Alkylating Agents: Highly reactive chemicals that introduce alkyl radicals into biologically active molecules and thereby prevent their proper functioning. Many are used as antineoplastic agents, but most are very toxic, with carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and immunosuppressant actions. They have also been used as components in poison gases.Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating: A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)Alkylation: The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase: An enzyme that transfers methyl groups from O(6)-methylguanine, and other methylated moieties of DNA, to a cysteine residue in itself, thus repairing alkylated DNA in a single-step reaction. EC 18.104.22.168.Methylnitronitrosoguanidine: A nitrosoguanidine derivative with potent mutagenic and carcinogenic properties.Methyl Methanesulfonate: An alkylating agent in cancer therapy that may also act as a mutagen by interfering with and causing damage to DNA.Mechlorethamine: A biologic alkylating agent that exerts its cytotoxic effects by forming DNA ADDUCTS and DNA interstrand crosslinks, thereby inhibiting rapidly proliferating cells. The hydrochloride is an antineoplastic agent used to treat HODGKIN DISEASE and LYMPHOMA.Carmustine: A cell-cycle phase nonspecific alkylating antineoplastic agent. It is used in the treatment of brain tumors and various other malignant neoplasms. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p462) This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Chlorambucil: A nitrogen mustard alkylating agent used as antineoplastic for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, and others. Although it is less toxic than most other nitrogen mustards, it has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (Merck Index, 11th ed)Ethyl Methanesulfonate: An antineoplastic agent with alkylating properties. It also acts as a mutagen by damaging DNA and is used experimentally for that effect.Nitrogen Mustard Compounds: A group of alkylating agents derived from mustard gas, with the sulfur replaced by nitrogen. They were formerly used as toxicants and vesicants, but now function as antineoplastic agents. These compounds are also powerful mutagens, teratogens, immunosuppressants, and carcinogens.Dacarbazine: An antineoplastic agent. It has significant activity against melanomas. (from Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p564)Melphalan: An alkylating nitrogen mustard that is used as an antineoplastic in the form of the levo isomer - MELPHALAN, the racemic mixture - MERPHALAN, and the dextro isomer - MEDPHALAN; toxic to bone marrow, but little vesicant action; potential carcinogen.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Methylnitrosourea: A nitrosourea compound with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.GuanineCyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.Sulfuric Acid Esters: Organic esters of sulfuric acid.Ethylnitrosourea: A nitrosourea compound with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.Thiotepa: A very toxic alkylating antineoplastic agent also used as an insect sterilant. It causes skin, gastrointestinal, CNS, and bone marrow damage. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), thiotepa may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck Index, 11th ed).Nitrosourea CompoundsMethyltransferases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Triaziquone: Alkylating antineoplastic agent used mainly for ovarian tumors. It is toxic to skin, gastrointestinal tract, bone marrow and kidneys.Phosphoramide Mustards: A group of nitrogen mustard compounds which are substituted with a phosphoramide group or its derivatives. They are usually cytotoxic and used as antineoplastic agents.Mustard Gas: Severe irritant and vesicant of skin, eyes, and lungs. It may cause blindness and lethal lung edema and was formerly used as a war gas. The substance has been proposed as a cytostatic and for treatment of psoriasis. It has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985) (Merck, 11th ed).Mitomycins: A group of methylazirinopyrroloindolediones obtained from certain Streptomyces strains. They are very toxic antibiotics used as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS in some solid tumors. PORFIROMYCIN and MITOMYCIN are the most useful members of the group.Aziridines: Saturated azacyclopropane compounds. They include compounds with substitutions on CARBON or NITROGEN atoms.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Etanidazole: A nitroimidazole that sensitizes hypoxic tumor cells that are normally resistant to radiation therapy.Mitomycin: An antineoplastic antibiotic produced by Streptomyces caespitosus. It is one of the bi- or tri-functional ALKYLATING AGENTS causing cross-linking of DNA and inhibition of DNA synthesis.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.DNA Glycosylases: A family of DNA repair enzymes that recognize damaged nucleotide bases and remove them by hydrolyzing the N-glycosidic bond that attaches them to the sugar backbone of the DNA molecule. The process called BASE EXCISION REPAIR can be completed by a DNA-(APURINIC OR APYRIMIDINIC SITE) LYASE which excises the remaining RIBOSE sugar from the DNA.DNA Modification Methylases: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They are responsible for producing a species-characteristic methylation pattern, on either adenine or cytosine residues, in a specific short base sequence in the host cell's own DNA. This methylated sequence will occur many times in the host-cell DNA and remain intact for the lifetime of the cell. Any DNA from another species which gains entry into a living cell and lacks the characteristic methylation pattern will be recognized by the restriction endonucleases of similar specificity and destroyed by cleavage. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms.Propiolactone: Disinfectant used in vapor form to sterilize vaccines, grafts, etc. The vapor is very irritating and the liquid form is carcinogenic.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Ethylmaleimide: A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.DNA Repair Enzymes: Enzymes that are involved in the reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule, which contained damaged regions.Nylons: Polymers where the main polymer chain comprises recurring amide groups. These compounds are generally formed from combinations of diamines, diacids, and amino acids and yield fibers, sheeting, or extruded forms used in textiles, gels, filters, sutures, contact lenses, and other biomaterials.Neoplasms, Second Primary: Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.Lomustine: An alkylating agent of value against both hematologic malignancies and solid tumors.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Nimustine: Antineoplastic agent especially effective against malignant brain tumors. The resistance which brain tumor cells acquire to the initial effectiveness of this drug can be partially overcome by the simultaneous use of membrane-modifying agents such as reserpine, calcium antagonists such as nicardipine or verapamil, or the calmodulin inhibitor, trifluoperazine. The drug has also been used in combination with other antineoplastic agents or with radiotherapy for the treatment of various neoplasms.DNA Adducts: The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Sarcoma, YoshidaPorfiromycin: Toxic antibiotic of the mitomycin group, obtained from MITOMYCIN and also from Streptomyces ardus and other species. It is proposed as an antineoplastic agent, with some antibiotic properties.Methionine SulfoximineMesylates: Organic salts or esters of methanesulfonic acid.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Quinacrine Mustard: Nitrogen mustard analog of quinacrine used primarily as a stain in the studies of chromosomes and chromatin. Fluoresces by reaction with nucleic acids in chromosomes.Dicumarol: An oral anticoagulant that interferes with the metabolism of vitamin K. It is also used in biochemical experiments as an inhibitor of reductases.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Buthionine Sulfoximine: A synthetic amino acid that depletes glutathione by irreversibly inhibiting gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Inhibition of this enzyme is a critical step in glutathione biosynthesis. It has been shown to inhibit the proliferative response in human T-lymphocytes and inhibit macrophage activation. (J Biol Chem 1995;270(33):1945-7)4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide: A potent mutagen and carcinogen. This compound and its metabolite 4-HYDROXYAMINOQUINOLINE-1-OXIDE bind to nucleic acids. It inactivates bacteria but not bacteriophage.Leukemia, Radiation-Induced: Leukemia produced by exposure to IONIZING RADIATION or NON-IONIZING RADIATION.Leukemia L1210Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Leukemia L5178: An experimental lymphocytic leukemia of mice.Iodoacetamide: An alkylating sulfhydryl reagent. Its actions are similar to those of iodoacetate.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cyclohexenes: Six-carbon alicyclic hydrocarbons which contain one or more double bonds in the ring. The cyclohexadienes are not aromatic, in contrast to BENZOQUINONES which are sometimes called 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-diones.Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Cricetulus: A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.Glioblastoma: A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Poly Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: A polynucleotide formed from the ADP-RIBOSE moiety of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Busulfan: An alkylating agent having a selective immunosuppressive effect on BONE MARROW. It has been used in the palliative treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (MYELOID LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC), but although symptomatic relief is provided, no permanent remission is brought about. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), busulfan is listed as a known carcinogen.Radiotherapy: The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.DNA-(Apurinic or Apyrimidinic Site) Lyase: A DNA repair enzyme that catalyses the excision of ribose residues at apurinic and apyrimidinic DNA sites that can result from the action of DNA GLYCOSYLASES. The enzyme catalyzes a beta-elimination reaction in which the C-O-P bond 3' to the apurinic or apyrimidinic site in DNA is broken, leaving a 3'-terminal unsaturated sugar and a product with a terminal 5'-phosphate. This enzyme was previously listed under EC 22.214.171.124.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Hydrocarbons, BrominatedWaldenstrom Macroglobulinemia: A lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by pleomorphic B-LYMPHOCYTES including PLASMA CELLS, with increased levels of monoclonal serum IMMUNOGLOBULIN M. There is lymphoplasmacytic cells infiltration into bone marrow and often other tissues, also known as lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. Clinical features include ANEMIA; HEMORRHAGES; and hyperviscosity.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Netropsin: A basic polypeptide isolated from Streptomyces netropsis. It is cytotoxic and its strong, specific binding to A-T areas of DNA is useful to genetics research.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.HydrazinesSulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Semustine: 4-Methyl derivative of LOMUSTINE; (CCNU). An antineoplastic agent which functions as an alkylating agent.NitroimidazolesMyelodysplastic Syndromes: Clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by dysplasia in one or more hematopoietic cell lineages. They predominantly affect patients over 60, are considered preleukemic conditions, and have high probability of transformation into ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA.Base Pair Mismatch: The presence of an uncomplimentary base in double-stranded DNA caused by spontaneous deamination of cytosine or adenine, mismatching during homologous recombination, or errors in DNA replication. Multiple, sequential base pair mismatches lead to formation of heteroduplex DNA; (NUCLEIC ACID HETERODUPLEXES).Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Novobiocin: An antibiotic compound derived from Streptomyces niveus. It has a chemical structure similar to coumarin. Novobiocin binds to DNA gyrase, and blocks adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p189)Mutagenicity Tests: Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.Epoxy Compounds: Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.Mitolactol: Alkylating antineoplastic toxic to bone marrow; used in breast cancer, also in combination with other drugs.Ifosfamide: Positional isomer of CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE which is active as an alkylating agent and an immunosuppressive agent.Reducing Agents: Materials that add an electron to an element or compound, that is, decrease the positiveness of its valence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Leukemia P388: An experimental lymphocytic leukemia originally induced in DBA/2 mice by painting with methylcholanthrene.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Distamycins: Oligopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces distallicus. Their binding to DNA inhibits synthesis of nucleic acids.Vincristine: An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)Topoisomerase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit the activity of DNA TOPOISOMERASES.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Apurinic Acid: Hydrolysate of DNA in which purine bases have been removed.Podophyllotoxin: A lignan (LIGNANS) found in PODOPHYLLIN resin from the roots of PODOPHYLLUM plants. It is a potent spindle poison, toxic if taken internally, and has been used as a cathartic. It is very irritating to skin and mucous membranes, has keratolytic actions, has been used to treat warts and keratoses, and may have antineoplastic properties, as do some of its congeners and derivatives.Aniline Mustard: Alkylating anti-neoplastic agent.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Topoisomerase II Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit the activity of DNA TOPOISOMERASE II. Included in this category are a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS which target the eukaryotic form of topoisomerase II and ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS which target the prokaryotic form of topoisomerase II.Epichlorohydrin: A chlorinated epoxy compound used as an industrial solvent. It is a strong skin irritant and carcinogen.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Chemical Warfare Agents: Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.Carcinoma 256, Walker: A transplantable carcinoma of the rat that originally appeared spontaneously in the mammary gland of a pregnant albino rat, and which now resembles a carcinoma in young transplants and a sarcoma in older transplants. (Stedman, 25th ed)Deoxyribonuclease IV (Phage T4-Induced): An enzyme which catalyzes the endonucleolytic cleavage of phosphodiester bonds at purinic or apyrimidinic sites (AP-sites) to produce 5'-Phosphooligonucleotide end products. The enzyme prefers single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and was formerly classified as EC 126.96.36.199.Carbon-Oxygen Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-oxygen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.2.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Vinca Alkaloids: A group of indole-indoline dimers which are ALKALOIDS obtained from the VINCA genus of plants. They inhibit polymerization of TUBULIN into MICROTUBULES thus blocking spindle formation and arresting cells in METAPHASE. They are some of the most useful ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Fibrosarcoma: A sarcoma derived from deep fibrous tissue, characterized by bundles of immature proliferating fibroblasts with variable collagen formation, which tends to invade locally and metastasize by the bloodstream. (Stedman, 25th ed)Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Misonidazole: A nitroimidazole that sensitizes normally radio-resistant hypoxic cells to radiation. It may also be directly cytotoxic to hypoxic cells and has been proposed as an antineoplastic.Tumor Stem Cell Assay: A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of tumor stem cells by assaying their activity. It is used primarily for the in vitro testing of antineoplastic agents.Vidarabine: A nucleoside antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces antibioticus. It has some antineoplastic properties and has broad spectrum activity against DNA viruses in cell cultures and significant antiviral activity against infections caused by a variety of viruses such as the herpes viruses, the VACCINIA VIRUS and varicella zoster virus.Lucanthone: One of the SCHISTOSOMICIDES, it has been replaced largely by HYCANTHONE and more recently PRAZIQUANTEL. (From Martindale The Extrapharmacopoeia, 30th ed., p46)Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Sister Chromatid Exchange: An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Leukemia: A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Fanconi Anemia: Congenital disorder affecting all bone marrow elements, resulting in ANEMIA; LEUKOPENIA; and THROMBOPENIA, and associated with cardiac, renal, and limb malformations as well as dermal pigmentary changes. Spontaneous CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE is a feature of this disease along with predisposition to LEUKEMIA. There are at least 7 complementation groups in Fanconi anemia: FANCA, FANCB, FANCC, FANCD1, FANCD2, FANCE, FANCF, FANCG, and FANCL. (from Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/dispomim.cgi?id=227650, August 20, 2004)LeukopeniaLeukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell: A chronic leukemia characterized by abnormal B-lymphocytes and often generalized lymphadenopathy. In patients presenting predominately with blood and bone marrow involvement it is called chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); in those predominately with enlarged lymph nodes it is called small lymphocytic lymphoma. These terms represent spectrums of the same disease.Leukemia, Myeloid: Form of leukemia characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of the myeloid lineage and their precursors (MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS) in the bone marrow and other sites.Multiple Myeloma: A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Hodgkin Disease: A malignant disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue. In the classical variant, giant usually multinucleate Hodgkin's and REED-STERNBERG CELLS are present; in the nodular lymphocyte predominant variant, lymphocytic and histiocytic cells are seen.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Comet Assay: A genotoxicological technique for measuring DNA damage in an individual cell using single-cell gel electrophoresis. Cell DNA fragments assume a "comet with tail" formation on electrophoresis and are detected with an image analysis system. Alkaline assay conditions facilitate sensitive detection of single-strand damage.Antibiotics, Antineoplastic: Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.
It is incompatible with acids, bases, oxidizing agents, and reducing agents. Methyl bromoacetate is an alkylating agent. It has ... been used to alkylate phenol and amino groups. Moreover, it can be used to make vitamins and pharmaceutical drugs. It is ... It reacts with conjugated base and produce alkylated carbene complexes. Methyl bromoacetate can be toxic by ingestion and ...
It belongs to the family of drugs called alkylating agents. It inhibits the replication of DNA in cell culture. Irofulven is an ... Soon after, the drug was again sub-licensed to Oncology Venture. The drug has undergone a number of clinical trials, mostly for ... Platinum and irofulven pharmacokinetics did not suggest drug-drug interactions. Despite modest successes demonstrating limited ... Invest New Drugs. 24(4):311-9. doi:10.1007/s10637-005-5055-6. Both Danish sites now open in the Screening Study of prostate ...
Alkylating agents will work at any point in the cell cycle and thus are known as cell cycle-independent drugs. For this reason ... Siddik ZH (2005). Mechanisms of Action of Cancer Chemotherapeutic Agents: DNA-Interactive Alkylating Agents and Antitumour ... there are now many types of alkylating agents in use. They are so named because of their ability to alkylate many molecules, ... drug-to-drug interactions, genetics, and obesity, which has a major impact on the actual concentration of the drug in the ...
List of hormonal alkylating antineoplastic agents Oborotov, A. V.; Smirnova, Z. S.; Osetrova, I. P.; Polozkova, A. P.; ... having cytostatic actions via the alkylating nitrogen mustard moiety analogously to estramustine phosphate. The drug shows ... Cytestrol acetate is a steroidal antiestrogen and an alkylating antineoplastic agent (i.e., chemotherapeutic) which was ... Rzheznikov, V. M. (1999). "Antitumor activity of various medicinal forms of the new estrogenocytostatic drug cytestrol acetate ...
Multi-drug resistance presents a significant problem in the clinical setting and agents that are less susceptible to these ... As small-molecule, synthetic, DNA minor groove binding alkylating agents, duocarmycins are suitable to target solid tumors. ... They have shown activity in a variety of multi-drug resistant (MDR) models. Agents that are part of this class of duocarmycins ... "Cytotoxic Agents". ADC Review/Journal of Antibody-drug Conjugates. October 29, 2013. Boger, Dale L. (1991). "Duocarmycins: a ...
... is accomplished with the class of drugs called alkylating antineoplastic agents. Alkylating agents are classified ... for the ability of some alkylating agents to perform as anti-cancer drugs in the form of alkylating antineoplastic agents, and ... Alkylating agents Category:Ethylating agents Category:Methylating agents March Jerry; (1985). Advanced Organic Chemistry ... Thus, when an electrophilic alkylating agent is introduced to a primary amine, it will preferentially alkylate all the way to a ...
... is in the alkylating agent and purine analog families of medication. Dacarbazine was approved for medical use in ... The drug was initially marketed by Bayer. Bayer continues to supply DTIC-Dome. There are also generic versions of dacarbazine ... Dacarbazine is bioactivated in liver by demethylation to "MTIC" and then to diazomethane, which is an alkylating agent. ... Melanoma Hodgkin disease ABVD History of cancer chemotherapy Alkylating antineoplastic agent "Dacarbazine". The American ...
These side-effects are shared by most chemotherapies, including alkylating agents in general. No drug interaction studies have ... "In Vitro and in Vivo Antitumor Activity of a Novel Alkylating Agent, Melphalan-Flufenamide, against Multiple Myeloma Cells". ... "In vitro and in vivo antitumor activity of a novel alkylating agent, melphalan-flufenamide, against multiple myeloma cells". ... "In vitro and in vivo antitumor activity of a novel alkylating agent, melphalan-flufenamide, against multiple myeloma cells". ...
It is the prototype of alkylating agents, a group of anticancer chemotherapeutic drugs. It works by binding to DNA, ... Mechlorethamine belongs to the group of nitrogen mustard alkylating agents. It has been derivatized into the estrogen analogue ... The drug is a nitrogen-based analogue of mustard gas (which is sulfur-based) and was derived from chemical warfare research. ... As the chemical is a blister agent, its use is strongly restricted within the Chemical Weapons Convention where it is ...
List of hormonal alkylating antineoplastic agents List of estrogen esters J. Elks (14 November 2014). The Dictionary of Drugs: ... 898-. ISBN 978-1-4757-2085-3. Asai M, Takeuchi H, Okada H (1978). "In vivo interaction between steroidal alkylating agents and ... steroidal estrogen and alkylating antineoplastic agent and a chlorphenacyl nitrogen mustard-coupled estrogen ester that was ... like estramustine phosphate have reduced toxicity relative to non-linked nitrogen mustard alkylating antineoplastic agents. ...
Sulfonic esters such as methyl triflate are considered good alkylating agents in organic synthesis. Such sulfonate esters are ... Antibacterial drugs sulfa drugs are produced from sulfonic acids. Methanesulfonic acid is used as the supporting electrolyte of ... Usually the sulfonating agent is sulfur trioxide. A particularly large scale application of this method is the production of ...
List of hormonal alkylating antineoplastic agents List of estrogen esters J. Elks (14 November 2014). The Dictionary of Drugs: ... Estramustine (INN, USAN, BAN) is a synthetic, steroidal estrogen and alkylating antineoplastic agent which was never marketed. ... 502-. ISBN 978-1-4757-2085-3. Index Nominum 2000: International Drug Directory. Taylor & Francis. January 2000. pp. 406-. ISBN ...
List of hormonal alkylating antineoplastic agents List of corticosteroid esters J. Elks (14 November 2014). The Dictionary of ... It is the ester formed from two other drugs, prednisolone and chlorambucil. Rarely, it has been associated with myoclonus. ... 868-. ISBN 978-3-88763-075-1. I.K. Morton; Judith M. Hall (6 December 2012). Concise Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents: ... 1012-. ISBN 978-1-4757-2085-3. Index Nominum 2000: International Drug Directory. Taylor & Francis. 2000. pp. ...
List of hormonal alkylating antineoplastic agents List of estrogen esters J. Elks (14 November 2014). The Dictionary of Drugs: ... is a nitrogen mustard alkylating antineoplastic drug that was under development in Japan by Kureha Chemicals (now Kureha ... Ohsawa N, Yamazaki Z, Wagatsuma T, Isurugi K (1984). "[Bestrabacil: a possible target-oriented anticancer agent]". Gan to ... which results in targeted/site-directed DNA alkylating activity toward estrogen receptor-positive tissues such as breast and ...
List of hormonal alkylating antineoplastic agents List of estrogen esters J. Elks (14 November 2014). The Dictionary of Drugs: ... nonsteroidal estrogen and alkylating antineoplastic agent (i.e., chemotherapy drug) and a chlorphenacyl nitrogen mustard ester ... Morozova TM, Merkulova TI, Martynov V, Iaguzhinskaia VP, Shkodinskaia EN (1984). "[Properties of alkylating derivatives of ... Experimental evaluation of antitumor drugs in the USA and USSR and clinical correlations. U.S. Dept. of Health and Human ...
Leona D. Samson
She is researching "how eukaryotic cells respond to alkylating agents." Alkylating agents are drugs which work by replacing a ... "alkylating agents". thefreedictionary.com. Retrieved 2013-10-23. "Alkylating Agents". NIH. Retrieved 2013-10-10. "Leona D. ... like alkylating agents. Most of Samson's contemporary publications are written about alkylating agents in particular or about ... Alkylating agents inhibit protein synthesis and damages rapidly dividing cells, among which cancer cells are primarily affected ...
Withdrawn from the drug, this side effect is typically reversible. Like many alkylating agents, chlorambucil has been ... Chlorambucil is in the alkylating agent family of medications. It works by blocking the formation of DNA and RNA. Chlorambucil ... In the 1950s, aromatic mustards like chlorambucil were introduced as less toxic alkylating agents than the aliphatic nitrogen ... "Leukeran (Chlorambucil) Drug Information: Description, User Reviews, Drug Side Effects, Interactions - Prescribing Information ...
... (TMZ; brand names Temodar and Temodal and Temcad) is an oral chemotherapy drug. It is an alkylating agent used as ... Temozolomide is a prodrug and an imidazotetrazine derivative of the alkylating agent dacarbazine. The agent was developed by ... The therapeutic benefit of temozolomide depends on its ability to alkylate/methylate DNA, which most often occurs at the N-7 or ... Chemotherapy Drug Shrinks Brain Tumors American Academy of Neurology, May 21, 2007 Information for people undergoing treatment ...
These compounds are capable of crosslinking DNA, and kill cells by similar pathways to alkylating chemotherapeutic agents. ( ... The Food and Drug Administration and other institutions have reviewed the issue and found no evidence to suggest toxicity in ... Platinum-based antineoplastic agents are used in chemotherapy, and show good activity against some tumors. As platinum is a ... chapter= ignored (help) Wheate, N. J.; Walker, S.; Craig, G. E.; Oun, R. (2010). "The status of platinum anticancer drugs in ...
Alkylating antineoplastic agents, for example, cause DNA damage, which is more harmful to cancer cells than regular cells. ... Risk associated with medical interventions Adverse effects of prescription drugs Over-use of drugs, (causing - for example - ... such as when pharmacotherapists produce handwritten prescriptions for drugs. A very common iatrogenic effect is caused by drug ... Adverse drug reaction Bedsore Bioethics Cascade effect Classification of Pharmaco-Therapeutic Referrals Fatal Care: Survive in ...
To further test the role of activated androgen receptors on AHN, flutamide, an antiandrogen drug that competes with ... Prostate cancer may be treated by removing the major source of testosterone: testicle removal (orchiectomy); or agents which ... 17α-Alkylated 19-nortestosterone derivatives: Bolenol. *Dimethyltrienolone (7α-methylmetribolone, 7α,17α-dimethyltrenbolone) ...
DrugsEdit. Many drugs are designed to mimic or to interfere with the action of natural amine neurotransmitters, exemplified by ... Amines are alkylated by alkyl halides. Acyl chlorides and acid anhydrides react with primary and secondary amines to form ... Either accomplished with reducing agents or by electrosynthesis Reduction of nitro compounds Nitro compounds Can be ... Important primary alkyl amines include, methylamine, most amino acids, and the buffering agent tris, while primary aromatic ...
Acute inhalation injury
The alkylating agent affects more the upper parts of the respiratory tract, and only intensely exposed victims showed signs ... Drugs that reduce the inflammatory response, promote healing of tissues, and prevent the onset of pulmonary edema or secondary ... Sulfur mustard is a vesicant alkylating agent with strong cytotoxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic properties. After exposure, ... followed by death allowing for evaluation of novel cytoprotective agents. Potential tissue reparative agents can be evaluated ...
"International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved 26 August 2015.. *^ Kwok, CS; Gibbs, S; Bennett, C; Holland, R; Abbott, R ( ... Intracellular chemotherapeutic agents / antineoplastic agents (L01). SPs/MIs. (M phase). Block microtubule assembly. *Vinca ... Alkylating. *Nitrogen mustards: Chlormethine. *Cyclophosphamide# (Ifosfamide#. *Trofosfamide). *Chlorambucil# (Melphalan. * ... Umezawa published his discovery in 1966. The drug was launched in Japan by Nippon Kayaku in 1969. In the US, bleomycin ...
This antineoplastic or immunomodulatory drug article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Intracellular chemotherapeutic agents / antineoplastic agents (L01). SPs/MIs. (M phase). Block microtubule assembly. *Vinca ... Alkylating. *Nitrogen mustards: Chlormethine. *Cyclophosphamide# (Ifosfamide#. *Trofosfamide). *Chlorambucil# (Melphalan. * ... Belotecan is a drug used in chemotherapy. It is a semi-synthetic camptothecin analogue indicated for Small Cell Lung Cancer and ...
"Drugs During Pregnancy and Lactation: Handbook of Prescription Drugs and Comparative Risk Assessment. Gulf Professional ... Cannabinoids are used in patients with cachexia, cytotoxic nausea, and vomiting, or who are unresponsive to other agents. These ... "Drug Scheduling". www.dea.gov. Retrieved 2019-02-21.. *^ "2017 - Final Rule: Placement of FDA-Approved Products of Oral ... An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea. Antiemetics are typically used to treat motion sickness ...
Alkyl nitriles are sufficiently acidic to form nitrile anions, which alkylate a wide variety of electrophiles. Key to the ... The types of pharmaceuticals containing nitriles are diverse, from vildagliptin, an antidiabetic drug, to anastrozole, which is ... α-aminonitriles can be decyanated with other reducing agents such as lithium aluminium hydride. ... Structure of citalopram, an antidepressant drug of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class. ...
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs Unselective agents Aceclofenac. Comes in betadex salt and free acid forms; practically ... Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (usually abbreviated to NSAIDs), are a drug class that groups together drugs that decrease ... Other drugs. Main article: analgesic adjuvant. Drugs that have been introduced for uses other than analgesics are also ... "Drugs Used In The Treatment Of Interstitial Cystitis". Drug Treatment in Urology. John Wiley & Sons, 2008. p. 65.. ...
Research, Center for Drug Evaluation and. "Drug Safety and Availability - FDA Drug Safety Communication: Safety Review Update ... It may be used as a nasal/sinus decongestant, as a stimulant, or as a wakefulness-promoting agent. ... "www.drugs.com. Archived from the original on 14 August 2013.. *^ "World Drug Report 2015" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the ... Patient-Focused Drug Development Initiative" (PDF). Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) U.S. Food and Drug ...
... , also known as Istodax, is an anticancer agent used in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) and other peripheral T-cell ... Natural compounds as drugs. 2. Basel: Birkhäuser. pp. 335-59. ISBN 978-3-7643-8594-1.. Retrieved on November 8, 2009 through ... Alkylating. *Nitrogen mustards: Mechlorethamine. *Cyclophosphamide# (Ifosfamide#. *Trofosfamide). *Chlorambucil# (Melphalan. * ... and orphan drug status from the FDA and the European Medicines Agency for the same indication. ...
DNA-Interactive Alkylating Agents and Antitumour Platinum-Based Drugs. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. doi:10.1002/0470025077.chap84b. ... Alkylating agents. Main article: Alkylating antineoplastic agent. Alkylating agents are the oldest group of ... Available agents. Main article: List of antineoplastic agents. There is an extensive list of antineoplastic agents. ... Antibody-drug conjugates. Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) comprise an antibody, drug and a linker between them. The ...
List of agents. Adrenaline releasing agents. Main article: Norepinephrine releasing agent ... Topical nasal or ophthalmic decongestants quickly develop tachyphylaxis (a rapid decrease in the response to a drug after ... 3 List of agents *3.1 Adrenaline releasing agents *3.1.1 Common or widely marketed ... A decongestant, or nasal decongestant, is a type of pharmaceutical drug that is used to relieve nasal congestion in the upper ...
This mechanism of toxicity is relevant to the function of anti-cancer drugs in the form of alkylating antineoplastic agents. ... Nucleophilic alkylating agentsEdit. Nucleophilic alkylating agents deliver the equivalent of an alkyl anion (carbanion). The ... Electrophilic alkylating agentsEdit. Electrophilic alkylating agents deliver the equivalent of an alkyl cation. Alkyl halides ... Alcohols alkylate to give ethers: ROH + R'X → ROR'. When the alkylating agent is an alkyl halide, the conversion is called the ...
C)yclophosphamide, an alkylating agent which damages DNA by binding to it and causing the formation of cross-links ... Drug. Standard [R]-CHOEP. [R]-High-CHOEP. [R]-Mega-CHOEP, cycle 1. [R]-Mega-CHOEP, cycles 2 and 3. [R]-Mega-CHOEP, cycle 4 ( ... Drug. Standard [R]-CHOP-14 or [R]-CHOP-21. [R]-Maxi-CHOP. Mode. Days ... H)ydroxydaunorubicin (also called doxorubicin or adriamycin), an intercalating agent which damages DNA by inserting itself ...
The term encompasses a variety of drugs, which are divided into broad categories such as alkylating agents and antimetabolites. ... Chemotherapy is the treatment of cancer with one or more cytotoxic anti-neoplastic drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a ... drugs, exposure to chemicals, sunlight, ionizing radiation, electromagnetic fields, infectious agents, etc. Lifestyle, economic ... Hormones are important agents in sex-related cancers, such as cancer of the breast, endometrium, prostate, ovary and testis and ...
Hormone replacement therapy
"Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety. 6 (2): 45-56. doi:10.1177/2042098614568300. ISSN 2042-0986. PMC 4406918. PMID 25922653.. ... See also: Sex-hormonal agent and List of sex-hormonal medications available in the United States ... 17α-Alkylated 19-nortestosterone derivatives: Ethylestrenol. *Mibolerone. *Norethandrolone. *Normethandrone (methylestrenolone ... Congress did grant the FDA explicit but limited oversight of compounded drugs in a 1997 amendment to the Federal Food, Drug, ...
Like other alkylating agents, cyclophosphamide is teratogenic and contraindicated in pregnant women (pregnancy category D) ... 2010), "Oxazaphosphorines: new therapeutic strategies for an old class of drugs", Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol, 6 (8): 919- ... Hall AG, Tilby MJ (September 1992). "Mechanisms of action of, and modes of resistance to, alkylating agents used in the ... Cyclophosphamide and the related nitrogen mustard-derived alkylating agent ifosfamide were developed by Norbert Brock and ASTA ...
ATP-binding cassette transporter
To do this other anticancer drugs can be utilized such as alkylating drugs (cyclophosphamide), antimetabolites (5-fluorouracil ... result in the development of resistance to multiple drugs such as antibiotics and anti-cancer agents. Hundreds of ABC ... Drug Resistance ATPase-1 (Drug RA1) (Putative) Drug Resistance ATPase-2 (Drug RA2) Macrolide Exporter (MacB) Peptide-4 Exporter ... The latter scenario can lead to drug-drug interactions, sometimes resulting in altered effects of the drugs. There are a number ...
This drug article relating to the genito-urinary system is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... International Agency for Research on Cancer; World Health Organization (2001). Some Thyrotropic Agents. World Health ... 17α-Alkylated dihydrotestosterone derivatives: Androisoxazole. *Desoxymethyltestosterone. *Furazabol. *Mebolazine (dimethazine) ... Doggrell SA, Brown L (2001). "The spironolactone renaissance". Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 10 (5): 943-54. doi:10.1517/ ...
Health effects of tobacco
Like PAH metabolites, acrolein is also an electrophilic alkylating agent and permanently binds to the DNA base guanine, by a ... Drug interactions. Smoking is known to increase levels of liver enzymes that break down drugs and toxins. That means that ... "British Journal of Inebriety (Alcoholism and Drug Addiction). 30 (1): 1-27. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.1932.tb04849.x. ISSN 1360- ... Bachman JG, Wadsworth KN, O'Malley PM, Johnston LD, Schulenberg JE (1997). Smoking, drinking, and drug use in young adulthood: ...
"Drugs@FDA: FDA Approved Drug Products". United States Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 27 November 2016.. ... van Vloten WA, Sigurdsson V (2004). "Selecting an oral contraceptive agent for the treatment of acne in women". Am J Clin ... 17α-Alkylated 19-nortestosterone derivatives: Ethylestrenol. *Mibolerone. *Norethandrolone. *Normethandrone (methylestrenolone ... "Drug-Drug Interactions, Effectiveness, and Safety of Hormonal Contraceptives in Women Living with HIV". Drug Safety. 39 (11): ...
... has been studied as part of a multi-drug chemotherapy regimen for drug-resistant T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia. ... As a purine analog, it is a synthetic chemotherapy agent that targets lymphocytes and selectively suppresses the immune system ... Alkylating. *Nitrogen mustards: Chlormethine. *Cyclophosphamide# (Ifosfamide#. *Trofosfamide). *Chlorambucil# (Melphalan. * ... 31, 2002 Serono Purchases Rights To Experimental MS Drug *^ Reuters. Dec 4, 2000. Ivax to Develop Cladribine for Multiple ...
Drugs not assigned an ATC code. *Substituted amphetamines. *Designer drugs. *Serotonin releasing agents ... 3,4-(Methylenedioxy)amphetamine analogues alkylated on the dioxole ring". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 22 (10): 1264-7. doi: ... with the aim of finding a non-neurotoxic drug able to be used as a less harmful substitute for entactogenic drugs such as MDMA ... Meanwell NA (March 2011). "Synopsis of Some Recent Tactical Application of Bioisosteres in Drug Design". Journal of Medicinal ...
As a consequence, many antifungal drugs cause side-effects. Some of these side-effects can be life-threatening if the drugs are ... "Dermatotherapeutic Agents". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry (7th ed.). 2007. doi:10.1002/14356007.a08_301.pub2. ... a b doctorfungus , Antifungal Drug Interactions Archived June 19, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. Content Director: Russell E. ... Azole antifungal drugs (except for abafungin) inhibit the enzyme lanosterol 14 α-demethylase; the enzyme necessary to convert ...
Metallo-Drugs: Development and Action of Anticancer Agents. 18. Berlin: de Gruyter GmbH. pp. 387-435. doi:10.1515/9783110470734 ... Alkylating. *Nitrogen mustards: Chlormethine. *Cyclophosphamide# (Ifosfamide#. *Trofosfamide). *Chlorambucil# (Melphalan. * ... Richards, A. D.; Rodgers, A. (2007). "Synthetic metallomolecules as agents for the control of DNA structure". Chemical Society ...
a b "Omeprazole and Esomeprazole". Clinical and Research Information on Drug-induced Liver Injury. National Institutes of ... Within the class of medications, there is no clear evidence that one agent works better than another. ... a b "Lansoprazole, Dexlansoprazole". Clinical and Research Information on Drug-induced Liver Injury. National Institutes of ... Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) are a group of drugs whose main action is a pronounced and long-lasting reduction of stomach acid ...
Alternatively, an antidiuretic, such as vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone), is an agent or drug which reduces the excretion of ... "The abuse of diuretics as performance-enhancing drugs and masking agents in sport doping: pharmacology, toxicology and analysis ... Drug Monitor - Diuretics Archived January 17, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. *^ Shankaran S, Liang KC, Ilagan N, Fleischmann L ( ... Drugs in this class include acetazolamide and methazolamide. Potassium-sparing diuretics. These are diuretics which do ...
A. F. Harms (1 January 1986). Innovative Approaches in Drug Research: Proceedings of the Third Noordwijkerhout Symposium on ... Metribolone has a high potential for hepatotoxicity, similarly to other 17α-alkylated AAS. However, the hepatotoxic ... Krüskemper HL, Noell G (July 1966). "Liver toxicity of a new anabolic agent: methyltrienolone (17-alpha-methyl-4,9,11- ... J. Elks (14 November 2014). The Dictionary of Drugs: Chemical Data: Chemical Data, Structures and Bibliographies. Springer. pp ...
Pneumotox » Drug » Alkylating agents » XV.ap - Path: Pleuroparenchymal fibrosis/fibroelastosis (PPFE)
Alkylating Antineoplastic Agents Summary Report | CureHunter
A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to ... The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug ... Alkylating; Antineoplastics, Alkylating; Antineoplastic Alkylating Drugs; Drugs, Antineoplastic Alkylating; Alkylating Agents, ... Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; Alkylating Antineoplastic Drugs; Alkylating Antineoplastics; Alkylating Drugs, ...
MGMT-NET: O6-methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase (MGMT) Status in Neuroendocrine Tumors: Predictive Factor of Response to...
Physiological Effects of Drugs. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating. Antidotes. Protective Agents. Vitamin B Complex. Vitamins. ... Antineoplastic Agents. Antiviral Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. Enzyme Inhibitors. Immunosuppressive Agents. Immunologic ... Drug: Alkylating-based chemotherapy The alkylating-based group will receive CapTem regimen (capecitabine and temozolomide, /4 ... Drug: Alkylating-based chemotherapy The alkylating-based group will receive CapTem regimen (capecitabine and temozolomide, /4 ...
Immunosuppressive drug - Wikipedia
Alkylating agents. The alkylating agents used in immunotherapy are nitrogen mustards (cyclophosphamide), nitrosoureas, ... Immunosuppressive drugs, also known as immunosuppressive agents, immunosuppressants and antirejection medications are drugs ... Pancreas-Kidney Transplantation: Drugs, a brief history of immunosuppressive drugs. Accessed on 21 August 2005. ... Other drugs. Interferons. Main article: Interferon. IFN-β suppresses the production of Th1 cytokines and the ...
Search of: 'Churg-Strauss Syndrome' | 'Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating' - List Results - ClinicalTrials.gov
Search of: 'Testicular Leukemia' | 'Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating' - List Results - ClinicalTrials.gov
How Chemotherapy Drugs Work
... either alone or in combination with other drugs or treatments. These drugs are very different in their chemical composition, ... More than 100 chemotherapy or chemo drugs are used to treat cancer - ... Alkylating agents. Alkylating agents keep the cell from reproducing by damaging its DNA. These drugs work in all phases of the ... Chemo drugs can be grouped by how they work, their chemical structure, and their relationships to other drugs. Some drugs work ...
MGMT-NET: O6-methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase (MGMT) Status in Neuroendocrine Tumors: Predictive Factor of Response to...
Drug: Alkylating-based chemotherapy The alkylating-based group will receive CapTem regimen (capecitabine and temozolomide, /4 ... Alkylating agents (ALKY) are one of the main systemic treatments used, at least for advanced duodeno-pancreatic NETs, with a ... Drug: Alkylating-based chemotherapy The alkylating-based group will receive CapTem regimen (capecitabine and temozolomide, /4 ... Predictive Factor of Response to Alkylating Agents (MGMT-NET). The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ...
Alkylating agents - definition of Alkylating agents by The Free Dictionary
Alkylating agents synonyms, Alkylating agents pronunciation, Alkylating agents translation, English dictionary definition of ... Alkylating agents. tr.v. al·kyl·at·ed , al·kyl·at·ing , al·kyl·ates To add one or more alkyl groups to . al′kyl·a′tion n. n 1. ... Immunosuppressant drugs include antimetabolites, alkylating agents, some antibiotics and specific adjuvants.. Non-infectious ... Alkylating agents - definition of Alkylating agents by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/Alkylating+agents ...
Manipulation of Base Excision Repair to Sensitize Ovarian Cancer Cells to Alkylating Agent Temozolomide | Clinical Cancer...
Both drugs were added and left on for 72 h. IGROV-1 and IGROV-1mp53 were treated with 30 mmol/L methoxyamine, and SKOV-3x and ... and bases that have been alkylated either from endogenous or exogenous alkylating agents, including some chemotherapeutic ... Temozolomide is an alkylating agent that creates DNA lesions, including N7-methylguanine and N3-methyladenine, which are ... Temozolomide is an alkylating agent that creates DNA lesions that are repaired by the BER pathway (14). Once administered, ...
'alkylating agents' Protocols and Video...
Cell Hemolysis Assay for the Evaluation of pH-responsive Endosomolytic Agents for Cytosolic Delivery of Biomacromolecular Drugs ... Testing the Efficacy of Pharmacological Agents in a Pericardial Target Delivery Model in the Swine, A Rat Model of ... Genome-wide Mapping of Drug-DNA Interactions in Cells with COSMIC (Crosslinking of Small Molecules to Isolate Chromatin), ... Busulfan as a Myelosuppressive Agent for Generating Stable High-level Bone Marrow Chimerism in Mice, Percutaneous Hepatic ...
Down-regulation of DNA mismatch repair proteins in human and murine tumor spheroids: implications for multicellular resistance...
Generation of Alkylating Agent-Resistant Cell Lines. In vitro selected drug-resistant variants of murine EMT-6 and human H69 ... A, morphology of EMT-6 spheroids in the absence of alkylating agent treatment. Examples of EMT-6P and drug-resistant variants ... 2). However, we were unable to affect spheroid compaction, in the absence of alkylating agent treatment, of the drug-resistant ... We next sought to analyze DNA mismatch repair protein expression in other models of drug resistance to alkylating agents. Of ...
Types of Chemotherapy - What is Chemotherapy? - Chemocare
Alkylating Agents. Alkylating agents are most active in the resting phase of the cell. These types of drugs are cell-cycle non- ... There are several types of alkylating agents used in chemotherapy treatments:. *Mustard gas derivatives: Mechlorethamine, ... These drugs act during multiple phases of the cell cycle and are considered cell-cycle specific. There are several types of ... Toposiomerase inhibitors are types of chemotherapy drugs that interfere with the action of topoisomerase enzymes (topoisomerase ...
Alkylating Agents. Over the past few years, there has been an increase in the use of gemcitabine-platinum combinations in the ... However, the study of the influence of genotype on drug efficacy (pharmacogenetics) and the novel approach to targeted drug ... Molecular Determinants Related to Drug Sensitivity. Antimetabolites. Examples on how genetics might affect drug response are ... These findings may have implications for rational design of drug regimens incorporating gemcitabine and other agents modulating ...
13. Antineoplastic drugs. Alkylating agents, antimetabolites, microtubule-damaging drugs, topoisomerase inhibitors - greek...
Alkylating agents. These drugs are the most commonly used cytostatic drugs.. Alkylating agent work by covalently binding alkyl ... Alkylating-like agents (platinum compounds) - these drugs act similarly to alkylating agents ... Groups of cytotoxic drugs:. *Alkylating agents - these drugs attach alkyl groups into DNA bases, which interferes with cell ... These drugs dont alkylate, but form bonds between and within strands of DNA just like alkylating agents. ...
Design of antitumor drugs: alkylating agents and antimetabolites drugs | Virtual Health Sciences Library
Alkylating Agents Citation: Hussieny H. Moharram , Design of antitumor drugs: alkylating agents and antimetabolites drugs, J. ... Design of antitumor drugs: alkylating agents and antimetabolites drugs Moharram Hussieny H.; J. Drug Res. Egypt. 1990; 19 (2- ... Journal of Drug Research of Egypt Journal Country: Egypt P-ISSN: 0085-2406 Keywords: Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic Board ...
Low density lipoprotein for delivery of a water-insoluble alkylating agent to malignant cells. In vitro and in vivo studies of ... Targeted drug delivery via caveolae-associated protein PV1 improves lung fibrosis *Gabriela M. Marchetti ... Rights & permissionsfor article Low density lipoprotein for delivery of a water-insoluble alkylating agent to malignant cells ... i,In vitro,/i, and ,i,in vivo,/i, studies of a drug-lipoprotein complex . Opens in a new window. ...
Alkylating Drugs - DrugBank
An alkylating agent used to treat chronic myelogenous leukemia.. Melphalan. An alkylating antineoplastic agent used to treat ... An antineoplastic agent used to treat malignant melanoma and Hodgkins disease.. Temozolomide. An alkylating agent used to ... An alkylating agent used as a part of chemotherapeutic regimens for the treatment of primary and metastatic brain tumors as ... An alkylating agent used to prevent graft rejection in stem cell transplantation and to treat a variety of malignancies ...
Chemotherapy for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
... is a treatment of cancer-killing drugs used to kill chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells. Learn more about chemotherapy here. ... Alkylating agents: chlorambucil (Leukeran®), bendamustine (Treanda®), and cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan®). Theyre often given ... Chemo drugs used for CLL. The major types of chemo drugs most commonly used to treat CLL include:. Purine analogs: fludarabine ... Drugs Approved for Leukemia. May 19, 2017. Accessed at www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/drugs/leukemia on April 16, 2018. ...
Types of chemotherapy: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
A to Z list of cancer drugs. www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/drugs. Accessed November 11, 2019. ... ALKYLATING AGENTS. Used to treat:. *Leukemia. *Lymphoma. *Hodgkin disease. *Multiple myeloma. *Sarcoma ... How chemotherapy drugs work. www.cancer.org/treatment/treatments-and-side-effects/treatment-types/chemotherapy/how-chemotherapy ... There are more than 100 different chemotherapy drugs. Below are the seven main types of chemotherapy, the types of cancer they ...
Triaziquone - Wikipedia
Methyl 2-bromoacetate - Wikipedia
It is incompatible with acids, bases, oxidizing agents, and reducing agents. Methyl bromoacetate is an alkylating agent. It has ... been used to alkylate phenol and amino groups. Moreover, it can be used to make vitamins and pharmaceutical drugs. It is ... It reacts with conjugated base and produce alkylated carbene complexes. Methyl bromoacetate can be toxic by ingestion and ...
Gleostine Dosage Guide - Drugs.com
Alkeran Side Effects in Detail - Drugs.com
Drug class: alkylating agents. Consumer resources. *Alkeran (Melphalan Injection). *Alkeran (Melphalan Tablets) ... Drugs.com Mobile Apps. The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own ... Drugs.com provides accurate and independent information on more than 24,000 prescription drugs, over-the-counter medicines and ... Search Drugs.com. All Select the section you want to search in All. Consumer. Professional. Pill ID. Interactions. News. FDA ...
NCCN Guidelines for Patients® | Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer
Bendamustine| Drug Dictionary | Drug Therapy
Browse our Drug Dictionary for generic drug names and brand names. ... Drug type Alkylating agent. How the drug is given. Intravenously (IV). Indications and Usage. Bendamustine hydrochloride is FDA ... Patients Disease Information Treatment Types of Treatment Chemotherapy and Other Drug Therapies Drug Listings Bendamustine ... For information on how to manage the costs of drug therapy, please see Financial Support, or to speak with an Information ...
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A Short Review on the Synthetic Strategies of Duocarmycin Analogs that are Powerful DNA Alkylating Agents | Bentham Science
Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. * Status of Bi- and Multi-Nuclear Platinum Anticancer Drug Development. Anti-Cancer ... "A Short Review on the Synthetic Strategies of Duocarmycin Analogs that are Powerful DNA Alkylating Agents", Anti-Cancer Agents ... A Short Review on the Synthetic Strategies of Duocarmycin Analogs that are Powerful DNA Alkylating Agents. Author(s): Pravin C ... Antiproliferative and Antifungal Activities of 1,3-diarylpropane-1,3-diones Commonly used as Sunscreen Agents. Letters in Drug ...
CyclophosphamideAntimetabolitesInhibitorsMelphalanBusulfanTumorsCisplatinMultiple myelomaCarmustineAntineoplastic drugsAnalogsAntitumorAntineoplasticsTemozolomideRadiationChemotherapy agentsAntibioticsToxicityCarboplatinInterfereInteractionsCytostatic drugsCancerAnticancer agentsTreatmentsAlkylationResistanceLomustineMoleculeEfficacyCytotoxicityCellsSubstancesNitrogen mustardsLeukemiaMitosisTreatmentChemicalReactiveClassCytotoxic drugsPatientsTherapiesEnzymesLymphomaChemotherapeutic drugsImmunosuppressive agentsAlkyl groupCompounds
- The alkylating agents used in immunotherapy are nitrogen mustards ( cyclophosphamide ), nitrosoureas , platinum compounds, and others. (wikipedia.org)
- For example, many alkylating agents , such as cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide, are notorious for causing transient or permanent azoospermia. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Alkylating agents like cyclophosphamide alkylates and damages DNA. (greek.doctor)
- Cyclophosphamide is the most commonly used alkylating agent. (greek.doctor)
- However, among the alkylating chemotherapy agents, the myelosuppressive effect of cyclophosphamide is considered relatively sparing of platelets and progenitor cells. (merckvetmanual.com)
- Mesna is a drug that binds and inactivates the urotoxic metabolites of cyclophosphamide within the bladder. (merckvetmanual.com)
- Cyclophosphamide is in a class of medications called alkylating agents. (medlineplus.gov)
- As early as 1967, the carcinogenic effects of the two alkylating drugs cyclophosphamide and triazichone in rats were reported (Schmähl 1967). (springer.com)
- The frequency of ESTR mutation was evaluated in the germ line of male mice exposed to the well-characterized alkylating agent and mutagen, ethylnitrosourea, and four widely used anticancer drugs, bleomycin, cyclophosphamide, mitomycin C, and procarbazine. (aacrjournals.org)
- Long-term infertility due to treatment with alkylating agents may be expected in more than 50% of the patients at a cumulative dose of cyclophosphamide greater that 6 g/m 2 , and procarbazine greater than 4 g/m 2 . (cancerconsultants.com)
- The Measles vaccine is not recommended (contraindicated) for persons with congenital immunodeficiency, HIV infection, leukaemia, lymphoma or generalised malignancy or those who are currently receiving alkylating agents , antimetabolites, radiation or large doses of corticosteroids, in addition to pregnant women. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Immunosuppressant drugs include antimetabolites, alkylating agents , some antibiotics and specific adjuvants. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Besides corticosteroids, long-term treatment options for the treatment of JIA-associated uveitis include antimetabolites, alkylating agents and biologic agents. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Hussieny H. Moharram , Design of antitumor drugs: alkylating agents and antimetabolites drugs, J. Drug Res. (who.int)
- Alkylating agents (that work by impairing cell division) and antimetabolites (that interfere with enzymes and thus block vital cell processes) are used cytotoxically to attack malignant cells. (britannica.com)
- The alkylating agents and antimetabolites have serious drawbacks. (britannica.com)
- Five Year Study of Simultaneous Antimetabolites and Alkylating Agents in the Chemotherapy of Advanced Breast Carcinoma. (annals.org)
- The investigations revealed that predominantly those antineoplastic drugs which have an alkylating mechanism of action had to be classified as potential carcinogens, whereas antimetabolites and antimitotics exerted practically no carcinogenic effects. (springer.com)
- Alkylating agents, antimetabolites, and antibiotics have all been considered inhibitors of wound healing. (medscape.com)
- Topoisomerase II inhibitors can increase the risk of a second cancer - acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) - as early as 2 to 3 years after the drug is given. (cancer.org)
- Toposiomerase inhibitors are types of chemotherapy drugs that interfere with the action of topoisomerase enzymes (topoisomerase I and II). (chemocare.com)
- Pharmacogenetics is likely to play a central role in the personalization of treatment, to stratify patients based on their likelihood of response to both standard agents (i.e., gemcitabine/nucleoside transporters) and targeted treatments (i.e., epidermal growth factor receptor gene mutations and/or amplification and tyrosine kinase inhibitors), Thus, molecular analysis should be implemented in the optimal management of the patient affected by pancreatic adenocarcinoma. (aacrjournals.org)
- Many antineoplastic drugs used to treat cancer, particularly alkylating agents and topoisomerase inhibitors, are known to induce genetic damage in patients. (cdc.gov)
- Its intensity can be reduced by steroids, chemotherapy, proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory drugs such as thalidomide or lenalidomide, and stem cell transplants. (newsmaker.com.au)
- Anticancer anthracyclines (daunorubicin and doxorubicin) were, in contrast to the alkylating agents, not inhibitors but poor substrates of TrxR. (nih.gov)
- A new generation of proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory agents, and deacetylase inhibitors are currently being investigated in clinical trials to treat patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. (onclive.com)
- Small molecule inhibitors of Hsp90, including Synta's drug candidate ganetespib as well as first-generation inhibitors such as 17-AAG and its derivatives, are retained in tumors for as much as 20 times longer than in blood or normal tissue [1, (fiercepharma.com)
- Busulfan a member of the group of chemotherapy drugs known as alkylating agents. (encyclopedia.com)
- The dose of busulfan for use in combination with other chemotherapy drugs before a bone marrow transplant is much larger than leukemia dosing. (encyclopedia.com)
- In bone marrow transplant patients, the dose of busulfan that is given in combination with other chemotherapy drugs is intended to cause complete bone marrow destruction prior to bone marrow transplant. (encyclopedia.com)
- Busulfan cancer chemotherapy drug molecule (alkylating agent). (sciencephoto.com)
- Our results suggest that antiadhesive agents might sensitize tumor spheroids to alkylating agents in part by reversing or preventing reduced DNA mismatch repair activity and that the chemosensitization properties of 5-azacytidine may conceivably reflect its role as a potential antiadhesive agent as well as reversal agent for MLH1 gene silencing in human tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
- Recent studies defining point mutations in the bcr-abl oncogene or c-kit receptor tyrosine kinase encoding gene, which underlie acquired resistance to imatinib (STI571/Gleevec) in chronic myelogenous leukemia or gastrointestinal stromal tumors ( 1 ), have, if anything, reinforced the perceived importance of mutation-driven mechanisms responsible for drug resistance. (aacrjournals.org)
- however, the drug-resistant properties of these variants could be reexpressed by regrowth in vivo as solid tumors, thus giving rise to the concept of a new form of drug resistance "operative only in vivo " ( 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- It also prevents the tumors from developing resistance to individual agents. (greek.doctor)
- An alkylating agent used as a part of chemotherapeutic regimens for the treatment of primary and metastatic brain tumors as well as refractory or relapsed Hodgkin's disease in addition to surgical and/or radiotherapeutic treatments. (drugbank.ca)
- The drug has undergone a number of clinical trials, mostly for late-stage tumors as well as ovarian and prostate cancers, usually preceded by treatment with carboplatin and paclitaxel. (wikipedia.org)
- Despite modest successes demonstrating limited efficacy for late stage tumors that were statistically not significant enough to support broader clinical trials, Oncology Venture has decided to stratify patient populations with companion diagnostic tools (biomarkers) to predict outcomes, and thus select that sub-set of patients through DRP (Drug Response Predictors), for whom treatment with irofulven would be most effective. (wikipedia.org)
- The compound has been proposed as a potential chemotherapeutic agent in the treatment of solid human tumors and hematological malignancies. (mdpi.com)
- The drug has a unique ability to shrink tumors and has been evaluated in four clinical trials, studying the adults who are suffering from NTRK fusion-positive tumors. (prnewswire.com)
- Quantitative studies of the effects of nitrogen mustard analogs and other alkylating agents on ascites tumors in mice" Can. (patentgenius.com)
- Targeted delivery strategies, such as Antibody Drug Conjugates (ADCs), offer a solution to these limitations by delivering potent anti-cancer payloads more directly to tumors. (fiercepharma.com)
- Because of its unique properties, Hsp90 (heat shock protein 90) may represent one of the most compelling targets for delivering drug payloads to tumors. (fiercepharma.com)
- Alkylating agents , for example, are more likely to contribute to the development of leukemia than cisplatin or carboplatin. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The GSTP1 cDNA transfectant KB/BSO3-π established from KB/BSO3, and also HLE/BSO1-π and HLE/BSO2-π established from HLE/BSO1 and HLE/BSO2, restored cellular sensitivities to cisplatin and alkylating agents to similar levels as KB and HLE cells. (elsevier.com)
- Our present results indicate that GSTP1 levels apparently limit cellular sensitivities to cisplatin and alkylating agents, suggesting that GSTP1 is a useful diagnostic marker for drug sensitivities to these agents in human cancer cells. (elsevier.com)
- One of the more common alkylating agents used to treat mesothelioma is Cisplatin. (mesotheliomaweb.org)
- Currently, cisplatin as a single drug has been used as the standard drug for phase III clinical trials. (medscape.com)
- Kempf SR, Ivankovic S (1986) Chemotherapy induced malignancies in rats after treatment with cisplatin as single agent and in combination: preliminary results. (springer.com)
- An alkylating agent used in the treatment of various malignancies, including brain tumours and multiple myeloma, among others. (drugbank.ca)
- An alkylating antineoplastic agent used to treat multiple myeloma and ovarian carcinoma. (drugbank.ca)
- This article provides an overview about the global multiple myeloma (plasma cell cancer), treatment & drug market during the forecast period 2016-2027, there by offering insights on key present growth indicators and forecast indicators such as drivers, restrains, opportunities and trends, that are involved in shaping the market. (newsmaker.com.au)
- Most sources consider breastfeeding to be contraindicated during maternal antineoplastic drug therapy, especially alkylating agents such as carmustine. (nih.gov)
- Carmustine is an anti-cancer ("antineoplastic" or "cytotoxic") chemotherapy drug. (chemocare.com)
- The carmustine wafer allows for delivery of the drug directly to the site of the brain tumor. (chemocare.com)
- The side effects of carmustine and their severity depend on how much of the drug is given. (chemocare.com)
- Here we addressed the inhibition of the enzyme by major anticancer alkylating agents and platinum-containing compounds and we compared it to that of GR. We confirmed prior studies suggesting that the nitrosourea carmustine can inhibit both GR and TrxR. (nih.gov)
- 13. Antineoplastic drugs. (greek.doctor)
- Meta-analysis of chromosomal aberrations as a biomarker of exposure in healthcare workers occupationally exposed to antineoplastic drugs. (cdc.gov)
- To obtain an overall assessment of the exposure effect, we performed a meta-analysis on data obtained from peer-reviewed publications reporting chromosomal aberration levels in healthcare workers exposed to antineoplastic drugs. (cdc.gov)
- A literature search identified 39 studies reporting on occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs and measurement of chromosomal aberrations in healthcare workers. (cdc.gov)
- Results showed the level of chromosomal aberrations in healthcare workers exposed to antineoplastic drugs was significantly higher than in controls. (cdc.gov)
- Thus, in addition to the documented genotoxic effects of antineoplastic drugs in cancer patients, this meta-analysis confirmed a significant association between occupational exposure to antineoplastics during the course of a normal work day and increases in chromosomal aberrations in healthcare workers. (cdc.gov)
- However, given the potential for increased cancer risk linked to increases in chromosomal aberrations, the results of this study support the need to limit occupational exposure of healthcare workers to antineoplastic drugs as much as possible. (cdc.gov)
- In addition, another novel class of biologically active duocarmycin SA analogs that contained the seco-iso-cyclopropylfurano[2,3-e]indoline (seco-iso-CFI) and seco-cyclopropyltetrahydrofurano[2,3-f]quinoline (seco-CFQ) DNA alkylating submit was also designed and synthesized. (eurekaselect.com)
- Pravin C. Patil, Vijay Satam and Moses Lee, "A Short Review on the Synthetic Strategies of Duocarmycin Analogs that are Powerful DNA Alkylating Agents", Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (2015) 15: 616. (eurekaselect.com)
- Combining multiple antitumor agents increases the cytotoxicity against cancer cells without necessarily increasing the general toxicity. (greek.doctor)
- Irofulven or 6-hydroxymethylacylfulvene (also known as HMAF of MGI-114) is an experimental antitumor agent. (wikipedia.org)
- Influence of Irofulven, a Transcription-Coupled Repair-Specific Antitumor Agent, on RNA Polymerase Activity, Stability and Dynamics in Living Mammalian Cells" (pdf). (wikipedia.org)
- Antitumor antibiotic These drugs prevent cells from reproducing. (chemotherapy.com)
- Brock N, Schneider B, Stekar J, Pohl J (1989) Experimental investigations into the carcinogenic effect of antitumor and immunosuppressive agents. (springer.com)
- The 'alkylating-based' group will receive CapTem regimen (capecitabine and temozolomide, /4 week), alternatively LV5FU2 (folinic acid-5 fluorouracil)-dacarbazine (1x/2 week) or LV5FU2 (folinic acid-5-fluorouracil)-streptozotocine (1x/2 week). (clinicaltrials.gov)
- To improve the treatment of women with ovarian cancer, we are investigating the modulation of a prominent DNA-damaging agent, temozolomide, by manipulating the DNA base excision repair (BER) pathway via BER inhibitor, methoxyamine, and overexpression of N -methylpurine DNA glycosylase (MPG). (aacrjournals.org)
- Our data show that we can effectively modulate the activity of the chemotherapeutic agent, temozolomide, via modulator methoxyamine, in three ovarian cancer cell lines, SKOV-3x, Ovcar-3, and IGROV-1. (aacrjournals.org)
- Our results show that MPG-overexpressing IGROV-1 and IGROV-1mp53 cells are significantly more sensitive to the clinical chemotherapeutic temozolomide in combination with methoxyamine as assayed by cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and levels of DNA damage than either agent alone. (aacrjournals.org)
- These studies show that although clinical trials in ovarian cancer to determine temozolomide single-agent efficacy are in development, through manipulation of the BER pathway, an increase in response to temozolomide is achieved. (aacrjournals.org)
- Temozolomide belongs to a group of drugs called alkylating agents, which slow or stop the growth of cancer cells. (rxwiki.com)
- Chemotherapy with alkylating agents, including temozolomide (TMZ), is the most effective treatment for gliomas, but many patients do not respond to the treatment. (sciencemag.org)
- As regards the cytotoxic activity of methylating agents (N-methylnitrosourea, N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, dimethylsulfate and temozolomide) and other alkylators with different structure and different interactions with DNA such as CC-1065 and FCE-24517 (minor groove binders known to bind to N3 of adenine), 4-[bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]-L-phenylalanine and cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II, cytotoxicity was the same for tag-expressing and non-expressing cells. (biomedsearch.com)
- Exposure to multiagent chemotherapy, particularly alkylating agents , may potentiate the effect of previous radiation therapy in childhood and thus serve as another predisposing factor for the development of a postradiation sarcoma . (thefreedictionary.com)
- This is especially true for women who may be receiving gonadotoxic therapies, such as alkylating agents or abdominal/pelvic radiation. (thefreedictionary.com)
- A new and emerging concept designed to sensitize cancer cells to DNA-damaging agents (i.e., chemotherapy and/or radiation) is inhibition of various proteins in the DNA repair pathways ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Unlike radiation therapy and surgery, which are localized treatments, chemotherapy is a systemic treatment, meaning the drugs travel throughout the whole body. (epnet.com)
- Combined modality chemotherapy is the use of drugs with other cancer treatments , such as surgery , radiation therapy , or hyperthermia therapy . (wikipedia.org)
- These drugs are not like the antibiotics used to treat infections. (cancer.org)
- Phenotypic analysis revealed that these MSH-deficient mutants possess increased susceptibilities to free radicals and alkylating agents and to a wide range of antibiotics including erythromycin, azithromycin, vancomycin, penicillin G, rifamycin, and rifampin. (asm.org)
- However, the use of immunosuppressive or antineoplastic agents may predispose the patient to an even greater risk of infection, and physicians may consider the use of prophylactic antibiotics. (medscape.com)
- More than 600 drugs are known to cause pulmonary toxicity, and illicit drugs are well-known to result in pulmonary toxicities. (medscape.com)
- A list of drugs that are reported to cause pulmonary toxicity is available on the continually updated Website PNEUMOTOX online . (medscape.com)
- Drug-induced pulmonary toxicity is a diagnosis of exclusion. (medscape.com)
- Patients who develop drug toxicity should be advised to avoid the drug in the future. (medscape.com)
- The diagnosis of drug-mediated pulmonary toxicity is usually established based on clinical findings. (medscape.com)
- Radiologic patterns observed in drug-induced pulmonary toxicity are highly variable and depend on the type of adverse reaction the patient is experiencing. (medscape.com)
- If the drug-induced pulmonary toxicity causes airway obstruction, then the FEV 1 /FVC ratio and FEV 1 will be reduced. (medscape.com)
- In general, bronchoscopy with transbronchial biopsy is not helpful in establishing the diagnosis of drug-induced pulmonary toxicity. (medscape.com)
- Increased pulmonary toxicity with other cytotoxic drugs. (renalandurologynews.com)
- Cytotoxic agents are often broadly active, but have the disadvantage of high toxicity caused by damage to normal cells, which limits their utility. (fiercepharma.com)
- Some chemotherapy drugs are more likely to cause sterility, while there tends to be a much lesser degrees of long-term toxicity with the newer forms of chemotherapy. (cancerconsultants.com)
- These drugs interfere with enzymes called topoisomerases, which help separate the strands of DNA so they can be copied. (cancer.org)
- As they cannot distinguish between healthy and malignant cells, these drugs also interfere with actively multiplying noncancerous cells. (britannica.com)
- These types of drugs interfere with the way cells work and can kill cells in various phases of the cell cycle. (chemotherapy.com)
- Alkylating agents interfere with the genetic material (DNA) inside the cancer cells and prevent them from further dividing and producing more cancer cells. (encyclopedia.com)
- Platinum and irofulven pharmacokinetics did not suggest drug-drug interactions. (wikipedia.org)
- The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own personal medication records. (drugs.com)
- Your doctor or pharmacist may already be aware of any possible drug interactions and may be monitoring you for them. (medhelp.org)
- This drug should not be used with the following medications because very serious interactions may occur: nalidixic acid, live vaccines. (medhelp.org)
- More than 100 chemotherapy or chemo drugs are used to treat cancer - either alone or in combination with other drugs or treatments. (cancer.org)
- These drugs are very different in their chemical composition, how they are taken, their usefulness in treating specific forms of cancer, and their side effects. (cancer.org)
- Cancer cells tend to form new cells more quickly than normal cells and this makes them a better target for chemotherapy drugs. (cancer.org)
- However, chemo drugs can't tell the difference between healthy cells and cancer cells. (cancer.org)
- Imbalance of the BER pathway via overexpression of MPG is detrimental to breast cancer cells following treatment with chemotherapeutic agents ( 3 , 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Similar to other anticancer agents, intrinsic or acquired resistance to DNA-damaging chemotherapeutics is a major obstacle for cancer therapy. (aacrjournals.org)
- Resistance to anticancer drugs continues to be a major problem, limiting the success of cancer therapy. (aacrjournals.org)
- Chemotherapy has produced unsatisfactory results in pancreas cancer and novel approaches, including treatment tailoring by pharmacogenetic analysis and new molecular-targeted drugs, are required. (aacrjournals.org)
- However, the future challenge of pancreas cancer chemotherapy relies on the identification of molecular markers that help in the selection of drugs best suited to the individual patient. (aacrjournals.org)
- Gemcitabine is now the standard drug for advanced pancreas cancer ( 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- An antineoplastic agent used in palliative treatment of persistent or recurrent ovarian cancer. (drugbank.ca)
- An alkylating and immunosuppressive agent used in chemotherapy for the treatment of cancers, including testicular cancer, ovarian cancer, cervical cancer, osteocarcinoma, bladder cancer, small cell lung cancer, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. (drugbank.ca)
- An antineoplastic agent used for the management of metastatic and/or progressive prostate cancer in palliative setting. (drugbank.ca)
- Chemotherapy (chemo) uses anti-cancer drugs that are taken by mouth or injected into a vein or muscle to kill or control cancer cells. (cancer.org)
- Chemo drugs work by attacking cells that are dividing quickly, which is why they work against cancer cells. (cancer.org)
- A to Z list of cancer drugs. (medlineplus.gov)
- Eisai acquired MGI in 2007, and the license was returned to UCSD, which then re-licensed the potential cancer drug to Lantern Pharma in 2015. (wikipedia.org)
- A multi-center phase 2 trial involving patients with Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian Epithelial or Primary Peritoneal Cancer was well tolerated but irofluven demonstrated modest activity as a single agent. (wikipedia.org)
- In cancer cells, the drug induces cell cycle arrest and cell death that is not dependent on p53 status, and it is increased dramatically in cells deficient in homologous recombination (e.g., cells with mutations of BRCA1/2). (nih.gov)
- The global cancer cell therapy pipeline includes 1,011 active agents. (prnewswire.com)
- The introduction and approval of anti-PD-1 agents' nivolumab and pembrolizumab for NSCLC has bought a new era for the cancer industry. (prnewswire.com)
- Single drug therapies coupled with monoclonal antibodies against programmed death-1 (PD-1) and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) have shown little efficacy in patients suffering from metastatic breast cancer. (prnewswire.com)
- This drug is for adoslescents and adult who are suffering from genetic cancer defects. (prnewswire.com)
- The use of drugs to treat cancer. (mesotheliomaweb.org)
- The treatment of cancer using more than one drug. (mesotheliomaweb.org)
- Despite the number of FDA-approved drugs for cancer treatment has increased substantially over the past decades and much progress has been made in the molecular and cellular profiling of GBM, there are still limited effective therapies against GBM. (nature.com)
- Chemotherapy is one way of treating cancer that uses anticancer drugs to inhibit cell division. (winshipcancerinstitute.org)
- Chemotherapy, targeted agents, antiemetics and growth-factors in human milk: How should we counsel cancer patients about breastfeeding? (nih.gov)
- Anti-cancer drugs that interact with genetic material (DNA) in such a way as to prevent division of the cells. (leukaemia.org.au)
- A group of anti-cancer drugs that prevent cells growing and dividing by blocking the chemical reactions required in the cell to produce DNA. (leukaemia.org.au)
- Cancer chemotherapy is an increasingly important aspect of drug treatment. (britannica.com)
- Cancer chemotherapy is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. (epnet.com)
- Because cancer cells actively reproduce, they are primarily targeted by chemotherapeutic drugs. (epnet.com)
- The type, location, and stage of the cancer as well as your general health will largely determine if chemotherapy is appropriate and which agents ought to be used. (epnet.com)
- For the journal, see Anti-Cancer Drugs . (wikipedia.org)
- Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx ) is a category of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs ( chemotherapeutic agents ) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen . (wikipedia.org)
- Importantly, the use of drugs (whether chemotherapy, hormonal therapy or targeted therapy) constitutes systemic therapy for cancer in that they are introduced into the blood stream and are therefore in principle able to address cancer at any anatomic location in the body. (wikipedia.org)
- Traditional chemotherapeutic agents are cytotoxic by means of interfering with cell division (mitosis) but cancer cells vary widely in their susceptibility to these agents. (wikipedia.org)
- Induction chemotherapy is the first line treatment of cancer with a chemotherapeutic drug. (wikipedia.org)
- The length of treatment depends on the types of drugs you are taking, how well your body responds to them, and the type of cancer or condition you have. (medlineplus.gov)
- The first set of theories collectively point toward a cancer causing chemical contaminant (e.g., human carcinogen) as the causal agent for the ALL epidemic. (cdc.gov)
- In Cancer Drug Resistance, leading scientists from the best academic institutions and industrial laboratories summarize and synthesize the latest discoveries concerning the changes that occur in tumor cells as they develop resistance to a wide variety of anticancer therapeutics, as well as suggest new approaches to the biology of drug resistance that may afford new therapeutic opportunities. (springer.com)
- Alkylating agents also are often used in cancer drugs. (howstuffworks.com)
- In most case s when Prednisone is given by itself and not as part of a drug regimen , it does not affect the cancer and would not be code d as treatment . (cancer.gov)
- An effective antineoplastic agent and is used for a variety of cancer s. (cancer.gov)
- These drugs may be combined to attack cancer cells in different ways. (chemotherapy.com)
- 1987) Leukemia after therapy with alkylating agents for childhood cancer. (springer.com)
- Determination of reactive nitrogen mustard anti-cancer drugs in plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography using derivatization", Anal. (patentgenius.com)
- Denny "DNA-intercalating ligands as anticancer drugs: Prospects for future design" Anti-Cancer Drug Des. (patentgenius.com)
- The Global Breast Cancer Drug market accounted for $14.75 billion in 2017 and is expected to reach $43.27 billion by 2026 growing at a CAGR of 12.7% during the forecast period. (researchandmarkets.com)
- Based on Drug, Chemotherapy Drugs segment growth is due to development in the fields of drug delivery and oncology, and increased government funding and initiative to create awareness about cancer diagnosis and treatment. (researchandmarkets.com)
- Other drugs used in cancer treatment may also have fertility risks. (cancer.net)
- Synta Pharmaceuticals Corp. SNTA +1.24% today announced the launch of its Hsp90-inhibitor Drug Conjugate (HDC) platform, which leverages the Company's expertise in chaperone biology and medicinal chemistry to create a new class of anti-cancer therapies. (fiercepharma.com)
- Drugs that target specific protein drivers of cancer cell growth are generally more tumor selective, yet often lead to tumor resistance via point mutations in their target (e.g. (fiercepharma.com)
- HDCs are drugs consisting of an Hsp90 inhibitor (targeting moiety) joined to an anti-cancer agent (payload) via a cleavable chemical linker optimized for controlled release of payload drug inside cancer cells. (fiercepharma.com)
- This results in higher concentration and longer duration of active payload drug inside cancer cells than occurs with standard administration of unconjugated chemotherapy or other payloads. (fiercepharma.com)
- HDCs are a promising new therapeutic class with the potential to enhance the safety and efficacy of a wide range of small molecule anti-cancer drugs. (fiercepharma.com)
- Chemotherapy involves the use of drugs that destroy cells that grow rapidly, a characteristic of cancer cells. (cancerconsultants.com)
- Many advances have been made (and are still underway) in chemotherapy over the years, and more and more drugs are becoming available to target specific kinds of cancer cells and to minimize side effects. (lymphomainfo.net)
- However, in contrast to molecularly targeted drugs, similar mutational mechanisms that are unambiguously responsible for clinical forms of intrinsic or acquired resistance to conventional cytotoxic anticancer agents, such as DNA-damaging agents, have proven much more elusive to uncover and validate. (aacrjournals.org)
- Alkylating agents (ALKY) are one of the main systemic treatments used, at least for advanced duodeno-pancreatic NETs, with a response rate of 30 to 40% and a median progression-free survival of 4 to 18 months. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- You may need to take medications or other treatments that help you manage or minimize various side effects of chemo drugs. (chemotherapy.com)
- Since the last decade, there have been launches of effectual, treatments and drugs that are priced at premium due to their high cost and patents. (newsmaker.com.au)
- Alkylation can result in miscoding of DNA strands, incomplete repair of alkylated segments (which leads to strand breakage or depurination), excessive cross-linking of DNA, and inhibition of strand separation at mitosis. (merckvetmanual.com)
- Resistance to one alkylating agent often implies resistance to other drugs in the same class and can be caused by increased production of nucleophilic substances that compete with the target DNA for alkylation. (merckvetmanual.com)
- The role of alkylation of the N3 position of adenine in the cytotoxicity of alkylating agents in mammalian cells is still undefined. (biomedsearch.com)
- Alkylating agents use selective alkylation by adding the desired aliphatic carbon chain to the previously chosen starting molecule. (wikipedia.org)
- Alkylation is accomplished with the class of drugs called alkylating antineoplastic agents . (wikipedia.org)
- Current strategies aimed at overcoming this problem are mostly based on the premise that tumor cells acquire heritable genetic mutations that contribute to drug resistance. (aacrjournals.org)
- Here, we present evidence for an epigenetic, tumor cell adhesion-mediated, and reversible form of drug resistance that is associated with a reduction of DNA mismatch repair proteins PMS2 and/or MLH1 as well as other members of this DNA repair process. (aacrjournals.org)
- In part, this may be a reflection that resistance to such drugs may be mediated in many instances by epigenetic, environmentally mediated mechanisms, such as hypoxia, low tumor cell growth fractions (population kinetics), and high intratumoral interstitial fluid pressures that act to impede drug delivery ( 2 , 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Spheroids are also more intrinsically resistant to the cytotoxic effects of most chemotherapeutic drugs, a phenomenon we have termed "multicellular resistance" ( 2 , 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Most studies of chemotherapeutic drug resistance using tumor spheroid models deal with intrinsic, as opposed to acquired, resistance. (aacrjournals.org)
- Subsequently, we showed that the drug resistance properties of the EMT-6 variants could be reexpressed in vitro but only if the cells were cultured as three-dimensional spheroids ( 2 , 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Decreased permeation of alkylating agents and increased activity of DNA repair systems are also common mechanisms of resistance. (merckvetmanual.com)
- These results suggest that the increased expression of N3-methyladenine-DNA glycosylase is not necessarily a crucial mechanism for the resistance of cells to alkylating agents. (biomedsearch.com)
- The authors review physiological resistance based tumor architecture, cellular resistance based on drug transport, epigenetic changes that neutralize or bypass drug cytotoxicity, and genetic changes that alter drug target molecules by decreasing or eliminating drug binding and efficacy. (springer.com)
- Also provided are an alkylating agent and a molecule functioning as a drug which each comprises the compound. (allindianpatents.com)
- The inventors have developed a hybrid molecule of a Py-Im polyamide bound to a segment A (Du) serving as an alkylating moiety of duocarmycin A, which is an antibiotic. (allindianpatents.com)
- The hybrid molecule selectively alkylated one site of a DNA fragment of 450 base pairs on the basis of the sequence recognition ability of the Py-Im polyamide (for example, see Non-Patent Document 4). (allindianpatents.com)
- The suitability of a single-molecule PCR-based approach for monitoring mutation induction at the mouse expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) locus Ms6-hm by chemical mutagens and anticancer drugs has been validated. (aacrjournals.org)
- The results of this study show that the single-molecule PCR technique provides a new and efficient experimental system for monitoring the genetic effects of anticancer drugs, capable of detecting increases in mutation rates at clinically relevant doses of exposure. (aacrjournals.org)
- These findings lead us to conclude that representative compounds of the major classes of clinically used anticancer alkylating agents and most platinum compounds may easily target TrxR, but not GR. The TrxR inhibition should thereby be considered as a factor that may contribute to the cytotoxicity seen upon clinical use of these drugs. (nih.gov)
- The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (curehunter.com)
- Chemotherapy drugs target cells at different phases of the process of forming new cells, called the cell cycle. (cancer.org)
- Because these drugs damage DNA, they can affect the cells of the bone marrow which make new blood cells. (cancer.org)
- These agents damage cells during the phase when the cell's chromosomes are being copied. (cancer.org)
- Cytotoxic drugs inhibit division of tumor cells and induce their apoptosis, usually by damaging DNA or interfering with mitosis. (greek.doctor)
- Non-cytotoxic compounds - drugs that inhibit mechanisms needed for growth and division of tumor cells. (greek.doctor)
- A drug that stops estrogen from attaching to cells. (nccn.org)
- Anticancer drugs given after surgery/treatment to assist the body in fighting remaining cancerous cells. (mesotheliomaweb.org)
- Class of chemotherapy drugs that work to stop tumor growth by cross-linking guanine nucleobases making cells unable to divide. (mesotheliomaweb.org)
- Chemotherapy drug that stops cancerous cells from dividing by cross-linking DNA strands. (mesotheliomaweb.org)
- Based on previous studies using small molecules to reprogram astrocytes into neuronal cells, here we further identified a FTT cocktail of three commonly used drugs (Fasudil, Tranilast, and Temo) to reprogram patient-derived GBM cells, either cultured in serum containing or serum-free medium, into neuronal like cells. (nature.com)
- In this study, we further identified a cocktail of three commonly used drugs to reprogram patient-derived GBM cells into neuronal like cells. (nature.com)
- Drugs used in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and lymphoma that appear to be less toxic because they act by encouraging cell death rather than actively killing cells. (leukaemia.org.au)
- Most chemotherapy drugs act on reproducing cells (not those in the G0 phase). (epnet.com)
- Cell cycle phase-specific drugs act on cells undergoing division. (epnet.com)
- The absence of MSH in mammalian cells suggests that the enzymes involved in the metabolism of MSH may be attractive drug targets for either rational drug design or screening of libraries of inhibitory compounds ( 25 ). (asm.org)
- Many of the side effects of chemotherapy can be traced to damage to normal cells that divide rapidly and are thus sensitive to anti-mitotic drugs: cells in the bone marrow , digestive tract and hair follicles . (wikipedia.org)
- Because of the effect on immune cells (especially lymphocytes), chemotherapy drugs often find use in a host of diseases that result from harmful overactivity of the immune system against self (so-called autoimmunity ). (wikipedia.org)
- 3T3 NIH murine fibroblasts and B78 murine melanoma cells expressing the Escherichia coli N3-methyladenine-DNA glycosylase I do not become resistant to alkylating agents. (biomedsearch.com)
- The sensitivity to alkylating agents was evaluated in tag-expressing cells in comparison with pSG5, pSV2neo co-transfected control cells. (biomedsearch.com)
- Mustard gas is an alkylating agent , meaning its chemicals destroy DNA and cells and liquefy tissue. (howstuffworks.com)
- These drugs affect how a cell functions by replacing natural substances in the DNA that cells need to grow. (chemotherapy.com)
- These drugs block certain enzymes that cells need to reproduce. (chemotherapy.com)
- While the drug is a chemical analogue of thalidomide, it appears to have a much greater potency in stimulating the proliferation of T-cells as well as increasing natural killer cell activity. (onclive.com)
- Chemotherapy drugs are engineered to attack cells that divide rapidly. (lymphomainfo.net)
- A cytotoxic (toxic to cells) agent that inhibits cell division by reacting with DNA. (lymphomainfo.net)
- The risk of leukemia from alkylating agents is "dose-dependent," meaning that the risk is small with lower doses, but goes up as the total amount of the drug used gets higher. (cancer.org)
- The risk of leukemia after getting alkylating agents is highest about 5 to 10 years after treatment. (cancer.org)
- A chemotherapy agent used in the management of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and malignant lymphomas. (drugbank.ca)
- An antineoplastic agent used to treat Hodgkin's disease, lymphosarcoma, and chronic myelocytic or lymphocytic leukemia. (drugbank.ca)
- An alkylating agent used to treat chronic myelogenous leukemia. (drugbank.ca)
- When given this way, these drugs enter the bloodstream and reach all parts of the body, so chemo is useful for cancers that tend to spread throughout the body, like chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). (cancer.org)
- This study focuses on China's Leukemia Treatment Drugs industry forecasts. (rnrmarketresearch.com)
- Drugs that affect the structural process that allows cell division or mitosis. (mesotheliomaweb.org)
- Polyfunctional alkylating agents typically cause strand cross-linking and inhibition of mitosis with consequent cell death. (merckvetmanual.com)
- By common usage, the term chemotherapy has come to connote the use of rather non-specific intracellular poisons , especially related to inhibiting the process of cell division known as mitosis , and generally excludes agents that more selectively block extracellular growth signals (i.e. blockers of signal transduction ). (wikipedia.org)
- In this project, we wish to evaluate the contribution of the MGMT methylation, evaluated in the tumor, in predicting the Objective Response (OR) in patients treated with ALKY and to evaluate a treatment with alkylating agents versus Oxaliplatin in patients with a duodeno-pancreatic or lung or unknown primitive NET. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Four of the SPM patients received either alkylating agents and/or immunomodulators during MM treatment, but the other two patients received only bortezomib plus dexamethasone (BD) therapy before SPM was diagnosed. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The observed down-regulation is in part reversible by treatment of tumor spheroids with the DNA-demethylating agent, 5-azacytidine. (aacrjournals.org)
- An antimetabolite used as an adjunct to ab externo (outside approach) eye surgeries for the treatment of glaucoma and used as a chemotherapeutic agent for various malignancies. (drugbank.ca)
- A nitrosourea antineoplastic agent used in the treatment of metastatic pancreatic islet cell carcinoma. (drugbank.ca)
- An antineoplastic agent indicated for the treatment of stage III and stage IV Hodgkin's disease in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. (drugbank.ca)
- Our study provided preclinical evidence that the neuronal reprogramming drug cocktail might be a promising strategy to improve the existing treatment for GBM. (nature.com)
- Thus, the drug cocktail identified in a reprogramming logic might improve the existing treatment against GBM. (nature.com)
- Chemotherapy is the treatment of disease using chemical agents that are intended to eliminate the causative organism without harming the patient. (britannica.com)
- Ehrlich's greatest triumph, however, was the discovery (1910) of the organic arsenical drug Salvarsan , which proved to be effective in the treatment of syphilis . (britannica.com)
- Prontosil was the forerunner of the sulfonamide drugs, which came to be widely used for the treatment of bacterial infections in humans and domestic animals. (britannica.com)
- Whether after treatment for 6 to 18 months most patients may be able to discontinue the drug and remain in remission has yet to be shown. (annals.org)
- Ask your doctor if you are interested in learning how the drugs in your treatment plan affect the cell cycle. (chemotherapy.com)
- Patients with a known previous allergic reaction to chemotherapy drugs, or who suffer from gout, thalassemia, or seizure problems, should notify their physician before beginning treatment. (encyclopedia.com)
- In addition, the availability of orally active agents may decrease the need for outpatient infusions, thus decreasing the overall costs associated with treatment and improving patient satisfaction. (onclive.com)
- Despite MM being an incurable disease, immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) have demonstrated effectiveness in the treatment of MM. IMiDs have been investigated for both first-line and maintenance therapies. (onclive.com)
- Ask your doctor about the specific drug(s) recommended in your treatment plan. (cancer.net)
- To calculate the market size, the report considers revenue generated from the sales of various drugs used in the treatment of retinoblastoma. (marketresearch.com)
- The effect of chemotherapy on the testes depends on the type of drug, dose, and schedule of treatment. (cancerconsultants.com)
- In fact, there are countless possible treatment regimens because drugs are frequently used in combination. (lymphomainfo.net)
- Chemo drugs can be grouped by how they work, their chemical structure, and their relationships to other drugs. (cancer.org)
- Alkylating agent work by covalently binding alkyl chemical groups into DNA bases. (greek.doctor)
- Drugs of this group are related to mustard gas, a chemical warfare agent. (greek.doctor)
- The book focuses on the chemical principles used for drug discovery and design covering physiology and biology where relevant. (wiley.com)
- From these studies there emerged (1901-04) Ehrlich's well-known "side-chain" theory, in which he sought for the first time to correlate the chemical structure of a synthetic drug with its biological effects. (britannica.com)
- The Organic Chemistry of Drug Design and Drug Action, Third Edition, represents a unique approach to medicinal chemistry based on physical organic chemical principles and reaction mechanisms that rationalize drug action, which allows reader to extrapolate those core principles and mechanisms to many related classes of drug molecules. (indigo.ca)
- A pesticide or chemical agent that kills mites and ticks. (nih.gov)
- Antineoplastic agents can also be organized according to their chemical class, mechanism of action, therapeutic use or their toxicities. (umn.edu)
- Mustard gas or mustard agent is a poisonous gas that falls in the first group, along with even more lethal chemical agents such as chlorine gas and sarin. (howstuffworks.com)
- There is hardly any other field in chemical carcinogenesis in which such good agreement between experimental and clinical results has been reached as in carcinogenesis induced by antineoplastic agents. (springer.com)
- Understanding and estimating the genetic hazards of exposure to chemical mutagens and anticancer drugs in humans requires the development of efficient systems for monitoring germ line mutation. (aacrjournals.org)
- The analysis of germ line mutation induction in mice currently provides the main source of experimental data for evaluating the genetic risk of exposure to chemical mutagens and anticancer drugs in humans ( 4 , 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- chemical database development and usage etc., providing excellent rationales for drug development. (benthamscience.com)
- A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. (curehunter.com)
- The duocarmycins and CC-1065 are members of a class of DNA minor groove, AT-sequence selective, and adenine-N3 alkylating agents, isolated from Streptomyces sp. (eurekaselect.com)
- It is a member of the Anthracycline class of drugs . (mesotheliomaweb.org)
- Alkylating agents, either direct-acting or generated in vivo, form an important class of environmental mutagens and carcinogens. (cdc.gov)
- 6 Thalidomide was the first drug in this class and subsequently lenalidomide was approved by the FDA. (onclive.com)
- Patients with unmethylated MGMT NET will be randomly assigned (1:1) to either the alkylating-based chemotherapy arm or to the oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy arm. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- 1) Patients with therapy-related acute leukemias from alkylating agents generally show a latency of 3-7 years from exposure to the alkylating agent and often have an insidious course, with the development of MDS prior. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Recent pharmacogenetic studies focused on genes encoding proteins directly involved in drug activity, showing the role of thymidylate synthase and human equilibrative nucleoside transporter-1 as prognostic factor in 5-fluorouracil- and gemcitabine-treated patients, respectively. (aacrjournals.org)
- Oncology Venture Sweden AB has initiated two Phase 2 drug-screening studies at two Danish University Hospitals for late-stage prostate cancers, wherein 300 patients have been included to be screened, of which only 15 are to be selected for the Phase 2 trial. (wikipedia.org)
- The study was planned to include 100 patients but had to be terminated prematurely, because the drug that was being used had become unobtainable. (nih.gov)
- The main outcome measures included the survival times of patients after the operations and the application of an active drug or placebo. (nih.gov)
- The response of patients with gliomas to alkylating chemotherapy is heterogeneous. (sciencemag.org)
- Single-agent pemetrexed therapy showed a response rate of 10.5%, a median time to progressive disease of 6 months, and a median survival time of 14 months in chemo-naive patients. (medscape.com)
- Before starting patients on any medication, educate them about the potential adverse effects of the drug. (medscape.com)
- All patients should increase their daily fluid intake while receiving this drug. (encyclopedia.com)
- With the availability of newer agents for salvage therapies in refractory or relapsed patients, the reliance on HCT may decrease, potentially lowering healthcare costs. (onclive.com)
- The scarcity of effective therapies may reflect the lack of knowledge about the influence of tumor-related molecular abnormalities on responsiveness to drugs. (aacrjournals.org)
- Current oncology therapeutics generally fall into two categories: cytotoxic agents and molecularly targeted therapies. (fiercepharma.com)
- Chemotherapeutic drugs were originally those employed against infectious microbes, but the term has been broadened to include anticancer and other drugs. (britannica.com)
- The cell cycle is important to chemotherapy because chemotherapeutic drugs target and disrupt different phases of the cell cycle. (epnet.com)
- Chemotherapeutic drugs are classified by their pharmacologic action and their interference with cellular reproduction. (epnet.com)
- There are a number of strategies in the administration of chemotherapeutic drugs used today. (wikipedia.org)
- Follow facility procedures for safe handling, administration, and disposal of chemotherapeutic drugs. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Immunosuppressive drugs , also known as immunosuppressive agents , immunosuppressants and antirejection medications are drugs that inhibit or prevent activity of the immune system . (wikipedia.org)
- What is the dermatologic preoperative evaluation and management of antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agents? (medscape.com)
- Many antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agents have been thought to retard wound healing. (medscape.com)
- Initial synthesis and structural modification of the cyclopropa[c] pyrrolo[3,2-e]indole (CPI) DNA-alkylating motif as well as the indole non-covalent binding region in the 1980s have led to several compounds that entered clinical trials as potential anticancer drugs. (eurekaselect.com)
- Inhibition of thioredoxin reductase but not of glutathione reductase by the major classes of alkylating and platinum-containing anticancer compounds. (nih.gov)