People who take drugs for a non-therapeutic or non-medical effect. The drugs may be legal or illegal, but their use often results in adverse medical, legal, or social consequences for the users.
Common name for large, quilled rodents (RODENTIA) comprised of two families: Old World porcupines (Hystricidae) and New World porcupines (Erethizontidae).
Usage of a single needle among two or more people for injecting drugs. Needle sharing is a high-risk behavior for contracting infectious disease.
Organized services for exchange of sterile needles and syringes used for injections as a potential means of reducing the transmission of infectious diseases.
Instruments used for injecting or withdrawing fluids. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.
Strong dependence, both physiological and emotional, upon heroin.
Disorders related to substance abuse.
Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
The application of methods designed to reduce the risk of harm associated with certain behaviors without reduction in frequency of those behaviors. The risk-associated behaviors include ongoing and active addictive behaviors.
A synthetic opioid that is used as the hydrochloride. It is an opioid analgesic that is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. It has actions and uses similar to those of MORPHINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1082-3)
A narcotic analgesic that may be habit-forming. It is a controlled substance (opium derivative) listed in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Parts 329.1, 1308.11 (1987). Sale is forbidden in the United States by Federal statute. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Studies of the number of cases where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is present in a specific population at a designated time. The presence in a given individual is determined by the finding of HIV antibodies in the serum (HIV SEROPOSITIVITY).
Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).
Sexual activities of humans.
Health facilities providing therapy and/or rehabilitation for substance-dependent individuals. Methadone distribution centers are included.
A province of Canada on the Pacific coast. Its capital is Victoria. The name given in 1858 derives from the Columbia River which was named by the American captain Robert Gray for his ship Columbia which in turn was named for Columbus. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p178 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p81-2)
Accidental or deliberate use of a medication or street drug in excess of normal dosage.
The purified, alkaloidal, extra-potent form of cocaine. It is smoked (free-based), injected intravenously, and orally ingested. Use of crack results in alterations in function of the cardiovascular system, the autonomic nervous system, the central nervous system, and the gastrointestinal system. The slang term "crack" was derived from the crackling sound made upon igniting of this form of cocaine for smoking.
Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.
Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.
This enzyme catalyzes the transacylation of malonate from MALONYL CoA to activated holo-ACP, to generate malonyl-(acyl-carrier protein), which is an elongation substrate in FATTY ACIDS biosynthesis. It is an essential enzyme in the biosynthesis of FATTY ACIDS in all BACTERIA.
Disorders related or resulting from abuse or mis-use of opioids.
Organized efforts to insure obedience to the laws of a community.
Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.
Disorders related or resulting from use of amphetamines.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Medical treatment for opioid dependence using a substitute opiate such as METHADONE or BUPRENORPHINE.
Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The practice of indulging in sexual relations for money.
Facilities for the preparation and dispensing of drugs.
Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.
A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.
Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.
Infectious organisms in the BLOOD, of which the predominant medical interest is their contamination of blood-soiled linens, towels, gowns, BANDAGES, other items from individuals in risk categories, NEEDLES and other sharp objects, MEDICAL WASTE and DENTAL WASTE, all of which health workers are exposed to. This concept is differentiated from the clinical conditions of BACTEREMIA; VIREMIA; and FUNGEMIA where the organism is present in the blood of a patient as the result of a natural infectious process.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
Penal institutions, or places of confinement for war prisoners.
A genus of REOVIRIDAE infecting Ixodidae ticks and transmitted by them to humans, deer, and small animals. The type species is COLORADO TICK FEVER VIRUS.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The indelible marking of TISSUES, primarily SKIN, by pricking it with NEEDLES to imbed various COLORING AGENTS. Tattooing of the CORNEA is done to colorize LEUKOMA spots.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
The status of health in urban populations.
An N-substituted amphetamine analog. It is a widely abused drug classified as a hallucinogen and causes marked, long-lasting changes in brain serotonergic systems. It is commonly referred to as MDMA or ecstasy.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Sexual attraction or relationship between males.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.
Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.
The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the same SEX.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
The exchange of students or professional personnel between countries done under the auspices of an organization for the purpose of further education.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Immunologic tests for identification of HIV (HTLV-III/LAV) antibodies. They include assays for HIV SEROPOSITIVITY and HIV SERONEGATIVITY that have been developed for screening persons carrying the viral antibody from patients with overt symptoms of AIDS or AIDS-RELATED COMPLEX.
Contraceptive devices used by males.
Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.
A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.
Agents of the law charged with the responsibility of maintaining and enforcing law and order among the citizenry.
The excessive use of marijuana with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.
A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
A geographical area of the United States with no definite boundaries but comprising northeastern Alabama, northwestern Georgia, northwestern South Carolina, western North Carolina, eastern Kentucky, eastern Tennessee, western Virginia, West Virginia, western Maryland, southwestern Pennsylvania, southern Ohio, and southern New York.
Infections with bacteria of the family BACILLACEAE.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in taking drugs or medicine as prescribed. This includes timing, dosage, and frequency.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of pharmacy, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
It is the study of social phenomena which characterize the learned, shared, and transmitted social activities of particular ethnic groups with focus on the causes, consequences, and complexities of human social and cultural variability.
The 11th cranial nerve which originates from NEURONS in the MEDULLA and in the CERVICAL SPINAL CORD. It has a cranial root, which joins the VAGUS NERVE (10th cranial) and sends motor fibers to the muscles of the LARYNX, and a spinal root, which sends motor fibers to the TRAPEZIUS and the sternocleidomastoid muscles.
The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the opposite SEX.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.
A contagious venereal disease caused by the spirochete TREPONEMA PALLIDUM.
A willingness to reveal information about oneself to others.
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
Infections of non-skeletal tissue, i.e., exclusive of bone, ligaments, cartilage, and fibrous tissue. The concept is usually referred to as skin and soft tissue infections and usually subcutaneous and muscle tissue are involved. The predisposing factors in anaerobic infections are trauma, ischemia, and surgery. The organisms often derive from the fecal or oral flora, particularly in wounds associated with intestinal surgery, decubitus ulcer, and human bites. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1688)
Ability to determine the specific location of a sound source.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
An island in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is San Juan. It is a self-governing commonwealth in union with the United States. It was discovered by Columbus in 1493 but no colonization was attempted until 1508. It belonged to Spain until ceded to the United States in 1898. It became a commonwealth with autonomy in internal affairs in 1952. Columbus named the island San Juan for St. John's Day, the Monday he arrived, and the bay Puerto Rico, rich harbor. The island became Puerto Rico officially in 1932. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p987 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p436)
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.
A derivative of the opioid alkaloid THEBAINE that is a more potent and longer lasting analgesic than MORPHINE. It appears to act as a partial agonist at mu and kappa opioid receptors and as an antagonist at delta receptors. The lack of delta-agonist activity has been suggested to account for the observation that buprenorphine tolerance may not develop with chronic use.
The air-dried exudate from the unripe seed capsule of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, or its variant, P. album. It contains a number of alkaloids, but only a few - MORPHINE; CODEINE; and PAPAVERINE - have clinical significance. Opium has been used as an analgesic, antitussive, antidiarrheal, and antispasmodic.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
Deliberate maltreatment of groups of humans beings including violations of generally-accepted fundamental rights as stated by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted and proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly resolution 217 A (III) of 10 December 1948.
A treatment method in which patients are under direct observation when they take their medication or receive their treatment. This method is designed to reduce the risk of treatment interruption and to ensure patient compliance.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.
Alkaloids found in OPIUM from PAPAVER that induce analgesic and narcotic effects by action upon OPIOID RECEPTORS.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke from CANNABIS.
The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
Inflammation of the ENDOCARDIUM caused by BACTERIA that entered the bloodstream. The strains of bacteria vary with predisposing factors, such as CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS; HEART VALVE DISEASES; HEART VALVE PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION; or intravenous drug use.
Movable or portable facilities in which diagnostic and therapeutic services are provided to the community.
The central part of the body to which the neck and limbs are attached.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain BERBERINE.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM.
Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.
Sexual behavior that prevents or reduces the spread of SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or PREGNANCY.
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
A vasodilator that is administered by inhalation. It is also used recreationally due to its supposed ability to induce euphoria and act as an aphrodisiac.
The interactions between members of a community and representatives of the institutions within that community.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS, a defective RNA virus that can only infect HEPATITIS B patients. For its viral coating, hepatitis delta virus requires the HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS produced by these patients. Hepatitis D can occur either concomitantly with (coinfection) or subsequent to (superinfection) hepatitis B infection. Similar to hepatitis B, it is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
Improper use of drugs or medications outside the intended purpose, scope, or guidelines for use. This is in contrast to MEDICATION ADHERENCE, and distinguished from DRUG ABUSE, which is a deliberate or willful action.
Drugs capable of inducing illusions, hallucinations, delusions, paranoid ideations, and other alterations of mood and thinking. Despite the name, the feature that distinguishes these agents from other classes of drugs is their capacity to induce states of altered perception, thought, and feeling that are not experienced otherwise.
Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.
Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.
A reversible organophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor. It also affects the presynaptic membrane and inhibits membrane postsynaptic cholinergic receptors. The compound had former use as a miotic.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
Runaway and homeless children and adolescents living on the streets of cities and having no fixed place of residence.
The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.
The form and structure of analytic studies in epidemiologic and clinical research.
A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.
Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2 that can transform normal T-lymphocytes and can replicate in both T- and B-cell lines. The virus is related to but distinct from HTLV-1.
Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.
Disorder caused by loss of endothelium of the central cornea. It is characterized by hyaline endothelial outgrowths on Descemet's membrane, epithelial blisters, reduced vision, and pain.
Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.
Refusal to admit the truth or reality of a situation or experience.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.
Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Group behavior toward others by virtue of their group membership.
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
A semisynthetic derivative of CODEINE.
Process of teaching a person to interact and communicate with a computer.
An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.
Montenegro was formerly part of the historic Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Following World War II, Montenegro was granted the status of a republic within YUGOSLAVIA. On May 21, 2006, the Republic of Montenegro held a successful referendum on independence and declared independence on June 3. The capital is Podgorica.
Chairs mounted on wheels and designed to be propelled by the occupant.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.
Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
A branch of law that defines criminal offenses, regulates the apprehension, charging and trial of suspected persons, and fixes the penalties and modes of treatment applicable to convicted offenders.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.
Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart (ENDOCARDIUM), the continuous membrane lining the four chambers and HEART VALVES. It is often caused by microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and rickettsiae. Left untreated, endocarditis can damage heart valves and become life-threatening.
The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.
Invasion of the site of trauma by pathogenic microorganisms.

I love you... and heroin: care and collusion among drug-using couples. (1/404)

BACKGROUND: Romantic partnerships between drug-using couples, when they are recognized at all, tend to be viewed as dysfunctional, unstable, utilitarian, and often violent. This study presents a more nuanced portrayal by describing the interpersonal dynamics of 10 heroin and cocaine-using couples from Hartford, Connecticut. RESULTS: These couples cared for each other similarly to the ways that non-drug-using couples care for their intimate partners. However, most also cared by helping each other avoid the symptoms of drug withdrawal. They did this by colluding with each other to procure and use drugs. Care and collusion in procuring and using drugs involved meanings and social practices that were constituted and reproduced by both partners in an interpersonal dynamic that was often overtly gendered. These gendered dynamics could be fluid and changed over time in response to altered circumstances and/or individual agency. They also were shaped by and interacted with long-standing historical, economic and socio-cultural forces including the persistent economic inequality, racism and other forms of structural violence endemic in the inner-city Hartford neighborhoods where these couples resided. As a result, these relationships offered both risk and protection from HIV, HCV and other health threats (e.g. arrest and violence). CONCLUSION: A more complex and nuanced understanding of drug-using couples can be tapped for its potential in shaping prevention and intervention efforts. For example, drug treatment providers need to establish policies which recognize the existence and importance of interpersonal dynamics between drug users, and work with them to coordinate detoxification and treatment for both partners, whenever possible, as well as provide additional couples-oriented services in an integrated and comprehensive drug treatment system.  (+info)

The interplay between interpersonal dynamics, treatment barriers, and larger social forces: an exploratory study of drug-using couples in Hartford, CT. (2/404)

BACKGROUND: The drug treatment field tends to place emphasis on the individual rather than the individual in social context. While there are a growing number of studies indicating that drug-using intimate partners are likely to play an important role in determining treatment options, little attention has been given to the experience and complex treatment needs of illicit drug-using (heroin, cocaine, crack) couples. METHODS: This exploratory study used in-depth interviews and ethnographic engagement to better understand the relationship between interpersonal dynamics and the treatment experience of ten relatively stable drug-using couples in Hartford, CT. Semi-structured and open-ended qualitative interviews were conducted with each couple and separately with each partner. Whenever possible, the day-to-day realities and contexts of risk were also observed via participant and non-participant observation of these couples in the community. A grounded theory approach was used to inductively code and analyze nearly 40 transcripts of 60-90 minute interviews as well as fieldnotes. RESULTS: This study builds on a concept of complex interpersonal dynamics among drug users. Interpersonal dynamics of care and collusion were identified: couples cared for each other and colluded to acquire and use drugs. Care and collusion operate at the micro level of the risk environment. Treatment barriers and inadequacies were identified as part of the risk environment at the meso or intermediate level of analysis, and larger social forces such as gender dynamics, poverty and the "War on Drugs" were identified at the macro level. Interpersonal dynamics posed problems for couples when one or both partners were interested in accessing treatment. Structural barriers presented additional obstacles with the denial of admittance of both partners to treatment programs which had a sole focus on the individual and avoided treating couples. CONCLUSION: Detoxification and treatment facilities need to recognize the complex interplay between interpersonal dynamics which shape the treatment experience of couples, and which are also shaped by larger structural dynamics, including barriers in the treatment system. Improvements to the treatment system in general will go a long way in improving treatment for couples. Couples-specific programming also needs to be developed.  (+info)

Treatment at the front end of the criminal justice continuum: the association between arrest and admission into specialty substance abuse treatment. (3/404)

BACKGROUND: To reduce criminal recidivism and drug use, it has been proposed that the substance abuse treatment delivery system cut across different components of the criminal justice continuum. Arrest, at the front end of this continuum, may represent a critical moment to motivate people with substance use disorders (SUD) to seek treatment but is often over looked as an intervention point. We used data from the 2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) to compare treatment need and recent treatment admission for participants with no criminal justice (CJ) involvement in the past year, past-year arrest, and CJ supervision (i.e., probation or parole status). RESULTS: Of those arrested, 44.8% met criteria for an SUD. However, only 14% of those arrested with an SUD received treatment in the year of their arrest. In multivariate modelling, arrest was an independent predictor of treatment admission (odds ratio (OR) = 8.74) similar in magnitude to meeting criteria for an SUD (OR = 8.22). Those further along the continuum--under supervision--were most likely to receive treatment (OR = 22.62). CONCLUSION: Arrest involves the largest number of individuals entering the criminal justice system. The NSDUH suggests that nearly 6 million individuals in the US experience an arrest annually and that nearly half meet criteria for an SUD. Although arrest involves the largest number of individuals entering the criminal justice system, it is also the most fleeting point as individuals can move in and out rather quickly. Minimally, arrest imposes contact between the individual and a law enforcement person and can be an opportunity for early intervention strategies such as pre-arraignment diversion into treatment or brief intervention strategies. Using brief intervention at this early point in the continuum may motivate a greater number of individuals to seek treatment or decrease drug and alcohol use. Training and procedural shifts at this point of contact could have important policy implications in reducing the number of subsequent arrests or preventing individuals moving further along the criminal justice continuum, as well as decreasing the fiscal and resource burdens associated with criminal justice processing and confinement.  (+info)

A rationale and model for addressing tobacco dependence in substance abuse treatment. (4/404)

Most persons in drug treatment smoke cigarettes. Until drug treatment facilities systematically treat their patients' tobacco use, millions will flow through the drug treatment system, overcome their primary drug of abuse, but die prematurely from tobacco-related illnesses. This paper reviews the literature on the health benefits of quitting smoking for drug treatment patients, whether smoking causes relapse to other drug or alcohol abuse, the treatment of tobacco dependence, and good and bad times for quitting smoking among drug treatment patients. It also presents a conceptual model and recommendations for treating tobacco in substance abuse treatment, and provides references to internet and paper-copy tools and information for treating tobacco dependence. At present, research on tobacco treatment in drug treatment is in its infancy. Although few drug treatment programs currently offer formal services, many more will likely begin to treat nicotine dependence as external forces and patient demand for these services increases. In the absence of clear guidelines and attention to quality of care, drug treatment programs may adopt smoking cessation services based on cost, convenience, or selection criteria other than efficacy. Because research in this field is relatively new, substance abuse treatment professionals should adhere to the standards of care for the general population, but be prepared to update their practices with emerging interventions that have proven to be effective for patients in drug treatment.  (+info)

Brief screening for co-occurring disorders among women entering substance abuse treatment. (5/404)

BACKGROUND: Despite the importance of identifying co-occurring psychiatric disorders in substance abuse treatment programs, there are few appropriate and validated instruments available to substance abuse treatment staff to conduct brief screen for these conditions. This paper describes the development, implementation and validation of a brief screening instrument for mental health diagnoses and trauma among a diverse sample of Black, Hispanic and White women in substance abuse treatment. With input from clinicians and consumers, we adapted longer existing validated instruments into a 14 question screen covering demographics, mental health symptoms and physical and sexual violence exposure. All women entering treatment (methadone, residential and out-patient) at five treatment sites were screened at intake (N = 374). RESULTS: Eighty nine percent reported a history of interpersonal violence, and 70% reported a history of sexual assault. Eighty-eight percent reported mental health symptoms in the last 30 days. The screening questions administered to 88 female clients were validated against in-depth psychiatric diagnostic assessments by trained mental health clinicians. We estimated measures of predictive validity, including sensitivity, specificity and predictive values positive and negative. Screening items were examined multiple ways to assess utility. The screen is a useful and valid proxy for PTSD but not for other mental illness. CONCLUSION: Substance abuse treatment programs should incorporate violence exposure questions into clinical use as a matter of policy. More work is needed to develop brief screening tools measures for front-line treatment staff to accurately assess other mental health needs of women entering substance abuse treatment.  (+info)

Homeless drug users' awareness and risk perception of peer "take home naloxone" use--a qualitative study. (6/404)

BACKGROUND: Peer use of take home naloxone has the potential to reduce drug related deaths. There appears to be a paucity of research amongst homeless drug users on the topic. This study explores the acceptability and potential risk of peer use of naloxone amongst homeless drug users. From the findings the most feasible model for future treatment provision is suggested. METHODS: In depth face-to-face interviews conducted in one primary care centre and two voluntary organisation centres providing services to homeless drug users in a large UK cosmopolitan city. Interviews recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically by framework techniques. RESULTS: Homeless people recognise signs of a heroin overdose and many are prepared to take responsibility to give naloxone, providing prior training and support is provided. Previous reports of the theoretical potential for abuse and malicious use may have been overplayed. CONCLUSION: There is insufficient evidence to recommend providing "over the counter" take home naloxone" to UK homeless injecting drug users. However a programme of peer use of take home naloxone amongst homeless drug users could be feasible providing prior training is provided. Peer education within a health promotion framework will optimise success as current professionally led health promotion initiatives are failing to have a positive impact amongst homeless drug users.  (+info)

Simultaneous alcohol and cannabis expectancies predict simultaneous use. (7/404)

BACKGROUND: Simultaneous use of alcohol and cannabis predicts increased negative consequences for users beyond individual or even concurrent use of the two drugs. Given the widespread use of the drugs and common simultaneous consumption, problems unique to simultaneous use may bear important implications for many substance users. Cognitive expectancies offer a template for future drug use behavior based on previous drug experiences, accurately predicting future use and problems. Studies reveal similar mechanisms underlying both alcohol and cannabis expectancies, but little research examines simultaneous expectancies for alcohol and cannabis use. Whereas research has demonstrated unique outcomes associated with simultaneous alcohol and cannabis use, this study hypothesized that unique cognitive expectancies may underlie simultaneous alcohol and cannabis use. RESULTS: This study examined a sample of 2600 (66% male; 34% female) Internet survey respondents solicited through advertisements with online cannabis-related organizations. The study employed known measures of drug use and expectancies, as well as a new measure of simultaneous drug use expectancies. Expectancies for simultaneous use of alcohol and cannabis predicted simultaneous use over and above expectancies for each drug individually. DISCUSSION: Simultaneous expectancies may provide meaningful information not available with individual drug expectancies. These findings bear potential implications on the assessment and treatment of substance abuse problems, as well as researcher conceptualizations of drug expectancies. Policies directing the treatment of substance abuse and its funding ought to give unique consideration to simultaneous drug use and its cognitive underlying factors.  (+info)

A success story: HIV prevention for injection drug users in Rhode Island. (8/404)

BACKGROUND: New HIV diagnoses related to injection drug use (IDU) have declined in the United States. Access to clean syringes and decreasing HIV transmission among injection drug users have been HIV prevention priorities of the Rhode Island (RI) HIV community. To examine trends in IDU-related new HIV diagnoses in RI, we performed a retrospective analysis of new HIV diagnoses according to HIV risk factor from 1990-2003. RESULTS: There has been an 80% absolute reduction in IDU-related new HIV diagnoses in RI coincident with IDU-specific prevention efforts. CONCLUSION: There has been a greater decline in IDU-related new HIV diagnoses in Rhode Island compared to national data reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. We hypothesize that this dramatic decline in Rhode Island is related to extensive HIV prevention efforts targeting IDUs. Further research is needed to examine the impact of specific HIV prevention interventions for injection drug users.  (+info)

The objective of this study was to monitor the trend of addiction drug use and its relationship with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female drug users (FDUs). Serial cross-sectional surveys were conducted during 2010-2014 among FDUs in Beijing to collect information on addiction drug usage, sexual behaviors, and STI prevalence. Characteristics were analyzed and compared between traditional and synthetic drug users among FDUs by logistic regression method. A total of 3859 FDUs were surveyed during 2010-2014, with the median age being 32.7 years old. The proportion of synthetic drug users among FDUs increased from 43.7% in 2010 to 70.7% in 2014. Compared with traditional drug users, synthetic drug users were younger (P | 0.001), lacked education (P | 0.001), were unmarried (P | 0.001), and were non-local residents (P | 0.001). No significant difference was found with condom usage during sexual activity between traditional and synthetic drug FDUs. However, the engagement of commercial sexual
The purpose of this R01 study is to evaluate the association between neuropsychological executive dysfunction and HIV infection among young injection and non-injection drug users. A longitudinal study will be conducted in which the cohort of seronegative drug users completing a baseline neuropsychological battery are re-assessed on three subsequent occasions, roughly six months apart. The primary aim of the longitudinal study is to estimate the magnitude of the suspected causal relationship between executive dysfunction and HIV-risk behaviors while adjusting for time-invariant (e.g. sex, ethnicity) and time-varying (e.g. degree of drug abuse) covariates. We also seek to evaluate: (1) the degree to which specific executive dysfunctions predispose heroin and cocaine users to high-risk injection practices or sex behaviors, and (2) whether observed relationship between executive dysfunction and HIV-risk behaviors can be understood independent of levels of drug -taking frequency, or whether the ...
Research examining the demographic and substance use characteristics of illicit drug use in the United States has typically failed to consider differences in routes of administration or has exclusively focused on a single route of administration-injection drug use. Data from National Survey on Drug Use and Health were used to compare past-year injection drug users and non-injection drug users routes of administration of those who use the three drugs most commonly injected in the United States: heroin, methamphetamine, and cocaine.
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The Treatment and Care for HIV-Positive Injecting Drug Users training curriculum is designed for clinicians who provide treatment and care, including ART, for HIV-positive injecting drug users. The training curriculum consists of a trainer manual, 12 participant manuals, and a CD-ROM with PowerPoint presentations and reference articles. Topics covered in the curriculum include: Module 1: Drug use and HIV in Asia Module 2: Comprehensive services for injecting drug users Module 3: Initial patient assessment Module 4: Managing opioid dependence Module 5: Managing non-opioid drug dependence Module 6: Managing ART in injecting drug users Module 7: Adherence counselling for injecting drug users Module 8: Drug interactions Module 9: Management of coinfections in HIV-positive injecting drug users Module 10: Managing pain in HIV-infected injecting drug users Module 11: Psychiatric illness, psychosocial care and sexual health Module 12: Continuing medical education Trainer ...
Data & statistics on Sharp rises in HIV prevalence among injecting drug users: Sharp rises in HIV prevalence among injecting drug users, 1988-2002, Between exploding HIV infection among injecting drug users,(see earlier in the report) steep rises in sex workers and low but exponentially rising infection in blood donors, the landscape of HIV infection in the worlds fourth most populous nation is changing quickly. The map shows provinces in which exceptionally high rates of infection have been recorded in sex workers and drug users. The challenge ..., The countrys population was located. Out of all cases registered nationwide, 1106 (28%) were in Temirtau. The first HIV outbreak in Central Asia was registered in Temirtau, where there was a sharp increase in the number of HIV infected - from 30 in 1996 to 399 in 1997. Approximately 90% of these cases were among injecting drug users (IDUs). Starting in 2000, the number of newly registered HIV cases ......
The first time I saw Jim Corti was in Miami, on a hot, sticky night in May 1989. We were both seated in the restaurant at the Howard Johnsons motel on the north edge of the city, a rather sad establishment that had seen too many humid, tropical summers since the last paint job. We were at separate tables, eyeing each other from time to time. I was alone. Corti sat with three other men. We had not yet been introduced and were not sure how to recognize each other.. I had come to witness and record an underground treatment of four HIV-positive gay men, two with AIDS, who had volunteered to be injected with a promising but possibly deadly Chinese drug. Corti, I had been told, was a famous, or at least notorious, crusader. A doctor, one person told me. A nurse, said another. In fact, by his own account, a nurse and a smuggler.. Corti and a small alliance of gay men have been pressing the limits of the federal Food and Drug Administrations tolerance since 1985 when they began importing unauthorized ...
For injecting drug users there are other important considerations. This includes that injecting drug-users often chaotic lives mean that they can find it difficult to access health services and may only be in contact with health professionals sporadically. This trial included only those who were currently attending drug treatment clinics. However, there are likely to be many other vulnerable groups of injecting drug users in the community who are not attending clinics, or who attend but then are lost to follow-up. Therefore, ensuring that all drug users are able to access care, and receive continued care and treatment may be issues that would need to be considered ...
HIV-positive users of cocaine and heroine have an increased risk for opportunistic infections and death compared with HIV-positive nonusers, according to ...
Barriers to health care utilization limit drug users interaction with the primary health care system, resulting in episodic health care received through Emergency Departments (ED) and Urgent Care Centers (UCC). Since 1994, the Boston Medical Center ED and UCC have provided substance abuse screening as standard of care. This program employs the Brief Negotiated Interview (BNI) to assess patients reasons for drug use, readiness to change and offer intervention alternatives and referrals to substance treatment and other resources. Drug users high rates of STIs, HIV, and Hepatitis C (HCV) and utilization of EDs and UCCs as usual sources of health care support the introduction of sexual behavior intervention in the ED and UCC setting. The proposed study will apply existing Brief Negotiation Interview (BNI) theory and research to a new behavioral context. The proposed project is a collaborative effort to adapt the BNI to encourage safe sex behaviors to prevent gonorrhea, chlamydia, and HIV among ...
Yeah, so there is a list of 63 random drugs that can be described using the phrase synthetic drug. And we could keep listing substances, but theres no point. Synthetic drug means very little to nothing of value. ...
How do free prescription discount cards work? When people join together to purchase in large quantities, everyone saves! Discount Drug Network leverages the power of group purchasing to negotiate these discounts.
My Student Page== ==Assessment List== {{MH2016msg-Student Page}} ==Attendance== [[User:Z3489355,Z3489355]] ([[User talk:Z3489355,talk]]) 11:53, 10 March 2016 (AEDT) [[User:Z3489355,Z3489355]] ([[User talk:Z3489355,talk]]) 11:06, 17 March 2016 (AEDT) [[User:Z3489355,Z3489355]] ([[User talk:Z3489355,talk]]) 11:26, 24 March 2016 (AEDT) [[User:Z3489355,Z3489355]] ([[User talk:Z3489355,talk]]) 11:11, 7 April 2016 (AEST) [[User:Z3489355,Z3489355]] ([[User talk:Z3489355,talk]]) 11:12, 14 April 2016 (AEST) [[User:Z3489355,Z3489355]] ([[User talk:Z3489355,talk]]) 11:44, 21 April 2016 (AEST) [[User:Z3489355,Z3489355]] ([[User talk:Z3489355,talk]]) 13:28, 28 April 2016 (AEST) [[User:Z3489355,Z3489355]] ([[User talk:Z3489355,talk]]) 11:06, 5 May 2016 (AEST) [[User:Z3489355,Z3489355]] ([[User talk:Z3489355,talk]]) 11:24, 12 May 2016 (AEST) [[User:Z3489355,Z3489355]] ([[User talk:Z3489355,talk]]) 11:34, 19 May 2016 (AEST) [[User:Z3489355,Z3489355]] ([[User talk:Z3489355,talk]]) 13:03, 26 May 2016 (AEST) ...
This study found that providers spent less time talking with patients who reported either current or past unhealthy alcohol use. In addition, they used fewer patient-engagement and activating statements and fewer counseling statements on lifestyle or psychosocial behaviors to patients reporting current unhealthy drinking patterns compared with patients who were not problem drinkers. In turn, these patients made fewer engaging, activating, and positive statements to their providers. Patients without a history of unhealthy drinking had clinic visits that averaged around 4 minutes longer and received more patient-engagement and activating statements during their visit with providers. With illicit drug users, providers were more likely to make negative statements and ask more questions during encounters compared with patients without a history of illicit drug use. These drug users also made more negative statements. However, more counseling and lifestyle statements were exchanged during these ...
My Student Page== The following is the UNSW ANAT3231 Cell Biology student page for z3465531: ==Attendance== [[User:Z3465531,Z3465531]] ([[User talk:Z3465531,talk]]) 11:53, 10 March 2016 (AEDT) [[User:Z3465531,Z3465531]] ([[User talk:Z3465531,talk]]) 11:06, 17 March 2016 (AEDT) [[User:Z3465531,Z3465531]] ([[User talk:Z3465531,talk]]) 14:39, 24 March 2016 (AEDT) I forgot to submit the above attendance until I returned home from the lab. [[User:Z3465531,Z3465531]] ([[User talk:Z3465531,talk]]) 11:13, 7 April 2016 (AEST) [[User:Z3465531,Z3465531]] ([[User talk:Z3465531,talk]]) 11:12, 14 April 2016 (AEST) [[User:Z3465531,Z3465531]] ([[User talk:Z3465531,talk]]) 11:27, 21 April 2016 (AEST) [[User:Z3465531,Z3465531]] ([[User talk:Z3465531,talk]]) 11:08, 28 April 2016 (AEST) [[User:Z3465531,Z3465531]] ([[User talk:Z3465531,talk]]) 11:06, 5 May 2016 (AEST) [[User:Z3465531,Z3465531]] ([[User talk:Z3465531,talk]]) 11:07, 12 May 2016 (AEST) [[User:Z3465531,Z3465531]] ([[User talk:Z3465531,talk]]) 11:11, 19 ...
A recent research presented at the world AIDS conference has pointed out that less than 10 percent of injecting drug users (IDUs) receive appropriate assistance that will help them from spreading HIV.
Mehta said that doctors should offer kidney testing to all of their patients who use drugs or are HIV-positive, as this may lessen the burden on the public health system by reducing the chances that they will need dialysis or a kidney transplant ...
PSY215: DRUGS AND DEPENDENCY ESSAY ONE WHY DO PEOPLE USE DRUGS? LACHLAN SLOAN 30790798 Throughout history, people have used different kinds of drugs to
Ethambutol-Southwest Synthetic is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Ethambutol-Southwest Synthetic is available on the website.
Why conduct user testing?There are no guarantees in design; something embraced by one group may well be rejected by another, but this does not mean we should discount the benefits of speaking to, observing, and testing a sample of users. User-centred design emphasises the importance of engaging the people who will ultimately use a product or service.Naturalistic Vs. Artificial SettingsThere are many different methods available in user testing, but collectively the central aim is to gain an under...
The User activity extensions/pt-br category contains articles on extensions that monitor user activity (logins, logouts, new user creation, etc). Ver também: ...
Grabs the user from the action and determines whether the user is valid and the logged-in user has permission to view the action ...
Tumor Targeting: is a cancer treatment that uses drugs.... Targeted therapy works by targeting the cancers specific genes, proteins, or the tissue environ
Evernote just topped 100 million users; thats pretty impressive. Even more impressive is the fact that those 100 million users can be found in any of 190
The graph presents the distribution of active Spotify users in the United States as of April 2015, broken down by age. During the survey period it was found that 21 percent of U.S. Spotify users were 13 to 18 years of age.
Mayor MicBridget is a wikiHow editor. This user has started 21 articles and made 1,024 article edits. The articles Mayor MicBridget has started have received a total of 2,633,958 views. This user has also patrolled 5,005 edits.
You can submit your own pictures to the User Gallery. You need to be registered and logged in as a user before we can accept your pictures.. ...
You can submit your own pictures to the User Gallery. You need to be registered and logged in as a user before we can accept your pictures.. ...
This page (revision-50) was last changed on 24-May-2008 11:39 by ChristophSauer This page was created on 25-Aug-2006 16:02 by Christoph Only authorized users are allowed to rename pages.. Only authorized users are allowed to delete pages.. ...
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Remember we used to be able to view users by several criteria, when joined, num posts ect... Is that still around? I cant seem to find a link to it?
1266 Users, Read This...: You brought up some great points. Let me add a few comments between the lines here if I may...I think between the two of us, we could add a lot to the instruction manual that wasnt there in the first place LMAO! I wish ...
uajay explains how to calculate the Primary User on a machine based on the number of user logins, the amount of time the user is logged in, or the designated user… +read more. ...
19:48, 10 November 2009 (diff , hist) . . (+1,130)‎ . . User talk:2old ‎ (→‎Please see the following of why I changed the Puerto Vallarta Information) (current) ...
This week, Instagram unveiled a new update that allows users of the app to follow specific hashtags, inserting the top pictures of those tags into newsfeeds.
το κείμενο με τίτλο PEBLS 2.0 User's Guide σχετίζετε με Τεχνίτη Νοημοσύνη και Ρομποτική
This page was last edited 19:19, 8 August 2012 by wikidoc user WikiBot. Based on work by Brian Blank, Alexandra Almonacid and Jacki Buros (bot), wikidoc user Matt Pijoan and wikidoc anonymous user Rei-bot ...
TSViewer for DMFrenzy [FPS: Counter-Strike: GO] TeamSpeak ( - display of all information and access to stats, graphs, banners, user banners, user history and more.
Potencialex experience: You have to avoid these #errors, then #successes are already possible after 17 days ✚ the big test here
漢服」的定義尚有爭議(依No1lovesu的觀點),我看還需要長時間作討論,請No1lovesu君不要以為自己偏隘的觀點就是對的,爭着在未逹成共識前就修改條目 觀乎No1lovesu的編輯,似是硬要利用漢服就是「漢人服飾」這個定義,把漢人穿上的滿族服飾混淆視聽成為漢服。漢語是漢民族的語言,漢人現今也常用英語,那英語也是漢語的一種嗎?--lauyulam(留言) 2014年12月22日 (一) 04:47 (UTC) 現在只有手機在手不方便,不能馬上詳細回應閣下的不客觀發言。但我想先請教user:Lauyulam先生一個問題,有哪一本地方誌、相關歷史文獻、正規學術書籍以及報章等記載會將英語寫作是漢語的一種。 ...
Reddit users told us about these 25 hilarious facts from history that you wont believe are actually true. #7 is especially crazy!
Use the search fields below to explore our most up to date test repertoire and find user details such as how to order and interpret results. ...
Harvard Pilgrim would like to invite our Connecticut providers and their patients to the Tuesday, Nov. 18, 2014 launch of the Hartford Mobile Market, of which the Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Foundation is a founding funder. Join us from 10:30-11:30 a.m. on the steps of Hartford City Hall (550 Main Street) for an introduction to the program and a tour of the mobile market. (Note: In the event of rain, the launch event will take place in the City Hall Atrium.). The program, created by the Hispanic Health Council and Hartford Food System, features a year-round mobile produce market that sells fresh fruits and vegetables to Hartford neighborhoods that may lack sufficient access to these nutritious foods. By making produce more affordable and accessible, the Hartford Mobile Market aims to foster healthier eating habits. Starting with a schedule of two stops a week to neighborhoods in the north and south ends of the city, the Hartford Mobile Market will expand its route over the course of its first ...
This is the lobby of Hartford HealthCares new Bone & Joint Institute at Hartford Hospital. The $150 million orthopedic center will focus on both wellness and surgery. It aims to develop a reputation that will draw patients from all over New England and would compete with hospitals in New York and Boston. Hartford Hospital partnered with Orthopedic Associates of Hartford in 2013 to develop the institute. Orthopedic Associates has 30 orthopedic surgeons.. (Patrick Raycraft / Hartford Courant ...
In the last couple of weeks, 16 Hartford Youth Scholars earned a college degree and 22 more of our high school Scholars earned their diplomas and graduated on time! HYS annual Celebrations Gala this year was held on June 8th at the Hartford Marriott Downtown, where 260 community members joined us to celebrate our Scholars successes, and to honor founding Board Member Karl J. Krapek and his wife Kathy for the generous extension of time, talent and treasure that they have provided to the young people from Hartford that our organization serves. HYS works with Hartford students - beginning when ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Alive Study. T2 - A Longitudinal Study of HIV-1 Infection in Intravenous Drug Users: Description of Methods. AU - Vlahov, David. AU - Anthony, James C.. AU - Muñoz, Alvaro. AU - Margolick, Joseph. AU - Nelson, Kenrad E.. AU - Celentano, David D.. AU - Solomon, Liza. AU - Polk, B. Frank. PY - 1991/10. Y1 - 1991/10. N2 - To identify risk factors for infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and for progression to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) among intravenous drug users, we established a cohort in Baltimore Maryland in 1988-1989. Intravenous drug users were recruited by extensive community outreach to undergo interview and confidential HIV testing in a special study site. During 13 months of recruitment, 2,921 intravenous drug users were enrolled of whome 24 percent were HIV seropositive; 90 percent returned to receive test results. Methodological issues for enhancing recruitment and retention of drug users are discussed.. AB - To identify risk ...
A sample of 95 intravenous drug users agreed to provide urine samples, which would be tested for the presence of the metabolites of opiates and cocaine; the purpose of the study was to assess the validity of injection drug users self- reported use of these drugs. Using chi-square analyses, the researchers determined that there were no significant differences between intravenous drug users who agreed to participate in the study and those who declined to participate in terms of age, gender, ethnic group, education, primary drug of choice, treatment history, project intervention assignment, or time of follow-up. The urinalysis findings showed that 30 percent of the 67 participants who claimed to be drug-free over the previous 6 months had in fact used drugs. When compared to the total sample, the rate of misrepresentation fell to 21 percent. Logit regression analyses indicated that intravenous drug users who were black or whose primary drugs of choice were injected cocaine and crack were more likely than
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection causes acute and chronic liver disease and may lead to cirrhosis, liver failure or hepatocellular carcinoma. The behavior of illicit drug users (DUs) typically...
Whats Wrong With 100-Year-Old Plan For Hartford. By PATRICK L. PINNELL. December 27, 2012. This year should not end without our noting it marks a century since the 1912 A Plan for the City of Hartford. To todays eyes, John M. Carr res and Thomas Hastings report to the Commission on the City Plan first or among the very first such bodies in the country was sophisticated, sweeping and forward-looking, but equally naive and blind to some issues, including the problems it might itself create.. The centenary of the 1912 plan offers an occasion to better understand how we are thinking when we think about Hartford and the region today.. Carr re and Hastings, the plans authors, were New York architects, highly skilled both in architecture and in getting important commissions. When Hartford hired them to look at the organization and development of the city, it was hiring a firm just then completing the New York Public Library, a job not only large and visible but so complicated in the intricate ...
East Hartford, urban town (township), Hartford county, central Connecticut, U.S., across the Connecticut River from Hartford. The area, called Podunk by the Indians, was first settled in 1639 by John Crow. Organized as a parish in 1746 and originally part of Hartford, it was incorporated as a
Issuu is a digital publishing platform that makes it simple to publish magazines, catalogs, newspapers, books, and more online. Easily share your publications and get them in front of Issuus millions of monthly readers. Title: Perspectives v8n5 sex partners of injection drug users, Author: Alliance Health Project, Name: Perspectives v8n5 sex partners of injection drug users, Length: 9 pages, Page: 1, Published: 2013-10-07
To review human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk reduction interventions among injecting drug users (IDUs) that have adopted a network approach.,The design and outcomes of selected network-based interventions among IDUs are reviewed using the network concepts of the dyad (two-person relationship), the personal risk network (an index person and all of his or her relationship), and the sociometric network (the complete set of relations between people in a population) and community.,In a dyad intervention among HIV-serodiscordant couples, many of which included IDUs, there were no HIV seroconversions. Participants in personal risk network interventions were more likely to reduce drug risks and in some of these interventions, sexual risks, than were participants in individual-based interventions. Sociometric network interventions reached more IDUs and may be more cost-effective than individual-based interventions.,Network-based HIV risk reduction interventions among IDUs, and others at risk for ...
Research being presented at the American Academy of Pediatrics 2017 National Conference and Exhibition shows that post-surgical opioid pain medications prescribed after common surgeries may become a pathway to continued, nonmedical opioid use by teens and young adults.
This page provides relevant content and local businesses that can help with your search for information on Medications for Heart Disease. You will find informative articles about Medications for Heart Disease, including Keeping your Heart healthy. Below you will also find local businesses that may provide the products or services you are looking for. Please scroll down to find the local resources in East Hartford, CT that can help answer your questions about Medications for Heart Disease.
There are millions of people around the world who are stressed out. Some of these people turn to holistic remedies for their stress, such as drinking decaffeinated tea and doing medication. However, there are people who find other, less healthy ways to deal with stress, and one of those ways is through smoking. Smoking can cause a myriad of different health problems.
BACKGROUND: Problem alcohol use is common among illicit drug users and is associated with adverse health outcomes. It is also an important factor in poor prognosis among drug users with hepatitis C virus (HCV) as it impacts on progression to hepatic cirrhosis or opiate overdose in opioid users. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of psychosocial interventions for problem alcohol use in illicit drug users (principally problem drug users of opiates and stimulants). SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group trials register (November 2011), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, Issue 11, November 2011), PUBMED (1966 to 2011); EMBASE (1974 to 2011); CINAHL (1982 to 2011); PsycINFO (1872 to 2011) and reference list of articles ...
The needle exchange focuses on safe use rather than abstinence. The idea behind the exchange is that clean paraphernalia reduces infections like hepatitis C and HIV.. He believes that drugs should be legal for this reason. Legal drugs would be regulated by the government so users wouldnt have to trust back-alley deals. And users could talk with their doctors about dosage without worrying about being arrested.. You could have an open discussion with your doctor about your drug use in a way that you cant now, Murphy said. Less people would die. More people could get treated. It would be less of a stigma.. But not everyone can be a stable drug user, he said. We have chaotic drug users, and we have people who are stable drug users, and we seem to focus the entire conversation on chaotic drug use.. At the needle exchange, Murphy tells every person who approaches the table that they are beautiful the way they are and that he loves them. Everyones telling you how worthless you are, he said; ...
Male injection drug users deported from the United States to Tijuana have four-fold higher odds of HIV infection compared to those living in Tijuana who were not deported there, according to a study to be presented at the International AIDS Conference on August 5, 2008 in Mexico City.
The 2011 Illicit Drug Monitoring System (IDMS) study was carried out by researchers at the SHORE and Whariki Research Centre at Massey University.. Lead researcher Dr Chris Wilkins says 372 illegal drug users from Auckland, Wellington and Christchurch were interviewed late last year about trends in the use, availability, price and potency of a number of key illegal drug types and about any new drugs they had encountered in the previous six months. The study is conducted to provide timely information about changes in drug use, and inform responses such as better provision of drug treatment services and reducing barriers to entering treatment.. Overall the use of many new substances remained fairly low, Dr Wilkins says, though the proportion of frequent drug users who had tried a new drug increased from 24 per cent in 2009 to 33 per cent in 2010 and 40 per cent in 2011.. Drugs reportedly most frequently used for the first time in 2011 included ecstasy, oxycodone (a medical opioid), ...
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This study examined mobility on the airbridge between New York (NY) and Puerto Rico (PR) for Puerto Rican drug users and its relationshi p to HIV risk. Over 1,200 Puerto Rican injection drug users (ID
Copyright © 2020, British Columbia Centre on Substance Use. 400-1045 Howe St, Vancouver, BC V6Z 2A9. E: [email protected] , T: (778) 945-7616 , F: (604) 428-5183. Online Addiction Medicine Diploma: [email protected].. ...
University of California-San Francisco (UCSF) researchers are recommending that illicit drug users should be eligible to receive treatment for the hepatitis C virus.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Impact of HIV infection on non-AIDS mortality among Italian injecting drug users. AU - Zaccarelli, Mauro. AU - Gattari, Pietro. AU - Rezza, Giovanni. AU - Conti, Susanna. AU - Spizzichino, Laura. AU - Vlahov, David. AU - Ippolito, Giuseppe. AU - Lelli, Vittorio. AU - Valenzi, Carlo. PY - 1994/3. Y1 - 1994/3. N2 - Objectives: To estimate the excess mortality of injecting drug users (IDU) stratified by HIV serostatus compared with the general population in Italy. To compare total and cause-specific mortality in HIV-positive versus HIV-negative IDU, in order to identify possible HIV-related non-AIDS causes of death in this population. Methods: All IDU attending two drug-treatment centres in Rome who underwent HIV testing between 1985 and 1991 were enrolled into a prospective study. The end-point of the study was death from any cause by 31 December 1991. Mortality rates were compared using age-adjusted standardized mortality ratios and person-time techniques. Results: Of the 2431 ...
Thats right, he says achievements! The Treaties are supposed, by Costa, to have caused the fact that no more than 0,5% of the world population are problem drug users,plus the fact that non-problem drug users are 250 milion, only 5% of the world population. So he says that 90% of the drug users have no problems with it, something we have known all along. Problem drug use is an exception, not the rule, despite the drug policies that marginalise, pathologise and criminalise any user all over the world.So, Costa could easily have said we do not need a UN based Inquisition that constructs a universal problem out of what is mostly not.. Moreover, Costa fails to remark that both life time and current use of some illicit drugs, in our present world has grown in countries where it was almost non existant in the days the Treaties were being written. We see large historic and cultural differences over time and place, although in countries where opiate use was culturally embedded (Persia,Afganistan, ...
Brighton has one of the biggest drug problems of any UK city and it is thought that around 2% of people between the ages of 15 and 44 inject drugs. The coroner of Brighton has raised concerns that the practice of drug users injecting other people might raise the risk of death through overdose so a team of researchers from the NHS in Brighton, the University of Sussex and St Georges Medical School in London looked into this issue. They found that 26% of injecting drug users either received injections from other people or gave them to others. The most common reason for doing this was problems with injecting technique and sharing injecting equipment was common. The practice most commonly occured between friends and partners. Injecting other people was seen as no different to, or less safe than, injecting oneself ...
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Injection drug users. *Residents and employees of high-risk congregate settings (e.g., prisons, nursing homes, hospitals, ...
... recreational drug users; feminists and-more frequently reported in the media-gay people, bisexuals, and transgender and third- ...
"Drug Users Face Firing Squad". Open Radio for North Korea. 27 October 2010. Archived from the original on 7 March 2016. ... A Swedish ambassador to North Korea reported to the Associated Press in 2017 that "there should be no doubt that drugs, ... 30-. ISBN 978-1-78023-386-4. Singh, Emily (2016-10-21). "Drugs in South Korea: A Silent Crisis , KOREA EXPOSÉ". Koreaexpose. ... "drugs". In 2013, citing sources at NK News and Reddit, Vice News reported that cannabis was widely used and tolerated in North ...
Derby: (1996) Recovering drug users. Dundee: (1996) Recovering alcoholics in a purpose built facility with 12 flats. Edinburgh ... Port Glasgow: (1976) Provides supported housing for 18 men recovering from drug abuse. Tamil Nadu India: (1990) This group of ... Greenock: (1980) Support for 18 men recovering from alcohol and/or drug abuse. Manchester: (2005) The Morning Star Hostel ...
"Drug Users Handbook - Tony Yayo , Songs, Reviews, Credits, Awards". AllMusic. 2008-06-24. Retrieved 2013-10-11. "Knoc-turn'al ... "Cashis Details Album Delay, Relives Moment Eminem Offered To Help Him With Drug Rehab". Hiphopdx. Archived from the original on ...
Recreational drug users may develop AC. Examples include cocaine, methamphetamines, heroin, and hallucinogens. Allergic ... Several drugs may cause AC as a side effect, by various mechanisms, such as creating drug-induced xerostomia. Various examples ... July 2011). "Angular cheilitis, part 2: nutritional, systemic, and drug-related causes and treatment" (PDF). Cutis. 88 (1): 27- ... with topical antiviral drugs such as aciclovir. 22% of cases of angular cheilitis are due to irritants. Saliva contains ...
"21 users of schizophrenia drug dead". The Japan Times Online. The Japan Times. 2014-04-18. "Schizophrénie: controverse autour ... "Paliperidone". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine. "Paliperidone Palmitate". Drug Information Portal. U ... "Schizophrenia drug blamed for 17 deaths". Sky News Australia. Corena-McLeod M (2015). "Comparative Pharmacology of Risperidone ... "17 deaths reported after schizophrenia drug injections". Japan Today: Japan News and Discussion. "21 Dead in Japan From New ...
Many are alcoholics or drug users. Some choose to be outsiders, some have had that forced upon them." Eddie McGuire says that ... His father, Robert Corfe, who also suffered from alcoholism and drug addiction, drove a truck, delivered mail and had various ... His mother, June Murphy, suffered from alcoholism and drug addiction. ...
Berman, Alan L. (March 1, 1990). "Suicide Attempts Among Adolescent Drug Users". Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine. ...
Trimingham, Tony (2009). Not My Family, Never My Child: what to do if someone you love is a drug user. Sydney: Allen & Unwin. ... Fiona, Harrington (2015). "Tracks - ILLICIT DRUG USERS MAGAZINE" (PDF). Tracks (18/19): 12-13. Archived (PDF) from the original ... He believes and advocates for Drug Law Reform for Australia, and the decriminalisation of drugs in aid of harm minimisation of ... After his son died from a heroin drug overdose, Trimingham founded the Australian charity Family Drug Support in 1997 and named ...
Kirima interrogates her about something, but stops when she realizes that she had only caught a 'normal' person; a drug-user. ... and follows five students at Shinyo Academy as they try to piece together the puzzle of a new drug and recent disappearances ...
Hard drug users tend to use marijuana; therefore, marijuana users tend to use hard drugs (the first probability is marijuana ... use given hard drug use, the second is hard drug use given marijuana use).[5] ...
Niiler, Eric (9 March 2016). "The Original Users of Sharapova's Banned Drug? Soviet Super Soldiers". Wired. Retrieved 9 March ... "Sharapova drug scandal: what is Meldonium". NewsComAu. 7 March 2016. Retrieved 9 March 2016. "Maria Sharapova failed drugs test ... Sjakste, N; Gutcaits, A; Kalvinsh, I (2004). "Mildronate: an antiischemic drug for neurological indications". CNS Drug Reviews ... had recorded positive tests for the drug. A December 2015 study in the journal Drug Testing and Analysis argued that meldonium ...
"Marian Fischman, 62; Psychologist Paid Drug Users in Her Research". Los Angeles Times. November 15, 2001. Retrieved October 1, ... To do so, she set up a residential laboratory where users could live free for up to four weeks at a time while studies ... According to her obituary, The addicts she recruited for her experiments were given drugs, food, hospital rooms with sound and ... Her models went on to become an established basis for studying potential medications to treat drug abuse. She also expanded ...
"Hard drug users escaping penalties and convictions". Lisa Allison (27 September 2006). "Drug drive testing may be widened". ... He has opposed the use of drug driving and drugs in public, saying it is a threat to the welfare of residents and businesses, ... drugs] for you", and that "alcohol is fun, but take drugs instead and you will remember your night out", in what Christopher ... "tough on drugs" is landmark. Bressington however, is positioned as even tougher on drugs, or at least quintuply economically. ...
Drug users as well as vampire drainers. Sookie helps Bill Compton to escape that Rattrays trying to drain him in Merlotte's ... She got involved with drugs and prostitution during her junior year of high school and ran away to New Orleans. In the short ...
It included serious criminals and drug users.[citation needed] The gang was founded in the Small Heath area of the city, but ...
Cymet, T. C. (1992). "'Ad Diction Ary' of drug users' terms". The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. 92 (4): 433- ... a guide to the slang of the drug subculture written for the medical community to help physicians better comprehend drug ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Goodwin, Michael (1986-03-01). "Baseball Orders Suspension Of 11 Drug Users". The New ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "OLYMPICS; Canadians Demand Inquiry Over Drug Testing Results". The New York Times. ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Sochi 2014: Ukraine's Marina Lisogor fails drugs test". BBC Sport. 22 February 2014. ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "CHINESE FACE PUNISHMENT OVER DRUG TESTS". December 4, 1994. Archived from the original ...
Goodwin, Michael (1986-03-01). "Baseball Orders Suspension Of 11 Drug Users". The New York Times. Archived from the original on ... "Smolarek fails drugs test". BBC News. 2002-05-06. Archived from the original on 2012-11-07. Retrieved 2010-05-08. Waterloo ... "Drugs ban lengthened". BBC News. 1998-01-21. Archived from the original on 2012-05-27. Retrieved 2010-05-08. 14 Chinese ... Rugby star gets two-year ban over 'asthma drug'. "BALCO investigation: Key players". USA Today. 2006-04-27. Archived from the ...
Archived 2010-06-18 at the Wayback Machine Goodwin, Michael (1986-03-01). "Baseball Orders Suspension Of 11 Drug Users". The ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Dan Facing Ban After Failing Drug Test". People.Co.Uk. 2006-05-07. Archived from the ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Pratima, Chanu test positive for drugs". 2004-08-20. Archived from the ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Chela suspended over drugs test". BBC News. 2001-04-09. Archived from the original on ...
Goodwin, Michael (1986-03-01). "Baseball Orders Suspension Of 11 Drug Users". The New York Times. Archived from the original on ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Kick-boxer Badr Hari caught doping: report Drugs test overhaul in store after Bath ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) " MLB - Remembering the pain of the Pittsburgh Drug Trials". Static.espn.go. ... bba-written-decision-ref-206.pdf Tropf, Zach (2008-11-13). "Athletes Who Damaged Their Careers With Drug Abuse". ...
Goodwin, Michael (1986-03-01). "Baseball Orders Suspension Of 11 Drug Users". The New York Times. Archived from the original on ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Russian sumo wrestler Wakanoho banned for life after drug arrest". The Canadian Press ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) 14 Chinese athletes fail doping tests in 2004 "CHINESE FACE PUNISHMENT OVER DRUG TESTS ... Breech, John (September 2, 2014). "Broncos WR Wes Welker suspended four games for violating drug policy". CBS Sports. Retrieved ...
Taylor, Francis (July 25, 1971). "Film on Drug Users Does Not Preach". The Corpus Christi Caller-Times. Corpus Christi, Texas. ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Goodwin, Michael (1986-03-01). "Baseball Orders Suspension Of 11 Drug Users". The New ... Archived 2010-06-18 at the Wayback Machine "5 Olympians Suspended For Drugs". CBS News. 2004-08-20. Archived from the original ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Bright, Richard (2001-05-16). "Davids faces two-year ban for drug use". London: The ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) McNulty, Phil (2004-11-05). "Is there life in football after drugs?". BBC News. ...
Pollack, Andrew (April 15, 2010). "Genzyme Drug Shortage Leaves Users Feeling Betrayed". The New York Times. Turner, Neil N; ... The drug is expensive - in 2012, Fabrazyme's annual cost was about US$200,000 per patient, which is unaffordable to many ... Besides these drugs, a gene therapy treatment is in clinical trials, with the technology licensed to AvroBio. Other treatments ... "Shire Submits Biologics License Application (BLA) for Replagal with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)". FierceBiotech ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Goodwin, Michael (1986-03-01). "Baseball Orders Suspension Of 11 Drug Users". The New ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "ESPN - Hornets' Andersen kicked out of NBA for drug use". 2006-01- ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Anderson gets six-month drugs ban". BBC News. 2005-12-19. Archived from the original ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Assis drug ban finalised". 4 January 2007. Archived from the original on 13 February ...
Some users have injected the drug intravenously. This requires heating the water/4-MEC solution in order for 4-MEC to dissolve ... "Man in court after bust turns up drugs, cash". May 24, 2012 - via Brandt SD, Sumnall HR, Measham F, Cole J ... Due to its similarity to mephedrone, it is thought to be a stimulant and entactogen drug of the phenethylamine, amphetamine, ... Ondra P, Válka I, Knob R, Ginterová P, Maier V (October 2015). "Analysis of Amphetamine-Derived Designer Drugs by Gas ...
Goodwin, Michael (1986-03-01). "Baseball Orders Suspension Of 11 Drug Users". The New York Times. Archived from the original on ... "Papp admits taking drugs, Landis set to testify". Reuters. 2007-05-19. "FINA Announces Pair of Doping Violations". Swimming ... "Pratima, Chanu test positive for drugs". 2004-08-20. Archived from the original on 2012-05-27. Retrieved 2012-07 ... SSCHV - Schweizerischer Schwimmverband - Aktuelle News[dead link] "Kusal Perera: Sri Lanka player fails drugs test and is sent ...
"Study Finds Drug Users Not Adding to Violence". Associated Press. June 28, 1973.. ... confirmed prior research that found no connection between drug use and violent crime, despite prior perceptions of heroin users ... "Study: Military Drug Use Down". Associated Press. August 11, 1996.. *^ "The Moneychangers: U.S. Conducting Study". The New York ... "Research Triangle Institute Coordinates US Tests of Drug Treatments". Charlotte Observer. August 15, 1988. pp. 6C. Retrieved ...
A clinician user of NIR HEG, Jeffrey Carmen, adapted Toomim's system for migraines in 2002 by integrating peripheral thermal ... 70% of sufferers saw a 50% or more reduction in their migraines following combined neurotherapy and drug treatment, as opposed ... allowing the patient to greatly reduce the drug therapy necessary for him to function successfully in school and offering a ... to 50% undergoing only traditional drug therapy.[8] Autism[edit]. The term autism encompasses a wide range of syndromes, such ...
distributing the bulletins containing this information to pesticide users. *providing a toll-free number for users to contact ... Under Section 408 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), the EPA can also regulate the amount of pesticide ... When registered, a label is created to instruct the final user the proper usage of the material. If instructions are ignored, ... any nitrogen stabilizer, except that the term "pesticide" shall not include any article that is a "new animal drug" within the ...
Reunion 5 was announced[8] on September 1997 and saw the introduction of drag and drop capabilities when working with the ... This version became a Mac OS X native application, providing users of OS X and prior versions of the Macintosh operating system ... New features include web searching, mapping of places, a tree view, a nav bar and a sidebar, image dragging from a web browser ... The following translations have been completed by Reunion users:[9] *Dutch (version 8 & 9) ...
... in recreational methamphetamine users produced scores of "drug liking" similar to racemic methamphetamine, but the effects were ... "CFR TITLE 21: DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE: PART 341 -- COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER- ... "United States Food and Drug Administration. April 2015. Archived from the original on 18 September 2015. Retrieved 7 March 2016 ... Levomethamphetamine is the active metabolite of the antiparkinson's drug selegiline.[9] Selegiline, a selective monoamine ...
It is recommended that users drink at least 1.5 liters a day when intaking the drug. Drug users must significantly increase ... Furthermore, the drug has to be taken consistently or else users face dangers, meaning that the company has to take into ... In order to avoid this as much as possible, it is important for users to consistently take the exact amount of the drug at the ... This fear of viral resistance caused a lot of users to be wary of the drug.[5] ...
De Smet, Peter A.G.M. (December 1997). "The Role of Plant-Derived Drugs and Herbal Medicines in Healthcare". Drugs. 54 (6): 801 ... A 2015 study of users in the United States also found elevated blood lead levels in 40 percent of those tested. Other concerns ... 2006). "Drug-related hepatotoxicity". New England Journal of Medicine. 354 (7): 731-39. doi:10.1056/NEJMra052270. PMID 16481640 ... The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), has issued online warnings for consumers about medication health fraud.[157] This ...
... drug occupancy at a purported site of action can be inferred indirectly by competition studies between unlabeled drug and ... Example: In practice, since the brain is normally a rapid user of glucose, and since brain pathologies such as Alzheimer's ... Pharmacokinetics: In pre-clinical trials, it is possible to radiolabel a new drug and inject it into animals. Such scans are ... The uptake of the drug, the tissues in which it concentrates, and its eventual elimination, can be monitored far more quickly ...
Hawthorne, William; Lawrence, Anna (2013). Plant Identification: Creating User-Friendly Field Guides for Biodiversity ... Strong wind forces may result in diminished leaf number and surface area, which while reducing drag, involves a trade off of ... allowing a degree of repositioning to minimize drag and damage, as opposed to resistance. Leaf movement like this may also ...
Most detainees in re-education through labor facilities are reported to be drug users, petty criminals, and prostitutes, as ... Although drug abusers are ostensibly placed in re-education through labor to be treated for their addictions, some testimonial ... Of these detainees, 5 to 10 percent are estimated to be political prisoners, and as many as 40 percent are estimated to be drug ... nearly one-third of the known re-education camps were specifically built for the purpose of holding drug offenders.[18] ...
... an emerging drug-free treatment for a wide range of degenerative disorders and for simulated altitude training used to achieve ... number of types of hypoxicators that can be distinguished by the method of producing hypoxic air and its delivery to the user's ...
Lower Paleolithic Acheulean tool users, according to Robert G. Bednarik, began to engage in symbolic behavior such as art ... may have been produced by Acheulean tool users such as Homo erectus prior to the start of the Middle Paleolithic period. ... were the first users of stone tools. Excavations in Gona, Ethiopia have produced thousands of artifacts, and through ...
The epidemic in Nepal is driven by injecting drug users, migrants, sex workers and their clients, and MSM. Results from the ...
bɜ:ʳkənhɪmez (User/say hi!) 19:38, 31 July 2021 (UTC). July 31[edit]. How can I know my vehicle is power steering or normal ... Is electrical brain stimulation used (like drugs) to produce pleasures in humans in other settings than scientific experiments? ... 1.1 Is electrical brain stimulation used (like drugs) to produce pleasures in humans in other settings than scientific ...
An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains the recreational drug ethanol, a type of alcohol produced ... Release 26 Documentation and User Guide" (PDF). USDA. August 2013. p. 14.. ... Alcohol is one of the most widely used recreational drugs in the world, with about 33% of people being current drinkers.[4] As ... Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 60 (2): 199-206. doi:10.1016/s0376-8716(99)00149-0. PMID 10940547.. ...
In 1998, the National Drug Policy was approved, whose purpose is to ensure safety, efficacy, and quality of drugs, as well as ... For each 1000 private health insurance users there were 7.6 occupied work posts for physicians, and for each 1000 Sistema Único ... In 2000, there were 14 industries authorized to produce generic drugs and about 200 registered generic drugs were being ... Brazil is among the greatest consumers markets for drugs, accounting for 3.5% share of the world market. To expand the access ...
... using various drugs such as SSRI or tricyclic antidepressants,[17][18] Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs),[19] ... Long-term opioid (e.g. heroin, morphine) users and those on high-dose opioid medications for the treatment of chronic pain, may ... and finding a suitable drug or drug combination that is effective for a particular patient may require trial and error. The use ... Drugs in R&D. 8 (1): 51-7. doi:10.2165/00126839-200708010-00005. PMID 17249849.. ...
During his 2004 presidential campaign, Kucinich expressed support for a drug policy that "sets reasonable boundaries for ... "Most marijuana users do so responsibly, in a safe, recreational context. These people lead normal, productive lives - pursuing ...
Pharmacology is the study of drugs and their actions.. *Photobiology is the study of the interactions between non-ionizing ... International healthcare policy researchers have advocated that "user fees" be removed in these areas to ensure access, ... of Essential Drugs and Medicines Policy (2002). "Traditional medicine: growing needs and potential". World Health Organization. ... Medications (Rx): what drugs the patient takes including prescribed, over-the-counter, and home remedies, as well as ...
S. 1685: Fairness in Drug Sentencing Act of 2007,, accessed October 27, 2010. S. 1711: Drug Sentencing Reform and ... public health data has found that two-thirds of crack users are white or Hispanic. Third, the Act does not reduce sentences for ... 473 Effectiveness of the War on Drugs, Drug Policy Alliance, accessed October 17, 2010. Johnson, Carrie (October 16, 2009). " ... The Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986 implemented the initial disparity, reflecting Congress's view that crack cocaine was a more ...
For this it can use several drag models; G1, G5, G7, etc. and a custom drag function that uses drag coefficient (Cd) data. In ... A QuickLOAD user most certainly should not just "plug in" a cartridge, bullet and powder and use that load, assuming it is safe ... Data can later be imported or entered by the user to expand the programs database. The default database contains more than ... QuickTARGET is based on the Siacci/Mayevski G1 model and gives the user the possibility to enter several different BC G1 ...
U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 2010-10-15.. *^ "Title 21-Food and drugs: Chapter i-Food and drug administration: ... the FDA issued to regulate mobile medical applications and protect users from their unintended use, soon followed by European ... U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 2010-10-15.. *^ a b c d e f "General and Special Controls". Medical Devices. U.S. ... United States (Food and Drug Administration)Edit. Section 201(h) of the Federal Food Drug & Cosmetic (FD&C) Act[6] defines a ...
... a drug user, possibly a drug seller, and married to an angry, ungrateful black woman.[30] Obama was accused of dog-whistling to ...
The toxicity and many side effects of the drugs, and the uncertain outcome of chemotherapy in brain tumors puts this treatment ... among heavy users of wireless and cordless telephones were conducted.[3] ... Patients undergoing chemotherapy are administered drugs designed to kill tumor cells. Although chemotherapy may improve overall ... it is not always used to treat brain tumors as the blood-brain barrier can prevent some drugs from reaching the cancerous cells ...
... after many years of the media portrayed typical drug users as being from broken homes in inner city areas and the "sink" ... Drugs - facing facts. The report issued by the RSA Commission on Illegal Drugs, Communities and Public Policy. The Royal ... War on drugs. References[edit]. *^ "Deaths England and Wales 1984-2006". Retrieved 27 August 2017.. .mw-parser- ... a b c Carey, Jim (March 1997). Recreational Drug Wars: Alcohol Versus Ecstasy - referenced from the book Ecstasy Reconsidered, ...
Service users would like mental health practitioners to do more for their physical health. Rethink interviewed 2,998 mental ... The evolution of the nomenclature of antipsychotic drugs". J Psychiatry Neurosci. 27: 168-75. PMC 161646 . PMID 12066446. ... In fact, much health promotion is simple and well received by service users. One review showed that people with schizophrenia ... link) Friedli, L; Dardis, C (2002). "Not all in the mind: Mental health service user perspectives on physical health". J Mental ...
Tor Nørretranders (1998). "Preface". The user illusion: Cutting consciousness down to size (Jonathan Sydenham translation of ... The first group, wanton addicts, have no second-order desire not to take the drug. The second group, "unwilling addicts", have ... The members of the second group freely desire not to take the drug, but their will is overcome by the addiction. Finally, the ... All three groups may have the conflicting first-order desires to want to take the drug they are addicted to and to not want to ...
In January 2015, the Bristol Post reported that most khat houses in the city had closed down, "forcing users to take the drug ... Khat is a controlled drug for the purpose of the Misuse of Drugs Act 1977 and Schedule 1 of the Misuse of Drugs Regulations ... Khat drug profile The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) ... "ADF - Alcohol & Drug Foundation. Retrieved 2017-10-03.. *^ "Import restrictions: Kava and Khat , Office of Drug Control". www. ...
Only a user with Manager access can create or modify the ACL. To set an ACL, the Manager selects the access level, user type, ... To select multiple documents in a Notes view, one drags one's mouse next to the documents to select, rather than using ⇧ Shift ... Users can also assign access for other users to their personal calendar and email on a more generic reader, editor, edit with ... The new interface provides many new user interface features and the ability to include user-selected applications/applets in ...
He has openly criticized the harassment of gay population, sex workers, and drug users, which were culturally widely common ... injection drug users, MSM and their partners. These activities, referred to as 'enablers', were required to create an enabling ...
An update on drug interactions". Drug Saf. 14 (4): 219-27. doi:10.2165/00002018-199614040-00002. PMID 8713690.. ... Tolerance to the therapeutic effects has been reported in a small number of users of MAOIs including moclobemide.[14] ... Less than 1 percent of the drug is excreted unchanged; 92 percent of the metabolised drug is excreted within the first 12 hours ... Prog Drug Res. 38. pp. 171-297. doi:10.1007/978-3-0348-7141-9_3. ISBN 978-3-0348-7143-3. PMID 1609114.. ...
The medical complications of drug addiction and the medical assessment of the intravenous drug user: 25 years later. Ann Intern ... Tetanus Among Injecting-Drug Users -- California, 1997 During 1997, 47 cases of tetanus were provisionally reported in the ... Sangalli M, Chierchini P, Aylward RB, Forastiere F. Tetanus: a rare but preventable cause of mortality among drug users and the ... Of these 11, six (55%) occurred among injecting-drug users (IDUs). The substantial proportion of cases among IDUs prompted a ...
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Listen to Kenny Goldbergs interview with Dr. Brian Edlin, infectious disease specialist, professor of medicine, State University of New York Downstate College of Medicine in Brooklyn. Popup , Download. ...
List of Abbreviated New Drug Application Sponsors and Application Numbers. The information gathered from public comments will ... More in Generic Drug User Fee Amendments. Generic Drug User Fee Amendments Implementation Activities Submission Review ANDA ... See Section VIII.F. of the guidance for industry Assessing User Fees Under the Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2017 for a ... The GDUFA Cover Sheet is required for each of the following human generic drug user fees:. *Generic drug applicant program fee; ...
For injecting drug users there are other important considerations. This includes that injecting drug-users often chaotic lives ... could reduce HIV transmission in injecting drug users. Injecting drug users are at high risk of getting HIV due to needle ... In this study, over 2,000 injecting drug users were given either placebo tablets or the new drug tenofovir - which has been ... It enrolled 2,413 injecting drug users from 17 drug-treatment clinics in Bangkok, Thailand. The clinics offer a wider range of ...
Some injecting drug users engage in risky sexual behavior, such as selling sex to fund their drug habit, so it is possible that ... Antiretroviral drug protects IV-drug users from HIV infection. Study in The Lancet is first to show that pre-exposure ... The introduction of PrEP for HIV prevention in injecting drug users should be considered as an additional component to ... the overall result is that daily tenofovir does reduce HIV transmission in injecting drug users. ...
... just get a large number of people taking more drugs, after which the doctor receives a check from the drug company for running ... them get off those drugs and create a better life for themselves. The War On Drugs has been a complete failure and a massive ... some of which are based on the very same chemical molecules found in prescription drugs. Street drugs like speed, for example, ... If these drugs are so addictively dangerous that sheriffs want to track them down, why are tens of millions of people being put ...
France inaugurated its first supervised injection facility for drug users on Tuesday, setting aside years of acrimonious debate ... View inside the SCMR (Drug supervised injection site), the first supervised injection room for drug users, during it ... Touraine said that the conditions of many hard drug users amounted to a public health emergency. As many as one in 10 was HIV- ... PARIS (Reuters) - France inaugurated its first supervised injection facility for drug users on Tuesday, setting aside years of ...
... drug user who killed his girlfriends son was jailed yesterday while she walked free despite having covered up months of abuse ... Evil drug user jailed for killing girlfriends toddler. An "evil" drug user who killed his girlfriends son was jailed ...
With a number of recreational users found on the West Shore, Cameron noted many are using drugs alone or with people who are ... RECREATIONAL DRUG USERS HIT HARDEST Paramedics say naloxone doesnt reverse damage done to the brain from lack of oxygen in an ... "One of the issues we have is that naloxone has been touted as a great drug, and it is (But) its not the magic pill everyone ... "The public has a perception all the illicit drugs are limited to the back alleys of urban centres That is so not true." Cameron ...
... of people in England who inject drugs do not know they have hepatitis C infections, according to Public Health England. ... One in five drug users unaware they have hepatitis C. *. 5 November 2014 ... It can be spread through the blood of an infected person, which is why drug users sharing needles are at risk. More than ... Two out of five drug users who used needles had the infection and half of these did not know it, said PHE. ...
However Simon Bray, the NPCC lead on drugs policy said acknowledged that users were likely to be treated differently depending ... Cannabis users smoke openly as calls mount for drug to be legalised ... Indeed finding the money to pay for the cost of his daily use of the drug is a far bigger headache for Mr French, 32, than the ... Cannabis user Adam McWilliam smokes a joint openly in Camden, north London Credit: Paul Grover ...
Fee Act of 2003 authorized FDA to collect fees for certain animal drug applications in support of the review of animal drugs. ... In this section: FDA User Fee Programs * Animal Drug User Fee Act (ADUFA) *ADUFA Reports ... Mail the payment and a copy of the completed Animal Drug User Fee Cover Sheet to:. Food and Drug Administration. P.O. Box ... CVM GFI #173 Animal Drug Sponsor Fees Under the Animal Drug User Fee Act (ADUFA) ...
2013 Drug War Killings, 2014 Drug War Killings, 2015 Drug War Killings, 2016 Drug War Killings, 2017 Drug War Killings, Arrests ... Science of Drugs, Under-treatment of PainPublic HealthAddiction, Addiction Treatment (Science of Drugs), Drug Education, Drug ... The problem over here is poor adherence to retro viral drugs. last but not the least is the Drug User was HEP C positive. so ... Drug Courts, Due Process, Felony Disenfranchisement, Incarceration, Policing (2011 Drug War Killings, 2012 Drug War Killings, ...
Several studies published this year suggest test strips could alter drug users behavior. Among a group of users who tested ... Jess Tilley, who works with drug users in Massachusetts, started handing them out about two years ago and found an eager ... The strips arent approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. While they could fall under state drug-paraphernalia laws ... Three years later, a supervised drug-injection facility in Vancouver began using the strips to test illicit drugs. A study ...
Addicts can use drugs safely and without being judged in the fix rooms, which have medical staff on duty to treat overdoses. ... Government-sponsored drug consumption rooms may be helping save the lives of drug users in Denmark. ... Give Drug Users A Safe Haven : Parallels Government-sponsored drug consumption rooms may be helping save the lives of drug ... Denmarks Fix Rooms Give Drug Users A Safe Haven. Listen · 4:37 4:37 ...
A Canadian researcher argues that for heroin users who do not benefit from standard addiction treatments, heroin-assisted ... Drug users should be able to get heroin from the health system, Martin T. Schechter, The BMJ, doi: 10.1136/bmj.h1753 , ... Heroin-assisted therapy better for some drug users than standard treatments. Published Wednesday 15 April 2015 Published Wed ... "Heroin-assisted therapy better for some drug users than standard treatments." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 15 Apr ...
... which may put them at higher risk of drug addiction. ... College-aged students who occasionally use stimulant drugs have ... College-aged drug users have impaired brain activity linked to anticipation. Written by Honor Whiteman on March 30, 2014 ... Of these, 158 were occasional users of stimulant drugs, meaning they had taken stimulants an average of 12 to 15 times. The ... "Our study is telling us, its not this is your brain on drugs, its this is the brain that does drugs." ...
... , Opinion. Heather Jackson and Laurel Hallock ... State should let nurse practitioners prescribe lifesaving drug for opioid users , Opinion. Until Tennessee restrictions are ... State should let nurse practitioners prescribe lifesaving drug for opioid users , Opinion Until Tennessee restrictions are ... Oregon nurse practitioners are authorized to obtain a DATA (Drug Addiction Treatment Act 2000) waiver. After completing ...
Hepatitis C, HIV and tuberculosis cause greatest harm for drug users globally 27 June 2017 ... half found that punitive drug laws did not result in reductions in the frequency of drug use, a cessation in injecting or ... The systematic evidence review - the first of its kind to be published - brings into sharp focus how criminalisation of drug ... Other studies revealed no increases in drug injecting when access to key harm reduction programmes - a needle and syringe ...
... recently said that the number of intravenous heroin users has reached 250,000 ... ... Jahani said Irans parliament has more than doubled the budget for treating drug users to 200 billion rials ($21.5 million U.S ... Iran has begun treating drug users as "criminals who need to be healed" rather than throwing them into already overcrowded ... Designer drugs have also found their way into the country in recent years. Officials estimate Iran has 2 million regular drug ...
Drug users are happy to go to jail as there is usually a plentiful supply of heroin there and it is no deterrent to them. ... Every drug user I have ever heard of or known would do anything to stay out of prison... Im not sure who is booking jail ... Drug users live and work in every walk of life and, whether youre aware of it or not, youll know some.. The original question ... I have never met a drug user that wanted to go to jail to get heroin, and very few who did not want to get clean. Its ...
Negative stereotypes about injecting drug-users may be hampering their recovery.. A study led by University of Queensland ... "People with a history of drug abuse are often regarded as irresponsible, unreliable and less trustworthy," Dr von Hippel said. ... "Participants who reported high levels of stereotype threat in relation to their drug history also reported poorer social ... School of Psychology researcher Dr Courtney von Hippel found that recovering drug addicts who believe they are the target of ...
OBJECTIVE--To study a group of injecting drug users to establish the degree of illicit drug use in prisons, the prevalence of ... Although many of the drug users were prescribed drugs for their dependency, limited access to appropriate treatment, ... and the other offering drug advice and information. SUBJECTS--50 (42 Men, eight women) self selected injecting drug users (mean ... Risk behaviours for HIV infection among drug users in prison. BMJ 1990; 300 :1383 ...
The threat comes from an emerging street drug called acetyl fentanyl -- an... ... Emergency physicians are bracing for a new rash of overdoses of a drug that looks like heroin but may not respond to commonly ... used doses of the opiate-reversal drug naloxone because it is so powerful, a new study reports. ... Whats frightening about this emerging street drug is that users themselves may not be aware they are ingesting it, wrote lead ...
Do they want the drug users walking around?"[41]. Buon, in his early 20s, told Human Rights Watch he is a drug user. He was ... Drug Users in Cambodia Estimates of the number of people who use drugs in Cambodia differ widely. The NACD Annual Report for ... On the contrary, Human Rights Watch has found the centers are a means to lock away drug users and those suspected of drug use ... Drug treatment *UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) recommend that compulsory drug ...
Inappropriate patterns of antibiotic use are highly prevalent among injection drug users. This qualitative study constitutes ... This article examines patterns of antibiotic use among injection drug users in three stages: (1) seeking care for infections; ( ... Patterns and Determinants of Inappropriate Antibiotic Use in Injection Drug Users. * *February 2009 ... In a series of focus groups, injection drug users reported experiencing discrimination and mistreatment when seeking ...
Drugs were seen as an escape from stressful life events [28.0%] or feelings of failure [18.2%]. Many drug users blamed the ... Drug use has been identified as a major public health issue in Pakistan. A descriptive questionnaire survey in Karachi city was ... made to identify the socioeconomic profile and beliefs and practices of 500 drug users. The most commonly used drugs were ... Key psychological factors leading to drug use were problems with parental or marital relations or break-up of a relationship [ ...
ATLANTA-A drug used to boost muscle growth in cattle has apparently sickened more than two dozen heroin users along the east ... 19-A drug used to boost muscle growth in cattle has apparently sickened more than two dozen heroin users along the east coast ... were discovered in the urine of heroin users or from drug samples, a team led by Robert S. Hoffman, M.D., of the New York City ... After drug use, youd suspect that it had to be cocaine." Dr. Hoffman and colleagues began their report discussing nine cases ...
... ... Mountainside Drug Rehab and Alcohol Treatment Center is a modern drug rehab and alcoholism treatment facility that is skilled ... For questions or a confidential discussion about getting help for drug rehab or alcoholism, please contact Mountainside Drug ... They discovered that nearly twenty-five percent of those who had suffered this type of hemorrhage were heavy alcohol users, ...
  • The first trial to assess whether preventative treatment with HIV drugs could affect rates of HIV infection in people who inject drugs has found that daily tablets of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (tenofovir), an antiretroviral drug, reduced HIV incidence by nearly half compared to placebo, according to new results published Online First in The Lancet . (
  • However, this is the first study to show that this approach is also effective among people who inject drugs. (
  • Adherence was a key factor determining efficacy in our trial among people who inject drugs - as it has been in previous PrEP trials examining sexual transmission," he added. (
  • Since Berne in 1986, more than 90 government-backed centers where users can inject in a safer, supervised environment have opened across the world, according to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addition, an EU-funded body. (
  • About 20% of people in England who inject drugs do not know they have hepatitis C infections, according to Public Health England (PHE). (
  • He added: "Obtaining blood from people living with hepatitis C who inject drugs can be difficult due to poor venous access. (
  • Dry blood spot testing is an alternative method that avoids puncturing veins - which has been proven to be reliable and simple, and acceptable to both people who inject drugs and drug service staff. (
  • So far, Copenhagen's two DCRs (a second one opened in August) have hosted 1,800 unique users, including people who smoke and inject heroin and cocaine. (
  • A ground-breaking review provides stark evidence of the damage criminalisation has on preventing and treating HIV among people who inject drugs. (
  • The vast majority of studies - 85 in total (80%) - found criminalisation to negatively affect HIV prevention and treatment outcomes for people who inject drugs . (
  • These interventions were found to negatively impact levels of injecting drug use, high-risk practices such as syringe sharing, access to sterile injecting equipment through needle exchange programmes, and HIV prevalence among people who inject drugs. (
  • The review adds to mounting evidence, collected over more than two decades, which suggests that laws and policies prohibiting illegal drug use could be playing a central role in damaging the health of people who inject drugs. (
  • Many users knowingly inject acetyl fentanyl directly as a substitute for heroin or prescription-grade opiates. (
  • In February, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) noted the rising epidemic of hepatitis C virus among young people aged 15-30 who inject drugs, calling attention to an increasingly serious issue nationwide. (
  • Based on our UFO Study here in San Francisco, we have accumulated data that identify key strategies that, when scaled up, could substantially reduce the rate of new hepatitis C infections among young people who inject drugs," said the study's lead investigator, Kimberly Page , PhD, MPH, a professor in the UCSF Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, and in UCSF Global Health Sciences. (
  • Findings appear online July 24 in a special supplement titled, "Prevention and Management of Hepatitis C Virus among People Who Inject Drugs: Moving the Agenda Forward," in the journal Clinical Infectious Diseases . (
  • By the end of this year France's Socialist government plans to test launch a series of "shooting galleries" where addicts can inject illegal drugs under medical supervision. (
  • The new report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found that use of these programs has increased substantially during the past decade, but most people who inject drugs still don't always use sterile needles. (
  • For the first time, in 2014, whites who inject drugs had more HIV diagnoses than any other racial or ethnic population in the country, the report said. (
  • She added that most heroin users preferred to smoke the drug than inject it so it made sense to allow them to use the rooms as well. (
  • Those smoking and sniffing the drugs will occupy a separate room to those whop inject heroin, and will have the equipment required to take the drugs at their disposal, as well as the necessary disinfectants to ensure adequate hygiene standards. (
  • The spread of hepatitis C (HCV) in people who inject drugs (PWIDs) remains a chronic problem despite a plethora of social and behavioral intervention and educational programs. (
  • drugs are taken orally or nasally) in New York City (NYC) has now surpassed HIV infection among persons who inject drugs. (
  • In New York City, we have done an excellent job of reducing HIV among persons who inject drugs and we must now put more efforts into reducing sexual transmission associated with non-injecting drug use. (
  • Most people who inject drugs were not aware of currently available, highly effective hepatitis C treatments, according results of a national survey in Scotland presented at the International Symposium on Hepatitis Care in Substance Users. (
  • Opioid agonist therapy clinics represent an important conduit for people who inject drugs to receive information, screening and treatment for hepatitis C. Within these clinics, however, physicians and addiction specialists self-reported low competence regarding current HCV treatments. (
  • The results counter widely entrenched policies in the United States denying HCV treatment coverage to those who inject drugs on the presumption that they will not adhere to therapy. (
  • WASHINGTON -- There was a silver lining to a prophylactic vaccine against hepatitis C virus (HCV) that failed to prevent chronic HCV infection: it proved that testing vaccines in a population of patients who inject drugs is possible, a researcher said here. (
  • Participants included adults (ages 18-45) who inject drugs at high risk of HCV, but who were not infected with HCV at screening. (
  • Testing vaccines in [people who inject drugs] is possible, but additional strategies will need to be considered, ideally with information gained from this vaccine in informing future vaccine design," she said. (
  • In European countries, increases in rates of reported HIV infections among people who inject drugs in recent years have been associated with the economic downturn and income inequality, Georgios Nikolopoulos of the University of Athens told the 20th International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2014) in Melbourne today. (
  • In most European countries, HIV infection rates in people who inject drugs have been stable or have declined over the past decade. (
  • drug use (number of people who inject drugs, number using opiods, etc. (
  • Dr Nikolopoulos and colleagues examined the associations of these factors with periods of time in which specific countries had experienced significant increases in the HIV diagnosis rate among people who inject drugs. (
  • The prevalence of HIV was as high as 60 percent in some provinces among people who inject drugs, and there was not very much in the way of harm reduction interventions going on," said NIDA grantee Dr. Theodore Hammett, of Abt Associates. (
  • This epidemic was driven by three key factors: the country's location on a major heroin trafficking route from the Golden Triangle poppy growing region, rising income levels and strong social stigma that makes people who inject drugs harder to reach with prevention information and treatment options. (
  • The behavioral practices that are used to prepare and inject drugs vary much more widely than is commonly recognized in the public health literature," reported Dr. Michael Clatts, of the University of Puerto Rico. (
  • Study findings showed a higher prevalence of HIV among women who inject drugs compared with men, and researchers recommended developing gender-sensitive harm reduction services. (
  • There are also places where men who inject have higher HIV prevalence, but data in women are often lacking - so differences might be obscured by lack of data," study authors Janni Leung , PhD, global addiction epidemiology research fellow at the National Drug & Alcohol Research Centre (NDARC) in Australia, and Sarah Larney , PhD, senior research fellow at NDARC, told Infectious Disease News . (
  • Globally, the prevalence of HIV among women who inject drugs was 19.1% (95% CI, 7.9-30.4) compared with 17.5% (95% CI, 7.2-27.8) for men. (
  • Additionally, the prevalence of anti-HCV and HBsAG among women who inject drugs was 48.9% (95% CI, 33.8-64) and 7.8% (95% CI, 0-16.1), respectively, vs. 55.7% (95% CI, 38.5-72.8) and 10.4% (95% CI, 0-21.6) among men. (
  • Special efforts might have to be made in places where women who inject drugs are subject to particularly harsh censure," Leung and Larney said. (
  • Of these 11, six (55%) occurred among injecting-drug users (IDUs). (
  • Of the 27 cases of tetanus in IDUs, 24 (89%) had no antecedent injuries other than drug injection. (
  • there are many drug resistant strains in circulation among IDUs in chennai. (
  • A recent research presented at the world AIDS conference has pointed out that less than 10 percent of injecting drug users (IDUs) receive appropriate assistance that will help them from spreading HIV. (
  • Only five percent of all IDUs have access to a programme where they can swap used syringes for sterile ones, according to a study led by Louisa Degenhardt of the National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre at the University of New South Wales, Australia. (
  • And only four percent of IDUs with HIV receive antiretroviral drugs, which can repress blood levels of the virus to such low levels that the risk of contaminating others can be slashed by more than 90 percent. (
  • EMBARGOED FOR JAN. 31, 2011] A recent 20-year study of injection drug users (IDUs) in Baltimore found a significant decline in new cases of HIV infection but only a slight decline in new cases of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. (
  • Overall, cases appeared to decline only among younger IDUs, who had started injecting drugs recently. (
  • 1) Among the community of injection drug users (IDUs) in Baltimore, HIV incidence declined dramatically over 20 years, while new cases of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection declined only slightly. (
  • This study aims to identify the physical harm associated with injecting drug use and examine the treatment-seeking behaviour of injecting drug users (IDUs). (
  • Five hundred ninety-two drug users (IDUs) from community settings in San Francisco and Oakland, California, were screened for tuberculosis using the tuberculin skin test, as well as for skin test anergy using two controls: mumps antigen and either tetanus toxoid or Candida. (
  • Risk factors for HIV infection among injection drug users (IDUs) include demographic characteristics and practices that increase sexual transmission and parenteral exposure to infected blood. (
  • 1 ) Shortly thereafter, the same opportunistic infections began appearing in non-drug-using female sexual partners of male IDUs. (
  • 4 ) During 1995, reports described injection drug use among at least 30% of the 73,380 adults and adolescents diagnosed with CDC-defined AIDS in the United States: 26% were female or heterosexual male IDUs, and 5% reported both male-to-male sex and injection drug use. (
  • This study provides an epidemiologic profile of TB among injection drug users (IDUs), a high-risk and chronically underserved population, in Kazakhstan. (
  • The study compared HIV infection among male and female injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana, assessing a range of potential risk factors - individual, social and environmental - that might contribute to higher risk of HIV and could lead to new avenues for intervention. (
  • Controlling for sociodemographic variables such as arrests, and patterns of sexual and drug behaviors, the researchers found an unexpected relationship between the duration of time lived in Tijuana and HIV infection among male versus female IDUs. (
  • In a research paper posted this month on the Baker Institute Web site, Martin paraphrases the message these opponents are really conveying to injecting drug users (IDUs): "We know a way to dramatically cut your chances of contracting a deadly disease, then spreading it to others, including your unborn children. (
  • After an increase in opiate-related deaths last year, both local and state officials are exploring 'safe injection sites,' or sites where addicts can use intravenous drugs under supervision. (
  • The sites allow addicts to use intravenous drugs while being supervised by nurses, who help prevent overdose deaths. (
  • Addicts bring their own drugs at most of the sites. (
  • Addicts can use drugs safely and without being judged in the "fix rooms," which have medical staff on duty to treat overdoses. (
  • We used to think that drug addicts just did not hold themselves back, but this work suggests that the root of this is an impaired ability to anticipate a situation and to detect trends in when they need to stop. (
  • I'm against wasting resources as much as the next guy, but I am not so sure that the relative amount put into rehabilitating drug addicts (who are happy to receive free benefits) is so substantial. (
  • A study led by University of Queensland School of Psychology researcher Dr Courtney von Hippel found that recovering drug addicts who believe they are the target of stereotypes find it harder to function within society. (
  • Dr von Hippel said the study's findings suggested that stereotype threat could help explain the impaired social functioning recovering drug addicts often experienced. (
  • Drug detoxification (or drug detox) is a process that helps drug addicts to give up drugs with less or no withdrawal symptoms. (
  • Needle-sharing by opiate addicts is fueling an alarming rise in new HIV infections among injection drug users, and the United States doesn't have enough syringe programs in place to reduce that risk, according to a report released Tuesday. (
  • Despite this, services for older drug addicts are not widely available or accessed in the UK. (
  • The median duration of drug addicts was 15 years (range 1-26 years) and 42 per cent never used condoms during sexual intercourse. (
  • Its board of directors consists entirely of current and former drug addicts. (
  • A once-a-day pill has been proven to lower the risk of getting HIV among needle-using drug addicts, just as it does among heterosexual couples and men who have sex with men. (
  • Other countries, particularly the Netherlands and Australia, have demonstrated that supplying drug addicts with clean needles in exchange for their used ones is an effective means of reducing the incidence of blood-borne diseases. (
  • New AIDS prevention pill could cut infection rates in IV drug users by 50%," the Mail Online reports, as the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is set to approve the medication for injecting drug users. (
  • In this study, over 2,000 injecting drug users were given either placebo tablets or the 'new' drug tenofovir - which has been used to treat HIV since 2006. (
  • This was a randomised controlled trial that aimed to assess whether daily use of the antiretroviral (anti-HIV) drug, tenofovir, could reduce HIV transmission in injecting drug users. (
  • Injecting drug users are at high risk of getting HIV due to needle sharing. (
  • This study investigated tenofovir's effects and safety compared with inactive placebo in a large sample of injecting drug users. (
  • The trial assessed whether giving tenofovir to injecting drug users reduced their chances of getting HIV over an average of four years. (
  • It enrolled 2,413 injecting drug users from 17 drug-treatment clinics in Bangkok, Thailand. (
  • Some injecting drug users engage in risky sexual behavior, such as selling sex to fund their drug habit, so it is possible that the protective effect observed in this trial is at least partly attributable to the already established positive effects of PrEP on sexual transmission of HIV. (
  • Even though questions remain about the extent to which PrEP can be effective in preventing either of the routes of transmission in this group, the overall result is that daily tenofovir does reduce HIV transmission in injecting drug users. (
  • The introduction of PrEP for HIV prevention in injecting drug users should be considered as an additional component to accompany other proven prevention strategies like needle exchange programmes, methadone programmes, promotion of safer sex and injecting practices, condoms, and HIV counselling and testing. (
  • Negative stereotypes about injecting drug-users may be hampering their recovery. (
  • OBJECTIVE--To study a group of injecting drug users to establish the degree of illicit drug use in prisons, the prevalence of risk behaviours for HIV infection, and the uptake of treatment for drug dependency with drugs within the prison system. (
  • SUBJECTS--50 (42 Men, eight women) self selected injecting drug users (mean age 31.2 (range 21-42)), all of whom had been held in custody at some time since 1982. (
  • CONCLUSIONS--A high prevalence of injecting and sexual risk behaviours among injecting drug users within and between periods in custody has been shown. (
  • The purpose of this study is to determine if a 6-session motivational interviewing intervention is more effective than a 6-session educational intervention at reducing behaviors that may lead to infection, transmission, and progression of HIV and hepatitis C among out of treatment injecting drug users. (
  • Blystad H , Hoel T , Høiby E A , Nilsen O . Infections among injecting drug users in Norway, 1997-2000. (
  • The United States plans to support Vietnam in launching a pilot methadone programme next year aimed at limiting the spread of HIV/AIDS among injecting drug users, US officials said Thursday. (
  • Injecting drug users are at high risk of infection and transmission of hepatitis B. This is a potentially life-saving vaccine, and increasing its uptake among this group has important benefits to public health, as well as to the individual. (
  • HBV affects about 22% of injecting drug users in the UK, and much higher proportions in other countries. (
  • One hundred and twelve injecting drug users. (
  • The study, "HSV-2 Co-Infection as a Driver of HIV Transmission among Heterosexual Non-Injecting Drug Users in New York City," was conducted among drug users entering the Mount Sinai Beth Israel drug treatment programs in NYC. (
  • The researchers found that HIV infection among non-injecting drug users doubled over the last two decades, from 7% infected in the late 1990s (n= 785) to 14% (n=1764) currently. (
  • More than half of the non-injecting drug users in the study were infected with HSV-2. (
  • The study concludes that an increase in HIV infection among these non-injecting drug users is better considered as an increase in HSV- 2/HIV co-infection rather than simply an increase in HIV prevalence. (
  • Additional interventions (such as treatment as prevention and pre-exposure prophylaxis) are needed to reduce further HIV transmission from HSV-2/HIV co-infected non-injecting drug users. (
  • Gill O N , O'Flanagan D , Barry J , Djuretic T , Jones J , Murray K . 'Serious unexplained illness' among injecting drug users in Britain and Ireland. (
  • Among 2,400 injecting drug users in Bangkok, those assigned to take a daily dose of an antiviral drug Viread, or tenofovir generically, had half the risk of getting HIV over a four-year period as those who took a placebo pill. (
  • South African AIDS authority Dr. Salim Abdool Karim notes there are about 16 million injecting drug users around the world, and close to 20 percent of them are already infected with HIV. (
  • The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says eight percent of the estimated 50,000 new HIV infections seen in this country every year are among injecting drug users - about 4,000 infections. (
  • The CDC, which helped fund the Thai study, says PrEP for injecting drug users "could contribute to the reduction of HIV incidence in the United States. (
  • The incidence of HIV among injecting drug users has remained at a stable, low level for many years, with about 10 to 15 cases reported per year. (
  • In 92 injecting drug users, 88.0% had anti-HCV antibodies, and 80.4% had HCV-RNA. (
  • It can be spread through the blood of an infected person, which is why drug users sharing needles are at risk. (
  • As a result of the opioid epidemic, he said, "more people appear to be injecting drugs, more people are sharing needles, and there are more places not covered by syringe service programs. (
  • In the United States, HIV is spread mainly by having unprotected sex or sharing needles (or other drug injection equipment) with someone who has HIV. (
  • VANDU was created in September 1997, to advocate for the delivery of health care services to drug users living in Vancouver who had been exposed to increasing rates of hepatitis C and HIV as a result of sharing needles, and to address risks to their health, such as drug overdose. (
  • Worldwide, one in ten new HIV infections are thought to be caused by injecting drug use, but in some regions, such as eastern Europe and central Asia, rates are far higher, with up to four fifths (80%) of new HIV infections caused by injecting drug use. (
  • Writing in a linked Comment, Professor Salim Karim, Director of the Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA), at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, pointed out that the reduction in HIV infections reported here may not be specifically attributable to a protective effect of the antivirals on people who become infected through injecting drugs. (
  • Misuse of antibiotics contributes to the spread of drug resistant infections. (
  • First, while syringe-exchange programs have long been recognized as an absolutely essential element in disease prevention, giving injectors access to clean needles and syringes, the UFO Study team discovered that up to 40 percent of infections occurred from exposures to shared drug preparation containers, filters and rinse water. (
  • Although needle exchange programs have been politically controversial for decades, studies have demonstrated their public health benefits in dramatically reducing the rate of HIV transmission and risk of hepatitis infections among injection drug users without increasing the rate of illegal drug use. (
  • Most programs not only provide prevention education, but also provide referral to drug treatment and other vital health services, including screenings for HIV, hepatitis and sexually transmitted infections. (
  • Gram-negative vertebral osteomyelitis infections are increasing due to rising intravenous drug use but overall remain uncommon. (
  • Soft tissue infections (STIs) from injection drug use are a common cause of Emergency Department visits, hospitalizations, and operating room procedures, yet little is known about factors that may predict the need for these costly medical services. (
  • We identified a subpopulation of injection drug users, mostly living in shelters, who were hospitalized frequently in the past year and who were more likely to be hospitalized for their current infections compared to others. (
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says doctors should prescribe Truvada, a once-a-day pill for HIV, to help prevent infections in IV drug users. (
  • He also points out that it's not possible to know if the antiviral medicine prevents HIV infections solely from contaminated needles or from unprotected sex, because drug users "might also engage in commercial sex to get money for drugs. (
  • But it's not clear how the drug would be made accessible in parts of the world where injection drug use accounts for most HIV infections - and government funding for HIV prevention is scarce. (
  • In the United States, injection drug use is directly or indirectly responsible for the majority of HIV infections among women and children. (
  • On August 18, 2017, the President signed into law the Food and Drug Administration Reauthorization Act (FDARA) , which includes the reauthorization of the Generic Drug User Fee Amendments (GDUFA) through September 2022. (
  • In 2017, 366 people in Vancouver died of an illicit drug overdose. (
  • Andrade AP, Pacheco SD, Silva FQ et al (2017) Characterization of hepatitis B virus infection in illicit drug users in the Marajó Archipelago, northern Brazil. (
  • The Drug Enforcement Administration says 7 percent of cocaine seized in New England in 2017 included fentanyl, up from 4 percent in 2016. (
  • One woman in a Canadian study of the drug's "unusual" side effect asked, according to researchers, "how long she would be 'allowed' to take the drug. (
  • A team of researchers led by Dr. Kachit Choopanya, the trial's Principal Investigator, and Dr. Michael Martin, Chief of Clinical Research for the Thailand Ministry of Public Health-US CDC Collaboration, recruited over 2400 participants at 17 drug treatment clinics in Bangkok, Thailand. (
  • Among a group of users who tested such drugs as cocaine, heroin and prescription painkillers with the strips, half got at least one positive result, according to a study published in November by researchers at Brown University and other institutions. (
  • The findings indicate that early diagnosis and treatment of hepatitis C in injection drug users -- called "super-spreaders" -- could prevent many cases of hepatitis C , the researchers said. (
  • When looking at the participants' brain scans, the researchers found that occasional stimulant users demonstrated consistent patterns of reduced neuronal activity in brain regions linked to anticipatory functioning and updating anticipation. (
  • Urine samples from four heroin users treated in Connecticut also tested positive for clenbuterol, the researchers reported. (
  • Researchers also gathered suggestions regarding ways to address the barriers identified by injection drug users, street outreach workers, substance abuse treatment staff and government officials. (
  • UC San Francisco researchers are recommending a combination of six comprehensive measures to prevent the spread of hepatitis C, in an effort to address the estimated 31,000 young people who may be newly infected each year in the United States due to injection-drug use. (
  • Researchers included testing for two compounds of synthetic marijuana in their study that were only made illegal by the Drug Enforcement Administration in May, yet those compounds comprised the bulk of the positive results. (
  • UK researchers interviewed eleven people aged 49 to 61 in contact with voluntary sector drug treatment services. (
  • Now, researchers affiliated with New York University's Center for Drug Use and HIV Research (CDUHR) are focusing on intervention strategies that stress the lesser-known dangers of HCV transmission through the sharing of other injection equipment such as cookers, filters, drug-dilution water, and water containers. (
  • New app allows users to post photos of drug, alcohol practices in their community ​'Be The One,' developed by Rutgers researchers and the NJ Prevention Network, captures images and collects data to offer an insider's view. (
  • The photos assist with data collection that helps to identify trends and give researchers a more accurate understanding of where abuse exists among young users," says Kristen Powell Gilmore, principal investigator on the project at the Rutgers School of Social Work who has been working with SSW professor N. Andrew Peterson, to integrate research and environmental prevention practices for more than eight years. (
  • At the recent International Symposium on Hepatitis Care in Substance Users, researchers presented new data on injection drug users and their unique risk factors for hepatitis C infection and transmission, including younger age, and the critical need for HCV education among addiction clinic workers. (
  • From 2015 to 2016, researchers surveyed 2,623 individuals who attended injection equipment provision sites to assess the awareness of new direct-acting antivirals and their efficacy among injection drug users and to determine the factors associated with awareness. (
  • Patients who were treated for hepatitis C virus infection through an opiate addiction program overwhelmingly achieved SVR even though many of them injected drugs, according to researchers. (
  • Prevention research helped Vietnam reduce the spread of HIV from drug users to the wider population, researchers report. (
  • Health authorities had little scientific data to guide their prevention efforts, until researchers funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) and Fogarty proposed studies to see what might work. (
  • For example, three of the four drugs involve treatment for substance abuse including LAAM and naltrexone for heroin addiction, naltrexone for alcoholism, and Nicorette for smoking. (
  • Heroin users who do not benefit from conventional addiction treatments should receive heroin-assisted therapy. (
  • He points to a number of studies that claim HAT is successful for patients who have not responded to conventional treatments for heroin addiction - the most recent being a Cochrane Collaboration review stating HAT reduced illicit drug use, involvement in criminal mortality, incarceration and mortality for such patients. (
  • The investigators say that these findings suggest that college-aged occasional stimulant users with these brain impairments may be more prone to drug addiction later in life. (
  • But in a positive sense, the findings show that it may be possible to use brain activity patterns to predict whether youths are at risk of drug addiction before they fall into such behaviors. (
  • Oregon nurse practitioners are authorized to obtain a DATA (Drug Addiction Treatment Act 2000) waiver. (
  • Mountainside Drug Rehab and Alcohol Treatment Center is a modern drug rehab and alcoholism treatment facility that is skilled in serving a variety of clients with various addictions and in varying stages of addiction. (
  • The program and its professional addiction treatment team have earned national recognition and resulted in Mountainside being invited to Washington by the White House to meet with the White House Drug Czar, John P. Walters, for an in-depth meeting on what makes its program so successful. (
  • These accolades did not go unnoticed within the addiction treatment field and resulted in the adoption by many throughout the country of a more holistic approach to drug addiction treatment. (
  • Overeating and cocaine addiction may stem from the same place after a new study found that the same set of neurons that control hunger and lead to overeating are also linked to drug addiction. (
  • Hep C patients being treated for opioid addiction achieved high rates of sustained virologic response after 12 weeks of therapy with elbasvir-grazoprevir compared to those taking placebo for 12 weeks before beginning the drug treatment. (
  • According to the authors, these results suggest that drug use should be removed as a barrier to interferon-free HCV therapy for patients being treated for opioid addiction. (
  • They are a vulnerable group, as their continued drug use, addiction and life experiences result in impaired health, chronic conditions, particular health needs and poorer quality of life. (
  • And the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction estimates that the number of people aged 65 and over requiring treatment in Europe will double over the same period. (
  • These are the most effective techniques to help drug users to return to good health, wean themselves off their addiction and reduce their risk to others, according to the papers, which were also published by the British journal The Lancet. (
  • The 33 eligibles had a median duration of drug addiction of 15 years. (
  • Stuart Green, Aspire Service Manager, said: "These games celebrate the amazing achievements of people in recovery from drug and alcohol addiction - and they are entirely funded from donations and micro grants. (
  • Annual Report 2006: The State of the Drugs Problem in Europe," European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2006), pp. 34-35. (
  • Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research, "The Drug Situation in Norway 2012: annual report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)," (Oslo, Norway: December 2012), p. 32. (
  • Typically used doses of the opiate-reversal drug naloxone may not work in overdoses associated with a new street drug called acetyl fentanyl, a new study warns. (
  • Emergency physicians are bracing for a new rash of overdoses of a drug that looks like heroin but may not respond to commonly used doses of the opiate-reversal drug naloxone because it is so powerful, a new study reports. (
  • For those who use the extraordinarily potent drug unknowingly, overdoses are highly likely. (
  • In New York, the group Voices of Community Activists and Leaders (or Vocal), a membership group of people with AIDS , drug users and former prisoners, has helped pass a pair of bills involving syringe access and protections for users who call in overdoses to 911. (
  • Malnutrition, weight loss and obesity also featured, as did accidental injuries due to falls and drug overdoses. (
  • and hold a design contest for a supervised injection site, where medical workers would provide users sterile injection equipment and harm-reduction tips, and guard against overdoses. (
  • For example, overdoses due to interactions between HIV medicines and drugs such as ecstasy (MDMA) or GHB have been reported. (
  • At the same time, he vetoed various bills related to the potential use of other illegal drugs, such as bills that would liberalize access to needles or reduce the legal risk of reporting overdoses to authorities. (
  • Norfolk OPP are warning people about the risks of fentanyl after one person died and two others had to saved by a drug that reverses the effects of opioid overdoses. (
  • Safe injection facilities (SIFs) are centers where drug users who have nowhere else to go (often very poor or homeless) can safely use without fear of arrest under the monitoring of caregivers who can prevent or respond to overdoses. (
  • There have been successes in other countries using these sites to save lives and reduce the harms of overdoses and threats of disease transmission, but none openly operate in the United States (there is, however, a secret one ), thanks to our punitive drug war, which threatens operators with arrest and prosecution. (
  • A gas station desperate to curb drug overdoses turned its. (
  • For the first time we show that super-spreading in hepatitis C is led by intravenous drug users early in their infection," study author Gkikas Magiorkinis, of the zoology department at the University of Oxford in England, said in a university news release. (
  • In San Francisco, the drug union received its first grant in 2009, Mr. Jackson said, and got more help in December 2010 from the city's Hepatitis C Task Force, which advocated for a pilot "supervised injection facility" for intravenous drug users because they often contract hepatitis by using dirty needles. (
  • Risk behaviours and comprehension among intravenous drug users volunteered for HIV vaccine trial. (
  • With HIV seroprevalence rates of 35-40%, Thai intravenous drug users are an obvious target group for anti-HIV vaccine trials. (
  • The Ministry of Public Health of Thailand recently approved clinical trials of the Genentech MN rgp 120/HIV-1 candidate vaccine among recovering intravenous drug users enrolled in a methadone treatment center in Bangkok. (
  • Overall, these findings indicate that intravenous drug users can successfully participate in vaccine trials if there is adequate pre-screening. (
  • Here, we present a case of Burkholderia cepacia complex cervical osteomyelitis in an intravenous drug user. (
  • Burkholderia cepacia complex should be considered among pathogenic etiologies of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis, particularly among patients with intravenous drug use. (
  • Here, we report a case of Burkholderia cepacia complex cervical osteomyelitis in an intravenous drug user who was successfully treated with ceftazidime monotherapy in the setting of spinal stabilization hardware placement. (
  • Now, he's on methadone - and uses a Copenhagen "drug consumption room," where medical personnel watch over people using illegal drugs. (
  • Methadone does not work and only supplements there drug habit. (
  • First drug use varied from magic mushrooms, LSD, amphetamines and cannabis to heroin and methadone. (
  • All but two of the participants were taking methadone, either as maintenance or as part of a reduction strategy in order to give up drugs. (
  • SDUU organizes Swedish drug users of both legal- and illicit drugs, opioid/opiate users who have or wants OST/MMT (opioid substitution treatment or methadone maintenance treatment). (
  • Only eight percent have safer, legal substitutes such as methadone to opiate drugs like heroin. (
  • After 12 months of counseling and participation in the vaccine trial, nine volunteers were drug and methadone-free. (
  • While the obvious message in terms of HIV prevention is to stop injecting drugs, this type of pragmatic harm reduction approach could save many lives. (
  • According to Dr Martin: "This study completes the picture of PrEP efficacy for all major HIV risk groups - we now know that pre-exposure prophylaxis can be a potentially vital option for HIV prevention in people at very high risk for infection, whether through sexual transmission or injecting drug use. (
  • The systematic evidence review - the first of its kind to be published - brings into sharp focus how criminalisation of drug use negatively affects HIV prevention and treatment outcomes for individuals, programmes and the population as a whole. (
  • The analysis focused on key indicators of criminalisation, including incarceration, street-level policing, drug paraphernalia laws and practices, prohibitions or restrictions on evidence-informed HIV prevention interventions, and national drug strategies. (
  • This is a common concern of opponents of these types of interventions, but these studies found that focusing on evidence-informed HIV prevention and treatment measures was unlikely to increase rates of drug use. (
  • The authors conclude: "Decisive efforts to move away from punitive policies, including criminalisation, to manage injection drug use will be pivotal to achieving the UNAIDS targets… Our findings indicate that international efforts are urgently needed to reform existing legal and policy frameworks that attempt to limit the harms of drug use, to effectively support HIV prevention and treatment efforts globally and to help end the HIV epidemic. (
  • The city does, however, fund an overdose prevention education group that provides antidotes and training to opiate users. (
  • Under the new programme, facilities are also to be made available for "rave" or party drugs to be tested as part of a prevention campaign. (
  • They also serve as a vital bridge to services such as drug treatment, housing, employment and overdose prevention. (
  • Visit CDC's webpage on HIV prevention for more information on how injection drug users can reduce the risk of getting or transmitting HIV. (
  • The pregnancy prevention program for isotretinoin users in Canada requires informed consent , two negative pregnancy tests before starting treatment, and two reliable birth control methods during treatment. (
  • Currently, primary users of the app are members of 18 local prevention coalitions in New Jersey across 21 counties. (
  • And might it drain resources from another proven-but-controversial prevention strategy - providing drug users with clean needles? (
  • The threat comes from an emerging street drug called acetyl fentanyl -- an opiate that is five to 15 times as powerful as heroin and is being mixed with street drugs sold as heroin. (
  • The Swedish Drug Users Union (acronym: SDUU) or Swedish: Svenska Brukarföreningen (acronym: SBF) is a no-profit NGO and was founded in October 2002 by users associated to the Swedish OST (Opiate Substitution Treatment) programs. (
  • How does drug and alcohol use increase the risk of HIV infection? (
  • A drug used for the treatment of depression seems to have a remarkable effect on some people who take it: When they yawn, they have an orgasm. (
  • All trial participants were offered monthly HIV testing and risk-reduction counselling and services, plus access to drug rehabilitation treatment. (
  • With a supply of naloxone on all the department's trucks, and all firefighters trained in how to administer the drug, "that's a massive departure from what our care and treatment model was," the chief said. (
  • And they create another way to engage users and potentially steer them to treatment programs. (
  • As such, Schechter argues that heroin-assisted therapy (HAT) - in which users are prescribed a synthetic form of heroin called diamorphine to gradually wean them off the drug - is an effective treatment option for these patients. (
  • Using this information, we can hopefully soon make a solid argument to support the scaling-up of early diagnosis and antiviral treatment in drug users," Magiorkinis said. (
  • Although many of the drug users were prescribed drugs for their dependency, limited access to appropriate treatment, counselling, and health education may compound the situation. (
  • They were driven to a government facility on the outskirts of the city, Orgkas Khnom ("My Chance"), which is not a jail or prison but supposedly a place for people dependent on drugs to receive treatment and rehabilitation. (
  • Like many others in the truck, Smonh did not need drug treatment. (
  • We've known for years that excessive alcohol consumption causes a wide variety of health problems for many individuals," begins a spokesperson for Mountainside Drug Rehab and Alcohol Treatment Center. (
  • If a loved one may be excessively consuming alcohol, Mountainside Drug Rehab and Alcohol Treatment Center can assist in helping them to get their life back on track. (
  • For questions or a confidential discussion about getting help for drug rehab or alcoholism, please contact Mountainside Drug Rehab and Alcohol Treatment Center for a confidential discussion at 800-762-5433. (
  • The purpose of laws like this is to help people into treatment or to identify people who are using drugs. (
  • From November 1999 until June 2001, Philip Appel, PhD, and colleagues at the New York State Office of Alcoholism and Substance Abuse Services documented barriers to substance abuse treatment services for injection drug users in New York City and its northern suburbs. (
  • As a result, both clinicians and injection drug users should be aware of the potential for wound botulism to recur with continued injection drug use to allow for timely diagnosis and early administration of appropriate treatment. (
  • If Drug Treatment Works So Well, Why Are So Many Drug Users in Prison? (
  • While the once-daily dosing, low side-effects profile, and shortened treatment duration of interferon-free direct-acting antivirals are ideal for injection drug users, most trials of these therapies for HCV have excluded persons with recent injection drug use. (
  • They found that 91.5 percent of the patients in the immediate treatment group achieved sustained virologic response, regardless of ongoing drug use. (
  • A number of the participants said they were trying to use drugs responsibly and it was felt that their age and the influence of drug treatment services were factors in this. (
  • Most recognised that their drug use was having detrimental and cumulative effects on their health, as they had developed a range of chronic and life-threatening conditions that required hospitalisation and ongoing treatment. (
  • They also support the idea of maintenance treatment for amphetamine users and other drugs. (
  • The work includes appeals, complaints, support users with different matters such as: apply for maintenance treatment, advocate for patient rights and to convince the healthcare and social workers to see and understand things from the users perspective. (
  • The deal for the drug, which is being investigated as a potential treatment for inflammatory diseases, is with Spanish pharmaceutical company Almirall . (
  • But what these measures have actually done is make our communities less safe, undermining a vital bridge to drug treatment, and hinder national efforts to prevent the spread of HIV, hepatitis and other blood-borne diseases. (
  • Rates of equipment sharing remain high, and access to opioid substitution therapy and other drug treatment programs is limited. (
  • The new study enrolled 210 people receiving opioid substitution therapy from 12 National Health Service drug treatment services across the UK. (
  • In a surprise move, the Indonesian Supreme Court last Friday issued a memo to judges ordering them to send drug users to drug treatment centers, not prison. (
  • According to the memo, arrestees would be eligible for treatment only if the amount of drugs with which they were caught were below certain "personal use" quantities. (
  • In the memo, the Supreme Court said drug users in treatment must submit to drug tests on request, must obtain a letter of recommendation for treatment from a court-appointed psychiatrist, must not relapse, and must not be drug dealers. (
  • Even with reservations about coerced treatment, the Supreme Court's move is an advance in drug policy for the archipelago. (
  • Additionally, policies that restrict treatment for current and recent drug users present an ongoing barrier. (
  • Based on the estimated numbers of problem drug users and the proportion of homeless people among clients in treatment, there are approximately 75,600 to 123,300 homeless problem drug users in Europe. (
  • The same antiviral drugs that have revolutionized the treatment of HIV since the mid-1990s have now been shown to prevent infection in all groups at risk of getting the virus. (
  • In his veto letter, he argued that the state needed to have the power to coercively force mandatory treatment on people addicted to drugs. (
  • They were counseled and referred to drug treatment and needle syringe programs, Cox said. (
  • Government-funded studies of NEPs and reports from such respectable organizations as the National Academy of Science, the American Medical Association, the National Institutes of Health and the CDC have endorsed access to clean needles as an effective measure for reducing the incidence of blood-borne diseases and increasing access to treatment for drug users, Martin said. (
  • Depressant - any sedative-hypnotic drug primarily for use in the treatment of anxiety. (
  • Risk behaviours for HIV infection among drug users in prison. (
  • Carvell A L , Hart G J . Risk behaviours for HIV infection among drug users in prison. (
  • Health and social services are facing a new challenge, as many illicit drug users get older and face chronic health problems and a reduced quality of life. (
  • The behavior of illicit drug users (DUs) typically exposes them to risks of viral infection. (
  • Other studies revealed no increases in drug injecting when access to key harm reduction programmes - a needle and syringe exchange and a supervised injecting facility - were expanded. (
  • They cooperate with several European and international organizations that support a drug policy based upon the ideas of harm reduction and human rights. (
  • SDUU is a member of the steering committee of the EuroHRN (European Harm Reduction Network) and are the Swedish representatives for INPUD (International Network for People who Use Drugs) and NAMA (National Alliance for Medication Assisted Recovery), they are also associated partner with the Correlation network. (
  • This is especially true when it comes to support for harm reduction programs that prevent new cases of drug-related HIV transmission. (
  • There's at least one flaw in that market expansion theory, says Albie Park, who co-founded a drug use harm reduction program out of Northampton, Mass., called HRH413. (
  • Harm reduction is a set of practical strategies and ideas aimed at reducing negative consequences associated with drug use (including safer use, managed use and abstinence). (
  • Street drugs like speed , for example, are now prescribed as ADHD amphetamines, and they're commonly abused by today's college students. (
  • In 2013, 90% of the 13,570 people diagnosed with hepatitis C had injected drugs such as heroin, cocaine and amphetamines, it said. (
  • New research from the University of California-San Diego School of Medicine has uncovered impaired neuronal activity in the brains of college-aged students who occasionally use stimulant drugs, such as amphetamines, cocaine and certain prescription drugs. (
  • While the standard CSOSA drug panel tests for alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, opiates, amphetamines and PCP, the study showed that 39 percent of men who had tested negative for those drugs were testing positive for synthetic marijuana. (
  • The test kits are each designed to find different drugs -- cocaine, marijuana, heroin, barbiturates and amphetamines. (
  • Effective October 1, 2018, generic drug applicants and their affiliates, or an authorized representative, can submit the list of all approved ANDAs via the CDER Direct NextGen Collaboration Portal. (
  • Yet with attitudes about drugs and the drug war seemingly evolving in many areas - including ballot measures this fall to legalize marijuana in Washington State and Colorado - drug advocacy groups have had some recent successes. (
  • Heavy marijuana users are more likely to report thoughts of suicide and heavy use of the drug can worsen symptoms of bipolar disease. (
  • A quarter to a third of young men drug tested as they passed through the District's criminal justice system had recently used synthetic marijuana, with positive results surprisingly high among those who screened negative for more conventional illegal drugs, according to a report released Wednesday. (
  • Among those in lockup, 24 percent of those who tested negative for other drugs were found to have used synthetic marijuana. (
  • Synthetic marijuana is described by the Drug Enforcement Administration as a mix of herbs and spices that are sprayed with a synthetic substance similar to tetrahydrocannabinol, more commonly known as THC, the psychoactive ingredient in traditional marijuana. (
  • Recreational drugs include injection and noninjection drugs such as opioids (including heroin), methamphetamine, cocaine, and marijuana (weed, pot). (
  • He bought, stole and used all manner of drugs - Oxycontin, marijuana and prescription drugs - as well as a gram of heroin purchased from a dealer named Marcus Andrew Burrage. (
  • Official statistics show drug use in France is heavily tilted towards cannabis, and while figures for hard drug use are harder to compile, a report by an interministerial committee on anti-narcotics policy estimates that the number taking heroin was in the region of 500,000, with another 1.5 million cocaine consumers. (
  • I n fact while the debate around the legalisation of the drug gathers momentum , the realities of policing in 21st Century Britain, means in some areas of the country possession of cannabis has already effectively been decriminalised. (
  • S ome Chief Constables and Police & Crime Commissioners have openly argued for cannabis and other drugs to be legalised in order to frustrate the activities of organised criminals. (
  • A round the country users have also started to gather together at impromptu 'cannabis cafes', where they can buy they can either buy the drug or bring their own and enjoy it in the company of others. (
  • Cannabis is a plant that people use as a medicinal and recreational drug. (
  • Studies have found some evidence cannabis use can raise the risk of unemployment, and users earn less than non-users. (
  • We also find that the abuse of alcohol, the daily use of cannabis and the weekly use of illegal/street drugs in the past 6 months relate to lower current levels of life satisfaction. (
  • Cannabis is a drug that comes from Indian hemp plants such as Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica . (
  • Cannabis is a depressant drug. (
  • Local sheriffs are constantly battling problems with meth production and abuse , and now they're also fighting against prescription drug abuse . (
  • So it's no surprise that they're looking for new tools that could help them save time in trying to crack down (heh heh, literally) on community drug abuse. (
  • An "evil" drug user who killed his girlfriend's son was jailed yesterday while she walked free despite having covered up months of abuse he had inflicted on the toddler. (
  • Elinore McCance-Katz, head of the federal government's Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, said the approach relied on the flawed premise that drug users would make rational choices. (
  • According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, the number of people who meet the criteria for heroin abuse or dependence in the US more than doubled between 2002 and 2012, from 214,000 to 467,000. (
  • The amount of resources put into alcohol and drug abuse is scandalous and placing great strains on our economy. (
  • People with a history of drug abuse are often regarded as irresponsible, unreliable and less trustworthy," Dr von Hippel said. (
  • With a number of high-profile cases of alleged substance abuse in professional sports, the topic of drug testing has received a great deal of mainstream media attention in recent months. (
  • The state in April began administering drug-screening assessments to recipients in the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families program who have been convicted of drug felony crimes, arguing that welfare dollars shouldn't be enabling drug abuse. (
  • People who test positive for drugs can enter a substance abuse program to maintain their benefits. (
  • The UFO Study is funded by the U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse and the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing. (
  • Drug toxicity is an adverse reaction of the body towards a drug that results as a side effect of a drug, reaction to a drug or drug abuse. (
  • But now they are actually missing users," said the study's lead investigator, Eric Wish , director of the University of Maryland's Center for Substance Abuse Research. (
  • As a minister, I am acutely aware of the painful toll that drug abuse takes on our families and communities. (
  • But in addressing the harms of drug abuse, we need to adopt approaches that are sound, effective and compassionate. (
  • The use of Drugs for reasons other than its prescribed recommendation, is known as Drug abuse or substance abuse. (
  • Drug abuse or substance abuse is initiated by various biological and social factors. (
  • Given the increased readmission for endocarditis, septicemia, and drug abuse, IDU-IE presents a serious challenge to current management of IE. (
  • University of Washington Alcohol and Drug Abuse Institute, and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Clinical Scholars Program. (
  • Dr. Takahashi is a staff physician at the VA Puget Sound Health Care System and is currently supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA #RO3DA14518). (
  • J Drug Abuse 3:1. (
  • The study, funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), will be published in the July 30 issue of the Public Library of Science (PLoS) One . (
  • One of the issues we have is that naloxone has been touted as a great drug, and it is (But) it's not the magic pill everyone thinks (it is)," said Brad Cameron, B.C. Emergency Health Services district manager for Victoria. (
  • Groups that work with drug users say the strips provide an additional means of saving lives, along with distributing overdose-reversal drug naloxone and clean needles. (
  • If acetyl fentanyl is responsible for a drug overdose, Stogner cautioned, physicians may find that larger or additional doses of naloxone are necessary to reverse the overdose. (
  • If these men and women use cocaine and do not have the opioid reversal drug naloxone handy, sometimes, they don't wake up. (
  • Their goals are often varied, but carry a common refrain: to represent the political interests - and practical needs - of chronic drug abusers, a sometimes grim agenda that includes everything from providing clean needles to finding safe places to nod out. (
  • Giving clean needles to drug users: Helps or hurts? (
  • Many opponents of needle-exchange programs argue that supplying drug users with clean needles sends the wrong message. (
  • Dr Vivian Hope, at the organisation, said increasing the diagnosis rate would help reduce the high level of infection he was seeing among people who injected drugs. (
  • According to the study, 20% of an estimated 15.6 million people who injected drugs (PWID) last year were women. (
  • Participants were eligible if they were aged between 20 and 60 years, were HIV-negative, and reported injecting drugs during the previous year. (
  • Participants who reported high levels of stereotype threat in relation to their drug history also reported poorer social function," Dr von Hippel said. (
  • Many participants in the focus groups reported obtaining antibiotics from nonprovider sources including family, friends and other drug users. (
  • Participants expressed concern that antibiotics would interact with their drug of choice, lessening the effects or causing undesirable complications. (
  • Participants were positive about the support they received from voluntary drug services, but had mixed experiences of primary and hospital care. (
  • Over the course of the study, injection drug use and needle sharing dropped sharply, perhaps because all participants got counseling about the riskiness of these behaviors. (
  • The measures, which stem from a 16-year UCSF research project with injection-drug users, known as the "U Find Out" or UFO Study , build upon the successes of clean syringe programs and similar efforts, while recommending greater focus on the social issues behind drug use and further integration of the multiple approaches to combating hepatitis C. (
  • In my own state of Florida, one of the worst hit by AIDS, not a single publicly funded syringe exchange program - one that exchanges used needles for new ones to injection drug users - currently operates. (
  • Dozens of studies have confirmed that syringe exchange programs represent the most effective tool available to prevent drug-related HIV transmission . (
  • In countries that have aggressively supported syringe exchange, HIV transmission through drug use has been virtually eliminated . (
  • For example, in 2008 and 2009, Miami - a city without syringe exchange programs - saw eight times as many improperly discarded needles compared with San Francisco - a city with syringe exchange programs and twice as many injection drug users. (
  • More than 200 studies have reached the incontrovertible conclusion that syringe exchange service is a cost-effective means to reduce the spread of HIV and viral hepatitis, and that these programs do not contribute to increased drug use, drug injection, crime or unsafe discard of syringes. (
  • There are currently eight drug detention centers spread throughout Cambodia that, at any point in time, collectively hold around 1,000 men, women, and children. (
  • Human Rights Watch has conducted research on Cambodia's drug detention centers since 2009. (
  • The test strip, originally designed for the medical profession to test urine, can also be used off-label by heroin and cocaine users who fear their drugs have been adulterated with the synthetic opioid fentanyl. (
  • The authorities in Zurich have announced that rooms for drug users injecting heroin are to be opened to cocaine users and those who prefer to smoke heroin. (
  • And regular cocaine users report feeling the expected rush and then falling asleep. (
  • The mission of CDUHR is to end the HIV and HCV epidemics in drug using populations and their communities by conducting transdisciplinary research and disseminating its findings to inform programmatic, policy, and grass roots initiatives at the local, state, national, and global levels. (
  • Several studies published this year suggest test strips could alter drug users' behavior. (
  • Dr. Vugia added, "If these near death experiences do not change behavior among these injection drug users and if severe disease from exposure to botulism does not confer immunity, recurrent wound botulism will continue to occur and add to the health care burden. (
  • While both houses of California's state legislature thought this made sense, Schwarzenegger thought since this humane bill to help save lives "fails to address problematic, high-risk drug use and behavior. (
  • The welfare implications of addictive substances: A longitudinal study of life satisfaction of drug users ," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization , Elsevier, vol. 146(C), pages 206-221. (
  • Already in place in a number of European countries including Britain and Germany, the centres would provide sterile needles and medical oversight for injectors of heroin and other illegal drugs. (
  • In addition, they have persuasively documented that access to sterile needles neither encourages people to start injecting drugs nor increases drug use by those who are already users. (
  • The deputy head of Iran's anti-narcotics organization, Mohammad Reza Jahani, recently said that the number of intravenous heroin users has reached 250,000 of the estimated 350,000 heroin users in the country. (
  • According to the health ministry, the number of heroin users in Iran is increasing by 8 percent annually. (
  • Intravenous heroin users numbered 137,000 in 2006, according to the ministry. (
  • Be aware that heroin users who had been exposed to the veterinary pharmaceutical clenbuterol experienced the following symptoms: rapid heart rate, chest pain, palpitations, hypokalemia and hypotension. (
  • ATLANTA, Aug. 19-A drug used to boost muscle growth in cattle has apparently sickened more than two dozen heroin users along the east coast over the past several months, the CDC says. (
  • Twenty-four of these 26 heroin users were hospitalized. (
  • The drug testing study was run by the British Columbia Centre on Substance Use at two supervised drug consumption sites in Vancouver. (
  • The centre says the testing provides important information about potentially dangerous substances that can be passed on to people who use street drugs. (
  • The British Columbia Centre on Substance Use announced drug checking services are available at Insite, its supervised drug injection site in Vancouver, Mondays to Wednesdays from 10am to 5pm. (
  • Ecstasy tablets may contain varying mixtures of MDMA and related drugs (including amphetamine) as well as other substances. (
  • Drug and alcohol use can lead to risky behaviors that increase the chances of getting or transmitting HIV infection. (
  • When asked to indicate whether or not they agree with the following statements about their personal behaviors, supplement users and non-users responded according to the chart above. (
  • While they could fall under state drug-paraphernalia laws that usually ban the use of testing equipment, there isn't settled case law on the issue, said Lindsay LaSalle, director of public health law and policy at the Drug Policy Alliance. (
  • AB 2460 would provide limited criminal immunity for only 3 low-level drug crimes (being under the influence and possession for personal use and possession of drug paraphernalia) only for persons who contact emergency services to save the life of someone experiencing an overdose, and to the person experiencing the overdose for whom emergency services are contacted. (
  • They also collected discarded drug paraphernalia, protecting the community from accidental infection and softening their hostility toward drug users. (
  • Results of the study revealed that students who were occasional stimulant users had faster reaction times during the tests, compared with those who had never taken stimulants. (
  • Our study is telling us, it's not 'this is your brain on drugs,' it's 'this is the brain that does drugs. (
  • Last year, Medical News Today reported on a study revealing how the stimulant cocaine prompts rapid growth in new brain structures linked to memory and learning, but in a way that encourages users to seek more of the drug. (
  • This qualitative study constitutes initial research toward developing an intervention to improve antibiotic use among injection drug users. (
  • However, while injectors frequently fail cessation programs, the UFO Study showed that the more injectors try to quit, or "take breaks" from drugs, the more likely they eventually are to succeed. (
  • Recurrent cases suggest that exposure to botulism due to injection drug use does not result in protective immunity," according to study author Duc Vugia, MD, of the California Department of Public Health. (
  • The study by the Office of National Drug Control Policy highlights the growing popularity of designer drugs in the District and suggests that those under court-ordered monitoring use synthetics as a way to juke the system. (
  • This exploratory study, together with our wider research, suggest that older people who continue to use problematic or illegal drugs are emerging as an important, but relatively under-researched, international population" says lead author Brenda Roe, Professor of Health Research at Edge Hill University, UK. (
  • The study, a collaborative effort of the Canadian Network for Observational Drug Effect Studies, estimated that one or two children in Canada are born each year with birth defects related to isotretinoin use. (
  • How should daily antiviral medication be deployed in the real world outside a study setting for a diverse population of drug users who may not take the pills faithfully? (
  • Grant, the San Francisco AIDS researcher, notes that the study is the longest trial of PrEP so far, so the fact that no more serious side effects were seen among tenofovir-users shows that the drug is safe for as long as seven years. (
  • Truvada contains the same dose of tenofovir used in the Thai study, and it's the drug already approved for PrEP among those at risk for sexual transmission. (
  • The positive is they were able to prove you can do a study in this population of IV drug users at risk for hepatitis C. The bad news is they haven't figured out what would work yet. (
  • Dieterich, who was not involved in the study, characterized the study as "a valiant effort, and proof of principle for drug users at high risk. (
  • The welfare implications of addictive substances: a longitudinal study of life satisfaction of drug users ," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 86479, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library. (
  • The Welfare Implications of Addictive Substances: A Longitudinal Study of Life Satisfaction of Drug Users ," Melbourne Institute Working Paper Series wp2017n32, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne. (
  • VIDUS = Vancouver Injection Drug User Study. (
  • Male injection drug users deported from the United States to Tijuana have four-fold higher odds of HIV infection compared to those living in Tijuana who were not deported there, according to a study to be presented at the International AIDS Conference on August 5, 2008 in Mexico City. (
  • Meanwhile, a significant majority of parents are also abusing prescription drugs, relying on highly addictive chemicals to sleep, to wake up, to adjust their moods, to reduce pain and so on. (
  • The drug is highly addictive, activating the reward center of the brain and releasing dopamine - a neurotransmitter that triggers a pleasure sensation. (
  • Rafael says dealers, high up, are intentionally adding fentanyl to cocaine because fentanyl is a more addictive drug. (
  • These drugs are considered highly addictive. (
  • A narcotic that is considered a hard drug, a highly addictive colourless or white crystalline alkaloid extracted from coca leaves. (
  • Victoria is also home to three supervised drug consumption sites, a relatively new service for the region. (
  • Government-sponsored drug consumption rooms may be helping save the lives of drug users in Denmark. (
  • In June 2012, the Danish Parliament passed legislation making it possible for municipalities to open so-called drug consumption rooms (known in Denmark as "fix rooms" and elsewhere, more specifically, as supervised injection sites) - facilities where adults with serious addictions can bring their illegal drugs and take them, legally, under the watchful eye of a nurse. (
  • Inside the drug consumption room in Aarhus, Denmark's second-largest city. (
  • Anyone who gets convicted of a drug crime, not one that is in terms of massive selling but consumption, they shouldn't go to prison. (
  • It has operated an unauthorized drug consumption site and provided assisted illegal drug use for about four years until it was shut down in 2014. (
  • so we can get drug consumption out of the streets. (
  • Further, we find that the decrease in life satisfaction following the consumption of illegal/street drugs persists 6 months to a year after use. (
  • The medical industry is flooding our streets with dangerous narcotics , even as they claim to be against illegal drugs, some of which are based on the very same chemical molecules found in prescription drugs . (
  • Heroin is an illegal drug processed from morphine, which comes from poppy plants. (
  • One of the many downsides of illegal drugs is you just can't trust your drug dealer,' wrote Stogner and colleagues in the Annals. (
  • It is the tenants who set 149 Turk apart: a ragtag group of current and former drug users who make no apologies about their fondness for illegal narcotics, intravenous experiences and the undeniable rush of getting high. (
  • The group says they are not promoting illegal drug use, just confronting the reality that many people use. (
  • I think this drug should be illegal. (
  • Text messages were sent to people about the drugs circulating in the illegal drug market. (
  • Now, when probation officers ask defendants whether they have used any illegal drugs, they can do a drug test on the spot. (
  • By exploiting a unique data set of disadvantaged Australians, we provide longitudinal evidence that a drop in life satisfaction tends to precede the use of illegal/street drugs. (
  • People who were just using cocaine occasionally, now they're using cocaine every day," says Rafael, who buys cocaine and other illegal drugs, often several times a day, on the streets of Boston. (
  • It's very similar to the early days of needle exchange in the U.S., where there was a lot of opposition," explains Laura Thomas with the New York-based Drug Policy Alliance . (
  • Laura Thomas, the interim California director for the Drug Policy Alliance, a drug reform organization in New York that helps finance the union, said that San Francisco had a history of "compassionate response" to drug users, and that an injection site was not so far-fetched. (
  • This feature film follows the lives of people in Alberta, Canada, affected by the powerful opioid drug fentanyl. (
  • Bennett had warned her son that if he ever used opioids again, he'd be in greater danger of an overdose because fentanyl, an opioid drug more powerful than heroin, was mixed into much of the supply. (
  • A staff meeting at the San Francisco Drug Users' Union included, from left, Isaac Jackson, Gary West and Lydia Blumberg, the former program coordinator. (
  • But the group, the San Francisco Drug Users' Union, has more on its mind than simply turning on, tuning in and dropping out. (
  • Johnny Lorenz, center, led a support group for the Drug Users' Union in San Francisco. (
  • About five-dozen members attend regular biweekly meetings of the San Francisco Drug Users Union. (
  • High prevalence of abscesses and cellulitis among community-recruited injection drug users in San Francisco. (
  • San Francisco leaders would like to build SIFs in the city to help deal with the significant problem they have of homeless people injecting drugs in public. (
  • address[ed] needless drug overdose deaths that occur when witnesses to an overdose hesitate to contact emergency services because they fear arrest for themselves or for the person experiencing the overdose. (
  • Campbell acknowledged the government's argument that overdose deaths often result from a mixture of drugs and that it is sometimes impossible to identify one as the cause. (
  • The trial found that daily oral tenofovir reduced the drug users' risk of catching HIV during the trial by about half: seven to eight per 1,000 would develop HIV per year without taking tenofovir, reducing to three to four per 1,000 per year if they did take tenofovir. (
  • But since that was true for people who got tenofovir and placebo, the drug worked to lower infection risk. (
  • In interim guidelines published at noon Thursday, the CDC says doctors should use a drug called Truvada , which contains tenofovir plus an antiviral called emtricitabine, to prevent HIV in drug users. (
  • Today an injection drug user died of HIV/AIDS in Chennai. (
  • That hasn't been the case throughout the South, a region with the largest percentage of injection drug users diagnosed with AIDS in the country in 2011. (
  • 2 ) This evidence suggested that the immunodeficiency syndrome was caused by an infectious agent similar or identical to that afflicting homosexual men with AIDS, and that the agent was initially acquired by the male partner through parenteral drug use and then transmitted sexually. (
  • Early in the HIV/AIDS epidemic, fear was high in Vietnam that the virus would spread from drug injecting populations into the wider community. (
  • The Generic Drug User Fees for Fiscal Year 2019 have been published. (
  • An animal drug sponsor is subject to only one fee each fiscal year. (
  • They discovered that nearly twenty-five percent of those who had suffered this type of hemorrhage were heavy alcohol users, average age of 60. (
  • More than 600 recovering drug and alcohol users are set to take part in a huge sporting competition in Doncaster later this month. (
  • Combined, these practices can help reduce HIV prevalence among drug users by more than half, investigators have found. (
  • Saliva detection also shows promise as an alternative collection method, but results can be skewed if the subject smokes or takes drugs orally just before being tested. (
  • View inside the SCMR (Drug supervised injection site), the first supervised injection room for drug users, during it inauguration in Paris, France, October 11, 2016. (
  • Also, our research identified the value of 'taking breaks' for both reducing the risks of exposure to the virus and helping end injection drug use. (
  • This is likely not the best tactic for reducing disease exposure risks and also may not be optimal for helping injectors end injection drug use. (
  • Continued efforts to reduce injection drug use and educate current users on the infectious risks associated with illicit drug use are crucial to improving the health of the injection drug use population. (
  • This courageous decision will allow France to equip itself with an effective additional tool to reduce the risks" for drug users, he said in a statement. (
  • People using drugs or alcohol may make poor decisions and take risks. (
  • A descriptive questionnaire survey in Karachi city was made to identify the socioeconomic profile and beliefs and practices of 500 drug users. (
  • Even among the studies that reported no direct link between criminalisation and HIV, half found that punitive drug laws did not result in reductions in the frequency of drug use, a cessation in injecting or declines in injecting drug use, even though this was the intent of these laws in the first place. (