Hydroxyethylrutoside: Monohydroxyethyl derivative of rutin. Peripheral circulation stimulant used in treatment of venous disorders.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Mice, Inbred C57BLLipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Immunosuppression: Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.Endotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Cyclosporine: A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Tacrolimus: A macrolide isolated from the culture broth of a strain of Streptomyces tsukubaensis that has strong immunosuppressive activity in vivo and prevents the activation of T-lymphocytes in response to antigenic or mitogenic stimulation in vitro.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Azathioprine: An immunosuppressive agent used in combination with cyclophosphamide and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Mycophenolic Acid: An antibiotic substance derived from Penicillium stoloniferum, and related species. It blocks de novo biosynthesis of purine nucleotides by inhibition of the enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase. Mycophenolic acid is important because of its selective effects on the immune system. It prevents the proliferation of T-cells, lymphocytes, and the formation of antibodies from B-cells. It also may inhibit recruitment of leukocytes to inflammatory sites. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1301)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.Graft Rejection: An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Cyclosporins: A group of closely related cyclic undecapeptides from the fungi Trichoderma polysporum and Cylindocarpon lucidum. They have some antineoplastic and antifungal action and significant immunosuppressive effects. Cyclosporins have been proposed as adjuvants in tissue and organ transplantation to suppress graft rejection.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antilymphocyte Serum: Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Graft Survival: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.Sirolimus: A macrolide compound obtained from Streptomyces hygroscopicus that acts by selectively blocking the transcriptional activation of cytokines thereby inhibiting cytokine production. It is bioactive only when bound to IMMUNOPHILINS. Sirolimus is a potent immunosuppressant and possesses both antifungal and antineoplastic properties.Calcineurin: A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase that is composed of the calcineurin A catalytic subunit and the calcineurin B regulatory subunit. Calcineurin has been shown to dephosphorylate a number of phosphoproteins including HISTONES; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAIN; and the regulatory subunits of CAMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. It is involved in the regulation of signal transduction and is the target of an important class of immunophilin-immunosuppressive drug complexes.Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Organ Transplantation: Transference of an organ between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.Prednisolone: A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.Anemia, Aplastic: A form of anemia in which the bone marrow fails to produce adequate numbers of peripheral blood elements.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Mice, Inbred BALB CImmunocompromised Host: A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Heart Transplantation: The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Tropaeolaceae: A plant family of the order Geraniales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.Amino Acid Isomerases: Enzymes that catalyze either the racemization or epimerization of chiral centers within amino acids or derivatives. EC 5.1.1.Indoleamine-Pyrrole 2,3,-Dioxygenase: A dioxygenase with specificity for the oxidation of the indoleamine ring of TRYPTOPHAN. It is an extrahepatic enzyme that plays a role in metabolism as the first and rate limiting enzyme in the kynurenine pathway of TRYPTOPHAN catabolism.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Methylprednisolone: A PREDNISOLONE derivative with similar anti-inflammatory action.Transplantation Immunology: A general term for the complex phenomena involved in allo- and xenograft rejection by a host and graft vs host reaction. Although the reactions involved in transplantation immunology are primarily thymus-dependent phenomena of cellular immunity, humoral factors also play a part in late rejection.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Prednisone: A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.Transplantation: Transference of a tissue or organ from either an alive or deceased donor, within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Islets of Langerhans Transplantation: The transference of pancreatic islets within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Lymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed: Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Polyenes: Hydrocarbons with more than one double bond. They are a reduced form of POLYYNES.Adrenal Cortex HormonesPropylene Glycols: Derivatives of propylene glycol (1,2-propanediol). They are used as humectants and solvents in pharmaceutical preparations.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Transplantation Tolerance: An induced state of non-reactivity to grafted tissue from a donor organism that would ordinarily trigger a cell-mediated or humoral immune response.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Skin Transplantation: The grafting of skin in humans or animals from one site to another to replace a lost portion of the body surface skin.Tumor Escape: The ability of tumors to evade destruction by the IMMUNE SYSTEM. Theories concerning possible mechanisms by which this takes place involve both cellular immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and humoral immunity (ANTIBODY FORMATION), and also costimulatory pathways related to CD28 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD28) and CD80 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD80).Pancreas Transplantation: The transference of a pancreas from one human or animal to another.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Myeloid Cells: The classes of BONE MARROW-derived blood cells in the monocytic series (MONOCYTES and their precursors) and granulocytic series (GRANULOCYTES and their precursors).Peptidylprolyl Isomerase: An enzyme that catalyzes the isomerization of proline residues within proteins. EC 5.2.1.8.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Scleritis: Refers to any inflammation of the sclera including episcleritis, a benign condition affecting only the episclera, which is generally short-lived and easily treated. Classic scleritis, on the other hand, affects deeper tissue and is characterized by higher rates of visual acuity loss and even mortality, particularly in necrotizing form. Its characteristic symptom is severe and general head pain. Scleritis has also been associated with systemic collagen disease. Etiology is unknown but is thought to involve a local immune response. Treatment is difficult and includes administration of anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents such as corticosteroids. Inflammation of the sclera may also be secondary to inflammation of adjacent tissues, such as the conjunctiva.Rats, Inbred LewImmunologic Factors: Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Tacrolimus Binding Proteins: A family of immunophilin proteins that bind to the immunosuppressive drugs TACROLIMUS (also known as FK506) and SIROLIMUS. EC 5.2.1.-Opportunistic Infections: An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Plasmapheresis: Procedure whereby plasma is separated and extracted from anticoagulated whole blood and the red cells retransfused to the donor. Plasmapheresis is also employed for therapeutic use.IMP Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of inosine 5'-phosphate to xanthosine 5'-phosphate in the presence of NAD. EC 1.1.1.205.Uveitis: Inflammation of part or all of the uvea, the middle (vascular) tunic of the eye, and commonly involving the other tunics (sclera and cornea, and the retina). (Dorland, 27th ed)Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Glomerulonephritis, Membranous: A type of glomerulonephritis that is characterized by the accumulation of immune deposits (COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX) on the outer aspect of the GLOMERULAR BASEMENT MEMBRANE. It progresses from subepithelial dense deposits, to basement membrane reaction and eventual thickening of the basement membrane.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Graft vs Host Disease: The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Vasculitis: Inflammation of any one of the blood vessels, including the ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.Suppressor Factors, Immunologic: Proteins, protein complexes, or glycoproteins secreted by suppressor T-cells that inhibit either subsequent T-cells, B-cells, or other immunologic phenomena. Some of these factors have both histocompatibility (I-J) and antigen-specific domains which may be linked by disulfide bridges. They can be elicited by haptens or other antigens and may be mass-produced by hybridomas or monoclones in the laboratory.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Immune System: The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.Rheumatic Diseases: Disorders of connective tissue, especially the joints and related structures, characterized by inflammation, degeneration, or metabolic derangement.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Lung Transplantation: The transference of either one or both of the lungs from one human or animal to another.Phytohemagglutinins: Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.Transplants: Organs, tissues, or cells taken from the body for grafting into another area of the same body or into another individual.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Drug Monitoring: The process of observing, recording, or detecting the effects of a chemical substance administered to an individual therapeutically or diagnostically.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Lymphoproliferative Disorders: Disorders characterized by proliferation of lymphoid tissue, general or unspecified.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Tissue Donors: Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.Nephrotic Syndrome: A condition characterized by severe PROTEINURIA, greater than 3.5 g/day in an average adult. The substantial loss of protein in the urine results in complications such as HYPOPROTEINEMIA; generalized EDEMA; HYPERTENSION; and HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. Diseases associated with nephrotic syndrome generally cause chronic kidney dysfunction.Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Mice, Inbred C3HBase Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit: A low affinity interleukin-2 receptor subunit that combines with the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-2.GuanineWegener Granulomatosis: A multisystemic disease of a complex genetic background. It is characterized by inflammation of the blood vessels (VASCULITIS) leading to damage in any number of organs. The common features include granulomatous inflammation of the RESPIRATORY TRACT and kidneys. Most patients have measurable autoantibodies (ANTINEUTROPHIL CYTOPLASMIC ANTIBODIES) against neutrophil proteinase-3 (WEGENER AUTOANTIGEN).Hepatitis, Autoimmune: A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular INFLAMMATION of unknown cause, usually with HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA and serum AUTOANTIBODIES.Concanavalin A: A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.Urocanic Acid: 4-Imidazoleacrylic acid.Pulse Therapy, Drug: Administration of high doses of pharmaceuticals over short periods of time.Heterocyclic Compounds, Bridged-Ring: A class of organic compounds which contain two rings that share a pair of bridgehead carbon atoms.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Plasma Exchange: Removal of plasma and replacement with various fluids, e.g., fresh frozen plasma, plasma protein fractions (PPF), albumin preparations, dextran solutions, saline. Used in treatment of autoimmune diseases, immune complex diseases, diseases of excess plasma factors, and other conditions.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Base Pairing: Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.Pachyrhizus: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Some Pachyrhizus have been reclassified to PUERARIA. Do not confuse with yam (IPOMOEA; or DIOSCOREA) or African yam bean (SPHENOSTYLIS).Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Polymyositis: Diseases characterized by inflammation involving multiple muscles. This may occur as an acute or chronic condition associated with medication toxicity (DRUG TOXICITY); CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASES; infections; malignant NEOPLASMS; and other disorders. The term polymyositis is frequently used to refer to a specific clinical entity characterized by subacute or slowly progressing symmetrical weakness primarily affecting the proximal limb and trunk muscles. The illness may occur at any age, but is most frequent in the fourth to sixth decade of life. Weakness of pharyngeal and laryngeal muscles, interstitial lung disease, and inflammation of the myocardium may also occur. Muscle biopsy reveals widespread destruction of segments of muscle fibers and an inflammatory cellular response. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1404-9)Immunocompetence: The ability of lymphoid cells to mount a humoral or cellular immune response when challenged by antigen.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Deoxyguanosine: A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Tumor Microenvironment: The milieu surrounding neoplasms consisting of cells, vessels, soluble factors, and molecules, that can influence and be influenced by, the neoplasm's growth.Lupus Nephritis: Glomerulonephritis associated with autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Lupus nephritis is histologically classified into 6 classes: class I - normal glomeruli, class II - pure mesangial alterations, class III - focal segmental glomerulonephritis, class IV - diffuse glomerulonephritis, class V - diffuse membranous glomerulonephritis, and class VI - advanced sclerosing glomerulonephritis (The World Health Organization classification 1982).Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Mitogens: Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Cytomegalovirus Infections: Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Tacrolimus Binding Protein 1A: A 12-KDa tacrolimus binding protein that is found associated with and may modulate the function of calcium release channels. It is a peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase which is inhibited by both tacrolimus (commonly called FK506) and SIROLIMUS.Methotrexate: An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Isoxazoles: Azoles with an OXYGEN and a NITROGEN next to each other at the 1,2 positions, in contrast to OXAZOLES that have nitrogens at the 1,3 positions.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Glomerulonephritis: Inflammation of the renal glomeruli (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS) that can be classified by the type of glomerular injuries including antibody deposition, complement activation, cellular proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis. These structural and functional abnormalities usually lead to HEMATURIA; PROTEINURIA; HYPERTENSION; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).IndiaImmunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Deoxycytosine Nucleotides: Cytosine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Cyclophilins: A family of peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases that bind to CYCLOSPORINS and regulate the IMMUNE SYSTEM. EC 5.2.1.-Lymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Guanosine: A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Pregnancy Proteins: Proteins produced by organs of the mother or the PLACENTA during PREGNANCY. These proteins may be pregnancy-specific (present only during pregnancy) or pregnancy-associated (present during pregnancy or under other conditions such as hormone therapy or certain malignancies.)Chlorambucil: A nitrogen mustard alkylating agent used as antineoplastic for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, and others. Although it is less toxic than most other nitrogen mustards, it has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (Merck Index, 11th ed)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Gliotoxin: A fungal toxin produced by various species of Trichoderma, Gladiocladium fimbriatum, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Penicillium. It is used as an immunosuppressive agent.Transplantation, Heterotopic: Transplantation of tissue typical of one area to a different recipient site. The tissue may be autologous, heterologous, or homologous.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Hemolytic Plaque Technique: A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Lower doses of anti-inflammatory drugs are often used in conjunction with cytotoxic or immunosuppressive drugs such as ... Anti-inflammatory drugs are often used to control the effects of inflammation. Glucocorticoids are the most powerful of these ... The plasticity of immune cells and the balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory signals are crucial aspects of ... which causes toxic side effects. Immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclosporin prevent T cells from responding to signals ...
... is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) previously used in rheumatism. It has mild immunosuppressive ... Due to its side effects it was withdrawn from the UK and US in the 1980s. Spiers EM, Watson NT, Beck JS, Chapman IV, Dettmar PW ... Taylor R, Clark F, Griffiths ID, Weeke J (October 1980). "Prospective study of effect of fenclofenac on thyroid function tests ... November 1993). "The effect of fenclofenac on the regeneration of lymphocytes in rats following total body irradiation". Int. J ...
... are a class of experimental drugs designed to share many of the desirable anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, or anticancer ... and a number of other pro-inflammatory proteins. Hence the anti-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids results from both ... Hence, these mice were responsive to the anti-inflammatory effects of dexamethasone but were resistant to at least some of the ... Although preclinical evidence on SEGRAMs' anti-inflammatory effects are culminating, currently, the efficacy of these SEGRAMs ...
Treatment is usually started by administering drugs with high anti-inflammatory effects, such as prednisone. Once the ... a combination of an immunosuppressive drug (such as azathioprine) with mesalazine (which may also have an anti-inflammatory ... intestinal tuberculosis and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug enteropathy. The chief types of inflammatory bowel disease are ... nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug enteropathy, irritable bowel syndrome and coeliac disease. Conditions with similar symptoms ...
Anti-inflammatory effects[edit]. Glucocorticoids influence all types of inflammatory events, no matter their cause. They induce ... Side effects[edit]. A common side-effect of many immunosuppressive drugs is immunodeficiency, because the majority of them act ... Immunosuppressive drugs, also known as immunosuppressive agents, immunosuppressants and antirejection medications are drugs ... The immunosuppressive drugs also interact with other medicines and affect their metabolism and action. Actual or suspected ...
These efforts probed the anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties of ciclosporin after regional deposition of drug in ... Its use to treat asthma via the oral route may be constrained by systemic side-effects but this limitation may be avoided by ... Nevertheless, a robust effect was noted in chronic rejection and survival and this has warranted more detailed investigations ... Formulation of the drug for inhalation purposes has proved challenging because of ciclosporin's poor aqueous solubility. ...
... or anti-fungal agents, if available; in cases refractory to an appropriate drug, the addition of immunosuppressive drugs to the ... this treatment is often supplemented with anti-inflammatory drugs such as corticosteroids (e.g., dexamethasone) and/or ... People affected by the severest, often life-threatening, complications of cryoglobulinemic disease require urgent ... Mixed cryoglobulinemic disease associated with autoimmune disorders is treated with immunosuppressive drugs: combination of a ...
... the latter effect being much like that of NSAIDs, potentiating the anti-inflammatory effect. In addition, glucocorticoids also ... Glucocorticoid receptor Immunosuppressive drug Membrane glucocorticoid receptor Metyrapone blocks GC secretion Selective ... The proteins encoded by these up-regulated genes have a wide range of effects, including, for example: anti-inflammatory - ... This is one mechanism by which glucocorticoids have an anti-inflammatory effect. A variety of synthetic glucocorticoids, some ...
Concerning immunosuppressive drugs, the effects on NK cells are milder in comparison to T cells. Alloantigen recognition ... Graft acceptance depends on the balance of proinflammatory Th1, Th17 lymphocytes and anti-inflammatory regulatory T cells. This ... Immunosuppressive drugs are used to suppress the immune response, but the effect is not specific. Therefore, organism can be ... Transplanted tissue is accepted by immunocompetent recipient if it is functional in the absence of immunosuppressive drugs and ...
Non-cytotoxic immunosuppressive treatments usually include the anti-rejection transplant drugs azathioprine (Imuran/Azoran) and ... Ultrasound of the periferal nerves may show swelling of the affected nerves MRI can also be used in the diagnosic workup In ... received orphan drug status for this drug for the treatment of CIDP. Immunosuppressive drugs are often of the cytotoxic ( ... These antibodies are present in the branch of CIDP diseases comprised by anti-GM1, anti-GD1a, and anti-GQ1b. Sural nerve biopsy ...
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen and naproxen, can cause flares of inflammatory bowel disease ... Although some people are able to maintain remission spontaneously, many require immunosuppressive drugs. 5-ASA compounds, such ... Azathioprine treatment may lead to rare but life-threatening side effects. The rare side effects include leukopenia or ... Corticosteroids are a class of anti-inflammatory drugs used to treat moderate to severe flares of Crohn's disease. However, ...
Glucocorticosteroids, which are anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents, are used in some cases. This form of medication ... This hardening may affect the bones at the base of the skull or those in the hands, feet, or jaw. This causes ongoing pain and ... This drug helps with pain and fatigue as well as some correction of radiographic abnormalities. Alternative treatments such as ... Mutations to R218H affect the association of the B1-LAP and the mature form of TGFB1 by conformational changes to B1-LAP. These ...
... has been found to possess significant anti-inflammatory properties without glycogenic activity or immunosuppressive effects, an ... The Dictionary of Drugs: Chemical Data: Chemical Data, Structures and Bibliographies. Springer. pp. 899-. ISBN 978-1-4757-2085- ... Miller E, Bates R, Bjorndahl J, Allen D, Burgio D, Bouma C, Stoll J, Latman N (1998). "16-Epiestriol, a novel anti-inflammatory ... 522-. ISBN 978-3-642-96158-8. Latman NS, Kishore V, Bruot BC (1994). "16-epiestriol: an anti-inflammatory steroid without ...
Anti-inflammatory agents have only limited success in reducing the fibrotic progress. Some of the other types of fibrosis, such ... Pirfenidone also reduced the decline in distances on the 6-minute walk test, but had no effect on respiratory symptoms. The ... There are ongoing trials with newer drugs such as IFN-γ and mycophenolate mofetil.. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis, a less severe ... as non-specific interstitial pneumonia, may respond to immunosuppressive therapy such as corticosteroids. However, only a ...
At launch, the drug was priced at $65,000 per year. Other anti-CD20 drugs: Rituximab, a chimeric antibody that is directed ... It targets CD20 marker on B lymphocytes and hence is an immunosuppressive drug candidate. Ocrelizumab binds to an epitope that ... and effects on pregnant women and children they might bear. At launch, the drug was priced at $65,000 (annual cost, for two ... One person died from a systemic inflammatory response syndrome and in another trial, rates of cancer were three times higher ( ...
It is therefore a non-systemic drug. 5-ASA is related to the systemic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ... Immunosuppressive drugs inhibit the immune system generally. These include the cytostatic drugs that inhibit cell division, ... Possible side effects of 5-ASA include, nausea and vomiting, reduced sperm count and damage to red or white blood cells, or to ... Oral anti-inflammatory drugs require four to six weeks to work. Once remission is induced, maintenance levels can be used: ...
Commonly patients are prescribed immunosuppressive drugs. Another route would be to take collagen regulation drugs. Recent ... a rare inflammatory disease that causes muscle weakness affecting both sides of your body Dermatomyositis: an inflammatory ... Autoantibodies often found in these patients are the anti-PM/Scl (anti-exosome) antibodies. The symptoms that are seen most ... often involving either immunosuppressive or immunomodulating drugs. Clinical characteristics: Overlap Syndrome: scleroderma ...
... antipyretics and anti-inflammatory drugs (Y46) Antiepileptics and antiparkinsonism drugs (Y47) Sedatives, hypnotics and ... Drugs primarily affecting the autonomic nervous system (Y52) Agents primarily affecting the cardiovascular system (Y53) Agents ... Other antineoplastic drugs (Y43.4) Immunosuppressive agents (Y43.5) Acidifying and alkalizing agents (Y43.6) Enzymes, not ... Agents primarily affecting blood constituents (Y44.0) Iron preparations and other anti-hypochromic-anaemia preparations (Y44.1 ...
... s are a class of drugs with anti-cancer, immunosuppressive, and other effects in clinical trials in the United ... and lessens damage from overactive inflammatory responses in the lung. Pre-clinical studies have also demonstrated efficacy in ... and these drugs are likely to have major immunomodulatory effects, it is unclear what the range of safe feasible applications ... and their potential both as anti-inflammatories and anti-cancer agents noted. However, these molecules remained largely unknown ...
In some circumstances, anti-inflammatory drugs may also be considered. In general, mortality is less than one percent. ... Immunosuppressive therapy has been effective in halting the disease for laboratory animals. LCMV infections are focal Estimates ... Nucleoside analog ribavirin is used in some cases due to the inhibitory effect the agent has in vitro on arenaviruses. However ... Currently,[when?] there is not a LCMV infection test that is approved by the Food and Drug Administration for organ donor ...
For less severe cases, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ibuprofen, are prescribed for pain relief. Scleritis ... Scleritis is a serious inflammatory disease that affects the white outer coating of the eye, known as the sclera. The disease ... In more aggressive cases of scleritis, chemotherapy (such as systemic immunosuppressive therapy with such drugs as ...
... and have anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, anti-proliferative, and vasoconstrictive effects. Anti-inflammatory effects are ... the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), was so named in order to demarcate from the opprobrium. Corticosteroids were ... and inducing anti-inflammatory mediators (transactivation). Immunosuppressive effects are mediated by suppressing delayed ... Anti-proliferative effects are mediated by inhibition of DNA synthesis and epidermal cell turnover. Vasoconstrictive effects ...
Activation of CB1 and CB2 receptors in animals has shown a strong anti-inflammatory effect. Cannabinoids and/or modulation of ... and many require immunosuppressive drugs. It has been also suggested that antibiotics change the enteric flora, and their ... nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug enteropathy, irritable bowel syndrome and celiac disease. Irritable bowel syndrome is ... normally aminosalicylate anti-inflammatory drugs and corticosteroids). When symptoms are in remission, treatment enters ...
... an older anti-inflammatory agent which is prescribed after eye surgery, and 0.5% under placebo). Loteprednol is also far less ... The effect of drugs lowering intraocular pressure may be reduced. Loteprednol is not detectable in the bloodstream; so ... As corticosteroids are immunosuppressive, loteprednol is contraindicated in patients with viral, fungal or mycobacterial ... Loteprednol etabonate was developed using retrometabolic drug design. It is a so-called soft drug, meaning its structure was ...
... rather than anti-inflammatory levels), prednisolone is about eight times more potent than cortisol. For side effects, see ... It is used as an immunosuppressive drug, given by injection in the treatment of severe allergic reactions such as anaphylaxis ... prednisolone is about four times as strong and dexamethasone about forty times as strong in their anti-inflammatory effect. ... Side effects may include mood changes, increased risk of infection, and swelling. With long-term use common side effects ...
... is a flavone, a member of the flavonoid family. Diosmin aglycone is diosmetin. It can be found in Teucrium gnaphalodes, a plant endemic to the Iberian Peninsula. Diosmin is a semisynthetic flavonoid molecule derived from citrus d (modified hesperidin). It is an oral phlebotropic drug used in the treatment of venous disease, i.e., chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) including spider and varicose veins, leg swelling (edema), stasis dermatitis and venous ulcers. It is also used as a stand-alone or surgical adjunctive therapy in hemorrhoidal disease (HD). There are extensive clinical trials that show diosmin improves all stages of venous disease including venous ulcers and improves quality of life. There are no prospective studies in arterial disease. Diosmin is currently a prescription medication in some European countries (under the Dio-PP, Venotec, Daflon etc. tradenames), and is sold as a nutritional supplement in the United States. Diosmin has been found to be effective in mitigating ...
... , less accurately called mycophenolate, is an immunosuppressant drug used to prevent rejection in organ transplantation. It was initially marketed as the prodrug mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) to improve oral bioavailability. More recently, the salt mycophenolate sodium has also been introduced. Mycophenolate mofetil is marketed under the trade name CellCept and mycophenolate sodium as Myfortic. Discovered by an Italian medical scientist Bartolomeo Gosio in 1893, mycophenolic acid was the first antibiotic to be synthesised in pure and crystalline form. But its medical application was forgotten until two American scientists C.L. Alsberg and O.M. Black resynthesised it in 1912, and gave its chemical name. It was eventually found to be a broad-spectrum acting drug having antiviral, antifungal, antibacterial, anticancer, and antipsoriasis properties. The clinically usable drug Cellcept was developed by South ...
Heterologous polyclonal antibodies are obtained from the serum of animals (e.g., rabbit, horse), and injected with the patient's thymocytes or lymphocytes. The antilymphocyte (ALG) and antithymocyte antigens (ATG) are being used. They are part of the steroid-resistant acute rejection reaction and grave aplastic anemia treatment. However, they are added primarily to other immunosuppressives to diminish their dosage and toxicity. They also allow transition to cyclosporin therapy. Polyclonal antibodies inhibit T lymphocytes and cause their lysis, which is both complement-mediated cytolysis and cell-mediated opsonization followed by removal of reticuloendothelial cells from the circulation in the spleen and liver. In this way, polyclonal antibodies inhibit cell-mediated immune reactions, including graft rejection, delayed hypersensitivity (i.e., tuberculin skin reaction), and the ...
... is an immunomodulating agent of the calcineurin inhibitor class used in the treatment of atopic dermatitis (eczema). It is available as a topical cream, once marketed by Novartis (however, Galderma has been promoting the compound in Canada since early 2007) under the trade name Elidel. Pimecrolimus is an ascomycin macrolactam derivative. It has been shown in vitro that pimecrolimus binds to macrophilin-12 (also referred to as FKBP-12) and inhibits calcineurin.[citation needed] Thus pimecrolimus inhibits T-cell activation by inhibiting the synthesis and release of cytokines from T-cells. Pimecrolimus also prevents the release of inflammatory cytokines and mediators from mast cells.[citation needed] Pimecrolimus, like tacrolimus, belongs to the ascomycin class of macrolactam immunosuppressives, acting by the inhibition of T-cell activation by the calcineurin pathway and inhibition of the release of numerous inflammatory cytokines, thereby preventing the ...
... (trade name Simulect) is a chimeric mouse-human monoclonal antibody to the α chain (CD25) of the IL-2 receptor of T cells. It is used to prevent rejection in organ transplantation, especially in kidney transplants. It is a Novartis product and was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1998. Basiliximab is an immunosuppressant agent used to prevent immediate transplant rejection in people who are receiving kidney transplants, in combination with other agents. It has been reported that some cases of lichen planus have been successfully treated with basiliximab as an alternative therapy to ciclosporin. No short-term side effects have been reported. Basiliximab competes with IL-2 to bind to the alpha chain subunit of the IL2 receptor on the surface of the activated T lymphocytes and thus prevents the receptor from signaling. This prevents T cells from replicating and also from activating B cells, which are responsible for the production of ...
... (also FK-506 or fujimycin, trade names Prograf, Advagraf, Protopic) is an immunosuppressive drug used mainly after allogeneic organ transplant to lower the risk of organ rejection. It achieves this by inhibiting the production of interleukin-2, a molecule that promotes the development and proliferation of T cells, which are vital to the body's learned (or adaptive) immune response. Tacrolimus is also used in the treatment of other T cell-mediated diseases such as eczema (for which it is applied to the skin in a medicated ointment), severe refractory uveitis after bone marrow transplants, exacerbations of minimal change disease, Kimura's disease, and the skin condition vitiligo. Chemically it is a 23-membered macrolide lactone that was first discovered in 1987 from the fermentation broth of a Japanese soil sample that contained the bacterium Streptomyces tsukubaensis. It has similar immunosuppressive properties to ciclosporin, but is much more potent. Immunosuppression ...
... (ALG) is an infusion of animal- antibodies against human T cells which is used in the treatment of acute rejection in organ transplantation. Its use was first reported by Thomas Starzl in 1966. Its use in transplant was supplanted by thymoglobulin between 1984 and 1999. It has also been used in the treatment of aplastic anemia. It is less commonly used than the similar anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG), and like ATG it is associated with cytokine release syndrome in the short term and an increased risk of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder in the long term. ALG is more likely to cause side effects than ATG, but is safer than OKT3. The product was manufactured by Upjohn and Merieux, as well as the Schweizerisches Serum- und Impfinstitut in Bern, the latter of which was made by injecting horses with human thoracic duct lymphocytes and was called "Lymphoser Berna". Hakim, Nadey; Danovitch, Gabriel (2013). Transplantation Surgery. Springer Science & ...
... or SCIIT, is a therapeutic strategy employing rapid, specific, short term-modulation of the immune system using a therapeutic agent to induce T-cell non-responsiveness, also known as operational tolerance. As an alternative strategy to immunosuppression and antigen-specific tolerance inducing therapies, the primary goal of SCIIT is to re-establish or induce peripheral immune tolerance in the context of autoimmune disease and transplant rejection through the use of biological agents (compare also tolerogenic therapy). In recent years, SCIIT has received increasing attention in clinical and research settings as an alternative to immunosuppressive drugs currently used in the clinic, drugs which put the patients at risk of developing infection, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Immune tolerance can be defined as the ability of the immune system to distinguish between self and non-self, or harmless and harmful. T-cells are able to ...
In pharmacology, hazardous drugs are drugs that are known to cause harm, which may or may not include genotoxicity (the ability to cause a change or mutation in genetic material). Genotoxicity might involve carcinogenicity, the ability to cause cancer in animal models, humans or both; teratogenicity, which is the ability to cause defects on fetal development or fetal malformation; and lastly hazardous drugs are known to have the potential to cause fertility impairment, which is a major concern for most clinicians. These drugs can be classified as antineoplastics, cytotoxic agents, biologic agents, antiviral agents and immunosuppressive agents. This is why safe handling of hazardous drugs is crucial. Safe handling refers to the process in which health care workers adhere to evidence-based practices (EBP) set forth by national organizations, that have been designed to ...
অবর্ধক রক্তশূন্যতা (ইংরেজি: Aplastic anemia) একটি রোগ যাতে অস্থিমজ্জার কোষগুলি যথেষ্ট পরিমাণে নতুন রক্তকোষ উৎপাদন করে না, ফলে রক্তে এই কোষগুলির স্বল্পতা দেখা যায়। সাধারণত রক্তশূন্যতা বলতে কেবল লোহিত রক্তকণিকার অভাব বোঝালেও অবর্ধক রক্তশূন্যতায় তিন ধরনের রক্তকোষের (লোহিত কণিকা, শ্বেতকণিকা এবং অণুচক্রিকা) উৎপাদনই হ্রাস পায়। . ...
The tissue, animal model, and animal and human genetic studies cited above implicate ALOX5 in a wide range of diseases: a) excessive inflammatory responses to pathogens, trauma, burns, and other forms of tissue injury [see Inflammation#Causes); b) chronic inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune diseases, and Alzheimers disease (see Inflammation#Inflammatory disorders); c) allergy and allergic inflammation reactions such as allergic rhinitis, conjunctivitis, asthma, rashes, and eczema; d) NSAID-induced acute non-allergic reactions such as asthma, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, angioedema and urticaria; and e) the progression of certain cancers such as those of the prostate and pancreas. However, clinical use of drugs that inhibit ALOX5 to treat any of these diseases has been successful with only Zileuton along with its controlled released preparation, Zileuton ...
The tissue, animal model, and animal and human genetic studies cited above implicate ALOX5 in a wide range of diseases: a) excessive inflammatory responses to pathogens, trauma, burns, and other forms of tissue injury [see Inflammation#Causes); b) chronic inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune diseases, and Alzheimers disease (see Inflammation#Inflammatory disorders); c) allergy and allergic inflammation reactions such as allergic rhinitis, conjunctivitis, asthma, rashes, and eczema; d) NSAID-induced acute non-allergic reactions such as asthma, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, angioedema and urticaria; and e) the progression of certain cancers such as those of the prostate and pancreas. However, clinical use of drugs that inhibit ALOX5 to treat any of these diseases has been successful with only Zileuton along with its controlled released preparation, Zileuton ...
... (SPM, also termed specialized proresolving mediators) are a large and growing class of cell signaling molecules formed in cells by the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) by one or a combination of lipoxygenase, cyclooxygenase, and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase enzymes. Pre-clinical studies, primarily in animal models and human tissues, implicate SPM in orchestrating the resolution of inflammation. SPM join the long list of other physiological agents which tend to limit inflammation (see Inflammation § Resolution of inflammation) including glucocorticoids, interleukin 10 (an anti-inflammatory cytokine), interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (an inhibitor of the action of pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin 1), annexin A1 (an inhibitor of formation of pro-inflammatory metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids), and the gaseous resolvins, carbon monoxide (see Carbon monoxide § Normal human physiology), nitric oxide (see ...

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