Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.
A colorless liquid with a sharp burning taste and slight odor. It is used as a local anesthetic and to reduce pain associated with LIDOCAINE injection. Also, it is used in the manufacture of other benzyl compounds, as a pharmaceutic aid, and in perfumery and flavoring.
The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).
An induced state of non-reactivity to grafted tissue from a donor organism that would ordinarily trigger a cell-mediated or humoral immune response.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Immunosuppression by the administration of increasing doses of antigen. Though the exact mechanism is not clear, the therapy results in an increase in serum levels of allergen-specific IMMUNOGLOBULIN G, suppression of specific IgE, and an increase in suppressor T-cell activity.
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).

Spinal antinociceptive synergism between morphine and clonidine persists in mice made acutely or chronically tolerant to morphine. (1/1835)

Morphine (Mor) tolerance has been attributed to a reduction of opioid-adrenergic antinociceptive synergy at the spinal level. The present experiments tested the interaction of intrathecally (i.t.) administered Mor-clonidine (Clon) combinations in mice made acutely or chronically tolerant to Mor. ICR mice were pretreated with Mor either acutely (40 nmol i.t., 8 h; 100 mg/kg s.c., 4 h) or chronically (3 mg/kg s.c. every 6 h days 1 and 2; 5 mg/kg s.c. every 6 h days 3 and 4). Antinociception was detected via the hot water (52.5 degrees C) tail-flick test. After the tail-flick latencies returned to baseline levels, dose-response curves were generated to Mor, Clon, and Mor-Clon combinations in tolerant and control mice. Development of tolerance was confirmed by significant rightward shifts of the Mor dose-response curves in tolerant mice compared with controls. Isobolographic analysis was conducted; the experimental combined ED50 values were compared statistically against their respective theoretical additive ED50 values. In all Mor-pretreated groups, the combination of Mor and Clon resulted in significant leftward shifts in the dose-response curves compared with those of each agonist administered separately. In all tolerant and control groups, the combination of Mor and Clon produced an ED50 value significantly less than the corresponding theoretical additive ED50 value. Mor and Clon synergized in Mor-tolerant as well as in control mice. Spinally administered adrenergic/opioid synergistic combinations may be effective therapeutic strategies to manage pain in patients apparently tolerant to the analgesic effects of Mor.  (+info)

Endotoxin fails to induce IFN-gamma in endotoxin-tolerant mice: deficiencies in both IL-12 heterodimer production and IL-12 responsiveness. (2/1835)

Mice exposed to sublethal endotoxemia develop short-term endotoxin tolerance, a state characterized by decreased monokine production and enhanced protection against endotoxic lethality. We confirmed that TNF-alpha production is markedly impaired in endotoxin-tolerant mice and additionally found 2- to 6-fold decreases in serum IFN-gamma in these animals following endotoxin challenge. The IFN-gamma deficiency of endotoxin tolerance correlated with 8-fold decreases in the bioactive p40/p35 heterodimeric form of IL-12. In contrast, total circulating IL-12 p40 was reduced by only 30-50%. Endotoxin-tolerant mice were less responsive to IL-12 than control mice, as evidenced by 3-fold lower levels of IFN-gamma inducible in vivo when rIL-12 was administered at the time of endotoxin challenge. Similarly, spleen cell cultures of endotoxin-tolerant mice produced 3-fold less IFN-gamma in the presence of optimal concentrations of both IL-12 and IL-18. Finally, levels of IL-12R beta 2 subunit mRNA and the percent composition of NK lymphocytes in the spleen were both decreased in endotoxin-tolerant mice relative to controls. We conclude that endotoxin-tolerant mice are profoundly impaired in their ability to produce IFN-gamma in response to endotoxin and that this is associated with acquired defects in both the production of circulating IL-12 heterodimer response and the response to IL-12 by NK cells.  (+info)

Randomized secondary prevention trial of azithromycin in patients with coronary artery disease and serological evidence for Chlamydia pneumoniae infection: The Azithromycin in Coronary Artery Disease: Elimination of Myocardial Infection with Chlamydia (ACADEMIC) study. (3/1835)

BACKGROUND: Chlamydia pneumoniae commonly causes respiratory infection, is vasotropic, causes atherosclerosis in animal models, and has been found in human atheromas. Whether it plays a causal role in clinical coronary artery disease (CAD) and is amenable to antibiotic therapy is uncertain. METHODS AND RESULTS: CAD patients (n=302) who had a seropositive reaction to C pneumoniae (IgG titers >/=1:16) were randomized to receive placebo or azithromycin, 500 mg/d for 3 days, then 500 mg/wk for 3 months. Circulating markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP], interleukin [IL]-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha), C pneumoniae antibody titers, and cardiovascular events were assessed at 3 and 6 months. Treatment groups were balanced, with age averaging 64 (SD=10) years; 89% of the patients were male. Azithromycin reduced a global rank sum score of the 4 inflammatory markers at 6 (but not 3) months (P=0. 011) as well as the mean global rank sum change score: 531 (SD=201) for active drug and 587 (SD=190) for placebo (P=0.027). Specifically, change-score ranks were significantly lower for CRP (P=0.011) and IL-6 (P=0.043). Antibody titers were unchanged, and number of clinical cardiovascular events at 6 months did not differ by therapy (9 for active drug, 7 for placebo). Azithromycin decreased infections requiring antibiotics (1 versus 12 at 3 months, P=0.002) but caused more mild, primarily gastrointestinal, adverse effects (36 versus 17, P=0.003). CONCLUSIONS: In CAD patients positive for C pneumoniae antibodies, global tests of 4 markers of inflammation improved at 6 months with azithromycin. However, unlike another smaller study, no differences in antibody titers and clinical events were observed. Longer-term and larger studies of antichlamydial therapy are indicated.  (+info)

Stem cell mobilization with G-CSF alone in breast cancer patients: higher progenitor cell yield by delivering divided doses (2 x 5 microg/kg) compared to a single dose (1 x 10 microg/kg). (4/1835)

We investigated the schedule dependency of G-CSF (10 microg/kg) alone in mobilizing peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) in breast cancer patients. After a median of three cycles (range, 2-6) of anthracycline-based chemotherapy, 49 patients with breast cancer (stage II/III, > or = 10+ Ln n = 36; locally advanced/inflammatory n = 8, stage IV (NED) n = 5) underwent PBPC collection after steady-state mobilization either with 1 x 10 microg/kg (n = 27) or with 2 x 5 microg/kg (n = 22) G-CSF daily for 4 consecutive days until completion of apheresis. Apheresis was started on day 5. Priming with 2 x 5 microg/kg resulted in a higher median number of CD34+ cells (5.8 vs 1.9 x 10(6)/kg, P = 0.003), MNC (6.6 vs 2.6 x 10(8)/kg, P < 0.001) and CFU-GM (6.5 vs 1.3 x 10(4)/kg, P = 0.001) in the first apheresis than with 1 x 10 microg/kg. Also the overall number of collected BFU-E was higher in the 2 x 5 microg group (9.2 vs 3.1 x 10(4)/kg; P = 0.01). After high-dose chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide/thiotepa/mitoxantrone (n = 46) hematopoietic engraftment with leukocyte count > 1.0/nl was reached in both groups after a median of 10 days (range, 8-15) and with platelets count > 50/nl after 12 (range, 9-40) and 13 days (range, 12-41), respectively. A threshold of > 2.5 x 10(6)/kg reinfused CD34+ cells ensured rapid platelet engraftment (12 vs 17 days; P = 0.12). Therefore, the target of collecting > 2.5 x 10(6) CD34+ cells was achieved in 21/27 (80%) patients of the 1 x 10 microg group and in 21/22 (95%) patients of the 2 x 5 microg/kg group with a median of two aphereses (range, 1-4). None in the 10 microg/kg group, but 6/22 (28%) patients in the 2 x 5 microg/kg group required only one apheresis procedure, resulting in fewer apheresis procedures in the 2 x 5 microg/kg group (mean, 1.8 vs 2.3, P = 0.01). These results demonstrate that priming with 10 microg/kg G-CSF alone is well tolerated and effective in mobilizing sufficient numbers of CD34+ cells in breast cancer patients and provide prompt engraftment after CTM high-dose chemotherapy. G-CSF given 5 microg/kg twice daily (2 x 5 microg) leads to a higher harvest of CD34+ cells and required fewer apheresis procedures than when given 10 microg/kg once daily (1 x 10 microg).  (+info)

Effects of Tyr-MIF-1 on stress-induced analgesia and the blockade of development of morphine tolerance by stress in mice. (5/1835)

The role of Tyr-MIF-1 (Tyr-Pro-Leu-Gly-NH2) in biological responses to stress exposure was examined in mice. Intraperitoneal or intracerebroventricular administration of Tyr-MIF-1 attenuated not only footshock (FS)- and forced swimming (SW)-stress-induced analgesia (SIA) but also socio-psychological (PSY)-SIA that, when using the communication box, is produced without any direct physical nociceptions. Tyr-MIF-1 also disrupted the suppressive effect of concurrent exposure to FS- and PSY-stress on the development of morphine antinociceptive tolerance. In elevated-plus-maze tests, mice treated with Tyr-MIF-1 tended to spend more time in the open arms compared with the control group, suggesting the anxiolytic properties of the peptide. Thus, the finding that Tyr-MIF-1 modulates these stress responses suggests that the peptide regulates an endogenous biological alert system responding to stress exposure, perhaps, counteracting the excessive response of the system. Furthermore, Tyr-MIF-1, in the case of PSY-stress, through the attenuation of emotional factors such as fear and anxiety, may suppress PSY-SIA and inhibition by PSY-stress of the development of morphine tolerance.  (+info)

d-Methadone blocks morphine tolerance and N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced hyperalgesia. (6/1835)

Previous in vitro and in vivo studies have determined that the d isomer of methadone has N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist activity. The present studies examined the ability of d-methadone to attenuate the development of morphine tolerance in mice and rats and to modify NMDA-induced hyperalgesia in rats. A decrease in the percentage of mice analgesic (tail-flick response) after 5 days of once-daily morphine (7 mg/kg s.c.) was completely blocked by coadministration of d-methadone given s.c. at 10 mg/kg. Morphine given s.c. to mice on an escalating three times per day dosing schedule resulted in a nearly 3-fold increase in the tail-flick ED50 dose of morphine which was prevented by s.c. coadministered d-methadone at 15 mg/kg. In rats, intrathecal (i.t.) morphine produced a 38-fold increase in the ED50, which was completely prevented by the coadministration of i.t. d-methadone at 160 micrograms/rat. A decrease in thermal paw withdrawal latency induced by the i.t. administration of 1.64 micrograms/rat NMDA was completely blocked by pretreatment with 160 micrograms/rat d-methadone. Thus, systemically coadministered d-methadone prevents systemically induced morphine tolerance in mice, i.t. d-methadone attenuates tolerance produced by i.t. morphine in rats, and i.t. d-methadone, at the same dose which modulates morphine tolerance, blocks NMDA-induced hyperalgesia. These results support the conclusion that d-methadone affects the development of morphine tolerance and NMDA-induced hyperalgesia by virtue of its NMDA receptor antagonist activity.  (+info)

The stimulatory action and the development of tolerance to caffeine is associated with alterations in gene expression in specific brain regions. (7/1835)

We sought neurochemical correlates to the stimulatory action of caffeine in rats and to adaptations during development of tolerance. Acute intraperitoneal injections of caffeine (7.5 mg/kg) increased locomotion and NGFI-A mRNA, a marker of neuronal activity, in the hippocampal area CA1, but decreased NGFI-A mRNA in rostral striatum and nucleus accumbens. Rats that received caffeine (0.3 gm/l) in their drinking water for 14 d developed tolerance to the stimulatory effect of a challenge with caffeine (7.5 mg/kg) and responded with a less pronounced decrease of NGFI-A mRNA in rostral striatum and nucleus accumbens. Metabolism of caffeine to its active metabolites was increased in tolerant animals, but the total level of active metabolites in brain was not significantly altered. Thus, there are changes in caffeine metabolism after long-term caffeine treatment, but they cannot explain development of tolerance. Caffeine-tolerant animals had downregulated levels of adenosine A2A receptors and the corresponding mRNA in rostral parts of striatum, but an increased expression of adenosine A1 receptor mRNA in the lateral amygdala. No changes in mesencephalic tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA were found in caffeine-tolerant rats. Thus, we have identified neuronal pathways that are regulated by adenosine A1 and/or A2A receptors and are targets for the stimulatory action of caffeine. Furthermore, adaptive changes in gene expression in these brain areas were associated with the development of locomotor tolerance to caffeine.  (+info)

Operant methodology in the study of learning. (8/1835)

A series of experiments is described in which operant methodology is used to study the effects of drugs on "learning." Emphasis is placed on the technique of repeated acquisition as a behavioral baseline for studying this type of transition state. In this technique, each subject is required to learn a new discrimination each session. Multiple-schedule procedures are also described in which acquisition is compared to a "performance" task, where the discrimination is the same each session. The learning baseline is more sensitive to the disruptive effects of a variety of drugs (e.g., cocaine, d-amphetamine, haloperidol) than is the performance baseline. This general finding obtains across procedural variations and species (pigeons and monkeys). The potential usefulness of these procedures for studying both acute and chronic behavioral toxicity is discussed.  (+info)

Drug tolerance is a medical concept that refers to the decreased response to a drug following its repeated use, requiring higher doses to achieve the same effect. This occurs because the body adapts to the presence of the drug, leading to changes in the function or expression of targets that the drug acts upon, such as receptors or enzymes. Tolerance can develop to various types of drugs, including opioids, benzodiazepines, and alcohol, and it is often associated with physical dependence and addiction. It's important to note that tolerance is different from resistance, which refers to the ability of a pathogen to survive or grow in the presence of a drug, such as antibiotics.

Benzyl alcohol is a aromatic alcohol with the chemical formula C6H5CH2OH. It is a colorless liquid with a characteristic, mildly unpleasant odor. Benzyl alcohol is used as a solvent and as an intermediate in the production of other chemicals. In medicine, it is used as a local anesthetic and antimicrobial agent. It can be found in some personal care products, such as cosmetics, shampoos, and sunscreens, as well as in topical medications and intravenous medications.

Fungal drug resistance is a condition where fungi are no longer susceptible to the antifungal drugs that were previously used to treat infections they caused. This can occur due to genetic changes in the fungi that make them less sensitive to the drug's effects, or due to environmental factors that allow the fungi to survive and multiply despite the presence of the drug.

There are several mechanisms by which fungi can develop drug resistance, including:

1. Mutations in genes that encode drug targets: Fungi can acquire mutations in the genes that encode for the proteins or enzymes that the antifungal drugs target. These mutations can alter the structure or function of these targets, making them less susceptible to the drug's effects.
2. Overexpression of efflux pumps: Fungi can increase the expression of genes that encode for efflux pumps, which are proteins that help fungi expel drugs from their cells. This can reduce the intracellular concentration of the drug and make it less effective.
3. Changes in membrane composition: Fungi can alter the composition of their cell membranes to make them less permeable to antifungal drugs, making it more difficult for the drugs to enter the fungal cells and exert their effects.
4. Biofilm formation: Fungi can form biofilms, which are complex communities of microorganisms that adhere to surfaces and are protected by a matrix of extracellular material. Biofilms can make fungi more resistant to antifungal drugs by limiting drug penetration and creating an environment that promotes the development of resistance.

Fungal drug resistance is a significant clinical problem, particularly in patients with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or cancer. It can lead to treatment failures, increased morbidity and mortality, and higher healthcare costs. To address this issue, there is a need for new antifungal drugs, as well as strategies to prevent and manage drug resistance.

Immune tolerance, also known as immunological tolerance or specific immune tolerance, is a state of unresponsiveness or non-reactivity of the immune system towards a particular substance (antigen) that has the potential to elicit an immune response. This occurs when the immune system learns to distinguish "self" from "non-self" and does not attack the body's own cells, tissues, and organs.

In the context of transplantation, immune tolerance refers to the absence of a destructive immune response towards the transplanted organ or tissue, allowing for long-term graft survival without the need for immunosuppressive therapy. Immune tolerance can be achieved through various strategies, including hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, costimulation blockade, and regulatory T cell induction.

In summary, immune tolerance is a critical mechanism that prevents the immune system from attacking the body's own structures while maintaining the ability to respond appropriately to foreign pathogens and antigens.

A Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT) is a medical test used to diagnose prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. It measures how well your body is able to process glucose, which is a type of sugar.

During the test, you will be asked to fast (not eat or drink anything except water) for at least eight hours before the test. Then, a healthcare professional will take a blood sample to measure your fasting blood sugar level. After that, you will be given a sugary drink containing a specific amount of glucose. Your blood sugar levels will be measured again after two hours and sometimes also after one hour.

The results of the test will indicate how well your body is able to process the glucose and whether you have normal, impaired, or diabetic glucose tolerance. If your blood sugar levels are higher than normal but not high enough to be diagnosed with diabetes, you may have prediabetes, which means that you are at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the future.

It is important to note that a Glucose Tolerance Test should be performed under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as high blood sugar levels can be dangerous if not properly managed.

Transplantation tolerance, also known as immunological tolerance or transplant tolerance, is a state in which the immune system of a transplant recipient does not mount an immune response against the transplanted organ or tissue. This is an important goal in transplantation medicine to prevent graft rejection and reduce the need for long-term immunosuppressive therapy, which can have significant side effects.

Transplantation tolerance can be achieved through various mechanisms, including the deletion or regulation of donor-reactive T cells, the induction of regulatory T cells (Tregs) that suppress immune responses against the graft, and the modulation of innate immune responses. The development of strategies to induce transplantation tolerance is an active area of research in transplantation medicine.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Desensitization, Immunologic is a medical procedure that aims to decrease the immune system's response to an allergen. This is achieved through the controlled exposure of the patient to gradually increasing amounts of the allergen, ultimately leading to a reduction in the severity of allergic reactions upon subsequent exposures. The process typically involves administering carefully measured and incrementally larger doses of the allergen, either orally, sublingually (under the tongue), or by injection, under medical supervision. Over time, this repeated exposure can help the immune system become less sensitive to the allergen, thereby alleviating allergic symptoms.

The specific desensitization protocol and administration method may vary depending on the type of allergen and individual patient factors. Immunologic desensitization is most commonly used for environmental allergens like pollen, dust mites, or pet dander, as well as insect venoms such as bee or wasp stings. It is important to note that this procedure should only be performed under the close supervision of a qualified healthcare professional, as there are potential risks involved, including anaphylaxis (a severe and life-threatening allergic reaction).

An allergen is a substance that can cause an allergic reaction in some people. These substances are typically harmless to most people, but for those with allergies, the immune system mistakenly identifies them as threats and overreacts, leading to the release of histamines and other chemicals that cause symptoms such as itching, sneezing, runny nose, rashes, hives, and difficulty breathing. Common allergens include pollen, dust mites, mold spores, pet dander, insect venom, and certain foods or medications. When a person comes into contact with an allergen, they may experience symptoms that range from mild to severe, depending on the individual's sensitivity to the substance and the amount of exposure.

... is called drug desensitization. The opposite concept to drug tolerance is drug reverse tolerance (or drug sensitization), in ... this may accelerate tolerance, further reducing the drug's effects. Drug tolerance is indicative of drug use but is not ... Behavioral tolerance occurs with the use of certain psychoactive drugs, where tolerance to a behavioral effect of a drug, such ... Drug tolerance or drug insensitivity is a pharmacological concept describing subjects' reduced reaction to a drug following its ...
... to a drug following its repeated use. Not all drugs are subject to reverse tolerance. This is the opposite of drug tolerance, ... "Reverse tolerance and drug sensitization". "What Is Reverse Tolerance?". "Chronic Amphetamine Use and Abuse". v t e (Articles ... a drug holiday) that aim to reduce the insensitivity caused by drug tolerance. Desensitization (medicine) Downregulation and ... and tolerance may sometimes lead to reverse tolerance. For example, heavy drinkers initially develop tolerance to alcohol, ...
February 1996 Zero Tolerance Policy Report, American Bar Association "Pensacola honor students win zero tolerance drug ruling" ... "Zero tolerance for zero tolerance" Atlanta Constitution, March 20, 2006. Takyi-Boadu, Charles. "On Zero-Tolerance Corruption ... ISBN 978-0-697-03177-8. "Losing my Tolerance for 'Zero-Tolerance'" article by journalist Randy Cassingham on Zero-Tolerance " ... These policies are promoted for preventing drug abuse and violence in schools. Critics say zero-tolerance policies in schools ...
Ličko V (1985). "Drugs, Receptors and Tolerance". Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Psychoactive Drugs. pp. 311-322. ... sudden decrease in response to a drug after its administration; i.e. a rapid and short-term onset of drug tolerance. It can ... Tachyphylaxis and Tolerance: Biomathematics of Rate Sensitivity Tachyphylaxis at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical ... Increasing the dose of the drug may be able to restore the original response. Tachyphylaxis is characterized by the rate ...
Tolerance and Resistance Cosmetics Database HCMV drug resistance mutations tool Combating Drug Resistance - An informative ... Reduced drug accumulation: by decreasing drug permeability and/or increasing active efflux (pumping out) of the drugs across ... "Tolerance and Resistance to Drugs". Merck Manuals Consumer Version. "Chemo 'Undermines Itself' Through Rogue Response",BBC News ... Drug-resistant traits are accordingly inherited by subsequent offspring, resulting in a population that is more drug-resistant ...
Affordable pricing of fish, rice, coconut and pão (local bread). Zero-tolerance to the drug trade. Free WiFi across Goa. To ...
2002). "[Hepatic tolerance of atypical antipsychotic drugs]". L'Encéphale (in French). 28 (6 Pt 1): 542-51. PMID 12506267. ... The drug was first introduced in France sometime around 1990. It was withdrawn from the market in 1999 (Morocco) and 2000 ( ... Medifoxamine is the generic name of the drug and its INNTooltip International Nonproprietary Name while médifoxamine is its ... 323-. ISBN 978-0-08-058366-2. Elks J (14 November 2014). The Dictionary of Drugs: Chemical Data: Chemical Data, Structures and ...
p. 3. Buruma, Ybo (2007). "Dutch Tolerance: On Drugs, Prostitution, and Euthanasia". Crime and Justice. 35 (1): 73-113. doi: ... The Netherlands has a tradition of social tolerance. In the late 19th century this Dutch tradition of religious tolerance ... It dragged on from December 1572 to the next summer, when Haarlemers finally surrendered on 13 July upon the promise that the ... "Drug Kingpin Trial 'Ultimate Test' for Dutch Rule of Law". VOA. Agence France-Presse. 21 December 2022. Retrieved 18 July 2023 ...
... loss of control over drug intake, and emergence of withdrawal symptoms. Tolerance is another component of drug dependence. ... A 1988 Surgeon General report states, "Tolerance" is another aspect of drug addiction [dependence] whereby a given dose of a ... Physical dependence on the drug can also occur, and is characterized by a withdrawal syndrome that usually accompanies drug ... "Anyone Can Become Addicted to Drugs". National Institute on Drug Abuse. July 2015. Camenga, Deepa R.; Klein, Jonathan D. (2016 ...
Siegel, Shepard (2005). "Drug Tolerance, Drug Addiction, and Drug Anticipation". Current Directions in Psychological Science. ... "Extent of drug abuse". Global Illicit Drug Trends 1999. New York: United Nations Office on Drug Control and Crime Prevention. ... United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. (March 2017). Prevention of Drug Use and Treatment of Drug Use Disorders in Rural ... European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (2019), Sweden, Country Drug Report 2019, Publications Office of the ...
... is a phenomenon that occurs when tolerance to the effects of a certain drug produces tolerance to another drug ... Convergence upon the GABAA receptor is why tolerance for one drug in the group will most likely cause cross-tolerance for the ... Sometimes cross-tolerance occurs between two drugs that do not share mechanisms of action or classification. For example, in ... Cross-tolerance has been observed with pharmaceutical drugs such as anti-anxiety agents and illicit substances, and sometimes ...
AFP (2014-04-10). "'Zero tolerance' Sweden leaves heavy drug users behind". Digital Journal. Retrieved 2022-07-20. Pre- ... SDUU organizes Swedish drug users of both legal- and illicit drugs, opioid/opiate users who have or wants OST/MMT (opioid ... including the law that says it is illegal to use and to have drugs in your body; create an ombudsman for drug users; create a ... Social and Cultural Rights Harm reduction Drug policy of Sweden International Network of People who Use Drugs Metzineres ...
Cats develop drug tolerance towards nepetalactones after exposure. The tolerance lasts for a few hours. Lions (Panthera leo) ...
June 2012). "The Diflunisal Trial: study accrual and drug tolerance". Amyloid. 19 (Suppl 1): 37-8. doi:10.3109/13506129.2012. ... In October 2020, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) required the drug label to be updated for all nonsteroidal anti- ... Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, Salicylic acids, Fluoroarenes, Biphenyls, Orphan drugs, Merck & Co. brands). ... Diflunisal also has an antipyretic effect, but this is not a recommended use of the drug. It has been found to inhibit p300 and ...
cited over 400 times) Stewart J, Badiani A (1993). "Tolerance and sensitization to the behavioral effects of drugs". ... the motivational effects of drugs, circadian rhythms, antidepressant and antipsychotic drug action, and sexual behavior. ... cited over 350 times) Shaham Y, Shalev U, Lu L, De Wit H, Stewart J (July 2003). "The reinstatement model of drug relapse: ... cited over 1300 times) Stewart J, de Wit H, Eikelboom R (April 1984). "Role of unconditioned and conditioned drug effects in ...
It entrenches a higher tolerance for drugs in community." In recent years, the usage of medicinal cannabis has been relaxed, ... "S'pore's choice: Drug-free, not drug-tolerant". todayonline.com. Retrieved 20 August 2021. "More Singapore youth seeking help ... "A country that punishes drug traffickers with death is investing in medical marijuana". "Cannabis-derived drug approved for ... "MISUSE OF DRUGS ACT". Attorney-General's Chamber. Singapore Government. 31 March 2008. Archived from the original on 7 August ...
"Canada BC: In Vancouver, Tolerance Of Drugs Draws Addicts". Mapinc.org. 1998-08-21. Retrieved 2010-08-01. "www.pot.tv". Mapinc. ... "Drug Lingo and Drug Paraphernalia". National Anti-Drug Strategy. 2009-07-21. Retrieved 2010-08-01. "Censorship in Canada: 462.2 ... Emery agreed to plead guilty to one charge of drug distribution and accept a five-year sentence in the USA. During Emery's 45 ... In November 2002, Emery and his guests heckled then US drug czar John Walters during his speech at a luncheon sponsored by the ...
Tolerance is expected to develop with regular substituted amphetamine use. When substituted amphetamines are used, drug ... Drug Alcohol Depend. 191 (2018) 309-337]". Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 192: 238. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2018.09.002. ISSN ... "Amphetamines: Drug Use and Abuse". Merck Manual Home Health Handbook. Merck. Retrieved 26 September 2013. Pérez-Mañá, C; ... Amphetamine dependence refers to a state of psychological dependence on a drug in the amphetamine class. Stimulants such as ...
In the United States zero tolerance, an approach against drugs, was originally designed as a part of the War on Drugs under ... UNODC: Sweden's successful drug policy, 2007 Popham, Peter (2003-04-18). "Italy signs up to zero-tolerance drugs crackdown". ... The same year, police began to prioritize drug users and street-level drug crimes over drug distributors. In 1988, all non- ... See zero tolerance in Carson-Dewitt, Rosalyn (2002). Drugs, Alcohol and Tobacco: Learning about the Addictive Behavior; Volume ...
Several pills of opium were smoked at a single session depending on the smoker's tolerance to the drug. The effects could last ... Regular use can lead to drug tolerance or physical dependence. Chronic opium addicts in 1906 China consumed an average of eight ... Illegal drug trade in Colombia Mexican Drug War Nabidh Opium dollar Opium replacement Protocol for Limiting and Regulating the ... "Drug laws in Australia". Carstairs C. (2006). "Jailed for Possession: Illegal Drug Use, Regulation, and Power in Canada, 1920- ...
Zero tolerance for all drug-impaired drivers in the province; Consuming cannabis in public spaces will be prohibited for public ...
A similar trial in the United States also showed drug tolerance. Zeitlin, L.; Hoen, T. E.; Achilles, S. L.; Hegarty, T. A.; ... A phase I clinical trial done on women in India, Thailand gave supporting evidence that users tolerate the drug well. ... and pH were measured by vaginal colposcopy and rectal lavage researchers determined that it fit the safety profile of a drug ...
A single dose of cocaine induces tolerance to the drug's effects. Repeated use is likely to result in addiction. Addicts who ... "Annual prevalence of use of drugs, by region and globally, 2016". World Drug Report 2018. United Nations Office on Drugs and ... The State of the Drugs Problem in Europe 2008 (PDF). Luxembourg: European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. 2008 ... European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (2008). Annual report: the state of the drugs problem in Europe (PDF). ...
"Induced tolerance to nebulized colistin after severe reaction to the drug". Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical ... "Colistimethate sodium". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine. "Colistin sulfate". Drug Information Portal ... As multi-drug resistant bacteria became more prevalent in the 1990s, colistin started to get a second look as an emergency ... "Emergence of Pan drug resistance amongst gram negative bacteria! The First case series from India". December 2014. "New worry: ...
When opioids are used for prolonged periods drug tolerance will occur. Other risks can include chemical dependency, diversion ... The major differences are that it is much more common for the drug to be delivered into the spinal fluid (intrathecal) rather ... Other drugs which can potentiate conventional analgesics or have analgesic properties in certain circumstances are called ... Drugs with anticholinergic activity, such as orphenadrine and cyclobenzaprine, are given in conjunction with opioids for ...
2016). "Enhanced Efflux Activity Facilitates Drug Tolerance in Dormant Bacterial Cells". Mol Cell. 62 (2): 284-294. doi:10.1016 ... The tolerance shown in persister cells differs from antimicrobial resistance in that the tolerance is not inherited and is ... Unlike multiple drug resistance, and antimicrobial resistance, antimicrobial tolerance is transient, and not inherited. ... and cancer persister cells that show tolerance for cancer drugs. Recognition of bacterial persister cells dates back to 1944 ...
"CREB regulation of BK channel gene expression underlies rapid drug tolerance". Genes, Brain and Behavior. 8 (4): 369-76. doi: ... CREB also has an important role in the development of drug addiction and even more so in psychological dependence. There are ...
Understanding these "tolerance" pathways have important implications for designing immunosuppressive drugs. These gene ... B cells could be used during drug screens to probe for compounds that mimic the functional effects of natural tolerance. Gene ... Bambini S, Rappuoli R; Rappuoli (March 2009). "The use of genomics in microbial vaccine development". Drug Discov. Today. 14 (5 ... or drug treatment. Computational tools to reverse-engineer or predict immune cell regulatory networks use these expression ...
August 2019). "Targeting tumor phenotypic plasticity and metabolic remodeling in adaptive cross-drug tolerance". Science ... Pharmacologically ablating G6PD has been shown to overcome cross-tolerance of breast cancer cells to anthracyclines. G6PD ... structures of F420-dependent glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase FGD1 involved in the activation of the anti-tuberculosis drug ...
August 2019). "Targeting tumor phenotypic plasticity and metabolic remodeling in adaptive cross-drug tolerance". Science ... It has also been reported that drug tolerant cancer cells have an increased number and size of mitochondria, which suggested an ... They may also be the result of acquired mitochondrial dysfunction due to adverse effects of drugs, infections, or other ... A pathophysiologically informed paradigm for new drug development". Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 47 (1): 26- ...
... is called drug desensitization. The opposite concept to drug tolerance is drug reverse tolerance (or drug sensitization), in ... this may accelerate tolerance, further reducing the drugs effects. Drug tolerance is indicative of drug use but is not ... Behavioral tolerance occurs with the use of certain psychoactive drugs, where tolerance to a behavioral effect of a drug, such ... Drug tolerance or drug insensitivity is a pharmacological concept describing subjects reduced reaction to a drug following its ...
Understanding drug tolerance. Article by Karen B. Roberts Photo by Kathy F. Atkinson , Illustration by Jeffrey C. Chase July 10 ... Broadly, the idea is to advance methods to understand drug tolerance in bacterial, fungal and cancer cells in order to inform ... If we know the timing of this switch, maybe clinicians one day will be able to prevent this tolerance by scheduling therapy ... In the context of melanoma, we have shown that individual cells can become tolerant to target drug therapy for roughly five ...
Drug tolerance develops when a medication no longer works as well as it once did. Its different from dependence or addiction. ... This is tolerance to other drugs in the same class.. *With certain classes of drugs, like opioids, tolerance can increase the ... risks of drug tolerance. Risks from developing tolerance can include:. *Relapse or flare-up of a condition. The medication may ... Tolerance can happen if youve been using a medication or other drug for a while. If you think your body has developed drug ...
In his speech, he mentioned that a zero-tolerance policy for drugs has been implemented under the Modi government. ... drugs trafficking and national security at Raj Bhawan in Chandigarh. ... After PM Modi assumed charge as PM, the Central government adopted a zero-tolerance policy for drugs. This issue of drugs has a ... In his speech, he mentioned that a zero-tolerance policy for drugs has been implemented under the Modi government. "The money ...
... Residual drug in patient ... Complete the form below to download the complimentary poster: Drug Tolerance Assessment and Improvement in Cell Based NAb ... improving drug tolerance without labor-consuming and potentially damaging sample pretreatment procedures. ... samples may impair detection of neutralizing antibodies (NAb). To facilitate NAb detection in test samples with high drug ...
Now more than ever, as we see student drug use rise in the Covid-19 pandemic, universities must recognise the importance of ... Its time to adopt a harm-reduction approach to student drug use. Despite decades of universities taking the just say no ... In our 2018 report, Taking the Hit, Release and NUS reviewed the drug policies of 151 UK higher education institutions. We ... One finding that does indicate a misunderstanding of current UK drug law is that over half of institutions have policies which ...
CAL SENATE TO HEAR ZERO-TOLERANCE DRUG DUI BILL - SAY NO TO SB 289 CaNorml.org - ... CAL SENATE TO HEAR ZERO-TOLERANCE DRUG DUI BILL - SAY NO TO SB 289. January 5, 2019. March 15, 2013. by Kharla Vezzetti ... Californians Rally Against Zero-Tolerance DUI Bill. TELL THE STATE SENATE TO SAY NO TO SB 289.. KEY SENATORS (Public Safety ... Correas zero-tolerance DUI bill SB 289 have been set for April 30th before the State Senate Public Safety Committee. The bill ...
Antimicrobial drug resistance and tolerance occurs when bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites no longer respond, or have less ... Research from the Francis Crick Institute has revealed a key mechanism that increases tolerance to drugs amongst microbial ... the scientists found that communities with auxotrophs are more likely to have tolerance against hundreds of drugs, than ... Understanding the mechanisms which increase or decrease the chance of a drug working is crucial to aid the developments of new ...
A phoenix from the ashes: Do dying cancer cells induce drug-tolerance in lung cancer? ... A phoenix from the ashes: Do dying cancer cells induce drug-tolerance in lung cancer? ... A role for untranslated p53 mRNA in drug resistance. *Characterisation of YB-1 interactions with the cytoskeleton using live ... We hypothesize that paracrine signaling from cancer cells undergoing apoptosis promotes the emergence of stem cell-like drug ...
Zero-tolerance draws criticism even as teen drug use rises. by Marc Levy , May 19, 2010 , Education, News , 0 comments ... Still, the zero-tolerance policies for drugs, weapons and even tobacco bothered committee members, with Nolan comparing the ... Being caught with drugs can mean being thrown out of the high school, though, which has landed students in the High School ... While administrators say drug use is on the rise in Cambridge schools, there is discomfort among School Committee members about ...
The Translesion Polymerase Rev3L in the Tolerance of Alkylating Anticancer Drugs. Wynand Paul Roos, Anastasia Tsaalbi-Shtylik, ... The Translesion Polymerase Rev3L in the Tolerance of Alkylating Anticancer Drugs. Wynand Paul Roos, Anastasia Tsaalbi-Shtylik, ... The Translesion Polymerase Rev3L in the Tolerance of Alkylating Anticancer Drugs. Wynand Paul Roos, Anastasia Tsaalbi-Shtylik, ... The Translesion Polymerase Rev3L in the Tolerance of Alkylating Anticancer Drugs Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ...
Adverse Drug Reaction extraction: Tolerance to entity recognition errors and sub-domain variants ...
UBC researchers interviews more than 80 teenagers about zero-tolerance and harm reduction ... Zero-tolerance approach to drug use not working with B.C. teens: study. UBC researchers interviews more than 80 teenagers ... Seventeen youth between 10 and 18 years old died from an illicit drug overdose last year. A further 297 died at the ages of 19 ... For parents, talking to their children about drug and alcohol use can be like navigating through a field of landmines. But a ...
Albertas Sheriff Highway Patrol has apprehended 80 drivers for exceeding the provinces zero-tolerance standard for drug and ... Sheriff Highway Patrol in Alberta has apprehended 80 commercial drivers under zero-tolerance drug, alcohol standard ... Albertas Sheriff Highway Patrol has apprehended 80 drivers for exceeding the provinces zero-tolerance standard for drug and ...
... which is a new class of medical drugs ... ... Toleranzia AB has developed a technology platform for tolerance ... Pioneers of Tolerance-Inducing Drugs. The Swedish R&D company Toleranzia AB has developed a technology platform for tolerance- ... "Tolerance-inducing pharmaceuticals is a new class of medical drugs that cannot be found on the market yet. This makes us ... "Also, it is a rare disease and our drug candidate has been granted orphan drug designation which involves market exclusivity ...
Researchers have identified a brain mechanism that could be a drug target to help prevent tolerance and addiction to opioid ... New drug target could prevent tolerance and addiction to opioids, study finds News Published: August 22, 2016 ... Researchers have identified a brain mechanism that could be a drug target to help prevent tolerance and addiction to opioid ... "New drug target could prevent tolerance and addiction to opioids, study finds " ...
Tolerance and Resistance to Drugs - Explore from the MSD Manuals - Medical Consumer Version. ... Tolerance A person may develop tolerance to a drug when the drug is used repeatedly. For instance, when morphine or alcohol is ... Tolerance is a persons diminished response to a drug, which occurs when the drug is used repeatedly and the body adapts to the ... Once tolerance or resistance has developed to a drug, doctors may increase the dose or use a different drug. ...
Tolerance of a medicine may be considered as the ability of the body to endure a certain dose of a medicine. In contrast, drug ... Drug tolerance can lead to physical (physiological) or emotional dependence, which is an adaptive state associated with a ... Drug tolerance. « Back to Glossary Index. Save as PDF. Print this page ... tolerance refers to a decreasing response to repeated constant doses of a medicine, or the need for increasing doses to ...
Anxiety, opioids, cholecystokinin and tolerance. Opioid agonists plus ultra-low-dose antagonists attenuate tolerance. Refs. and ... Drugs used in the treatment of opioid tolerance and physical dependence: a review by. Raith K, Hochhaus G.. Department of ... Dpioid drugs used in the treatment of severe pain are known to produce tolerance that requires a dose increase to maintain a ... Drugs blocking these mechanisms are the most promising option in the treatment of tolerance. Namely, alpha2-adrenoreceptor ...
60% of pain patients find that tolerance buildup significantly impedes their treatment over time. ...
... in the sense of the acquisition of compensatory adaptations to the consequences of the presence of a drug-produced disturbance ... Depending on the function, species, and dose of cannabis, tissue tolerance, behaviorall … ... Tolerance at all levels of complexity in the brain involves learning ... along with evidence of residual tolerance to other not-so-labeled effects of the drug. Dependence on cannabis, in the sense of ...
Tolerance and drug dependence. Adderall is a schedule II controlled substance, meaning that it has a high potential to lead to ... Stimulant drugs may not work for some people, or they may cause intolerable side effects. In these cases, a doctor may ... People who are taking Adderall should talk to a doctor if they have concerns about the side effects or risks of the drug. The ... In some cases, people who take large doses of Adderall for an extended period may become physically dependent on the drug. They ...
RNA ebook psychoactive drugs tolerance and sensitization in the tbe and the Column of measurement to the model see data for ... B and ebook psychoactive drugs tolerance and to from model and Integrate, minimally. This ebook psychoactive drugs is selection ... ebook psychoactive drugs tolerance and: a ligase for brazing and owing the culture of large lines. Will BP, Berthelot JM, ... ebook psychoactive drugs tolerance are one membrane of the genetic model relatively the value copy is proportional on a full ...
Association of Drug Resistance Genes with Multidrug Tolerance. Because phenotypes described were obtained for F32-ART5 ... Whether this tolerance was associated with multidrug tolerance or whether acquisition of multidrug tolerance is a multistep ... Multidrug tolerance results from drug-induced quiescence, which enables parasites to survive exposure to unrelated antimalarial ... Drug Recrudescence Assay. Synchronized F32-TEM and F32-ART5 ring stages were exposed to drug for 48 h, washed, and placed in ...
Tolerance to a drug can be a signal that you are struggling with a substance use disorder. What does addiction look like? ... Tolerance is more than simply taking more of a drug. When a person becomes addicted to a drug, it changes how the brain thinks ... What Role Does Tolerance Play in Addiction?. People with a substance use disorder will have a tolerance to the drug. People who ... Tolerance alone does not mean a person has an addiction. You can have a tolerance to a psychiatric drug or non-opioid pain ...
Drug Tolerance: The 7 Clinical Types. Posted on June 2, 2023. by Joe ... as liquor and also opium possess a lesser addicting effectiveness amount contrasted to medications such as drug and also drug. ... misuse takes place as a development of severe medicine make use of which leads to the progression of disorders such as drug- ... abuse happens as an advancement of intense substance abuse which results in the progression of problems including drug-seeking ...
... new animal drug unless an import tolerance has been established for that drug and any residues do not exceed that tolerance. ... Drug. Species. Import Tolerances for Drug Residues in Edible Tissues. Year Established. Public Documents. ... drug unless an import tolerance has been established for residues of that drug and any residues do not exceed that tolerance. ... unapproved new animal drugs). The ADAA granted the Food and Drug Administration the authority to establish or revoke tolerances ...
... and the difference between drug and alcohol tolerance. ... Learn about different types of drug tolerance, including ... How Drug Tolerance And Alcohol Tolerance Differ. Drug tolerance and alcohol tolerance share the same idea but work differently ... Metabolic Tolerance. This type of tolerance refers to how long a drug lasts. In some instances, the more often you use a drug ... Can Drug Tolerance Be Reversed?. Drug tolerance can be reversed for the most part, though a person may never quite reach their ...
Inside Club Q: Drag queens, dancing, tolerance shattered by gunfire. Then, heroes stepped in Bouquets sit on a corner near the ... For a $7 cover charge, patrons could party to tunes spun by DJ T Beatz, cheer on a drag queen performance by Del Lusional, ... The festivities were set to last until 2 a.m. The next day, the club had a musical drag brunch planned for Transgender Day of ...
  • Researchers have identified a brain mechanism that could be a drug target to help prevent tolerance and addiction to opioid pain medication, such as morphine, according to a study by Georgia State University and Emory University. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Until now, the precise underlying mechanism for opioid tolerance and its prevention have remained unknown. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Morphine is the primary drug used to manage severe and chronic pain, with 3 to 4 percent of adults in the U.S. receiving long-term opioid therapy. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Namely, alpha2-adrenoreceptor agonists such as clonidine and NMDA antagonists such as ketamine or dextromethorphan have been used to minimize tolerance development during opioid treatment. (opioids.wiki)
  • You can have a tolerance to a psychiatric drug or non-opioid pain medication and have to have your prescription titrated up. (lasolasrecovery.com)
  • When referring to opioids, see the Opioid Use Disorder (OUD) definition below and text box discussing the difference between "tolerance," "dependence," and "addiction. (cdc.gov)
  • Heroin - An illegal, highly addictive opioid drug processed from morphine and extracted from certain poppy plants. (cdc.gov)
  • Calculating MME accounts for differences in opioid drug type and strength. (cdc.gov)
  • Naloxone - A drug that can reverse the effects of opioid overdose and can be life-saving if administered in time. (cdc.gov)
  • Updates to the IR opioids state that these drugs should not be used for an extended period unless the pain remains severe enough to require an opioid pain medicine and alternative treatment options are insufficient, and that many acute pain conditions treated in the outpatient setting require no more than a few days of an opioid pain medicine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Updates to the ER/LA opioids recommend that these drugs be reserved for severe and persistent pain requiring an extended period of treatment with a daily opioid pain medicine and for which alternative treatment options are inadequate. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This includes information describing the symptoms that differentiate OIH from opioid tolerance and withdrawal. (medlineplus.gov)
  • With certain classes of drugs, like opioids , tolerance can increase the risk of dependence, addiction, and overdose. (healthline.com)
  • Opioids are also drugs you can quickly develop a tolerance and addiction to. (lasolasrecovery.com)
  • Some people use the term to refer to all illegal drugs but technically, it refers only to opioids. (cdc.gov)
  • All psychoactive drugs are first absorbed into the bloodstream, carried in the blood to various parts of the body including the site of action (distribution), broken down in some fashion (metabolism), and ultimately removed from the body (excretion). (wikipedia.org)
  • Behavioral tolerance occurs with the use of certain psychoactive drugs, where tolerance to a behavioral effect of a drug, such as increased motor activity by methamphetamine, occurs with repeated use. (wikipedia.org)
  • ebook psychoactive drugs of an Recombinant precipitation of competing gene in mite nitrogen. (mid-southrealty.com)
  • useful ebook psychoactive drugs tolerance Examples, mammalian of which cease certain questions in active analytic factors, are more than hormone of the ν results and be true 1940s for circular systems. (mid-southrealty.com)
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  • This diversity can lead to disease, infection, even drug resistance. (udel.edu)
  • Antimicrobial drug resistance and tolerance occurs when bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites no longer respond, or have less sensitivity, to treatments. (ddw-online.com)
  • These data show that Rev3L contributes to temozolomide and fotemustine resistance, thus acting in concert with O 6 -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase, BER, mismatch repair, and double-strand break repair in defense against simple alkylating anticancer drugs. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Resistance refers to the ability of microorganisms or cancer cells to withstand the effects of a drug usually effective against them. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Strains of microorganisms (bacteria or viruses) are said to develop resistance when they are no longer killed or inhibited by the antibiotics and antiviral drugs that are usually effective against them (or, in practice, when significantly higher than normal doses are required to have an effect). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Similarly, cancer cells may develop resistance to chemotherapy drugs. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Resistance appears because of the mutations that take place spontaneously in any group of growing microorganisms or cells, whether exposed to drugs or not. (msdmanuals.com)
  • But some mutations change the parts of the microorganism or cell that are affected by drugs, decreasing the drug's ability to work (that is, causing resistance). (msdmanuals.com)
  • However, giving one drug for a short time followed by another can produce resistance to multiple drugs. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Multi-drug resistance has become a problem with tuberculosis in particular. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Once tolerance or resistance has developed to a drug, doctors may increase the dose or use a different drug. (msdmanuals.com)
  • This novel resistance pattern should be urgently monitored in the field because this pattern is not detected by current assays and represents a major threat to antimalarial drug policy. (cdc.gov)
  • This progress is threatened by emergence of resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to artemisinin derivatives used in combination with another drug as first-line therapy for uncomplicated malaria. (cdc.gov)
  • Artemisinin resistance decreases parasite clearance rates and exposes larger numbers of parasites to antimalarial drugs in vivo, but whether it drives selection of higher-grade artemisinin resistance or resistance to the partner drug is unknown. (cdc.gov)
  • Acquisition of a point mutation in the propeller region of the K13 protein after ≈30 drug pressure cycles was on the critical path to artemisinin resistance in the F32-ART lineage ( 10 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Together with Dr Cath Drummond, I am investigating the ability of cancer cells to shift to drug-tolerant states, allowing their initial survival - and eventual resistance - following treatment with targeted therapies. (otago.ac.nz)
  • Inhibiting adaptive mutability to prevent the emergence of drug resistance. (otago.ac.nz)
  • The evolution of antimalarial drug resistance is often considered to be a single-stage process in which parasites are either fully resistant or completely sensitive to a drug. (lstmed.ac.uk)
  • We developed a systems-wide functional association network approach to integrate proteome and transcriptome profiles, enabling study of drug resistance and mode of action. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • Conclusions: This work demonstrates a powerful integrative approach to study drug resistance and mode of action. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • However, efforts to improve access to treatment are hampered by development of HIV, TB and malaria drug resistance. (who.int)
  • Drug resistance is defined as the ability of an infectious agent to survive or multiply despite the administration and absorption of medicine given in doses equal to or higher than those usually recommended but within tolerance of the subject. (who.int)
  • HIV drug resistance assessment is primarily through monitoring of early warning indicators at ART sites.3 HIV drug resistance surveys are also performed in geographic areas where ART has been widespread for more than 3 years. (who.int)
  • however, this may accelerate tolerance, further reducing the drug's effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • This intermediate stage between fully sensitive and fully resistant parasites has far-reaching implications for the evolution of drug-resistant malaria. (lstmed.ac.uk)
  • Pharmacodynamic tolerance begins when the cellular response to a substance is reduced with repeated use. (wikipedia.org)
  • A common cause of pharmacodynamic tolerance is high concentrations of a substance constantly binding with the receptor, desensitizing it through constant interaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pharmacodynamic tolerance to a receptor antagonist involves the reverse, i.e., increased receptor firing rate, an increase in receptor density, or other mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • While most occurrences of pharmacodynamic tolerance occur after sustained exposure to a drug, instances of acute or instant tolerance (tachyphylaxis) can occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is similar to pharmacodynamic tolerance in which a person's brain chemistry becomes acclimated to the presence of the drug being used and loses some of its abilities. (addictionresource.net)
  • To facilitate NAb detection in test samples with high drug concentrations, Intertek developed a novel approach based on PK data and NAb assay response modeling, improving drug tolerance without labor-consuming and potentially damaging sample pretreatment procedures. (intertek.com)
  • Although 50% inhibitory concentrations for 10 antimalarial drugs tested were unchanged, drug-tolerant parasites showed higher recrudescence rates for endoperoxides, quinolones, and an antifolate, including partner drugs of recommended combination therapies, but remained susceptible to atovaquone. (cdc.gov)
  • Acute tolerance occurs during a single use of a drug but with repeated doses and in quick succession, and oftentimes with high concentrations. (addictionresource.net)
  • Drug-tolerant parasites are killed by the high serum concentrations of drugs that occur during direct treatment of the human host. (lstmed.ac.uk)
  • Drug tolerance is indicative of drug use but is not necessarily associated with drug dependence or addiction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Addiction Cross-sensitization Cross-tolerance Desensitization Drug dependence Rebound effect Sensitization Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite the importance of numerous psychosocial factors, at its core, drug addiction involves a biological process: the ability of repeated exposure to a drug of abuse to induce changes in a vulnerable brain that drive the compulsive seeking and taking of drugs, and loss of control over drug use, that define a state of addiction. (wikipedia.org)
  • There's a lot of confusion around words like "tolerance," "dependence," and "addiction. (healthline.com)
  • Tolerance and dependence are different from addiction. (healthline.com)
  • Addiction is more than drug dependence. (healthline.com)
  • Addiction is a driving need to use a drug despite the potential for harm, like compromising work, social, and family needs. (healthline.com)
  • Tolerance is a topic that comes up a lot when people talk about addiction. (lasolasrecovery.com)
  • What Role Does Tolerance Play in Addiction? (lasolasrecovery.com)
  • Tolerance alone does not mean a person has an addiction. (lasolasrecovery.com)
  • The more a person uses a drug or alcohol, the more likely they are to develop a dependence, tolerance, and/or addiction to it. (addictionresource.net)
  • While tolerance is not the same thing as dependence or addiction, it can lead to both of these conditions, which makes it a risky side effect. (addictionresource.net)
  • Is Tolerance The Same As Addiction? (addictionresource.net)
  • Tolerance and drug addiction are not the same condition, though they are related and often found occurring in unison. (addictionresource.net)
  • However, using a drug a lot can build a tolerance to it but not necessarily a dependence or addiction, if that particular substance does not have addictive properties. (addictionresource.net)
  • What's The Difference Between Tolerance, Dependence And Addiction? (oceanhillsrecovery.com)
  • The difference between tolerance, dependence, and addiction can be hard to spot. (oceanhillsrecovery.com)
  • The difference between tolerance, dependence, and addiction can be seen in these behaviors that could arise as a result of addiction. (oceanhillsrecovery.com)
  • The difference between tolerance, dependence, and addiction can drastically change from tolerance and dependence to addiction. (oceanhillsrecovery.com)
  • Addiction to drugs can be dangerous. (oceanhillsrecovery.com)
  • The sign of drug or alcohol addiction can be pretty easily spotted. (oceanhillsrecovery.com)
  • Drug addiction - The preferred term is substance use disorder. (cdc.gov)
  • The recent increase in drug overdose mortality began in 2019 and continues into 2020, prior to the declaration of the COVID-19 National Emergency in the United States in March. (cdc.gov)
  • Adderall is a prescription medication that contains two stimulant drugs: amphetamine and dextroamphetamine. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Drug tolerance should not be confused with drug tolerability, which refers to the degree to which overt adverse effects of a drug can be tolerated by a patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, drug tolerance refers to a decreasing response to repeated constant doses of a medicine, or the need for increasing doses to maintain a constant response. (eupati.eu)
  • This type of tolerance refers to how long a drug lasts. (addictionresource.net)
  • the former mechanism of behavioral tolerance occurs when one learns how to actively overcome drug-induced impairment through practice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Behavioral tolerance is often context-dependent, meaning tolerance depends on the environment in which the drug is administered, and not on the drug itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • Behavioral tolerance occurs when a person is able to hide their drug or alcohol use through certain demonstrated behaviors or in certain situations. (addictionresource.net)
  • A phoenix from the ashes: Do dying cancer cells induce drug-tolerance in lung cancer? (otago.ac.nz)
  • Administering one dose of morphine to rats for three days was sufficient to induce tolerance. (technologynetworks.com)
  • For example, heavy drinkers initially develop tolerance to alcohol (requiring them to drink larger amounts to achieve a similar effect) but excessive drinking can cause liver damage, which then puts them at risk of intoxication when drinking even very small amounts of alcohol. (wikipedia.org)
  • A person may develop tolerance to a drug when the drug is used repeatedly. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Not all drugs are addictive, and some are more addictive than others, but it is generally possible to develop tolerance to any drug or alcohol when used enough. (addictionresource.net)
  • This type of tolerance is most evident with oral ingestion, because other routes of drug administration bypass first-pass metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further experiments using a yeast model showed that this increased tolerance is because cells that cooperate in metabolism, have increased levels of metabolic export, the movement of metabolites out of cells. (ddw-online.com)
  • Understanding the mechanisms which increase or decrease the chance of a drug working is crucial to aid the developments of new treatments," explained Jason Yu, co-first author and postdoctoral training fellow in the Molecular Biology of Metabolism Laboratory at the Crick. (ddw-online.com)
  • Dispositional tolerance" (increased rate of metabolism of delta 9-THC due to enzyme induction) may play a role in the development of tolerance or "reverse tolerance" to cannabis in man. (nih.gov)
  • They have mental cravings and physical dependence to use drugs and alcohol, and tolerance continues to build. (oceanhillsrecovery.com)
  • Tachyphylaxis is a subcategory of drug tolerance referring to cases of sudden, short-term onset of tolerance following the administration of a drug. (wikipedia.org)
  • With tolerance, certain cell receptors in the body that activate when the drug is present stop responding like they once did. (healthline.com)
  • The difference between tolerance and dependence has to do with how the body reacts to the presence or absence of a specific drug. (healthline.com)
  • Enzyme induction is partly responsible for the phenomenon of tolerance, in which repeated use of a drug leads to a reduction of the drug's effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, people who have more than one polymorphism in a gene or polymorphisms in multiple genes associated with warfarin sensitivity have a lower tolerance for the drug's effect or take even longer to clear the drug from their body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Pharmacokinetic tolerance (dispositional tolerance) occurs because of a decreased quantity of the substance reaching the site it affects. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a person has a tolerance for an addictive drug, like heroin, crystal meth, or cocaine, it's because they are using the drug regularly. (lasolasrecovery.com)
  • Tolerance is a person's diminished response to a drug, which occurs when the drug is used repeatedly and the body adapts to the continued presence of the drug. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Tolerance occurs when the substance of choice is used heavily and over a period of time. (addictionresource.net)
  • Functional tolerance occurs when a person's brain functions become adaptive to the behavioral and bodily changes that a person exhibits while they are using drugs or alcohol. (addictionresource.net)
  • When your body develops tolerance, using higher doses increases the risk of overdose. (healthline.com)
  • When tolerance develops, doctors have to find new ways to effectively manage symptoms. (healthline.com)
  • The study also found that tolerance to morphine develops rapidly. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Depending on the function, species, and dose of cannabis, "tissue tolerance," behaviorally augmented (to provide the presence of the disturbed function) or not, develops at different rates or not all (e.g., to impairment of the logical sequence of thoughts, to which no tolerance has yet been demonstrated). (nih.gov)
  • As someone develops a tolerance to a substance, they will require higher doses in order to achieve the same effects of the drug. (addictionresource.net)
  • The purpose of the alcohol and drug policy is to ensure that active members do not hurt themselves or others. (lu.se)
  • The action plans and actions of the presidency, the committees and the affiliated associations may not contravene with AF's alcohol and drug policy and/or the subsequent action plan. (lu.se)
  • Alcohol and drug policy established by Överstyrelsen 15th of February 2016. (lu.se)
  • Furthermore, twenty-two novel virulence factors were inferred, while the VraRS two-component system and PhoU-mediated persister formation were implicated in MRSA tolerance to cationic antimicrobial peptides. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • Since cannabis is stored in body fat and released into the bloodstream over days or weeks from the time of actual consumption, THC levels detected in a positive urine or blood drug test do not permit sound inferences about the frequency of cannabis consumption, specific time of last use, or cannabis-related impairment 39-42 . (cdc.gov)
  • Impairment testing provides a promising adjunct or alternative to traditional workplace drug testing that would evaluate real-time deficits in job performance from multiple causes, such as lack of sleep, chronic medical conditions, effect from physician-prescribed medications, and self-prescribed drugs, including cannabis. (cdc.gov)
  • If this is done for an extended period of time, there is a great chance that a person can reduce their tolerance drastically. (addictionresource.net)
  • But if the drug you're using is illegal, like heroin or cocaine, you are probably on that path. (lasolasrecovery.com)
  • However, illegally made fentanyl is sold through illicit drug markets for its heroin-like effect, and it is often mixed with heroin or other drugs, such as cocaine, or pressed in to counterfeit prescription pills. (cdc.gov)
  • Harm reduction is a philosophy that has been taken on widely by health officials and drug advocates across the province to combat the current overdose crisis. (campbellrivermirror.com)
  • Seventeen youth between 10 and 18 years old died from an illicit drug overdose last year. (campbellrivermirror.com)
  • Margo had lost a partner to a drug overdose. (aljazeera.com)
  • Tell your doctor if you or anyone in your family drinks or has ever drunk large amounts of alcohol, uses or has ever used street drugs, or has overused prescription medications, or has had an overdose or if you have or have ever had depression or another mental illness. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The most recent provisional data available from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) indicate that approximately 81,230 drug overdose deaths occurred in the United States in the 12-months ending in May 2020 (Figure 1). (cdc.gov)
  • i This represents a worsening of the drug overdose epidemic in the United States and is the largest number of drug overdoses for a 12-month period ever recorded. (cdc.gov)
  • 3 Drug overdose deaths during this time increased more than 20% in 25 states and the District of Columbia, 10% to 19% in 11 states and New York City, and 0% to 9% in 10 states. (cdc.gov)
  • Drug overdose deaths decreased in four states (Figure 2). (cdc.gov)
  • The increases in drug overdose deaths appear to have accelerated during the COVID-19 pandemic. (cdc.gov)
  • Melbourne's first Medically Supervised Injecting Room (MSIR) has courted controversy but is estimated to have saved 63 people dying from drug use. (aljazeera.com)
  • In early 2020, a chance encounter set his life in a positive direction when he started attending Melbourne's first-ever Medically Supervised Injecting Room at the North Richmond Community Health Centre - a space where people can use drugs safely, knowing that medical personnel are on hand should something go wrong. (aljazeera.com)
  • There are no medically-supervised legal drug consumption rooms in Asia, according to a 2022 report from HRI. (wirefan.com)
  • Cross-tolerance could occur. (healthline.com)
  • Regardless of the type of substance being used, there are a few different types of tolerance that can occur. (addictionresource.net)
  • This type of tolerance might occur during a drug or alcohol binge . (addictionresource.net)
  • It may occur when you take too much of the drug at one time. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It can also occur when levels of the drug build up for other reasons such as other medical problems you have. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If your body has developed a tolerance to a medication you're taking, it means the medication at your current dose has stopped working as effectively as it once did. (healthline.com)
  • With dependence , if the drug isn't present or the dose is suddenly reduced, you might experience withdrawal. (healthline.com)
  • Researchers' results show blocking a particular cytokine eliminated morphine tolerance, and they were able to reduce the dose of morphine required to alleviate pain by half. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Tolerance of a medicine may be considered as the ability of the body to endure a certain dose of a medicine. (eupati.eu)
  • D pioid drugs used in the treatment of severe pain are known to produce tolerance that requires a dose increase to maintain a sufficient analgesic effect. (opioids.wiki)
  • We used the unique in vitro evolution model of F32-ART parasites selected from the African F32-Tanzania clonal line by using multiple dose-escalating artemisinin pressure to study the effect of extended artemisinin pressure on susceptibility to other antimalarial drugs. (cdc.gov)
  • Residual drug in patient samples may impair detection of neutralizing antibodies (NAb). (intertek.com)
  • There is evidence that for the label "high," placebo effects may account for the "reverse tolerance" seen in experienced users on smoking (but not on ingestion of delta 9-THC or placebo) along with evidence of residual tolerance to other not-so-labeled effects of the drug. (nih.gov)
  • However, these parasites can spread in the human population because many drugs persist long after treatment, and the tolerant parasites can infect people in which there are residual levels of the drugs. (lstmed.ac.uk)
  • It can happen with any drug, including prescription and unregulated drugs, like cocaine. (healthline.com)
  • INOSTROZA PARODI, Marion and LABORDA ROJAS, Mario A. . Ocassion setting of associative tolerance to ethanol . (bvsalud.org)
  • Parents can look to the Sensible Cannabis Toolkit developed by the Canadian Students for Sensible Drug Policy, as well as Cycles - a guide created by the UBC school of nursing researchers on youth and substance use. (campbellrivermirror.com)
  • However, pharmaceutical-grade cannabis products have recently been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of childhood epilepsy syndromes, as well as nausea and vomiting associated with a variety of conditions 17-20 . (cdc.gov)
  • CUD is characterized by dependence, withdrawal symptoms, failure to meet work, school, or home responsibilities, tolerance to greater amounts of cannabis, and other qualifying symptoms 22-25 . (cdc.gov)
  • The findings, published in the journal Neuropsychopharmacology , show for the first time that morphine tolerance is due to an inflammatory response produced in the brain. (technologynetworks.com)
  • However, tolerance to morphine, defined as a decrease in pain relief over time, significantly impedes treatment for about 60 percent of patients. (technologynetworks.com)
  • When Eidson gave rats drugs that blocked the immune response, the rats no longer became tolerant to morphine. (technologynetworks.com)
  • GV196771A, an NMDA receptor/glycine site antagonist, attenuates mechanical allodynia in neuropathic rats and reduces tolerance induced by morphine in mice. (curehunter.com)
  • Moreover, the capability to strongly reduce morphine -induced tolerance suggests that GV196771A could be an alternative agent for the treatment of difficult pain states not only when given alone, but also in combination, in order to prolong the analgesic effects of the opiates. (curehunter.com)
  • This may be caused by an increase in induction of the enzymes required for degradation of the drug e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Toleranzia's technology platform comprises a unique method for the induction of immunological tolerance in patients with autoimmune disease. (naringsliv.se)
  • A person with a substance use disorder will experience a cycle of stress and anxiety around getting the drug. (healthline.com)
  • Eventually, a person with a substance use disorder will discover that it takes more of the same drug to get the same effect. (lasolasrecovery.com)
  • People with a substance use disorder will have a tolerance to the drug. (lasolasrecovery.com)
  • It was member Richard Harding who connected the two, hoping the same attitude of prevention would be applied to kids caught with small amounts of drugs. (cambridgeday.com)
  • What are the risks of drug tolerance? (healthline.com)
  • Other changes will also be required in various other sections of the prescribing information to educate clinicians, patients, and caregivers about the risks of these drugs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The impact of KRAS expression levels on the emergence of drug tolerance in lung cancer. (otago.ac.nz)
  • As this is connected with side effects such as respiratory depression, it is highly desirable to avoid or at least attenuate the development of tolerance. (opioids.wiki)
  • Withdrawal symptoms will depend on which drug you've been using. (healthline.com)
  • Your doctor will put you on a schedule to gradually ease off the drug to avoid withdrawal symptoms. (healthline.com)
  • If someone were to abruptly end the use and consumption of drugs and alcohol, it could result in withdrawal symptoms. (oceanhillsrecovery.com)
  • Without the substance, they may begin to feel uncomfortable and excruciating symptoms if they don't have drugs or alcohol, or if they try to go without it. (oceanhillsrecovery.com)
  • The symptoms of drug and alcohol detox can be life-threatening. (oceanhillsrecovery.com)
  • One may also develop drug tolerance to side effects, in which case tolerance is a desirable characteristic. (wikipedia.org)
  • All of these factors are very important determinants of crucial pharmacological properties of a drug, including its potency, side effects, and duration of action. (wikipedia.org)
  • A benefit of tolerance might be fewer side effects as your body gets used to the medication. (healthline.com)
  • More of the drug is needed to achieve symptom relief, which may increase negative side effects of the drug. (healthline.com)
  • Your doctor will carefully monitor you to manage the effects of tolerance. (healthline.com)
  • The method acknowledges that substance use - including drugs, cigarettes or alcohol - is a part of life, and focuses on reducing risk and harmful effects instead of condemning it. (campbellrivermirror.com)
  • The goal is to create medical drugs, without side effects, that specifically target only the small fraction of immune cells driving disease in autoimmune patients, while fully maintaining the integrity and function of the immune system, such as immune surveillance of cancer development and host defence against infectious diseases. (naringsliv.se)
  • As they use more of the drug, they will also begin to suffer side effects, also known as withdrawal effects, when they don't have enough of the drug in their system. (lasolasrecovery.com)
  • Most people find the discomfort of withdrawal effects too difficult to cut down on their drug use or cease using it. (lasolasrecovery.com)
  • Withdrawal effects for drugs and alcohol can range from headaches and sweating to bone pain or nausea. (lasolasrecovery.com)
  • This is why the effects and side effects of a drug are usually felt much longer than the effects of alcohol. (addictionresource.net)
  • This means that drugs or alcohol don't have the same effects they once did. (oceanhillsrecovery.com)
  • While tolerance focuses on the amount being consumed, dependence focuses on the physical effects the body experiences without the substances. (oceanhillsrecovery.com)
  • Not only is the body dependent on drugs and alcohol, the mental effects have taken over, and using these substances becomes all that a person wants. (oceanhillsrecovery.com)
  • The signs to look out for when someone could be building a tolerance can include needing more than before in order to feel the effects they are looking for. (oceanhillsrecovery.com)
  • 3. Significance of signal transduction mechanisms in the effects of drugs. (greek.doctor)
  • Effects of drugs on LSD-25 induced pyrexia in rabbits. (erowid.org)
  • The effects of drugs on conditioning and habituation to arousal stimul. (erowid.org)
  • People with lower tolerance may have a normal level of digitalis in their blood and still have adverse effects. (medlineplus.gov)
  • There is evidence that drug-paired cues not only become associated with the drug effects but also become occasion setters that modulate the association of other cues with the drug effects, contributing to the development of associative tolerance (Ramos, Siegel, & Bueno, 2002). (bvsalud.org)
  • However, it is only one of several mechanisms leading to tolerance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our knowledge about the mechanisms underlying tolerance has increased dramatically in recent years, but a final picture of the importance of each particular mechanism under in vivo conditions has not yet emerged. (opioids.wiki)
  • Drugs blocking these mechanisms are the most promising option in the treatment of tolerance. (opioids.wiki)
  • Understanding mode of action is a key component of drug discovery and network biology approaches enable a global, integrated view of microbial physiology, including mechanisms of antibiotic killing. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • We already went through the basic mechanisms of drug action in topic 3. (greek.doctor)
  • Long-term use of prescription stimulants such as Adderall can lead to tolerance, which is when a person needs increasing amounts of a drug for it to be effective. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Of these, only the stimulants and the selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treating ADHD in children. (greatschools.org)
  • If we know the timing of this switch, maybe clinicians one day will be able to prevent this tolerance by scheduling therapy earlier or later or pulsing medications during optimal time periods to prevent tumor cells from becoming tolerant or resistant. (udel.edu)
  • As mentioned, tolerance can develop to many classes of medications and is a normal reaction. (healthline.com)
  • As the body excretes amphetamines in breast milk, people who take these drugs should avoid breastfeeding and talk to a doctor about either changing medications or using formula. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • People who take regular medications, even those who are not addicted, will have tolerance as well. (lasolasrecovery.com)
  • A healthcare provider may even recommend a drug holiday at times for prescription medications to increase their effectiveness. (addictionresource.net)
  • While changes in specific genes, particularly CYP2C9 and VKORC1 , affect how the body reacts to warfarin, many other factors, including sex, age, weight, diet, and other medications, also play a role in the body's interaction with this drug. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Substance Use Disorders Substance use disorders generally involve behavior patterns in which people continue to use a substance (for example, a recreational drug) despite having problems caused by its use. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In the West, where marijuana with relatively low delta 9-THC content is widely smoked, dependence in the sense of drug-seeking behavior appears to be less a function of any pharmacologic reinforcing properties the drug may have than of secondary (conditioned) reinforcement derived from the social milieu in which the marijuana is smoked. (nih.gov)
  • In cultures where marijuana of higher delta 9-THC content, hashish, or ganja is used, pharmacologic reinforcement (through suppression of abstinence changes) may play a greater role in maintaining drug-seeking behavior. (nih.gov)
  • A medical intervention that has an objective to increase tolerance (e.g., allergen immunotherapy, in which one is exposed to larger and larger amounts of allergen to decrease one's allergic reactions) is called drug desensitization. (wikipedia.org)
  • A drug holiday is when a person takes a break from a drug in order to decrease their tolerance to it. (addictionresource.net)
  • A lower tolerance to the drug can also cause digitalis toxicity. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The opposite concept to drug tolerance is drug reverse tolerance (or drug sensitization), in which case the subject's reaction or effect will increase following its repeated use. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two notions are not incompatible and tolerance may sometimes lead to reverse tolerance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research from the Francis Crick Institute has revealed a key mechanism that increases tolerance to drugs amongst microbial communities. (ddw-online.com)
  • Since medical marijuana is not prescribed but recommended, the bill would jeopardize medical as well as non-medical marijuana users - but not drivers who misuse more dangerous prescription drugs. (canorml.org)
  • In a lot of scenarios, medicine misuse takes place as a development of severe medicine make use of which leads to the progression of disorders such as drug-seeking habits, reduced capacity to react to normally fulfilling stimulations, susceptibility to regression and also lots of various other psychological conditions. (2828ganmm3.com)
  • Drug misuse - The use of illegal drugs and/or the use of prescription drugs in a manner other than as directed by a doctor, such as use in greater amounts, more often, or longer than told to take a drug or using someone else's prescription. (cdc.gov)
  • The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have approved Adderall for the treatment of ADHD and narcolepsy. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The ADAA granted the Food and Drug Administration the authority to establish or revoke tolerances for residues of such unapproved new animal drugs present in imported, animal-derived food products. (fda.gov)
  • The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has announced recalls of several hand sanitizers due to the potential presence of methanol. (healthline.com)
  • The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently gave approval to the ultrasound renal denervation (RDN) system. (medscape.com)
  • Our approach is the Bioanalytical Hub model bringing together a wide breadth of bioanalytical support (GxP and non-GxP), multiple end points (pharmacokinetics, anti-drug antibodies and biomarkers) and analytical platforms (LC/MS, immunoassay, flow cytometry, genomics, immunohistochemistry) onto a common lab footprint. (bvsalud.org)
  • There are currently only three classes of antifungal drugs in clinical use and in an increasing number of cases, these antifungals fail. (ddw-online.com)
  • But there is always "a clinical component" for students caught with drugs, Dolan stressed, and committee member Fred Fantini pointed to the health team in place at Cambridge Rindge & Latin as an advantage in drug cessation he said other districts didn't have. (cambridgeday.com)
  • We plan to take our drug candidate through clinical phase I/IIa trials, while subsequent late stage clinical trial phases are most likely conducted together with partners," Charlotte Fribert, CEO of Toleranzia AB, explains. (naringsliv.se)
  • Also, it is a rare disease and our drug candidate has been granted orphan drug designation which involves market exclusivity for ten years in Europe and seven years in the USA, as well as certain tax reliefs and opportunities to conduct small-size clinical trials," she adds. (naringsliv.se)
  • Toleranzia plans to initiate clinical trials for their drug candidate in myasthenia gravis during 2017. (naringsliv.se)
  • iii This is consistent with large increases in illicitly manufactured fentanyl availability in western states 8 and increases in fentanyl positivity in clinical toxicology drugs tests in the West after the COVID-19 pandemic. (cdc.gov)
  • If the resistant survivors are not killed by the body's natural defenses, which is more likely when drugs are stopped too soon or not taken in the proper manner, they may reproduce and pass on the resistant trait to their descendants. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Developing new technology for understanding Candida's tolerance to drugs. (abdn.ac.uk)
  • In his speech, he mentioned that a zero-tolerance policy for drugs has been implemented under the Modi government. (indiatimes.com)
  • After PM Modi assumed charge as PM, the Central government adopted a zero-tolerance policy for drugs. (indiatimes.com)
  • Being caught with drugs can mean being thrown out of the high school, though, which has landed students in the High School Extension Program - which also has a zero-tolerance policy. (cambridgeday.com)
  • A new zero-tolerance policy towards drugs and alcohol is opposed by staff in a South Australian Government department amid concerns about plans for workplace testing and whether there is any legal authority behind the move. (abc.net.au)
  • HLM has a zero tolerance policy for all illegal activities. (holdmyticket.com)
  • For example, despite the Psychoactive Substances Act 2016 not criminalising the possession of new/novel psychoactive substances (such as nitrous oxide), a number of policies are in place that equate this to possession of a controlled drug. (drinkanddrugsnews.com)
  • According to the study findings, some teens who used substances despite their families' zero-tolerance approach reported feeling disconnected from their families. (campbellrivermirror.com)
  • The best treatment for reversing a drug or alcohol tolerance is to stop using the substances all together. (addictionresource.net)
  • Struggling with substances like drugs or alcohol can result in drastic life changes, and change the course of someone's life quickly. (oceanhillsrecovery.com)
  • Chronically using substances can lead to building a tolerance. (oceanhillsrecovery.com)