Atenolol: A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic blocker possessing properties and potency similar to PROPRANOLOL, but without a negative inotropic effect.Propanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the propanolamine (NH2CH2CHOHCH2) group and its derivatives.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC BETA-1 RECEPTORS.Metoprolol: A selective adrenergic beta-1 blocking agent that is commonly used to treat ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS.Propranolol: A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Betaxolol: A cardioselective beta-1-adrenergic antagonist with no partial agonist activity.Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Pindolol: A moderately lipophilic beta blocker (ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS). It is non-cardioselective and has intrinsic sympathomimetic actions, but little membrane-stabilizing activity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmocopoeia, 30th ed, p638)Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Bendroflumethiazide: A thiazide diuretic with actions and uses similar to those of HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE. It has been used in the treatment of familial hyperkalemia, hypertension, edema, and urinary tract disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p810)Hydrochlorothiazide: A thiazide diuretic often considered the prototypical member of this class. It reduces the reabsorption of electrolytes from the renal tubules. This results in increased excretion of water and electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, chloride, and magnesium. It is used in the treatment of several disorders including edema, hypertension, diabetes insipidus, and hypoparathyroidism.Celiprolol: A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic antagonist that has intrinsic symopathomimetic activity. It is used in the management of ANGINA PECTORIS and HYPERTENSION.Oxprenolol: A beta-adrenergic antagonist used in the treatment of hypertension, angina pectoris, arrhythmias, and anxiety.Butoxamine: A beta-2 selective adrenergic antagonist. It is used primarily in animal and tissue experiments to characterize BETA-2 ANDRENERGIC RECEPTORS.Acebutolol: A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic antagonist with little effect on the bronchial receptors. The drug has stabilizing and quinidine-like effects on cardiac rhythm, as well as weak inherent sympathomimetic action.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta: One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.Nifedipine: A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Nadolol: A non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist with a long half-life, used in cardiovascular disease to treat arrhythmias, angina pectoris, and hypertension. Nadolol is also used for MIGRAINE DISORDERS and for tremor.Labetalol: A salicylamide derivative that is a non-cardioselective blocker of BETA-ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and ALPHA-1 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS.Amlodipine: A long-acting dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It is effective in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS and HYPERTENSION.Doxazosin: A prazosin-related compound that is a selective alpha-1-adrenergic blocker.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Pulse: The rhythmical expansion and contraction of an ARTERY produced by waves of pressure caused by the ejection of BLOOD from the left ventricle of the HEART as it contracts.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-1: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-1 receptors are equally sensitive to EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE and bind the agonist DOBUTAMINE and the antagonist METOPROLOL with high affinity. They are found in the HEART, juxtaglomerular cells, and in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
... (brand names Trasacor, Trasicor, Coretal, Laracor, Slow-Pren, Captol, Corbeton, Slow-Trasicor, Tevacor, Trasitensin, Trasidex) is a non-selective beta blocker with some intrinsic sympathomimetic activity. It is used for the treatment of angina pectoris, abnormal heart rhythms and high blood pressure. Oxprenolol is a lipophilic beta blocker which passes the blood-brain barrier more easily than water-soluble beta blockers. As such, it is associated with a higher incidence of CNS-related side effects than hydrophilic ligands such as atenolol, sotalol and nadolol. Oxprenolol is a potent beta blocker and should not be administered to asthmatics under any circumstances due to their low beta levels as a result of depletion due to other asthma medication, and because it can cause irreversible, often fatal, airway failure and inflammation. Oxprenolol is a beta blocker. In addition, it has been found to act as an antagonist of the serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptors with respective Ki values ...
ଆଟେନୋଲୋଲ (ଇଂରାଜୀ ଭାଷାରେ Atenolol) ଏକ ପ୍ରକାର ବିଟା ବ୍ଲକର (beta blocker) ଔଷଧ ଯାହା ପ୍ରାଥମିକ ଭାବରେ ଉଚ୍ଚ ରକ୍ତଚାପ ଓ ଆଞ୍ଜିନା (angina) ରୋଗମାନଙ୍କ ନିମନ୍ତେ ବ୍ୟବ‌ହାର କରାଯାଏ ।[୧] ଏହା ବ୍ୟତୀତ ଅଧକପାଳି ପ୍ରତିଷେଧ ଓ କେତେକ ଆରିଦମିଆ (irregular heart beat) ବା ଅନିୟମିତ ହୃତ୍‌ସ୍ପନ୍ଦନ ରୋଗ ନିମନ୍ତେ ଦିଆଯାଇପାରେ । [୧][୨] ପାଟିରେ ବା ଶିରାଭ୍ୟନ୍ତର ଇଞ୍ଜେକସନ (injection into a vein) ଆକାରରେ ଦିଆଯାଏ ।[୧][୨] ଅନ୍ୟାନ୍ୟ ରକ୍ତଚାପ ଔଷଧ (blood pressure medication) ସାଥିରେ ମିଶ୍ରିତ ଭାବରେ ମଧ୍ୟ ଦିଆଯାଏ ।[୨] ...
Visualiseerimisel on oluline sobivate antikehade kasutamine õigete antigeenide tuvastamiseks ja signaali võimendamiseks. Kriitilise tähtsusega on ka täielik proovi ettevalmistus koe morfoloogia säilitamiseks, koe ehituse ja sihtmärk epitoopide antigeensuse jaoks. See nõuab korralikke koekogumikke, fikseerimist ja sektsioneerimist. Tavaliselt kasutatakse fikseerimiseks paraformaldehüüdi. Sõltuvalt katse eesmärgist ja eksperimendiks vajaliku proovi paksusest lõigatakse huvipakkuvast koest viilud (4-40 µm). Võimalik on kasutada ka tervet kude, kuid vaid siis, kui kude ise pole väga paks ja on piisavalt aineid läbilaskev. Lõikamiseks kasutatakse tavaliselt mikrotoomi ja lõigud on kinnitatud alusklaasidele. Ujuvlõikude IHK kasutab lõike, mis ei ole kinnitatud. Need lõigud on tavaliselt vibreeriva mikrotoomiga valmistatud. Fikseerimise ja koesäilitusmeetodi tõttu tuleks läbi viia täiendavaid etappe, mis teevad epitoobid antikeha sidumiseks kättesaadavaks. Nendeks on näiteks ...
... (brand names Levatol, Levatolol, Lobeta, Paginol, Hostabloc, Betapressin) is a medication in the class of beta blockers, used in the treatment of high blood pressure. Penbutolol is able to bind to both beta-1 adrenergic receptors and beta-2 adrenergic receptors (the two subtypes), thus making it a non-selective β blocker. Penbutolol is a sympathomimetic drug with properties allowing it to act as a partial agonist at β adrenergic receptors. It was approved by the FDA in 1987 and was withdrawn from the US market by January 2015. Penbutolol is used to treat mild to moderate high blood pressure. Like other beta blockers it is not a first line treatment for this indication. It should not be used or only used with caution in people with heart failure and people with asthma. It may mask signs of low blood sugar in people with diabetes and it may mask signs of hyperthyroidism. Animal studies showed some signs of potential trouble for women who are pregnant, and it has not been tested in ...
... (INN, marketed under the tradename Almarl) is a medication in the class of mixed alpha/beta blockers. It also acts as a β3 receptor agonist. A 1979 publication suggests arotinolol as having first been described in the scientific literature by Sumitomo Chemical as "β-adrenergic blocking, antiarrhythmic compound S-596". It is used in the treatment of high blood pressure and essential tremor. Recommended dosage is 10-30 mg per day. Zhao, Jin; Golozoubova, Valeria; Cannon, Barbara; Nedergaard, Jan (July 2001). "Arotinolol is a weak partial agonist on beta 3-adrenergic receptors in brown adipocytes". Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 79 (7): 585-593. doi:10.1139/cjpp-79-7-585. PMID 11478592. Takahashi, H; Yoshida, T; Nishimura, M; Nakanishi, T; Kondo, M; Yoshimura, M (September 1992). "Beta-3 Adrenergic Agonist, BRL-26830A, and Alpha/Beta Blocker, Arotinolol, Markedly Increase Regional Blood Flow in the Brown Adipose Tissue in Anesthetized Rats". Japanese Circulation Journal. 56 (9): 936-42. ...
Haddad, S; Poulin, P; Funk, C (2010). "Extrapolating in vitro metabolic interactions to isolated perfused liver: Predictions of metabolic interactions between R-bufuralol, bunitrolol, and debrisoquine". Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 99 (10): 4406-26. doi:10.1002/jps.22136. PMID 20310018 ...
Adverse drug reactions associated with the use of beta blockers include: nausea, diarrhea, bronchospasm, dyspnea, cold extremities, exacerbation of Raynaud's syndrome, bradycardia, hypotension, heart failure, heart block, fatigue, dizziness, alopecia (hair loss), abnormal vision, hallucinations, insomnia, nightmares, sexual dysfunction, erectile dysfunction and/or alteration of glucose and lipid metabolism. Mixed α1/β-antagonist therapy is also commonly associated with orthostatic hypotension. Carvedilol therapy is commonly associated with edema.[44] Due to the high penetration across the blood-brain barrier, lipophilic beta blockers, such as propranolol and metoprolol, are more likely than other less lipophilic beta blockers to cause sleep disturbances, such as insomnia, vivid dreams and nightmares.[45]. Adverse effects associated with β2-adrenergic receptor antagonist activity (bronchospasm, peripheral vasoconstriction, alteration of glucose and lipid metabolism) are less common with ...
... (brand names Trasacor, Trasicor, Coretal, Laracor, Slow-Pren, Captol, Corbeton, Slow-Trasicor, Tevacor, Trasitensin, Trasidex) is a non-selective beta blocker with some intrinsic sympathomimetic activity. It is used for the treatment of angina pectoris, abnormal heart rhythms and high blood pressure. Oxprenolol is a lipophilic beta blocker which passes the blood-brain barrier more easily than water-soluble beta blockers. As such, it is associated with a higher incidence of CNS-related side effects than hydrophilic ligands such as atenolol, sotalol and nadolol. Oxprenolol is a potent beta blocker and should not be administered to asthmatics under any circumstances due to their low beta levels as a result of depletion due to other asthma medication, and because it can cause irreversible, often fatal, airway failure and inflammation. Oxprenolol is a beta blocker. In addition, it has been found to act as an antagonist of the serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptors with respective Ki values ...
... se upotrebljava za liječenje hipertenzije i za dugotrajni tretman angine pectoris, a američka agencija FDA ga je odobrila za ove svrhe.[2] Regularno se koristi povremeno[2]za praćenje otkucaja srca u osoba sa fibrilacijom atrija,[3] prevenciju migrenskih glavobolja,[4] i krvarenja vena kod osoba sa portnom hipertenzijom koju uzrokuje ciroza;[5] za liječenje visokog nivoa hormona štitnjače.[6] Nadolol je jedan od preferiranih beta blokatora u upravljanju bolesnicima sa LQTS, za skraćenje QT intervala i prevenciju ventrikulske aritmije. U prevenciji srčanih tegoba, efikasniji je od metoprolola, dok na napredak terapije je jednak propranololu.[7] Nadolol ima prednost za jednodnevno doziranje i poboljšavanje usklađenosti pacijenta. Kod pacijenata sa smanjenom funkcijom bubrega, nadolol se može rjeđe dozirati.[8]Također je upotrebljiv za propisivanje lijeka za drugo stanje od onog za koje je zvanično odobreno za nekoliko nervnih poremećaja, kao što su prevencija napada ...
InChI=1S/C20H27NO4/c1-15-5-4-6-18(11-15)25-14-17(22)13-21-10-9-16-7-8-19(23-2)20(12-16)24-3/h4-8,11-12,17,21-22H,9-10,13-14H2,1-3H3 ...
Jolas T; Haj-Dahmane S; Lanfumey L; et al. (1993). „(-)Tertatolol is a potent antagonist at pre- and postsynaptic serotonin 5-HT1A receptors in the rat brain". Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology. 347 (5): 453-63. PMID 7686633 ...
... is a selective β2 adrenergic receptor (adrenoreceptor) antagonist or beta blocker[1][2] . ICI binds to the β2 subtype with at least 100 times greater affinity than β1 or β3, the two other known subtypes of the beta adrenoceptor.[3][4] The compound was developed by Imperial Chemical Industries, which was acquired by AkzoNobel in 2008. ICI-118,551 has no known therapeutic use in humans although it has been used widely in research to understand the action of the β2 adrenergic receptor, as few other specific antagonists for this receptor are known.[5] ICI-118,551 has been used in pre-clinical studies using murine models.[6][7][8] When dissolved in saline, the compound crosses the blood-brain barrier. Common systemic doses used in rodent research are 0.5 or 1 mg/kg although efficacy has been demonstrated at doses as low as 0.0001 mg/kg in rhesus monkeys.[9] Doses up to 20 mg/kg have been used without toxicity. At room temperature in saline, the ICI 118,551 hydrochloride is soluble to ...
ନାଡୋଲୋଲ (ଇଂରାଜୀ ଭାଷାରେ Nadolol) ଏକ ବିକ୍ରୟ ନାମ କୋରଗାର୍ଡ଼/ Corgard) ଏକ ଔଷଧ ଯାହା ଉଚ୍ଚ ରକ୍ତଚାପ, ଆଞ୍ଜାଇନା ପେକ୍ଟୋରିସ (heart pain) ଓ ଆଟ୍ରିଆଲ ଫିବ୍ରିଲେସନ ରୋଗମାନଙ୍କର ଚିକିତ୍ସାରେ ଦିଆଯାଏ ।[୧] ପ୍ରତିଷେଧକ ଭାବରେ ଅଧକପାଳି ଓ ସିରୋସିସ୍ ରୋଗରେ ଦିଆଯାଏ ।[୨][୩] ଏହି ଔଷଧ ପାଟିରେ ଦିଆଯାଏ । [୨] ନାଡୋଲୋଲର ପାର୍ଶ୍ୱ ପ୍ରତିକ୍ରିୟାରେ ମୁଣ୍ଡ ଓଜନିଆ, ଥକ୍କା ଅନୁଭବ, ଧୀର ହୃଦ୍‌ଗତି (slow heart rate) ଓ ରେନ‌ଡ ସିଣ୍ଡ୍ରୋମ ଇତ୍ୟାଦି ହୋଇପାରେ ।[୧] ପାର୍ଶ୍ୱ ପ୍ରତିକ୍ରିୟା ...

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