Drugs, Generic: Drugs whose drug name is not protected by a trademark. They may be manufactured by several companies.Therapeutic Equivalency: The relative equivalency in the efficacy of different modes of treatment of a disease, most often used to compare the efficacy of different pharmaceuticals to treat a given disease.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Insurance, Pharmaceutical Services: Insurance providing for payment of services rendered by the pharmacist. Services include the preparation and distribution of medical products.Small Molecule Libraries: Large collections of small molecules (molecular weight about 600 or less), of similar or diverse nature which are used for high-throughput screening analysis of the gene function, protein interaction, cellular processing, biochemical pathways, or other chemical interactions.Drug Costs: The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).Legislation, Pharmacy: Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of pharmacy, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.Hotlines: A direct communication system, usually telephone, established for instant contact. It is designed to provide special information and assistance through trained personnel and is used for counseling, referrals, and emergencies such as poisonings and threatened suicides.Hospital-Physician Joint Ventures: A formal financial agreement made between one or more physicians and a hospital to provide ambulatory alternative services to those patients who do not require hospitalization.Formularies as Topic: Works about lists of drugs or collections of recipes, formulas, and prescriptions for the compounding of medicinal preparations. Formularies differ from PHARMACOPOEIAS in that they are less complete, lacking full descriptions of the drugs, their formulations, analytic composition, chemical properties, etc. In hospitals, formularies list all drugs commonly stocked in the hospital pharmacy.Drugs, Essential: Drugs considered essential to meet the health needs of a population as well as to control drug costs.Methotrexate: An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.Pharmacies: Facilities for the preparation and dispensing of drugs.Pharmaceutical Services, Online: Pharmacy services accessed via electronic means.Polyglutamic Acid: A peptide that is a homopolymer of glutamic acid.Antirheumatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.Folic Acid Antagonists: Inhibitors of the enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase (TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE), which converts dihydrofolate (FH2) to tetrahydrofolate (FH4). They are frequently used in cancer chemotherapy. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)Tetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction 7,8-dihyrofolate and NADPH to yield 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate and NADPH+, producing reduced folate for amino acid metabolism, purine ring synthesis, and the formation of deoxythymidine monophosphate. Methotrexate and other folic acid antagonists used as chemotherapeutic drugs act by inhibiting this enzyme. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Cost Savings: Reductions in all or any portion of the costs of providing goods or services. Savings may be incurred by the provider or the consumer.Supreme Court Decisions: Decisions made by the United States Supreme Court.Conflict of Interest: A situation in which an individual might benefit personally from official or professional actions. It includes a conflict between a person's private interests and official responsibilities in a position of trust. The term is not restricted to government officials. The concept refers both to actual conflict of interest and the appearance or perception of conflict.Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems: Systems developed for collecting reports from government agencies, manufacturers, hospitals, physicians, and other sources on adverse drug reactions.Gift Giving: The bestowing of tangible or intangible benefits, voluntarily and usually without expectation of anything in return. However, gift giving may be motivated by feelings of ALTRUISM or gratitude, by a sense of obligation, or by the hope of receiving something in return.Prescription Drugs: Drugs that cannot be sold legally without a prescription.Fas Ligand Protein: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that was originally discovered on cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage, including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It plays an important role in immune homeostasis and cell-mediated toxicity by binding to the FAS RECEPTOR and triggering APOPTOSIS.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Longevity: The normal length of time of an organism's life.Hepatitis C, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Caloric Restriction: Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Propaganda: The deliberate attempt to influence attitudes and beliefs for furthering one's cause or damaging an opponent's cause.Tobacco Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of agriculture, manufacture, and distribution related to tobacco and tobacco-derived products.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Thyroid Gland: A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.Thyroid Diseases: Pathological processes involving the THYROID GLAND.Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Thyroid Hormones: Natural hormones secreted by the THYROID GLAND, such as THYROXINE, and their synthetic analogs.Thyroid Function Tests: Blood tests used to evaluate the functioning of the thyroid gland.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Telepathology: Transmission and interpretation of tissue specimens via remote telecommunication, generally for the purpose of diagnosis or consultation but may also be used for continuing education.Students, Pharmacy: Individuals enrolled in a school of pharmacy or a formal educational program leading to a degree in pharmacy.

Potential savings from generic prescribing and generic substitution in South Africa. (1/345)

Generic prescribing and generic substitution are mechanisms for reducing the cost of drugs. The purpose of this study was to assess the extent to which generic prescribing by private medical practitioners and generic substitution by private pharmacists is practised in South Africa and to estimate the potential savings from these two practices. Prescriptions from 10 pharmacists were collected on four randomly selected days. Computer printouts of all the prescriptions dispensed on these four days together with the original doctor's prescription were priced using a commercially available pharmacy dispensing computer package. A total of 1570 prescriptions with a total number of 4086 items were reviewed. Of the total prescriptions, 45.7% had at least one item for which there was a generic equivalent. Of the 961 drugs which had generic equivalents, 202 (21 %) were prescribed using the generic name of the drug. Only 0.3% of prescribers prohibited generic substitution. The cost of the prescription as dispensed was 1.4% (mean cost: R116.19 vs R117.84) below that of the original doctor's prescriptions, indicating the marginal benefit from the current low substitution rate of 13.9% by pharmacists. About 6.8% of the cost of the original doctor's prescriptions (mean cost: R117.84) could have been saved if total generic substitution (mean cost: R109.65) was practised. The cost of the prescriptions with only brand name items (mean cost: R120.49) would have been 9.9% higher than if generic drugs were used. Current restrictive prescribing and dispensing practices result in marginal cost savings from generic prescribing and generic substitution. Both these practices have a potential to reduce drug costs, if actively encouraged and practised to maximum capacity. It is noteworthy, however, that the potential savings from generic prescribing and substitution are at most 9.9% in the absence of any changes in types of drugs prescribed.  (+info)

Considerations in pharmaceutical conversion: focus on antihistamines. (2/345)

The practice of pharmaceutical conversion, which encompasses three types of drug interchange (generic, brand, and therapeutic substitution), is increasing in managed care settings. Pharmaceutical conversion has numerous implications for managed care organizations, their healthcare providers, and their customers. Although drug cost may be a driving consideration in pharmaceutical conversion, a number of other considerations are of equal or greater importance in the decision-making process may affect the overall cost of patient care. Among these considerations are clinical, psychosocial, and safety issues; patient adherence; patient satisfaction; and legal implications of pharmaceutical conversion. Patient-centered care must always remain central to decisions about pharmaceutical conversion. This article discusses the issues related to, and implications of, pharmaceutical conversion utilizing the antihistamines class of drugs as the case situation.  (+info)

Generic drug product equivalence: current status. (3/345)

This activity is designed for healthcare professionals involved in the selection of multisource drug products. GOAL: To understand the basis for approval of generic drug products by the Food and Drug Administration. OBJECTIVES: 1. Identify the criteria employed by the Food and Drug Administration to approve generic drug products. 2. Discuss controversial issues that have been raised relative to generic drug products. 3. Identify narrow therapeutic index drugs. 4. Describe the different types of bioequivalence studies that are required by the Food and Drug Administration. 5. Discuss the responsibilities underlying the selection of multisource drug products by healthcare professionals.  (+info)

Essential drugs for cancer therapy: a World Health Organization consultation. (4/345)

The WHO has previously produced recommendations on the essential drugs required for cancer therapy. Over the last five years several new anti cancer drugs have been aggressively marketed. Most of these are costly and produce only limited benefits. We have divided currently available anti-cancer drugs into three priority groups. Curable cancers and those cancers where the cost-benefit ratio clearly favours drug treatment can be managed appropriately with regimens based on only 17 drugs. All of these are available, at relatively low cost, as generic preparations. The wide availability of these drugs should be the first priority. The second group of drugs may have some advantages in certain clinical situations. Based on current evidence, drugs in the third group are judged as currently not essential for the effective delivery of cancer care. Adequate supportive care programmes with the widespread availability of effective drugs for pain control are of considerably greater importance. The adoption of these priorities will help to optimise the effectiveness and efficiency of chemotherapy and ensure equitable access to essential drugs especially in low resource environments. Clearly this paper represents the views of its contributors. The WHO welcomes feedback from all oncologists so that the advice it gives to governments in prioritising the procurement of anti cancer drugs can be as comprehensive as possible.  (+info)

The effect of a copay increase on pharmaceutical utilization, expenditures, and treatment continuation. (5/345)

OBJECTIVE: No research has evaluated the impact of an increase to a copay that is reflective of today's healthcare market. This study examined the effect of an increase from a $10 to $15 copay for brand drugs on key pharmaceutical utilization measures, including participation rates, treatment continuation, and expenditures, in an adult population. STUDY DESIGN: A quasi-experimental, pre-post design with control group was used. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two different employer plans implemented an increase from $10 to $15 for brand copays in January of 1997. The utilization and expenditures of these plans were compared with those of a control group with a constant brand copay of $10 for 6 months preceding and 6 months following the copay increase. RESULTS: When other predictor variables were controlled for, the copay increase was not associated with a statistically significant difference in overall utilization compared with the control group, although brand utilization was significantly lower in the copay group. Savings to the payer were substantial, and resulted primarily from cost-shifting, reduction in brand utilization, and an increase in the generic fill rate. The rates of continuation with chronic medications in the 6 months following the copay increase were not reduced in the copay group compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: A copay increase can provide substantial savings to a payer without being a major deterrent to overall utilization or resulting in discontinuation of chronic medications.  (+info)

Effect of multiple-source entry on price competition after patent expiration in the pharmaceutical industry. (6/345)

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effect of multiple-source drug entry on price competition after patent expiration in the pharmaceutical industry. DATA SOURCES: Originators and their multiple-source drugs selected from the 35 chemical entities whose patents expired from 1984 through 1987. Data were obtained from various primary and secondary sources for the patents' expiration dates, sales volume and units sold, and characteristics of drugs in the sample markets. STUDY DESIGN: The study was designed to determine significant factors using the study model developed under the assumption that the off-patented market is an imperfectly segmented market. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: After patent expiration, the originators' prices continued to increase, while the price of multiple-source drugs decreased significantly over time. By the fourth year after patent expiration, originators' sales had decreased 12 percent in dollars and 30 percent in quantity. Multiple-source drugs increased their sales twofold in dollars and threefold in quantity, and possessed about one-fourth (in dollars) and half (in quantity) of the total market three years after entry. CONCLUSION: After patent expiration, multiple-source drugs compete largely with other multiple-source drugs in the price-sensitive sector, but indirectly with the originator in the price-insensitive sector. Originators have first-mover advantages, and therefore have a market that is less price sensitive after multiple-source drugs enter. On the other hand, multiple-source drugs target the price-sensitive sector, using their lower-priced drugs. This trend may indicate that the off-patented market is imperfectly segmented between the price-sensitive and insensitive sector. Consumers as a whole can gain from the entry of multiple-source drugs because the average price of the market continually declines after patent expiration.  (+info)

Managing drug costs: the perception of managed care pharmacy directors. (7/345)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the perceptions of health plan pharmacy directors about drug costs and utilization drivers, interventions the plans use to control drug expenditures, and strategies considered necessary to permit continued provision of a comprehensive drug benefit. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS: A multipart survey developed and mailed to 500 pharmacy directors of managed care organizations across the country. RESULTS: The survey respondents (response rate = 18%) represented managed care health plans in the following percentages: 49% of respondents were from network/independent practice associations; mixed-model health maintenance organizations (HMOs), 20%; group HMOs, 15%; and staff-model HMOs and network/preferred provider organizations, 8% each. Drug mix and utilization were reported to be the primary drivers of drug expenditures. Half the respondents rated inflation as a somewhat strong cost driver. Interventions the health plans use to control drug expenditures include formularies, generic substitution, preauthorization, manufacturers' rebates, drug benefit design, physician profiling, target drug programs, academic detailing, and tiered copays. With the exception of formulary use, generic substitution, and manufacturers' rebates, which all the plans have instituted, the types of interventions used by the different model types vary widely. More than half the pharmacy directors reported generic substitution, drug benefit design, and differential copays as very effective interventions used to control drug costs. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of pharmacy directors predict continued double-digit increases in drug expenditures over both the short term and the long term. Of the respondents, 91% reported that additional limits and/or exclusions to the benefit design would be necessary to control these increases. To continue providing a comprehensive drug benefit, 54% indicated that they would have to achieve sufficient cost savings in other areas to offset increases in drug costs.  (+info)

Cost effectiveness of rabeprazole versus generic ranitidine for symptom resolution in patients with erosive esophagitis. (8/345)

OBJECTIVE: To compare the cost effectiveness of rabeprazole (RAB) and ranitidine (RAN) in acute and maintenance therapy for erosive esophagitis using symptom response, rather than endoscopic healing, as the clinical outcome. STUDY DESIGN: Decision analysis was used to model the cost effectiveness of competing therapies based on the results of clinical trials of RAB versus RAN and estimates from the medical literature. METHODS: The model's base case scenario compared brand-name RAB (estimated average wholesale price) with generic RAN (25% of the average wholesale price of brand-name RAN). Medical costs for hospitalizations, procedures, and office visits reflected 1998 Medicare payments. The 1-year maintenance model accounted for drug-class switching and symptomatic, rather than endoscopic, recurrences. Effectiveness was reported as the percentage of patients in whom a symptomatic recurrence was prevented. The cost per symptomatic recurrence prevented was reported as an average and an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. RESULTS: The per-patient cost of RAB therapy was higher than that of RAN therapy ($2020 vs $1917); RAB therapy, however, was more effective than RAN therapy in preventing symptomatic recurrences (74% vs 41%). The average cost-effectiveness ratio was lower for RAB therapy than for RAN therapy ($2748 per symptomatic recurrence prevented vs $4719 per symptomatic recurrence prevented). The cost of preventing one additional symptomatic recurrence with RAB rather than RAN was $313 (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio). Sensitivity analysis conducted on key clinical and cost variables supported the robustness of the decision model. CONCLUSION: This analysis demonstrates that management of esophagitis with RAB is more effective, and may be more cost effective, than management with generic RAN, despite RAB's higher per-unit cost.  (+info)

Please also see our article Patents and the Possibility of Generic Biologic Drugs- Part III of a III Part Series. (5/24/16)- As we noted in our item dated 4/1/15 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) began hearings on the question of the drug labeling by generic drug companies for their medications when they have data that indicates the possibility of adverse drug reactions to a medication.. The Supreme Court ruled in 2011 in the case of Pliva v. Mensing that generic drug companies could not be held liable for failing to warn users of their drugs about the risks of the medication since present rules do not allow them to change the label.. Brand name drug companies have the responsibility to change a label whenever it gets information about their drug s adverse reactions. Once the brand name drug company puts a warning on a drug s label it is up to the generic drug company to follow suit on its label. The FDA proposed changing the rules to create parity between generic and brand name drug ...
Generic drugs are cheaper because the manufacturers dont have to go through the lengthy research and testing process necessary to develop new drugs. They help keep health care costs affordable, which is obviously important. However, we need companies that are willing to take on the challenge of developing new drugs to improve our ability to treat and cure disease too. Both are important pieces of the overall puzzle.. - Lili. Readers - Do you buy generic or brand-name drugs? Do you notice a difference when you take one or the other? Do you think the high cost of brand-name drugs is justified by the expense of research and development by drug companies? Leave a comment below and let us know.. Lili Ladaga is a content editor for LIVESTRONG.COM. Shes a former couch potato turned Pilates fanatic who enjoys hiking, traveling and eating everything - in moderation.. You can follow her on Twitter at @leftcoastlili.. Ann Rusnak is LIVESTRONG.COMs Senior Community Manager. Her quest to lose the "baby ...
Generic drugs are comparable to brand name drugs in all areas. They both have the same active ingredients, intended use, route of administration, strength, dosage form, quality, and performance.
Generic drugs have the same medicinal ingredients as their brand-name counterparts. vi The principal difference between them is that only after the patents on brand-name products have expired may generic companies produce their products. vii, viii Generic drugs are usually less expensive ix- xi- costing on average 45-percent less than the brandnames vii - but may have a different shape or colour than brand-name counterparts. vi These drugs are often made by large, generic manufacturers. Interestingly, a 2004 estimate finds 27 percent of generic medicines - so called "pseudogenerics" - on the Canadian market are made by brand-name companies. xii. Whoever makes them, all prescription drugs in Canada undergo a review by Health Canada, where drug ingredients are checked and manufacturing processes and facilities are verified against the same federal guidelines. v- vii. Ingredients are the most important element in the review process. Medicinal or active ingredients must meet the same Health Canada ...
The global "Inhalation And Nasal Spray Generic Drugs" Market research report gives point to point breakdown along with the data of Inhalation And Nasal Spray Generic Drugs markets analytical study, regional analysis, growth factors and leading companies. The research report about the market provides the data about the aspects which drive the expansion of Inhalation And Nasal Spray Generic Drugs industry. The Inhalation And Nasal Spray Generic Drugs market consists of large key companies who play a vital role in the production, manufacturing, sales and distribution of the products so that the supply & demand chain are met. A complex examination of the worldwide Inhalation And Nasal Spray Generic Drugs market share of past as well as future with certain trends is catered to in current report.. Request for a FREE sample of Inhalation And Nasal Spray Generic Drugs market research report @ ...
The report provides a basic overview of the China Inhalation & Nasal Spray Generic Drugs industry including definitions, segmentation, applications, key vendors, market drivers and market challenges. The China Inhalation & Nasal Spray Generic Drugs Market analysis is provided for the international markets including development trends, competitive landscape analysis, and key regions development status. Through the statistical analysis, the report depicts the global China Inhalation & Nasal Spray Generic Drugs Market including capacity, production, production value, cost/profit, supply/demand and import/export. The total market is further divided by company, by country, and by application/type for the competitive landscape analysis.. Table of Contents. Chapter One China Inhalation & Nasal Spray Generic Drugs Industry Overview. • China Inhalation & Nasal Spray Generic Drugs Definition (Product Picture and Specifications). • China Inhalation & Nasal Spray Generic Drugs Classification and ...
When the patent is no longer in force, the generic drug steps up to the plate. Currently, generic drugs account for nearly 80% of all prescriptions written.2 But, what scrutiny does the generic drug undergo to deem it a suitable replacement for the branded drug?. Policies and regulations for generic drugs have changed significantly over the years. Additionally, the FDA also allows for a 10% variance in active and inactive ingredients in branded drugs; the same variance is acceptable in generic versions.4 Prior to regulatory changes made in 1992, the FDA permitted generic drug manufacturers to use different inactive ingredients from the innovator drug, as long as the active ingredients were the same. This poses a problem for some medications we use today, as generics approved before 1992 were labeled the same as medications we currently use, but are not truly equivalent. Changes in tonicity and demulcents can affect retention time and alter absorption.4 A simple pH difference between generics and ...
Medicaid, the joint federal-state health program for the poor, spent $329 million extra in 2009 to buy 20 brand-name drugs instead of available generic copies, according to a report by the American Enterprise Institute. State rules requiring generics may be a way to reduce Medicaids drug costs, said the report from the public policy group that favors limited government. Pharmacies may substitute drug copies for brand-name treatments for Medicaid patients without a doctors directive in 49 states, and 16 require pharmacists to use a generic unless the doctor specifies otherwise, according to a 2010 analysis by Washington consulting firm Avalere Health. The top-20 list of drugs Medicaid overspent on in 2009 includes five anticonvulsants, which are under Food and Drug Administration scrutiny because of patient and provider concerns that generic versions dont work as well to treat epilepsy as their brand-name counterparts.
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Generic formulations of prescription drugs can, through their relatively lower cost, improve healthcare as long as they maintain their registration-quality and public trust. On the other hand, the market availability of several generic formulations raises a concern regarding their interchangeability, despite being proven to be individually therapeutically interchangeable with their corresponding innovator formulation.. The investigators propose to assess the quality and therapeutic interchangeability of generic formulations in the drug market of Saudi Arabia, using fifteen, commonly-used, oral, solid, immediate-release, and non-combinational drugs.. The following drugs have been identified from the Saudi National Formulary (September 2006) as having, among oral, immediate-release, non-combinational drugs, the highest number of formulations (they have each 15 to 47): ciprofloxacin, ranitidine, amoxicillin, paracetamol, atenolol, cephalexin, ibuprofen, diclofenac, metformin, omeprazole, ...
Medical Editor: Barbara K. Hecht, Ph.D.. Generic drugs are copies of brand-name drugs that have exactly the same dosage, intended use, effects, side effects, route of administration, risks, safety, and strength as the original drug. In other words, their pharmacological effects are exactly the same as those of their brand-name counterparts.. An example of a generic drug, one used for diabetes, is metformin. A brand name for metformin is Glucophage. (Brand names are usually capitalized while generic names are not.) A generic drug, one used for hypertension, is metoprolol, whereas a brand name for the same drug is Lopressor.. Many people become concerned because generic drugs are often substantially cheaper than the brand-name versions. They wonder if the quality and effectiveness have been compromised to make the less expensive products. The FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) requires that generic drugs be as safe and effective as brand-name drugs.. Actually, generic drugs are only cheaper ...
The recent report on Inhalation and Nasal Spray Generic Drugs market offers insightful information about the present scenario of the market across the globe. The report, titled Inhalation and Nasal Spray Generic Drugs points out the key factors affecting the growth of the market. Latest market trends as well as the future growth opportunities have been mentioned in the report. The report takes into account the various micro- and macro-economic factors governing the overall growth of the Inhalation and Nasal Spray Generic Drugs market and assesses the valuation and size of the market in the coming years.. Get Free Report Sample @ http://www.fiormarkets.com/report-detail/40408/request-sample. The report talks about the distinct traits of the Inhalation and Nasal Spray Generic Drugs market and provides in-depth study of the various segments of the market. The report especially focusses on the development of the Inhalation and Nasal Spray Generic Drugs market in China owing to the increased demand ...
Regionally, North America accounted for a dominant share of 38.5% in the market in 2014. The growing prevalence of COPD, asthma, and other respiratory disorders in North America has led to the expansion of the market in the region. The market in the region is also capitalizing on the growing inclination of patients and their families towards affordable generic drugs.. In the near future, however, Asia Pacific is likely to emerge as the most lucrative market for nasal spray and inhalation generic drugs. The region is likely to exhibit a CAGR of 6.3% between 2015 and 2023. The generic drugs market for inhalation and nasal spray in Asia Pacific will witness rising demand due to the presence of a large population base, the increasing disposable incomes of people living in the region, and growing awareness pertaining to the benefits of generic drugs.. Intense competition prevails in the global inhalation and nasal spray generic drugs market. Among the leading companies operating therein, Teva ...
Approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for safety and effectiveness, and are manufactured under the same strict standards which apply to brand-name drugs. Tested in humans to assure the generic is absorbed in the bloodstream in a similar manner as the brand-name drug. Generics may be different from the brand in size, color, and inactive ingredients, but this does not alter the effectiveness or the ability to be absorbed just like the brand-name drug. Manufactured in the same strength and dosage form as the brand-name drug ...
Yesterday, AARP published its latest Rx Price Watch report, which highlights generic prescription medication price changes from 2006-2013. Generic medication is considered the best avenue towards lower taxpayer and consumer drug costs. In the mid-1980s, passage of the Hatch-Waxman Act helped bring lower cost generic medication to the market faster and fueled intense price competition among generic manufacturers. The result was 1) much lower drug prices on medications that have lost their patents (often 90% lower) and 2) an exceedingly high generic penetration rate with generics comprising 85% of all medication use. AARPs report suggests that generic drug prices continue to decrease, which is good, but at a much slower rate, "indicating that the era of consistent generic drug price decreases may be coming to an end.". Stay calm. Generics are still usually much lower cost than the brand names and that will continue to be the case. AARPs report notes that 2013 had the lowest average generic price ...
Generic medicine pricing is an area of national responsibility of European Union countries. This article aims to present the current status and impact of generic medicine pricing policies in ambulatory care in Europe. The study conducts a literature review of policies relating to free-pricing systems, price-regulated systems, price differentiation, price competition and discounts, and tendering procedures; and a survey of European generic medicine pricing policies. Competition from Indian generic medicine manufacturers, European variation in generic medicine prices and competition between generic medicine manufacturers by discount suggest that the potential savings to health care payers and patients from generic medicines are not fully realized in Europe. One way of attaining these savings may be to move away from competition by discount to competition by price. Free-pricing systems may drive medicine prices downwards under specific conditions. In price-regulated systems, regulation may lower prices of
Generic medicine pricing is an area of national responsibility of European Union countries. This article aims to present the current status and impact of generic medicine pricing policies in ambulatory care in Europe. The study conducts a literature review of policies relating to free-pricing systems, price-regulated systems, price differentiation, price competition and discounts, and tendering procedures; and a survey of European generic medicine pricing policies. Competition from Indian generic medicine manufacturers, European variation in generic medicine prices and competition between generic medicine manufacturers by discount suggest that the potential savings to health care payers and patients from generic medicines are not fully realized in Europe. One way of attaining these savings may be to move away from competition by discount to competition by price. Free-pricing systems may drive medicine prices downwards under specific conditions. In price-regulated systems, regulation may lower prices of
Health,Albany New York (PRWEB) August 21 2013 The generic drugs industry comprises of the manufacture and marketing of certain drugs which have the same active ingredients as the brand-name drugs manufactured by any pharmaceutical company. The major benefit of generic drugs is that the cost of such drugs is much less than that of branded drugs. Generic drug,Global,Generic,Drugs,Market,-,New,Industry,Research,Report,Is,Now,Available,for,Pre-Order,at,Transparency,Market,Research,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Lists of Taiwan & China Generic Drug Company manufacturers & suppliers that are carefully selected to ensure high directory accuracy. They supply top quality generic drug company with their own brand names or for OEM, ODM, custom-made and contract manufacturing services. Connecting global buyers with reliable manufacturers from China & Taiwan.
Cipla. The Inhalation and Nasal Spray Generic Drugs market value, product details, sales margin and import-export details are stated. The Inhalation and Nasal Spray Generic Drugs Market is categorized based on type, applications and research regions. The competitive analysis and strategies implemented by top Inhalation and Nasal Spray Generic Drugs players are analysed in this study. The major geographical regions and countries in these regions are studied. The regions namely North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Middle East & Africa and South America are stated. The top countries namely United States, Canada, Mexico, Germany, France, Spain, UK, Russia, Italy, Japan, China, Korea, India, UAE, South Africa, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Brazil and rest of the world are analysed.. The Gobal Inhalation and Nasal Spray Generic Drugs Market share for each type and application is for the year 2018. The sales price, revenue share, upstream raw material suppliers, downstream buyers, and pricing pattern of ...
The California Supreme Court has agreed to review whether a brand-name drug manufacturer can be held liable for injuries caused by its generic equivalent. The plaintiffs in the case before the court have alleged that a brand-name drugmaker is liable for failure to warn and negligent misrepresentation even if the patient took a generic version manufactured by a different company-known as "innovator liability"-because generic drug labels follow the brand-name drugs label.. Two minor children and their father sued Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corp., the former manufacturer of the asthma medication terbutaline, for failure to warn of the risks to fetal development when the medication is used off-label to prevent or delay preterm labor. The childrens mother took terbutaline for that purpose in 2007, but Novartis had sold its rights to the drug in 2001. The plaintiffs argued that even though the mother took a generic version of the drug, Novartis knew of the risks associated with the off-label use long ...
The generic drug is bioequivalent to the branded product, meaning there is either no significant difference between the two drugs in terms of the rate and extent of absorption or if there is a difference, it is either intended or not medically significant. According to guidelines from the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the generic drug must have the same active ingredient as the brand name drug as well as the same dosage, strength, safety, conditions of use and route of administration.. ·. ...
Roberts, president of Roberts South Bank Pharmacy in Jacksonville, doesnt pretend to know all the reasons, but suspects one factor may be the recent rash of consolidations and mergers in the pharmaceutical industry.. He isnt alone in his suspicions.. Many other observers of the pharmaceutical industry see consolidation as a troubling indicator of continued price increases, which will have a dramatic impact on consumers.. Hardly a week goes by without news of another acquisition in the pharmaceutical industry. The airline and the cable industries are prime examples of how those consolidations lead to higher prices. But while consumers can choose to travel by car or cut their cable cord, they are frequently compelled to pay higher generic drug prices to treat their ailments.. A generic drug must contain the same active ingredients as the brand-name product and must be comparable in quality, dosage form, strength and performance. When the patent of a brand-name drug expires, competition ...
Many would say that these changes have been for the better, toward a safer, more effective administration and reception of the insulin. BUT each change has resulted in the extension of patents - patents that belong to brand-name players in the pharmaceutical industry.. The extension of patents means that, even though insulin for diabetes is over 90 years old, it cannot become a "generic drug." According to HealthSmart "A generic drug is a chemically equivalent, lower-cost version of a brand-name drug, costing 30-80% less! A brand-name drug and its generic version must have the same active ingredient, dosage, safety, strength, usage directions, quality, performance and intended use.". Thirty to 80 percent lower cost … THAT IS SIGNIFICANT!. Read more: Insulin is 90 Years Old and Costs More Than Ever. Why?. ...
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THURSDAY, July 6, 2017 (HealthDay News) - Market competition levels are associated with changes in the price of generic drugs, according to a study published online July 4 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.. Chintan V. Dave, Pharm.D., from the University of Florida in Gainesville, and colleagues conducted a retrospective study involving prescription claims for commercial health plans from 2008 to 2013. They calculated the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) by summing the squares of individual manufacturers market shares for each six-month period, with higher values indicating a less competitive market. In each period, the authors estimated the average drug prices for generic drugs. The HHI value estimated in the first half of 2008 was modeled as a fixed covariate.. The researchers identified a cohort of 1,120 generic drugs from 1.08 billion prescription claims. Price changes of −31.7, −11.8, 20.1, and 47.4 percent were seen for drugs with quadropoly (HHI value of 2,500), duopoly (HHI value ...
This study compares the 2008 prices of prescription generic drug products in Canada to prices in other industrialized countries. It also estimates the potential savings that might be realized by public drug reimbursement programs if Canadian generic prices were brought into line with foreign prices.. A large sample of 105 top-selling molecules was used to calculate sales-weighted arithmetic averages of the foreign-to-Canadian price ratios obtained for individual drug products. Each such ratio provides an exact answer to the question:. "How much more or less would Canadian pharmacies have paid for the generic drug products they purchased in 2008 had they paid the prices prevailing in Country X rather than Canadian prices?". Price comparisons are given for seven comparator countries: France, Germany, Italy, Sweden, Switzerland, the UK and the US. The study provides both bilateral and multilateral average price ratios. Prices used for this purpose represent pharmacy acquisition costs and are ...
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The international generic price comparison reported in the previous sections depicts the state of the Canadian generic pharmaceutical sector in Q1-2013. Since then, additional generic pricing policies have been implemented which are not fully captured in the results (Appendix C). Provincial and territorial governments are collaborating on a pan-Canadian Generic Value Price Initiative, which sets the stage for further price decreases, including reducing 18 generic drugs to 18% of the brand reference price by April 1, 2016. The creation of a new pricing framework for new generic drugs entering the market is expected to result in lower prices over time for the entire suite of generic drugs.. To gauge the possible impact of these changes, the results from Section 3 were regenerated using the average unit costs accepted for reimbursement by the Ontario Drug Benefit Program in the second quarter of 2013. These reflect the policies that reduced the generic price relative to the reference brand price ...
If you agree to take part in this study, you will take part in a focus group. The focus group will consist of about 8 people who will discuss beliefs about generic medication, awareness of discount generic prescription programs, and use of the discount generic prescription program. The focus group will last about 90 minutes.. During the focus group, you will complete a form that asks for basic demographic information (such as your age and sex).. The focus group discussions will be taped, and the recorded tapes will be transcribed word-for-word. The taped recording of the focus group study will be stored in a safe and secured locker by the study chair. The taped recordings will be destroyed after 5 years.. Length of Study:. Your participation on this study will end once you complete the focus group.. This is an investigational study. ...
2. Understand drug tier systems. Both Medicare and many private insurance prescription drug plans follow a tier system that ranges from least to most expensive. Tier 1 consists of generic drugs with a minimal copayment, often just $5. Tier 2 comprises brand-name drugs for which generics dont yet exist and which have been around for a while. They require a slightly higher copay than generics. Tier 3 is for nonpreferred brand name drugs with higher copays than either tier 1 or tier 2 drugs. Tier 4 is reserved for specialty drugs-often recently approved drugs or ones that require special administration, such as an injection. Rather than a copay, you may have to pay a percentage of the drug cost, which can be thousands of dollars per year. Your insurance plan should include an online link or paper copy of your insurers list of approved drugs, called the formulary, which lists the drugs by tier and the copay amount or percentage you can expect to pay. Once you are familiar with the formulary, you ...
Generic drugs, which are copies of brand name drugs whose patent has expired, have exactly the same composition, quality, effectiveness and safety as their brand-name counterparts since they share the same active ingredient.
The national debate over the rising cost of prescription medicines drew attention to the huge backlog of generic drug applications at the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA).[50]. Usually, when enough generic drug products are introduced to the market, the cost to buy prescription medications decreases for both the insurer and the patient.[51][52] Generic drugs have been shown to reduce healthcare costs in multiple ways, among them increasing competition which, in most cases, helps drive prices down.[53] https://www.fda.gov/ucm/groups/fdagov-public/documents/image/ucm129445.gif Companies that want to manufacture generic drugs must show in their applications to the FDA that they guarantee quality and bioequivalence. In July 2016, the FDA generic drug application backlog comprised 4,036 generics. On the other hand, the European Medicine Agency (EMA), Europes equivalent to the FDA, had only 24 generics drug applications awaiting approval. This count includes biologically based biosimilars ...
The Prescription Drug Program is available through Express Scripts. There is a $15 co-payment for a 30 day supply of a generic drug, a $30 co-payment for a 30 day supply of a preferred brand name drug, and a $50 co-payment for a 30 day supply of a non-preferred brand name drug. After the co-payment, the prescription will be covered at 100%. In order to maximize your prescription benefit under this plan, we encourage you to ask you physician to consult the drug formulary. Prescriptions must be filled at an Express Scripts participating pharmacy. Be sure to present your new 2016-2017 ID card to the pharmacist when purchasing your prescription. If a prescription needs to be filled prior to receiving and ID card, reimbursement will be made upon receipt of a completed Express Scripts Direct Reimbursement Claim Form. Please visit www.brown.edu/insurance for the policy information if you pay out of pocket for your prescriptions. To locate a participating pharmacy or to obtain current information on the ...
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In the ProPublica analysis, Dr. Hew Wah Quon, who operates a clinic in L.As Chinatown, wrote $10 million in prescriptions in 2011, the highest in the nation. From 2010 to 2012, he collected a total of $6,432 from Big Pharma companies for one speaking engagement and less than a dozen meals. Compared with thousands of physicians who earn tens of thousands of dollars for speaking engagements, Quons influence from companies such as AstraZenica and Pfizer appears insignificant.. Quon did not return calls to the Daily News.. Dr. Tsovinar Tekkelian, a physician in Glendale, billed Medicare $4.1 million in 2011. Tekkelian is among the top 10 in the nation to prescribe Diovan, a high blood pressure medication. Two years ago, there was no generic version for Diovan. Another physician, Dr. Armine Nazaryan, a physician in Glendale, also was among the top 10 in the nation to prescribe Diovan and Crestor. Neither physician had earned any exorbitant fees from pharmaceutical companies nor would they return ...
which has actually published almost a year ago, but seems to have some important information that others besides me may have missed.). Once upon a time, we knew that almost all drugs would eventually turn generic. Under the influence of the Hatch-Waxman Act of 1984, most drugs made the transition from expensive brand-name to cheap generic after 20 years (which actually amounted to 10-12 years after a drug first came onto the market). Walmart inaugurated the sales pitch of the "$4 generic" and generally generic drugs were quite affordable. During the first decade of the twenty-first century, savings picked up. More and more older drugs went generic, and the companies had fewer brand-name drugs to replace them with.. Or so it was supposed to go. Rosenthal tells us what has actually happened. She focuses her story on asthma drugs.. Very few new asthma drugs are on the market, so treating this common disease should be cheap. It is certainly cheap in other countries, where the government intervenes ...
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The study, conducted by Express Scripts and published in the Journal of Managed Care Pharmacy, found patients starting generic selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and generic selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors had a discontinuation rate of 44.2%, compared with 46.8% among those on brand-name SSRIs and SNRIs. However, drug costs for those starting on generics were almost 50% lower. Similarly, total healthcare costs were about 20% lower - an average of $3,660 in patients starting on a generic, compared with $4,587 for those starting on a brand-name drug.. The study analyzed antidepressant usage from more than 16,000 patient records in MarketScan, a database of integrated pharmacy and medical claims from commercially insured patients.. ...
Buy Grisetin Online! Grisetin oral tablet is a prescription drug thats available as the brand name drug Gris-PEG. Its also available as a generic drug. In some cases, they may not be available in all strengths or forms as the brand-name drug.
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Jane: its true that patients may rely on the doctors experience on which drug is better, but if you take away the doctors freedom to express his preferred drug, PATIENTS WILL INSTEAD RELY ON PHARMACISTS TO MAKE THE CHOICE FOR THEM. Not all drugs have cheap generic versions, and enforcing this bill wont force drug stores to stockpile cheap generic drugs. Consider this: branded drug X is bought by the drug store for P40 from the pharmaceutical company, so the store sells it for P60. Assuming the store follows the spirit of the bill and also buys generic drug X for P4 from and importer and sells it to patients for P10. Sales people at the drug store would naturally recommend branded drug X since the store would profit P20 from it instead of P6 from the generic drug. Why didnt the patient choose the generic drug? The drug store could lie and deny they have a generic version, or they could just avoid stockpiling on generic drugs altogether. Who would you prefer to trust more, the doctor who ...
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Attorney General Cynthia H. Coffman announced today that Colorado has joined a federal antitrust lawsuit alleging that six generic drug-makers-Heritage Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Aurobindo Pharma USA, Inc., Citron Pharma, LLC, Mayne Pharma (USA), Inc., Mylan Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and Teva Pharmaceuticals USA, Inc.-conspired to artificially inflate and manipulate prices for two generic drugs.
Most people saw the Affordable Care Acts main goal to be giving uninsured Americans access to healthcare coverage. As a result, many figured that Obamacares impact on Medicare recipients would be minimal, since those who participate in Medicare already have coverage.. However, key aspects of Obamacare have big implications for Medicare participants. The Affordable Care Act implemented provisions to close the so-called donut hole for Part D prescription drug coverage by having drug manufacturers offer discounts on brand-name drugs and having the plans themselves cover a percentage of costs of generic drugs. For 2016, that means youll only pay 45% of the cost of brand-name drugs and 58% of generic-drug costs in the donut hole.. In addition, Obamacare gave Medicare participants access to some new preventive benefits. New enrollees are entitled to a one-time health assessment that covers a wide range of services. Then, annual wellness visits are also provided as part of Medicare coverage. For a ...
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... of the generic drug cost covered[13] . Similarly, for brand name drugs, the government will provide a subsidy at a rate of 2.5 ... These reductions on generic drug costs will continue to incrementally rise at a rate of 7% until 2019. The following year in ... Represents the total negotiated drug price. *^ Includes 50% discount paid by brand-name drug manufacturer and 15% paid by plan ... The most common forms of gap coverage cover generic drugs only.[11] ...
List of drugs with comparison[edit]. Comparison of different analgesics Generic name (INN) Physicochemistry[39] Mechanism of ... Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (usually abbreviated to NSAIDs), are a drug class that groups together drugs that decrease ... Other drugs[edit]. Main article: analgesic adjuvant. Drugs that have been introduced for uses other than analgesics are also ... "Drugs Used In The Treatment Of Interstitial Cystitis". Drug Treatment in Urology. John Wiley & Sons, 2008. p. 65.. ...
"Generic Spiriva Availability". Drugs.com. Retrieved 31 January 2019.. *^ a b "Spiriva Handihaler". The American Society of ... "Drugs.com. Retrieved 31 January 2019.. *^ Fischer, Jnos; Ganellin, C. Robin (2006). Analogue-based Drug Discovery. John Wiley ... Common adverse drug reactions (≥1% of patients) associated with tiotropium therapy include: dry mouth and/or throat irritation ... "Drugs.com. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Retrieved 31 January 2019.. ...
"Generic Levitra Availability". Drugs.com. Retrieved 2015-06-01.. *^ "FDA approves tadalafil for pulmonary arterial hypertension ... "Drugs.com. Retrieved February 23, 2018.. *^ Revill, Jo (February 2, 2003). "Drugs giant says its new pill will pack more punch ... Two years later, Lilly ICOS, LLC, filed a new drug application with the FDA for compound IC351 (under the tadalafil generic ... "Tadalafil - Drug Usage Statistics". ClinCalc. Retrieved 11 April 2020.. *^ "Pill Splitting" (PDF). Consumer Reports Health. ...
Generic names[edit]. Dutasteride is the generic name of the drug and its INN, USAN, BAN, and JAN.[52] ... "Generic Avodart Availability - Drugs.com".. *^ a b c William Llewellyn (2011). Anabolics. Molecular Nutrition Llc. pp. 968-, ... "Drugs@FDA: FDA Approved Drug Products". www.accessdata.fda.gov.. *^ Wilt TJ, Macdonald R, Hagerty K, Schellhammer P, Tacklind J ... Enrique Ravina (11 January 2011). The Evolution of Drug Discovery: From Traditional Medicines to Modern Drugs. John Wiley & ...
"Generic legislation of new psychoactive drugs" (pdf). J Psychopharmacol. 27 (3): 317-324. doi:10.1177/0269881112474525. PMID ... an anesthetic that has been used as a psychoactive drug for several millennia. Ethanol is the oldest recreational drug still ... Cannabis is a depressant drug, but it also has hallucinogenic effects.. *^ Amsterdam, Jan; Nutt, David; Brink, Wim (January 23 ... A depressant, or central depressant, is a drug that lowers neurotransmission levels, which is to depress or reduce arousal or ...
"Drugs.com Database".. *^ "Novartis hits Astellas with transplant drug generic". Reuters. 11 August 2009. Retrieved 11 August ... The U.S. patent expired in October 2009.[5] The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved generics in March 2010.[6] ... "FDA Approves First Generic Tamsulosin to Treat Enlarged Prostate Gland" (Press release). U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA ... "Drugs.com. Retrieved 27 April 2011. *^ Roehrborn CG, Siami P, Barkin J, et al. (February 2008). "The effects of dutasteride, ...
"Drug Approval Package: Brand Name (Generic Name) NDA #". accessdata.fda.gov. 24 December 1999. Retrieved 23 November 2019.. ... "FDA Approved Drug Products - Dysport". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Archived from the original on 8 November 2016. ... "Drug Approval Package: Jeuveau". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 5 March 2019. Archived from the original on 23 ... "Drug Approval Package: Dysport (abobotulinumtoxin) NDA #125274s000". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 17 August 2011. ...
Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 30 October 2019.. *^ "FDA approves first generic Advair Diskus". U.S. Food and Drug ... "Drugs.com. Retrieved 3 March 2019.. *^ Office of the Commissioner. "Press Announcements - FDA approves first generic Advair ... Generic equivalents[edit]. On January 30, 2019, the FDA granted Mylan N.V. the first generic approval for Advair Diskus.[12] ... "Drugs.com. Retrieved 4 March 2019.. *^ "Fluticasone / salmeterol Pregnancy and Breastfeeding Warnings". ...
Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Jan Aushadhi Kendra (PMBJK) have been set up to provide generic drugs, which are available at lesser ... Generic Medicine [21] Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Janaushadhi Pariyojana' is a campaign launched by the Department of ... "400 medical stores in state to provide affordable drugs , Latest News & Updates at Daily News & Analysis". dna. 2017-06-23. ... "Jan Aushadhi : An Initiative of Government of India , Generic Medicine Campaign Improving Access to Medicines". janaushadhi.gov ...
"2010 Top 200 generic drugs by total prescriptions" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 December 2012. Retrieved 2 ... Ciprofloxacin inhibits the drug-metabolizing enzyme CYP1A2 and thereby can reduce the clearance of drugs metabolized by that ... Brouwers, Jacobus R.B.J. (1992). "Drug Interactions with Quinolone Antibacterials". Drug Safety. 7 (4): 268-81. doi:10.2165/ ... "Drug Safety and Availability - FDA Drug Safety Communication: FDA updates warnings for oral and injectable fluoroquinolone ...
drugs.com International availability of lansoprazole Page accessed February 3, 2015 *^ drugs.com Generic lansoprazole Page ... "Drugs.com. Retrieved 3 March 2019.. *^ Fischer, Jnos; Ganellin, C. Robin (2006). Analogue-based Drug Discovery. John Wiley & ... The lansoprazole molecule is off-patent and so generic drugs are available under many brand names in many countries;[22] there ... Chorghade, Mukund S. (2006). Drug Discovery and Development, Volume 1: Drug Discovery. John Wiley & Sons. p. 201. ISBN ...
"2008 Top 200 generic drugs by retail dollars"" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-01-12.. .mw-parser-output cite. ... "Cefdinir medical facts from Drugs.com". drugs.com.. *^ "Susceptibility and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) Data" (PDF). ... 585 million in retail sales of its generic versions alone.[1] Cefdinir is structurally similar to cefixime. ...
"High-Cost Generic Drugs - Implications for Patients and Policymakers". New England Journal of Medicine. 372 (7): 685. 2015. doi ... "International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Archived from the original on 5 March 2017. Retrieved 18 August 2015.. ... Drug interactions[edit]. Carbamazepine and phenytoin lower serum levels of mebendazole. Cimetidine does not appreciably raise ... "Drug Interactions". Medicine chest. Archived from the original on 2007-02-06. Retrieved 2008-05-06.. ...
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"Generic Colcrys Availability". drugs.com.. *^ Leete, E. (1963). "The biosynthesis of the alkaloids of Colchicum: The ... "FDA Unapproved Drugs Initiative".. *^ a b c Langreth, Robert; Koons, Cynthia (6 October 2015). "2,000% Drug Price Surge Is a ... "FDA Approves Colchicine With Drug Interaction and Dose Warnings". July 2009.. *^ a b "Orange Book: Approved Drug Products with ... United States Unapproved Drugs InitiativeEdit. An unintended consequence of the 2006 U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) ...
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  • For example, the largest revenues of Ranbaxy , now owned by Sun Pharma , came from branded generics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, shares of Momenta Pharma, which focuses on developing generic versions of complex drugs, biosimilars, and novel therapeutics for autoimmune diseases in the US, have an RSI of 81.61. (yahoo.com)
  • Previously, the lawsuit was filed against Heritage Pharmaceuticals Inc., Aurobindo Pharma USA Inc., Citron Pharma LLC, Mayne Pharma (USA) Inc., Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc. and Teva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc. The lawsuit alleged that the companies entered into illegal conspiracies in order to unreasonably restrain trade, artificially inflate and manipulate prices and reduce competition in the U.S. for two drugs, antibiotic doxycycline hyclate delayed release and oral diabetes medication glyburide. (thestreet.com)
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  • The agency said it was giving the tentative nod to versions of the major drug manufactured by India's Ranbaxy Laboratories and Aurobindo Pharma. (pharmatimes.com)
  • 2.8 Is Generic Substitution Bad News for Big Pharma Business? (visiongain.com)
  • Ongoing disruptions in the globalized pharma supply chains causing drug shortages in the United States are at their highest in five years. (forbes.com)
  • Effective October 1, 2018, generic drug applicants and their affiliates, or an authorized representative, can submit the list of all approved ANDAs via the CDER Direct NextGen Collaboration Portal. (fda.gov)
  • As of January 16, 2018, there are 4208 drugs and dosages on the list. (needymeds.org)
  • We expect the likely appearance of a first-to-file generic version of Eliquis in 2018 to result in a 37% drop in revenue for the year, relative to our baseline (no early generic entry) forecast for Eliquis. (prweb.com)
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  • The legislation would extend through fiscal year 2018, and make several technical changes to, FDA's existing fee programs for brand and generic animal drugs, which expire at the end of fiscal year 2013. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amazon.com Inc. has had early talks with generic drug makers like Mylan NV and Novartis AG's Sandoz about a potential entry into the pharmacy business, according to a Thursday report. (wikinvest.com)
  • Only the more easily absorbed drug would be affected, Althoff said, adding that its own generic business, Sandoz, produces cheap versions of its drugs for millions across the globe. (law.com)
  • A Novartis representative said in an email, "We acknowledge that Sandoz, along with 17 other companies, has been named in an amended State Attorney Generals complaint regarding U.S. generic medicine pricing practices concerning 15 products, including two Sandoz products, Fosinopril HCTZ and Carisoprodol ASA. (thestreet.com)
  • Novartis on Wednesday lowered its outlook for its Sandoz generics business, saying it expects a low-single digit decline in sales for the year. (swissinfo.ch)
  • Sandoz receives approval of its generic statin in China and states it will continue to grow its generic portfolio in the country. (outsourcing-pharma.com)
  • Sandoz Resolves Generic Drug Antitrust Investigation in the U.S. (novartis.com)
  • Princeton, New Jersey, March 2, 2020 - Sandoz Inc. has reached a resolution with the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) Antitrust Division concerning the Department's more than three-year-long antitrust investigation into the U.S. generic drug industry. (novartis.com)
  • The Sandoz resolution relates to instances of misconduct at the company between 2013 and 2015 with regard to certain generic drugs sold in the United States. (novartis.com)
  • Sandoz will also continue to cooperate with the government's ongoing investigation into the generic pharmaceutical industry. (novartis.com)
  • The FDA already has the legal authority to approve complex generics, and Commissioner Scott Gottlieb has made this one of his top priorities. (forbes.com)
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  • Global drugmakers have drawn up a $600,000 publicity campaign to mobilize local and overseas opposition to the intellectual property (IP) changes, according to a document written by a drugs industry lobby group and seen by Reuters. (reuters.com)
  • Amazon could be getting into healthcare, and the company's reportedly had conversations with generic drugmakers about it, CNBC reports. (wikinvest.com)
  • It's the generic drug manufacturing industry's first large-scale bid to compete with brand-name drugmakers' glossy multibillion-dollar promotions, said Steven Findlay, research director at the National Institute for Health Care Management, which is partially funded by health plan Blue Cross/Blue Shield. (marketwatch.com)
  • Share prices of other generic drugmakers also declined, as did those of wholesalers, which profit from the sales of generic drugs and have said they expect prices to continue declining. (nytimes.com)
  • US FDA issues draft guidance for its competitive generic therapies pathway, providing drugmakers with clarity on the designation and calling on the industry for more generic competition. (outsourcing-pharma.com)
  • The goal, he said, is to blend science and risk-based approaches to applications for generic and biosimilar drugs with the need to bend the cost curve in healthcare. (healthline.com)
  • Generic drugs are supposed to be a win-win for the healthcare system. (healthline.com)
  • But the national healthcare law is intended to put the brakes on the profit bonanza from Humira, as well as many other biotechnology drugs, by opening up the sector to generic competition. (latimes.com)
  • Biotech drugs are among the world's most expensive,' said Sidney Wolfe, director of the health research group at Public Citizen, a consumer watchdog of the healthcare industry. (latimes.com)
  • The report drew on a nationwide healthcare claims database to study 8,427 patients with open-angle glaucoma who were 40 years and older and were taking PGAs, one of the most commonly prescribed class of drugs for glaucoma. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • For this reason, Madison, a medical insurance provider directed doctors to prescribe only generic drugs to their clients, in a bid to reduce healthcare costs. (co.ke)
  • These forecasts are based on industry sources and a considered assessment of the regulatory environment, healthcare policies, demographics, and other factors that directly affect the generic drug market. (prnewswire.co.uk)
  • Amneal announces acquisition of 65.1% majority interest of generics distributing company, AvKARE, boosting its presence in the generics and federal healthcare market. (outsourcing-pharma.com)
  • Over the past 12 months, Uceris, which as yet has no generic competitors in the US, commanded a market valued at about US$200 million in that country, Lotus said, citing findings by healthcare researcher IMS Health Inc. (taipeitimes.com)
  • Even though our prices are consistently at the rock bottom end of the marketplace, you still grossly overpay for generic drugs -- no matter where you buy them. (mercola.com)
  • Percentage-based prices result in 1 of 2 outcomes: The first is that drug plans systematically overpay for generic drugs that 1 or more manufacturers would have been willing to sell for less. (cmaj.ca)
  • In fact, as part of Kesselheim's 2008 study in JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association , his team reviewed 43 editorials that had been published in peer-review health care journals between 1975 and 2008 concerning generic substitutions for branded cardiovascular disease pharmaceuticals. (scientificamerican.com)
  • This amendment would enhance protection for branded pharmaceuticals and limit generic competition, which could, in the end, result in higher drug costs to insurers and consumers. (sltrib.com)
  • German drug maker Merck KGaA said on Friday that its Toronto-based Genpharm Pharmaceuticals Inc. unit has been granted an exclusive marketing license by the FDA for generic ranitidine, the active ingredient in Zantac. (wsj.com)
  • From the rising costs of the epinephrine autoinjector (EpiPen) to the unscrupulous pricing practices of Valeant and Martin Shkreli's Turing pharmaceuticals, widely-publicized controversies involving decades-old drugs have generated congressional investigations and sparked public concern. (brookings.edu)
  • State attorneys general led by Connecticut's George Jepsen said Tuesday that were planning to include Mylan president Rajiv Malik and Emcure Pharmaceuticals Ltd. executive Satish Mehta in an expanded complaint in the federal generic drug antitrust lawsuit. (thestreet.com)
  • By 2016, it is expected that the value of the total global generics sector will have risen to $358 billion, representing more than 18% of all pharmaceuticals, a projected compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 9.7% between 2011 and 2016. (bccresearch.com)
  • This is a time of growth and change for the generic pharmaceuticals sector. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The international landscape is changing for generics as for all pharmaceuticals. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Alvogen and Lotus are to file an abbreviated new drug application with the US Food and Drug Administration for a generic version of Uceris, while Alvogen is prepared to contest appeals by Valeant Pharmaceuticals International Inc, owner of the drug's original developer. (taipeitimes.com)
  • The generic version will cost roughly half the price of the $65 brand-name. (wikinvest.com)
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  • Also, once a company has a monopoly on a generic drug, it can steeply raise its price. (healthline.com)
  • Over 1,000 other generics also are available at a discounted price under the program, which Kroger said provides up to an 85% savings. (ncsl.org)
  • Cowan can flip through his records and spot the long-used generic drugs that have taken big price jumps in the past year or so. (philly.com)
  • There's doxycycline, a decades-old antibiotic that went on the Food and Drug Administration's shortage list in 2012 and became the poster child for generic price spikes. (philly.com)
  • Factors behind the unusual price spikes, experts say, include a wave of industry mergers and decisions by some manufacturers to stop making certain drugs. (philly.com)
  • Another analysis of the CMS data, by Pembroke Consulting, found that from November 2012 to November 2013, two-thirds of the 16,000 different generic drugs and dosages saw a price decline while a third rose in price. (philly.com)
  • Not only did it not go generic … the price inexplicably started to rise. (pbs.org)
  • Most pharmacies do not list the price of the drugs they sell. (therubins.com)
  • The administration is developing more regulatory initiatives that could have a meaningful impact of drug price competition. (forbes.com)
  • More recently, however, price hikes and shortages of generic drugs have dominated news headlines and the attention of policymakers. (brookings.edu)
  • This legislation represents just the latest call for greater price regulation of drugs. (brookings.edu)
  • Last, we apply our proposal to show how it might affect international competition among a cohort of U.S. drugs currently eligible for generic competition, but lacking sufficient competition to achieve substantial price reductions. (brookings.edu)
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  • The court's decision is expected to be a landmark that will influence future drug accessibility and price across the developing world. (law.com)
  • Mylan also sells the EpiPen, the brand-name allergy treatment whose price increases have stoked outrage over the past year , but the company's primary business is as a seller of generic drugs. (nytimes.com)
  • They have fallen even in the face of high-profile exceptions: Dozens of old generic drugs have risen in price in recent years, for reasons that include supply disruptions and competitors' leaving the market. (nytimes.com)
  • For example, the price that pharmacies paid for the antibiotic doxycycline hyclate increased to $3.65 a pill in 2013 from 5.6 cents in 2012, according to an analysis of pricing data by Adam J. Fein, president of Pembroke Consulting, who researches the drug-distribution industry. (nytimes.com)
  • The spike in prices of doxycycline and other generic drugs led to a congressional investigation as well as state and federal inquiries into price-fixing that are still underway. (nytimes.com)
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  • Unlike its rival Novo Nordisk , which committed to only single-digit price increases going forward, Lilly hasn't commit to any caps on drug price increases, and neither company has lowered their list prices, or the prices set by the drugmaker before any rebates or discounts are applied. (businessinsider.com)
  • The price of generic drugs has generated much debate over the past several years. (cmaj.ca)
  • In the past, Canada focused less on the specific price of generic drugs than on using them to regulate brand prices. (cmaj.ca)
  • The next year, Ontario introduced the "70/90 rule," which set price ceilings for the first generic entrant at 70% of the brand price and all subsequent entrants at 90% of this price. (cmaj.ca)
  • This left a wide margin between the prices drug plans would reimburse and the price at which generic manufacturers were actually willing to provide their products. (cmaj.ca)
  • There is no reason to believe that the brand-name price should bear any resemblance to the cost of developing and manufacturing a generic version. (cmaj.ca)
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  • Generics drug portfolios are diversifying, prices are stabilising, and while competition remains intense, the worst of price erosion appears to be over, claims Clarivate Analytics executive. (outsourcing-pharma.com)
  • A 2016 report sponsored by the American Hospital Association and Federation of American Hospitals identified 10 drugs with price increases of 300% or more between 2013 and 2015. (pharmacytimes.com)
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  • Thanks to the 1984 law, consumers have access to generic versions of many blockbuster treatments, including the cholesterol drug Zocor and the antidepressant Prozac, which can cost $3 to $5 a day. (latimes.com)
  • Although they may not be associated with a particular company, generic drugs are usually subject to government regulations in the countries in which they are dispensed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the company making branded generics can spend little on research and development , it is able to spend on marketing alone, thus earning higher profits and driving costs down. (wikipedia.org)
  • The average cost to a brand-name company of discovering, testing, and obtaining regulatory approval for a new drug, with a new chemical entity , was estimated to be as much as $800 million in 2003 and $2.6 billion in 2014. (wikipedia.org)
  • This profit often greatly exceeds the development and production costs of the drug, allowing the company to offset the cost of research and development of other drugs that are not profitable or do not pass clinical trials. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consider how much effort the Coca-Cola Company continues to expend on differentiating its flagship product from Pepsi (and vice versa), let alone the variety of generic colas available at local supermarkets. (theatlantic.com)
  • After six months in the Generics First program, which teaches doctors about generic drugs and gives them free samples for patients to try, 1,700 doctors prescribed 22 percent more no-name drugs than a control group, and more than half substituted generics for patients already receiving brand-name drugs, the company said last week. (marketwatch.com)
  • To be sure, Merck-Medco's parent company stands to gain from the promotional activity of its pharmacy benefits management subsidiary by keeping its former brand-name drug consumers in its corporate pipeline. (marketwatch.com)
  • Fed up by these problems, a group of hospitals and other organizations have joined together to form a nonprofit, generic drug company whose mission is to "ensure that essential generic drugs… are available and affordable to everyone. (healthline.com)
  • The company will need to obtain FDA approval before making its own drugs. (healthline.com)
  • Daniel Tomaszewski, PharmD, PhD, an assistant professor in pharmacy administration at Chapman University in Irvine, California, said the new company won't solve all the problems with the generic drug market. (healthline.com)
  • If you run into a production problem, and you're the only company making that generic, you're looking at a potential shortage," said Tomaszewski. (healthline.com)
  • Knoll provided Abbott with a host of products, including the popular thyroid treatment Synthroid and the diet drug Meridia, which had a few years of good sales before the FDA requested that the company take it off the market because of heart risks. (latimes.com)
  • however, the Kroger Company has ceased offering its $4 generics. (ncsl.org)
  • The settlements include a date that the generic drug can enter the market, and in some cases, a payment from brand company to the generic company. (pbs.org)
  • As Winkler discovered through online research, the company manufacturing the drug, Cephalon, was using two common but little known business strategies that critics say end up costing consumers. (pbs.org)
  • At its simplest level, we're talking about an agreement between a brand company and a generic company, in which the brand company pays the generic company not to launch a generic in competition with the brand. (pbs.org)
  • The company has decided to halt all advertising for the drug. (marketwatch.com)
  • The combined company would have a portfolio of branded drugs with $7 billion in annual sales and more than 30 potential products in late-stage development. (washingtontimes.com)
  • The bulk of Teva 's revenue comes from generic drugs, but the company does sell several branded drugs, including the multiple sclerosis drug Copaxone and the Parkinson's disease drug Azilect. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Once the brand name drug company puts a warning on a drug s label it is up to the generic drug company to follow suit on its label. (therubins.com)
  • This issue had arisen because of a 2011 decision by the U.S. Supreme Court that ruled, in Pliva Inc. vs. Mensing , No. 09-993 that a generic drug company could not be sued, even it had reason to believe that a drug was unsafe under certain conditions, as long as its label matched that of the brand-name drug s label. (therubins.com)
  • 12/29/14)- The verdict in a recent court case that involved a brand-name drug company paying a generic drug company to delay the introduction of its competing drug did not conclusively decide thepay -to-play issue. (therubins.com)
  • In a letter sent Wednesday to the company, the agency alleged that data submitted from the Ranbaxy plant contained falsified information -- including lies that safety tests were conducted, lies that drugs had been kept at room temperature when in fact they had been stored in refrigerators, and lies about the shelf life of some drugs. (cnn.com)
  • The generic alternative is not manufactured by the company that makes the brand product. (northwestpharmacy.com)
  • The not-for-profit drug company initially will be backed by four hospital groups - Intermountain Health, Ascension and two Catholic health systems, Trinity Health and SSM Health - plus the VA health system. (spokesman.com)
  • Natco, the Indian company, said its generic version would cost $175 a month, less than 1/30th as much. (law.com)
  • An additional 12 health systems, representing roughly 250 hospitals across the United States, have joined the Utah-based, not-for-profit generic drug company Civica Rx as founding members. (medscape.com)
  • When combined with the seven health systems that make up the initial governing members of Civica Rx, roughly 750 US hospitals have joined the "mission-driven" venture to reduce shortages of lifesaving generic drugs, the company said in a news release. (medscape.com)
  • For "competitive reasons," the company can't signal in advance the drugs that will be produced, Mike Romano, spokesperson for Catholic Health Initiatives, told Medscape Medical News back when the company was formed. (medscape.com)
  • The six-month period after a drug goes generic is typically the most lucrative time for the first company to market. (nytimes.com)
  • In a recent call with Wall Street analysts, George S. Barrett, the chairman and chief executive of Cardinal Health, a major drug distributor that reported declining profits last week, said generic deflation was not new, but that the company historically had been able to anticipate it. (nytimes.com)
  • The Doctors are shocked by a story about a drug company that allegedly falsified its data in order to obtain approval for its drugs by the Federal Drug Administration. (thedoctorstv.com)
  • The company continues to be confident it can meet consensus estimates for the drug this year, he said. (swissinfo.ch)
  • Many preparations have shown the drug company seems to taking lisinopril twice daily help co-workers with long disorder cozaar with urine. (byorianne.com)
  • Buller, tab seek the blood of the snowshoe cream, who contains associated with find then spam within between one money and a loreal circulation is viagra sale singapore launder your relevant drugs with or well a cleaning time dosis created for company. (chausson-encheres.com)
  • This report is designed to satisfy the information needs of a wide variety of individuals involved in the generics marketplace, including company senior management executives seeking to base their strategic decisions on the best available information on market forces and trends. (prnewswire.co.uk)
  • The US Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit removed the injunction against Dr. Reddy's, which prevented the company from selling its Suboxone generic. (outsourcing-pharma.com)
  • The company has also taken a significant policy stand by excluding the 2 pain drugs OxyContin and Butrans from the PDL citing "aggressive drug marketing of opioids. (ajmc.com)
  • A company hoping to get a single drug to market can expect to have spent $350 million before the medicine is available for sale. (prezi.com)
  • A: Contact your physician, pharmacist, or insurance company for information on your generic drugs. (quackwatch.org)
  • The company's delivery of generic drug samples to doctors marks a shift in strategy that could pay off by giving the fledgling industry more visibility, Findlay said. (marketwatch.com)
  • In 2001, Abbott Laboratories spent nearly $7 billion on the biggest acquisition in the company's 123-year history, primarily to get access to one drug: Humira. (latimes.com)
  • The broad range of the pipeline and current products is a key part of Teva 's strategy of growing branded drug revenue to $9 billion by 2015. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Strategically, it lessens dependence on its multiple sclerosis franchise, supports its long-term strategy and financial targets, deepens its late-stage pipeline and expands its global generic footprint," he said, in a note to investors. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Teva launches Tarceva generic for the treatment of NSCLC, as it continues to expand its pipeline of oncology treatments. (outsourcing-pharma.com)
  • Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg said that in 2005, Mutual said the drug only produced $7 million. (yahoo.com)
  • So long as $2 billion in annual sales are at stake, it is doubtful that we will see an abatement in the variety of tactics used by brand-name firms trying to maintain a monopoly in their markets,'' the F.D.A. said in a statement offering reassurance about generics. (nytimes.com)
  • Symporia Bioscience analyzes generic drug markets, publishing generic drug First-to-File Opportunity Assessments, which are designed to allow industry managers to understand and evaluate the market potential for selected branded drugs from the viewpoint of creating and refining FDA ANDA regulatory filings in pursuit of first-filer generic drug applications. (prweb.com)
  • This report discusses the implications of all the above-mentioned trends, in the context of the current size and growth of the generics market, both in global terms and analyzed by the most important national markets. (bccresearch.com)
  • Japan's generic drugs market is expected to have the highest rate of growth among major markets at 12.2%, increasing from $5.4 billion in 2009 to $9.6 billion in 2014. (bccresearch.com)
  • The industry has benefited from increasing generic penetration in most major markets notable exceptions being Japan, France, Italy and Spain, where generic penetration is increasing slowly. (visiongain.com)
  • According to a new technical market research report, Global Markets for Generic Drugs , from BCC Research ( http://www.bccresearch.com ), the global generic drugs market was valued at nearly $270 billion in 2012 and is estimated at nearly $301 billion for 2013. (prnewswire.co.uk)
  • She also highlighted how such harmonization could increase the size of markets, attract more competition and lower costs and expand patient access to generic drugs. (raps.org)
  • Our viagra markets is powder sexual to of cialis generic overnight shipping the branded difficulties and contains with the $22 heart. (barreaudeversailles.com)
  • They are forced to cut corners and are unable to meet the FDA mandated CGMP guidelines, leading to inline contaminations, poor quality production, and exit from loss-making drug markets. (forbes.com)
  • It brought a lawsuit in 2008, alleging "anticompetitive conduct by Cephalon to prevent lower-cost generic competition. (pbs.org)
  • Third, we propose a three-pronged approach for increasing competition in the U.S. generic drug market, while minimizing any attendant risks to patient safety or undermining the institutional role of the FDA. (brookings.edu)
  • GDUFA II is designed to build on the successes and shortcomings of the first five years of the program and includes a range of provisions intended to reduce multiple review cycles and prioritize FDA review of generic applications for drugs that have little competition. (pewtrusts.org)
  • Policymakers seeking to reduce drug spending may want to consider approaches beyond FDA review to increase competition. (pewtrusts.org)
  • Pill-splitting refers to the amount of splitting a counter or penis to provide a lower heart of the new division, or to obtain new smaller arteries, either to reduce erection or because the drugs major provide a larger filter than required. (astoriacompass.com)
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  • The policy would also close a loophole known as "ever-greening" that allows a drugmaker to make minor changes to an existing drug or discover a new use for it, and then register it as a totally new find. (reuters.com)
  • The agency is offering a faster time to market for the first few generics to enter the market for a particular drug, with the hopes this will bring drug costs into check more quickly, and end the seeming monopoly that many innovators have on their branded products," Bowden told Healthline. (healthline.com)
  • Like Fein, most analysts don't think the Affordable Care Act has played much of a role in the higher costs of some generic drugs. (philly.com)
  • But in the U.S., virtually every inhaler costs what we'd expect to pay for brand-name drugs, even if the active ingredient is as old as the hills. (bioethics.net)
  • Even though there was wide variation in the factors such as patient age, disease stage, and viral genotype input to the model, results always indicated that generic DAA treatment reduced lifetime costs. (medindia.net)
  • A 2000 study published in the Journal of Health Economics estimated that bringing a new drug to market costs the innovator on average $802 million over a period of 10 to 15 years. (scientificamerican.com)
  • To calculate the savings, the researchers used sophisticated modeling methods to predict population-level costs for the decade spanning 2010-20 based on current use of the two drugs. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Before accepting the neatness, costs there must be a filter made by the disease on cialis generic acheter how the approach is to obtain the erection. (lea.no)
  • This provides protection for the innovator who laid out the initial costs (including research, development, and marketing expenses) to develop the new drug. (quackwatch.org)
  • The move will bring down the standard course of sofosbuvir and ledipasvir (generic versions of Sovaldi and Harvoni) to $1,000 compared to $90,000 in U.S. and Europe. (digitaljournal.com)