Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Natriuresis: Sodium excretion by URINATION.Diuresis: An increase in the excretion of URINE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)CreatinineSodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Albuminuria: The presence of albumin in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.Urine: Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.Glomerular Filtration Rate: The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.Biliary Tract: The BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Proteinuria: The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Electrolytes: Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Kidney Tubules: Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Methylhistidines: Histidine substituted in any position with one or more methyl groups.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Aldosterone: A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.Renal Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.Metabolic Clearance Rate: Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Furosemide: A benzoic-sulfonamide-furan. It is a diuretic with fast onset and short duration that is used for EDEMA and chronic RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Sodium, Dietary: Sodium or sodium compounds used in foods or as a food. The most frequently used compounds are sodium chloride or sodium glutamate.Probenecid: The prototypical uricosuric agent. It inhibits the renal excretion of organic anions and reduces tubular reabsorption of urate. Probenecid has also been used to treat patients with renal impairment, and, because it reduces the renal tubular excretion of other drugs, has been used as an adjunct to antibacterial therapy.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Sodium Chloride, Dietary: Sodium chloride used in foods.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Glycosuria: The appearance of an abnormally large amount of GLUCOSE in the urine, such as more than 500 mg/day in adults. It can be due to HYPERGLYCEMIA or genetic defects in renal reabsorption (RENAL GLYCOSURIA).Inulin: A starch found in the tubers and roots of many plants. Since it is hydrolyzable to FRUCTOSE, it is classified as a fructosan. It has been used in physiologic investigation for determination of the rate of glomerular function.Oxalates: Derivatives of OXALIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are derived from the ethanedioic acid structure.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Uric Acid: An oxidation product, via XANTHINE OXIDASE, of oxypurines such as XANTHINE and HYPOXANTHINE. It is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism in humans and primates, whereas in most other mammals URATE OXIDASE further oxidizes it to ALLANTOIN.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Hippurates: Salts and esters of hippuric acid.Diuretics: Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Acid-Base Equilibrium: The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.Urinalysis: Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically.Kidney Calculi: Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Kidney Function Tests: Laboratory tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working through examination of blood and urine.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Diabetic Nephropathies: KIDNEY injuries associated with diabetes mellitus and affecting KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; ARTERIOLES; KIDNEY TUBULES; and the interstitium. Clinical signs include persistent PROTEINURIA, from microalbuminuria progressing to ALBUMINURIA of greater than 300 mg/24 h, leading to reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Glucuronides: Glycosides of GLUCURONIC ACID formed by the reaction of URIDINE DIPHOSPHATE GLUCURONIC ACID with certain endogenous and exogenous substances. Their formation is important for the detoxification of drugs, steroid excretion and BILIRUBIN metabolism to a more water-soluble compound that can be eliminated in the URINE and BILE.Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Potassium, Dietary: Potassium or potassium compounds used in foods or as foods.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Diet, Sodium-Restricted: A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)Urodynamics: The mechanical laws of fluid dynamics as they apply to urine transport.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Water Deprivation: The withholding of water in a structured experimental situation.17-Hydroxycorticosteroids: A group of hydroxycorticosteroids bearing a hydroxy group at the 17-position. Urinary excretion of these compounds is used as an index of adrenal function. They are used systemically in the free alcohol form, but with esterification of the hydroxy groups, topical effectiveness is increased.17-Ketosteroids: Steroids that contain a ketone group at position 17.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Kidney Tubules, Proximal: The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.Ileostomy: Surgical creation of an external opening into the ILEUM for fecal diversion or drainage. This replacement for the RECTUM is usually created in patients with severe INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES. Loop (continent) or tube (incontinent) procedures are most often employed.Atrial Natriuretic Factor: A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.Sulfobromophthalein: A phenolphthalein that is used as a diagnostic aid in hepatic function determination.Kidney Medulla: The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.Glucaric Acid: A sugar acid derived from D-glucose in which both the aldehydic carbon atom and the carbon atom bearing the primary hydroxyl group are oxidized to carboxylic acid groups.Urinary Calculi: Low-density crystals or stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT. Their chemical compositions often include CALCIUM OXALATE, magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite), CYSTINE, or URIC ACID.Vasopressins: Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.Kidney Glomerulus: A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.Urination: Discharge of URINE, liquid waste processed by the KIDNEY, from the body.Hydroxyproline: A hydroxylated form of the imino acid proline. A deficiency in ASCORBIC ACID can result in impaired hydroxyproline formation.Hyperoxaluria: Excretion of an excessive amount of OXALATES in the urine.Glucuronates: Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.Lactulose: A synthetic disaccharide used in the treatment of constipation and hepatic encephalopathy. It has also been used in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p887)Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Drinking: The consumption of liquids.Kidney Concentrating Ability: The ability of the kidney to excrete in the urine high concentrations of solutes from the blood plasma.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Blood Urea Nitrogen: The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Kallikreins: Proteolytic enzymes from the serine endopeptidase family found in normal blood and urine. Specifically, Kallikreins are potent vasodilators and hypotensives and increase vascular permeability and affect smooth muscle. They act as infertility agents in men. Three forms are recognized, PLASMA KALLIKREIN (EC 3.4.21.34), TISSUE KALLIKREIN (EC 3.4.21.35), and PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN (EC 3.4.21.77).Kidney Tubules, Distal: The portion of renal tubule that begins from the enlarged segment of the ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. It reenters the KIDNEY CORTEX and forms the convoluted segments of the distal tubule.Acidosis: A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.Kidney Cortex: The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.p-Aminohippuric Acid: The glycine amide of 4-aminobenzoic acid. Its sodium salt is used as a diagnostic aid to measure effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and excretory capacity.Phenolphthaleins: A family of 3,3-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)phthalides. They are used as CATHARTICS, indicators, and COLORING AGENTS.Vanilmandelic AcidRenal Agents: Drugs used for their effects on the kidneys' regulation of body fluid composition and volume. The most commonly used are the diuretics. Also included are drugs used for their antidiuretic and uricosuric actions, for their effects on the kidneys' clearance of other drugs, and for diagnosis of renal function.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Iodine: A nonmetallic element of the halogen group that is represented by the atomic symbol I, atomic number 53, and atomic weight of 126.90. It is a nutritionally essential element, especially important in thyroid hormone synthesis. In solution, it has anti-infective properties and is used topically.Phosphorus, Dietary: Phosphorus used in foods or obtained from food. This element is a major intracellular component which plays an important role in many biochemical pathways relating to normal physiological functions. High concentrations of dietary phosphorus can cause nephrocalcinosis which is associated with impaired kidney function. Low concentrations of dietary phosphorus cause an increase in calcitriol in the blood and osteoporosis.Aquaporin 2: Aquaporin 2 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. The translocation of aquaporin 2 to the apical PLASMA MEMBRANE is regulated by VASOPRESSIN, and MUTATIONS in AQP2 have been implicated in a variety of kidney disorders including DIABETES INSIPIDUS.Bile Canaliculi: Minute intercellular channels that occur between liver cells and carry bile towards interlobar bile ducts. Also called bile capillaries.Imino AcidsHydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Oxalic Acid: A strong dicarboxylic acid occurring in many plants and vegetables. It is produced in the body by metabolism of glyoxylic acid or ascorbic acid. It is not metabolized but excreted in the urine. It is used as an analytical reagent and general reducing agent.Nephrons: The functional units of the kidney, consisting of the glomerulus and the attached tubule.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Thromboxane B2: A stable, physiologically active compound formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides. It is important in the platelet-release reaction (release of ADP and serotonin).Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Pregnanediol: An inactive metabolite of PROGESTERONE by reduction at C5, C3, and C20 position. Pregnanediol has two hydroxyl groups, at 3-alpha and 20-alpha. It is detectable in URINE after OVULATION and is found in great quantities in the pregnancy urine.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Dehydrocholic Acid: A semisynthetic bile acid made from cholic acid. It is used as a cholagogue, hydrocholeretic, diuretic, and as a diagnostic aid.Sterols: Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)Calcium Oxalate: The calcium salt of oxalic acid, occurring in the urine as crystals and in certain calculi.Chlorothiazide: A thiazide diuretic with actions and uses similar to those of HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p812)Hyperbilirubinemia: A condition characterized by an abnormal increase of BILIRUBIN in the blood, which may result in JAUNDICE. Bilirubin, a breakdown product of HEME, is normally excreted in the BILE or further catabolized before excretion in the urine.Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Gills: Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.Hypertension, Renal: Persistent high BLOOD PRESSURE due to KIDNEY DISEASES, such as those involving the renal parenchyma, the renal vasculature, or tumors that secrete RENIN.Uricosuric Agents: Gout suppressants that act directly on the renal tubule to increase the excretion of uric acid, thus reducing its concentrations in plasma.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Hypercalciuria: Excretion of abnormally high level of CALCIUM in the URINE, greater than 4 mg/kg/day.Isoflavones: 3-Phenylchromones. Isomeric form of FLAVONOIDS in which the benzene group is attached to the 3 position of the benzopyran ring instead of the 2 position.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Succimer: A mercaptodicarboxylic acid used as an antidote to heavy metal poisoning because it forms strong chelates with them.Infusions, Parenteral: The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.Kidney Tubules, Collecting: Straight tubes commencing in the radiate part of the kidney cortex where they receive the curved ends of the distal convoluted tubules. In the medulla the collecting tubules of each pyramid converge to join a central tube (duct of Bellini) which opens on the summit of the papilla.Body Water: Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Ammonium Chloride: An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.Nephrectomy: Excision of kidney.Nephrolithiasis: Formation of stones in the KIDNEY.Rats, Mutant Strains: Rats bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Renin-Angiotensin System: A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.ValeratesATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Sodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit SODIUM CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS. They act as DIURETICS. Excess use is associated with HYPOKALEMIA.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Cardenolides: C(23)-steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a five-membered lactone at C-17. They are aglycone constituents of CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES and must have at least one double bond in the molecule. The class includes cardadienolides and cardatrienolides. Members include DIGITOXIN and DIGOXIN and their derivatives and the STROPHANTHINS.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Nephrotic Syndrome: A condition characterized by severe PROTEINURIA, greater than 3.5 g/day in an average adult. The substantial loss of protein in the urine results in complications such as HYPOPROTEINEMIA; generalized EDEMA; HYPERTENSION; and HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. Diseases associated with nephrotic syndrome generally cause chronic kidney dysfunction.Arginine Vasopressin: The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.Taurocholic Acid: The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.CitratesOrgan Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Rats, Brattleboro: A mutant strain of Rattus norvegicus used in research on renal function and hypertension and as a disease model for diabetes insipidus.Lithium: An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.Diabetes Insipidus: A disease that is characterized by frequent urination, excretion of large amounts of dilute URINE, and excessive THIRST. Etiologies of diabetes insipidus include deficiency of antidiuretic hormone (also known as ADH or VASOPRESSIN) secreted by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS, impaired KIDNEY response to ADH, and impaired hypothalamic regulation of thirst.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Orotic AcidOrganic Anion Transporters: Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.Deamino Arginine Vasopressin: A synthetic analog of the pituitary hormone, ARGININE VASOPRESSIN. Its action is mediated by the VASOPRESSIN receptor V2. It has prolonged antidiuretic activity, but little pressor effects. It also modulates levels of circulating FACTOR VIII and VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Citric Acid: A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.6-Ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha: The physiologically active and stable hydrolysis product of EPOPROSTENOL. Found in nearly all mammalian tissue.Pyridoxine: The 4-methanol form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990).Albumins: Water-soluble proteins found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. They coagulate upon heating.Aquaporin 6: Aquaporin 6 is an aquaglyceroporin that is found primarily in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. AQP6 protein functions as an anion-selective channel.Prostaglandins E: (11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-Dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGE(1)); (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGE(2)); and (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGE(3)). Three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. They are considered primary in that no one is derived from another in living organisms. Originally isolated from sheep seminal fluid and vesicles, they are found in many organs and tissues and play a major role in mediating various physiological activities.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Copper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.Cholestasis: Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).Triamterene: A pteridinetriamine compound that inhibits SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS.Glomerulonephritis: Inflammation of the renal glomeruli (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS) that can be classified by the type of glomerular injuries including antibody deposition, complement activation, cellular proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis. These structural and functional abnormalities usually lead to HEMATURIA; PROTEINURIA; HYPERTENSION; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Saline Solution, Hypertonic: Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).Pyridoxic Acid: The catabolic product of most of VITAMIN B 6; (PYRIDOXINE; PYRIDOXAL; and PYRIDOXAMINE) which is excreted in the urine.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Soybean Proteins: Proteins which are present in or isolated from SOYBEANS.Fluids and Secretions: Liquid substances produced by living organisms to fulfill specific functions or excreted as waste.Acids: Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Nephrocalcinosis: A condition characterized by calcification of the renal tissue itself. It is usually seen in distal RENAL TUBULAR ACIDOSIS with calcium deposition in the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES and the surrounding interstitium. Nephrocalcinosis causes RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
In Canada, prasterone is a Controlled Drug listed under Section 23 of Schedule IV of the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act ... I. Absorption and excretion in rats". J. Pharmacobio-dyn. 15 (2): 67-73. doi:10.1248/bpb1978.15.67. PMID 1403604. Sakai, T.; ... Memphis Grizzlies' O. J. Mayo suspended 10 games for violating NBA anti-drug program "US 400m star LaShawn Merritt fails drug ... "Drug Scheduling Actions - 2005". Drug Enforcement Administration. Health Canada, DHEA listing in the Ingredient Database ...
I. Absorption and excretion in rats". J. Pharmacobio-dyn. 15 (2): 67-73. PMID 1403604. Sakai, T., Sakaguchi, M., Adachi, Y., ... As the sodium salt, prasterone sodium sulfate, DHEA-S is used as a pharmaceutical drug in Japan in the treatment of ... Chinese Journal of New Drugs, 5, 015. Sakaguchi M, Sakai T, Adachi Y, Kawashima T, Awata N (1992). "The biological fate of ... J. Elks (14 November 2014). The Dictionary of Drugs: Chemical Data: Chemical Data, Structures and Bibliographies. Springer. pp ...
Percutaneous absorption: drugs-cosmetics-mechanisms-methodology, 3rd ed. New York, Marcel Dekker, pp 685-716 (Drugs and the ... Absorption, Distribution and Excretion of Toxicants. in Cassarett & Doull's Toxicology, The Basic Science of Poisons. 5th ... Modified-release drug products and drug delivery systems. in Applied Biopharmaceuts and Pharmacokinetics. 3rd edition. 1993 ... If a drug is absorbed well through the skin it may be used as a means of systemic medication. Dermal dosage forms include: ...
"Forensic drug testing for opiates, III. Urinary excretion rates of morphine and codeine following codeine administration". J. ... Under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 codeine is a Class B controlled substance or a Class A drug when prepared for injection. The ... due to worries about the overuse of the drug. Codeine remains a semi non-prescriptive, over-the-counter drug up to a limit of ... a Schedule II and III drug under the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. In Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Sweden, the United ...
... excretion of the drugs. The resulting decrease of the drug's plasma concentration follows a biphasic pattern (see figure). ... Excretion - the removal of the substances from the body. In rare cases, some drugs irreversibly accumulate in body tissue. The ... The decrease is primarily attributed to drug metabolism and excretion. Additional phases (gamma, delta, etc.) are sometimes ... At a practical level, a drug's bioavailability can be defined as the proportion of the drug that reaches its site of action. ...
Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs. Proc. AAEP 2001 (47): 182-187. May SA, Lees P. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In ... Soma, L R (11/01/1988). "Disposition and excretion of flunixin meglumine in horses". American journal of veterinary research ( ... In the United States, it is regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and may only be lawfully distributed by ... However, drug recycling from bedding contamination by treated horses has been shown to potentially increase the clearance time ...
... according to United States Food and Drug Administration's use-in-pregnancy ratings. Drug excretion in breast milk is unknown. ... Also like the related drugs, latanoprost acid is an analog of prostaglandin F2α that acts as a selective agonist at the ... "Latanoprost". International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved 8 December 2016. [permanent dead link] Perry CM, McGavin JK, ... Latanoprost Professional Drug Facts. Haberfeld, H, ed. (2015). Austria-Codex (in German). Vienna: Österreichischer ...
... is immature and incapable of metabolizing the excessive drug load. Insufficient renal excretion of the unconjugated drug. Due ... Exchange transfusion may be required to remove the drug. Sometimes, phenobarbital (UGT induction) is used. McIntyre J, Choonara ... third generation cephalosporins can be effectively substituted for the drug, without the associated toxicity. Chloramphenicol ... mechanisms are thought to play a role in the development of gray baby syndrome after exposure to the anti-microbial drug ...
"The metabolism and excretion of galantamine in rats, dogs, and humans". Drug Metabolism and Disposition. 30 (5): 553-63. doi: ... Food and Drug Administration. March 2005. Retrieved 2010-08-04. "Safety Labeling Changes Approved By FDA Center for Drug ... Postmarket Drug Safety Information for Patients and Providers. Food and Drug Administration. May 2005. Retrieved 2010-04-02. " ... In the United States, it is approved by the Food and Drug Administration as safe and effective for the treatment of mild to ...
I. Absorption and excretion in rats". J. Pharmacobio-dyn. 15 (2): 67-73. PMID 1403604. Martin Negwer; Hans-Georg Scharnow (2001 ... Chinese Journal of New Drugs, 5, 015. Sakai, T., Sakaguchi, M., Adachi, Y., Kawashima, T., & Awata, N. (1992). The Biological ... Organic-chemical drugs and their synonyms: (an international survey). Wiley-VCH. p. 1831. ISBN 978-3-527-30247-5. 3β- ... The Dictionary of Drugs: Chemical Data: Chemical Data, Structures and Bibliographies. Springer. pp. 641-. ISBN 978-1-4757-2085- ...
Metabolism, pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and excretion of [14C]CP-424391 in rats. Drug Metabolism and Disposition. ... Initial studies have shown the drug to directly raise insulin growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and growth hormone levels. The drug is ... In a one-year treatment trial (starting 1999) with 395 seniors between 65 and 84 years old, patients who received the drug ... Capromorelin (INN) (developmental code name CP-424,391) is an investigational medication developed by the Pfizer drug company. ...
Cancer treatment (methotrexate). Uricosuric drugs. Typhoid vaccine probenecid reduces renal excretion and increases the blood ... "International brand names for amoxicillin". www.drugs.com. Drugs.com. Archived from the original on 29 May 2016. Retrieved 15 ... This drug combination is commonly called co-amoxiclav. It is a moderate-spectrum, bacteriolytic, β-lactam antibiotic in the ... It is usually the drug of choice within the class because it is better-absorbed, following oral administration, than other β- ...
"Pharmacokinetics and excretion of 14C-bendamustine in patients with relapsed or refractory malignancy". Drugs R D. 13: 17-28. ... Notably, this drug has a low incidence of hair loss (alopecia) unlike most other chemotherapy drugs. Bendamustine solution is ... Rediscovered' Lymphoma Drug Helps Double Survival: Study". June 3, 2012. Archived from the original on July 12, 2012. Tageja N ... More than 95% of the drug is bound to protein - primarily albumin. Only free bendamustine is active. Elimination is biphasic ...
Gründemann D, Gorboulev V, Gambaryan S, Veyhl M, Koepsell H (1994). "Drug excretion mediated by a new prototype of polyspecific ... The most commonly prescribed antidepressant drugs are the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which act by ...
Biliary route is the main pathway of excretion. No significant amount of unchanged drug was excreted in urine. In the urine ... It was launched in 1995, under the brand name Landel (ランデル). The drug blocks both T-type and L-type calcium channels. Drug ... Efonidipine enhances sodium excretion from the kidneys by suppressing aldosterone synthesis and secretion from the adrenal ... Thus, there is a possibility that blood concentration of the drug may increase and the anti-hypertensive effect is enhanced. ...
... undergoes 35% renal excretion and greater than 50% biliary excretion. Drug metabolized by intestinal flora is ... Alvimopan (trade name Entereg) is a drug which behaves as a peripherally acting μ-opioid antagonist. With the limited ability ... It is currently only Food and Drug Administration approved for the treatment of postoperative ileus which it received in May ... Therefore, no interactions are expected with hepatically metabolized drugs. Alvimopan is substrate for P-glycoprotein. Thus, ...
Renal excretion of the parent drug is less than 4%. Primaquine is an analog of pamaquine which was the first drug of the 8- ... "Primaquine brand names". Drugs.com. Archived from the original on 11 November 2016. Retrieved 10 November 2016. Pharmacy and ... It is a generic drug and is available under many brand names worldwide, including Jasoprim, Malirid, Neo-Quipenyl, Pimaquin, ... "Primaquine". International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved 3 December 2016. "Treatment of Malaria (Guidelines For ...
By the tenth day no drug is detectable in plasma. Its metabolites, distribution, metabolism and excretion were not understood ... "Tanning drug a health risk". Herald Sun. 2009-10-31. Retrieved 2009-10-31. Ewan A Langan; Z. Nie; Lesley E Rhodes (June 2010 ... As a regulated treatment drug it is administered as an implant that is placed under the skin; the implant lasts for two months ... Clinuvel had also obtained orphan drug status for afamelanotide in the US and the EU by that time. In May 2010 the Italian ...
... (trade name Duvie, Chong Kun Dang) is an antidiabetic drug in the thiazolidinedione class of drugs. As an agonist ... In the dose range, the mean half-life was 10.3 h. Urine excretion was negligible amount in elimination of lobeglitazone in rat ... The plasma protein binding of the drug is over 99%. The average blood-to-plasma concentration ratio was 0.636. The unbound ... "국내개발 20번째 신약'듀비에정'허가(20th new drug developed in Korea 'Duvie Tablet' was approved)". Chong Kun Dang press release. 2013-07-04. ...
Growth and drug susceptibility testing are done by injecting into animal models. One description of a clinical picture that ... It is primarily excreted in bile, with less than 1% excretion in urine. Clofazimine is given to treat sulfone-resistant leprosy ... The sulfones are acetylated in the liver, and 70 to 80% of drug is excreted in the urine as metabolites. Dapsone, combined with ... A leprostatic agent is a drug that interferes with proliferation of the bacterium that causes leprosy. The following agents are ...
In later work by Marenich, it was discovered that the urinary excretion of 7-keto-DHEA declines with age in a similar manner to ... "7-Keto DHEA". Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference. Thomson Healthcare. July 10, 2011. 7-Keto-DHEA is reported to be an ... U.S. Food and Drug Administration. "95S-0316: 75-Day Premarket Notifications for New Dietary Ingredients". Retrieved 1 April ... Researchers have raised concern that supplements may trigger positive tests for performance-enhancing drugs. The World Anti- ...
Most of the drug is eliminated unchanged in the urine. Renal disease impairs excretion, and it should be used with caution in ... Tiaprofenic acid is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) of the arylpropionic acid (profen) class, used to treat pain ...
"Buphenyl". Drugs@FDA. United States Food and Drugs Administration. Retrieved 26 October 2013. Brusilow, Saul; Tinker J; Batshaw ... Brusilow, Saul W. (February 1991). "Phenylacetylglutamine may replace urea as a vehicle for waste nitrogen excretion". Pediatr ... Kang, H. L.; Benzer, S.; Min, K. T. (2002). "Life extension in Drosophila by feeding a drug". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 ... It is an orphan drug, marketed by Ucyclyd Pharma under the trade name Buphenyl, by Swedish Orphan International (Sweden) as ...
Excretion of m-hydroxyphenylhydracrylic acid from (plus)-catechin in the monkey (Macaca iris sp.)". Drug Metab. Dispos. 2 (3): ... This resulted in the withdrawal of the catechin-containing drug Catergen, used to treat viral hepatitis, from the European ... and excretion of (-)-epicatechin in healthy humans assessed by using an intestinal perfusion technique". American Journal of ...
"Detection and Metabolism of Fencamfamine and the Influence of Acetazolamide on its Urinary Excretion". Biopharmaceutics & Drug ... as its favourable safety profile makes it the most suitable drug in some cases. Fencamfamin is well tolerated and causes ...
After 38 weeks, 6% of the people in the three-drug group died while 11% of the people died in the two-drug group. There were ... "Urinary NO3 excretion and renal failure in indinavir-treated patients". Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research ... Viral resistance to the drug leads to the drug becoming useless since the virus evolves to have cells that are able to resist ... It is recommended that users drink at least 1.5 liters a day when intaking the drug. Drug users must significantly increase ...
Triamterene is classified as a potassium sparing diuretic, increasing the rate of water and sodium excretion but preserving ... potassium levels.As the name suggests, this drug produces a ... Among bodybuilders, this drug is commonly used for only a few ... This practice is very common in sports where the user is not drug tested and has ample time to rehydrate following a weigh-in, ... Many deaths have been associated with the misuse of these drugs. It is also important to note that the supplementation of ...
For some medications the savings can be as great as 80 percent when you buy prescribed drugs from a Canadian pharmacy.. Maxzide ... Excretion of sodium, chloride, potassium, hydrogen ion, calcium, magnesium, ammonium, bicarbonate and perhaps phosphate is ... To visit a complete set of medications that can cause an interaction, visit Drugs. If the sufferer has too little sodium in ... There are lots of drugs that talk with Dyazide, including some taken by chemotherapy patients like dofetilide, which increases ...
Only among the drugs somewhat, there was a such triamterene hydrochlorothiazide cheapest price with sauce to the stomach of ... A obliteration should perhaps take more than one race of end every other nature when treatment middle from this excretion. Men ...
Understanding the basic mechanisms of drug interactions allows researchers and clinicians to best interpret and apply drug ... pH-dependent drug-drug interactions for weak base drugs: potential implications for new drug development. Clin Pharmacol Ther ... Prediction of in vivo drug-drug interactions from in vitro data : factors affecting prototypic drug-drug interactions involving ... Drug interactions can occur during the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion phases of drug distribution ( ...
... excretion+of+the+amino+acid+cystine? Find a list of current medications, their possible side effects, dosage, and efficacy when ... used to treat or reduce the symptoms of excessive+urinary+excretion+of+the+amino+acid+cystine ... The display and use of drug information on this site is subject to express terms of use. By continuing to view the drug ... Follow the links to read common uses, side effects, dosage details and read user reviews for the drugs listed below. ...
HEPATOBILIARY EXCRETION OF BERBERINE Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Drug Metabolism & Disposition ... Thank you for sharing this Drug Metabolism & Disposition article.. NOTE: We request your email address only to inform the ... Your Name) thought you would be interested in this article in Drug Metabolism & Disposition. ... Drug Metabolism and Disposition April 1, 2004, 32 (4) 405-412; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1124/dmd.32.4.405 ...
Metabolism and excretion of ropivacaine in humans. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Drug Metabolism ... Metabolism and excretion of ropivacaine in humans.. M M Halldin, E Bredberg, B Angelin, T Arvidsson, Y Askemark, S Elofsson and ... Metabolism and excretion of ropivacaine in humans.. M M Halldin, E Bredberg, B Angelin, T Arvidsson, Y Askemark, S Elofsson and ... Metabolism and excretion of ropivacaine in humans.. M M Halldin, E Bredberg, B Angelin, T Arvidsson, Y Askemark, S Elofsson and ...
Drug excretion in bile duct cannulated rat urine assessed as oxidized compound level by HPLC analysis. ...
Common processes and mechanisms whereby: Drugs gain access to the body Slideshow 2075183 by liang ... Excretion and Metabolism. Dennis Paul, Ph.D. Department of Pharmacology 504-568-4740 [email protected] Principles of ... Kp = [drug] in lipid phase/[drug] in aqueous phase. * If the drug is more soluble in the lipid, Kp is higher. If the drug is ... 3) Active drug  active metabolite, adds another step before excretion and prolongs drugs actions e.g. diazepam to active ...
Drug excretion in rat urine assessed as parent compound at 1 mCi/kg, iv after 30 mins by HPLC analysis. ...
Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion (ADME), Drug-drug interaction potential and Prediction of Human ... The potential of SUVN-G3031 as a victim and perpetrator of drug-drug interactions is remote. The predicted human ... Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Suven Life Sciences Limited, Hyderabad, India. Electronic address: [email protected] ...
... irbesartan reduces albumin excretion independent of its antihypertensive effect. That, according to the results of a randomized ... LIST BY DRUG CLASS. Alpha-glucosidase Inhibitors. Alpha-glucosidase Therapy Center. Acarbose ... Home / Conditions / MODY/LADA / Irbesartan in Diabetics Reduces Albumin Excretion. Irbesartan in Diabetics Reduces Albumin ... In type 2 diabetics with microalbuminuria, irbesartan reduces albumin excretion independent of its antihypertensive effect. ...
Excretion - Evolution of the vertebrate excretory system: Studies of the embryonic development of primitive vertebrates, such ... of the drug, and (5) excretion of the drug or its metabolites.… ... Propofol, anesthetic drug used to induce and maintain general ... More About Excretion. 10 references found in Britannica articles. Assorted References. *animal dormancy* In dormancy: Fishes ... Urea is a semi-solid substance of low solubility, and requires little or no water for its excretion. (Desert animals and many ...
Excretion - Mammals: The mammalian kidney is a compact organ with two distinct regions: cortex and medulla. The functional unit ... drug: Elimination. The main route of drug excretion is through the kidneys; however, volatile and gaseous agents are excreted ... Nitrogenous excretion is no problem: some ammonia is carried away in the large volume of dilute urine, but most of it simply ... More About Excretion. 10 references found in Britannica articles. Assorted References. *animal dormancy* In dormancy: Fishes ...
Invest New Drugs. 2015 Feb;33(1):233-40. doi: 10.1007/s10637-014-0181-7. Epub 2014 Nov 8. Clinical Trial, Phase I; Research ... Invest New Drugs. 2015 Feb;33(1):233-40. doi: 10.1007/s10637-014-0181-7. Epub 2014 Nov 8. ... Pharmacokinetics and excretion of (14)C-lenvatinib in patients with advanced solid tumors or lymphomas.. Dubbelman AC1, Rosing ... In conclusion, lenvatinib is rapidly absorbed and extensively metabolized, with subsequent excretion in urine and, more ...
Current Drug Managements of Wilsons Disease: From West to East. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2016. 14(4):322-5. [Medline]. ... Urinary Copper Excretion and Hepatic Copper Concentration. Urinary copper excretion. The urinary copper excretion rate is ... Dziezyc K, Litwin T, Chabik G, Czlonkowska A. Measurement of urinary copper excretion after 48-h d-penicillamine cessation as a ... 16] The investigators noted that normalization of copper excretion was observed in 91% of reportedly compliant patients, with ...
Drug Dosage and Administration.. Patients were administered a 200-mg dose of TMZ containing 70.2 μCi of 14C-TMZ with 8 ounces ... Metabolite profile of drug-derived radioactivity in pooled urine from six patients collected from 0-4 h (A) and 4-8 h (B) after ... Metabolite profile of drug-derived radioactivity in pooled plasma from six patients at 4 h (A) and 1 h (B) after administration ... In addition, all drug-related radioactivity in urine after 24 h was assumed to be associated with an unidentified polar metabo- ...
The 24-hour urinary aldosterone excretion test measures the amount of aldosterone removed in the urine in a day. ... Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). *Antacid and ulcer medicines. *Water pills (diuretics) ... The 24-hour urinary aldosterone excretion test measures the amount of aldosterone removed in the urine in a day. ...
Excretion. Urine (,95%) within 24 hours (40% to 50% as unchanged drug) ... Concurrent drug therapy issues:. • Drug-drug interactions: Potentially significant interactions may exist, requiring dose or ... Drugs.com Mobile Apps. The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own ... Drugs.com provides accurate and independent information on more than 24,000 prescription drugs, over-the-counter medicines and ...
Excretion. Urine (40% to 50% as unchanged drug). Time to Peak. Plasma: 1 to 3 hours ... Drugs.com Mobile Apps. The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own ... Refer to separate drug interaction content and to full drug monograph content regarding use of apixaban with vitamin K ... Refer to separate drug interaction content and to full drug monograph content regarding use of edoxaban with vitamin K ...
Excretion. Feces; urine (urinary excretion accounts for ~10% of total elimination, mostly as metabolites) ... Concurrent drug therapy issues:. • Drug-drug interactions: Potentially significant interactions may exist, requiring dose or ... Drugs.com Mobile Apps. The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own ... Drugs.com provides accurate and independent information on more than 24,000 prescription drugs, over-the-counter medicines and ...
Excretion. Primarily urine (as metabolites and small amounts of unchanged drug). Time to Peak. Serum: Oral: ~60 minutes; IM: ... Drugs.com Mobile Apps. The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own ... By clicking Subscribe, I agree to the Drugs.com Terms & Conditions & Privacy Policy and understand that I may opt out of Drugs. ... Drugs.com provides accurate and independent information on more than 24,000 prescription drugs, over-the-counter medicines and ...
Urinary excretion The kidney is the principal drug-excreting organ. The three components of renal excretion, i.e. glomerular ... Enhanced drug excretion is in turn observed upon decreased plasma protein binding, as only the unbound drug fraction undergoes ... Other excretion Excretion with the bile (and thereby with feces), sweat, exhaled air, saliva, and breast milk play a much ... The particular importance of the excretion via breast milk lies in the toxic effects of some drugs on the breastfeeding infant ...
Physiological Effects of Drugs. Analgesics, Non-Narcotic. Analgesics. Sensory System Agents. Peripheral Nervous System Agents. ... Urinary Excretion of Acetylamantadine by Normal Healthy Volunteers. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Subjects will be informed that side effects from this drug ingestion are highly unlikely because only a single dose will be ... and if so whether excretion of this metabolite is associated with any particular site of the tumor. Based on the results of the ...
History of alcoholism or drug abuse or positive results in alcohol and drug screens ... Metabolism and Excretion of Liraglutide in Healthy Male Volunteers. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Metabolism and excretion of the once-daily human glucagon-like peptide-1 analog liraglutide in healthy male subjects and its in ... Physiological Effects of Drugs. Incretins. Hormones. Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists. ...
  • The pharmacokinetics, biotransformation, and urinary excretion of ropivacaine (Naropin), a new local anesthetic agent, have been studied in six healthy male volunteers after a 15-min iv infusion of 152 mumol (50 mg) of [14C]ropivacaine, with a specific radioactivity of 22.5 kBq/mumol (8.8 kBq/mg). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Pharmacokinetics and excretion of (14)C-lenvatinib in patients with advanced solid tumors or lymphomas. (nih.gov)
  • The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a new drug are studied in clinical trials, and it is the evidence from these trials that forms the basis for determining its correct dosing. (fda.gov)
  • Consequently, characterizing the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a drug in diverse populations is essential in improving therapeutic effectiveness while minimizing adverse events [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Since pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and responses during clinical trials differ between men and women, U.S. FDA regulations and guidance are in place to ensure that both sexes are represented in all phases of clinical trials and that medical products are labeled to alert physicians and patients to sex differences in drug responses. (hindawi.com)
  • In type 2 diabetics with microalbuminuria, irbesartan reduces albumin excretion independent of its antihypertensive effect. (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors delay the progression from incipient to overt diabetic nephropathy and reduce albumin excretion rate (AER), independently of blood pressure,' write Ferdinando C. Sasso, MD, PhD, and colleagues from the Second University of Naples in Italy. (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • Comparative effects of pioglitazone, glibenclamide, and voglibose on urinary endothelin-1 and albumin excretion in diabetes patients. (nih.gov)
  • The aim of the present study was to determine whether various drugs alter urinary ET-1 levels and urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in NIDDM patients with microalbuminuria. (nih.gov)
  • The fractional excretion of IgG (FE-IgG) and α1-microglobulin (FE-α1m), urine albumin/creatinine ratio, and eGFR were measured at the time of kidney biopsy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To examine whether slightly elevated urinary albumin excretion precedes development of atherosclerotic vascular disease in patients with insulin dependent diabetes independently of conventional atherogenic risk factors and of diabetic nephropathy. (bmj.com)
  • Elevated urinary albumin excretion was significantly predictive of atherosclerotic vascular disease (hazard ratio 1.06 (95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.18) per 5 mg increase in 24 hour urinary albumin excretion, P=0.002). (bmj.com)
  • and diabetic nephropathy (hazard ratio 1.04 (1.01 to 1.08) per 5 mg increase in 24 hour urinary albumin excretion, P=0.03). (bmj.com)
  • Slightly elevated urinary albumin excretion independently predicted atherosclerotic vascular disease in patients with insulin dependent diabetes. (bmj.com)
  • 3 Preliminary studies have suggested that this excess mortality in people with insulin dependent diabetes might particularly occur among those with slightly elevated urinary albumin excretion, 4 5 as is seen in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes and non-diabetic people. (bmj.com)
  • 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 It is, however, not known whether clinical vascular disease in these patients develops before the start of diabetic nephropathy (that is, during the course of slightly elevated urinary albumin excretion) or whether elevated urinary albumin excretion precedes atherosclerotic vascular disease independently of the conventional atherogenic risk factors that are often increased in these patients. (bmj.com)
  • The cytochrome P450 family of enzymes, the P-glycoprotein drug transporter, and their mechanisms for inhibition, induction, and suppression are reviewed. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, physiological or induced changes of the urinary pH value alter the reabsorption of drugs capable of ionization. (pharmacologyeducation.org)
  • This aversion is attributable to a variety of factors, including ethical concerns associated with testing drugs in children, the lack of financial return on investment due to smaller patient populations, biological challenges resultant of physiological maturation/development, lack of centers with trained clinicians to conduct pediatric clinical trials, and formulation challenges to improve patient compliance ( Milne and Bruss, 2008 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Interference with any of these steps, whether drug-induced or from physiological problems, can produce unwanted effects. (diabetesselfmanagement.com)
  • Changes in blood pressure, heart rate, electrolyte excretion, and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system were monitored before and after minoxidil was added to a regimen of a diuretic and propranolol hydrochloride in 12 severely hypertensive patients. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Metabolism and excretion of ropivacaine in humans. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Humans didn't suddenly develop ways to eliminate or modify drugs. (diabetesselfmanagement.com)
  • To improve the accuracy of the model's predictions, we need to address certain challenges, including the difficulty in measuring some of the physiologic parameters in both healthy adults and specific populations, the lack of relevance of in vitro and preclinical systems to humans, and incomplete understanding of the drugs themselves. (fda.gov)
  • Results: Urinary excretion of eleven compounds including thiamine and carnitine was significantly lower in the pyrimethamine-treatment group in humans and mice, whereas no endogenous compound was noticeably accumulated in the plasma. (elsevier.com)
  • You will need regular monitoring by your doctor if you are taking lithium together with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as indomethacin. (midpharmacy.com)
  • A typical situation is the co-administration of two drugs competing for the same plasma protein binding sites ( see the Drug Distribution topic above ). (pharmacologyeducation.org)
  • The stomach wall is relatively resistant to the irritating properties of most drugs, and the churning action of the stomach will improve the physical distribution of the compound. (rutgers.edu)
  • The latter is based on knowledge of body fluid dynamics (e.g., blood and urine flow), tissue size and composition, abundance and distribution of drug receptors, drug‐metabolizing enzymes, and membrane transporters in various organ and tissue compartments. (fda.gov)
  • Medication Errors: Improving Practices and Patient Safety," "Detecting and Managing Adverse Drug Reactions," "Overview of Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Systems (REMS)," "Special Dosing Considerations," and "Educating Patients About Safe Medication Use" comprise the safe medication use articles and provide an overview of the medication safety issues that confront practitioners and patients. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Urinary endothelin (ET)-1 excretion is present in non-insulin dependent diabetes (NIDDM) patients with microalbuminuria, and an increase in circulating ET-1 precedes the microalbuminuric phase of renal injury related to diabetes. (nih.gov)
  • This study will provide additional information in conjunction with data from a previous study which include cancer patients and normal health age matched controls to determine whether urinary excretion of acetylamantadine is predictive for the presence of cancer, and if so whether excretion of this metabolite is associated with any particular site of the tumor. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • These are the most widely used antifungal drugs, and act primarily by inhibiting the fungal cytochrome P450 enzyme, 14 α -demethylase. (mja.com.au)
  • A 2003 study conducted by Brazilian researchers and published in the 'Journal of Nutrition' found that the female study participants who ingested caffeine while on birth control pills had significantly less urinary excretion of minerals compared to the participants who were not taking oral contraceptives at the time. (livestrong.com)
  • Flashbacks (what they are, post-traumatic stress syndrome) Insomnia (common, what to do) Tolerance (caquired and lost quickly (3 days), no withdrawal) Background: Anthropology (and history) Botany (sources in nature: mushrooms, ergot, morning glories, hawaiian baby woodrose, tropical plants) Chemistry (structure) Mechanism of Action (uncertain) Related Compounds (indoles: psilocybin, dimethyltryptamine (DMT) ) Manufacture (forget it) Drug Testing (don't worry) Legal Scheduling (sched. (erowid.org)
  • Mean +/- standard deviation 24-hour excretion rate of cortisol was unchanged, whereas that of 6beta-hydroxycortisol increased during troglitazone administration. (nih.gov)
  • The excretion studies revealed that the rate of excretion of the drug was related directly to particle size. (ajtmh.org)
  • The drug in the form of smaller crystals was excreted at a faster rate than when it was in the form of larger crystals. (ajtmh.org)
  • Adverse drug events cause an estimated 6.5 percent of unplanned hospital admissions in the United Kingdom, and the rate in the U.S. is assumed to be similar or greater. (diabetesselfmanagement.com)
  • People with mental health issues also have a higher rate of drug use problems. (health.gov.au)
  • A Comprehensive Guide to Toxicology in Nonclinical Drug Development, Second Edition , is a valuable reference designed to provide a complete understanding of all aspects of nonclinical toxicology in the development of small molecules and biologics. (elsevier.com)
  • This updated edition has been reorganized and expanded to include important topics such as stem cells in nonclinical toxicology, inhalation and dermal toxicology, pitfalls in drug development, biomarkers in toxicology, and more. (elsevier.com)
  • These agents may subsequently be reabsorbed from the gut (enterohepatic recirculation), which contributes to higher bioavailability and prolonged drug action. (dentalcare.com)
  • Considering taking medication to treat excessive+urinary+excretion+of+the+amino+acid+cystine? (webmd.com)
  • This is certainly the most common method of drug administration, and unless otherwise specified, we assume that taking medication means oral ingestion. (rutgers.edu)
  • It also includes extensive supplemental material in 16 appendices, thoroughly addresses the issue of safe medication administration, and educates the reader about 50 different therapeutic classes of drugs. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • When this drug is applied together with an antipsychotic medication called haloperidol used for schizophrenia, the effects are risky and may be lethal as they cause irregular heart rhythm. (midpharmacy.com)