People who take drugs for a non-therapeutic or non-medical effect. The drugs may be legal or illegal, but their use often results in adverse medical, legal, or social consequences for the users.
Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.
Usage of a single needle among two or more people for injecting drugs. Needle sharing is a high-risk behavior for contracting infectious disease.
Organized services for exchange of sterile needles and syringes used for injections as a potential means of reducing the transmission of infectious diseases.
Instruments used for injecting or withdrawing fluids. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.
Strong dependence, both physiological and emotional, upon heroin.
Disorders related to substance abuse.
Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
The application of methods designed to reduce the risk of harm associated with certain behaviors without reduction in frequency of those behaviors. The risk-associated behaviors include ongoing and active addictive behaviors.
A synthetic opioid that is used as the hydrochloride. It is an opioid analgesic that is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. It has actions and uses similar to those of MORPHINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1082-3)
A narcotic analgesic that may be habit-forming. It is a controlled substance (opium derivative) listed in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Parts 329.1, 1308.11 (1987). Sale is forbidden in the United States by Federal statute. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Studies of the number of cases where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is present in a specific population at a designated time. The presence in a given individual is determined by the finding of HIV antibodies in the serum (HIV SEROPOSITIVITY).
Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).
Sexual activities of humans.
Health facilities providing therapy and/or rehabilitation for substance-dependent individuals. Methadone distribution centers are included.
A province of Canada on the Pacific coast. Its capital is Victoria. The name given in 1858 derives from the Columbia River which was named by the American captain Robert Gray for his ship Columbia which in turn was named for Columbus. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p178 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p81-2)
Accidental or deliberate use of a medication or street drug in excess of normal dosage.
The purified, alkaloidal, extra-potent form of cocaine. It is smoked (free-based), injected intravenously, and orally ingested. Use of crack results in alterations in function of the cardiovascular system, the autonomic nervous system, the central nervous system, and the gastrointestinal system. The slang term "crack" was derived from the crackling sound made upon igniting of this form of cocaine for smoking.
Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.
Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.
Disorders related or resulting from abuse or mis-use of opioids.
Organized efforts to insure obedience to the laws of a community.
Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.
Disorders related or resulting from use of amphetamines.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Medical treatment for opioid dependence using a substitute opiate such as METHADONE or BUPRENORPHINE.
Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The practice of indulging in sexual relations for money.
Facilities for the preparation and dispensing of drugs.
Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.
A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.
Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.
Infectious organisms in the BLOOD, of which the predominant medical interest is their contamination of blood-soiled linens, towels, gowns, BANDAGES, other items from individuals in risk categories, NEEDLES and other sharp objects, MEDICAL WASTE and DENTAL WASTE, all of which health workers are exposed to. This concept is differentiated from the clinical conditions of BACTEREMIA; VIREMIA; and FUNGEMIA where the organism is present in the blood of a patient as the result of a natural infectious process.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
Penal institutions, or places of confinement for war prisoners.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The indelible marking of TISSUES, primarily SKIN, by pricking it with NEEDLES to imbed various COLORING AGENTS. Tattooing of the CORNEA is done to colorize LEUKOMA spots.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
The status of health in urban populations.
An N-substituted amphetamine analog. It is a widely abused drug classified as a hallucinogen and causes marked, long-lasting changes in brain serotonergic systems. It is commonly referred to as MDMA or ecstasy.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Sexual attraction or relationship between males.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.
Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.
The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the same SEX.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Studies in which a number of subjects are selected from all subjects in a defined population. Conclusions based on sample results may be attributed only to the population sampled.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Immunologic tests for identification of HIV (HTLV-III/LAV) antibodies. They include assays for HIV SEROPOSITIVITY and HIV SERONEGATIVITY that have been developed for screening persons carrying the viral antibody from patients with overt symptoms of AIDS or AIDS-RELATED COMPLEX.
Contraceptive devices used by males.
Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.
A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.
Agents of the law charged with the responsibility of maintaining and enforcing law and order among the citizenry.
The excessive use of marijuana with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.
A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
A geographical area of the United States with no definite boundaries but comprising northeastern Alabama, northwestern Georgia, northwestern South Carolina, western North Carolina, eastern Kentucky, eastern Tennessee, western Virginia, West Virginia, western Maryland, southwestern Pennsylvania, southern Ohio, and southern New York.
Infections with bacteria of the family BACILLACEAE.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in taking drugs or medicine as prescribed. This includes timing, dosage, and frequency.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of pharmacy, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
It is the study of social phenomena which characterize the learned, shared, and transmitted social activities of particular ethnic groups with focus on the causes, consequences, and complexities of human social and cultural variability.
Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.
The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the opposite SEX.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.
A contagious venereal disease caused by the spirochete TREPONEMA PALLIDUM.
A willingness to reveal information about oneself to others.
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
Infections of non-skeletal tissue, i.e., exclusive of bone, ligaments, cartilage, and fibrous tissue. The concept is usually referred to as skin and soft tissue infections and usually subcutaneous and muscle tissue are involved. The predisposing factors in anaerobic infections are trauma, ischemia, and surgery. The organisms often derive from the fecal or oral flora, particularly in wounds associated with intestinal surgery, decubitus ulcer, and human bites. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1688)
Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
An island in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is San Juan. It is a self-governing commonwealth in union with the United States. It was discovered by Columbus in 1493 but no colonization was attempted until 1508. It belonged to Spain until ceded to the United States in 1898. It became a commonwealth with autonomy in internal affairs in 1952. Columbus named the island San Juan for St. John's Day, the Monday he arrived, and the bay Puerto Rico, rich harbor. The island became Puerto Rico officially in 1932. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p987 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p436)
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.
A derivative of the opioid alkaloid THEBAINE that is a more potent and longer lasting analgesic than MORPHINE. It appears to act as a partial agonist at mu and kappa opioid receptors and as an antagonist at delta receptors. The lack of delta-agonist activity has been suggested to account for the observation that buprenorphine tolerance may not develop with chronic use.
The air-dried exudate from the unripe seed capsule of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, or its variant, P. album. It contains a number of alkaloids, but only a few - MORPHINE; CODEINE; and PAPAVERINE - have clinical significance. Opium has been used as an analgesic, antitussive, antidiarrheal, and antispasmodic.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
Deliberate maltreatment of groups of humans beings including violations of generally-accepted fundamental rights as stated by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted and proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly resolution 217 A (III) of 10 December 1948.
A treatment method in which patients are under direct observation when they take their medication or receive their treatment. This method is designed to reduce the risk of treatment interruption and to ensure patient compliance.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.
Alkaloids found in OPIUM from PAPAVER that induce analgesic and narcotic effects by action upon OPIOID RECEPTORS.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke from CANNABIS.
The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
Inflammation of the ENDOCARDIUM caused by BACTERIA that entered the bloodstream. The strains of bacteria vary with predisposing factors, such as CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS; HEART VALVE DISEASES; HEART VALVE PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION; or intravenous drug use.
Movable or portable facilities in which diagnostic and therapeutic services are provided to the community.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A specialized residential treatment program for behavior disorders including substance abuse. It may include therapeutically planned group living and learning situations including teaching of adaptive skills to help patient functioning in the community. (From Kahn, A. P. and Fawcett, J. Encyclopedia of Mental Health, 1993, p320.)
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM.
Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.
Sexual behavior that prevents or reduces the spread of SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or PREGNANCY.
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
A vasodilator that is administered by inhalation. It is also used recreationally due to its supposed ability to induce euphoria and act as an aphrodisiac.
The interactions between members of a community and representatives of the institutions within that community.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS, a defective RNA virus that can only infect HEPATITIS B patients. For its viral coating, hepatitis delta virus requires the HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS produced by these patients. Hepatitis D can occur either concomitantly with (coinfection) or subsequent to (superinfection) hepatitis B infection. Similar to hepatitis B, it is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
Improper use of drugs or medications outside the intended purpose, scope, or guidelines for use. This is in contrast to MEDICATION ADHERENCE, and distinguished from DRUG ABUSE, which is a deliberate or willful action.
Drugs capable of inducing illusions, hallucinations, delusions, paranoid ideations, and other alterations of mood and thinking. Despite the name, the feature that distinguishes these agents from other classes of drugs is their capacity to induce states of altered perception, thought, and feeling that are not experienced otherwise.
Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.
Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.
Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
Runaway and homeless children and adolescents living on the streets of cities and having no fixed place of residence.
The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.
The form and structure of analytic studies in epidemiologic and clinical research.
A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.
Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2 that can transform normal T-lymphocytes and can replicate in both T- and B-cell lines. The virus is related to but distinct from HTLV-1.
Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.
Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.
Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.
Refusal to admit the truth or reality of a situation or experience.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.
Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Group behavior toward others by virtue of their group membership.
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
A semisynthetic derivative of CODEINE.
Process of teaching a person to interact and communicate with a computer.
An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.
Montenegro was formerly part of the historic Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Following World War II, Montenegro was granted the status of a republic within YUGOSLAVIA. On May 21, 2006, the Republic of Montenegro held a successful referendum on independence and declared independence on June 3. The capital is Podgorica.
Chairs mounted on wheels and designed to be propelled by the occupant.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.
Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
A branch of law that defines criminal offenses, regulates the apprehension, charging and trial of suspected persons, and fixes the penalties and modes of treatment applicable to convicted offenders.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.
Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart (ENDOCARDIUM), the continuous membrane lining the four chambers and HEART VALVES. It is often caused by microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and rickettsiae. Left untreated, endocarditis can damage heart valves and become life-threatening.
The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.
Invasion of the site of trauma by pathogenic microorganisms.

I love you... and heroin: care and collusion among drug-using couples. (1/404)

BACKGROUND: Romantic partnerships between drug-using couples, when they are recognized at all, tend to be viewed as dysfunctional, unstable, utilitarian, and often violent. This study presents a more nuanced portrayal by describing the interpersonal dynamics of 10 heroin and cocaine-using couples from Hartford, Connecticut. RESULTS: These couples cared for each other similarly to the ways that non-drug-using couples care for their intimate partners. However, most also cared by helping each other avoid the symptoms of drug withdrawal. They did this by colluding with each other to procure and use drugs. Care and collusion in procuring and using drugs involved meanings and social practices that were constituted and reproduced by both partners in an interpersonal dynamic that was often overtly gendered. These gendered dynamics could be fluid and changed over time in response to altered circumstances and/or individual agency. They also were shaped by and interacted with long-standing historical, economic and socio-cultural forces including the persistent economic inequality, racism and other forms of structural violence endemic in the inner-city Hartford neighborhoods where these couples resided. As a result, these relationships offered both risk and protection from HIV, HCV and other health threats (e.g. arrest and violence). CONCLUSION: A more complex and nuanced understanding of drug-using couples can be tapped for its potential in shaping prevention and intervention efforts. For example, drug treatment providers need to establish policies which recognize the existence and importance of interpersonal dynamics between drug users, and work with them to coordinate detoxification and treatment for both partners, whenever possible, as well as provide additional couples-oriented services in an integrated and comprehensive drug treatment system.  (+info)

The interplay between interpersonal dynamics, treatment barriers, and larger social forces: an exploratory study of drug-using couples in Hartford, CT. (2/404)

BACKGROUND: The drug treatment field tends to place emphasis on the individual rather than the individual in social context. While there are a growing number of studies indicating that drug-using intimate partners are likely to play an important role in determining treatment options, little attention has been given to the experience and complex treatment needs of illicit drug-using (heroin, cocaine, crack) couples. METHODS: This exploratory study used in-depth interviews and ethnographic engagement to better understand the relationship between interpersonal dynamics and the treatment experience of ten relatively stable drug-using couples in Hartford, CT. Semi-structured and open-ended qualitative interviews were conducted with each couple and separately with each partner. Whenever possible, the day-to-day realities and contexts of risk were also observed via participant and non-participant observation of these couples in the community. A grounded theory approach was used to inductively code and analyze nearly 40 transcripts of 60-90 minute interviews as well as fieldnotes. RESULTS: This study builds on a concept of complex interpersonal dynamics among drug users. Interpersonal dynamics of care and collusion were identified: couples cared for each other and colluded to acquire and use drugs. Care and collusion operate at the micro level of the risk environment. Treatment barriers and inadequacies were identified as part of the risk environment at the meso or intermediate level of analysis, and larger social forces such as gender dynamics, poverty and the "War on Drugs" were identified at the macro level. Interpersonal dynamics posed problems for couples when one or both partners were interested in accessing treatment. Structural barriers presented additional obstacles with the denial of admittance of both partners to treatment programs which had a sole focus on the individual and avoided treating couples. CONCLUSION: Detoxification and treatment facilities need to recognize the complex interplay between interpersonal dynamics which shape the treatment experience of couples, and which are also shaped by larger structural dynamics, including barriers in the treatment system. Improvements to the treatment system in general will go a long way in improving treatment for couples. Couples-specific programming also needs to be developed.  (+info)

Treatment at the front end of the criminal justice continuum: the association between arrest and admission into specialty substance abuse treatment. (3/404)

BACKGROUND: To reduce criminal recidivism and drug use, it has been proposed that the substance abuse treatment delivery system cut across different components of the criminal justice continuum. Arrest, at the front end of this continuum, may represent a critical moment to motivate people with substance use disorders (SUD) to seek treatment but is often over looked as an intervention point. We used data from the 2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) to compare treatment need and recent treatment admission for participants with no criminal justice (CJ) involvement in the past year, past-year arrest, and CJ supervision (i.e., probation or parole status). RESULTS: Of those arrested, 44.8% met criteria for an SUD. However, only 14% of those arrested with an SUD received treatment in the year of their arrest. In multivariate modelling, arrest was an independent predictor of treatment admission (odds ratio (OR) = 8.74) similar in magnitude to meeting criteria for an SUD (OR = 8.22). Those further along the continuum--under supervision--were most likely to receive treatment (OR = 22.62). CONCLUSION: Arrest involves the largest number of individuals entering the criminal justice system. The NSDUH suggests that nearly 6 million individuals in the US experience an arrest annually and that nearly half meet criteria for an SUD. Although arrest involves the largest number of individuals entering the criminal justice system, it is also the most fleeting point as individuals can move in and out rather quickly. Minimally, arrest imposes contact between the individual and a law enforcement person and can be an opportunity for early intervention strategies such as pre-arraignment diversion into treatment or brief intervention strategies. Using brief intervention at this early point in the continuum may motivate a greater number of individuals to seek treatment or decrease drug and alcohol use. Training and procedural shifts at this point of contact could have important policy implications in reducing the number of subsequent arrests or preventing individuals moving further along the criminal justice continuum, as well as decreasing the fiscal and resource burdens associated with criminal justice processing and confinement.  (+info)

A rationale and model for addressing tobacco dependence in substance abuse treatment. (4/404)

Most persons in drug treatment smoke cigarettes. Until drug treatment facilities systematically treat their patients' tobacco use, millions will flow through the drug treatment system, overcome their primary drug of abuse, but die prematurely from tobacco-related illnesses. This paper reviews the literature on the health benefits of quitting smoking for drug treatment patients, whether smoking causes relapse to other drug or alcohol abuse, the treatment of tobacco dependence, and good and bad times for quitting smoking among drug treatment patients. It also presents a conceptual model and recommendations for treating tobacco in substance abuse treatment, and provides references to internet and paper-copy tools and information for treating tobacco dependence. At present, research on tobacco treatment in drug treatment is in its infancy. Although few drug treatment programs currently offer formal services, many more will likely begin to treat nicotine dependence as external forces and patient demand for these services increases. In the absence of clear guidelines and attention to quality of care, drug treatment programs may adopt smoking cessation services based on cost, convenience, or selection criteria other than efficacy. Because research in this field is relatively new, substance abuse treatment professionals should adhere to the standards of care for the general population, but be prepared to update their practices with emerging interventions that have proven to be effective for patients in drug treatment.  (+info)

Brief screening for co-occurring disorders among women entering substance abuse treatment. (5/404)

BACKGROUND: Despite the importance of identifying co-occurring psychiatric disorders in substance abuse treatment programs, there are few appropriate and validated instruments available to substance abuse treatment staff to conduct brief screen for these conditions. This paper describes the development, implementation and validation of a brief screening instrument for mental health diagnoses and trauma among a diverse sample of Black, Hispanic and White women in substance abuse treatment. With input from clinicians and consumers, we adapted longer existing validated instruments into a 14 question screen covering demographics, mental health symptoms and physical and sexual violence exposure. All women entering treatment (methadone, residential and out-patient) at five treatment sites were screened at intake (N = 374). RESULTS: Eighty nine percent reported a history of interpersonal violence, and 70% reported a history of sexual assault. Eighty-eight percent reported mental health symptoms in the last 30 days. The screening questions administered to 88 female clients were validated against in-depth psychiatric diagnostic assessments by trained mental health clinicians. We estimated measures of predictive validity, including sensitivity, specificity and predictive values positive and negative. Screening items were examined multiple ways to assess utility. The screen is a useful and valid proxy for PTSD but not for other mental illness. CONCLUSION: Substance abuse treatment programs should incorporate violence exposure questions into clinical use as a matter of policy. More work is needed to develop brief screening tools measures for front-line treatment staff to accurately assess other mental health needs of women entering substance abuse treatment.  (+info)

Homeless drug users' awareness and risk perception of peer "take home naloxone" use--a qualitative study. (6/404)

BACKGROUND: Peer use of take home naloxone has the potential to reduce drug related deaths. There appears to be a paucity of research amongst homeless drug users on the topic. This study explores the acceptability and potential risk of peer use of naloxone amongst homeless drug users. From the findings the most feasible model for future treatment provision is suggested. METHODS: In depth face-to-face interviews conducted in one primary care centre and two voluntary organisation centres providing services to homeless drug users in a large UK cosmopolitan city. Interviews recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically by framework techniques. RESULTS: Homeless people recognise signs of a heroin overdose and many are prepared to take responsibility to give naloxone, providing prior training and support is provided. Previous reports of the theoretical potential for abuse and malicious use may have been overplayed. CONCLUSION: There is insufficient evidence to recommend providing "over the counter" take home naloxone" to UK homeless injecting drug users. However a programme of peer use of take home naloxone amongst homeless drug users could be feasible providing prior training is provided. Peer education within a health promotion framework will optimise success as current professionally led health promotion initiatives are failing to have a positive impact amongst homeless drug users.  (+info)

Simultaneous alcohol and cannabis expectancies predict simultaneous use. (7/404)

BACKGROUND: Simultaneous use of alcohol and cannabis predicts increased negative consequences for users beyond individual or even concurrent use of the two drugs. Given the widespread use of the drugs and common simultaneous consumption, problems unique to simultaneous use may bear important implications for many substance users. Cognitive expectancies offer a template for future drug use behavior based on previous drug experiences, accurately predicting future use and problems. Studies reveal similar mechanisms underlying both alcohol and cannabis expectancies, but little research examines simultaneous expectancies for alcohol and cannabis use. Whereas research has demonstrated unique outcomes associated with simultaneous alcohol and cannabis use, this study hypothesized that unique cognitive expectancies may underlie simultaneous alcohol and cannabis use. RESULTS: This study examined a sample of 2600 (66% male; 34% female) Internet survey respondents solicited through advertisements with online cannabis-related organizations. The study employed known measures of drug use and expectancies, as well as a new measure of simultaneous drug use expectancies. Expectancies for simultaneous use of alcohol and cannabis predicted simultaneous use over and above expectancies for each drug individually. DISCUSSION: Simultaneous expectancies may provide meaningful information not available with individual drug expectancies. These findings bear potential implications on the assessment and treatment of substance abuse problems, as well as researcher conceptualizations of drug expectancies. Policies directing the treatment of substance abuse and its funding ought to give unique consideration to simultaneous drug use and its cognitive underlying factors.  (+info)

A success story: HIV prevention for injection drug users in Rhode Island. (8/404)

BACKGROUND: New HIV diagnoses related to injection drug use (IDU) have declined in the United States. Access to clean syringes and decreasing HIV transmission among injection drug users have been HIV prevention priorities of the Rhode Island (RI) HIV community. To examine trends in IDU-related new HIV diagnoses in RI, we performed a retrospective analysis of new HIV diagnoses according to HIV risk factor from 1990-2003. RESULTS: There has been an 80% absolute reduction in IDU-related new HIV diagnoses in RI coincident with IDU-specific prevention efforts. CONCLUSION: There has been a greater decline in IDU-related new HIV diagnoses in Rhode Island compared to national data reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. We hypothesize that this dramatic decline in Rhode Island is related to extensive HIV prevention efforts targeting IDUs. Further research is needed to examine the impact of specific HIV prevention interventions for injection drug users.  (+info)

The objective of this study was to monitor the trend of addiction drug use and its relationship with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female drug users (FDUs). Serial cross-sectional surveys were conducted during 2010-2014 among FDUs in Beijing to collect information on addiction drug usage, sexual behaviors, and STI prevalence. Characteristics were analyzed and compared between traditional and synthetic drug users among FDUs by logistic regression method. A total of 3859 FDUs were surveyed during 2010-2014, with the median age being 32.7 years old. The proportion of synthetic drug users among FDUs increased from 43.7% in 2010 to 70.7% in 2014. Compared with traditional drug users, synthetic drug users were younger (P | 0.001), lacked education (P | 0.001), were unmarried (P | 0.001), and were non-local residents (P | 0.001). No significant difference was found with condom usage during sexual activity between traditional and synthetic drug FDUs. However, the engagement of commercial sexual
The purpose of this R01 study is to evaluate the association between neuropsychological executive dysfunction and HIV infection among young injection and non-injection drug users. A longitudinal study will be conducted in which the cohort of seronegative drug users completing a baseline neuropsychological battery are re-assessed on three subsequent occasions, roughly six months apart. The primary aim of the longitudinal study is to estimate the magnitude of the suspected causal relationship between executive dysfunction and HIV-risk behaviors while adjusting for time-invariant (e.g. sex, ethnicity) and time-varying (e.g. degree of drug abuse) covariates. We also seek to evaluate: (1) the degree to which specific executive dysfunctions predispose heroin and cocaine users to high-risk injection practices or sex behaviors, and (2) whether observed relationship between executive dysfunction and HIV-risk behaviors can be understood independent of levels of drug -taking frequency, or whether the ...
Research examining the demographic and substance use characteristics of illicit drug use in the United States has typically failed to consider differences in routes of administration or has exclusively focused on a single route of administration-injection drug use. Data from National Survey on Drug Use and Health were used to compare past-year injection drug users and non-injection drug users routes of administration of those who use the three drugs most commonly injected in the United States: heroin, methamphetamine, and cocaine.
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The Treatment and Care for HIV-Positive Injecting Drug Users training curriculum is designed for clinicians who provide treatment and care, including ART, for HIV-positive injecting drug users. The training curriculum consists of a trainer manual, 12 participant manuals, and a CD-ROM with PowerPoint presentations and reference articles. Topics covered in the curriculum include: Module 1: Drug use and HIV in Asia Module 2: Comprehensive services for injecting drug users Module 3: Initial patient assessment Module 4: Managing opioid dependence Module 5: Managing non-opioid drug dependence Module 6: Managing ART in injecting drug users Module 7: Adherence counselling for injecting drug users Module 8: Drug interactions Module 9: Management of coinfections in HIV-positive injecting drug users Module 10: Managing pain in HIV-infected injecting drug users Module 11: Psychiatric illness, psychosocial care and sexual health Module 12: Continuing medical education Trainer ...
Data & statistics on Sharp rises in HIV prevalence among injecting drug users: Sharp rises in HIV prevalence among injecting drug users, 1988-2002, Between exploding HIV infection among injecting drug users,(see earlier in the report) steep rises in sex workers and low but exponentially rising infection in blood donors, the landscape of HIV infection in the worlds fourth most populous nation is changing quickly. The map shows provinces in which exceptionally high rates of infection have been recorded in sex workers and drug users. The challenge ..., The countrys population was located. Out of all cases registered nationwide, 1106 (28%) were in Temirtau. The first HIV outbreak in Central Asia was registered in Temirtau, where there was a sharp increase in the number of HIV infected - from 30 in 1996 to 399 in 1997. Approximately 90% of these cases were among injecting drug users (IDUs). Starting in 2000, the number of newly registered HIV cases ......
The first time I saw Jim Corti was in Miami, on a hot, sticky night in May 1989. We were both seated in the restaurant at the Howard Johnsons motel on the north edge of the city, a rather sad establishment that had seen too many humid, tropical summers since the last paint job. We were at separate tables, eyeing each other from time to time. I was alone. Corti sat with three other men. We had not yet been introduced and were not sure how to recognize each other.. I had come to witness and record an underground treatment of four HIV-positive gay men, two with AIDS, who had volunteered to be injected with a promising but possibly deadly Chinese drug. Corti, I had been told, was a famous, or at least notorious, crusader. A doctor, one person told me. A nurse, said another. In fact, by his own account, a nurse and a smuggler.. Corti and a small alliance of gay men have been pressing the limits of the federal Food and Drug Administrations tolerance since 1985 when they began importing unauthorized ...
For injecting drug users there are other important considerations. This includes that injecting drug-users often chaotic lives mean that they can find it difficult to access health services and may only be in contact with health professionals sporadically. This trial included only those who were currently attending drug treatment clinics. However, there are likely to be many other vulnerable groups of injecting drug users in the community who are not attending clinics, or who attend but then are lost to follow-up. Therefore, ensuring that all drug users are able to access care, and receive continued care and treatment may be issues that would need to be considered ...
HIV-positive users of cocaine and heroine have an increased risk for opportunistic infections and death compared with HIV-positive nonusers, according to ...
Barriers to health care utilization limit drug users interaction with the primary health care system, resulting in episodic health care received through Emergency Departments (ED) and Urgent Care Centers (UCC). Since 1994, the Boston Medical Center ED and UCC have provided substance abuse screening as standard of care. This program employs the Brief Negotiated Interview (BNI) to assess patients reasons for drug use, readiness to change and offer intervention alternatives and referrals to substance treatment and other resources. Drug users high rates of STIs, HIV, and Hepatitis C (HCV) and utilization of EDs and UCCs as usual sources of health care support the introduction of sexual behavior intervention in the ED and UCC setting. The proposed study will apply existing Brief Negotiation Interview (BNI) theory and research to a new behavioral context. The proposed project is a collaborative effort to adapt the BNI to encourage safe sex behaviors to prevent gonorrhea, chlamydia, and HIV among ...
Yeah, so there is a list of 63 random drugs that can be described using the phrase synthetic drug. And we could keep listing substances, but theres no point. Synthetic drug means very little to nothing of value. ...
How do free prescription discount cards work? When people join together to purchase in large quantities, everyone saves! Discount Drug Network leverages the power of group purchasing to negotiate these discounts.
My Student Page== ==Assessment List== {{MH2016msg-Student Page}} ==Attendance== [[User:Z3489355,Z3489355]] ([[User talk:Z3489355,talk]]) 11:53, 10 March 2016 (AEDT) [[User:Z3489355,Z3489355]] ([[User talk:Z3489355,talk]]) 11:06, 17 March 2016 (AEDT) [[User:Z3489355,Z3489355]] ([[User talk:Z3489355,talk]]) 11:26, 24 March 2016 (AEDT) [[User:Z3489355,Z3489355]] ([[User talk:Z3489355,talk]]) 11:11, 7 April 2016 (AEST) [[User:Z3489355,Z3489355]] ([[User talk:Z3489355,talk]]) 11:12, 14 April 2016 (AEST) [[User:Z3489355,Z3489355]] ([[User talk:Z3489355,talk]]) 11:44, 21 April 2016 (AEST) [[User:Z3489355,Z3489355]] ([[User talk:Z3489355,talk]]) 13:28, 28 April 2016 (AEST) [[User:Z3489355,Z3489355]] ([[User talk:Z3489355,talk]]) 11:06, 5 May 2016 (AEST) [[User:Z3489355,Z3489355]] ([[User talk:Z3489355,talk]]) 11:24, 12 May 2016 (AEST) [[User:Z3489355,Z3489355]] ([[User talk:Z3489355,talk]]) 11:34, 19 May 2016 (AEST) [[User:Z3489355,Z3489355]] ([[User talk:Z3489355,talk]]) 13:03, 26 May 2016 (AEST) ...
This study found that providers spent less time talking with patients who reported either current or past unhealthy alcohol use. In addition, they used fewer patient-engagement and activating statements and fewer counseling statements on lifestyle or psychosocial behaviors to patients reporting current unhealthy drinking patterns compared with patients who were not problem drinkers. In turn, these patients made fewer engaging, activating, and positive statements to their providers. Patients without a history of unhealthy drinking had clinic visits that averaged around 4 minutes longer and received more patient-engagement and activating statements during their visit with providers. With illicit drug users, providers were more likely to make negative statements and ask more questions during encounters compared with patients without a history of illicit drug use. These drug users also made more negative statements. However, more counseling and lifestyle statements were exchanged during these ...
My Student Page== The following is the UNSW ANAT3231 Cell Biology student page for z3465531: ==Attendance== [[User:Z3465531,Z3465531]] ([[User talk:Z3465531,talk]]) 11:53, 10 March 2016 (AEDT) [[User:Z3465531,Z3465531]] ([[User talk:Z3465531,talk]]) 11:06, 17 March 2016 (AEDT) [[User:Z3465531,Z3465531]] ([[User talk:Z3465531,talk]]) 14:39, 24 March 2016 (AEDT) I forgot to submit the above attendance until I returned home from the lab. [[User:Z3465531,Z3465531]] ([[User talk:Z3465531,talk]]) 11:13, 7 April 2016 (AEST) [[User:Z3465531,Z3465531]] ([[User talk:Z3465531,talk]]) 11:12, 14 April 2016 (AEST) [[User:Z3465531,Z3465531]] ([[User talk:Z3465531,talk]]) 11:27, 21 April 2016 (AEST) [[User:Z3465531,Z3465531]] ([[User talk:Z3465531,talk]]) 11:08, 28 April 2016 (AEST) [[User:Z3465531,Z3465531]] ([[User talk:Z3465531,talk]]) 11:06, 5 May 2016 (AEST) [[User:Z3465531,Z3465531]] ([[User talk:Z3465531,talk]]) 11:07, 12 May 2016 (AEST) [[User:Z3465531,Z3465531]] ([[User talk:Z3465531,talk]]) 11:11, 19 ...
A recent research presented at the world AIDS conference has pointed out that less than 10 percent of injecting drug users (IDUs) receive appropriate assistance that will help them from spreading HIV.
A synthetic drug that causes dangerous side effects is popular in a British city. What are these drugs and what effects do they have?
SELECT user.* ,(select sum(count_received) from dark_postrating_count where user_id = user.user_id and rating in (1,2,4,5,7,8,10)) as positive_rating_count , ((select sum(count_received) from dark_postrating_count where user_id = user.user_id and rating in (1,2,4,5,7,8,10)) + like_count) as positive_rating_count_incl_likes ,(select sum(count_received) from dark_postrating_count where user_id = user.user_id and rating in (14,11,12,13)) as negative_rating_count ,(select sum(count_received) from dark_postrating_count where user_id = user.user_id and rating in (3,6,9)) as neutral_rating_count ,(select sum(count_received) from dark_postrating_count where user_id = user.user_id) as total_rating_count , rating.fb_percent, rating.fb_positive, xc_trade_preference.* FROM xf_user AS user LEFT JOIN xc_trade_user AS rating ON rating.user_id=user.user_id LEFT JOIN xc_trade_preference AS xc_trade_preference ON xc_trade_preference.pr_user_id=user.user_id WHERE user.user_id ...
SELECT user.* ,(select sum(count_received) from dark_postrating_count where user_id = user.user_id and rating in (1,2,4,5,7,8,10)) as positive_rating_count , ((select sum(count_received) from dark_postrating_count where user_id = user.user_id and rating in (1,2,4,5,7,8,10)) + like_count) as positive_rating_count_incl_likes ,(select sum(count_received) from dark_postrating_count where user_id = user.user_id and rating in (14,11,12,13)) as negative_rating_count ,(select sum(count_received) from dark_postrating_count where user_id = user.user_id and rating in (3,6,9)) as neutral_rating_count ,(select sum(count_received) from dark_postrating_count where user_id = user.user_id) as total_rating_count , rating.fb_percent, rating.fb_positive, xc_trade_preference.* FROM xf_user AS user LEFT JOIN xc_trade_user AS rating ON rating.user_id=user.user_id LEFT JOIN xc_trade_preference AS xc_trade_preference ON xc_trade_preference.pr_user_id=user.user_id WHERE user.user_id ...
Mehta said that doctors should offer kidney testing to all of their patients who use drugs or are HIV-positive, as this may lessen the burden on the public health system by reducing the chances that they will need dialysis or a kidney transplant ...
PSY215: DRUGS AND DEPENDENCY ESSAY ONE WHY DO PEOPLE USE DRUGS? LACHLAN SLOAN 30790798 Throughout history, people have used different kinds of drugs to
Ethambutol-Southwest Synthetic is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Ethambutol-Southwest Synthetic is available on the website.
Therefore I have implemented a system that will create the product should it not exist, then add it to the basket. This works beautifully for logged in users (and even logged out users with existing items in the basket). But it doesnt work when a logged out user has an empty cart despite it adding the success message.. My initial thought was that it was a Session related issue because users without accounts dont access the database, and also because it randomly starts working once a logged out user has items existing in the basket.. I have attempted refreshing sessions, initialising the cart, adding it twice for good measure but still nothing.. ...
INSERT INTO bookmarks(users_id,lessoninfo_id) VALUES( (SELECT _id FROM Users WHERE User=+$(#user_lesson).html()+), (SELECT _id FROM lessoninfo WHERE Lesson=+lesson_no+ AND cast(starttime AS int)=+Math.floor(result_set.rows.item(markerCount-1).starttime)+) WHERE NOT EXISTS ( SELECT users_id,lessoninfo_id from bookmarks WHERE users_id=(SELECT _id FROM Users WHERE User=+$(#user_lesson).html()+) AND lessoninfo_id=( SELECT _id FROM lessoninfo WHERE Lesson=+lesson_no+ ...
Why conduct user testing?There are no guarantees in design; something embraced by one group may well be rejected by another, but this does not mean we should discount the benefits of speaking to, observing, and testing a sample of users. User-centred design emphasises the importance of engaging the people who will ultimately use a product or service.Naturalistic Vs. Artificial SettingsThere are many different methods available in user testing, but collectively the central aim is to gain an under...
The User activity extensions/pt-br category contains articles on extensions that monitor user activity (logins, logouts, new user creation, etc). Ver também: ...
Grabs the user from the action and determines whether the user is valid and the logged-in user has permission to view the action ...
Tumor Targeting: is a cancer treatment that uses drugs.... Targeted therapy works by targeting the cancers specific genes, proteins, or the tissue environ
To provide access to certain resource details, add users to an organization. The users with this access can view the Organization Overview for the underlying resources.
Evernote just topped 100 million users; thats pretty impressive. Even more impressive is the fact that those 100 million users can be found in any of 190
The graph presents the distribution of active Spotify users in the United States as of April 2015, broken down by age. During the survey period it was found that 21 percent of U.S. Spotify users were 13 to 18 years of age.
Fastpath: Admin Center | People | Bulk actions | Import users Rather than add users manually one at a time, ...
Mayor MicBridget is a wikiHow editor. This user has started 21 articles and made 1,024 article edits. The articles Mayor MicBridget has started have received a total of 2,633,958 views. This user has also patrolled 5,005 edits.
You can submit your own pictures to the User Gallery. You need to be registered and logged in as a user before we can accept your pictures.. ...
You can submit your own pictures to the User Gallery. You need to be registered and logged in as a user before we can accept your pictures.. ...
Dear Site Admins, How do I change my user name? Id like to change it from JBSVirginia to something new (Airstream Dad). Is this something I can adjust (but I couldnt find in the User CP)
This page (revision-50) was last changed on 24-May-2008 11:39 by ChristophSauer This page was created on 25-Aug-2006 16:02 by Christoph Only authorized users are allowed to rename pages.. Only authorized users are allowed to delete pages.. ...
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Googles Threat Analysis Group (TAG) actively works to detect hacking attempts and influence operations to protect users from digital attacks, this includes hunting for 0-day vulnerabilities because they can be particularly dangerous when exploited and have a high rate of success.
Remember we used to be able to view users by several criteria, when joined, num posts ect... Is that still around? I cant seem to find a link to it?
1266 Users, Read This...: You brought up some great points. Let me add a few comments between the lines here if I may...I think between the two of us, we could add a lot to the instruction manual that wasnt there in the first place LMAO! I wish ...
August 3, 2021 at 2:14 pm #11938 KasonParticipant Tired creating a standard user but got this error,
uajay explains how to calculate the Primary User on a machine based on the number of user logins, the amount of time the user is logged in, or the designated user… +read more. ...
19:48, 10 November 2009 (diff , hist) . . (+1,130)‎ . . User talk:2old ‎ (→‎Please see the following of why I changed the Puerto Vallarta Information) (current) ...
This week, Instagram unveiled a new update that allows users of the app to follow specific hashtags, inserting the top pictures of those tags into newsfeeds.
Harvard Pilgrim would like to invite our Connecticut providers and their patients to the Tuesday, Nov. 18, 2014 launch of the Hartford Mobile Market, of which the Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Foundation is a founding funder. Join us from 10:30-11:30 a.m. on the steps of Hartford City Hall (550 Main Street) for an introduction to the program and a tour of the mobile market. (Note: In the event of rain, the launch event will take place in the City Hall Atrium.). The program, created by the Hispanic Health Council and Hartford Food System, features a year-round mobile produce market that sells fresh fruits and vegetables to Hartford neighborhoods that may lack sufficient access to these nutritious foods. By making produce more affordable and accessible, the Hartford Mobile Market aims to foster healthier eating habits. Starting with a schedule of two stops a week to neighborhoods in the north and south ends of the city, the Hartford Mobile Market will expand its route over the course of its first ...
This is the lobby of Hartford HealthCares new Bone & Joint Institute at Hartford Hospital. The $150 million orthopedic center will focus on both wellness and surgery. It aims to develop a reputation that will draw patients from all over New England and would compete with hospitals in New York and Boston. Hartford Hospital partnered with Orthopedic Associates of Hartford in 2013 to develop the institute. Orthopedic Associates has 30 orthopedic surgeons.. (Patrick Raycraft / Hartford Courant ...
While you may be suffering from pandemic blues (i.e. sadness as a result of being restricted in your movement), you might be looking at exploring local sights in the good ole Nutmeg State. Though the pandemic restrictions will affect state laws regarding access to some of the suggestions below, plan your next outing in the capital of Connecticut by visiting the City of Hartford Connecticut. If you should run into any issues medically, visit Hartford Hospital.. Lets look at the top 8 things to do in Hartford, CT!. Bushnell Park. Regardless of the time of year, it is always a good time to visit the gorgeous, historic Bushnell Park! Whether youre an avid jogger enjoying the trails, a bookworm looking to read on a bench and people-watch while sipping your coffee between chapters, a tree enthusiast (over 150 different kinds), or a kid at heart itching to ride the stunning carousel that was built in 1914, you will not be disappointed by a trip to Bushnell Park in Hartford Connecticut.. Hartford, CT ...
In the last couple of weeks, 16 Hartford Youth Scholars earned a college degree and 22 more of our high school Scholars earned their diplomas and graduated on time! HYS annual Celebrations Gala this year was held on June 8th at the Hartford Marriott Downtown, where 260 community members joined us to celebrate our Scholars successes, and to honor founding Board Member Karl J. Krapek and his wife Kathy for the generous extension of time, talent and treasure that they have provided to the young people from Hartford that our organization serves. HYS works with Hartford students - beginning when ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Alive Study. T2 - A Longitudinal Study of HIV-1 Infection in Intravenous Drug Users: Description of Methods. AU - Vlahov, David. AU - Anthony, James C.. AU - Muñoz, Alvaro. AU - Margolick, Joseph. AU - Nelson, Kenrad E.. AU - Celentano, David D.. AU - Solomon, Liza. AU - Polk, B. Frank. PY - 1991/10. Y1 - 1991/10. N2 - To identify risk factors for infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and for progression to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) among intravenous drug users, we established a cohort in Baltimore Maryland in 1988-1989. Intravenous drug users were recruited by extensive community outreach to undergo interview and confidential HIV testing in a special study site. During 13 months of recruitment, 2,921 intravenous drug users were enrolled of whome 24 percent were HIV seropositive; 90 percent returned to receive test results. Methodological issues for enhancing recruitment and retention of drug users are discussed.. AB - To identify risk ...
A sample of 95 intravenous drug users agreed to provide urine samples, which would be tested for the presence of the metabolites of opiates and cocaine; the purpose of the study was to assess the validity of injection drug users self- reported use of these drugs. Using chi-square analyses, the researchers determined that there were no significant differences between intravenous drug users who agreed to participate in the study and those who declined to participate in terms of age, gender, ethnic group, education, primary drug of choice, treatment history, project intervention assignment, or time of follow-up. The urinalysis findings showed that 30 percent of the 67 participants who claimed to be drug-free over the previous 6 months had in fact used drugs. When compared to the total sample, the rate of misrepresentation fell to 21 percent. Logit regression analyses indicated that intravenous drug users who were black or whose primary drugs of choice were injected cocaine and crack were more likely than
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection causes acute and chronic liver disease and may lead to cirrhosis, liver failure or hepatocellular carcinoma. The behavior of illicit drug users (DUs) typically...
Whats Wrong With 100-Year-Old Plan For Hartford. By PATRICK L. PINNELL. December 27, 2012. This year should not end without our noting it marks a century since the 1912 A Plan for the City of Hartford. To todays eyes, John M. Carr res and Thomas Hastings report to the Commission on the City Plan first or among the very first such bodies in the country was sophisticated, sweeping and forward-looking, but equally naive and blind to some issues, including the problems it might itself create.. The centenary of the 1912 plan offers an occasion to better understand how we are thinking when we think about Hartford and the region today.. Carr re and Hastings, the plans authors, were New York architects, highly skilled both in architecture and in getting important commissions. When Hartford hired them to look at the organization and development of the city, it was hiring a firm just then completing the New York Public Library, a job not only large and visible but so complicated in the intricate ...
3,039 Houses in Hartford from $65,000. Find the best offers for Properties in Hartford. Come and see this well loved colonial home located in south end of hartford. As you enter you are greeted by large living room with fireplace and hardwood floors. Or guest room. Driveway and parking, off street p
East Hartford, urban town (township), Hartford county, central Connecticut, U.S., across the Connecticut River from Hartford. The area, called Podunk by the Indians, was first settled in 1639 by John Crow. Organized as a parish in 1746 and originally part of Hartford, it was incorporated as a
Apply for a RNnetwork Travel RN-CVICU - Hartford, CT job in Hartford, CT. Apply online instantly. View this and more full-time & part-time jobs in Hartford, CT on Snagajob. Posting id: 627459838.
Issuu is a digital publishing platform that makes it simple to publish magazines, catalogs, newspapers, books, and more online. Easily share your publications and get them in front of Issuus millions of monthly readers. Title: Perspectives v8n5 sex partners of injection drug users, Author: Alliance Health Project, Name: Perspectives v8n5 sex partners of injection drug users, Length: 9 pages, Page: 1, Published: 2013-10-07
To review human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk reduction interventions among injecting drug users (IDUs) that have adopted a network approach.,The design and outcomes of selected network-based interventions among IDUs are reviewed using the network concepts of the dyad (two-person relationship), the personal risk network (an index person and all of his or her relationship), and the sociometric network (the complete set of relations between people in a population) and community.,In a dyad intervention among HIV-serodiscordant couples, many of which included IDUs, there were no HIV seroconversions. Participants in personal risk network interventions were more likely to reduce drug risks and in some of these interventions, sexual risks, than were participants in individual-based interventions. Sociometric network interventions reached more IDUs and may be more cost-effective than individual-based interventions.,Network-based HIV risk reduction interventions among IDUs, and others at risk for ...
Research being presented at the American Academy of Pediatrics 2017 National Conference and Exhibition shows that post-surgical opioid pain medications prescribed after common surgeries may become a pathway to continued, nonmedical opioid use by teens and young adults.
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There are millions of people around the world who are stressed out. Some of these people turn to holistic remedies for their stress, such as drinking decaffeinated tea and doing medication. However, there are people who find other, less healthy ways to deal with stress, and one of those ways is through smoking. Smoking can cause a myriad of different health problems.
BACKGROUND: Problem alcohol use is common among illicit drug users and is associated with adverse health outcomes. It is also an important factor in poor prognosis among drug users with hepatitis C virus (HCV) as it impacts on progression to hepatic cirrhosis or opiate overdose in opioid users. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of psychosocial interventions for problem alcohol use in illicit drug users (principally problem drug users of opiates and stimulants). SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group trials register (November 2011), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, Issue 11, November 2011), PUBMED (1966 to 2011); EMBASE (1974 to 2011); CINAHL (1982 to 2011); PsycINFO (1872 to 2011) and reference list of articles ...
NFA have given a grant to SCAD, an animal rescue organisation in Bangkok, to help with their spiralling costs in the face of the ongoing flood chaos in the
The needle exchange focuses on safe use rather than abstinence. The idea behind the exchange is that clean paraphernalia reduces infections like hepatitis C and HIV.. He believes that drugs should be legal for this reason. Legal drugs would be regulated by the government so users wouldnt have to trust back-alley deals. And users could talk with their doctors about dosage without worrying about being arrested.. You could have an open discussion with your doctor about your drug use in a way that you cant now, Murphy said. Less people would die. More people could get treated. It would be less of a stigma.. But not everyone can be a stable drug user, he said. We have chaotic drug users, and we have people who are stable drug users, and we seem to focus the entire conversation on chaotic drug use.. At the needle exchange, Murphy tells every person who approaches the table that they are beautiful the way they are and that he loves them. Everyones telling you how worthless you are, he said; ...
Male injection drug users deported from the United States to Tijuana have four-fold higher odds of HIV infection compared to those living in Tijuana who were not deported there, according to a study to be presented at the International AIDS Conference on August 5, 2008 in Mexico City.
The 2011 Illicit Drug Monitoring System (IDMS) study was carried out by researchers at the SHORE and Whariki Research Centre at Massey University.. Lead researcher Dr Chris Wilkins says 372 illegal drug users from Auckland, Wellington and Christchurch were interviewed late last year about trends in the use, availability, price and potency of a number of key illegal drug types and about any new drugs they had encountered in the previous six months. The study is conducted to provide timely information about changes in drug use, and inform responses such as better provision of drug treatment services and reducing barriers to entering treatment.. Overall the use of many new substances remained fairly low, Dr Wilkins says, though the proportion of frequent drug users who had tried a new drug increased from 24 per cent in 2009 to 33 per cent in 2010 and 40 per cent in 2011.. Drugs reportedly most frequently used for the first time in 2011 included ecstasy, oxycodone (a medical opioid), ...
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My name is Codie Studebaker and Im proud to say Im enrolled in the Automotive Technology program at the Hartford Area Career and Technology Center (HACTC). I am also a senior attending Hartford High School (HHS). The HACTC has a six word mission statement: Respect, Engage, Learn, Work, Serve, Grow. I was given the opportunity to write about the importance of Respect in the HACTC. Ill start by providing a brief definition of respect. Respect is a feeling of admiration for someone or something because of their qualities. The HACTC places a lot of emphasis on respect because its a key element to success. Showing respect is also easy; the words please and thank you take a second to say and show a person your gratitude and respect. But most importantly, people want to be respected. Every day I enter the HACTC I see respect everywhere. I see it when I walk into Auto Tech and greet my instructor and watch him greet the other students when they arrive. I see respect whenever I interact with the ...
|p>Not all breast disease can be felt, so surgeons have developed ways to mark the lump or lesion for more effective removal. At Hartford HealthCare, that process just got a lot more high-tech and efficient. This month, the Hartford HealthCare Cancer Institute Breast Program becomes the first in the state…|/p>
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This study examined mobility on the airbridge between New York (NY) and Puerto Rico (PR) for Puerto Rican drug users and its relationshi p to HIV risk. Over 1,200 Puerto Rican injection drug users (ID
SDUU organizes Swedish drug users of both legal- and illicit drugs, opioid/opiate users who have or wants OST/MMT (opioid ... including the law that says it is illegal to use and to have drugs in your body; create an ombudsman for drug users; create a ... The Swedish Drug Users Union (SDUU, in Swedish: Svenska Brukarföreningen or SBF) is a non-profit NGO founded in October 2002 by ... AFP (2014-04-10). "'Zero tolerance' Sweden leaves heavy drug users behind". Digital Journal. Retrieved 2022-07-20. Pre- ...
Drug culture, Drug policy, Drug policy organizations, Drug-related deaths, Drug safety, Early warning systems, Harm reduction, ... VANDU has been engaging with the Drug Users Liberation Front (DULF) to provide "safe supply" services. "Vancouver drug users' ... A case study of the Vancouver Area Network of Drug Users (VANDU)". International Journal of Drug Policy. Elsevier. 17 (2): 61- ... such as drug overdose. It has operated an unauthorized drug consumption site and provided assisted illegal drug use for about ...
... (AIVL) is the national peak organisation representing Australian drug user ... Supervised injection site "Australian Injecting and Illicit Drug Users League (AIVL)". Edith Cowen University. Retrieved 5 ... organisations and the issues of current and former illicit drug users. Annie Madden is AIVL's chief executive. AIVL is located ... Fed: Worrying side effects attached to new party drug, Australian Associated Press, 29 January 2010 Official Homepage v t e ( ...
User fees cover roughly 65 percent of the drug approval process. Thaul, Susan (2008). "The Prescription Drug User Fee Act ( ... Chain Drug Review. Cantor, David J. (1997). "Prescription Drug User Fee Act of 1992: Effects On Bringing New Drugs To Market" ( ... The Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA) was first enacted in 1992. PDUFA gives the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) a ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION: Effect of User Fees on Drug Approval Times, Withdrawals, and Other Agency Activities (GAO-02-958 ...
The Animal Drug and Animal Generic Drug User Fee Reauthorization Act of 2013 (S. 622; Pub.L. 113-14 (text) (PDF)) is a bill ... The Animal Drug and Animal Generic Drug User Fee Reauthorization Act of 2013 was received in the United States House of ... The Animal Drug and Animal Generic Drug User Fee Reauthorization Act of 2013 (S. 622) was introduced into the United States ... The Animal Drug and Animal Generic Drug User Fee Reauthorization Act of 2013 would authorize the collection and spending of ...
... recreational drug users; feminists and-more frequently reported in the media-gay people, bisexuals, and transgender and third- ... ritual murders and drug trafficking. The Russian authorities raided an Atomwaffen compound in Ulan-Ude and uncovered illegal ...
p. 6. "Sleep drug users to sue". Mercury, The. Hobart. 3 April 2007. Anonymous member (13 October 2021). "Sweeping statements ... This led to her being awarded the Churchill Fellowship in 1999, that funded her to investigate best practice in consumer drug ... In 2013 she led the establishment of "Pharma-Advice", a national drug information service for dentists, and she serves as ... Moses, Geraldine (30 April 2003). "Treating a drug problem". Courier Mail. Brisbane. p. 19. Moses, Geraldine (1 May 2005). " ...
"UK drug users 'damaging Colombia'". BBC. 2008-11-18. Retrieved 2009-02-20. Jorge Castano Archived October 27, 2008, at the ... millions of hectares of rainforest are being destroyed each year in Colombia to supply drug users in countries such as the UK.[ ... citation needed] Drug mules are also a problem, with many Colombians risking their lives by transporting drugs inside of them ... many of them are involved in the Colombian drug trade (the UK is one of the largest buyers of Colombian cocaine, ...
"Drug Users Face Firing Squad". Open Radio for North Korea. 27 October 2010. Archived from the original on 7 March 2016. ... A Swedish ambassador to North Korea said in 2017 that "there should be no doubt that drugs, including marijuana, are illegal ... 30-. ISBN 978-1-78023-386-4. Singh, Emily (2016-10-21). "Drugs in South Korea: A Silent Crisis , KOREA EXPOSÉ". Koreaexpose. ... "drugs". In 2013, citing sources at NK News and Reddit, Vice News reported that cannabis was widely used and tolerated in North ...
Derby: (1996) Recovering drug users. Dundee: (1996) Recovering alcoholics in a purpose built facility with 12 flats. Edinburgh ... Port Glasgow: (1976) Provides supported housing for 18 men recovering from drug abuse. Tamil Nadu, India: (1990) This group of ... Greenock: (1980) Support for 18 men recovering from alcohol and/or drug abuse. Manchester: (2005) The Morning Star Hostel ...
"Drug Users Handbook - Tony Yayo , Songs, Reviews, Credits, Awards". AllMusic. 2008-06-24. Retrieved 2013-10-11. "Knoc-turn'al ... "Cashis Details Album Delay, Relives Moment Eminem Offered To Help Him With Drug Rehab". Hiphopdx. Archived from the original on ...
... of which many drug dealers and users were killed. Jason Golong, a former drug pusher and user, was killed outside of the RTR ... of Customs drug smuggling scandal Comprehensive Dangerous Drugs Act of 2002 Bangladesh drug war Mexican drug war Thailand drug ... The Philippine drug war, known as the War on Drugs, is the intensified anti-drug campaign of the administration of President ... "Dela Rosa: We're winning the war on drugs". Rappler. "How Duterte's drug war can fail , War on drugs". The Philippine Star. ...
Omenka, Issac; Greene, Marion S. (2017-08-01). "Polypharmacy Among Prescription Drug Users". {{cite journal}}: Cite journal ... of older adults are potentially at risk for a major drug-drug interaction. Older adults are at a higher risk for a drug-drug ... Merel, Susan E.; Paauw, Douglas S. (2017). "Common Drug Side Effects and Drug-Drug Interactions in Elderly Adults in Primary ... Research, Center for Drug Evaluation and (2020-03-17). "Drug Interactions: What You Should Know". FDA. Qato DM, Wilder J, ...
"Harvard to Oust Users of Drugs". The Washington Post. April 15, 1967. p. A17. "Strong Attack on Colleges --- 'Wrong' People ... He took a hard line against drug use, promising to expel anyone involved in their distribution or use. Monro was strongly ...
"21 users of schizophrenia drug dead". The Japan Times Online. The Japan Times. April 18, 2014. "Schizophrénie: controverse ... "Paliperidone". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine. "Paliperidone Palmitate". Drug Information Portal. U ... Drugs with non-standard legal status, Articles with changed EBI identifier, ECHA InfoCard ID from Wikidata, Drug has EMA link, ... "Schizophrenia drug blamed for 17 deaths". Sky News Australia. Corena-McLeod M (June 2015). "Comparative Pharmacology of ...
Other findings indicate that hard drug users are likely to be poly-drug users, and that interventions must address the use of ... multiple drugs instead of a single hard drug. Almost two-thirds of the poly drug users in the 2009-2010 Scottish Crime and ... "3 The Experience of Drug Users". 2009/10 Scottish Crime and Justice Survey: Drug Use. The Scottish Government. 21 January 2011 ... "Annual prevalence of use of drugs, by region and globally, 2016". World Drug Report 2018. United Nations Office on Drugs and ...
Many are alcoholics or drug users. Some choose to be outsiders; some have had that forced upon them." Eddie McGuire said that ... His father, Robert Corfe, who also suffered from alcoholism and drug addiction, drove a truck, delivered mail and had various ... His mother, June Murphy, suffered from alcoholism and drug addiction. ...
Berman, Alan L. (March 1, 1990). "Suicide Attempts Among Adolescent Drug Users". Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine. ...
Burrell, Ian (29 September 1998). "Drug users offered jail or treatment". Independent. Retrieved 13 August 2020. Hall, Colin ( ...
Taubman, P; Sickles, R (1991). "A Profile of Illegal Drug Users". American Economic Review. Cornwell, C; Schmidt, P; Sickles, R ...
Recreational drug users may develop AC. Examples include cocaine, methamphetamine, heroin, and hallucinogens. Allergic ... Several drugs may cause AC as a side effect, by various mechanisms, such as creating drug-induced xerostomia. Various examples ... July 2011). "Angular cheilitis, part 2: nutritional, systemic, and drug-related causes and treatment" (PDF). Cutis. 88 (1): 27- ... with topical antiviral drugs such as aciclovir. 22% of cases of angular cheilitis are due to irritants. Saliva contains ...
Trimingham, Tony (2009). Not My Family, Never My Child: what to do if someone you love is a drug user. Sydney: Allen & Unwin. ... Fiona, Harrington (2015). "Tracks - ILLICIT DRUG USERS MAGAZINE" (PDF). Tracks (18/19): 12-13. Archived (PDF) from the original ... He believes and advocates for Drug Law Reform for Australia, and the decriminalisation of drugs in aid of harm minimisation of ... After his son died from a heroin drug overdose, Trimingham founded the Australian charity Family Drug Support in 1997 and named ...
Kirima interrogates her about something, but stops when she realizes that she had only caught a 'normal' person; a drug-user. ... and follows five students at Shinyo Academy as they try to piece together the puzzle of a new drug and recent disappearances ...
Niiler, Eric (9 March 2016). "The Original Users of Sharapova's Banned Drug? Soviet Super Soldiers". Wired. Retrieved 9 March ... "Sharapova drug scandal: what is Meldonium". NewsComAu. 7 March 2016. Retrieved 9 March 2016. "Maria Sharapova failed drugs test ... Sjakste, N; Gutcaits, A; Kalvinsh, I (2004). "Mildronate: an antiischemic drug for neurological indications". CNS Drug Reviews ... Drugs acting on the cardiovascular system, Drugs in the Soviet Union, Hydrazines, Ischemic heart diseases, Latvian inventions, ...
"Marian Fischman, 62; Psychologist Paid Drug Users in Her Research". Los Angeles Times. November 15, 2001. Retrieved October 1, ... To do so, she set up a residential laboratory where users could live free for up to four weeks at a time while studies ... According to her obituary, The addicts she recruited for her experiments were given drugs, food, hospital rooms with sound and ... Her models went on to become an established basis for studying potential medications to treat drug abuse. She also expanded ...
In an interview with CNN host Don Lemon, Scott said, "Studies show that people that are on welfare are higher users of drugs ... "Florida: Few Drug Users Among Welfare Applicants". The New York Times. Associated Press. September 28, 2011. "Florida drops bid ... In addition, it gave doctors "loans" never intending to be repaid, free rent, free office furniture, and free drugs from ... "Florida governor signs welfare drug-screen measure". June 1, 2011. Archived from the original on September 16, 2011. ...
"Hard drug users escaping penalties and convictions". Allison, Lisa (27 September 2006). "Drug drive testing may be widened". ... He also requested on-the-spot fines for users of heroin, methamphetamines, cocaine, and ecstasy. He opposed the use of drugs ... drugs] for you", and that "alcohol is fun, but take drugs instead and you will remember your night out", in what Christopher ... drugs experience". Henderson, Nick (24 June 2007). "Health magazine promoting drug". Costello, Renato (3 February 2007). "New ...
Drug users as well as vampire drainers. Sookie helps Bill Compton to escape that Rattrays trying to drain him in Merlotte's ... She got involved with drugs and prostitution during her junior year of high school and ran away to New Orleans. In the short ...
Cymet, T. C. (1992). "'Ad Diction Ary' of drug users' terms". The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. 92 (4): 433- ... a guide to the slang of the drug subculture written for the medical community to help physicians better comprehend drug ...
Goodwin, Michael (1986-03-01). "Baseball Orders Suspension Of 11 Drug Users". The New York Times. Archived from the original on ... Drugs Findings Archived September 28, 2007, at the Wayback Machine "Strakka founder Leventis banned for anti-doping violation ... "OLYMPICS; Canadians Demand Inquiry Over Drug Testing Results". The New York Times. 2002-02-27. Retrieved 2010-05-08. "de beste ... "Sochi 2014: Ukraine's Marina Lisogor fails drugs test". BBC Sport. 22 February 2014. Archived from the original on 2014-03-20 ...
... crime increased among users because new laws were subsequently enacted to control the use of both drugs. The users thereof ... On the West Coast, author Ken Kesey, a prior volunteer for a CIA-sponsored LSD experiment, also advocated the use of the drug. ... He often invited friends as well as an occasional graduate student to consume such drugs along with him and colleague Richard ... But Haight Ashbury was not about drugs. It was about exploration, finding new ways of expression, being aware of one's ...
A clinician user of NIR HEG, Jeffrey Carmen, adapted Toomim's system for migraines in 2002 by integrating peripheral thermal ... 70% of sufferers saw a 50% or more reduction in their migraines following combined neurotherapy and drug treatment, as opposed ... allowing the patient to greatly reduce the drug therapy necessary for him to function successfully in school and offering a ... to 50% undergoing only traditional drug therapy. The term autism encompasses a wide range of syndromes, such as Rett disorder, ...
Users can use three dimensional structure of a protein and the peptides selected from phage display experiment to map ... Lawrence S (April 2007). "Billion dollar babies--biotech drugs as blockbusters". Nat. Biotechnol. 25 (4): 380-2. doi:10.1038/ ... phage display is a useful tool in drug discovery. It is used for finding new ligands (enzyme inhibitors, receptor agonists and ... for development into antibody drugs primarily as anti-cancer or anti-inflammatory therapeutics. One of the most successful was ...
Other events around this time period were also declared methods of black genocide, such as the War on Drugs, War on Crime, and ... Once the method was approved for use in the United States, the majority of Pill users were white and middle class women. In ... has called the War on Drugs "a misstep [that] is so damaging that future generations are left shaking their heads in disbelief ... Forman further writes that one consequence is that, even though black and white people have similar rates of drug use, black ...
... and Bugs-n-Drugs (a medical variation)-all presaging MUDs (Multi-User Domains) and MOOs (MUDs, Object Oriented) as well as ... Two users limit was caused by ILLIAC memory limitation, program could handle more users (pp. 19, 23). "MISCELLANEOUS: 2. ... Within six months, by word of mouth alone, more than 500 former users had signed up to use the system. Many of the students who ... Users could provide their own characters to support rudimentary bitmap graphics. Touch panel: A 16×16 grid infrared touch panel ...
Drugs and illegal aliens are routinely smuggled into this country, not only in small boats but also hidden among otherwise ... The risk assessment is based on a set of National- and user-defined rules which are comprised rule sets that pertain to ... "National Southwest Border Counternarcotics Strategy" (PDF). Office of National Drug Control Policy. 2013. Archived (PDF) from ... "drugs and illegal aliens are routinely smuggled into this country, not only in small boats but also hidden among otherwise ...
... production without retail sale by the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction What is a Cannabis Social Club by ... During the 1990s and early 2000s, an important number of "cannabis users associations" appeared in Spain, mostly the Basque ... European Monitoring Centre on Drugs and Drug Addiction, 05.31.2016, Models for the legal supply of cannabis: recent ... Legality of cannabis Drug policy Cannabis shop San Francisco Cannabis Buyers Club ENCOD Allotment (gardening); quite similar ...
For a fee of US$4.99, users had online access to two dozen video streams that would take them from the red carpet, through the ... "These Oscars were a bore-fest that seemed to drag on relentlessly but listlessly." Gail Pennington of the St. Louis Post- ...
Prices hit a new low around 1988, when you could often pick up a second-user 909 for under £200-and occasionally even under £ ... The music had become "too hard, too fast, too male, too drug-oriented, too anally retentive." Despite this, weekly night at ... as a party drug, started to gain prominence. Other important UK clubs at this time included Back to Basics in Leeds, ...
... making drill music in which they generally rap about drug dealing, weapons, and their lifestyles.[unreliable source?] Pittman ... FL Studio users). ...
Scuba is safety-critical equipment, as some modes of failure can put the user at immediate risk of death by drowning, and a ... An excess of tubes and connections passing through the water tend to decrease swimming performance by causing hydrodynamic drag ... or by rupture of regulator hoses in contact with the user, as a pressure of more than 100 pounds per square inch (6.9 bar) can ...
The use of drugs and poisons is common in politics. Sendars are a people of primarily Alorn and Arendish descent, located north ... One of the first users of the Will and the Word. The first of the prequels to The Belgariad is Belgarath the Sorcerer, a ... An accomplished apothecary with a large stock of chemicals, drugs, poisons, and a very small venomous snake. Poledra, wife to ... Brought to insanity and dragged into Hell by Nahaz. Zandramas (metamorphosed): the Child of Dark after the death of Torak, ...
... current users of illegal drugs are not covered under this Act). A person is covered if he has a disability that substantially ... In some cases, a review of Facebook may reveal undesirable behaviors such as drunkenness or drug use. Despite the relevance of ... What prescription drugs are you currently taking? Applicants with disabilities may be concerned with the effect that their ...
According to James Comey, Roof had been arrested in March on a felony drug charge, which would have required an inquiry into ... "unlawful user of or addicted to any controlled substance" from owning firearms. Several bills aiming to fix this loophole were ... However, he was actually arrested on a misdemeanor drug charge, which was incorrectly written as a felony at first due to a ... Roof had a prior police record consisting of two arrests, for trespassing and drug possession, both made in the months before ...
Improvements have been made to the navigation system, allowing for more fluid walking, running and dragging motions. Characters ... Video games with user-generated gameplay content, Video games with custom soundtrack support, Yuke's games, Professional ...
... International Airport is just east of Gimhae (in Gangseo-gu, Busan) and has 9.17 million annual users. Various ... Drug King and Parasite) Lee Jung-soo (born 1980), South Korean footballer (central defender) Lee Min-ki (born 1985), South ...
Windage (drag) is more than triangular rigs, which have smaller tip vortices. Therefore, historic ships could not point as far ... 36 Some users (such as in the Royal Navy Montagu whaler) would still dip the yard of a standing lug (with a sharp, well timed ...
The user pushes the handle to move the blade forward, forcing it below the surface of the soil and maintaining it at a shallow ... Fork hoes (also known as prong hoes, tined hoes, Canterbury hoes, drag forks or bent forks) are hoes that have two or more ... The user chops into the ground and then pulls (draws) the blade towards them. Altering the angle of the handle can cause the ... which required the user to bend over from the waist to reach the ground. Over time this could cause permanent, crippling lower ...
... : XIX. Applying Clinical Trial Results; B. Guidelines for Determining Whether a Drug Is ... Users' Guides to the Medical Literature: XXV. Evidence-Based Medicine: Principles for Applying the Users' Guides to Patient ... Users' guides to the medical literature. III. How to use an article about a diagnostic test. A. Are the results of the study ... Users' guides to the medical literature. III. How to use an article about a diagnostic test. B. What are the results and will ...
It is recommended that users drink at least 1.5 liters a day when intaking the drug. Drug users must significantly increase ... Furthermore, the drug has to be taken consistently or else users face dangers, meaning that the company has to take into ... In order to avoid this as much as possible, it is important for users to consistently take the exact amount of the drug at the ... This fear of viral resistance caused a lot of users to be wary of the drug. The most common side effects of indinavir include: ...
By dragging a "clip" button onto the browser bar, users click and clip online items for later reference. Clipix users can also ... The utility is available in 13 languages, and as of 2014 had users in 154 countries. Clipix allows users to save online content ... The company's "Price Drop Alert" allows users to name the price they'd like to pay for any item that is sold online. Once a " ... To organize content further, Clipix also offers multiboards, which are created by dragging several clipboards into one "Main ...
... intravenous drug users, men who have sex with men) without consistent condom use or anyone who has injected illicit drugs in ... shared recreational drug injection equipment with other drug users in the past six months, or has been in treatment for ... people who engage in intravenous drug use (see drug injection), and serodiscordant sexually active couples. When used as ... The term typically refers to the use of antiviral drugs as a strategy for the prevention of HIV/AIDS. PrEP is one of a number ...
... leading to the release of 114,000 email addresses of Apple iPad users. "Samuel HOCEVAR - CV." (DVI, PDF, PS Archived 2006-09-24 ... "iPad hacker arrested on multiple drug charges after FBI search", Network World, IDG, archived from the original on 20 September ...
Users can subscribe to feeds for areas of research including biology, genes, diseases, genetic disorders, drugs, people, labs ... By sifting through papers and learning from user behavior, the service pinpoints key pieces of research and provides relevant ... The Meta Science research platform uses algorithms that allow users to sort new publications according to subject matter. ... papers by their date of publication and citation count and then presenting the information in a way that allows users to ...
He published revelations about arms trafficking and drug use in the Balkans (an investigation taken up by the daily La ... where it has been seen by over 600,000 users). The full version was released in Italy in December 2009 on DVD by the newspaper ...
Garrett is a lifelong wheelchair user, has a very 'jock'-like attitude and is a huge fan of extreme sports and attempting mad ... Slimer also appeared as a representative of The Real Ghostbusters in the animated anti-drug television special Cartoon All- ... Peck's belief that the Ghostbusters were drugging the city with hallucinogens is invalidated by the authorities and experts. ...
Rather than calling on nations to prosecute drug users, the treaty focuses on traffickers and producers. As of 2013, 234 ... drugs) Drug policy Illegal drugs trade War on drugs: Mexican drug war; Philippine drug war; Plan Colombia "Single Convention on ... Drugs in Schedule II are regulated only slightly less strictly than Schedule I drugs. The Commentary confirms, "Drugs in ... Drug policy, Drug control law, Drug control treaties, Criminal justice reform, Crime, Global health, Public health, Health ...
In December 1988, almost three years after Palme's death, Christer Pettersson, a criminal, drug user and alcoholic, who had ... The person who stole the weapon was a friend of drug dealer Sigvard "Sigge" Cedergren, who claimed on his deathbed that he had ... Allegedly, Pettersson had intended to kill Sigvard Cedergren, a drug dealer who customarily walked along the same street at ... The programme also suggested there was greater police awareness than previously acknowledged because of surveillance of drug ...
"Pharmac's anti-HIV drug subsidy is an own goal for LGBT". 23 March 2018. "Act candidate Stephen Berry: Telling transgender they ... "Twitter crackdown reaches NZ: Hundreds of NZ right-wing users kicked off Twitter". NZ Herald. "ACT names 'maverick' Stephen ...
He finished his probation in April 2014, and had undergone weekly drug testing. Now he lives with his ex-wife, Terri, who said ... He denied those allegations, but others arose when he was cited in retrospect as a steroid-user during his playing career. In ... In 2011, he was arrested and charged with bankruptcy fraud, followed by grand theft auto and drug possession charges on an ... On May 23, 2018, Dykstra was arrested after uttering terroristic threats and for possession of drugs. He allegedly held a gun ...
But that has not kept pace with the number of new infections that come largely from injection drug users, men who have sex with ... In Russia, for instance, 83% of HIV-infected people are injection drug users, but only 20% to 30% of them are on antiretroviral ... Cite this: Women and Drug Users With HIV Receive Inadequate Care - Medscape - Oct 29, 2015. ... such as women and intravenous drug users, said Deniz Gökengin, MD, from the Ege University School of Medicine in Izmir, Turkey ...
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Users share their experience with and comment on drug side effects, effectiveness, and treatment knowledge ... Drugs & Vitamins. Drugs A-Z Generic Drugs A-Z Drugs by Classification Drugs Comparison (Drug Vs. Drug) Vitamins & Supplements ... I am not the one taking this drug. My 5 year old was prescibed this for his ADHD and ODD. My son was probably 50 lbs before. In ... I am not the one taking this drug. My 5 year old was prescibed this for his ADHD and ODD. My son was probably 50 lbs before. In ...
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Good practice in Asia : targeted HIV prevention for injecting drug users and sex workers : Viet Nams first large-scale ... Drug use has been identified as a major public health issue in Pakistan. A descriptive questionnaire survey in Karachi city was ... Pre-exposure prophylaxis for people who inject drugs: a systematic review  Kennedy, Caitlin; Fonner, Virgina; World Health ... A strategy to halt and reverse the HIV epidemic among people who inject drugs in Asia and the Pacific 2010-2015  ...
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Embedding HCV treatment within needle exchange programs gets more injection drug users treated and cured, a randomized ... For injection drug users with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, providing treatment opportunities within a local needle ... Cite this: To Engage Injection Drug Users in HCV Care, Go to Where They Are - Medscape - Mar 17, 2022. ... To Engage Injection Drug Users in HCV Care, Go to Where They Are. ...
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To finance staff expansion, Mullen said that the agency plans to impose special new user fees totaling $6.25 million annually ... Pharmaceutical manufacturers that advertise prescription drugs directly to the public may soon have to pay the government for ... USER FEES FOR DTC Rx DRUG ADVERTISERS?. .social-ris-container { display: flex; justify-content: space-between; } @media screen ... the cost of reviewing their ads, under a new user-fee proposal being floated by the FDA. ...
The city has an estimated 22,500 injection drug users and half report using heroin. ... San Francisco to distribute addiction drug… Share this:. *Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window) ... SAN FRANCISCO (AP) San Franciscos mayor wants to send medical teams out to city streets to distribute a drug that curbs heroin ... Video and photos of people shooting up drugs in public have added to San Franciscos reputation as being overrun by addicts and ...
If we give them the power to assassinate drug users and drug dealers, its a virtual certainty that, from time to time, they ... They would view the drug users and drug dealers as enemies in this war and, therefore, would say that there is nothing wrong ... Do the principles change at all? Should the military and the CIA be authorized to assassinate drug users and drug dealers? I ... In such a case, the military and the CIA could no more legitimately assassinate suspected drug users or drug dealers than the ...
Prescription heroin for drug users among the options in proposed Toronto overdose plan. Overdose deaths reported in Toronto ... Prescription heroin for drug users among the options in proposed Toronto overdose plan , CBC News Loaded ... which is now being increasingly found in street drugs across Canada. According to the U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse, ... The drug is just one factor in a widespread opioid crisis which is spreading like a cancer across Canada, Dr. David Juurlink ...
A growing use of heroin has showed up in local obituaries and police logs as new users unfamiliar with the drug overdose on it ...
Federal drug officials are warning that Mexican drug cartels are using new tactics that are endangering people in New Hampshire ... Drug cartels use new tactics to try to reach more users in New Hampshire, officials say. Counterfeit, colorful pills used to ... Drug cartels use new tactics to try to reach more users in New Hampshire, officials say ... Drug cartels use new tactics to try to reach more users in New Hampshire, officials say ...
... and information centers for drug addicts, is mandatory to alert the medical community and the drug users to consider wound ... Bacterial infections in drug users. N Engl J Med. 2005;353:1945-54. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Wound botulism associated with black tar heroin among injecting drug users. JAMA. 1998;279:859-63. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Kalka-Moll WM, Aurbach U, Schaumann R, Schwarz R, Seifert H. Wound Botulism in Injection Drug Users. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13( ...
Treating intravenous drug users with antiviral drugs may reduce their chances of HIV infection, according to a new study ... Antiviral drugs help prevent HIV infection in IV drug users. Treating intravenous drug users with antiviral drugs may reduce ... Thats because, he says, some IV drug users engage in risky behavior such as prostitution to support their drug habit. ... IV-drug users - pre-exposure prophylaxis can work if the individuals adhere to taking the drug. ...
... other drugs would test strategy of harm reduction over criminalization ... Rhode Island plans to create supervised spaces for users to inject illegal drugs, in a big test of the idea that reducing harm ... The two-year pilot, a first for a state, would establish sites where users could also have drugs tested for potentially fatal ... Sites for users of fentanyl, other drugs would test strategy of harm reduction over criminalization ...
... by the end of the year where addicts can inject illegal drugs under medical supervision, the health minister said.I hope that ... for drug users, he said in a statement. ... by the end of the year where addicts can inject illegal drugs ... the centres would provide sterile needles and medical oversight for injectors of heroin and other illegal drugs. ...
But the same anti-drug fervor and racial fear-mongering they relied on to help pass the Anti-Drug Abuse Act - the framework for ... No, Biden isnt funding safe pipes for drug users. But he should. Jeannette Zanipatin ... despite white people using the same drug, at the same rate, just more commonly in a powder form. The Anti-Drug Abuse Act of ... The same drug war policies that resulted in a whole generation of Black, Latinx and Indigenous people being removed from their ...
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... amended the FD&C Act to direct FDA to assess and collect annual facility fees from owners of qualifying OTC monograph drug ... Monograph Drug user fee program for fiscal year 2021. The CARES Act, enacted in March 2020, ... Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced the fee rates under the Over-the-Counter (OTC) Monograph Drug user fee ... FDA In Brief: FDA Republishing Fee Rates under the Over-the-Counter Monograph Drug User Fee Program. * Share ...
SuperMIX: The Melbourne Injecting Drug User Cohort Study A five-year study of the dynamics of cessation of injecting drug use ... Are users most recent drug purchases representative?. Bond B, Caulkins JP, Scott N, Kilmer B, Dietze P. U.S. Department of ... METHODS: Data were drawn from 688 respondents in the Melbourne Injecting Drug User Cohort Study across the period 2008-2013 and ... We investigate these issues through a series of questions which ask about the three most recent purchases, and about drug use. ...
Uptick in HIV among injecting drug users raises fears of a resurgent epidemic. ... Uptick in HIV among injecting drug users raises fears of a resurgent epidemic ... FDA approves first fecal microbiome drug, setting stage for… FDA approves first fecal microbiome drug, setting stage for others ... Former Merck CEO: Democracy and the drug industry are both in danger ...
Prevalence and correlates of abscesses among a cohort of injection drug users. Harm Reduct J. 2005;2:24. DOIPubMedGoogle ... Injecting-related harm and treatment-seeking behaviour among injecting drug users. Addiction. 1997;92:1349-52. DOIPubMedGoogle ... Hospital admissions of drug users in England for phlebitis or thrombophlebitis, cellulitis, or cutaneous abscess as a primary ... Hospital admissions of drug users in England for phlebitis or thrombophlebitis, cellulitis, or cutaneous abscess as a primary ...
  • Prop. 36 is backed by the California Nurses Association, the California Society for Addiction Medicine, the California Labor Council, and the SF Medical Society, as well as by California NORML and other drug reform groups. (
  • Ann Livingston and Bud Osborn invited drug users to Oppenheimer Park and then the Street Church with the idea of creating a union for people who struggle with a drug addiction. (
  • The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) yesterday issued the warning yesterday . (
  • On Newstalk Breakfast this morning , Cuan Mhuire Senior Addiction Therapist Michael Guerin warned that, in a worst-case scenario, the synthetic drugs can kill. (
  • Ms Bain insisted this was not the case, adding that there is "no one size fits all" response to drug addiction and that every case should be judged individually. (
  • Preventive measures are needed to decrease the rate of drug addiction in Karachi. (
  • When Billy Lemon was trying to kick his methamphetamine addiction, he went to a drug treatment program at the San Francisco AIDS Foundation three times a week and peed in a cup. (
  • The payments were part of a formal addiction treatment called contingency management, which incentivizes drug users with money or gift cards to stay off drugs. (
  • Of the 73,000 urine samples collected in the VA program, 92% tested negative for drugs, according to Dominick DePhilippis , a clinical psychologist at the Philadelphia Center for Substance Addiction Treatment & Education who helped launch the VA's program. (
  • It was found that the effects of symbolic dismissals of the Other, in the contemporary, have favored the establishment of subjective modes of social disconnection, such as drug addiction, and that the way disinsertion appears, in the uniqueness of each case, in the context of adolescence, indicates the presence of a social symptom of the time. (
  • These tests accurately detect fentanyl in the drug supply, and they can be a valuable addition to other drug prevention strategies," said study lead author addiction medicine specialist Sukhpreet Klaire, MD, of the British Columbia Center on Substance Use in Vancouver, in an interview. (
  • I would have never thought about fixing teeth as a way to improve outcomes in drug addiction cases, but when you start to think about it, yeah, it makes a lot of sense. (
  • Researchers from The University of Texas at Austin have been able to successfully inhibit alcohol and drug addiction by using a drug , israpidine, that is already approved by the FDA to treat high blood pressure. (
  • The drug is able to erase (at least for rats) the unconscious memories that may underlie addiction. (
  • The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) is the reference point on drugs and drug addiction information in Europe. (
  • Extending that coverage will mean reaching out to groups of patients who typically present late, with lower CD4 counts, such as women and intravenous drug users, said Deniz Gökengin, MD, from the Ege University School of Medicine in Izmir, Turkey, speaking here at the 15th European AIDS Conference. (
  • Treating intravenous drug users with antiviral drugs may reduce their chances of HIV infection, according to a new study published Wednesday in the British medical journal The Lancet . (
  • Intravenous drug use and heterosexual contact were the most common ways HIV was transmitted in Europe's eastern region, the report said. (
  • In 1990, it was estimated that there were 8500 intravenous drug users in Glasgow, Scotland. (
  • HIV burden is increasing annually and compliance with antiretroviral therapy (ART) is low among intravenous drug users, especially in developing countries. (
  • To determine the adherence level to ART among HIV-positive intravenous drug users in Karachi Pakistan. (
  • We conclude that adherence to ART among intravenous drug users was low. (
  • An international systematic study was to determine the adherence level of ART review of several studies from 7 countries revealed among HIV-positive intravenous drug users in Karachi, that adherence levels were 33-97% ( 9 ). (
  • Infections are the most frequent and serious wound complications in injection drug users (IDUs). (
  • An increased risk for tuberculosis (TB) is associated with injection drug users (IDUs) as well as those who use crack cocaine. (
  • Refugees may have acquired high-risk bebavior, drug users (IDUs) in Kabul, Afghanistan, from June 2005 such as injection drug use, that may place communities at through June 2006. (
  • There were an estimated 470 IDUs in Kabul in 2003, experiencing HIV epidemics driven by injection drug use although the United Nations Offi ce on Drugs and Crime that is extending to other populations ( 3 , 4 ). (
  • The same study also estimated that the extended period of civil war, are experiencing HIV epi- most IDUs reside in Kabul and, of all heroin-using IDUs demics among injection drug users (IDUs) ( 1 , 3 , 5 , 6 ). (
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: HIV-infected injection drugs users (IDUs) are known to have high rates of co-infections. (
  • The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe drug usebehaviours and preferences as well as the social and environmental context surrounding the use ofthese drugs among young and old street-based drug injection drug users (IDUs).Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with 25 PO injectors. (
  • We now know that pre-exposure prophylaxis can be a potentially vital option for HIV prevention in people at very high risk for infection, whether through sexual transmission or injecting drug use. (
  • It can often be difficult to directly attribute the antiviral drug's protective effect on people who get infected by injecting drugs, said Salim Karim, professor and director of the Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA) at the University of KwaZulu-Natal in Durban, South Africa. (
  • Even though questions remain about the extent to which PrEP can be effective in preventing either of the routes of transmission in this group, the overall result is that daily tenofovir does reduce HIV transmission in injecting drug users,' Karim said. (
  • The introduction of PrEP for HIV prevention in injecting drug users should be considered as an additional component to accompany other proven prevention strategies like needle exchange programmes, methadone programmes, promotion of safer sex and injecting practices, condoms, and HIV counseling and testing. (
  • The injecting of illicit drugs is associated with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) and vascular disease ( 1 - 3 ). (
  • Although the number of opiate injecting drug users may have increased in the 1990s ( 8 ), the rapid and substantial increase in admissions for SSTIs and vascular disease suggests that this has not resulted from an increase in the injecting population alone. (
  • METHODS: Data were drawn from 688 respondents in the Melbourne Injecting Drug User Cohort Study across the period 2008-2013 and 2782 respondents to the Washington Cannabis Consumption Study in 2013. (
  • A five-year study of the dynamics of cessation of injecting drug use and any subsequent relapse. (
  • So in order to cope with their emotional pain, a lot of people returned to injecting drugs. (
  • And clearly, there is a risk to injecting certain types of drugs into your system. (
  • Crushing and injecting, however, is a common practice for people who are used to injecting their drugs. (
  • Interested in a career at the Australian Injecting & Illicit Drug Users League? (
  • The Australian Injecting and Illicit Drug Users League (AIVL) is calling for a greater focus on key prevention and harm reduction initiatives on International Overdose Awareness Day today. (
  • In particular, AIVL is calling for the implementation of widespread peer distribution of the overdose reversal drug naloxone and support for supervised injecting facilities. (
  • Enabling greater access to naloxone and providing safe injecting facilities for people who use drugs are practical ways that governments can help people to protect themselves and prevent overdose deaths, which would be a wonderful outcome for individuals, families and the broader Australian community. (
  • Four countries Afghanistan survey in 2005 estimated that there were bordering Afghanistan (Pakistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, 50,000 heroin users in Afghanistan, of whom 14% reported and Iran), which provided refuge to many Afghans during injecting drugs ( 10 , 11 ). (
  • and Injecting drug users (IDU). (
  • Injecting drug users and antiretroviral therapy: perceptions of pharmacy teams]. (
  • To understand the perceptions of pharmacy teams about their role in the healthcare assistance challenges and adherence to antiretroviral therapy by injecting drug users living with HIV / AIDS . (
  • They do not realize that, by this acting, the specific needs of injecting drug users may become invisible in the service. (
  • The most important thing is to make sure that people … injecting drug users, commercial sex workers and men who have sex with men have good preventative measures in place," Dara said. (
  • For injecting drug users, they need to have clear needle exchange programs. (
  • Also in 2000, CDC provided assistance during an outbreak of Clostridium novyi resulting in severe illness among injecting drug users in Scotland. (
  • They may supply bleach to injecting drug users at shooting galleries and condoms to commercial sex workers and their customers at the hotels or locations that they frequent. (
  • 2 Although the overall national HIV prevalence remained low at 0.058% in 2011, the epidemic was highly concentrated in Southwestern China and Xinjiang autonomous region among key populations including injecting drug users (IDU), female sex workers (FSW) and their clients and more recently, men who have sex with men (MSM). (
  • In San Francisco, approximately 1,300 people died from drug overdoses in 2020 and 2021, far exceeding the number of residents who died of COVID-19 . (
  • The passage of the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act in March 2020 established a user fee program to support the modernization, under the CARES Act, of how many OTC drugs are regulated by FDA, including changes that will facilitate innovation and make it easier for the FDA to respond to safety issues when they emerge. (
  • The CARES Act, enacted in March 2020, amended the FD&C Act to direct FDA to assess and collect annual facility fees from owners of qualifying OTC monograph drug facilities (in addition to fees for OTC monograph order requests). (
  • The FDA first announced these fees in a Dec. 29, 2020, Federal Register Notice titled "Fee Rates Under the Over-the-Counter Monograph Drug User Fee Program for Fiscal Year 2021. (
  • People who inject drugs are disproportionately less likely than others with HIV infection to receive antiretroviral therapy, even in countries where injection drug users account for the largest proportion of those infected with HIV, according to one study ( Lancet . (
  • The study's findings help "counteract the implicit belief within the medical community that people who inject drugs can't or don't want to engage in healthcare," lead author Benjamin Eckhardt, MD, with NYU Grossman School of Medicine in New York City, told Medscape Medical News . (
  • By simply focusing on patient accompaniment, limiting stigma, and removing the punitive response for missed appointments, we can effectively engage people who inject drugs in healthcare and more specifically cure their infection, making significant inroads to HCV elimination," Eckhardt said. (
  • The accessible care model provides HCV treatment within a community-based needle exchange program in a comfortable, nonjudgmental atmosphere, "without fear of shame or stigma that people who inject drugs often experience in mainstream institutions," the investigators explain. (
  • Adherence was a key factor determining efficacy in our trial among people who inject drugs, as it has been in previous PrEP trials examining sexual transmission," said Martin. (
  • The results of this study are important, and if used effectively in HIV programming, could have a significant impact in protecting people who inject drugs from becoming infected with HIV. (
  • Now, it may seem ironic, but many people who inject drugs are wary of receiving the vaccine due to misinformation and a distrust of government programs and the health care system. (
  • His organization helps people who inject drugs to exchange used syringes for clean ones to slow the spread of infectious diseases. (
  • TOOKES: Well, just like everybody else, people who inject drugs during the pandemic experience a lot of despair. (
  • This report highlights opportunities for health department infectious disease programs to address a range of drug user health issues, identifies potential collaborators and provides recommendations for health department programs to consider to best meet the comprehensive health needs of people who inject drugs. (
  • 4 WHO: Guidance on prevention of viral hepatitis B and C among people who inject drugs. (
  • A pretested questionnaire was administered to 375 of 3000 people who inject drugs, registered at the Civil Hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. (
  • People who inject drugs (PWIDs) are at high risk of were receiving health services from Johns Hopkins AIDS human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. (
  • Background: Kenya's Key and Affected Populations (KAP) - men who have sex with men (MSM), female sex workers, peoplewho inject drugs (PWID), and young women aged 18-24 - often experience stigma and discrimination in Kenyan health care settings due to their identity and/or behaviors, which can deter facility-based testing for HIV. (
  • According to the U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse, fentanyl is between 50 and 80 times more powerful than morphine. (
  • The U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse has more about drugged driving . (
  • A product commonly known as "Smacked", which is sold in brightly colored packages with flavors such as bubblegum, lemon-lime, and blueberry is a potpourri which is sprayed with a synthetic compound chemically similar to THC, is often sold in head shops and convenience stores, marketed as a "safe" alternative to marijuana and has similar mind-altering effects, according to The National Institute on Drug Abuse. (
  • Unlike 1986, we now have evidence - in the more than 1 million lives we have lost to overdose since the Center for Disease Control and Prevention first started collecting data on overdose deaths in 1999 - that the typical American punishment-first approach to drug use only causes greater harm. (
  • and according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, opioid analgesics are involved in more than 40% of drug poisoning deaths in the United States (2). (
  • Contact for information regarding Washington State DOH's Naloxone Distribution Program, overdose education and prevention training, and other matters related to drug overdose. (
  • It also operates an overdose-prevention site where people bring drugs to inject under the supervision of VANDU staff. (
  • People who use drugs are a priority population for all of these national strategies and have an important role to play as part of broader prevention and harm reduction efforts. (
  • It would be great to see enhanced investment in cost-effective prevention and harm reduction measures such as those outlined in the new National Drug Strategy, rather than those that have been proven ineffective, such as drug testing of welfare recipients, for example. (
  • Not only do such programs lower overdose deaths and reduce the spread of infectious diseases, but participants are five times more likely than non-participants to seek treatment and three times more likely to stop using drugs as reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . (
  • The bill, proposed by Delegate Dan Morhaim, D-Baltimore County, would create an overdose-prevention and safer drug-consumption program allowing drug users to legally ingest their narcotics under supervision of trained professionals and staff, in clean facilities. (
  • The Maryland program would provide sterile injection supplies, counseling services, testing for sexually transmitted diseases, and would educate drug users about safe-injection practices and overdose prevention, according to the bill. (
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and state health departments are investigating hepatitis A outbreaks in multiple states among persons reporting drug use and/or homelessness and their contacts. (
  • identification of problematic situations and Although the first contact with drugs strategies for planning health promotion can occur at any stage of life, national(3) and and drug prevention. (
  • The tendency of reproducing patterns of offers places for elementary school students behavior and the implications of drug use by from the sixth to the ninth grades, in morning, adolescents require specific health prevention afternoon and evening sessions. (
  • In Russia, for instance, 83% of HIV-infected people are injection drug users, but only 20% to 30% of them are on antiretroviral therapy. (
  • And in Ukraine, which has one of the largest HIV/AIDS epidemics in Europe, primarily driven by injection drug use, the main barrier to antiretroviral therapy has been described as "harassment and discrimination by police. (
  • Half took the pill tenofovir - an antiretroviral drug - daily, while the other half got a placebo. (
  • The groups concluded that the pharmacy has an important role in the antiretroviral drug supply , which is reflected in the treatment adherence , because trust -based relationships can be built up through their procedures . (
  • So in response to this, late last year we started to think about how we could shed light on the stigma that is at the root of how drugs and alcohol are presented in British social media, and how having a clearer idea of this could ultimately help the sector combat it effectively. (
  • 3 International Overdose Awareness Day is a global event held on 31 August each year, aiming to raise awareness of overdose and reduce the stigma of drug-related deaths. (
  • How many more preventable deaths will it take to stand up against the stigma that demonizes drug users and to jump at well-substantiated solutions? (
  • This stigma surrounding drug-use facilities is a challenge not only for neighbors, but for drug users as well. (
  • The most significant factor in these overdose deaths is the unregulated illicit drug supply. (
  • For most people using drugs, the only option is the illicit drug supply, which is unregulated, with unpredictable drug potencies. (
  • Safe supply, or legal access to alternatives to the illicit drug supply, has become a rallying cry for those on the frontlines of the overdose crisis. (
  • Illicit drug users seem to overwhelmingly appreciate being able to use take-home test strips to detect the extremely common presence of dangerous fentanyl in opioids and other drugs, a new study finds. (
  • Nonetheless, we conclude that RIA [hair] testing especially when coupled with a confirmatory GC/MS test, is now an accepted and reliable scientific methodology for detecting illicit drug use. (
  • Yet, drug-user groups, in particular, are a key source of intelligence on illicit drug scenes and a possible point of influence on them. (
  • ANNAPOLIS, Md. (AP) - Illegal-drug users in Maryland could partake in recreational use under a bill that would create legal, sanitary illicit-drug use facilities in the state. (
  • U.S. military members are considered to use illicit drug use the least as compared to their civilian counterparts, but the popularity of heavy alcohol and tobacco, prescription drugs, and opioids are increasing in a fast pace. (
  • Rhode Island plans to create supervised spaces for users to inject illegal drugs, in a big test of the idea that reducing harm to drug users is more effective than criminalization. (
  • France's Socialist government plans to test launch a series of "shooting galleries" by the end of the year where addicts can inject illegal drugs under medical supervision, the health minister said. (
  • The Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA) is vital to enabling the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to fulfill its mission of protecting public health. (
  • provides accurate and independent information on more than 24,000 prescription drugs, over-the-counter medicines and natural products. (
  • Pharmaceutical manufacturers that advertise prescription drugs directly to the public may soon have to pay the government for the cost of reviewing their ads, under a new user-fee proposal being floated by the FDA. (
  • To finance staff expansion, Mullen said that the agency plans to impose special new user fees totaling $6.25 million annually on manufacturers seeking prebroadcast advisory reviews of DTC prescription-drug TV ads. (
  • Federal drug officials are warning that Mexican drug cartels are using new tactics that are endangering people in New Hampshire.Officials with the Drug Enforcement Agency said that in some cases, cartels are making illicit drugs look like prescription medication. (
  • Novus is known for minimizing the discomfort of withdrawal from prescription medication, drugs or alcohol by creating a customized detox program for each patient, incorporating medication, natural supplements and fluid replenishment - putting the dignity and humanity back into drug detoxification. (
  • New guidelines to facilitate social distancing amid the province's drug overdose crisis have a glaring omission: injectable prescription opioids. (
  • Background: There is evidence of a high prevalence of prescription opioid (PO) and crack useamong street drug users in Toronto. (
  • Content analysis was conducted to identify themes.Results: Five prominent themes emerged from the interviews: 1) Combination of crack andprescription opioids, 2) First injection experience and transition to prescription opioids, 3) Drugpreferences and availability, 4) Housing and income and 5) Obtaining drugs. (
  • This movement was in response to the increased documented usage of prescription drugs among teens. (
  • There has been a push for states to comply with proper prescription medication disposal, education, and for the pharmaceutical agencies to make drugs less tamper proof for abuse2. (
  • Many of the drugs that treat mental health problems are discovered by serendipity, and because new drugs are scarce, researchers may need to look more closely at the possible psychiatric effects of existing prescription and illegal drugs, one scientist argues. (
  • Both banned drugs and prescription medicines should be looked at for their psychiatric effects, Nutt wrote in his editorial. (
  • The expected action date by the FDA under the Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA) is May 29, 2017. (
  • The Lexicon Plus is a comprehensive database of all prescription and some nonprescription drugs products available in the U.S. drug market. (
  • SAN FRANCISCO (AP) San Francisco's mayor wants to send medical teams out to city streets to distribute a drug that curbs heroin cravings in opioid addicts. (
  • Video and photos of people shooting up drugs in public have added to San Francisco's reputation as being overrun by addicts and homeless people. (
  • He said it was estimated that there are at least 1,500,000 drug addicts in this country, many of them boys and girls. (
  • China is facing a grim task in curbing synthetic drugs, including 'ice', which more and more of China's drug addicts tend to use,' the official China Daily quoted Liu Yuejin, head of the public security ministry's Narcotics Control Bureau as saying, referring to the street name for methamphetamine. (
  • He says he will allocate $6 million for 10 new public health clinicians to provide the opioid treatment medicine buprenorphine directly to users. (
  • Fentanyl is a powerful synthetic opioid commonly prescribed as pain medication, which is now being increasingly found in street drugs across Canada. (
  • The drug is just one factor in a widespread opioid crisis which is 'spreading like a cancer' across Canada, Dr. David Juurlink, head of clinical pharmacology and toxicology at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre in Toronto, previously told CBC. (
  • In fact, opioid-related fatalities are on the rise, with more than 1,000 deaths in 2015 alone in Maryland, according to a Department of Health and Mental Hygiene report on drug- and alcohol-related deaths. (
  • The participants who consumed alcohol, crack cocaine, or injection drugs were at a higher risk for positive skin test readings. (
  • The most commonly used drugs were cocaine (19.0%) and crack-cocaine (15.0%), followed by amphetamines (11.0%), alcohol, caffeine, barbiturates and benzodiazepines (10.0% each). (
  • Billy Lemon, 50, kicked his meth habit more than 9 years ago after taking part in a "contingency management" program for meth and cocaine users at the San Francisco AIDS Foundation. (
  • Users generally snort the powder as they would cocaine or similar drugs. (
  • The participants were selected in Long Beach, CA either directly through street outreach or after they completed an HIV outreach project (lasting six months) for active drug users that were out of treatment at the time. (
  • To avoid unreliable outcomes, they needed to be sure that the participants were in fact active drug users and not simply saying so to receive the monetary incentive that was offered. (
  • Under the plan, childless FoodShare participants who fail a drug test would be eligible for state-funded rehabilitation treatment if they don't have any other way to pay for it. (
  • Twenty-five percent of the participants received drug for 5 years. (
  • Participants with a positive HIV test result un- drug use in Kabul, such as syringe sources or harm-reduc- derwent sequential testing with the OraSure OraQuick HIV ing programs. (
  • This system comprised routine cross-sectional surveys on risk behaviours and sero-testing of participants targeted in four population groups - drug users (DU) of which about 60% were IDU, FSW, sexually transmitted infections (STI) clinic attendees and long-distance truck drivers (LDD). (
  • In this letter to the editor information was presented concerning the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among intravenous (iv) drug users in Ohio. (
  • In contrast, in the roughly two decades that safe consumption rooms have been in use in other countries, there have been no fatal overdoses in any of them, according to Jamie Bridge from the International Drug Policy Consortium, headquartered in London. (
  • The facility, with 12 injection rooms, among other services, has had over 1.8 million visits, by over 12,000 individual clients, according to the International Drug Policy Consortium. (
  • Detractors may argue that it contributes to crime, but studies of programs in other countries show either no adverse impact, or a decrease in crime surrounding the drug use centers, according to the International Drug Policy Consortium. (
  • Those headlines stemmed from a Department of Health and Human Services announcement that it would be providing $30 million in grants to harm reduction programs, which provide non-carceral public health solutions, without judgement, to mitigate the potential harms associated with drug use. (
  • And yet instead of putting forth and investing in solutions that are proven to work, some policymakers are responding to smart investments in harm reduction by politicizing overdose deaths, showing more interest in #crackpipes clickbait and drug hysteria than supporting evidence-based solutions that can save lives. (
  • According to the Harm Reduction Coalition, they originally were developed to detect fentanyl in urine samples but were jury-rigged in Vancouver to work on samples of illicit drugs. (
  • Kimberly Sue, MD, PhD , medical director of the National Harm Reduction Coalition, said in an interview that the research is "important," but noted that many drug users already have been using fentanyl test strips on their own. (
  • Yet, while DfID is commended for its promotion of harm reduction and progressive, humane and pragmatic drug treatment models, the Coalition's 'recovery-oriented' domestic strategy falls back into an ideologically laden approach. (
  • In spite of consistent findings across our two surveys, further replication of the work reported in this paper involving other populations of users is warranted. (
  • We've been disproportionately noting that the cases have been reported in persons using drugs or persons experiencing homelessness, and that the ability to reach those populations with vaccination has been challenging. (
  • But that has not kept pace with the number of new infections that come largely from injection drug users, men who have sex with men, and sex workers, said Dr Gökengin. (
  • The drugs are moved to big cities such as New York and Boston before they're filtered into New Hampshire and throughout New England.Recently, the cartels have started using bright, attractive colors to shape the pills to attract younger buyers, DeLena said. (
  • Pittel SM, Calef V, Gryler RB, Hilles L, Hofer R, Kempner P. "Developmental factors in adolescent drug users" Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry . (
  • The text in question sought to answer how the difficulties of adherence to treatment, presented by adolescent drug users, can benefit the work carried out in the Psychosocial Care Centers of Children-Juvenile (CAPSi) of the state of Minas Gerais. (
  • Also included is enhanced access to our Research Dashboard where users are able to search for articles and research abstracts on thousands of health and wellness topics. (
  • Drugs that were found in the 2015 NAMCS and 2015 NHAMCS Emergency Department public use files will show up with an estimate in the search results. (
  • Fill out the form below to search the database for a list of drugs matching your search criteria. (
  • It was largely a response to drug-overdose deaths as well as an explosion of HIV/AIDS, hepatitis C, and other infectious diseases that were spreading unchecked at the time. (
  • Though men are more likely to use and experience harm from drugs, there has been a disproportionate increase in drug related deaths among women and there is a strong link between women having children removed from their care and risk of drug-related death. (
  • As the director of National Drug Control Policy, Dr. Rahul Gupta, told CNN last month, "If you're looking to save lives, and you've reached a historic unprecedented level of deaths, you cannot avoid looking at any and every option in order to save those lives. (
  • BEIJING (Reuters) - An increase in the smuggling of synthetic drugs like methamphetamine from Southeast Asia has fueled a rise in violent crime in China this year, a state-run newspaper reported on Wednesday. (
  • Compared with traditional drugs, such as heroine and opium, methamphetamine can easily lead to mental problems,' he added. (
  • Last year, Yunnan police confiscated more than 9 tonnes of methamphetamine that had been smuggled in from Myanmar, while drugs have also been coming in from Vietnam, it added. (
  • Liu added that China was suspected of having 14 million drug users, five times more than official numbers, and about half of them use methamphetamine. (
  • The use of drugs in China, particularly synthetic drugs like methamphetamine, ketamine and ecstasy, has grown along with the rise of a new urban class with greater disposable income. (
  • Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced the fee rates under the Over-the-Counter (OTC) Monograph Drug user fee program for fiscal year (FY) 2021. (
  • Devonte Wright, age 21, from Waterloo, Iowa, received the prison term after a May 24, 2021 guilty plea to being a drug user in possession of a firearm. (
  • A descriptive questionnaire survey in Karachi city was made to identify the socioeconomic profile and beliefs and practices of 500 drug users. (
  • The Biden administration said that a grant program to help prevent additional harm to people who use illicit drugs will not pay for safer pipes. (
  • And, yes, part of this funding should be used to provide the things that are most needed to save lives and prevent infectious diseases - such as syringes, naloxone, fentanyl test strips, safer sex supplies and, yes, safer smoking kits for people who consume drugs through smoking. (
  • Not only do safer smoking supplies prevent the spread of infectious diseases such as HIV and Hepatitis C, but they can also greatly reduce the risk of overdose when people switch from injection drug use (inhalation via a pipe rather than injection can result in ingestion of lower doses of the drug, which can help prevent overdose). (
  • Burness asserts that gradual-withdrawal methods offer a safer alternative to rapid detox, and cites the advantages of inpatient drug treatment programs. (
  • Not a single drug on the guideline is regulated or approved for injection use even though injectable opioids exist and are safer, but are restricted. (
  • Dismissing the unfounded claim that making drug use safer encourages drug use, he said, "As an evidence-based physician that has spent his career dealing with science and moving data around, we just do not have that evidence. (
  • Previously, researchers in Rhode Island and North Carolina also found that some users adopted safer behaviors - such as throwing out their drugs or using less often - after testing their drugs with the strips. (
  • It's a glaring omission during an overdose crisis with so many using injection drugs. (
  • 20% of all hepatitis A cases reported to CDC, but no large outbreaks have occurred among persons who use drugs since adoption of the recommendation for hepatitis A vaccination of persons who use injection and non-injection drugs was made in 1996. (
  • Those conditions associated with femoral vein injection do not exclusively result from this practice, and the proportion of these admissions not associated with injection drug use is unknown. (
  • Police know who the drug users are, said Dr Gökengin, and they often don't want to go for treatment and be seen. (
  • For injection drug users with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, providing treatment opportunities within a local needle exchange program can provide care to more patients and eventually cure more patients, a new study suggests. (
  • The co-authors of an accompanying editor's note point out that the treatment for HCV has improved substantially, but it can be a real challenge to provide treatment to injection drug users because the US healthcare system is not oriented toward the needs of this population. (
  • There have been studies that have shown, particularly in Vancouver, that in those rare cases these drugs have worked effectively in allowing the person to have a less chaotic life - and eventually connect them with treatment and get their life back in order,' Yaffe said. (
  • Of course, to be fully effective, these public health interventions must be coupled with infrastructure that addresses housing and food insecurity, and provides mental health services, evidence-based drug treatment and other supportive services, especially for unhoused people living on the street. (
  • Novus Medical Detox Center offers safe, effective alcohol and drug treatment programs in a home-like residential setting. (
  • The state could do far more to expand the workforce by investing in broader access to effective drug treatment programs, rather than spending scarce state resources on the administration of drug screening and testing requirements,' said Jon Peacock, research director for Kids Forward, which advocates for children and families in Wisconsin. (
  • We are determined to make it easier for people with problem drug or alcohol use to access treatment, so I am pleased to open this facility offering families the chance to stay together while parents receive specialist support in a safe and structured environment. (
  • Researchers at the University of Utah School of Dentistry found that patients in drug treatment programs who received professional dental care stayed in the substance abuse programs two times longer and saw an 80% increase in completing the program than those who received no dental care. (
  • When it failed to deliver the results he had hoped for, the PM blamed and ousted the Drug Tsar and established the National Treatment Agency (NTA). (
  • MARLBOROUGH, Mass.--( BUSINESS WIRE )-- Sunovion Pharmaceuticals Inc. (Sunovion) today announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has accepted for review the New Drug Application (NDA) for SUN-101 (glycopyrrolate), a nebulized long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA), delivered via PARI's innovative investigational eFlow ® closed system nebulizer, for the long-term, maintenance treatment of airflow obstruction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). (
  • While these data support the NDA filing which has been accepted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), acceptance of the NDA does not mean that SUN-101/eFlow ® will be approved by the FDA for the treatment of adults with COPD. (
  • The investigational combined product, consisting of SUN-101 and the eFlow ® closed system nebulizer which has been optimized for SUN-101 delivery, has not been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of COPD. (
  • AIDS is primarily spread by sexual contact and the sharing of contaminated needles and syringes among users of illegal intravenous drugs. (
  • Although the pharmacy is recommended as a potentially favorable place to listen to and form bonds with users, the results show objective and subjective obstacles to render it suitable for the work on adherence. (
  • To maximize HIV therapeutic benefit among opiate users, information is needed about pharmacokinetic interactions between antiretrovirals and therapies for substance abuse. (
  • Modeled on Arizona's successful Proposition 200, Prop. 36 would allow most offenders charged with simple possession of drugs to opt for a diversion program instead of imprisonment. (
  • It applies only to first and second time drug possession offenders who are not charged with other crimes simultaneously and have not had a serious or violent "strike" in the past five years. (
  • As of December 31, 1999, the state prison system held a record 45,000 drug offenders, 20,000 of whom were convicted for simple possession of drugs. (
  • He notes that Prop. 36 applies only to drug possession for personal use, and that anyone simultaneously charged with rape or sexual assault, or convicted of such an offense in the past five years, would be explicitly disqualified. (
  • Matthew Robbins, age 42, from Ely, Iowa, was convicted of one count of being a felon and unlawful drug user in possession of a firearm. (
  • Officers can already issue a formal warning for possession of lower category drugs. (
  • Sadly, we have seen this play out before our eyes here in Maryland where our legislators recently decided that it's okay to discourage low-barrier access to clean syringes and, moreover, to continue to rack up arrests, criminalizing people for possession of-not a drug-but paraphernalia. (
  • Morhaim's bill would allow health departments in the state to approve or deny applications for facilities where people can use illegal drugs already in their possession without facing ramifications. (
  • The Drug User Health team, housed in the Office of Infectious Disease, works collaboratively to support programs that address infectious disease among people who use drugs by cultivating trusting relationships with diverse communities of drug users adversely affected by Hepatitis, HIV, and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD). (
  • Drug dependence is defined as "….a state arising from repeated, periodic or continuous administration of a drug that results in harm to the individual and sometimes to society" [1]. (
  • Dr. Klaire presented the study findings at the virtual annual meeting of the College on Problems of Drug Dependence. (
  • Breaking the Cycle of Dependence - launched in December 2010 - is so evangelical that it gives little attention to 'the inconvenient science' or to listening to those who use drugs. (
  • The study was published Jan. 14 in the journal Drug and Alcohol Dependence. (
  • In this context, the following research a public health problem, due to the impact of question was outlined: is there an association increase in consumption/dependence, mul- between drug use and sociodemographic and tiuse and the intensity of its consequences(1). (
  • In 1998, the peak of the drug crisis of the '90s, 400 people died of an overdose. (
  • The second crisis is disputed, but no less deadly: Our drug policy leaves people to fend for themselves, while we waste time and resources. (
  • Lord Advocate Dorothy Bain told MSPs this would now include Class A drugs in a bid to address the underlying causes of Scotland's drugs death crisis . (
  • In an editorial (opens in new tab) published today (Nov. 12) in the journal Nature, Dr. David Nutt, a British psychiatrist, wrote that there is a crisis in the drug-discovery pipeline of mental health medicines. (
  • Smacked" and other products which contain synthetic drugs can cause serious harm when used. (
  • Such clubs will save lives lost to overdoses through heroin tainted by fentanyl, "disrupt" profits for drug dealers from organized crime gangs, eliminate an avenue for money laundering and thereby make housing more affordable. (
  • Researchers in Vancouver distributed take-home fentanyl test strip kits at 10 sites that allow users to test their illicit drugs. (
  • If a sample turns up positive for fentanyl, Dr. Klaire said, users may discard the drug or "be more careful with it. (
  • The drug supply is heavily contaminated [with fentanyl]," he said, "but even when people know it's contaminated, they still need to go ahead and use it. (
  • Taken together, these studies show that take-home test strips are a feasible, acceptable, and effective strategy for people who use drugs to reduce their risk of fentanyl overdose. (
  • He added that "fentanyl test strips help people make more informed decisions about their drug use and reducing their risk of overdose. (
  • The new National Drug Strategy refers specifically to 'medically supervised injection centres and drug consumption rooms' and the need to prevent and respond to overdose 'including increased access to naloxone' as 'examples of evidence-based and practice-informed approaches'," 1 said Melanie Walker, Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of AIVL. (
  • Specialists in the field, even those who opposed Margaret Thatcher's political views in most other matters, recognise that the heyday of evidence-based British drug services was during her time as Prime Minister. (
  • New Labour offered advocates of evidence-based drug policy, drug user networks and professionals in the field a hard choice. (
  • But the value of safe-drug consumption facilities is "backed by a wealth of evidence," Bridge said. (
  • DAART for Drug Users is an individual-level intervention. (
  • 1998) was to evaluate the effects of different levels of monetary incentives as well as the use of educational intervention among active drug users to comply with TB skin test readings. (
  • Demographic and drug use characteristics were tested using chi-square analyses while the effects of the intervention were tested using logistic regression analyses (only on intention-to-treat basis). (
  • Using the existing CTN-0049 cohort as a research platform, the proposed RCT will assess the effectiveness of an efficacious linkage to care intervention for HIV/HCV co-infected substance users. (
  • No national data exist for the prevalence of injection drug use in England ( 7 ). (
  • The amazing prevalence of the use of opiates by young persons, Dr. Van Dyke said, is one of the chief problems that faces those who are trying to establish an efficient and effective method to control drugs and the distribution of raw opium and opium products. (
  • to estimate the prevalence of drug use among school adolescents and its association with sociodemographic and sexual variables. (
  • high prevalence of drug use among school-age adolescents and its association with low schooling, lack of religious practice, and precocious work and sexual intercourse were identified. (
  • Based on this assump- international studies(4) indicate the onset of tion, the following objective was defined: to consumption occurs mainly in adolescence, estimate the prevalence of drug use among the transition phase between childhood and school-age adolescents and their association exposure to adulthood. (
  • In addition to expanded funding for the overdose reversal drug, naloxone, and drug testing strips, the federal government recently announced a model law to help states ensure access to syringe service programs. (
  • On December 17th, Health Protection Scotland contacted the Bacterial Zoonosis Branch (BZB) to discuss 3 cases of anthrax in heroin users. (
  • Prop. 36 would have only a modest effect on marijuana users , since they are mostly protected from prison by California's 25-year-old decrim law. (
  • Heavy marijuana users had worse driving performance during a driving simulator test than nonuser even when not under the influence. (
  • Gruber and her colleagues looked at marijuana users and nonusers whose driving performance was assessed on a driving simulator. (
  • Compared to nonusers, heavy marijuana users had worse driving performance during the test. (
  • But this study shows that driving can be impaired even in marijuana users who aren't high and that the public needs to reconsider its understanding of impairment. (
  • The state's main syringe exchange can't keep up with demand for clean needles among injection drug users. (
  • That's because, he says, some IV drug users engage in risky behavior such as prostitution to support their drug habit. (
  • School is the main place that adolescents just be explained by reference to the physiolo- learn to replicate patterns of behavior amon- gical effects, since it is the set of motivations gst peers and gain entry to group affiliations, and the consequences of use that transform thus it also offers a crucial space for the early any psychoactive substance into drug (2). (
  • Of clients attending the centers between April and November of 1986, blood samples were obtained from 509 individuals with iv drug use in their histories. (
  • Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, said, 'The real important advance here is the proof of concept that in yet another high risk group - IV-drug users - pre-exposure prophylaxis can work if the individuals adhere to taking the drug. (
  • Find out more about AIVL, the national peak organisation representing peer-based drug user organisations. (
  • AIVL is the national organisation representing people who use/have used illicit drugs and is the peak body for the state and territory peer-based drug user organisations. (
  • California has the highest proportion of drug prisoners in the nation, according to a recent study by the Sentencing Project. (
  • But according to the CDC, this is the first study of its kind to prove effective in reducing rates among those who inject drugs. (
  • Individual counseling was used and the focus of this study was on the behavioral beliefs and subjective norms that are most related to the behavioral intentions among drug users. (
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to explore the cardiovascular safety of antimuscarinic drugs to treat overactive bladder (OAB) in Denmark. (
  • The trial will study whether the compound alleviates depression in people who haven't been helped by drugs that are currently approved to treat the disorder. (
  • Even when they're not high on marijuana, recreational users of the drug display signs of impaired driving, a new study finds. (
  • What was interesting was when we examined impulsivity in our analyses, most of the differences we saw between cannabis users and healthy controls went away, suggesting that impulsivity may play a role in performance differences," said study co-author Mary Kathryn Dahlgren, a McLean research fellow. (
  • Multisource drug products listed under the same heading (e.g. identical active ingredients, dosage form, and routes of administration) and having the same strength (see Therapeutic Equivalence-Related Terms, Pharmaceutical Equivalents) generally will be coded AB if a study is submitted demonstrating bioequivalence. (
  • If a study is submitted that demonstrates bioequivalence to a specific listed drug product, the generic product will be given the same three-character code as the reference listed drug it was compared against. (
  • A cross-sectional study was linked to the themselves through peers as they begin to project: "University and public school: looking share group convictions and behaviors, such for strategies to face the factors that interfere as drug use. (
  • Nevertheless, this analysis highlights a potentially important trend and the need for further quantitative and qualitative research in injection drug users. (
  • Very often, cannabis users are saying to us that the cannabis they are taking recently is having an effect on them it didn't have before. (
  • He said cannabis users who mistakenly take the synthetic versions often experience "much more profound" effects. (
  • We have to balance the arguments and the counter-arguments and certainly the conversation we're having this morning would highlight the grave dangers of cannabis being secured by users from unscrupulous suppliers," he said. (
  • It's important to be mindful that whether someone is acutely intoxicated, or a heavy recreational cannabis user who's not intoxicated, there may be an impact on driving, but certainly not everyone demonstrates impairment simply as a function of exposure to cannabis," Gruber said. (
  • This is especially important to keep in mind given increasing numbers of medical cannabis patients, who differ from recreational users with regard to product choice and goal of use," she added. (
  • Already in place in a number of European countries including Britain and Germany, the centres would provide sterile needles and medical oversight for injectors of heroin and other illegal drugs. (
  • Person-to-person transmission of HAV between persons who report drug use and/or homelessness could result from contaminated needles and other injection paraphernalia, specific sexual contact and practices, or from generally poor sanitary conditions. (
  • As we continue the agency's efforts on this front, today we are republishing fee rates under this OTC Monograph Drug User Fee Program (OMUFA)- an important step in implementing the OTC monograph reform provisions under the CARES Act. (
  • However, by supporting OTC monograph reform efforts, these fees will aid in improving the efficiency, timeliness, and predictability of the review process for OTC monograph drugs. (
  • While many individuals who undergo rapid detox programs are subsequently prescribed additional drugs to manage the discomforts associated with detox, Burness notes that Novus patients won't be on new medications when they leave since gradual-withdrawal programs place minimum stress on the body. (
  • Otherwise, they will stave off drug withdrawal by continuing to seek illicit drugs on a daily or near daily basis, engaging in close in physical contact and risky behaviours. (
  • Generally, addictive drugs can act as positive reinforcers (producing euphoria) or as negative reinforcers (alleviating symptoms of withdrawal or dysphoria) [6,7]. (
  • The drug abuser may expect or perceive the benefits of drug use as the attainment of pleasurable feelings (relaxation), increased social interactions (reduced inhibition), alteration of their psychological condition to a more desirable state (escapism), physical changes (anabolic steroids) or avoidance of withdrawal symptoms in someone who is dependent on drugs [8]. (