Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.
Restoration of blood supply to tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. It is primarily a procedure for treating infarction or other ischemia, by enabling viable ischemic tissue to recover, thus limiting further necrosis. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing REPERFUSION INJURY.
Generally, restoration of blood supply to heart tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. Reperfusion can be induced to treat ischemia. Methods include chemical dissolution of an occluding thrombus, administration of vasodilator drugs, angioplasty, catheterization, and artery bypass graft surgery. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
A technique in which tissue is rendered resistant to the deleterious effects of prolonged ISCHEMIA and REPERFUSION by prior exposure to brief, repeated periods of vascular occlusion. (Am J Physiol 1995 May;268(5 Pt 2):H2063-7, Abstract)
A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).
Exposure of myocardial tissue to brief, repeated periods of vascular occlusion in order to render the myocardium resistant to the deleterious effects of ISCHEMIA or REPERFUSION. The period of pre-exposure and the number of times the tissue is exposed to ischemia and reperfusion vary, the average being 3 to 5 minutes.
A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
The application of repeated, brief periods of vascular occlusion at the onset of REPERFUSION to reduce REPERFUSION INJURY that follows a prolonged ischemic event. The techniques are similar to ISCHEMIC PRECONDITIONING but the time of application is after the ischemic event instead of before.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.
Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).
A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 1.11.1.7.
Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The dialdehyde of malonic acid.
Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.
A tissue or organ remaining at physiological temperature during decreased BLOOD perfusion or in the absence of blood supply. During ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION it begins when the organ reaches physiological temperature before the completion of SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS and ends with reestablishment of the BLOOD CIRCULATION through the tissue.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.
Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.
Synthetic or natural substances which are given to prevent a disease or disorder or are used in the process of treating a disease or injury due to a poisonous agent.
Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.
The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.
The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).
The mitochondria of the myocardium.
Solutions which, upon administration, will temporarily arrest cardiac activity. They are used in the performance of heart surgery.
A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
General or unspecified injuries involving the leg.
The chilling of a tissue or organ during decreased BLOOD perfusion or in the absence of blood supply. Cold ischemia time during ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION begins when the organ is cooled with a cold perfusion solution after ORGAN PROCUREMENT surgery, and ends after the tissue reaches physiological temperature during implantation procedures.
The process by which organs are kept viable outside of the organism from which they were removed (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.
Solutions used to store organs and minimize tissue damage, particularly while awaiting implantation.
A procedure to stop the contraction of MYOCARDIUM during HEART SURGERY. It is usually achieved with the use of chemicals (CARDIOPLEGIC SOLUTIONS) or cold temperature (such as chilled perfusate).
A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
General or unspecified injuries to the neck. It includes injuries to the skin, muscles, and other soft tissues of the neck.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Prolonged dysfunction of the myocardium after a brief episode of severe ischemia, with gradual return of contractile activity.
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
The act of constricting.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.
The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates the adhesion of neutrophils and monocytes to activated platelets and endothelial cells.
Sulfhydryl acylated derivative of GLYCINE.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
General or unspecified injuries involving organs in the abdominal cavity.
The pressure within a CARDIAC VENTRICLE. Ventricular pressure waveforms can be measured in the beating heart by catheterization or estimated using imaging techniques (e.g., DOPPLER ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY). The information is useful in evaluating the function of the MYOCARDIUM; CARDIAC VALVES; and PERICARDIUM, particularly with simultaneous measurement of other (e.g., aortic or atrial) pressures.
General or unspecified injuries involving the arm.
A XANTHINE OXIDASE inhibitor that decreases URIC ACID production. It also acts as an antimetabolite on some simpler organisms.
Pathological processes of the LIVER.
Injuries resulting when a person is struck by particles impelled with violent force from an explosion. Blast causes pulmonary concussion and hemorrhage, laceration of other thoracic and abdominal viscera, ruptured ear drums, and minor effects in the central nervous system. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
General or unspecified injuries to the hand.
General or unspecified injuries to the chest area.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
10-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
Organic compounds containing both the hydroxyl and carboxyl radicals.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Proteins involved in the transport of specific substances across the membranes of the MITOCHONDRIA.
Injuries involving the vertebral column.
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
Injuries to the knee or the knee joint.
A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.
Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)
A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.
A ubiquitous stress-responsive enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of HEME to yield IRON; CARBON MONOXIDE; and BILIVERDIN.
Classification system for assessing impact injury severity developed and published by the American Association for Automotive Medicine. It is the system of choice for coding single injuries and is the foundation for methods assessing multiple injuries or for assessing cumulative effects of more than one injury. These include Maximum AIS (MAIS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), and Probability of Death Score (PODS).
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A trisaccharide occurring in Australian manna (from Eucalyptus spp, Myrtaceae) and in cottonseed meal.
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
General or unspecified injuries to the soft tissue or bony portions of the face.
General or unspecified injuries to the heart.
Use of infusions of FIBRINOLYTIC AGENTS to destroy or dissolve thrombi in blood vessels or bypass grafts.
Examinations used to diagnose and treat heart conditions.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A large vessel supplying the whole length of the small intestine except the superior part of the duodenum. It also supplies the cecum and the ascending part of the colon and about half the transverse part of the colon. It arises from the anterior surface of the aorta below the celiac artery at the level of the first lumbar vertebra.
Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE that is intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means. In humans, mild or moderate hypothermia has been used to reduce tissue damages, particularly after cardiac or spinal cord injuries and during subsequent surgeries.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Reduced blood flow to the spinal cord which is supplied by the anterior spinal artery and the paired posterior spinal arteries. This condition may be associated with ARTERIOSCLEROSIS, trauma, emboli, diseases of the aorta, and other disorders. Prolonged ischemia may lead to INFARCTION of spinal cord tissue.
General or unspecified injuries to the posterior part of the trunk. It includes injuries to the muscles of the back.
Acute kidney failure resulting from destruction of EPITHELIAL CELLS of the KIDNEY TUBULES. It is commonly attributed to exposure to toxic agents or renal ISCHEMIA following severe TRAUMA.
Traumatic injuries to the cranium where the integrity of the skull is not compromised and no bone fragments or other objects penetrate the skull and dura mater. This frequently results in mechanical injury being transmitted to intracranial structures which may produce traumatic brain injuries, hemorrhage, or cranial nerve injury. (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p417)
Injuries of tissue other than bone. The concept is usually general and does not customarily refer to internal organs or viscera. It is meaningful with reference to regions or organs where soft tissue (muscle, fat, skin) should be differentiated from bones or bone tissue, as "soft tissue injuries of the hand".
A relatively common sequela of blunt head injury, characterized by a global disruption of axons throughout the brain. Associated clinical features may include NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; DEMENTIA; and other disorders.
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage.
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
Devices for the compression of a blood vessel by application around an extremity to control the circulation and prevent the flow of blood to or from the distal area. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Injuries sustained from incidents in the course of work-related activities.
The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.
A potent oxidant synthesized by the cell during its normal metabolism. Peroxynitrite is formed from the reaction of two free radicals, NITRIC OXIDE and the superoxide anion (SUPEROXIDES).
A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.
The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.
A mixed function oxidase enzyme which during hemoglobin catabolism catalyzes the degradation of heme to ferrous iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin in the presence of molecular oxygen and reduced NADPH. The enzyme is induced by metals, particularly cobalt. EC 1.14.99.3.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
A vasodilator used in angina of effort or ischemic heart disease.
Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.
Harm or hurt to the ankle or ankle joint usually inflicted by an external source.
Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)
Specialized phagocytic cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM found on the luminal surface of the hepatic sinusoids. They filter bacteria and small foreign proteins out of the blood, and dispose of worn out red blood cells.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
A flammable, poisonous gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is used in the manufacture of chemicals, in metallurgy, and as an analytical reagent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
An endogenous 105-kDa plasma glycoprotein produced primarily by the LIVER and MONOCYTES. It inhibits a broad spectrum of proteases, including the COMPLEMENT C1R and the COMPLEMENT C1S proteases of the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY, and the MANNOSE-BINDING PROTEIN-ASSOCIATED SERINE PROTEASES. C1-INH-deficient individuals suffer from HEREDITARY ANGIOEDEMA TYPES I AND II.
Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)
The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).
The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Injuries to blood vessels caused by laceration, contusion, puncture, or crush and other types of injuries. Symptoms vary by site and mode of injuries and may include bleeding, bruising, swelling, pain, and numbness. It does not include injuries secondary to pathologic function or diseases such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
Injuries caused by impact with a blunt object where there is no penetration of the skin.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
A subtype of ADENOSINE RECEPTOR that is found expressed in a variety of locations including the BRAIN and endocrine tissues. The receptor is generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN which causes down regulation of CYCLIC AMP.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in LEUKOCYTES, the SPLEEN, the THYMUS and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.
A form of ischemia-reperfusion injury occurring in the early period following transplantation. Significant pathophysiological changes in MITOCHONDRIA are the main cause of the dysfunction. It is most often seen in the transplanted lung, liver, or kidney and can lead to GRAFT REJECTION.
Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It inhibits F-actin-myosin interactions.
Systems for assessing, classifying, and coding injuries. These systems are used in medical records, surveillance systems, and state and national registries to aid in the collection and reporting of trauma.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS supplying the abdominal VISCERA.
Injuries to tissues caused by contact with heat, steam, chemicals (BURNS, CHEMICAL), electricity (BURNS, ELECTRIC), or the like.
Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to FIBRINOLYSIN.
An azo dye used in blood volume and cardiac output measurement by the dye dilution method. It is very soluble, strongly bound to plasma albumin, and disappears very slowly.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.
General or unspecified injuries involving the foot.
General or unspecified injuries involving the fingers.
Wounds caused by objects penetrating the skin.
A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Heteromultimers of Kir6 channels (the pore portion) and sulfonylurea receptor (the regulatory portion) which affect function of the HEART; PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. KATP channel blockers include GLIBENCLAMIDE and mitiglinide whereas openers include CROMAKALIM and minoxidil sulfate.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
Heterocyclic compounds in which an oxygen is attached to a cyclic nitrogen.
Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.
Deeply perforating or puncturing type intraocular injuries.
A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.
Reperfusion injury Reperfusion therapy Eltzschig, H.K. & T. Eckle (2011). "Ischemia and reperfusion-from mechanism to ... Possible treatments are the application of IR related-pathway derived drug/inhibitor and cell therapy. The study has been done ... Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) tissue injury is the resultant pathology from a combination of factors, including tissue hypoxia, ... The ischemia-reperfusion injury associated with surgical tourniquets is typically not clinically apparent when used for less ...
Thus, cyclophilins may function in cardioprotection during ischemia-reperfusion injury. Currently, cyclophilin expression is ... As a cyclophilin, PPIE also binds the immunosuppressive drug CsA to form a CsA-cyclophilin complex, which then targets ... highly correlated with cancer pathogenesis, but the specific mechanisms remain to be elucidated. PPIE (gene) has been shown to ... such as ischemic reperfusion injury, AIDS, influenza, and cancer. Like other cyclophilins, PPIE forms a β-barrel structure with ...
... is involved in ischemia/reperfusion injury, traumatic brain injury (TBI), muscular dystrophy, and drug toxicity. Though PPIF ... Currently, cyclophilin expression is highly correlated with cancer pathogenesis, but the specific mechanisms remain to be ... In addition, PPIF participates in inflammation, as well as in ischemic reperfusion injury, AIDS, and cancer. Like other ... Thus, cyclophilins may function in cardioprotection during ischemia-reperfusion injury. ...
... renal ischemia-reperfusion injury, and polycystic kidney disease. The protective role of EETs in these animal model diseases ... A series of drugs derived from Terfenadine have been shown to inhibit CYP2J2 and to suppress the proliferation and cause the ... The actual mechanism(s) involved in these EET-induced effects have not been fully elucidated although some studies implicate ... ischemic versus reperfusion injury". American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology. 291 (2): H537-42. doi: ...
Thus, cyclophilins may function in cardioprotection during ischemia-reperfusion injury. Currently, cyclophilin expression is ... As a cyclophilin, PPID binds the immunosuppressive drug CsA to form a CsA-cyclophilin complex, which then targets calcineurin ... "Role of critical thiol groups on the matrix surface of the adenine nucleotide translocase in the mechanism of the mitochondrial ... such as ischemic reperfusion injury, AIDS, and cancer. Like other cyclophilins, PPID forms a β-barrel structure with a ...
It is a reperfusion injury that appears after the release of the crushing pressure. The mechanism is believed to be the release ... Drug overdoses, accidental or from chemical overloads of drugs such as antibiotics or chemotherapy, may also cause the onset of ... Acute kidney injury[edit]. Main article: Acute kidney injury. Acute kidney injury (AKI), previously called acute renal failure ... Acute kidney injury[edit]. Acute kidney injury (previously known as acute renal failure) - or AKI - usually occurs when the ...
Thus, cyclophilins may function in cardioprotection during ischemia-reperfusion injury. Similarly, PPIC may confer ... As a cyclophilin, PPIC binds the immunosuppressive drug CsA to form a CsA-cyclophilin complex, which then targets calcineurin ... Currently, cyclophilin expression is highly correlated with cancer pathogenesis, but the specific mechanisms remain to be ... such as ischemic reperfusion injury, AIDS, and cancer. Like other cyclophilins, PPIC forms a β-barrel structure with a ...
... has also been shown to prevent oxidative and reperfusion injury in heart and liver tissues. Bucillamine has both ... On July 31st, 2020, the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Revive Therapeutics Ltd. to proceed with a ... proven safety and proven mechanism of action similar to that of NAC, but with much higher potency, mitigating the previous ... Prevents Transplantation-Associated Reperfusion Injury". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 99 (13): 8915-8920. ...
Succinate accumulation under hypoxic conditions has been implicated in the reperfusion injury through increased ROS production ... The oncogenic mechanism caused by mutated SHD is thought to relate to succinate's ability to inhibit 2-oxogluterate-dependent ... As of 2016 the inhibition of succinate-mediated ROS production was under investigation as a therapeutic drug target. Flame ... In animal models, pharmacological inhibition of ischemic succinate accumulation ameliorated ischemia-reperfusion injury. ...
In solid-organ transplantation, ischemia-reperfusion injury can occur when blood returns to tissue for the first time in the ... Su L, Quade B, Wang H, Sun L, Wang X, Rizo J (October 2014). "A plug release mechanism for membrane permeation by MLKL". ... Treatment with the drug cyclosporine, which represses the mitochondrial permeability transition effector Cyclophilin D, ... ischemia-reperfusion injury. In addition, necroptosis is noted to contribute to atherosclerosis, pancreatitis, inflammatory ...
... such as ischemia-reperfusion injury.,[2] hepatic inflammatory processes,[3] acute hepatotoxicity [4] etc. TxB2, a stable ... Mechanism[edit]. Thromboxane acts by binding to any of the thromboxane receptors, G-protein-coupled receptors coupled to the G ... The widely used drug aspirin acts by inhibiting the ability of the COX enzyme to synthesize the precursors of thromboxane ... The mechanism of secretion of thromboxanes from platelets is still unclear. They act in the formation of blood clots and reduce ...
Venardos K, Harrison G, Headrick J, Perkins A (2004). "Auranofin increases apoptosis and ischaemia-reperfusion injury in the ... "Drug Found for Parasite That Is Major Cause of Death Worldwide". Science Daily. "Arthritis Drug Effective Against Global ... Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis. 784-785: 8-15. doi:10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2015.11.002. PMID ... Roder, Christine; Thomson, Melanie J. (2015). "Auranofin: Repurposing an Old Drug for a Golden New Age". Drugs in R&D volume. ...
Toxins Injury from toxin or as adverse effect of a pharmaceutical drug. Other external or internal injuries Other injuries can ... Injuries from internal causes include reperfusion injury. Skin: Wound, an injury in which skin is torn, cut or punctured (an ... injuries are classified by: mechanism of injury; objects/substances producing injury; place of occurrence; activity when ... Lisfranc injury Knee injury Medial knee injuries Back injury Hand injury Chest injury sports concussion strain shoulder injury ...
AICAR has been used clinically to treat and protect against cardiac ischemic injury. The drug was first used in the 1980s as a ... "MECHANISMS OF ADENOSINE MONOPHOSPHATE-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE-INDUCED PRECONDITIONING IN ISCHEMIA/REPERFUSION." Department of ... Sustained protection by acadesine against ischemia- and reperfusion-induced injury. Studies in the transplanted rat heart. ... There will always be new drugs, such as the weight-loss drug Aicar, which enables riders to shed up to 7kg and yet still ...
It is a reperfusion injury that appears after the release of the crushing pressure. The mechanism is believed to be the release ... Drug overdoses, accidental or from chemical overloads of drugs such as antibiotics or chemotherapy, along with bee stings may ... Causes of acute kidney injury include accidents, injuries, or complications from surgeries in which the kidneys are deprived of ... Acute kidney injuries can be present on top of chronic kidney disease, a condition called acute-on-chronic kidney failure ( ...
Studies examining honokiol as a protective therapy against focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury have identified a number ... This mechanism is believed to suppress production of NO, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and RANTES/CCL5. Honokiol has also ... It is believed that honokiol acts on GABAA receptors similarly to benzodiazepines and Z-drugs. However, honokiol has been shown ... "Honokiol protects rat brain from focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury by inhibiting neutrophil infiltration and reactive ...
"Aspirin Monograph for Professionals". Drugs.com. Retrieved 2020-06-09. Grace, P. A. (May 1994). "Ischaemia-reperfusion injury ... The main mechanism is exposure of tissue factor to the blood coagulation system. Inflammatory and other stimuli (such as ... With reperfusion comes ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury (IRI), which paradoxically causes cell death in reperfused tissue and ... "Revisiting Cerebral Postischemic Reperfusion Injury: New Insights in Understanding Reperfusion Failure, Hemorrhage, and Edema ...
... mediated neuroprotection following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury". European Journal of Pharmacology. 638 (1-3): 65-71. ... May 2008). "Mechanism of ceftriaxone induction of excitatory amino acid transporter-2 expression and glutamate uptake in ... Nau R, Sörgel F, Eiffert H (October 2010). "Penetration of drugs through the blood-cerebrospinal fluid/blood-brain barrier for ... The peptidoglycan cross-linking activity of PBPs is a construction and repair mechanism that normally helps to maintain ...
Potential mechanism for brain ischemia reperfusion injury". Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. 37 (12): 3649-3658. ... The antidiabetic drug Metformin has been shown to induce a mild and transient inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain ... Mechanism[edit]. Overall mechanism[edit]. All redox reactions take place in the hydrophilic domain of complex I. NADH initially ... Electron transfer mechanism[edit]. The proposed pathway for electron transport prior to ubiquinone reduction is as follows: ...
... such as ischemia-reperfusion injury., hepatic inflammatory processes, acute hepatotoxicity etc. TxB2, a stable degradation ... The mechanism of secretion of thromboxanes from platelets is still unclear. They act in the formation of blood clots and reduce ... The widely used drug aspirin acts by inhibiting the ability of the COX enzyme to synthesize the precursors of thromboxane ... Yokoyama Y (2005). "Role of thromboxane in producing hepatic injury during a hepatic stress disorder". Arch. Surg. 140 (8): 801 ...
Intravenous drug injection, casts, prolonged limb compression, crush injuries, anabolic steroid use, vigorous exercise, and ... Such inflammation can be further worsened by reperfusion therapy. Because the fascia layer that defines the compartment of the ... There are many causes, which can be broadly grouped into three mechanisms: primary (internal bleeding and swelling); secondary ... A randomised study". Injury. 45 (5): 890-3. doi:10.1016/j.injury.2012.02.002. PMID 22377275. Meyer RS, White KK, Smith JM, ...
... or during cell injury (such as ischemia-reperfusion injury during heart attacks and strokes) or during developments and ... This mechanism involves the kynurenine pathway and the permeability transition pore; as such, targeting molecules in this ... Previous studies reported greater efficacy of anticancer drugs when used in conjunction with high EndoG levels. Thus, ... Most notably, Enodnuclease G is pivotal during oxidative stress by ischemia-reperfusion injury, specifically in the myocardium ...
Potential mechanism for brain ischemia reperfusion injury". Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. 37 (12): 3649-3658. ... The antidiabetic drug Metformin has been shown to induce a mild and transient inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain ... An antiporter mechanism (Na+/H+ swap) has been proposed using evidence of conserved Asp residues in the membrane arm. The ... It is proposed that direct and indirect coupling mechanisms account for the pumping of the four protons. The N2 cluster's ...
Nitric oxide can contribute to reperfusion injury when an excessive amount produced during reperfusion (following a period of ... The second mechanism, nitrosylation, involves the binding of NO to a transition metal ion like iron or copper. In this function ... The vasodilating antihypertensive drug minoxidil contains an NO moiety and may act as an NO agonist. Likewise, Sildenafil ... H 2S donors reduce myocardial injury and reperfusion complications. Increased H 2S levels within the body will react with ...
May 2020). "A Dual-Mechanism Antibiotic Kills Gram-Negative Bacteria and Avoids Drug Resistance". Cell. 181 (7): 1518-1532.e14 ... "A protease-activated receptor 1 antagonist protects against global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury after asphyxial cardiac ... SCH-79797 is a drug which acts as a potent and selective antagonist of the thrombin receptor proteinase activated receptor 1 ( ...
... it may also lead to reperfusion injury. Reperfusion injury is classified as the damage that ensues after restoration of blood ... Treatment strategies for brain hypoxia vary depending on the original cause of injury, primary and/or secondary. Mechanism of ... Extremely low blood pressure can also result from drug overdose and reactions to drugs. Therefore, brain ischemia can result ... Potential causes of brain hypoxia are suffocation, carbon monoxide poisoning, severe anemia, and use of drugs such as cocaine ...
In 2012 it became clear that PEA can also reduce reperfusion injury and the negative impact of shock on various outcome ... PEA is generally considered safe, and without adverse drug reactions (ADRs) or drug interactions. A 2016 study assessing safety ... PEA's mechanism of action sometimes is described as Autacoid Local Injury Antagonism (acronym ALIA), and PEA under this ... both drugs were reported to enhance joint movements and decrease pain. In 1970 the drug manufacturer Spofa in Czechoslovakia ...
... may also help to reduce reperfusion injury, damage caused by oxidative stress when the blood ... receptors following brain injuries can lead to calcium entry which triggers neuronal death via the mechanisms of excitotoxicity ... The Food and Drug Administration also has reported several cases of external cooling blankets causing significant burns to the ... This is done in an attempt to reduce the risk of tissue injury following lack of blood flow. Periods of poor blood flow may be ...
In addition, as a result of the mechanism of injury, blood loss from pelvic or long bone fractures may also co-exist. ... Metabolic acidosis may result from reperfusion injury and hypoperfusion related to shock. Compartment syndrome. Compartment ... long-duration injuries such as coma or drug induced immobility. Early fluid resuscitation reduces the risk of kidney failure, ... A crush injury is injury by an object that causes compression of the body. This form of injury is rare in normal civilian ...
Honda, H. M.; Ping, P. (2006). "Mitochondrial Permeability Transition in Cardiac Cell Injury and Death". Cardiovascular Drugs ... playing a role in reperfusion injury. MPT is also thought to underlie the cell death induced by Reye's syndrome, since ... I. The protective mechanisms". Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 195 (2): 453-459. doi:10.1016/0003-9861(79)90371-0. ... Some have speculated that the regulated opening of the MPT pore may minimize cell injury by causing ROS-producing mitochondria ...
Oxidants interfere with the normal brain chemistry and cause further damage (this is known as "reperfusion injury"). ... MechanismEdit. Details of the mechanism of damage from cerebral hypoxia, along with anoxic depolarization, can be found here: ... which put the patient at risk of self-injury, and various anti-convulsant drugs may need to be administered before treatment. ... Busl K. M.; Greer D. M. (Jan 2010). "Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury: pathophysiology, neuropathology and mechanisms". ...
... from internal causes such as reperfusion injury. By locationEdit. *Wound, an injury in which skin is torn, cut or ... Injury from toxin or as adverse effect of a pharmaceutical drug *Toxic injury ... injuries are classified by: *mechanism of injury; ... Eye injury *Chemical eye injury. *Eye injuries during general ... Illness and injuries during spaceflight. Injury severity scoreEdit. The injury severity score (ISS) is a medical score to ...
Influence on Vitamin C Bioavailability and Capacity to Protect Against Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury". Nutrition and Metabolic ... a b c U.S. Food and Drug Administration: "Listing of Food Additives Status Part I". Archived from the original on January 17, ... These compounds can be restored to a reduced state by glutathione and NADPH-dependent enzymatic mechanisms.[17][18][19] ... "Drugs.com. Archived from the original on December 31, 2016. Retrieved December 30, 2016.. ...
... hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury, colitis, osteoarthritis, lung injury, lung transplantation rejection, and neuropathic pain ... What was not known was the mechanism of death. Greek physician Galen (129-199 AD) speculated that there was a change in the ... The technology was first given "generally recognized as safe" (GRAS) status by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in ... "MSHA - Occupational Illness and Injury Prevention Program - Health Topics - Carbon Monoxide". arlweb.msha.gov. Retrieved 2017- ...
... which have a role in reperfusion injury after asphyxia.[15] Research by Ola Didrik Saugstad and others led to new international ... Risk factors include large or obese adults, parental fatigue or impairment (sedation by drugs or alcohol) of the co-sleeping ... Other accidents involving a similar mechanism are cave-ins or when an individual is buried in sand or grain. ... The corpses had no visible injuries, and were supplied to medical schools for money.[6] ...
Hypoxic perfusion of the glycocalyx was thought to be sufficient to initiate a degradation mechanism of the endothelial barrier ... Protection: Cushions the plasma membrane and protects it from chemical injury. *Immunity to infection: Enables the immune ... "The Important New Drug Target in Cardiovascular Medicine - the Vascular Glycocalyx." Cardiovascular & Haematological Disorders- ... "Shedding of the coronary endothelial glycocalyx: effects of hypoxia/reoxygenation vs ischaemia/reperfusion." British Journal of ...
Causes may include sepsis, pancreatitis, trauma, pneumonia, and aspiration.[1] The underlying mechanism involves diffuse injury ... drug reaction or overdose, fat emboli and reperfusion pulmonary edema after lung transplantation or pulmonary embolectomy. ... Fanelli, Vito; Ranieri, V. Marco (2015-03-01). "Mechanisms and clinical consequences of acute lung injury". Annals of the ... Mechanical: vascular injury, pneumothorax (by placing pulmonary artery catheter), tracheal injury/stenosis (result of ...
One drug is streptokinase, which is an enzyme secreted by several streptococcal bacteria.[7] This drug is administered ... Endothelial injury: Injury to the endothelial causing platelet activation and aggregation *Common causes include: trauma, ... Main articles: Thrombolysis, Thrombosis prophylaxis, and Reperfusion therapy. This section needs more medical references for ... Furie, Bruce; Furie, Barbara (2008). "Mechanisms of Thrombus Formation". The New England Journal of Medicine. 359 (9): 938-49. ...
Main articles: Thrombolysis, Thrombosis prophylaxis, and Reperfusion therapy. Anticoagulants are drugs used to prevent the ... Endothelial injury: Injury to the endothelium (interior surface of blood vessel), causing platelet activation and aggregation; ... Furie, Bruce; Furie, Barbara (2008). "Mechanisms of Thrombus Formation". The New England Journal of Medicine. 359 (9): 938-49. ... Streptokinase, an enzyme produced by streptococcal bacteria, is one of the oldest thrombolytic drugs.[7] This drug can be ...
"MRL mice fail to heal the heart in response to ischemia-reperfusion injury". Wound Repair and Regeneration. 13 (2): 205-8. doi: ... Taub R (October 2004). "Liver regeneration: from myth to mechanism". Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology. 5 (10): 836-47. ... "Hair cell regeneration in the bird cochlea following noise damage or ototoxic drug damage". Anatomy and Embryology. 189 (1): 1- ... One of the most studied regenerative responses in humans is the hypertrophy of the liver following liver injury.[89][90] For ...
Most notably, SOD1 is pivotal in reactive oxygen species (ROS) release during oxidative stress by ischemia-reperfusion injury, ... many studies of potential drug targets and toxicity mechanisms have been carried out in this model. At least one private ... The exact molecular mechanism (or mechanisms) by which SOD1 mutations cause disease are unknown. It appears to be some sort of ... "Past and present course of cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury". Journal of Applied Physiology. 103 (6): 2129- ...
... and reperfusion injury[24] (damage occurring after ischemia when blood flow returns to tissue), after myocardial infarction[25] ... "Drugs@FDA: FDA Approved Drug Products [Click on "Approval Date(s) and History]". United States Food and Drug Administration. ... Mechanism of action[edit]. Ciclosporin's main effect is to lower the activity of T-cells; it does so by calcineurin-phosphatase ... On 2 September (1983), the Food and Drug Administration approved cyclosporin, a new drug that suppresses the immune system.. ...
"eMedicine - Reperfusion Injury in Stroke : Article by Wayne M Clark, MD". Retrieved 2007-08-05.. ... Some topical drugs used to treat venous ulcer may cause venous eczema.[35] ... Tissue repair and ulcer/wound healing: molecular mechanisms, therapeutic targets and future directions. Paris, France.. ... is necessary but also contributes to reperfusion injury.[7] Other comorbidities may also be the root cause of venous ulcers.[8] ...
"Tourniquet Injuries: Mechanisms and Prevention". Tourniquets.org. Retrieved 2017-10-03.. *^ McEwen, JA (2009). "Surgical ... Food and Drug Administration classified pneumatic tourniquets as Class I medical devices, indicating that they present minimal ... Ischemia-reperfusion injury of the appendicular musculoskeletal system. *Vascular occlusion training. References[edit]. *^ ... Ischemic injuries can also result from prolonged tourniquet time periods. The majority of such injuries may be transient, and ...
... against ischemia/reperfusion injury". Circulation. 111 (14): 1792-9. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000160851.41872.C6. PMID 15809372.. ... The underlying mechanism is not known. HSPs (especially hsp60 and hsp70) are used in clinical studies to treat rheumatoid ... or promote resistance to anti-cancer drugs.[39][28] Hence small molecule inhibitors of HSPs, especially Hsp90 show promise as ... The mechanism by which heat-shock (or other environmental stressors) activates the heat shock factor has been determined in ...
"Drugs.com. Retrieved 2020-06-09.. *^ a b Grace, P. A. (May 1994). "Ischaemia-reperfusion injury". The British Journal of ... MechanismEdit. PathogenesisEdit. Main article: Virchow's triad. The main causes of thrombosis are given in Virchow's triad ... Targeting ischemia/reperfusion injuryEdit. Main article: Reperfusion injury. With reperfusion comes ischemia/reperfusion (IR) ... "Revisiting Cerebral Postischemic Reperfusion Injury: New Insights in Understanding Reperfusion Failure, Hemorrhage, and Edema ...
... reperfusion injury and the generation of reactive oxygen species. These later stages are characterised by Th2 polarity. ... Mechanism of action[40][41]. Route of administration[40]. Pregnancy category[40][42]. Major toxicities[40] ... Leask A (June 2012). "Emerging targets for the treatment of scleroderma". Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs. 17 (2): 173-9. doi: ... Corticosteroids, methotrexate, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)[2]. Prognosis. Localized: Normal life expectancy[ ...
Cooper KL (2012). "Drug reaction, skin care, skin loss". Crit Care Nurse. 32 (4): 52-9. doi:10.4037/ccn2012340. PMID 22855079. ... Necrosis (from the Greek νέκρωσις "death, the stage of dying, the act of killing" from νεκρός "dead") is a form of cell injury ... Because of tumor suppression mechanisms such as this, blind mole rats and other spalacids are resistant to cancer.[9][10] ... Eum HA, Cha YN, Lee SM (2007). "Necrosis and apoptosis: sequence of liver damage following reperfusion after 60 min ischemia in ...
Influence on Vitamin C Bioavailability and Capacity to Protect Against Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury". Nutrition and Metabolic ... "Ascorbic acid Use During Pregnancy , Drugs.com". www.drugs.com. Archived from the original on December 31, 2016. Retrieved ... Mechanism of action[edit]. Absorption, transport, and excretion[edit]. From the U.S. National Institutes of Health: [In humans ... a b c U.S. Food and Drug Administration: "Listing of Food Additives Status Part I". Archived from the original on 2012-01-17. ...
March 2019). "Role and mechanisms of cytokines in the secondary brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage". Prog. Neurobiol. ... Medical use as drugsEdit. Some cytokines have been developed into protein therapeutics using recombinant DNA technology.[32] ... Bloom BR, Bennett B (July 1966). "Mechanism of a reaction in vitro associated with delayed-type hypersensitivity". Science. 153 ... Recombinant cytokines being used as drugs as of 2014 include:[33]. *Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), used to treat bone- ...
"Carvacrol, a Food-Additive, Provides Neuroprotection on Focal Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Mice", Yu et al. 2012 [1] ... Phenols have been investigated as drugs. For instance, Crofelemer (USAN, trade name Fulyzaq) is a drug under development for ... Advanced organic Chemistry, Reactions, mechanisms and structure 3ed. page Jerry March ISBN 0-471-85472-7 ... Drugs, present and pastEdit. Diethylstilbestrol. a synthetic estrogen with a stilbene structure; no longer marketed. ...
In 2002 they showed that photoreceptors have a DNA repair mechanism that is induced by light damage and identified that genes ... Biochim Biophys Acta 218:1-10, 1970 Bazan NG: Changes in free fatty acids of brain by drug induced convulsions, electroshock ... perfusion induced cerebral injury. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 149:580-587, 1987 Marcheselli VL, Rossowska M, Domingo MT, Braquet ... Novel docosanoids inhibit brain ischema-reperfusion-mediated leukocyte infiltration and pro-inflammatory gene expression. J ...
Ischemia reperfusion injuryEdit. Succinate accumulation under hypoxic conditions has been implicated in the reperfusion injury ... As a food additive and dietary supplement, succinic acid is generally recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug ... Through these mechanisms, succinate accumulation has been shown to regulate production of inflammatory cytokines.[7] For ... In animal models, pharmacological inhibition of ischemic succinate accumulation ameliorated ischemia-reperfusion injury.[29] As ...
Liver Transplantation Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury Oxidative Injury Drug: Nitric Oxide Not Applicable ... The mechanisms of therapeutic efficacy of inhaled nitric oxide is based on reduction in post-reperfusion oxidative injury as ... Wounds and Injuries. Ischemia. Reperfusion Injury. Pathologic Processes. Vascular Diseases. Cardiovascular Diseases. ... Effect of Nitric Oxide (NO) on Ischemic/Reperfusion Injury During Extended Donor Criteria (EDC) Liver Transplantation. The ...
... and statin drugs. Thus, the proposed studies will advance the investigators understanding of mechanisms of this injury in ... Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury of Human Endothelium: Role of Glucose and Statins. The safety and scientific validity of this study ... There are several other studies that will continue to seek the mechanism of action of this effect via the use of other drug ... Drug: Sevoflurane Sevoflurane will be given to attenuate or prevent the I/R injury during glucose. ...
Drug librarian discovers a new compound that may thwart this. ... Reperfusion injuries are a common complication after surgery, ... Calcium Handling Mechanisms in Reperfusion Injury Elevation of Ca2+ ions that takes place at intracellular and mitochondrial ... Currently, there are a number of drugs being studied to treat reperfusion injuries, and some treatments, such as blood thinners ... as well as laboratory tests of it in mice with reperfusion injuries in their kidneys appeared in Nature Chemistry. "Reperfusion ...
Ischemia Reperfusion Injury - Pipeline Review, H2 2015, provides an... ... Ischemia Reperfusion Injury - Pipeline Review, H2 2015 Summary Global Markets Direct s, ... therapeutics assessment by drug target, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type, along with ... Small Molecules for Ischemia Reperfusion Injury - Drug Profile 124. Small Molecules for Ischemia Reperfusion Injury - Drug ...
Drug names. Primary outcome measure. Degree of change of microvascular function post-PCI ... Contribution of inflammatory mechanisms to myocardial and vascular injury in coronary reperfusion. ... Contribution of inflammatory mechanisms to myocardial and vascular injury in coronary reperfusion ... This is an observational study investigating the role of inflammation in myocardial microvascular injury following coronary ...
Mechanism of cardioprotection by early ischemic preconditioning. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 2010;24:225-234. ... New directions for protecting the heart against ischaemia-reperfusion injury: targeting the reperfusion injury salvage kinase ( ... However, reperfusion itself also exacerbates myocardial damage, which is known as ischemia/reperfusion injury (2,3). Methods to ... Glucagon-like peptide 1 can directly protect the heart against ischemia/reperfusion injury. Diabetes. 2005;54:146-151. ...
... were utilized to confirm the implication of both signaling mechanisms in DPP-4 inhibition-induced at the level of IS. Findings ... against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Male wistar rats received 2 weeks Sitg oral treatment of different doses (25, 50, ... Hearts were then isolated and subjected to two different I/R injury protocols: 10 min perfusion, 45 min regional ischemia, and ... 120 min reperfusion for infarct size (IS) measurement, or: 10 min perfusion, 45 min regional ischemia and 10 min reperfusion ...
Bolli R. Oxygen-derived free radicals and myocardial reperfusion injury: an overview. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 1991 Mar. 5 Suppl ... Mechanism of Disease. Pathophysiologic mechanism of hibernating myocardium. Multiple cellular and animal models have been ... Mechanisms for myocardial stunning. There are 2 major hypotheses for myocardial stunning: (1) a oxygen-free radical hypothesis ... Calcium accumulates in the cell at the time of reperfusion and that is followed by a partial failure of normal beat-to-beat ...
Protective effects of Tongxinluo on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury related to Connexin 43/Calpain II/Bax/Caspase-3 ... Numerous studies demonstrate that TXL is a novel neuroprotective drug, however, the mechanisms are largely unknown. AIM OF THE ... we aimed to demonstrate the protective effect of TXL on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and provide the evidence for ... TY - JOUR T1 - Protective effects of Tongxinluo on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury related to Connexin 43/Calpain II/Bax/ ...
... hypothesize that the regulatory mechanisms described after I/R is meaningful for humans as well. ... Inhibitors or antagonists were applied with the beginning of reperfusion. RESULTS By using inhibitors of PKA (H89) and PLC ( ... METHODS (i) Basolateral organic anion uptake into proximal tubular cells after model ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) was ... transcriptional activity was determined after model ischemia and reperfusion as a SEAP reporter gen assay. ...
The mechanism of protection may, at least in part, be due to transient demand ischaemia. Partial depletion of glycogen ... RESULTS Control hearts recovered 47.6(SEM 4.3)% of baseline heart rate x developed pressure after 30 min reperfusion, whereas ... The hearts were subjected to 30 min of normothermic global ischaemia followed by 30 min reperfusion. Treated hearts were ... Left ventricular end diastolic pressures at the end of reperfusion were 48.8(4.0), 20.0(2.4), and 21.6(2.7)mm Hg for control, ...
"Death is my Heir"--Ferroptosis Connects Cancer Pharmacogenomics and Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury. [Cell Chem Biol. 2016] ... NADPH; cancer pharmacology; drug mechanisms of action; ferroptosis; pharmacogenomics; tumor biomarkers. Comment in. *" ... i) Drug sensitivity data were filtered using the cell-line selectivity metric, followed by model-based clustering and ... Consistency of pathway-drug associations of cell-line selective and non-selective compounds. Four lethal compounds showing ...
CNS & Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets *Gene Therapy in Kidney Transplantation: Evidence of Efficacy and Future Directions ... Hedgehog Target Genes: Mechanisms of Carcinogenesis Induced by Aberrant Hedgehog Signaling Activation. Current Molecular ... Keywords: Acute kidney injury, cold storage, ischemia reperfusion injury, kidney transplantation, translocator protein ... Keywords:Acute kidney injury, cold storage, ischemia reperfusion injury, kidney transplantation, translocator protein ...
... the identification of new drugs that can attenuate MIRI through the aforementioned mechanisms is urgently required. ... attenuates myocardial infarct size and NLRP3 inflammasome following ischemia/reperfusion injury via eNOS-dependent mechanism. ... Liu K, Wang F, Wang S, Li WN and Ye Q: Mangiferin attenuates myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury via MAPK/Nrf-2/HO-1/NF-κB ... Deng Y, Xiong D, Yin C, Liu B, Shi J and Gong Q: Icariside II protects against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats via ...
This is an experimental drug that helps with wound healing. The mechanism of action is based on its ability to increase ... Patients who sustain soft tissue injury or ischemia-reperfusion injury are at risk of developing rhabdomyolysis, myoglobinuria ... Crush injury is a direct injury resulting from the crush.. Crush Syndrome is the systemic manifestation of muscle cell damage ... Systemic manifestations are caused by a traumatic rhabdomyolysis due to muscle reperfusion injury when compressive forces on ...
Mechanisms of Neuronal Damage and Neuroprotection Underlying Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury after Physical Exercise. Current Drug ... CNS & Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets * Reduction of Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury with Pre- and ... Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders-Drug Targets * Pharmacological Pre- and Post- Conditioning Agents: Reperfusion-Injury ... New Pharmacological Approaches to the Prevention of Myocardial Ischemia- Reperfusion Injury. Current Drug Targets ...
Cardioprotection against Ischaemia/Reperfusion injury of the myocardium and its subsequent remodelling. Remote ischaemic ... b) Influence on electrical remodelling and Ca2+-homeostasis mechanisms. *Is remote ischemic conditioning (rIC) a viable ... how these circadian rhythms might result in a time-of-day variation in the efficacy of current cardiovascular drugs. ... My laboratory is interested in ischaemia/reperfusion injury in the heart and how the cardioprotective technique of remote ...
Beneficial effects of apricot-feeding on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Food Chem Toxicol 2009;47:802-8. * ... Dietary polyphenols and mechanisms of osteoarthritis. J Nutr Biochem 2012;23:1367-77. *Skinner M, Hunter D. Bioactives in Fruit ... US Food and Drug Administration. FDA Consumer. Dec 1996. 1996. *Parlakpinar H, Olmez E, Acet A, et al. ...
The present study evaluates the neuroprotective effect of pseudopterosin A (PtA) against ischaemia-induced brain injury. ... Introduction Brain injury caused by ischaemic stroke is a major cause of disability and death throughout the world. ... Repositioning drugs for traumatic brain injury - N-acetyl cysteine and Phenserine. J Biomed Sci 2017; 24: 71.. Jin R, Yang G, ... Ischemia-reperfusion injury in stroke. Interv Neurol 2013; 1: 185-199.. Pap M, Cooper GM. Role of translation initiation factor ...
Drugs affecting platelets and coagulation, Nay Min Htun, Ulrike Flierl, Karlheinz Peter. 1.8. Ischaemia - reperfusion injury, ... Atherosclerosis - Disease mechanisms and clinical consequences, Ulf Hedin and Goran K Hansson. 1.2. Primary and secondary ... Blunt traumatic aortic injury, Vijay M Gadhvi, Peter Gogalniceneau and Richard Boulton. 3.4. Abdominal vascular trauma, Carl ... Clotting mechanisms and haemophilias, Ulrike Flierl, Nay Min Htun and Karlheinz Peter. 1.7. ...
... demonstrating the involvement of the PI3K/Akt pathway in the anti-apoptotic mechanisms of CAR. Due to its safety and wide use ... A previous study demonstrated that CAR has the ability to protect liver against ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. In this ... we investigated the protective effects of CAR on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in a middle cerebral artery occlusion ... significantly reduced infarct volume and improved neurological deficits after 75 min of ischemia and 24 h of reperfusion. This ...
... an anti-inflammatory drug, on tourniquet-induced acute IR injury in mouse hindlimb. In C57/BL6 mice, a tourniquet was placed on ... an anti-inflammatory drug, on tourniquet-induced acute IR injury in mouse hindlimb. In C57/BL6 mice, a tourniquet was placed on ... the tourniquet and subsequent release results in serious acute ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in the skeletal muscle and ... the tourniquet and subsequent release results in serious acute ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in the skeletal muscle and ...
Central regulatory mechanisms of blood flow. *Myocardial protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury ... The Institute conducts preclinical studies to test the safety and efficacy of new drugs using SPF animals, introduces the ... Pharmacological and non-pharmacological cerebral protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury. *Stimulation of myocardial ... Targeted drug delivery to the ischemic tissue (particularly, magnetic field-guided delivery) ...
But a new Yale-led study has identified a previously unknown mechanism leading to the injury, and a potential target for drug ... The injury - known as ischemia reperfusion - can cause damage to tissues. ... During a stroke or organ transplant, patients can suffer an injury due to lack of blood supply to vital organs. ...
... and reperfusion injury (by increasing the microvascular resistance) are the proposed mechanisms of no-reflow [6]. Antiplatelet ... Administration of the vasodilator drugs at the distal part of the coronary can deal with these problems and vasoactive drug ... Vasoactive drug administration at the distal part of the coronary artery is suggested as a treatment option for no-reflow and ... Vasoactive drug administration at the distal part of the coronary artery is suggested as a therapeutic option for no-reflow ...
1.6: Clotting mechanisms and haemophilias, Ulrike Flierl, Nay Min Htun and Karlheinz Peter. 1.7: Drugs affecting platelets and ... 1.8: Ischaemia - reperfusion injury, David A Russell, Nadeem A Mughal, Shervanthi Homer-Vanniasinkam. 1.9: Pathophysiology and ... 1.1: Atherosclerosis - Disease mechanisms and clinical consequences, Ulf Hedin and Göran K Hansson. 1.2: Primary and secondary ... 3.3: Blunt traumatic aortic injury, Vijay M Gadhvi, Peter Gogalniceneau and Richard Boulton. 3.4: Abdominal vascular trauma, ...
Animal experiments focus on understanding the mechanism behind IRI and try to find methods to minimize IRI either before, ... During kidney transplantation ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) occurs, which is a risk factor for acute kidney injury, delayed ... Immune mechanisms and novel pharmacological therapies of acute kidney injury. Curr Drug Targets. 2009;10(12):1196-204.PubMed ... Novel signalling mechanisms and targets in renal ischaemia and reperfusion injury. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2013;208(1):25-40.View ...
... the cellular mechanism via which Doxorubicin mediates increased myocardial injury in conditions of ischaemia-reperfusion. ... This is the first study to show that the anticancer drug Doxorubicin exacerbates myocardial ischaemia reperfusion injury. ... the effects of this drug on the myocardium during ischaemia-reperfusion have not been investigated in detail to date. Studies ... Drug-induced cardiotoxicity is a major concern to the pharmacological industry and it is one of the main reasons for non- ...
Mechanisms of Neuronal Damage and Neuroprotection Underlying Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury after Physical Exercise by David ... New Mechanisms of Neuronal Injury and Neuroprotection Neurological diseases, including such devastating illnesses as stroke, ... Editorial [Hot Topic: New Mechanisms of Neuronal Injury and Neuroprotection (Guest Editor: Weihai Ying)] by Weihai Ying (157- ... The effects of exercise pre-conditioning on lessening the impact of ischemia/reperfusion injury provide pivotal information and ...
We propose that both central and peripheral mechanisms are associated with the hyperalgesia and that the findings lend indirect ... support to a central action for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. ... Effects of diclofenac in the rat tail ischaemia--reperfusion injury model of acute hyperalgesia.. Grace RF1, Lin Y, Edwards SR ... The rat tail ischaemia--reperfusion model of acute hyperalgesia described by Gelgor et al. (Pain 24 (1986) 251) has been ...
  • Glucagonlike peptide (GLP-1) and its receptor (GLP-1R) exhibit cardioprotective effects after myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (MI/R) in both animal studies and clinical trials. (snmjournals.org)
  • However, to the best of our knowledge, whether ICAII can alleviate myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury (MIRI) remains unknown. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • however, re-establishing blood flow to the ischemic area has been demonstrated to promote additional myocardial damage, a process referred to as myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury (MIRI) ( 5 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • We found that three distinct mechanisms contribute to neuronal injury by generating ROS and oxidative stress, each operating at a different stage of ischemia and reperfusion. (jneurosci.org)
  • Although it is widely recognized that generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) makes an important contribution to ischemic injury in the brain, the sources, mechanisms, and time course of ROS generation during ischemia and reperfusion are not clearly understood. (jneurosci.org)
  • Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways are implicated in inflammatory and apoptotic processes of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In kidney transplantation, injury due to ischemia and reperfusion is an inevitable process resulting many times in delayed graft function (DGF) that is currently characterized by the need of dialysis within the first week after transplantation. (scielo.br)
  • Ischemia and reperfusion injury (IRI) also promotes activation of the innate and adaptive responses of the immune system, leading to processes with great potential to produce significant graft harm. (scielo.br)
  • The period of pre-exposure and the number of times the tissue is exposed to ischemia and reperfusion vary, the average being 3 to 5 minutes. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Studies in models of acute lung injury, or ischemia and reperfusion implicate therapies that terminate adenosine triphosphate signaling and enhance adenosine receptor activation in a regulated manner. (asahq.org)
  • The hearts were subjected to 30 min of normothermic global ischaemia followed by 30 min reperfusion. (semanticscholar.org)
  • My laboratory is interested in ischaemia/reperfusion injury in the heart and how the cardioprotective technique of remote ischaemic conditioning works to both protect the heart against I/R injury but also prevent adverse remodelling of the myocardium following ischemic injury. (le.ac.uk)
  • We have shown that serum collected from healthy volunteers subject to remote ischaemic conditioning is able to protect adult ventricular cardiomyocytes against ischaemia/reperfusion injury but that this protection is absent in patients with type 1 or 2 diabetes (Edroos, Vanezis et al. (le.ac.uk)
  • The present study evaluates the neuroprotective effect of pseudopterosin A (PtA) against ischaemia-induced brain injury. (termedia.pl)
  • Treatments with PtA attenuate the activity of antioxidant enzyme, and the level of inflammatory mediators and markers of apoptosis in the brain tissues of ischaemia-induced brain injury. (termedia.pl)
  • Dr. Dyson is a Clinical Physiologist at University College London, studying the mechanisms underlying critical illness states (such as ischaemia/reperfusion injury). (improbable.com)
  • Although issues relating to Doxorubicin and cardiac safety have been well established in normal conditions, the effects of this drug on the myocardium during ischaemia-reperfusion have not been investigated in detail to date. (bmj.com)
  • Studies were undertaken in Langendorff hearts and adult/neonatal ventricular myocytes subjected to ischaemia-reperfusion. (bmj.com)
  • This is the first study to show that the anticancer drug Doxorubicin exacerbates myocardial ischaemia reperfusion injury. (bmj.com)
  • Further studies are being undertaken to determine the cellular mechanism via which Doxorubicin mediates increased myocardial injury in conditions of ischaemia-reperfusion. (bmj.com)
  • Effects of diclofenac in the rat tail ischaemia--reperfusion injury model of acute hyperalgesia. (nih.gov)
  • The rat tail ischaemia--reperfusion model of acute hyperalgesia described by Gelgor et al. (nih.gov)
  • We are studying the molecular mechanism of the MPTP and how its inhibition can protect the hearts from the damaging effects of ischaemia and reperfusion. (bris.ac.uk)
  • This article briefly reviews what is known of the molecular mechanism of the MPTP and its role in causing the necrotic cell death of the heart and brain that occurs during reperfusion after a long period of ischaemia. (portlandpress.com)
  • Furthermore, mice in which a component of the MPTP, CyP-D (cyclophilin D), has been knocked out are protected against heart and brain ischaemia/reperfusion. (portlandpress.com)
  • In this video, watch Dr. Ben Allsop's presentation on simulating ischaemia-reperfusion injury in vitro to find new mechanisms of protection and prevention. (selectscience.net)
  • Following reopening of the blocked artery, reperfusion itself can cause myocardial injury and cell death (myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury). (ncl.ac.uk)
  • I am interested in the role played by complememt in various types of kidney injury including, glomerular disease, interstitial inflammation and ischaemia reperfusion injury. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Newer studies are investigating the use of these drugs for other conditions, including hypertension, ischaemia or reperfusion injury, myocardial infarction, cardiac hypertrophy, heart failure and other peripheral circulatory conditions, e.g. (journals.co.za)
  • This is an observational study investigating the role of inflammation in myocardial microvascular injury following coronary angioplasty and stenting. (isrctn.com)
  • MIRI involves a complex pathophysiological process, in which inflammation and apoptosis have been recognized as the two characteristics underlying the pathological mechanisms ( 7 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Much evidence demonstrates that inflammation is an important factor to cause acute IR injury. (frontiersin.org)
  • These results uncover new anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving mechanisms in host defence that protect from uncontrolled inflammation, as in sepsis," said Professor Charles Serhan, director of the Experimental Therapeutics and Reperfusion Injury Center at BWH. (thefishsite.com)
  • In nearly all cases, the fundamental cause of tissue damage from inflammation is the excessive accumulation of white blood cells (leukocytes), which migrate from the bloodstream to the site of infection or injury by sticking to the inner lining of the blood vessels, called the endothelium. (thefishsite.com)
  • Mechanisms of disease: Purinergic signaling during inflammation. (asahq.org)
  • At the moment we are conducting three BHF and NIHR funded studies to investigate the role of T-cells in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion and peri-infarct inflammation. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • In the present study, plasma and kidneys from wild-type and Nrf2-null mice were collected after receiving cisplatin for evaluation of renal injury, inflammation, mRNA, and protein expression. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Coordinated regulation of detoxification enzymes and drug transporters and suppression of inflammation by Nrf2 during cisplatin nephrotoxicity are probable defense mechanisms to eliminate toxic mediators and promote proximal tubule recovery. (aspetjournals.org)
  • His research focuses on understanding the mechanisms of blood clotting in relation to thrombosis and inflammation, post ischemia-reperfusion injury, and investigating new anti-thrombotic drugs for vascular diseases, including ischemia-reperfusion injury. (hri.org.au)
  • These mice are being studied in models of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, vascular injury, and acute inflammation. (bcm.edu)
  • The mechanisms by which hyperlipidemia and obesity influence inflammation are also being studied. (bcm.edu)
  • Ischemia Reperfusion Injury - Pipeline Review, H2 2015 Summary Global Markets Direct s, Ischemia Reperfusion Injury - Pipeline Review, H2 2015, provides an overview of the Ischemia Reperfusion Injurys therapeutic pipeline. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • This report provides comprehensive information on the therapeutic development for Ischemia Reperfusion Injury, complete with comparative analysis at various stages, therapeutics assessment by drug target, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type, along with latest updates, and featured news and press releases. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • It also reviews key players involved in the therapeutic development for Ischemia Reperfusion Injury and special features on late-stage and discontinued projects. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • Reestablishing blood flow is considered to be the best therapeutic strategy and conventional remedy in myocardial infarction to prevent the myocardium from further damage, but nevertheless apoptosis of cardiomyocytes is inevitable in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury [ 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Vasoactive drug administration at the distal part of the coronary artery is suggested as a therapeutic option for no-reflow treatment. (hindawi.com)
  • In order to establish new effective therapeutic strategies for neurological diseases, it is pivotal to further investigate the mechanisms underlying the etiology and pathology of the illnesses. (chemweb.com)
  • To find effective therapeutic interventions for tourniquet-induced acute IR injuries, our current study investigated effect of dexamethasone, an anti-inflammatory drug, on tourniquet-induced acute IR injury in mouse hindlimb. (frontiersin.org)
  • Investigating the site-specific therapeutic effects and efficacy of systemically active agents may enable optimizing the dosing, frequency, and duration of overall immunosuppression in VCA with minimization or elimination of long-term drug-related toxicity. (hindawi.com)
  • this is known as myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/R). Several studies have uncovered complex mechanisms of cardiomyocyte damage after the process of reperfusion, and efforts are ongoing to search for therapeutic targets to reduce I/R. One of the most observations is is the elevation of Ca2+ ions that takes place at intracellular and mitochondrial levels during reperfusion. (news-medical.net)
  • Acetylcholine (ACh) released from cholinergic fibers innervating the heart and secreted by cardiomyocytes during ischemia is cardioprotective, and the Ojamaa Lab is studying the potential therapeutic utility of drugs that target specific ACh receptors to decrease tissue injury after myocardial infarction. (nyit.edu)
  • In addition, we have developed a rat lung transplantation model to test the therapeutic effects of potential drugs in vivo. (uhnresearch.ca)
  • With this pipeline, we are exploring multiple therapeutic reagents for acute lung injury. (uhnresearch.ca)
  • This review examines the mechanisms and therapeutic strategies currently under development to activate the post-conditioning pathways and thereby improve survival and function. (ovid.com)
  • Furthermore, we provide an outlook into the effects of RCAN1 dysregulation on APP processing, Aβ generation and neuritic plaque formation, and the possible underlying mechanisms, as well as the potential of targeting RCAN1 as a new therapeutic approach. (springer.com)
  • Understanding the origin of radical production in cellular systems can lead to new therapeutic strategies for the reversal and prevention of oxidative stress, and for protection against environmental-induced cardiovascular injury. (osu.edu)
  • Therefore, these different compounds may function through both overlapping and distinct pharmacological mechanisms to exert their therapeutic action. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Moreover, implications from experimental studies provide an expanding field of therapeutic indications for selectively targeting purinergic signaling mechanisms in patients. (asahq.org)
  • Studies in animal MI models and human therapeutic interventions indicate that ischemia/reperfusion injury is responsible for up to 50% of final infarct size. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • This can be evidenced by the estimates that as many as 80% of all drug candidates across therapeutic areas fail in the most expensive stages of development - clinical trials. (mdbiosciences.com)
  • Because tPA is already an FDA-approved drug, finding strategies designed to extend its therapeutic window seems a highly logical lab-to-clinic translational route for introducing a novel therapy for stroke. (omicsonline.org)
  • Becasue of the importance of fibrosis in clinical disease it is vital that we understand the mechanisms of renal fibrosis so that novel therapeutic targets can be identified and drugs developed. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Both mechanism of the transfer (tentatively via exchange of GPI-anchored membrane proteins between RBC and endothelium) and potential therapeutic applications of RBC-conjugated fibrinolytics (treatment/prevention of pulmonary embolism/deep vein thrombosis) are in the focus of the research. (upenn.edu)
  • Figure: Histology on four heart tissue samples from a vehicle treated group (A-B) and an active compound group (C-D) in the occlusion-induced ischemia reperfusion injury model. (mdbiosciences.com)
  • Readouts of the occlusion-induced ischemia-reperfusion injury model include histology of the heart as well as CPK and Troponin levels, which are relevant blood markers of myocardial infarction. (mdbiosciences.com)
  • Implementation of an in vitro model system for investigation of reperfusion damage after renal ischemia. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Elimination of organic anions in response to an early stage of renal ischemia-reperfusion in the rat: role of basolateral plasma membrane transporters and cortical renal blood flow. (semanticscholar.org)
  • R. Thuillier and T. Hauet, "Role of Translocator Protein in Renal Ischemia Reperfusion, Renal Preservation and Acute Kidney Injury", Current Molecular Medicine (2012) 12: 413. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Improving the outcome of kidney transplantation by ameliorating renal ischemia reperfusion injury: lost in translation? (biomedcentral.com)
  • Studies the molecular mechanisms by which renal ischemia/reperfusion injury leads to renal injury and renal failure. (nyit.edu)
  • The impact of purinergic signaling on renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. (labome.org)
  • Roberts V, Lu B, Rajakumar S, Cowan P, Dwyer K. The CD39-adenosinergic axis in the pathogenesis of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. (labome.org)
  • Pubmed ID: 11891440 The authors evaluated and compared the metabolic effects of cyclosporin A in the rat brain during normoxia and hypoxia/reperfusion. (jove.com)
  • Cleavage of cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein H aggravates myocardial hypoxia reperfusion injury in a hepatocyte-myocardial cell co-culture system. (wetp.org)
  • BACKGROUND Diosgenin, a phytosteroid sapogenin, has anti-inflammatory properties shown to reduce myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (MIRI). (bioportfolio.com)
  • Remote Ischemic Postconditioning (RIP) refers to repeated short-term intermittent remote organ reperfusion and re-ischemia before the reperfusion toward one long-term myocardial ischemic period, and it can reduce myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (M-I/R) injury and enhance myocardial tolerance against relatively long-time ischemia and hypoxia [ 1 - 3 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The injury - known as ischemia reperfusion - can cause damage to tissues. (yale.edu)
  • However, restoring the blood flow causes a series of pathophysiological cascades that can lead to further damage to the brain, a process known as ischemia reperfusion injury [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Focal cerebral I/R injury were induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO, for 90min) in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In this study, we investigated the protective effects of CAR on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in a middle cerebral artery occlusion mouse model. (plos.org)
  • We investigated the neuroprotective roles of bilobalide in the models of middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO/R) and oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R) of cerebral I/R injury. (biomedcentral.com)
  • ICAII significantly reduced the infarct size, decreased the release of LDH and CK‑MB and improved the cardiac function induced by IR injury. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a leading cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) that arises from a variety of conditions, including decreased cardiac output, renal vascular occlusion, or kidney transplantation ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • However, the mechanism by which PGE1 contributes to the amelioration of cardiac injury remains unclear. (portlandpress.com)
  • Such reperfusion injury is a major problem during cardiac surgery and in the treatment of coronary thrombosis and stroke. (portlandpress.com)
  • This condition is referred to as cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury ( Braunwald, 2012 ). (peerj.com)
  • Liao F, Zheng Y, Cai J, Fan J, Wang J, Yang J, Cui Q, Xu G, Tang C and Geng B: Catestatin attenuates endoplasmic reticulum induced cell apoptosis by activation type 2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor in cardiac ischemia/reperfusion. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • However, this causes a type of cardiac damage known as myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. (ubc.ca)
  • The induction of I/R injury impaired cardiac function in wild-type (WT) but not heterozygous ROCK2-knockdown (ROCK2+/-) mice. (ubc.ca)
  • The timely restoration of blood flow to the ischemic myocardium (reperfusion) became the standard treatment for these patients. (peerj.com)
  • Anti-arrhythmogenic and anti-inflammatory effects of troxerutin in ischemia/reperfusion injury of diabetic myocardium. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Exposure of myocardial tissue to brief, repeated periods of vascular occlusion in order to render the myocardium resistant to the deleterious effects of ISCHEMIA or REPERFUSION. (bioportfolio.com)
  • These treatments have been known to reduce acute myocardial ischemic injury and to limit MI size when experiments and were done on animals. (news-medical.net)
  • dramatically advanced our understanding of impaired succinate pathways in reperfusion ischemic injury, whereas no evidence for similar impairment was developed in the 2004 study. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Drug-induced cardiotoxicity is a major concern to the pharmacological industry and it is one of the main reasons for non-approval, re-labelling, warnings and withdrawal of pharmaceutical compounds from the market. (bmj.com)
  • In order to elucidate the overlapping and diverse pharmacological protective mechanisms of different Chinese medicinal compounds, we investigated the alteration of gene expression and activation of signaling pathways in the mouse hippocampus after treatment of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury with various compounds. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Collectively, these data indicate that the absence of Nrf2 exacerbates cisplatin renal damage and that pharmacological activation of Nrf2 may represent a novel therapy to prevent kidney injury. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This interest includes pharmacological studies to assess the efficacy and benefits of lipid-lowering drug therapy including trials which utilize ultrasound and MRI to examine the effects of lipid-lowering drugs on the progression of atherosclerosis. (bcm.edu)
  • we aimed to demonstrate the protective effect of TXL on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and provide the evidence for the involvement of Connexin 43/Calpain II/ Bax/Caspase-3 pathway in TXL-mediated neuroprotection. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to determine whether ICAII exerted a protective effect on MIRI and to investigate the potential underlying mechanism of action. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The literature review showed that Saffron is a potent cardiovascular- protective agent with a plethora of applications ranging from ischemia-reperfusion injury, diabetes and hypertension to hyperlipidemia. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Conclusion: Literature findings represented in current review herald promising results for using Crocus Sativus L. and/or its active constituents as a cardiovascular-protective agent and in particular, Crocus Sativus L. manifests beneficial results against ischemia-reperfusion injury, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and diabetes. (eurekaselect.com)
  • and the review of Zhao provides an overview of the protective mechanisms underlying post-conditioning. (chemweb.com)
  • One potent protective mechanism involves exposing hearts to brief ischaemic episodes prior to prolonged ischemia and we are investigating how this effect is mediated with a particular emphasis on the role of reactive oxygen species. (bris.ac.uk)
  • The study suggests that riluzole is protective against ischemia-reperfusion spinal cord or nerve injury," commented Samuel K. Cho, MD, Associate Professor of Orthopaedics and Neurosurgery at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY. (spineuniverse.com)
  • Prevention of MPTP opening either directly, using agents such as cyclosporin A, or indirectly by reducing oxidative stress or Ca 2+ overload, provides a protective strategy against reperfusion injury. (portlandpress.com)
  • This is the first report demonstrating the protective effects of GT3 against RPTC injury by: 1) decreasing production of ROS, 2) improving mitochondrial respiration, coupling, ΔΨ m , and F 0 F 1 -ATPase function, 3) maintaining ATP levels, and 4) preventing RPTC lysis. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Protective effect of celastrol on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Apoptosis involves programmed cell death, which is the vital pathological process in acute reperfusion injury ( Konstantinidis, Whelan & Kitsis, 2012 ). (peerj.com)
  • Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a 45-min transient left coronary artery occlusion, followed by reperfusion. (snmjournals.org)
  • Systolic wall thickening after coronary artery occlusion and subsequent reperfusion in normal and ischemic zones. (medscape.com)
  • Heyndrickx et al observed that after 5 minutes of occlusion in the left anterior descending coronary artery, surface electrocardiogram (ECG) findings and regional contraction (with reperfusion) rapidly normalized. (medscape.com)
  • A rat MIRI model was established by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 30 min, followed by a 24 h reperfusion. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Vasoactive drug administration at the distal part of the coronary artery is suggested as a treatment option for no-reflow and some distal infusion catheters [ 3 ] and over-the-wire (OTW) balloon catheters [ 4 ] are being used for this purpose. (hindawi.com)
  • The MIRI animal modal was established by blocking the left anterior descending artery for 45mins followed by 4h of reperfusion. (ovid.com)
  • Methods include chemical dissolution of an occluding thrombus, administration of vasodilator drugs, angioplasty, catheterization, and artery bypass graft surgery. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In a variable proportion of patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, ranging from 5% to 50%, primary percutaneous coronary intervention achieves epicardial coronary artery reperfusion but not myocardial reperfusion, a condition known as no-reflow. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Yet, in a sizable proportion of patients PPCI achieves epicardial coronary artery reperfusion but not myocardial reperfusion, a condition known as no-reflow ( 2 ). (onlinejacc.org)
  • Beyond this timing of administration, tPA presents with deleterious side effects, in particular bleeding and hemorrhagic transformation, which can exacerbate stroke injury and counteract the benefits provided by reperfusion of the occluded artery [ 8 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • A total of 57 healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups (the sham operation group (S), the myocardial ischemia-reperfusion group (I/R), and the RIP group (R). The myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury model was established by ligating the left coronary artery for 30 min followed by 180-min reperfusion. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Group R was performed RIP after 20 min ligation of the left coronary artery, and the ST segment amplitudes were recorded at the 30, 60, 120, and 180 min after reperfusion. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Three hours of tourniquet and 24 h of release (24-h IR) caused gastrocnemius muscle injuries including rupture of the muscle sarcolemma and necrosis (42.8 ± 2.3% for infarct size of the gastrocnemius muscle). (frontiersin.org)
  • Treatment with dexamethasone at the beginning of reperfusion (1 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly inhibited expression of TNFα and IL-1β, reduced rupture of the muscle sarcolemma and infarct size (24.8 ± 2.0%), and improved direct muscle stimulation-induced gastrocnemius muscle contraction in 24-h IR mice. (frontiersin.org)
  • Until now the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible limb acute IR injuries are unclear. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our research is focused on ischemia-reperfusion induced lung injury in lung transplantation, and the cellular and molecular mechanisms of acute lung injury. (uhnresearch.ca)
  • Using this model, we are exploring the mechanisms of lung injury at the cellular and molecular levels. (uhnresearch.ca)
  • Efforts are underway to understand the molecular mechanisms involved and to derive small molecule drugs in collaboration with Dr. M. Gaballa at Sun Health Research Institute. (bio5.org)
  • Currently, these cells are used to study pediatric HIV infection at the molecular level, but are also amenable to work in Parkinson's and spinal cord injury models. (bio5.org)
  • We are interested in the mechanism of L1 retrotransposition and its control in genetic and evolutionary time, as well as in the molecular events that determine the phenotype of a hibernating mammal. (ucdenver.edu)
  • At present, very little is known about the mechanisms that permit hibernators to achieve, maintain and survive these overwhelming (to humans) physiological changes at the molecular level. (ucdenver.edu)
  • The international team of scientists, led by the Helmholtz Zentrum München (HMGU)** in cooperation with Cardiff University (UK), the University of Pittsburgh (USA), Columbia University (USA), Karolinska Institute (Sweden), Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München and Universität Regensburg, has now been able to unravel important molecular mechanisms that drive ferroptosis signaling. (healthcanal.com)
  • Gatica D, Chiong M, Lavandero S and Klionsky DJ: Molecular mechanisms of autophagy in the cardiovascular system. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Using this model, scientists can get a better understanding of the functional, structural and molecular changes associated with clinical ischemic heart disease as well as investigate the cardio-protection of potential drug therapies. (mdbiosciences.com)
  • The injury occurs when, after surgery, doctors release clamps on blood vessels and a surge of oxygenated blood flows back into tissues that were temporarily starved of it. (medindia.net)
  • Systemic manifestations are caused by a traumatic rhabdomyolysis due to muscle reperfusion injury when compressive forces on the tissues are released.This can cause local tissue injury, organ dysfunction, and metabolic abnormalities, including acidosis, hyperkalemia, and hypocalcemia. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • The reperfusion of ischemic tissues is often associated with microvascular dysfunction. (peerj.com)
  • Reduced oxidative injury will be reflected by a decrease in the number of mitochondrial peroxiredoxins isoforms and the number that are oxidized in NO-treated liver recipients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • reported that ischemic accumulation of succinate controls redox dynamics of reperfusion injury through mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • This study aimed to determine whether γ-tocotrienol (GT3) protects against mitochondrial dysfunction and renal proximal tubular cell (RPTC) injury caused by oxidants. (aspetjournals.org)
  • However, the specific mechanism of nitrone bioactivity remains obscure but current findings by others indicate that this involves modulation of the intracellular redox state, suppression of gene transcription (in particular that of NF-kappa B-regulated cytokines and iNOS), and prevention of mitochondrial dysfunction. (osu.edu)
  • Hence, TAX has a cardioprotective effect against I/R injury by modulating mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. (peerj.com)
  • Remote Postconditioning Induced by Trauma Protects the Mouse Heart against Ischemia Reperfusion Injury. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The findings suggest that riluzole protects against reperfusion injury. (spineuniverse.com)
  • The present study was designed to investigate how PGE1 protects against hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced injuries by regulating microRNA-21-5p (miR-21-5p) and fas ligand (FASLG). (portlandpress.com)
  • Li H, Zhang X, Tan J, Sun L, Xu LH, Jiang YG, Lou JS, Shi XY and Mi WD: Propofol postconditioning protects H9c2 cells from hypoxia/reoxygenation injury by inducing autophagy via the SAPK/JNK pathway. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Diosgenin Protects Rats from Myocardial Inflammatory Injury Induced by Ischemia-Reperfusion. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The Institute conducts preclinical studies to test the safety and efficacy of new drugs using SPF animals, introduces the results of research into clinical practice and training process as part of the translational medicine concept. (almazovcentre.ru)
  • Additional effects of injury, APC, high blood sugar, and statins will be determined by evaluating blood vessel inflammatory responses from 'markers' in blood samples taken before and after I/R injury. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Currently, there are a number of drugs being studied to treat reperfusion injuries, and some treatments, such as blood thinners and anti-inflammatory drugs, can be mildly effective for certain types of the condition. (medindia.net)
  • Reperfusion was discovered to trigger a strong inflammatory response, thus recruiting inflammatory cells and releasing inflammatory factors, leading to serious cardiomyocyte damage ( 8 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Jin R, Yang G, Li G. Inflammatory mechanisms in ischemic stroke: role of inflammatory cells. (termedia.pl)
  • However, this anti-inflammatory drug did not improve NMJ morphology and function, and sciatic nerve-stimulated skeletal muscle contraction in 24-h IR mice. (frontiersin.org)
  • The data suggest that one-time treatment with dexamethasone at the beginning of reperfusion only reduced structural and functional impairments of the skeletal muscle but not the NMJ through inhibiting inflammatory cytokines. (frontiersin.org)
  • Based on this fact, inhibition of production and release of inflammatory cytokines is likely considered as one of the strategies for limb acute IR injury. (frontiersin.org)
  • We propose that both central and peripheral mechanisms are associated with the hyperalgesia and that the findings lend indirect support to a central action for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. (nih.gov)
  • Depletion of mast cells prior to IRI resulted in improved renal function due to diminished local inflammatory cytokine/chemokine levels and neutrophil recruitment to the kidneys after the acute injury phase (48 h post-IRI). (jimmunol.org)
  • These data indicate that the neuroprotective effects of bilobalide on cerebral I/R injury are associated with its inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediator production and down-regulation of JNK1/2 and p38 MAPK activation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The mechanisms may involve the release of oxygen radicals and inflammatory mediators ( Carden & Granger, 2000 ). (peerj.com)
  • Blood reperfusion of the ischemic tissue after stroke promotes increases in the inflammatory response as well as accumulation of unfolded/misfolded proteins in the cell, leading to endoplasmic reticul. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In contrast to other anti-inflammatory drugs, this chemical signal does not appear to suppress the immune system. (thefishsite.com)
  • Although the name of the disease relates to aspirin, it is well established that 93 - 100% of affected patients are cross sensitive to all non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ( NSAIDs ), that inhibit cyclo-oxygenase (COX) enzymes. (acad.bg)
  • Numerous studies demonstrate that TXL is a novel neuroprotective drug, however, the mechanisms are largely unknown. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Kong X, Gong S, Su L, Li C, Kong Y. Neuroprotective effects of allicin on ischemia-reperfusion brain injury. (termedia.pl)
  • Few studies have focused on its neuroprotective effects and its regulation of small-molecule metabolites during cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury. (mdpi.com)
  • In summary, based on the neuroprotective effect of thymoquinone on cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury, this study revealed the regulation of thymoquinone on energy metabolism and small-molecule substance metabolism. (mdpi.com)
  • To date, the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of PNE remain largely unknown. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The results demonstrated that pretreatment with PNE exerted a remarkable neuroprotective effect on focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats, and the efficiency was attenuated in germ-free rats. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Investigations to small molecule therapies such as antiplatelet drugs, anticoagulants and statins acting as prophylactics have not produced consistent benefit following an acute attack, whereas neuroprotective compounds such as albumin and minocycline are recently being explored in clinical trials [ 13 , 14 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • NOS inhibitor ( l -NAME) and TRPV-1 inhibitor (Capsazepine) were utilized to confirm the implication of both signaling mechanisms in DPP-4 inhibition-induced at the level of IS. (mdpi.com)
  • NOS system and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels can contribute to DPP-4 inhibition-mediated cardioprotection against I/R injury using Sitagliptin. (mdpi.com)
  • Although the exact mechanisms mediating GT3 actions are unknown, postulated mechanisms include the inhibition of prosurvival signaling downstream of the tyrosine kinase receptor mediated by c-Src and phosphoinositide-3 kinase. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The inhibition of ER stress by 4‑phenylbutyrate or C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP)‑targeting small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreased autophagy and ameliorated cell apoptosis during H/R injury. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Overall, these results show that ROCK2 plays a significant role in the development of myocardial I/R injury, and that its inhibition is associated with activation of the pro-survival RISK-pathway. (ubc.ca)
  • Indomethacin corrects alterations associated with ischemia/reperfusion in an in vitro proximal tubular model. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Spheroid culture of primary hepatocytes with short fibers as a predictable in vitro model for drug screening. (wetp.org)
  • Similarly, the influence of bilobalide on the expression of nitric oxide, TNF-Α, IL-1Β, p-ERK1/2, p-JNK1/2, and p-p38 MAPK was also observed in an OGD/R in vitro model of I/R injury. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Curcumine from Curcuma longa and the gum resin of Boswellia serrata, which were demonstrated to act as anti-inflammatories in in vivo animal models, were studied in a set of in vitro experiments in order to elucidate the mechanism of their beneficial effects. (nih.gov)
  • The researchers caution that any commercialization or clinical use of the drug must await substantial further safety and benefit studies in people. (medindia.net)
  • For example, over one hundred clinical trials on drug treatment of stroke have failed in the recent years. (chemweb.com)
  • This report gives insights into what US healthcare payers really think about HCV drug pricing, the growing and frighteningly undefined patient population, limited clinical/outcomes data, poor patient adherence and education - and how can industry positively help and respond. (reportbuyer.com)
  • Furthermore, the exacerbation of hypoxic injury by reoxygenation (the oxygen paradox) represents an important mechanism of cellular injury and a major clinical problem in treating episodes of myocardial and cerebral ischemia. (jneurosci.org)
  • In the present study, the team was able to show that Liproxstatin-1 suppresses ferroptosis both in human kidney cells, Gpx4 deletion-induced acute renal failure and in a pre-clinical model of hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury. (healthcanal.com)
  • In the last century, the mechanisms of alloimmune response were elucidated and immunosuppressive drugs capable of preventing rejection were developed turning organ transplantation into a clinical reality 6 , 7 . (scielo.br)
  • Our DIEP-operation is actually a clinical model of ischemia-reperfusion. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Intestinal ischemia reperfusion is a common clinical condition that causes functional impairment. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Several recent studies have shown that biomarkers and other easily available clinical parameters can predict the risk of no-reflow and can help in the assessment of the multiple mechanisms of the phenomenon. (onlinejacc.org)
  • however, a large amount of experimental and clinical data have clearly shown that it occurs after reperfusion with a variable prevalence, ranging from 5% up to 50%, according to the methods used to assess the phenomenon and to the population under study ( 2,3 ). (onlinejacc.org)
  • Timely and effective myocardial reperfusion using primary PCI in acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has substantially improved clinical outcomes of patients. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • In addition, we discuss specific mechanisms of action, in particular neurovascular repair by endothelial progenitor cells, as key translational research for advancing the clinical applications of stem cells for ischemic stroke. (omicsonline.org)
  • A report on the method used to create and identify rapadocin, as well as laboratory tests of it in mice with reperfusion injuries in their kidneys appeared in Nature Chemistry . (medindia.net)
  • however, intracerebroventricular post-treatment reduced infarct volume even when the mice were treated with CAR at 6 h after reperfusion. (plos.org)
  • We have now generated XB130 knockout mice through a collaboration and are exploring the role of the XB130/PI3K/Akt pathway in lung tissue injury/repair and tumourigenesis. (uhnresearch.ca)
  • Transgenic mice with XB130 knocked out will be used to further study the role of XB130 in the lung injury and repair and in tumourigenesis. (uhnresearch.ca)
  • OBJECTIVE The aim was to assess the abilities of exogenous noradrenaline, isoprenaline, and phenylephrine to precondition the isolated rat heart against ischaemic and reperfusion injury. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Brain injury caused by ischaemic stroke is a major cause of disability and death throughout the world. (termedia.pl)
  • In addition to ischaemic tissue damage, seen for example in renal failure, stroke or cardiovascular diseases, the mechanism may also play a central role in neurodegenerative diseases and in comorbidities of diabetes mellitus. (healthcanal.com)
  • This is why, recently, efforts to find an effective therapy for ischemia-reperfusion injury have focused on mitochondria. (deepdyve.com)
  • Thus, the identification of new drugs that can attenuate MIRI through the aforementioned mechanisms is urgently required. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Renalase, a novel flavoprotein expressed in the kidney and heart, reduces renal tubular necrosis and apoptosis, which suggests that it might protect against necrosis and/or apoptosis in myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (MIRI). (ovid.com)
  • Thus, cyclophilins may function in cardioprotection during ischemia-reperfusion injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • We estimated the effects of TXL on I/R injury including neurological deficit assessment and cerebral infarct volume measurement via TTC staining, and detected the protein expression of Connexin 43 (Cx43) by western blot. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • New Mechanisms of Neuronal Injury and Neuroprotection Neurological diseases, including such devastating illnesses as stroke, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, traumatic brain injury and brain tumors, belong to the major diseases that have caused the greatest number of death and disability around the world. (chemweb.com)
  • We found that CAR (50 mg/kg) significantly reduced infarct volume and improved neurological deficits after 75 min of ischemia and 24 h of reperfusion. (plos.org)
  • The FDA-approved drug riluzole can protect against injury after decompression surgery, reducing neurological complications and improving long-term outcomes beyond those seen with decompression surgery alone. (sciencemag.org)
  • The potential implications of the protein with regeneration processes activated in response to injury and their relation with embryogenesis pathways are discussed. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Intracellular signal transduction pathways as potential drug targets for ischemia-reperfusion injury in lung transplantation. (uhnresearch.ca)
  • We hope that defining the mechanisms used in this natural model will reveal novel pathways and drug targets to mimic these responses in patients. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Recent findings Post-conditioning utilizes the reperfusion injury salvage kinase (RISK) and survivor activating factor enhancement (SAFE) pathways as common avenues to promote cell survival and function. (ovid.com)
  • Summary Detailed knowledge of the RISK and SAFE pathways can be used for further drug development. (ovid.com)
  • The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) ArrayTrack system and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database were used to screen significantly altered genes and pathways (P 1.5). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Our data demonstrated that polytypic profiles of 167-379 altered genes exist in the mouse hippocampus treated with different compounds known to be therapeutically effective in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury, and we were able to identify overlapping genes and pathways among these groups. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • It is likely that the future lies in the use of rational drug combinations that target multiple signaling pathways. (labome.org)
  • In this study, transient middle cerebral occlusion (tMCAO) was used to establish the rat model of cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury. (mdpi.com)
  • We are also interested in the cellular mechanisms responsible for the circadian variations in the cardiovascular system and how this relates to disease conditions. (le.ac.uk)
  • In particular, how these circadian rhythms might result in a time-of-day variation in the efficacy of current cardiovascular drugs. (le.ac.uk)
  • The Institute conducts experimental studies in compliance with GLP regulations to investigate the mechanisms underlying the onset and development of cardiovascular, blood and endocrine diseases as well as to develop and implement the new medical technologies that improve the quality of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of these diseases. (almazovcentre.ru)
  • Global Markets Direct's Pharmaceutical and Healthcare latest pipeline guide Myocardial Ischemia - Pipeline Review, H1 2018, provides comprehensive information on the therapeutics under development for Myocardial Ischemia (Cardiovascular), complete with analysis by stage of development, drug target, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. (marketresearch.com)
  • The pipeline guide evaluates Myocardial Ischemia (Cardiovascular) therapeutics based on mechanism of action (MoA), drug target, route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. (marketresearch.com)
  • Recombinant renalase protein might be a new cardiovascular drug for ischemia/IR injury. (ovid.com)
  • He presently serves on several journal editorial boards, is the Editor-in-Chief of the Cardiovascular and Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry, and the Cardiology Reviews and is an Associate Editor for the journal Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders-Drug Targets. (benthamscience.com)
  • These postoperative cardiovascular complications are recognized to cause significant morbidity and mortality, but the mechanisms remain controversial. (asahq.org)
  • During kidney transplantation ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) occurs, which is a risk factor for acute kidney injury, delayed graft function and acute and chronic rejection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Movement into new sites in nuclear DNA occurs via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate, by a unique mechanism known as target primed reverse transcription, or tprt. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Once reperfusion occurs, these cellular products are returned to the systemic circulation, and are exposed to other organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reperfusion injury is damage to an organ that occurs when blood flow resumes after a period of ischemia.28Most of this injury is attributed to peroxidation of cellular and intracellular lipid secondary to the production of superoxide radicals. (deepdyve.com)
  • Recognizing this, surgeons frequently prophylactically release (i.e., incise) fascia of arm and leg fascial compartments after repair of a proximal vascular injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • We also detail the relationship of proximal TSPO staining with the intensity of the injury, particularly the implication of monomeric (18 kDa) TSPO and its role in hypoxiareoxygenation and apoptosis prevention. (eurekaselect.com)
  • A previous study suggested that cardiomyocyte apoptosis occurred during the early phase of ischemia and that reperfusion could exacerbate the severity ( 10 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • These events after cerebral ischemia injury finally cause neuronal cell death like apoptosis, necrosis, necroptosis and autophagy [4] , [5] . (plos.org)
  • Cellular injury was subsequently determined by measurement of live/death ratio and apoptosis using flow cytometry. (bmj.com)
  • The results indicated that autophagy was induced, ER stress was activated and apoptosis was promoted in H9c2 cells during H/R injury. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Autophagy, as an adaptive response, was activated by ER stress and alleviated ER stress‑induced cell apoptosis during H/R injury. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Guo JJ, Xu FQ, Li YH, Li J, Liu X, Wang XF, Hu LG and An Y: Alginate oligosaccharide alleviates myocardial reperfusion injury by inhibiting nitrative and oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Repositioning drugs for traumatic brain injury - N-acetyl cysteine and Phenserine. (termedia.pl)
  • McCall JM and Panetta JA: Traumatic and ischemia/reperfusion injury to the CNS. (springer.com)
  • Stem cells have been implicated in the regeneration of skeletal muscle after traumatic and blast injuries, and have been shown to hone to muscle damaged after exercise. (wikipedia.org)
  • Herein we review the potential use of TSPO-directed treatment for ischemia reperfusion injury, particularly regarding pre-conditioning of the organ. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Attention should also be focused on the possibility of concomitant injury (fractures, organ damage, spinal injury and obvious hemorrhage). (renalandurologynews.com)
  • During a stroke or organ transplant, patients can suffer an injury due to lack of blood supply to vital organs. (yale.edu)
  • citation needed] "Reperfusion": the restoration of blood flow to an organ or tissue after having been blocked. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diazoxide reduces local and remote organ damage in a rat model of intestinal ischemia reperfusion. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Many of these therapies have important applications in preventing organ injury during the perioperative period, for example during major surgeries, or solid organ transplantation. (asahq.org)
  • During the session top-calibre research was presented at the highest level, ranging from the introduction of silicate nanoparticles as a new drug delivery system, a microRNA approach to the loss of bone mass and muscle function, the development of novel cancer therapeutics, humanized antibodies for the treatment of MS/SLE patients, and increased efficacy of medications in the context of organ transplants. (izb-online.de)
  • BACKGROUND Recently, we gained evidence that impairment of rOat1 and rOat3 expression induced by ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI) is mediated by COX metabolites and this suppression might be critically involved in renal damage. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Differential effect of COX1 and COX2 inhibitors on renal outcomes following ischemic acute kidney injury. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Low-dose indomethacin after ischemic acute kidney injury prevents downregulation of Oat1/3 and improves renal outcome. (semanticscholar.org)
  • However when the kidney is submitted to a stress such as ischemia reperfusion injury there is a defined change in TSPO expression towards more proximal areas of the nephron, and the protein can be detected as high as proximal tubular cells and the Bowman Capsule. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is an important cause of acute kidney injury that can lead to end-stage renal failure. (jimmunol.org)
  • IR injury contributes to disease and mortality in a variety of pathologies, including myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, acute kidney injury, trauma, circulatory arrest, sickle cell disease and sleep apnea. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Serum creatinine and BUN may be elevated in the setting of acute kidney injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] While some investigations suggest a possible beneficial effect of mesenchymal stem cells on heart and kidney reperfusion injury, to date, none have explored the role of stem cells in muscle tissue exposed to ischemia-reperfusion injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organs involved in filtration (e.g., the kidneys and the liver), may be overwhelmed by the high load of cellular break down products, and face injury themselves (e.g., acute kidney injury). (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of the study was to unveil the unknown and possible cardioprotective targets that can be exerted by sitagliptin (Sitg) against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. (mdpi.com)
  • The goal of the research program is to identify potential targets for development of novel therapeutics to ameliorate or even block ischemia/reperfusion-induced renal damage. (nyit.edu)
  • As a cyclophilin, PPIE also binds the immunosuppressive drug CsA to form a CsA-cyclophilin complex, which then targets calcineurin to inhibit the signaling pathway for T-cell activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Curr Drug Targets. (labome.org)
  • Targets of Nrf2 transcription include proteins involved in drug metabolism, efflux transporters (such as multidrug resistance-associated proteins, Mrps), antioxidant enzymes, heat shock responses, and proteasomal degradation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Our research includes identification of the molecules localized on the surface of endothelium useful as targets for drug delivery to either normal or pathologically challenged endothelium. (upenn.edu)
  • The present study shows that pseudopterosin A attenuates neuronal injury in the pMCAO model by acting on the Akt signalling pathway. (termedia.pl)
  • Editorial [Hot Topic: New Mechanisms of Neuronal Injury and Neuroprotection (Guest Editor: Weihai Ying)] by Weihai Ying (157-158) . (chemweb.com)
  • Peruche B and Krieglstein J: Mechanisms of drug actions against neuronal damage caused by ischemis - An overview. (springer.com)
  • A novel antioxidant 3,7-dihydroxy-isoflav-3-ene (DHIF) inhibits neointimal hyperplasia after vessel injury attenuating reactive oxygen species and nuclear factor-kappaB signaling. (labome.org)
  • Therefore, knowledge of the location of radical generation in cellular systems under pathophysiological condidtions may help develop strategies to protect cells against radical-mediated injury. (osu.edu)
  • citation needed] Systemic effects of IR injury During periods of ischemia, cellular break down products accumulate in the local tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have characterized carriers and their modifications providing: i) a drug with an affinity to endothelium (recognition and targeting) and, ii) drug delivery in a proper cellular compartment (sub-cellular addressing). (upenn.edu)
  • Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are a class of oral anti-diabetic drugs, implicated in pleiotropic secondary cardioprotective effects. (mdpi.com)
  • However, over the past several decades because of advances in medicines (thrombolytic agents, antiplatelet drugs, beta blockers, and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors) and approaches to restore tissue perfusion (percutaneous coronary intervention and cardiopulmonary bypass), the mortality of MI has declined dramatically. (news-medical.net)
  • Liu and his team divided the massive pool of 45,000 compounds into 3,000 smaller groups and tested each group for those that blocked a chemical pathway associated with reperfusion injury. (medindia.net)
  • B . Consistency of pathway-drug associations of cell-line selective and non-selective compounds. (nih.gov)
  • TXL could effectively protect against I/R injury and reduced cell death via Cx43/Calpain II/Bax/Caspase-3 pathway, which contribute to I/R injury prevention and therapy. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Finally, our data indicated that CAR treatment increased the level of phosphorylated Akt and the neuroprotection of CAR was reversed by a PI3K inhibitor LY-294002, demonstrating the involvement of the PI3K/Akt pathway in the anti-apoptotic mechanisms of CAR. (plos.org)
  • Variations in target gene expression and pathway profiles in the mouse hippocampus following treatment with different effective compounds for ischemia-reperfusion injury. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We will translate our results back to the patient through development of pathway-specific drugs. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • The interactions of high blood sugar and statin drugs on the blood vessel reaction to APC and a subsequent 20-min cessation of blood flow to the forearm will be studied in humans. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • however, the tourniquet and subsequent release results in serious acute ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in the skeletal muscle and neuromuscular junction (NMJ). (frontiersin.org)
  • BBB disruption after acute ischemic stroke and subsequent permeability increase may be enhanced by reperfusion. (ajnr.org)
  • So the goal is to keep adenosine outside of the cell longer to treat reperfusion injuries," says Liu. (medindia.net)
  • Research over the past decade has implicated purinergic signaling, particularly in the form of adenosine triphosphate and adenosine signaling, as an important regulatory mechanism in a wide range of diseases and biologic functions. (asahq.org)
  • Suppression of oxidative injury will improve graft function postoperatively as measured by International Normalized Ratio (INR) bilirubin, transaminases, and duration of hospital stay. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Prompt referral for mechanical reperfusion by urgent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) represents the pivotal step in the current management of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) ( 1 ). (onlinejacc.org)
  • Estimate of the number of patients (pts) receiving optimal reperfusion according to Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow grade, myocardial blush grade (MBG), and ST-segment resolution (STR) of 100 patients without cardiogenic shock treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). (onlinejacc.org)
  • Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) tissue injury is the resultant pathology from a combination of factors, including tissue hypoxia, followed by tissue damage associated with re-oxygenation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nowadays, tissue injury induced by I/R is a major factor, which often cause death. (peerj.com)
  • Excessive activation can lead to to tissue injury. (ncl.ac.uk)