (used to drive target controlled infusion systems), Bayesian models (used to handle model uncertainty), models of drug interaction, and models of receptor function that help elucidate mechanisms of drug action. (stanford.edu)
  • Regular visits should be made to your healthcare provider to track your progress and monitor the effectiveness of the drug as well as check for unwanted side effects. (findatopdoc.com)
  • This report provides comprehensive information on the therapeutic development for Emesis (Vomiting), complete with comparative analysis at various stages, therapeutics assessment by drug target, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type, along with latest updates, and featured news and press releases. (sbwire.com)
  • This report provides comprehensive information on the therapeutic development for Myasthenia Gravis, complete with comparative analysis at various stages, therapeutics assessment by drug target, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type, along with latest updates, and featured news and press releases. (sbwire.com)
  • Of course, more than one mechanism may be operative for any given drug-ethanol combination. (springer.com)
  • Both the antihyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of this drug probably are mediated through a central neurogenic mechanism. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Make sure to visit your doctor regularly so they can better monitor your condition and the efficacy of the drug as it relates to your pain and discomfort. (findatopdoc.com)
  • The relevance of a particular drug interaction to a specific patient is difficult to determine using this tool alone given the large number of variables that may apply. (drugs.com)
  • assess risk and consider an alternative drug, take steps to circumvent the interaction risk and/or institute a monitoring plan. (drugs.com)
  • The drug reduces the degree of calcium influx and decreases the intraneuronal calcium concentration, blocking the abnormal fluctuations in membrane potential occurring during epileptic discharges. (drugbank.ca)
  • In conclusion, methohexital seems to be a useful drug for short term anaesthesia in neonates, during which, short procedures like elective intubation can be safely performed. (bmj.com)