The use of DRUGS to treat a DISEASE or its symptoms. One example is the use of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to treat CANCER.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Agents used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. They may affect the polarization-repolarization phase of the action potential, its excitability or refractoriness, or impulse conduction or membrane responsiveness within cardiac fibers. Anti-arrhythmia agents are often classed into four main groups according to their mechanism of action: sodium channel blockade, beta-adrenergic blockade, repolarization prolongation, or calcium channel blockade.
Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
A branch of genetics which deals with the genetic variability in individual responses to drugs and drug metabolism (BIOTRANSFORMATION).
Those persons legally qualified by education and training to engage in the practice of pharmacy.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Formal programs for assessing drug prescription against some standard. Drug utilization review may consider clinical appropriateness, cost effectiveness, and, in some cases, outcomes. Review is usually retrospective, but some analysis may be done before drugs are dispensed (as in computer systems which advise physicians when prescriptions are entered). Drug utilization review is mandated for Medicaid programs beginning in 1993.
Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.
Total pharmaceutical services provided by qualified PHARMACISTS. In addition to the preparation and distribution of medical products, they may include consultative services provided to agencies and institutions which do not have a qualified pharmacist.
Substances that lower the levels of certain LIPIDS in the BLOOD. They are used to treat HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.
Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.
Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.
Total pharmaceutical services provided to the public through community pharmacies.
Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.
The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
An antiepileptic agent related to the barbiturates; it is partly metabolized to PHENOBARBITAL in the body and owes some of its actions to this metabolite. Adverse effects are reported to be more frequent than with PHENOBARBITAL. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p309)
Insurance providing for payment of services rendered by the pharmacist. Services include the preparation and distribution of medical products.
Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.
Agents that are used to treat hyperthyroidism by reducing the excessive production of thyroid hormones.
Abnormal cardiac rhythm that is characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the upper chambers of the heart (HEART ATRIA). In such case, blood cannot be effectively pumped into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES). It is caused by abnormal impulse generation.
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.
Educational programs designed to inform graduate pharmacists of recent advances in their particular field.
The process of observing, recording, or detecting the effects of a chemical substance administered to an individual therapeutically or diagnostically.
A potent anti-arrhythmia agent, effective in a wide range of ventricular and atrial ARRHYTHMIAS and TACHYCARDIAS.
Substances that suppress Mycobacterium leprae, ameliorate the clinical manifestations of leprosy, and/or reduce the incidence and severity of leprous reactions.
Agents that affect the rate or intensity of cardiac contraction, blood vessel diameter, or blood volume.
An anticonvulsant that is used to treat a wide variety of seizures. It is also an anti-arrhythmic and a muscle relaxant. The mechanism of therapeutic action is not clear, although several cellular actions have been described including effects on ion channels, active transport, and general membrane stabilization. The mechanism of its muscle relaxant effect appears to involve a reduction in the sensitivity of muscle spindles to stretch. Phenytoin has been proposed for several other therapeutic uses, but its use has been limited by its many adverse effects and interactions with other drugs.
Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.
A sympathomimetic that acts mainly by causing release of NOREPINEPHRINE but also has direct agonist activity at some adrenergic receptors. It is most commonly used as a nasal vasoconstrictor and an appetite depressant.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Assistance in managing and monitoring drug therapy for patients receiving treatment for cancer or chronic conditions such as asthma and diabetes, consulting with patients and their families on the proper use of medication; conducting wellness and disease prevention programs to improve public health; overseeing medication use in a variety of settings.
Organic compounds that contain GOLD as an integral part of the molecule. Some are used as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS. The term chrysotherapy derives from an ancient Greek term for gold.
A common form of hyperthyroidism with a diffuse hyperplastic GOITER. It is an autoimmune disorder that produces antibodies against the THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE RECEPTOR. These autoantibodies activate the TSH receptor, thereby stimulating the THYROID GLAND and hypersecretion of THYROID HORMONES. These autoantibodies can also affect the eyes (GRAVES OPHTHALMOPATHY) and the skin (Graves dermopathy).
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Societies whose membership is limited to pharmacists.
A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.
Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A thioureylene antithyroid agent that inhibits the formation of thyroid hormones by interfering with the incorporation of iodine into tyrosyl residues of thyroglobulin. This is done by interfering with the oxidation of iodide ion and iodotyrosyl groups through inhibition of the peroxidase enzyme.
Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.
Economic aspects of the fields of pharmacy and pharmacology as they apply to the development and study of medical economics in rational drug therapy and the impact of pharmaceuticals on the cost of medical care. Pharmaceutical economics also includes the economic considerations of the pharmaceutical care delivery system and in drug prescribing, particularly of cost-benefit values. (From J Res Pharm Econ 1989;1(1); PharmacoEcon 1992;1(1))
Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.
Dynamic and kinetic mechanisms of exogenous chemical and DRUG LIBERATION; ABSORPTION; BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT; TISSUE DISTRIBUTION; BIOTRANSFORMATION; elimination; and DRUG TOXICITY as a function of dosage, and rate of METABOLISM. LADMER, ADME and ADMET are abbreviations for liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and toxicology.
The use of multiple drugs administered to the same patient, most commonly seen in elderly patients. It includes also the administration of excessive medication. Since in the United States most drugs are dispensed as single-agent formulations, polypharmacy, though using many drugs administered to the same patient, must be differentiated from DRUG COMBINATIONS, single preparations containing two or more drugs as a fixed dose, and from DRUG THERAPY, COMBINATION, two or more drugs administered separately for a combined effect. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)
An antianginal and class III antiarrhythmic drug. It increases the duration of ventricular and atrial muscle action by inhibiting POTASSIUM CHANNELS and VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS. There is a resulting decrease in heart rate and in vascular resistance.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Services providing pharmaceutic and therapeutic drug information and consultation.
Hospital department responsible for the receiving, storing, and distribution of pharmaceutical supplies.
Therapeutic approach tailoring therapy for genetically defined subgroups of patients.
A subtype of epilepsy characterized by seizures that are consistently provoked by a certain specific stimulus. Auditory, visual, and somatosensory stimuli as well as the acts of writing, reading, eating, and decision making are examples of events or activities that may induce seizure activity in affected individuals. (From Neurol Clin 1994 Feb;12(1):57-8)
A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic blocker. It is effective in the management of HYPERTENSION and ANGINA PECTORIS.
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in taking drugs or medicine as prescribed. This includes timing, dosage, and frequency.
Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
A thiazide diuretic often considered the prototypical member of this class. It reduces the reabsorption of electrolytes from the renal tubules. This results in increased excretion of water and electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, chloride, and magnesium. It is used in the treatment of several disorders including edema, hypertension, diabetes insipidus, and hypoparathyroidism.
An anticonvulsant used for several types of seizures, including myotonic or atonic seizures, photosensitive epilepsy, and absence seizures, although tolerance may develop. It is seldom effective in generalized tonic-clonic or partial seizures. The mechanism of action appears to involve the enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor responses.
The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
An abnormally rapid ventricular rhythm usually in excess of 150 beats per minute. It is generated within the ventricle below the BUNDLE OF HIS, either as autonomic impulse formation or reentrant impulse conduction. Depending on the etiology, onset of ventricular tachycardia can be paroxysmal (sudden) or nonparoxysmal, its wide QRS complexes can be uniform or polymorphic, and the ventricular beating may be independent of the atrial beating (AV dissociation).
A drug that is used in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases. Its activity is generally considered to lie in its metabolic breakdown product, 5-aminosalicylic acid (see MESALAMINE) released in the colon. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p907)
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
An antiarrhythmia agent that is particularly effective in ventricular arrhythmias. It also has weak beta-blocking activity.
Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
An imidazole antithyroid agent. Carbimazole is metabolized to METHIMAZOLE, which is responsible for the antithyroid activity.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
An anticonvulsant used to control grand mal and psychomotor or focal seizures. Its mode of action is not fully understood, but some of its actions resemble those of PHENYTOIN; although there is little chemical resemblance between the two compounds, their three-dimensional structure is similar.
Drugs whose drug name is not protected by a trademark. They may be manufactured by several companies.
One of the ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS, it blocks VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS and slows conduction within the His-Purkinje system and MYOCARDIUM.
Review of claims by insurance companies to determine liability and amount of payment for various services. The review may also include determination of eligibility of the claimant or beneficiary or of the provider of the benefit; determination that the benefit is covered or not payable under another policy; or determination that the service was necessary and of reasonable cost and quality.
A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
A generalized seizure disorder characterized by recurrent major motor seizures. The initial brief tonic phase is marked by trunk flexion followed by diffuse extension of the trunk and extremities. The clonic phase features rhythmic flexor contractions of the trunk and limbs, pupillary dilation, elevations of blood pressure and pulse, urinary incontinence, and tongue biting. This is followed by a profound state of depressed consciousness (post-ictal state) which gradually improves over minutes to hours. The disorder may be cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (caused by an identified disease process). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p329)
A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.
Endogenous factors or drugs that increase the transport and metabolism of LIPIDS including the synthesis of LIPOPROTEINS by the LIVER and their uptake by extrahepatic tissues.
A selective adrenergic beta-1 blocking agent that is commonly used to treat ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS.
The expected function of a member of a particular profession.
Provisions of an insurance policy that require the insured to pay some portion of covered expenses. Several forms of sharing are in use, e.g., deductibles, coinsurance, and copayments. Cost sharing does not refer to or include amounts paid in premiums for the coverage. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Works about lists of drugs or collections of recipes, formulas, and prescriptions for the compounding of medicinal preparations. Formularies differ from PHARMACOPOEIAS in that they are less complete, lacking full descriptions of the drugs, their formulations, analytic composition, chemical properties, etc. In hospitals, formularies list all drugs commonly stocked in the hospital pharmacy.
Method in which prolonged electrocardiographic recordings are made on a portable tape recorder (Holter-type system) or solid-state device ("real-time" system), while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It is useful in the diagnosis and management of intermittent cardiac arrhythmias and transient myocardial ischemia.
A histamine analog and H1 receptor agonist that serves as a vasodilator. It is used in MENIERE DISEASE and in vascular headaches but may exacerbate bronchial asthma and peptic ulcers.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
An adrenergic beta-antagonist that is used in the treatment of life-threatening arrhythmias.
Drugs that are used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
Pregnane derivatives containing three double bonds in the ring structures.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.
Errors in prescribing, dispensing, or administering medication with the result that the patient fails to receive the correct drug or the indicated proper drug dosage.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
A traditional grouping of drugs said to have a soothing or calming effect on mood, thought, or behavior. Included here are the ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS (minor tranquilizers), ANTIMANIC AGENTS, and the ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS (major tranquilizers). These drugs act by different mechanisms and are used for different therapeutic purposes.
Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.
Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of clinical pharmacy services.
Abnormally rapid heartbeat, usually with a HEART RATE above 100 beats per minute for adults. Tachycardia accompanied by disturbance in the cardiac depolarization (cardiac arrhythmia) is called tachyarrhythmia.
A tricyclic antidepressant similar to IMIPRAMINE that selectively inhibits the uptake of serotonin in the brain. It is readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and demethylated in the liver to form its primary active metabolite, desmethylclomipramine.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
A long-acting dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It is effective in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS and HYPERTENSION.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Agents that inhibit SODIUM CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS. They act as DIURETICS. Excess use is associated with HYPOKALEMIA.
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
Autoantibodies that bind to the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor (RECEPTORS, THYROTROPIN) on thyroid epithelial cells. The autoantibodies mimic TSH causing an unregulated production of thyroid hormones characteristic of GRAVES DISEASE.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
A class Ia antiarrhythmic drug that is structurally-related to PROCAINE.
Persistent pain that is refractory to some or all forms of treatment.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
An antimetabolite antineoplastic agent with immunosuppressant properties. It interferes with nucleic acid synthesis by inhibiting purine metabolism and is used, usually in combination with other drugs, in the treatment of or in remission maintenance programs for leukemia.
An electrical current applied to the HEART to terminate a disturbance of its rhythm, ARRHYTHMIAS, CARDIAC. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A metabolite of AMITRIPTYLINE that is also used as an antidepressive agent. Nortriptyline is used in major depression, dysthymia, and atypical depressions.
The study of the origin, nature, properties, and actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms.
The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
A broad approach to appropriate coordination of the entire disease treatment process that often involves shifting away from more expensive inpatient and acute care to areas such as preventive medicine, patient counseling and education, and outpatient care. This concept includes implications of appropriate versus inappropriate therapy on the overall cost and clinical outcome of a particular disease. (From Hosp Pharm 1995 Jul;30(7):596)
Hypersecretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND. Elevated levels of thyroid hormones increase BASAL METABOLIC RATE.
Substances which lower blood glucose levels.
A generic expression for any tachycardia that originates above the BUNDLE OF HIS.
Implantable devices which continuously monitor the electrical activity of the heart and automatically detect and terminate ventricular tachycardia (TACHYCARDIA, VENTRICULAR) and VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION. They consist of an impulse generator, batteries, and electrodes.
Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
A fatty acid with anticonvulsant properties used in the treatment of epilepsy. The mechanisms of its therapeutic actions are not well understood. It may act by increasing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in the brain or by altering the properties of voltage dependent sodium channels.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Reductions in all or any portion of the costs of providing goods or services. Savings may be incurred by the provider or the consumer.
A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
A central nervous system stimulant used most commonly in the treatment of ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER in children and for NARCOLEPSY. Its mechanisms appear to be similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The d-isomer of this drug is referred to as DEXMETHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE.
Formal instruction, learning, or training in the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of drugs in the field of medicine.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)
An immunosuppressive agent used in combination with cyclophosphamide and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.
A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Abnormally rapid heartbeats originating from one or more automatic foci (nonsinus pacemakers) in the HEART ATRIUM but away from the SINOATRIAL NODE. Unlike the reentry mechanism, automatic tachycardia speeds up and slows down gradually. The episode is characterized by a HEART RATE between 135 to less than 200 beats per minute and lasting 30 seconds or longer.
The veins that return the oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.
A small nodular mass of specialized muscle fibers located in the interatrial septum near the opening of the coronary sinus. It gives rise to the atrioventricular bundle of the conduction system of the heart.
An optical isomer of quinine, extracted from the bark of the CHINCHONA tree and similar plant species. This alkaloid dampens the excitability of cardiac and skeletal muscles by blocking sodium and potassium currents across cellular membranes. It prolongs cellular ACTION POTENTIALS, and decreases automaticity. Quinidine also blocks muscarinic and alpha-adrenergic neurotransmission.
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
Antiarrhythmic agent pharmacologically similar to LIDOCAINE. It may have some anticonvulsant properties.
Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.
A benzimidazole broad-spectrum anthelmintic structurally related to MEBENDAZOLE that is effective against many diseases. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p38)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.
Substances that are destructive to protozoans.
Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.
An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.
A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic blocker possessing properties and potency similar to PROPRANOLOL, but without a negative inotropic effect.
A direct-acting vasodilator that is used as an antihypertensive agent.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Techniques for measuring blood pressure.
Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
A device designed to stimulate, by electric impulses, contraction of the heart muscles. It may be temporary (external) or permanent (internal or internal-external).
A cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of many drugs and environmental chemicals, such as DEBRISOQUINE; ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS; and TRICYCLIC ANTIDEPRESSANTS. This enzyme is deficient in up to 10 percent of the Caucasian population.
Substances that contain a fused three-ring moiety and are used in the treatment of depression. These drugs block the uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin into axon terminals and may block some subtypes of serotonin, adrenergic, and histamine receptors. However the mechanism of their antidepressant effects is not clear because the therapeutic effects usually take weeks to develop and may reflect compensatory changes in the central nervous system.
A thiourea antithyroid agent. Propythiouracil inhibits the synthesis of thyroxine and inhibits the peripheral conversion of throxine to tri-iodothyronine. It is used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopeoia, 30th ed, p534)
A water-soluble vitamin of the B complex occurring in various animal and plant tissues. It is required by the body for the formation of coenzymes NAD and NADP. It has PELLAGRA-curative, vasodilating, and antilipemic properties.
Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.
Agents that prevent clotting.
Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.
A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
Patient or client refusal of or resistance to medical, psychological, or psychiatric treatment. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)

Prednisone in MOPP chemotherapy for Hodgkin's disease. (1/16029)

High remission rates have been produced by MOPP (mustine, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone) chemotherapy in patients with advanced Hodgkin's disease, but the prednisone component has caused adverse effects in patients who have undergone radiotherapy. The remission rates and length of remission were reviewed in 211 patients with Hodgkin's disease who received chemotherapy either with or without prednisone. In contrast to the findings of a British study, there were no significant differences in remission rates or length of remission between patients who had received prednisone and patients who had not. There were differences between the British prospective study and this retrospective one, but it is difficult to know what accounted for the substantial differences in the findings.  (+info)

Double-blind intervention trial on modulation of ozone effects on pulmonary function by antioxidant supplements. (2/16029)

The aim of this study was to investigate whether the acute effects of ozone on lung function could be modulated by antioxidant vitamin supplementation in a placebo-controlled study. Lung function was measured in Dutch bicyclists (n = 38) before and after each training session on a number of occasions (n = 380) during the summer of 1996. The vitamin group (n = 20) received 100 mg of vitamin E and 500 mg of vitamin C daily for 15 weeks. The average ozone concentration during exercise was 77 microg/m3 (range, 14-186 microg/m3). After exclusion of subjects with insufficient compliance from the analysis, a difference in ozone exposure of 100 microg/m3 decreased forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) 95 ml (95% confidence interval (CI) -265 to -53) in the placebo group and 1 ml (95% CI -94 to 132) in the vitamin group; for forced vital capacity, the change was -125 ml (95% CI -384 to -36) in the placebo group and -42 ml (95% CI -130 to 35) in the vitamin group. The differences in ozone effect on lung function between the groups were statistically significant. The results suggest that supplementation with the antioxidant vitamins C and E confers partial protection against the acute effects of ozone on FEV1 and forced vital capacity in cyclists.  (+info)

Epidemiology of drug-resistant tuberculosis in Texas. (3/16029)

During 1987-1996, over 22,000 tuberculosis cases were reported in Texas, at an average annual incidence rate of 12.5 cases per 100,000 population. Counties with the highest rates were located along the Mexico-Texas border and in northwestern Texas. Nine percent of cases were resistant to at least one of the five first-line antituberculosis drugs used for treatment. Almost 5 percent (4.6%) were resistant to isoniazid, either alone or in combination with other antibiotics; 2.3% were resistant to rifampin; and only 1.3% were resistant to both isoniazid and rifampin. Being a recurrent case, being foreign-born, being 20-39 years of age, and residing in a Mexico-Texas border county were independent risk factors for isoniazid resistance and rifampin resistance. Tuberculosis patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection were more likely to have rifampin resistance and less likely to have isoniazid resistance than patients without HIV infection. Factors associated with multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis included a history of previous tuberculosis (relative risk (RR) = 4.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.5-6.8), non-US birth (RR = 2.69, 95% CI 2.1-3.5), age younger than 20 years (RR = 1.97, 95% CI 1.1-3.5), age 20-39 years (RR = 1.82, 95% CI 1.3-2.6), and residence in a Mexico-Texas border county (RR = 2.33, 95% CI 1.8-3.1).  (+info)

In vivo isolated kidney perfusion with tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in tumour-bearing rats. (4/16029)

Isolated perfusion of the extremities with high-dose tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) plus melphalan leads to dramatic tumour response in patients with irresectable soft tissue sarcoma or multiple melanoma in transit metastases. We developed in vivo isolated organ perfusion models to determine whether similar tumour responses in solid organ tumours can be obtained with this regimen. Here, we describe the technique of isolated kidney perfusion. We studied the feasibility of a perfusion with TNF-alpha and assessed its anti-tumour effects in tumour models differing in tumour vasculature. The maximal tolerated dose (MTD) proved to be only 1 microg TNF-alpha. Higher doses appeared to induce renal failure and a secondary cytokine release with fatal respiratory and septic shock-like symptoms. In vitro, the combination of TNF-alpha and melphalan did not result in a synergistic growth-inhibiting effect on CC 531 colon adenocarcinoma cells, whereas an additive effect was observed on osteosarcoma ROS-1 cells. In vivo isolated kidney perfusion, with TNF-alpha alone or in combination with melphalan, did not result in a significant anti-tumour response in either tumour model in a subrenal capsule assay. We conclude that, because of the susceptibility of the kidney to perfusion with TNF-alpha, the minimal threshold concentration of TNF-alpha to exert its anti-tumour effects was not reached. The applicability of TNF-alpha in isolated kidney perfusion for human tumours seems, therefore, questionable.  (+info)

Clinical experience and choice of drug therapy for human immunodeficiency virus disease. (5/16029)

To determine if providers experienced in the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease preferred different treatment regimens than providers with less experience, we analyzed data from a national survey of primary care providers' preferred regimens for the management of 30 HIV-related medical conditions. We mailed questionnaires to 999 correct addresses of providers in > 20 cities in the United States in May 1996. We received 524 responses (response rate, 52%). We found a statistically significant association between the number of HIV-infected patients cared for by the provider and the likelihood that the provider would report prescribing highly active antiretroviral therapy and multidrug combinations for treatment of opportunistic infections. Providers with few HIV-infected patients were substantially less likely to report using new therapeutic regimens or new diagnostic tools. We concluded that the preferred regimens of experienced providers are more likely to be consistent with the latest information on treatment for HIV disease than are those of less experienced providers.  (+info)

Early mycological treatment failure in AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis. (6/16029)

Cryptococcal meningitis causes significant morbidity and mortality in persons with AIDS. Of 236 AIDS patients treated with amphotericin B plus flucytosine, 29 (12%) died within 2 weeks and 62 (26%) died before 10 weeks. Just 129 (55%) of 236 patients were alive with negative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures at 10 weeks. Multivariate analyses identified that titer of cryptococcal antigen in CSF, serum albumin level, and CD4 cell count, together with dose of amphotericin B, had the strongest joint association with failure to achieve negative CSF cultures by day 14. Among patients with similar CSF cryptococcal antigen titers, CD4 cell counts, and serum albumin levels, the odds of failure at week 10 for those without negative CSF cultures by day 14 was five times that for those with negative CSF cultures by day 14 (odds ratio, 5.0; 95% confidence interval, 2.2-10.9). Prognosis is dismal for patients with AIDS-related cryptococcal meningitis. Multivariate analyses identified three components that, along with initial treatment, have the strongest joint association with early outcome. Clearly, more effective initial therapy and patient management strategies that address immune function and nutritional status are needed to improve outcomes of this disease.  (+info)

Successful short-term suppression of clarithromycin-resistant Mycobacterium avium complex bacteremia in AIDS. California Collaborative Treatment Group. (7/16029)

During a randomized study of clarithromycin plus clofazimine with or without ethambutol in patients with AIDS and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) bacteremia, eight participants received additional antimycobacterial drugs following the detection of a clarithromycin-resistant isolate (MIC, > 8 micrograms/mL). A macrolide (seven received clarithromycin, one azithromycin) and clofazimine were continued; additional treatment included various combinations of ethambutol, ciprofloxacin, amikacin, and rifabutin. After the detection of a resistant isolate and before receipt of additional antimycobacterials, the median peak MAC colony count in blood was 105 cfu/mL (range, 8-81,500 cfu/mL). After additional antimycobacterials, the median nadir MAC colony count was 5 cfu/mL (range, 0-110 cfu/mL). Five (63%) of eight patients had a > or = 1 log10 decrease, including two who achieved negative blood cultures; all of these responses occurred in patients originally assigned to clarithromycin plus clofazimine. Treatment of clarithromycin-resistant MAC bacteremia that emerges during clarithromycin-based treatment can decrease levels of bacteremia and transiently sterilize blood cultures.  (+info)

A prospective, randomized trial of tacrolimus/prednisone versus tacrolimus/prednisone/mycophenolate mofetil in renal transplant recipients. (8/16029)

BACKGROUND: Between September 20, 1995 and September 20, 1997, 208 adult patients undergoing renal transplantation were randomized to receive tacrolimus/prednisone (n=106) or tacrolimus/prednisone/mycophenolate mofetil (n=102), with the goal of reducing the incidence of rejection. METHODS: The mean recipient age was 50.7+/-13.7 years. Sixty-three (30.3%) patients were 60 years of age or older at the time of transplantation. The mean donor age was 34.5+/-21.7 years. The mean cold ischemia time was 30.5+/-9.2 hr. The mean follow-up is 15+/-7 months. RESULTS: The overall 1-year actuarial patient survival was 94%; the overall 1-year actuarial graft survival was 87%. When the patient and graft survival data were stratified to recipients under the age of 60 who did not have delayed graft function, the overall 1-year actuarial patient survival was 97%, and the corresponding 1-year actuarial graft survival was 93%. There were no differences between the two groups. The overall incidence of rejection was 36%; in the double-therapy group, it was 44%, whereas in the triple therapy group, it was 27% (P=0.014). The mean serum creatinine was 1.6+/-0.8 mg/dl. A total of 36% of the successfully transplanted patients were taken off prednisone; 32% of the patients were taken off antihypertensive medications. The incidence of delayed graft function was 21%, the incidence of cytomegalovirus was 12.5%, and the initial and final incidences of posttransplant insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus were 7.0% and 2.9%; again, there was no difference between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: This trial suggests that the combination of tacrolimus, steroids, and mycophenolate mofetil is associated with excellent patient and graft survival and a lower incidence of rejection than the combination of tacrolimus and steroids.  (+info)

There are several types of drug-related side effects and adverse reactions, including:

1. Common side effects: These are side effects that are commonly experienced by patients taking a particular medication. Examples include nausea, dizziness, and fatigue.
2. Serious side effects: These are side effects that can be severe or life-threatening. Examples include allergic reactions, liver damage, and bone marrow suppression.
3. Adverse events: These are any unwanted or harmful effects that occur during the use of a medication, including side effects and other clinical events such as infections or injuries.
4. Drug interactions: These are interactions between two or more drugs that can cause harmful side effects or reduce the effectiveness of one or both drugs.
5. Side effects caused by drug abuse: These are side effects that occur when a medication is taken in larger-than-recommended doses or in a manner other than as directed. Examples include hallucinations, seizures, and overdose.

It's important to note that not all side effects and adverse reactions are caused by the drug itself. Some may be due to other factors, such as underlying medical conditions, other medications being taken, or environmental factors.

To identify and manage drug-related side effects and adverse reactions, healthcare providers will typically ask patients about any symptoms they are experiencing, perform physical exams, and review the patient's medical history and medication list. In some cases, additional tests may be ordered to help diagnose and manage the problem.

Overall, it's important for patients taking medications to be aware of the potential for side effects and adverse reactions, and to report any symptoms or concerns to their healthcare provider promptly. This can help ensure that any issues are identified and addressed early, minimizing the risk of harm and ensuring that the patient receives the best possible care.

There are two types of hypertension:

1. Primary Hypertension: This type of hypertension has no identifiable cause and is also known as essential hypertension. It accounts for about 90% of all cases of hypertension.
2. Secondary Hypertension: This type of hypertension is caused by an underlying medical condition or medication. It accounts for about 10% of all cases of hypertension.

Some common causes of secondary hypertension include:

* Kidney disease
* Adrenal gland disorders
* Hormonal imbalances
* Certain medications
* Sleep apnea
* Cocaine use

There are also several risk factors for hypertension, including:

* Age (the risk increases with age)
* Family history of hypertension
* Obesity
* Lack of exercise
* High sodium intake
* Low potassium intake
* Stress

Hypertension is often asymptomatic, and it can cause damage to the blood vessels and organs over time. Some potential complications of hypertension include:

* Heart disease (e.g., heart attacks, heart failure)
* Stroke
* Kidney disease (e.g., chronic kidney disease, end-stage renal disease)
* Vision loss (e.g., retinopathy)
* Peripheral artery disease

Hypertension is typically diagnosed through blood pressure readings taken over a period of time. Treatment for hypertension may include lifestyle changes (e.g., diet, exercise, stress management), medications, or a combination of both. The goal of treatment is to reduce the risk of complications and improve quality of life.

There are several risk factors for developing AF, including:

1. Age: The risk of developing AF increases with age, with the majority of cases occurring in people over the age of 65.
2. Hypertension (high blood pressure): High blood pressure can damage the heart and increase the risk of developing AF.
3. Heart disease: People with heart disease, such as coronary artery disease or heart failure, are at higher risk of developing AF.
4. Diabetes mellitus: Diabetes can increase the risk of developing AF.
5. Sleep apnea: Sleep apnea can increase the risk of developing AF.
6. Certain medications: Certain medications, such as thyroid medications and asthma medications, can increase the risk of developing AF.
7. Alcohol consumption: Excessive alcohol consumption has been linked to an increased risk of developing AF.
8. Smoking: Smoking is a risk factor for many cardiovascular conditions, including AF.
9. Obesity: Obesity is a risk factor for many cardiovascular conditions, including AF.

Symptoms of AF can include:

1. Palpitations (rapid or irregular heartbeat)
2. Shortness of breath
3. Fatigue
4. Dizziness or lightheadedness
5. Chest pain or discomfort

AF can be diagnosed with the help of several tests, including:

1. Electrocardiogram (ECG): This is a non-invasive test that measures the electrical activity of the heart.
2. Holter monitor: This is a portable device that records the heart's rhythm over a 24-hour period.
3. Event monitor: This is a portable device that records the heart's rhythm over a longer period of time, usually 1-2 weeks.
4. Echocardiogram: This is an imaging test that uses sound waves to create pictures of the heart.
5. Cardiac MRI: This is an imaging test that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to create detailed pictures of the heart.

Treatment for AF depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, such as:

1. Beta blockers: These medications slow the heart rate and reduce the force of the heart's contractions.
2. Antiarrhythmics: These medications help regulate the heart's rhythm.
3. Blood thinners: These medications prevent blood clots from forming and can help reduce the risk of stroke.
4. Calcium channel blockers: These medications slow the entry of calcium into the heart muscle cells, which can help slow the heart rate and reduce the force of the heart's contractions.

In some cases, catheter ablation may be recommended to destroy the abnormal electrical pathway causing AF. This is a minimally invasive procedure that involves inserting a catheter through a vein in the leg and guiding it to the heart using x-ray imaging. Once the catheter is in place, energy is applied to the abnormal electrical pathway to destroy it and restore a normal heart rhythm.

It's important to note that AF can increase the risk of stroke, so anticoagulation therapy may be recommended to reduce this risk. This can include medications such as warfarin or aspirin, or in some cases, implantable devices such as a left atrial appendage closure device.

In conclusion, atrial fibrillation is a common heart rhythm disorder that can increase the risk of stroke and heart failure. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and may include medications, cardioversion, catheter ablation, or anticoagulation therapy. It's important to work closely with a healthcare provider to determine the best course of treatment for AF.

Grave's disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism and affects about 1 in 200 people. It can occur at any age but is more common in women and tends to run in families. The exact cause of Grave's disease is not known, but it may be related to a combination of genetic and environmental factors.

Symptoms of Grave's disease can vary from person to person, but common signs include:

* Weight loss
* Nervousness or anxiety
* Irregular heartbeat (palpitations)
* Increased sweating
* Heat intolerance
* Fatigue
* Changes in menstrual cycle in women
* Enlargement of the thyroid gland, known as a goiter
* Bulging eyes (exophthalmos)

Grave's disease can be diagnosed through blood tests and scans. Treatment options include medication to reduce the production of thyroxine, radioactive iodine therapy to destroy part of the thyroid gland, and surgery to remove part or all of the thyroid gland.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of Grave's disease, as untreated hyperthyroidism can lead to complications such as heart problems, osteoporosis, and eye problems. With proper treatment, most people with Grave's disease can manage their symptoms and lead a normal life.

Recurrence can also refer to the re-emergence of symptoms in a previously treated condition, such as a chronic pain condition that returns after a period of remission.

In medical research, recurrence is often studied to understand the underlying causes of disease progression and to develop new treatments and interventions to prevent or delay its return.

There are many different types of epilepsy, each with its own unique set of symptoms and characteristics. Some common forms of epilepsy include:

1. Generalized Epilepsy: This type of epilepsy affects both sides of the brain and can cause a range of seizure types, including absence seizures, tonic-clonic seizures, and atypical absence seizures.
2. Focal Epilepsy: This type of epilepsy affects only one part of the brain and can cause seizures that are localized to that area. There are several subtypes of focal epilepsy, including partial seizures with complex symptoms and simple partial seizures.
3. Tonic-Clonic Epilepsy: This type of epilepsy is also known as grand mal seizures and can cause a loss of consciousness, convulsions, and muscle stiffness.
4. Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome: This is a rare and severe form of epilepsy that typically develops in early childhood and can cause multiple types of seizures, including tonic, atonic, and myoclonic seizures.
5. Dravet Syndrome: This is a rare genetic form of epilepsy that typically develops in infancy and can cause severe, frequent seizures.
6. Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome: This is a rare genetic disorder that can cause intellectual disability, developmental delays, and various types of seizures.
7. Other forms of epilepsy include Absence Epilepsy, Myoclonic Epilepsy, and Atonic Epilepsy.

The symptoms of epilepsy can vary widely depending on the type of seizure disorder and the individual affected. Some common symptoms of epilepsy include:

1. Seizures: This is the most obvious symptom of epilepsy and can range from mild to severe.
2. Loss of consciousness: Some people with epilepsy may experience a loss of consciousness during a seizure, while others may remain aware of their surroundings.
3. Confusion and disorientation: After a seizure, some people with epilepsy may feel confused and disoriented.
4. Memory loss: Seizures can cause short-term or long-term memory loss.
5. Fatigue: Epilepsy can cause extreme fatigue, both during and after a seizure.
6. Emotional changes: Some people with epilepsy may experience emotional changes, such as anxiety, depression, or mood swings.
7. Cognitive changes: Epilepsy can affect cognitive function, including attention, memory, and learning.
8. Sleep disturbances: Some people with epilepsy may experience sleep disturbances, such as insomnia or sleepiness.
9. Physical symptoms: Depending on the type of seizure, people with epilepsy may experience physical symptoms such as muscle weakness, numbness or tingling, and sensory changes.
10. Social isolation: Epilepsy can cause social isolation due to fear of having a seizure in public or stigma associated with the condition.

It's important to note that not everyone with epilepsy will experience all of these symptoms, and some people may have different symptoms depending on the type of seizure they experience. Additionally, some people with epilepsy may experience additional symptoms not listed here.

People with reflex epilepsy may experience a range of symptoms, including:

1. Seizures triggered by specific stimuli such as flashing lights, loud noises, or certain patterns or colors.
2. Loss of consciousness or awareness during the seizure.
3. Body stiffness or rigidity.
4. Jerky movements or twitches.
5. Altered sensation or perception.
6. Vision problems or blurred vision.
7. Hearing problems or ringing in the ears.
8. Nausea and vomiting.
9. Headaches.
10. Fatigue and exhaustion after the seizure.

Reflex epilepsy can be difficult to diagnose, as the seizures may not always be obvious or easy to identify. In some cases, people with reflex epilepsy may experience seizures that are triggered by internal stimuli, such as changes in hormone levels or stress, rather than external stimuli.

Treatment for reflex epilepsy typically involves avoiding triggers and managing stress, as well as medication to control seizures. In some cases, surgery may be recommended to remove the area of the brain that is causing the seizures. It's important for people with reflex epilepsy to work closely with their healthcare provider to develop a treatment plan that is tailored to their specific needs and circumstances.

Tachycardia, ventricular can be classified into several types based on its duration and the presence of other symptoms. These include:

1. Paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia (PVT): This is a rapid heart rate that occurs in episodes lasting less than 30 seconds and may be accompanied by palpitations, shortness of breath, or dizziness.
2. Sustained ventricular tachycardia: This is a rapid heart rate that persists for more than 30 seconds and may require medical intervention to return the heart to normal rhythm.
3. Ventricular fibrillation (VF): This is a life-threatening condition in which the ventricles are unable to pump blood effectively due to rapid, disorganized electrical activity.

Symptoms of tachycardia, ventricular may include:

* Palpitations or rapid heartbeat
* Shortness of breath
* Dizziness or lightheadedness
* Chest pain or discomfort
* Fatigue or weakness

Diagnosis of tachycardia, ventricular is typically made based on a physical examination, medical history, and results of diagnostic tests such as electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiogram, or stress test. Treatment options may include medications to regulate heart rhythm, cardioversion to restore normal heart rhythm, and in some cases, implantation of a cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) to prevent sudden death.

In summary, tachycardia, ventricular is a rapid heart rate that originates in the ventricles and can be caused by a variety of conditions. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time. With proper diagnosis and treatment, it is possible to manage the condition and improve quality of life.

There are several symptoms of RA, including:

1. Joint pain and stiffness, especially in the hands and feet
2. Swollen and warm joints
3. Redness and tenderness in the affected areas
4. Fatigue, fever, and loss of appetite
5. Loss of range of motion in the affected joints
6. Firm bumps of tissue under the skin (rheumatoid nodules)

RA can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, blood tests, and imaging studies such as X-rays or ultrasound. Treatment typically involves a combination of medications, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), and biologic agents. Lifestyle modifications such as exercise and physical therapy can also be helpful in managing symptoms and improving quality of life.

There is no cure for RA, but early diagnosis and aggressive treatment can help to slow the progression of the disease and reduce symptoms. With proper management, many people with RA are able to lead active and fulfilling lives.

Tonic movement:

* Stiffening or rigidity of muscles
* Loss of postural control

Clonic movement:

* Jerky movements of the arms, legs, or entire body
* Involuntary contractions

During a tonic-clonic seizure, the person may experience a variety of symptoms, including:

* Sudden loss of consciousness
* Confusion and disorientation after regaining consciousness
* Memory loss for the event
* Weakness or fatigue
* Headache
* Nausea and vomiting

Tonic-clonic seizures can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

* Genetic mutations that affect brain function
* Infections such as meningitis or encephalitis
* Traumatic head injury
* Stroke or bleeding in the brain
* Brain tumors or cysts
* Drug and alcohol withdrawal
* Electrolyte imbalances

There are several different types of tonic-clonic seizures, including:

* Simple partial seizures: These are less severe than tonic-clonic seizures and may involve only one part of the body.
* Complex partial seizures: These are more severe than simple partial seizures and can involve both sides of the body.
* Tonic-clonic seizures with secondary generalization: This type of seizure starts as a simple or complex partial seizure and then spreads to other parts of the body.

Treatment for tonic-clonic seizures typically involves medication, such as anticonvulsants, which can help reduce the frequency and severity of seizures. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove a brain tumor or cyst that is causing the seizures.

Overall, tonic-clonic seizures are a serious medical condition that can have significant consequences if not properly treated. If you experience a seizure, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible to determine the cause and receive appropriate treatment.

There are several types of hypercholesterolemia, including:

1. Familial hypercholesterolemia: This is an inherited condition that causes high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, also known as "bad" cholesterol, in the blood.
2. Non-familial hypercholesterolemia: This type of hypercholesterolemia is not inherited and can be caused by a variety of factors, such as a high-fat diet, lack of exercise, obesity, and certain medical conditions, such as hypothyroidism or polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
3. Mixed hypercholesterolemia: This type of hypercholesterolemia is characterized by high levels of both LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in the blood.

The diagnosis of hypercholesterolemia is typically made based on a physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as a lipid profile, which measures the levels of different types of cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood. Treatment for hypercholesterolemia usually involves lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet and regular exercise, and may also include medication, such as statins, to lower cholesterol levels.

1. Coronary artery disease: The narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart.
2. Heart failure: A condition in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs.
3. Arrhythmias: Abnormal heart rhythms that can be too fast, too slow, or irregular.
4. Heart valve disease: Problems with the heart valves that control blood flow through the heart.
5. Heart muscle disease (cardiomyopathy): Disease of the heart muscle that can lead to heart failure.
6. Congenital heart disease: Defects in the heart's structure and function that are present at birth.
7. Peripheral artery disease: The narrowing or blockage of blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the arms, legs, and other organs.
8. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A blood clot that forms in a deep vein, usually in the leg.
9. Pulmonary embolism: A blockage in one of the arteries in the lungs, which can be caused by a blood clot or other debris.
10. Stroke: A condition in which there is a lack of oxygen to the brain due to a blockage or rupture of blood vessels.

There are several types of hyperlipidemia, including:

1. High cholesterol: This is the most common type of hyperlipidemia and is characterized by elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, also known as "bad" cholesterol.
2. High triglycerides: This type of hyperlipidemia is characterized by elevated levels of triglycerides in the blood. Triglycerides are a type of fat found in the blood that is used for energy.
3. Low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol: HDL cholesterol is known as "good" cholesterol because it helps remove excess cholesterol from the bloodstream and transport it to the liver for excretion. Low levels of HDL cholesterol can contribute to hyperlipidemia.

Symptoms of hyperlipidemia may include xanthomas (fatty deposits on the skin), corneal arcus (a cloudy ring around the iris of the eye), and tendon xanthomas (tender lumps under the skin). However, many people with hyperlipidemia have no symptoms at all.

Hyperlipidemia can be diagnosed through a series of blood tests that measure the levels of different types of cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood. Treatment for hyperlipidemia typically involves dietary changes, such as reducing intake of saturated fats and cholesterol, and increasing physical activity. Medications such as statins, fibric acid derivatives, and bile acid sequestrants may also be prescribed to lower cholesterol levels.

In severe cases of hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) can occur, which can lead to cardiovascular disease, including heart attacks and strokes. Therefore, it is important to diagnose and treat hyperlipidemia early on to prevent these complications.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

There are several types of tachycardia, including:

1. Sinus tachycardia: This is the most common type and is caused by an increase in the rate of the normal sinus node. It is often seen in response to physical activity or stress.
2. Atrial fibrillation: This is a type of arrhythmia where the heart's upper chambers (atria) contract irregularly and rapidly, leading to a rapid heart rate.
3. Ventricular tachycardia: This is a type of arrhythmia where the heart's lower chambers (ventricles) contract rapidly, often with a rate above 100 bpm.
4. Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs): These are early or extra beats that originate in the ventricles, causing a rapid heart rate.

Tachycardia can cause a range of symptoms, including palpitations, shortness of breath, chest pain, and dizziness. In severe cases, it can lead to cardiac arrhythmias, heart failure, and even death.

Diagnosis of tachycardia typically involves a physical examination, electrocardiogram (ECG), and other tests such as stress tests or echocardiography. Treatment options vary depending on the underlying cause, but may include medications to regulate the heart rate, cardioversion to restore a normal heart rhythm, or in severe cases, implantation of a pacemaker or defibrillator.

There are many different types of cardiac arrhythmias, including:

1. Tachycardias: These are fast heart rhythms that can be too fast for the body's needs. Examples include atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia.
2. Bradycardias: These are slow heart rhythms that can cause symptoms like fatigue, dizziness, and fainting. Examples include sinus bradycardia and heart block.
3. Premature beats: These are extra beats that occur before the next regular beat should come in. They can be benign but can also indicate an underlying arrhythmia.
4. Supraventricular arrhythmias: These are arrhythmias that originate above the ventricles, such as atrial fibrillation and paroxysmal atrial tachycardia.
5. Ventricular arrhythmias: These are arrhythmias that originate in the ventricles, such as ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation.

Cardiac arrhythmias can be diagnosed through a variety of tests including electrocardiograms (ECGs), stress tests, and holter monitors. Treatment options for cardiac arrhythmias vary depending on the type and severity of the condition and may include medications, cardioversion, catheter ablation, or implantable devices like pacemakers or defibrillators.

Intractable pain can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, affecting their ability to perform daily activities, sleep, and overall well-being. Treatment for intractable pain often involves a combination of medications and alternative therapies such as physical therapy, acupuncture, or cognitive behavioral therapy.

Some common symptoms of intractable pain include:

* Chronic and persistent pain that does not respond to treatment
* Pain that is severe and debilitating
* Pain that affects daily activities and quality of life
* Pain that is burning, shooting, stabbing, or cramping in nature
* Pain that is localized to a specific area of the body or widespread
* Pain that is accompanied by other symptoms such as fatigue, anxiety, or depression.

Intractable pain can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

* Nerve damage or nerve damage from injury or disease
* Inflammation or swelling in the body
* Chronic conditions like arthritis, fibromyalgia, or migraines
* Infections such as shingles or Lyme disease
* Cancer or its treatment
* Neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis or Parkinson's disease.

Managing intractable pain can be challenging and may involve a multidisciplinary approach, including:

* Medications such as pain relievers, anti-inflammatory drugs, or muscle relaxants
* Alternative therapies such as physical therapy, acupuncture, or cognitive behavioral therapy
* Lifestyle changes such as regular exercise, stress management techniques, and a healthy diet
* Interventional procedures such as nerve blocks or spinal cord stimulation.

It is important to work closely with a healthcare provider to find the most effective treatment plan for managing intractable pain. With the right combination of medications and alternative therapies, many people are able to manage their pain and improve their quality of life.

Coronary disease is often caused by a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, smoking, obesity, and a lack of physical activity. It can also be triggered by other medical conditions, such as diabetes and kidney disease.

The symptoms of coronary disease can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:

* Chest pain or discomfort (angina)
* Shortness of breath
* Fatigue
* Swelling of the legs and feet
* Pain in the arms and back

Coronary disease is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as electrocardiograms (ECGs), stress tests, and cardiac imaging. Treatment for coronary disease may include lifestyle changes, medications to control symptoms, and surgical procedures such as angioplasty or bypass surgery to improve blood flow to the heart.

Preventative measures for coronary disease include:

* Maintaining a healthy diet and exercise routine
* Quitting smoking and limiting alcohol consumption
* Managing high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, and other underlying medical conditions
* Reducing stress through relaxation techniques or therapy.

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection is a condition in which the body is infected with HIV, a type of retrovirus that attacks the body's immune system. HIV infection can lead to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), a condition in which the immune system is severely damaged and the body is unable to fight off infections and diseases.

There are several ways that HIV can be transmitted, including:

1. Sexual contact with an infected person
2. Sharing of needles or other drug paraphernalia with an infected person
3. Mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Blood transfusions ( although this is rare in developed countries due to screening processes)
5. Organ transplantation (again, rare)

The symptoms of HIV infection can be mild at first and may not appear until several years after infection. These symptoms can include:

1. Fever
2. Fatigue
3. Swollen glands in the neck, armpits, and groin
4. Rash
5. Muscle aches and joint pain
6. Night sweats
7. Diarrhea
8. Weight loss

If left untreated, HIV infection can progress to AIDS, which is a life-threatening condition that can cause a wide range of symptoms, including:

1. Opportunistic infections (such as pneumocystis pneumonia)
2. Cancer (such as Kaposi's sarcoma)
3. Wasting syndrome
4. Neurological problems (such as dementia and seizures)

HIV infection is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests and physical examination. Treatment typically involves antiretroviral therapy (ART), which is a combination of medications that work together to suppress the virus and slow the progression of the disease.

Prevention methods for HIV infection include:

1. Safe sex practices, such as using condoms and dental dams
2. Avoiding sharing needles or other drug-injecting equipment
3. Avoiding mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), which is a short-term treatment that can prevent infection after potential exposure to the virus
5. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which is a daily medication that can prevent infection in people who are at high risk of being exposed to the virus.

It's important to note that HIV infection is manageable with proper treatment and care, and that people living with HIV can lead long and healthy lives. However, it's important to be aware of the risks and take steps to prevent transmission.

The most common cause of hyperthyroidism is an autoimmune disorder called Graves' disease, which causes the thyroid gland to produce too much thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Other causes include inflammation of the thyroid gland (thyroiditis), thyroid nodules, and certain medications.

Symptoms of hyperthyroidism can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:

* Rapid weight loss
* Nervousness or irritability
* Increased heart rate
* Heat intolerance
* Changes in menstrual cycle
* Fatigue
* Muscle weakness
* tremors

If left untreated, hyperthyroidism can lead to more serious complications such as heart problems, bone loss, and eye problems. Treatment options for hyperthyroidism include medications to reduce hormone production, radioactive iodine therapy to destroy part of the thyroid gland, and surgery to remove part or all of the thyroid gland.

In pregnant women, untreated hyperthyroidism can increase the risk of miscarriage, preterm labor, and intellectual disability in the baby. Treatment options for pregnant women with hyperthyroidism are similar to those for non-pregnant adults, but may need to be adjusted to avoid harm to the developing fetus.

It is important for individuals suspected of having hyperthyroidism to seek medical attention as soon as possible to receive proper diagnosis and treatment. Early treatment can help prevent complications and improve quality of life.

There are several types of SVT, including:

1. Paroxysmal SVT: This type of SVT comes and goes on its own and may be triggered by certain activities or stimuli.
2. Persistent SVT: This type of SVT lasts for more than 24 hours and may require treatment to return the heart to a normal rhythm.
3. Permanent SVT: This type of SVT is ongoing and may require long-term treatment.

Symptoms of SVT may include:

* Rapid or fluttering heartbeat
* Palpitations
* Shortness of breath
* Dizziness or lightheadedness
* Chest pain or discomfort

SVT is caused by a variety of factors, including:

* Abnormal electrical pathways in the heart
* Increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system
* Certain medications
* Caffeine and other stimulants
* Thyroid problems

Treatment for SVT may include:

* Medications to slow the heart rate or regulate the heart rhythm
* Cardioversion, which is a procedure that uses electrical shock to return the heart to a normal rhythm
* Catheter ablation, which is a procedure that destroys the abnormal electrical pathways in the heart
* Implantable devices such as pacemakers or implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs)

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of SVT, as it can lead to more serious complications such as atrial fibrillation or stroke if left untreated.

Types of Gastrointestinal Diseases:

1. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): A common condition characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel movements.
2. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): A group of chronic conditions that cause inflammation in the digestive tract, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
3. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD): A condition in which stomach acid flows back into the esophagus, causing heartburn and other symptoms.
4. Peptic Ulcer Disease: A condition characterized by ulcers in the lining of the stomach or duodenum.
5. Diverticulitis: A condition in which small pouches form in the wall of the colon and become inflamed.
6. Gastritis: Inflammation of the stomach lining, often caused by infection or excessive alcohol consumption.
7. Esophagitis: Inflammation of the esophagus, often caused by acid reflux or infection.
8. Rectal Bleeding: Hemorrhage from the rectum, which can be a symptom of various conditions such as hemorrhoids, anal fissures, or inflammatory bowel disease.
9. Functional Dyspepsia: A condition characterized by recurring symptoms of epigastric pain, bloating, nausea, and belching.
10. Celiac Disease: An autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to react to gluten, leading to inflammation and damage in the small intestine.

Causes of Gastrointestinal Diseases:

1. Infection: Viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections can cause gastrointestinal diseases.
2. Autoimmune Disorders: Conditions such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis occur when the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue in the GI tract.
3. Diet: Consuming a diet high in processed foods, sugar, and unhealthy fats can contribute to gastrointestinal diseases.
4. Genetics: Certain genetic factors can increase the risk of developing certain gastrointestinal diseases.
5. Lifestyle Factors: Smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, stress, and lack of physical activity can all contribute to gastrointestinal diseases.
6. Radiation Therapy: Exposure to radiation therapy can damage the GI tract and increase the risk of developing certain gastrointestinal diseases.
7. Medications: Certain medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and corticosteroids can cause gastrointestinal side effects.

There are two main types of heart failure:

1. Left-sided heart failure: This occurs when the left ventricle, which is the main pumping chamber of the heart, becomes weakened and is unable to pump blood effectively. This can lead to congestion in the lungs and other organs.
2. Right-sided heart failure: This occurs when the right ventricle, which pumps blood to the lungs, becomes weakened and is unable to pump blood effectively. This can lead to congestion in the body's tissues and organs.

Symptoms of heart failure may include:

* Shortness of breath
* Fatigue
* Swelling in the legs, ankles, and feet
* Swelling in the abdomen
* Weight gain
* Coughing up pink, frothy fluid
* Rapid or irregular heartbeat
* Dizziness or lightheadedness

Treatment for heart failure typically involves a combination of medications and lifestyle changes. Medications may include diuretics to remove excess fluid from the body, ACE inhibitors or beta blockers to reduce blood pressure and improve blood flow, and aldosterone antagonists to reduce the amount of fluid in the body. Lifestyle changes may include a healthy diet, regular exercise, and stress reduction techniques. In severe cases, heart failure may require hospitalization or implantation of a device such as an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) or a left ventricular assist device (LVAD).

It is important to note that heart failure is a chronic condition, and it requires ongoing management and monitoring to prevent complications and improve quality of life. With proper treatment and lifestyle changes, many people with heart failure are able to manage their symptoms and lead active lives.

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

In this article, we will explore the definition and impact of chronic diseases, as well as strategies for managing and living with them. We will also discuss the importance of early detection and prevention, as well as the role of healthcare providers in addressing the needs of individuals with chronic diseases.

What is a Chronic Disease?

A chronic disease is a condition that lasts for an extended period of time, often affecting daily life and activities. Unlike acute diseases, which have a specific beginning and end, chronic diseases are long-term and persistent. Examples of chronic diseases include:

1. Diabetes
2. Heart disease
3. Arthritis
4. Asthma
5. Cancer
6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
7. Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
8. Hypertension
9. Osteoporosis
10. Stroke

Impact of Chronic Diseases

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the WHO. In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

Chronic diseases can also have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, limiting their ability to participate in activities they enjoy and affecting their relationships with family and friends. Moreover, the financial burden of chronic diseases can lead to poverty and reduce economic productivity, thus having a broader societal impact.

Addressing Chronic Diseases

Given the significant burden of chronic diseases, it is essential that we address them effectively. This requires a multi-faceted approach that includes:

1. Lifestyle modifications: Encouraging healthy behaviors such as regular physical activity, a balanced diet, and smoking cessation can help prevent and manage chronic diseases.
2. Early detection and diagnosis: Identifying risk factors and detecting diseases early can help prevent or delay their progression.
3. Medication management: Effective medication management is crucial for controlling symptoms and slowing disease progression.
4. Multi-disciplinary care: Collaboration between healthcare providers, patients, and families is essential for managing chronic diseases.
5. Health promotion and disease prevention: Educating individuals about the risks of chronic diseases and promoting healthy behaviors can help prevent their onset.
6. Addressing social determinants of health: Social determinants such as poverty, education, and employment can have a significant impact on health outcomes. Addressing these factors is essential for reducing health disparities and improving overall health.
7. Investing in healthcare infrastructure: Investing in healthcare infrastructure, technology, and research is necessary to improve disease detection, diagnosis, and treatment.
8. Encouraging policy change: Policy changes can help create supportive environments for healthy behaviors and reduce the burden of chronic diseases.
9. Increasing public awareness: Raising public awareness about the risks and consequences of chronic diseases can help individuals make informed decisions about their health.
10. Providing support for caregivers: Chronic diseases can have a significant impact on family members and caregivers, so providing them with support is essential for improving overall health outcomes.

Conclusion

Chronic diseases are a major public health burden that affect millions of people worldwide. Addressing these diseases requires a multi-faceted approach that includes lifestyle changes, addressing social determinants of health, investing in healthcare infrastructure, encouraging policy change, increasing public awareness, and providing support for caregivers. By taking a comprehensive approach to chronic disease prevention and management, we can improve the health and well-being of individuals and communities worldwide.

Some examples of the use of 'Death, Sudden, Cardiac' in medical contexts include:

1. Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a major public health concern, affecting thousands of people each year in the United States alone. It is often caused by inherited heart conditions, such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or long QT syndrome.
2. The risk of sudden cardiac death is higher for individuals with a family history of heart disease or other pre-existing cardiovascular conditions.
3. Sudden cardiac death can be prevented by prompt recognition and treatment of underlying heart conditions, as well as by avoiding certain risk factors such as smoking, physical inactivity, and an unhealthy diet.
4. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and automated external defibrillators (AEDs) can be effective in restoring a normal heart rhythm during sudden cardiac death, especially when used promptly after the onset of symptoms.

In TEA, the abnormal electrical focus in the atria can be caused by various factors, including damage to the heart tissue due to coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, or other underlying conditions. The condition can be diagnosed using electrocardiography (ECG) and can be treated with medications such as beta blockers or antiarrhythmics, or in some cases, catheter ablation may be necessary to destroy the abnormal electrical focus in the atria.

The term "ectopic" refers to the fact that the abnormal electrical activity originates from an unusual location within the heart, specifically in the atria near the cavo-tricuspid isthmus. The term "tachycardia" refers to the rapid and irregular heartbeat.

In summary, Tachycardia, Ectopic Atrial (TEA) is a type of arrhythmia that originates from an abnormal electrical focus in the atria near the cavo-tricuspid isthmus, leading to rapid and irregular atrial contractions and potentially causing symptoms such as palpitations and shortness of breath.

There are several types of diabetes mellitus, including:

1. Type 1 DM: This is an autoimmune condition in which the body's immune system attacks and destroys the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin, resulting in a complete deficiency of insulin production. It typically develops in childhood or adolescence, and patients with this condition require lifelong insulin therapy.
2. Type 2 DM: This is the most common form of diabetes, accounting for around 90% of all cases. It is caused by a combination of insulin resistance (where the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin) and impaired insulin secretion. It is often associated with obesity, physical inactivity, and a diet high in sugar and unhealthy fats.
3. Gestational DM: This type of diabetes develops during pregnancy, usually in the second or third trimester. Hormonal changes and insulin resistance can cause blood sugar levels to rise, putting both the mother and baby at risk.
4. LADA (Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults): This is a form of type 1 DM that develops in adults, typically after the age of 30. It shares features with both type 1 and type 2 DM.
5. MODY (Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young): This is a rare form of diabetes caused by genetic mutations that affect insulin production. It typically develops in young adulthood and can be managed with lifestyle changes and/or medication.

The symptoms of diabetes mellitus can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:

1. Increased thirst and urination
2. Fatigue
3. Blurred vision
4. Cuts or bruises that are slow to heal
5. Tingling or numbness in hands and feet
6. Recurring skin, gum, or bladder infections
7. Flu-like symptoms such as weakness, dizziness, and stomach pain
8. Dark, velvety skin patches (acanthosis nigricans)
9. Yellowish color of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
10. Delayed healing of cuts and wounds

If left untreated, diabetes mellitus can lead to a range of complications, including:

1. Heart disease and stroke
2. Kidney damage and failure
3. Nerve damage (neuropathy)
4. Eye damage (retinopathy)
5. Foot damage (neuropathic ulcers)
6. Cognitive impairment and dementia
7. Increased risk of infections and other diseases, such as pneumonia, gum disease, and urinary tract infections.

It is important to note that not all individuals with diabetes will experience these complications, and that proper management of the condition can greatly reduce the risk of developing these complications.

Disease progression can be classified into several types based on the pattern of worsening:

1. Chronic progressive disease: In this type, the disease worsens steadily over time, with a gradual increase in symptoms and decline in function. Examples include rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and Parkinson's disease.
2. Acute progressive disease: This type of disease worsens rapidly over a short period, often followed by periods of stability. Examples include sepsis, acute myocardial infarction (heart attack), and stroke.
3. Cyclical disease: In this type, the disease follows a cycle of worsening and improvement, with periodic exacerbations and remissions. Examples include multiple sclerosis, lupus, and rheumatoid arthritis.
4. Recurrent disease: This type is characterized by episodes of worsening followed by periods of recovery. Examples include migraine headaches, asthma, and appendicitis.
5. Catastrophic disease: In this type, the disease progresses rapidly and unpredictably, with a poor prognosis. Examples include cancer, AIDS, and organ failure.

Disease progression can be influenced by various factors, including:

1. Genetics: Some diseases are inherited and may have a predetermined course of progression.
2. Lifestyle: Factors such as smoking, lack of exercise, and poor diet can contribute to disease progression.
3. Environmental factors: Exposure to toxins, allergens, and other environmental stressors can influence disease progression.
4. Medical treatment: The effectiveness of medical treatment can impact disease progression, either by slowing or halting the disease process or by causing unintended side effects.
5. Co-morbidities: The presence of multiple diseases or conditions can interact and affect each other's progression.

Understanding the type and factors influencing disease progression is essential for developing effective treatment plans and improving patient outcomes.

There are many different types of seizures, each with its own unique set of symptoms. Some common types of seizures include:

1. Generalized seizures: These seizures affect both sides of the brain and can cause a range of symptoms, including convulsions, loss of consciousness, and muscle stiffness.
2. Focal seizures: These seizures affect only one part of the brain and can cause more specific symptoms, such as weakness or numbness in a limb, or changes in sensation or vision.
3. Tonic-clonic seizures: These seizures are also known as grand mal seizures and can cause convulsions, loss of consciousness, and muscle stiffness.
4. Absence seizures: These seizures are also known as petit mal seizures and can cause a brief loss of consciousness or staring spell.
5. Myoclonic seizures: These seizures can cause sudden, brief muscle jerks or twitches.
6. Atonic seizures: These seizures can cause a sudden loss of muscle tone, which can lead to falls or drops.
7. Lennox-Gastaut syndrome: This is a rare and severe form of epilepsy that can cause multiple types of seizures, including tonic, atonic, and myoclonic seizures.

Seizures can be diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as electroencephalography (EEG) or imaging studies. Treatment for seizures usually involves anticonvulsant medications, but in some cases, surgery or other interventions may be necessary.

Overall, seizures are a complex and multifaceted symptom that can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life. It is important to seek medical attention if you or someone you know is experiencing seizures, as early diagnosis and treatment can help to improve outcomes and reduce the risk of complications.

Leprosy can cause a range of symptoms, including:

1. Skin lesions: Leprosy can cause skin lesions, including lighter or darker patches on the skin, and thickening of the skin.
2. Nerve damage: The bacteria can damage the nerves, leading to numbness, pain, and muscle weakness.
3. Eye problems: Leprosy can cause eye inflammation, vision loss, and dryness of the eyes.
4. Respiratory problems: In severe cases, leprosy can cause breathing difficulties and respiratory failure.
5. Enlarged lymph nodes: The lymph nodes may become enlarged in some cases.
6. Joint pain and swelling: Leprosy can cause joint pain and swelling.
7. Neuritis: Inflammation of the nerves can occur, leading to pain, numbness, and tingling sensations.
8. Ulcers: Leprosy can cause ulcers on the skin and mucous membranes.

Leprosy is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and medical imaging. Treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics and other medications to manage symptoms. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove infected tissue or repair damaged nerves.

Leprosy can be transmitted through respiratory droplets, close contact with an infected person, or through contaminated objects such as clothing or bedding. However, leprosy is not highly contagious and the risk of transmission is low if proper precautions are taken.

While there is no cure for leprosy, early diagnosis and treatment can prevent complications and disability. However, due to the stigma surrounding the disease, many people may delay seeking medical attention, leading to a higher risk of long-term complications.

Overall, while leprosy is a serious disease, it is also a preventable and treatable one. With proper awareness and education, we can work towards reducing the stigma surrounding leprosy and ensuring that those affected receive the medical attention they need.

Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.

Types of Neoplasms

There are many different types of neoplasms, including:

1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.

Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms

The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:

1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms

The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:

1. Unusual lumps or swelling
2. Pain
3. Fatigue
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms

The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:

1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.

Prevention of Neoplasms

While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:

1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.

It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.

There are different types of myocardial infarctions, including:

1. ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI): This is the most severe type of heart attack, where a large area of the heart muscle is damaged. It is characterized by a specific pattern on an electrocardiogram (ECG) called the ST segment.
2. Non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI): This type of heart attack is less severe than STEMI, and the damage to the heart muscle may not be as extensive. It is characterized by a smaller area of damage or a different pattern on an ECG.
3. Incomplete myocardial infarction: This type of heart attack is when there is some damage to the heart muscle but not a complete blockage of blood flow.
4. Collateral circulation myocardial infarction: This type of heart attack occurs when there are existing collateral vessels that bypass the blocked coronary artery, which reduces the amount of damage to the heart muscle.

Symptoms of a myocardial infarction can include chest pain or discomfort, shortness of breath, lightheadedness, and fatigue. These symptoms may be accompanied by anxiety, fear, and a sense of impending doom. In some cases, there may be no noticeable symptoms at all.

Diagnosis of myocardial infarction is typically made based on a combination of physical examination findings, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as an electrocardiogram (ECG), cardiac enzyme tests, and imaging studies like echocardiography or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.

Treatment of myocardial infarction usually involves medications to relieve pain, reduce the amount of work the heart has to do, and prevent further damage to the heart muscle. These may include aspirin, beta blockers, ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, and statins. In some cases, a procedure such as angioplasty or coronary artery bypass surgery may be necessary to restore blood flow to the affected area.

Prevention of myocardial infarction involves managing risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, diabetes, and obesity. This can include lifestyle changes such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, and stress reduction, as well as medications to control these conditions. Early detection and treatment of heart disease can help prevent myocardial infarction from occurring in the first place.

In Vfib, the electrical activity of the heart becomes disorganized, leading to a fibrillatory pattern of contraction. This means that the ventricles are contracting in a rapid, unsynchronized manner, rather than the coordinated, synchronized contractions that occur in normal heart function.

Vfib can be caused by a variety of factors, including coronary artery disease, heart attack, cardiomyopathy, and electrolyte imbalances. It can also be triggered by certain medications, such as digoxin, or by electrical shocks to the heart.

Symptoms of Vfib include palpitations, shortness of breath, chest pain, and loss of consciousness. If not treated promptly, Vfib can lead to cardiac arrest and death.

Treatment of Vfib typically involves electrical cardioversion, which involves delivering an electric shock to the heart to restore a normal heart rhythm. In some cases, medications may also be used to help regulate the heart rhythm. In more severe cases, surgery or other interventions may be necessary to address any underlying causes of Vfib.

Overall, ventricular fibrillation is a serious medical condition that requires prompt treatment to prevent complications and ensure effective cardiac function.

There are several types of dyslipidemias, including:

1. Hyperlipidemia: Elevated levels of lipids and lipoproteins in the blood, which can increase the risk of CVD.
2. Hypolipidemia: Low levels of lipids and lipoproteins in the blood, which can also increase the risk of CVD.
3. Mixed dyslipidemia: A combination of hyperlipidemia and hypolipidemia.
4. Familial dyslipidemia: An inherited condition that affects the levels of lipids and lipoproteins in the blood.
5. Acquired dyslipidemia: A condition caused by other factors, such as poor diet or medication side effects.

Dyslipidemias can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including fasting blood sugar (FBS), lipid profile, and apolipoprotein testing. Treatment for dyslipidemias often involves lifestyle changes, such as dietary modifications and increased physical activity, as well as medications to lower cholesterol and triglycerides.

In conclusion, dyslipidemias are abnormalities in the levels or composition of lipids and lipoproteins in the blood that can increase the risk of CVD. They can be caused by a variety of factors and diagnosed through several tests. Treatment often involves lifestyle changes and medications to lower cholesterol and triglycerides.

The symptoms of AIDS can vary depending on the individual and the stage of the disease. Common symptoms include:

1. Fever
2. Fatigue
3. Swollen glands
4. Rash
5. Muscle aches and joint pain
6. Night sweats
7. Diarrhea
8. Weight loss
9. Memory loss and other neurological problems
10. Cancer and other opportunistic infections.

AIDS is diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of HIV antibodies or the virus itself. There is no cure for AIDS, but antiretroviral therapy (ART) can help manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. Prevention methods include using condoms, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and avoiding sharing needles or other injection equipment.

In summary, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a severe and life-threatening condition caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). It is characterized by a severely weakened immune system, which makes it difficult to fight off infections and diseases. While there is no cure for AIDS, antiretroviral therapy can help manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. Prevention methods include using condoms, pre-exposure prophylaxis, and avoiding sharing needles or other injection equipment.

Type 2 diabetes can be managed through a combination of diet, exercise, and medication. In some cases, lifestyle changes may be enough to control blood sugar levels, while in other cases, medication or insulin therapy may be necessary. Regular monitoring of blood sugar levels and follow-up with a healthcare provider are important for managing the condition and preventing complications.

Common symptoms of type 2 diabetes include:

* Increased thirst and urination
* Fatigue
* Blurred vision
* Cuts or bruises that are slow to heal
* Tingling or numbness in the hands and feet
* Recurring skin, gum, or bladder infections

If left untreated, type 2 diabetes can lead to a range of complications, including:

* Heart disease and stroke
* Kidney damage and failure
* Nerve damage and pain
* Eye damage and blindness
* Foot damage and amputation

The exact cause of type 2 diabetes is not known, but it is believed to be linked to a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors, such as:

* Obesity and excess body weight
* Lack of physical activity
* Poor diet and nutrition
* Age and family history
* Certain ethnicities (e.g., African American, Hispanic/Latino, Native American)
* History of gestational diabetes or delivering a baby over 9 lbs.

There is no cure for type 2 diabetes, but it can be managed and controlled through a combination of lifestyle changes and medication. With proper treatment and self-care, people with type 2 diabetes can lead long, healthy lives.

The symptoms of visceral leishmaniasis can vary depending on the severity of the infection, but may include:

* Fever
* Fatigue
* Loss of appetite
* Weight loss
* Enlargement of the liver and spleen
* Pain in the abdomen
* Anemia
* Low blood platelet count
* Low white blood cell count

If left untreated, visceral leishmaniasis can be fatal. Treatment is typically with antiparasitic drugs, such as miltefosine or amphotericin B, and supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

It is important to note that visceral leishmaniasis is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition, and prompt medical attention is necessary for effective treatment and management.

There are two types of heart arrest:

1. Asystole - This is when the heart stops functioning completely and there is no electrical activity in the heart.
2. Pulseless ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation - This is when the heart is still functioning but there is no pulse and the rhythm is abnormal.

Heart arrest can be diagnosed through various tests such as electrocardiogram (ECG), blood tests, and echocardiography. Treatment options for heart arrest include cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), defibrillation, and medications to restore a normal heart rhythm.

In severe cases of heart arrest, the patient may require advanced life support measures such as mechanical ventilation and cardiac support devices. The prognosis for heart arrest is generally poor, especially if it is not treated promptly and effectively. However, with proper treatment and support, some patients can recover and regain normal heart function.

Some common causes of syncope include:

1. Vasovagal response: This is the most common cause of syncope and is triggered by a sudden drop in blood pressure, usually due to sight of blood or injury.
2. Cardiac arrhythmias: Abnormal heart rhythms can lead to a decrease in blood flow to the brain, causing syncope.
3. Heart failure: When the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs, syncope can occur.
4. Anemia: A low red blood cell count can cause decreased oxygen delivery to the brain, leading to syncope.
5. Dehydration: Lack of fluids and electrolytes can lead to a decrease in blood pressure, causing syncope.
6. Medication side effects: Certain medications can cause syncope as a side effect, such as vasodilators and beta-blockers.
7. Neurological disorders: Syncope can be a symptom of neurological conditions such as seizures, migraines, and stroke.
8. Psychological factors: Stress, anxiety, and panic attacks can also cause syncope.

Diagnosis of syncope is based on a thorough medical history and physical examination, as well as diagnostic tests such as electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiogram, and blood tests. Treatment of syncope depends on the underlying cause and may include lifestyle modifications, medication, and in some cases, surgical intervention.

In summary, syncope is a symptom of a wide range of medical conditions that can be caused by cardiovascular, neurological, and psychological factors. A thorough diagnosis and appropriate treatment are necessary to determine the underlying cause and prevent complications.

1. Infection: Bacterial or viral infections can develop after surgery, potentially leading to sepsis or organ failure.
2. Adhesions: Scar tissue can form during the healing process, which can cause bowel obstruction, chronic pain, or other complications.
3. Wound complications: Incisional hernias, wound dehiscence (separation of the wound edges), and wound infections can occur.
4. Respiratory problems: Pneumonia, respiratory failure, and atelectasis (collapsed lung) can develop after surgery, particularly in older adults or those with pre-existing respiratory conditions.
5. Cardiovascular complications: Myocardial infarction (heart attack), cardiac arrhythmias, and cardiac failure can occur after surgery, especially in high-risk patients.
6. Renal (kidney) problems: Acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease can develop postoperatively, particularly in patients with pre-existing renal impairment.
7. Neurological complications: Stroke, seizures, and neuropraxia (nerve damage) can occur after surgery, especially in patients with pre-existing neurological conditions.
8. Pulmonary embolism: Blood clots can form in the legs or lungs after surgery, potentially causing pulmonary embolism.
9. Anesthesia-related complications: Respiratory and cardiac complications can occur during anesthesia, including respiratory and cardiac arrest.
10. delayed healing: Wound healing may be delayed or impaired after surgery, particularly in patients with pre-existing medical conditions.

It is important for patients to be aware of these potential complications and to discuss any concerns with their surgeon and healthcare team before undergoing surgery.

Hypothyroidism can be diagnosed through a series of blood tests that measure the levels of thyroid hormones in the body. Treatment typically involves taking synthetic thyroid hormone medication to replace the missing hormones. With proper treatment, most people with hypothyroidism can lead normal, healthy lives.

Hypothyroidism is a relatively common condition, affecting about 4.6 million people in the United States alone. Women are more likely to develop hypothyroidism than men, and it is most commonly diagnosed in middle-aged women.

Some of the symptoms of Hypothyroidism include:

1. Fatigue or tiredness
2. Weight gain
3. Dry skin
4. Constipation
5. Depression or anxiety
6. Memory problems
7. Muscle aches and stiffness
8. Heavy or irregular menstrual periods
9. Pale, dry, or rough skin
10. Hair loss or thinning
11. Cold intolerance
12. Slowed speech and movements

It's important to note that some people may not experience any symptoms at all, especially in the early stages of the condition. However, if left untreated, hypothyroidism can lead to more severe complications such as heart disease, mental health problems, and infertility.

Asthma can cause recurring episodes of wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. These symptoms occur when the muscles surrounding the airways contract, causing the airways to narrow and swell. This can be triggered by exposure to environmental allergens or irritants such as pollen, dust mites, pet dander, or respiratory infections.

There is no cure for asthma, but it can be managed with medication and lifestyle changes. Treatment typically includes inhaled corticosteroids to reduce inflammation, bronchodilators to open up the airways, and rescue medications to relieve symptoms during an asthma attack.

Asthma is a common condition that affects people of all ages, but it is most commonly diagnosed in children. According to the American Lung Association, more than 25 million Americans have asthma, and it is the third leading cause of hospitalization for children under the age of 18.

While there is no cure for asthma, early diagnosis and proper treatment can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life for those affected by the condition.

Examples of acute diseases include:

1. Common cold and flu
2. Pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Appendicitis and other abdominal emergencies
4. Heart attacks and strokes
5. Asthma attacks and allergic reactions
6. Skin infections and cellulitis
7. Urinary tract infections
8. Sinusitis and meningitis
9. Gastroenteritis and food poisoning
10. Sprains, strains, and fractures.

Acute diseases can be treated effectively with antibiotics, medications, or other therapies. However, if left untreated, they can lead to chronic conditions or complications that may require long-term care. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

Crohn's disease can affect any part of the GI tract, from the mouth to the anus, and causes symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, and weight loss. Ulcerative colitis primarily affects the colon and rectum and causes symptoms such as bloody stools, abdominal pain, and weight loss.

Both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic conditions, meaning they cannot be cured but can be managed with medication and lifestyle changes. Treatment options for IBD include anti-inflammatory medications, immunosuppressants, and biologics. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged portions of the GI tract.

There is no known cause of IBD, although genetics, environmental factors, and an abnormal immune response are thought to play a role. The condition can have a significant impact on quality of life, particularly if left untreated or poorly managed. Complications of IBD include malnutrition, osteoporosis, and increased risk of colon cancer.

Preventing and managing IBD requires a comprehensive approach that includes medication, dietary changes, stress management, and regular follow-up with a healthcare provider. With proper treatment and lifestyle modifications, many people with IBD are able to manage their symptoms and lead active, fulfilling lives.

Example sentence: The patient had a hemorrhage after the car accident and needed immediate medical attention.

There are two main forms of TB:

1. Active TB: This is the form of the disease where the bacteria are actively growing and causing symptoms such as coughing, fever, chest pain, and fatigue. Active TB can be contagious and can spread to others if not treated properly.
2. Latent TB: This is the form of the disease where the bacteria are present in the body but are not actively growing or causing symptoms. People with latent TB do not feel sick and are not contagious, but they can still become sick with active TB if their immune system is weakened.

TB is a major public health concern, especially in developing countries where access to healthcare may be limited. The disease is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical imaging, and laboratory tests such as skin tests or blood tests. Treatment for TB typically involves a course of antibiotics, which can be effective in curing the disease if taken properly. However, drug-resistant forms of TB have emerged in some parts of the world, making treatment more challenging.

Preventive measures against TB include:

1. Vaccination with BCG (Bacille Calmette-Guérin) vaccine, which can provide some protection against severe forms of the disease but not against latent TB.
2. Avoiding close contact with people who have active TB, especially if they are coughing or sneezing.
3. Practicing good hygiene, such as covering one's mouth when coughing or sneezing and regularly washing hands.
4. Getting regular screenings for TB if you are in a high-risk group, such as healthcare workers or people with weakened immune systems.
5. Avoiding sharing personal items such as towels, utensils, or drinking glasses with people who have active TB.

Overall, while TB is a serious disease that can be challenging to treat and prevent, with the right measures in place, it is possible to reduce its impact on public health and improve outcomes for those affected by the disease.

Angina pectoris is a medical condition that is characterized by recurring chest pain or discomfort due to reduced blood flow and oxygen supply to the heart muscle, specifically the myocardium. It is also known as stable angina or effort angina. The symptoms of angina pectoris typically occur during physical activity or emotional stress and are relieved by rest.

The term "angina" comes from the Latin word for "strangulation," which refers to the feeling of tightness or constriction in the chest that is associated with the condition. Angina pectoris can be caused by atherosclerosis, or the buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart muscle. This buildup can lead to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques that can narrow the coronary arteries and reduce blood flow to the heart muscle, causing chest pain.

There are several types of angina pectoris, including:

1. Stable angina: This is the most common type of angina and is characterized by predictable and reproducible symptoms that occur during specific situations or activities, such as exercise or emotional stress.
2. Unstable angina: This type of angina is characterized by unpredictable and changing symptoms that can occur at rest or with minimal exertion. It is often a sign of a more severe underlying condition, such as a heart attack.
3. Variant angina: This type of angina occurs during physical activity, but the symptoms are not relieved by rest.
4. Prinzmetal's angina: This is a rare type of angina that occurs at rest and is characterized by a feeling of tightness or constriction in the chest.

The diagnosis of angina pectoris is typically made based on a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as electrocardiogram (ECG), stress test, and imaging studies. Treatment for angina pectoris usually involves lifestyle modifications, such as regular exercise, a healthy diet, and stress management, as well as medications to relieve symptoms and reduce the risk of complications. In some cases, surgery or other procedures may be necessary to treat the underlying condition causing the angina.

UC can be challenging to diagnose and treat, and there is no known cure. However, with proper management, it is possible for people with UC to experience long periods of remission and improve their quality of life. Treatment options include medications such as aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, and immunomodulators, as well as surgery in severe cases.

It's important for individuals with UC to work closely with their healthcare provider to develop a personalized treatment plan that takes into account their specific symptoms and needs. With the right treatment and support, many people with UC are able to manage their symptoms and lead active, fulfilling lives.

Types of Kidney Diseases:

1. Acute Kidney Injury (AKI): A sudden and reversible loss of kidney function that can be caused by a variety of factors, such as injury, infection, or medication.
2. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): A gradual and irreversible loss of kidney function that can lead to end-stage renal disease (ESRD).
3. End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD): A severe and irreversible form of CKD that requires dialysis or a kidney transplant.
4. Glomerulonephritis: An inflammation of the glomeruli, the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys that filter waste products.
5. Interstitial Nephritis: An inflammation of the tissue between the tubules and blood vessels in the kidneys.
6. Kidney Stone Disease: A condition where small, hard mineral deposits form in the kidneys and can cause pain, bleeding, and other complications.
7. Pyelonephritis: An infection of the kidneys that can cause inflammation, damage to the tissues, and scarring.
8. Renal Cell Carcinoma: A type of cancer that originates in the cells of the kidney.
9. Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS): A condition where the immune system attacks the platelets and red blood cells, leading to anemia, low platelet count, and damage to the kidneys.

Symptoms of Kidney Diseases:

1. Blood in urine or hematuria
2. Proteinuria (excess protein in urine)
3. Reduced kidney function or renal insufficiency
4. Swelling in the legs, ankles, and feet (edema)
5. Fatigue and weakness
6. Nausea and vomiting
7. Abdominal pain
8. Frequent urination or polyuria
9. Increased thirst and drinking (polydipsia)
10. Weight loss

Diagnosis of Kidney Diseases:

1. Physical examination
2. Medical history
3. Urinalysis (test of urine)
4. Blood tests (e.g., creatinine, urea, electrolytes)
5. Imaging studies (e.g., X-rays, CT scans, ultrasound)
6. Kidney biopsy
7. Other specialized tests (e.g., 24-hour urinary protein collection, kidney function tests)

Treatment of Kidney Diseases:

1. Medications (e.g., diuretics, blood pressure medication, antibiotics)
2. Diet and lifestyle changes (e.g., low salt intake, increased water intake, physical activity)
3. Dialysis (filtering waste products from the blood when the kidneys are not functioning properly)
4. Kidney transplantation ( replacing a diseased kidney with a healthy one)
5. Other specialized treatments (e.g., plasmapheresis, hemodialysis)

Prevention of Kidney Diseases:

1. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
2. Monitoring blood pressure and blood sugar levels
3. Avoiding harmful substances (e.g., tobacco, excessive alcohol consumption)
4. Managing underlying medical conditions (e.g., diabetes, high blood pressure)
5. Getting regular check-ups and screenings

Early detection and treatment of kidney diseases can help prevent or slow the progression of the disease, reducing the risk of complications and improving quality of life. It is important to be aware of the signs and symptoms of kidney diseases and seek medical attention if they are present.

The buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries is often caused by high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes, and a family history of heart disease. The plaque can also rupture, causing a blood clot to form, which can completely block the flow of blood to the heart muscle, leading to a heart attack.

CAD is the most common type of heart disease and is often asymptomatic until a serious event occurs. Risk factors for CAD include:

* Age (men over 45 and women over 55)
* Gender (men are at greater risk than women, but women are more likely to die from CAD)
* Family history of heart disease
* High blood pressure
* High cholesterol
* Diabetes
* Smoking
* Obesity
* Lack of exercise

Diagnosis of CAD typically involves a physical exam, medical history, and results of diagnostic tests such as:

* Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)
* Stress test
* Echocardiogram
* Coronary angiography

Treatment for CAD may include lifestyle changes such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management, and quitting smoking. Medications such as beta blockers, ACE inhibitors, and statins may also be prescribed to manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. In severe cases, surgical intervention such as coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) may be necessary.

Prevention of CAD includes managing risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and diabetes, quitting smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, and getting regular exercise. Early detection and treatment of CAD can help to reduce the risk of complications and improve quality of life for those affected by the disease.

Myocardial ischemia can be caused by a variety of factors, including coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, and smoking. It can also be triggered by physical exertion or stress.

There are several types of myocardial ischemia, including:

1. Stable angina: This is the most common type of myocardial ischemia, and it is characterized by a predictable pattern of chest pain that occurs during physical activity or emotional stress.
2. Unstable angina: This is a more severe type of myocardial ischemia that can occur without any identifiable trigger, and can be accompanied by other symptoms such as shortness of breath or vomiting.
3. Acute coronary syndrome (ACS): This is a condition that includes both stable angina and unstable angina, and it is characterized by a sudden reduction in blood flow to the heart muscle.
4. Heart attack (myocardial infarction): This is a type of myocardial ischemia that occurs when the blood flow to the heart muscle is completely blocked, resulting in damage or death of the cardiac tissue.

Myocardial ischemia can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including electrocardiograms (ECGs), stress tests, and imaging studies such as echocardiography or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment options for myocardial ischemia include medications such as nitrates, beta blockers, and calcium channel blockers, as well as lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, losing weight, and exercising regularly. In severe cases, surgical procedures such as coronary artery bypass grafting or angioplasty may be necessary.

The term "schizophrenia" was first used by the Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler in 1908 to describe the splitting of mental functions, which he believed was a key feature of the disorder. The word is derived from the Greek words "schizein," meaning "to split," and "phrenos," meaning "mind."

There are several subtypes of schizophrenia, including:

1. Paranoid Schizophrenia: Characterized by delusions of persecution and suspicion, and a tendency to be hostile and defensive.
2. Hallucinatory Schizophrenia: Characterized by hearing voices or seeing things that are not there.
3. Disorganized Schizophrenia: Characterized by disorganized thinking and behavior, and a lack of motivation or interest in activities.
4. Catatonic Schizophrenia: Characterized by immobility, mutism, and other unusual movements or postures.
5. Undifferentiated Schizophrenia: Characterized by a combination of symptoms from the above subtypes.

The exact cause of schizophrenia is still not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and neurochemical factors. It is important to note that schizophrenia is not caused by poor parenting or a person's upbringing.

There are several risk factors for developing schizophrenia, including:

1. Genetics: A person with a family history of schizophrenia is more likely to develop the disorder.
2. Brain chemistry: Imbalances in neurotransmitters such as dopamine and serotonin have been linked to schizophrenia.
3. Prenatal factors: Factors such as maternal malnutrition or exposure to certain viruses during pregnancy may increase the risk of schizophrenia in offspring.
4. Childhood trauma: Traumatic events during childhood, such as abuse or neglect, have been linked to an increased risk of developing schizophrenia.
5. Substance use: Substance use has been linked to an increased risk of developing schizophrenia, particularly cannabis and other psychotic substances.

There is no cure for schizophrenia, but treatment can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life. Treatment options include:

1. Medications: Antipsychotic medications are the primary treatment for schizophrenia. They can help reduce positive symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions, and negative symptoms such as a lack of motivation or interest in activities.
2. Therapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and other forms of talk therapy can help individuals with schizophrenia manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.
3. Social support: Support from family, friends, and support groups can be an important part of the treatment plan for individuals with schizophrenia.
4. Self-care: Engaging in activities that bring pleasure and fulfillment, such as hobbies or exercise, can help individuals with schizophrenia improve their overall well-being.

It is important to note that schizophrenia is a complex condition, and treatment should be tailored to the individual's specific needs and circumstances. With appropriate treatment and support, many people with schizophrenia are able to lead fulfilling lives and achieve their goals.

Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer's disease, affecting approximately 1% of the population over the age of 60. It is more common in men than women and has a higher incidence in Caucasians than in other ethnic groups.

The primary symptoms of Parkinson's disease are:

* Tremors or trembling, typically starting on one side of the body
* Rigidity or stiffness, causing difficulty with movement
* Bradykinesia or slowness of movement, including a decrease in spontaneous movements such as blinking or smiling
* Postural instability, leading to falls or difficulty with balance

As the disease progresses, symptoms can include:

* Difficulty with walking, gait changes, and freezing episodes
* Dry mouth, constipation, and other non-motor symptoms
* Cognitive changes, such as dementia, memory loss, and confusion
* Sleep disturbances, including REM sleep behavior disorder
* Depression, anxiety, and other psychiatric symptoms

The exact cause of Parkinson's disease is not known, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The disease is associated with the degradation of dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra, leading to a deficiency of dopamine in the brain. This deficiency disrupts the normal functioning of the basal ganglia, a group of structures involved in movement control, leading to the characteristic symptoms of the disease.

There is no cure for Parkinson's disease, but various treatments are available to manage its symptoms. These include:

* Medications such as dopaminergic agents (e.g., levodopa) and dopamine agonists to replace lost dopamine and improve motor function
* Deep brain stimulation, a surgical procedure that involves implanting an electrode in the brain to deliver electrical impulses to specific areas of the brain
* Physical therapy to improve mobility and balance
* Speech therapy to improve communication and swallowing difficulties
* Occupational therapy to improve daily functioning

It is important for individuals with Parkinson's disease to work closely with their healthcare team to develop a personalized treatment plan that addresses their specific needs and improves their quality of life. With appropriate treatment and support, many people with Parkinson's disease are able to manage their symptoms and maintain a good level of independence for several years after diagnosis.

1. Heart Disease: High blood sugar levels can damage the blood vessels and increase the risk of heart disease, which includes conditions like heart attacks, strokes, and peripheral artery disease.
2. Kidney Damage: Uncontrolled diabetes can damage the kidneys over time, leading to chronic kidney disease and potentially even kidney failure.
3. Nerve Damage: High blood sugar levels can damage the nerves in the body, causing numbness, tingling, and pain in the hands and feet. This is known as diabetic neuropathy.
4. Eye Problems: Diabetes can cause changes in the blood vessels of the eyes, leading to vision problems and even blindness. This is known as diabetic retinopathy.
5. Infections: People with diabetes are more prone to developing skin infections, urinary tract infections, and other types of infections due to their weakened immune system.
6. Amputations: Poor blood flow and nerve damage can lead to amputations of the feet or legs if left untreated.
7. Cognitive Decline: Diabetes has been linked to an increased risk of cognitive decline and dementia.
8. Sexual Dysfunction: Men with diabetes may experience erectile dysfunction, while women with diabetes may experience decreased sexual desire and vaginal dryness.
9. Gum Disease: People with diabetes are more prone to developing gum disease and other oral health problems due to their increased risk of infection.
10. Flu and Pneumonia: Diabetes can weaken the immune system, making it easier to catch the flu and pneumonia.

It is important for people with diabetes to manage their condition properly to prevent or delay these complications from occurring. This includes monitoring blood sugar levels regularly, taking medication as prescribed by a doctor, and following a healthy diet and exercise plan. Regular check-ups with a healthcare provider can also help identify any potential complications early on and prevent them from becoming more serious.

There are several potential causes of LVD, including:

1. Coronary artery disease: The buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries can lead to a heart attack, which can damage the left ventricle and impair its ability to function properly.
2. Heart failure: When the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs, it can lead to LVD.
3. Cardiomyopathy: This is a condition where the heart muscle becomes weakened or enlarged, leading to impaired function of the left ventricle.
4. Heart valve disease: Problems with the heart valves can disrupt the normal flow of blood and cause LVD.
5. Hypertension: High blood pressure can cause damage to the heart muscle and lead to LVD.
6. Genetic factors: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that predispose them to developing LVD.
7. Viral infections: Certain viral infections, such as myocarditis, can inflame and damage the heart muscle, leading to LVD.
8. Alcohol or drug abuse: Substance abuse can damage the heart muscle and lead to LVD.
9. Nutritional deficiencies: A diet lacking essential nutrients can lead to damage to the heart muscle and increase the risk of LVD.

Diagnosis of LVD typically involves a physical exam, medical history, and results of diagnostic tests such as electrocardiograms (ECGs), echocardiograms, and stress tests. Treatment options for LVD depend on the underlying cause, but may include medications to improve cardiac function, lifestyle changes, and in severe cases, surgery or other procedures.

Preventing LVD involves taking steps to maintain a healthy heart and reducing risk factors such as high blood pressure, smoking, and obesity. This can be achieved through a balanced diet, regular exercise, stress management, and avoiding substance abuse. Early detection and treatment of underlying conditions that increase the risk of LVD can also help prevent the condition from developing.

Pulmonary tuberculosis typically affects the lungs but can also spread to other parts of the body, such as the brain, kidneys, or spine. The symptoms of pulmonary TB include coughing for more than three weeks, chest pain, fatigue, fever, night sweats, and weight loss.

Pulmonary tuberculosis is diagnosed by a combination of physical examination, medical history, laboratory tests, and radiologic imaging, such as chest X-rays or computed tomography (CT) scans. Treatment for pulmonary TB usually involves a combination of antibiotics and medications to manage symptoms.

Preventive measures for pulmonary tuberculosis include screening for latent TB infection in high-risk populations, such as healthcare workers and individuals with HIV/AIDS, and vaccination with the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine in countries where it is available.

Overall, pulmonary tuberculosis is a serious and potentially life-threatening disease that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment to prevent complications and death.

Proteinuria is usually diagnosed by a urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (P/C ratio) or a 24-hour urine protein collection. The amount and duration of proteinuria can help distinguish between different underlying causes and predict prognosis.

Proteinuria can have significant clinical implications, as it is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, kidney damage, and malnutrition. Treatment of the underlying cause can help reduce or eliminate proteinuria.

A condition in which the kidneys gradually lose their function over time, leading to the accumulation of waste products in the body. Also known as chronic kidney disease (CKD).

Prevalence:

Chronic kidney failure affects approximately 20 million people worldwide and is a major public health concern. In the United States, it is estimated that 1 in 5 adults has CKD, with African Americans being disproportionately affected.

Causes:

The causes of chronic kidney failure are numerous and include:

1. Diabetes: High blood sugar levels can damage the kidneys over time.
2. Hypertension: Uncontrolled high blood pressure can cause damage to the blood vessels in the kidneys.
3. Glomerulonephritis: An inflammation of the glomeruli, the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys that filter waste and excess fluids from the blood.
4. Interstitial nephritis: Inflammation of the tissue between the kidney tubules.
5. Pyelonephritis: Infection of the kidneys, usually caused by bacteria or viruses.
6. Polycystic kidney disease: A genetic disorder that causes cysts to grow on the kidneys.
7. Obesity: Excess weight can increase blood pressure and strain on the kidneys.
8. Family history: A family history of kidney disease increases the risk of developing chronic kidney failure.

Symptoms:

Early stages of chronic kidney failure may not cause any symptoms, but as the disease progresses, symptoms can include:

1. Fatigue: Feeling tired or weak.
2. Swelling: In the legs, ankles, and feet.
3. Nausea and vomiting: Due to the buildup of waste products in the body.
4. Poor appetite: Loss of interest in food.
5. Difficulty concentrating: Cognitive impairment due to the buildup of waste products in the brain.
6. Shortness of breath: Due to fluid buildup in the lungs.
7. Pain: In the back, flank, or abdomen.
8. Urination changes: Decreased urine production, dark-colored urine, or blood in the urine.
9. Heart problems: Chronic kidney failure can increase the risk of heart disease and heart attack.

Diagnosis:

Chronic kidney failure is typically diagnosed based on a combination of physical examination findings, medical history, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Laboratory tests may include:

1. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine: Waste products in the blood that increase with decreased kidney function.
2. Electrolyte levels: Imbalances in electrolytes such as sodium, potassium, and phosphorus can indicate kidney dysfunction.
3. Kidney function tests: Measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) to determine the level of kidney function.
4. Urinalysis: Examination of urine for protein, blood, or white blood cells.

Imaging studies may include:

1. Ultrasound: To assess the size and shape of the kidneys, detect any blockages, and identify any other abnormalities.
2. Computed tomography (CT) scan: To provide detailed images of the kidneys and detect any obstructions or abscesses.
3. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): To evaluate the kidneys and detect any damage or scarring.

Treatment:

Treatment for chronic kidney failure depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the disease. The goals of treatment are to slow progression of the disease, manage symptoms, and improve quality of life. Treatment may include:

1. Medications: To control high blood pressure, lower cholesterol levels, reduce proteinuria, and manage anemia.
2. Diet: A healthy diet that limits protein intake, controls salt and water intake, and emphasizes low-fat dairy products, fruits, and vegetables.
3. Fluid management: Monitoring and control of fluid intake to prevent fluid buildup in the body.
4. Dialysis: A machine that filters waste products from the blood when the kidneys are no longer able to do so.
5. Transplantation: A kidney transplant may be considered for some patients with advanced chronic kidney failure.

Complications:

Chronic kidney failure can lead to several complications, including:

1. Heart disease: High blood pressure and anemia can increase the risk of heart disease.
2. Anemia: A decrease in red blood cells can cause fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath.
3. Bone disease: A disorder that can lead to bone pain, weakness, and an increased risk of fractures.
4. Electrolyte imbalance: Imbalances of electrolytes such as potassium, phosphorus, and sodium can cause muscle weakness, heart arrhythmias, and other complications.
5. Infections: A decrease in immune function can increase the risk of infections.
6. Nutritional deficiencies: Poor appetite, nausea, and vomiting can lead to malnutrition and nutrient deficiencies.
7. Cardiovascular disease: High blood pressure, anemia, and other complications can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.
8. Pain: Chronic kidney failure can cause pain, particularly in the back, flank, and abdomen.
9. Sleep disorders: Insomnia, sleep apnea, and restless leg syndrome are common complications.
10. Depression and anxiety: The emotional burden of chronic kidney failure can lead to depression and anxiety.

There are several different types of pain, including:

1. Acute pain: This type of pain is sudden and severe, and it usually lasts for a short period of time. It can be caused by injuries, surgery, or other forms of tissue damage.
2. Chronic pain: This type of pain persists over a long period of time, often lasting more than 3 months. It can be caused by conditions such as arthritis, fibromyalgia, or nerve damage.
3. Neuropathic pain: This type of pain results from damage to the nervous system, and it can be characterized by burning, shooting, or stabbing sensations.
4. Visceral pain: This type of pain originates in the internal organs, and it can be difficult to localize.
5. Psychogenic pain: This type of pain is caused by psychological factors such as stress, anxiety, or depression.

The medical field uses a range of methods to assess and manage pain, including:

1. Pain rating scales: These are numerical scales that patients use to rate the intensity of their pain.
2. Pain diaries: These are records that patients keep to track their pain over time.
3. Clinical interviews: Healthcare providers use these to gather information about the patient's pain experience and other relevant symptoms.
4. Physical examination: This can help healthcare providers identify any underlying causes of pain, such as injuries or inflammation.
5. Imaging studies: These can be used to visualize the body and identify any structural abnormalities that may be contributing to the patient's pain.
6. Medications: There are a wide range of medications available to treat pain, including analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and muscle relaxants.
7. Alternative therapies: These can include acupuncture, massage, and physical therapy.
8. Interventional procedures: These are minimally invasive procedures that can be used to treat pain, such as nerve blocks and spinal cord stimulation.

It is important for healthcare providers to approach pain management with a multi-modal approach, using a combination of these methods to address the physical, emotional, and social aspects of pain. By doing so, they can help improve the patient's quality of life and reduce their suffering.

The exact cause of depressive disorder is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and psychological factors. Some common risk factors for developing depressive disorder include:

* Family history of depression
* Traumatic events, such as abuse or loss
* Chronic stress
* Substance abuse
* Chronic illness or chronic pain

There are several different types of depressive disorders, including:

* Major depressive disorder (MDD): This is the most common type of depression, characterized by one or more major depressive episodes in a person's lifetime.
* Persistent depressive disorder (PDD): This type of depression is characterized by persistent, low-grade symptoms that last for two years or more.
* Bipolar disorder: This is a mood disorder that involves periods of both depression and mania or hypomania.
* Postpartum depression (PPD): This is a type of depression that occurs in women after childbirth.
* Severe depression: This is a severe and debilitating form of depression that can interfere with daily life and relationships.

Treatment for depressive disorder typically involves a combination of medication and therapy, such as antidepressant medications and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Other forms of therapy, such as psychodynamic therapy or interpersonal therapy, may also be effective. Lifestyle changes, such as regular exercise, healthy eating, and getting enough sleep, can also help manage symptoms.

It's important to seek professional help if you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of depressive disorder. With proper treatment, many people are able to recover from depression and lead fulfilling lives.

Explanation: Genetic predisposition to disease is influenced by multiple factors, including the presence of inherited genetic mutations or variations, environmental factors, and lifestyle choices. The likelihood of developing a particular disease can be increased by inherited genetic mutations that affect the functioning of specific genes or biological pathways. For example, inherited mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes increase the risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer.

The expression of genetic predisposition to disease can vary widely, and not all individuals with a genetic predisposition will develop the disease. Additionally, many factors can influence the likelihood of developing a particular disease, such as environmental exposures, lifestyle choices, and other health conditions.

Inheritance patterns: Genetic predisposition to disease can be inherited in an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or multifactorial pattern, depending on the specific disease and the genetic mutations involved. Autosomal dominant inheritance means that a single copy of the mutated gene is enough to cause the disease, while autosomal recessive inheritance requires two copies of the mutated gene. Multifactorial inheritance involves multiple genes and environmental factors contributing to the development of the disease.

Examples of diseases with a known genetic predisposition:

1. Huntington's disease: An autosomal dominant disorder caused by an expansion of a CAG repeat in the Huntingtin gene, leading to progressive neurodegeneration and cognitive decline.
2. Cystic fibrosis: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the CFTR gene, leading to respiratory and digestive problems.
3. BRCA1/2-related breast and ovarian cancer: An inherited increased risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer due to mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes.
4. Sickle cell anemia: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by a point mutation in the HBB gene, leading to defective hemoglobin production and red blood cell sickling.
5. Type 1 diabetes: An autoimmune disease caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, including multiple genes in the HLA complex.

Understanding the genetic basis of disease can help with early detection, prevention, and treatment. For example, genetic testing can identify individuals who are at risk for certain diseases, allowing for earlier intervention and preventive measures. Additionally, understanding the genetic basis of a disease can inform the development of targeted therapies and personalized medicine."


1. Ischemic stroke: This is the most common type of stroke, accounting for about 87% of all strokes. It occurs when a blood vessel in the brain becomes blocked, reducing blood flow to the brain.
2. Hemorrhagic stroke: This type of stroke occurs when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures, causing bleeding in the brain. High blood pressure, aneurysms, and blood vessel malformations can all cause hemorrhagic strokes.
3. Transient ischemic attack (TIA): Also known as a "mini-stroke," a TIA is a temporary interruption of blood flow to the brain that lasts for a short period of time, usually less than 24 hours. TIAs are often a warning sign for a future stroke and should be taken seriously.

Stroke can cause a wide range of symptoms depending on the location and severity of the damage to the brain. Some common symptoms include:

* Weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg
* Difficulty speaking or understanding speech
* Sudden vision loss or double vision
* Dizziness, loss of balance, or sudden falls
* Severe headache
* Confusion, disorientation, or difficulty with memory

Stroke is a leading cause of long-term disability and can have a significant impact on the quality of life for survivors. However, with prompt medical treatment and rehabilitation, many people are able to recover some or all of their lost functions and lead active lives.

The medical community has made significant progress in understanding stroke and developing effective treatments. Some of the most important advances include:

* Development of clot-busting drugs and mechanical thrombectomy devices to treat ischemic strokes
* Improved imaging techniques, such as CT and MRI scans, to diagnose stroke and determine its cause
* Advances in surgical techniques for hemorrhagic stroke
* Development of new medications to prevent blood clots and reduce the risk of stroke

Despite these advances, stroke remains a significant public health problem. According to the American Heart Association, stroke is the fifth leading cause of death in the United States and the leading cause of long-term disability. In 2017, there were over 795,000 strokes in the United States alone.

There are several risk factors for stroke that can be controlled or modified. These include:

* High blood pressure
* Diabetes mellitus
* High cholesterol levels
* Smoking
* Obesity
* Lack of physical activity
* Poor diet

In addition to these modifiable risk factors, there are also several non-modifiable risk factors for stroke, such as age (stroke risk increases with age), family history of stroke, and previous stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA).

The medical community has made significant progress in understanding the causes and risk factors for stroke, as well as developing effective treatments and prevention strategies. However, more research is needed to improve outcomes for stroke survivors and reduce the overall burden of this disease.

There are several different types of obesity, including:

1. Central obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the waistline, which can increase the risk of health problems such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
2. Peripheral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat in the hips, thighs, and arms.
3. Visceral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the internal organs in the abdominal cavity.
4. Mixed obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by both central and peripheral obesity.

Obesity can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lack of physical activity, poor diet, sleep deprivation, and certain medications. Treatment for obesity typically involves a combination of lifestyle changes, such as increased physical activity and a healthy diet, and in some cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to achieve weight loss.

Preventing obesity is important for overall health and well-being, and can be achieved through a variety of strategies, including:

1. Eating a healthy, balanced diet that is low in added sugars, saturated fats, and refined carbohydrates.
2. Engaging in regular physical activity, such as walking, jogging, or swimming.
3. Getting enough sleep each night.
4. Managing stress levels through relaxation techniques, such as meditation or deep breathing.
5. Avoiding excessive alcohol consumption and quitting smoking.
6. Monitoring weight and body mass index (BMI) on a regular basis to identify any changes or potential health risks.
7. Seeking professional help from a healthcare provider or registered dietitian for personalized guidance on weight management and healthy lifestyle choices.

There are different types of Breast Neoplasms such as:

1. Fibroadenomas: These are benign tumors that are made up of glandular and fibrous tissues. They are usually small and round, with a smooth surface, and can be moved easily under the skin.

2. Cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can develop in both breast tissue and milk ducts. They are usually benign and can disappear on their own or be drained surgically.

3. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS): This is a precancerous condition where abnormal cells grow inside the milk ducts. If left untreated, it can progress to invasive breast cancer.

4. Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC): This is the most common type of breast cancer and starts in the milk ducts but grows out of them and invades surrounding tissue.

5. Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC): It originates in the milk-producing glands (lobules) and grows out of them, invading nearby tissue.

Breast Neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as a lump or thickening in the breast or underarm area, skin changes like redness or dimpling, change in size or shape of one or both breasts, discharge from the nipple, and changes in the texture or color of the skin.

Treatment options for Breast Neoplasms may include surgery such as lumpectomy, mastectomy, or breast-conserving surgery, radiation therapy which uses high-energy beams to kill cancer cells, chemotherapy using drugs to kill cancer cells, targeted therapy which uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack cancer cells while minimizing harm to normal cells, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, and clinical trials.

It is important to note that not all Breast Neoplasms are cancerous; some are benign (non-cancerous) tumors that do not spread or grow.

There are several key features of inflammation:

1. Increased blood flow: Blood vessels in the affected area dilate, allowing more blood to flow into the tissue and bringing with it immune cells, nutrients, and other signaling molecules.
2. Leukocyte migration: White blood cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes, migrate towards the site of inflammation in response to chemical signals.
3. Release of mediators: Inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines, are released by immune cells and other cells in the affected tissue. These molecules help to coordinate the immune response and attract more immune cells to the site of inflammation.
4. Activation of immune cells: Immune cells, such as macrophages and T cells, become activated and start to phagocytose (engulf) pathogens or damaged tissue.
5. Increased heat production: Inflammation can cause an increase in metabolic activity in the affected tissue, leading to increased heat production.
6. Redness and swelling: Increased blood flow and leakiness of blood vessels can cause redness and swelling in the affected area.
7. Pain: Inflammation can cause pain through the activation of nociceptors (pain-sensing neurons) and the release of pro-inflammatory mediators.

Inflammation can be acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is a short-term response to injury or infection, which helps to resolve the issue quickly. Chronic inflammation is a long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases such as arthritis, asthma, and cancer.

There are several types of inflammation, including:

1. Acute inflammation: A short-term response to injury or infection.
2. Chronic inflammation: A long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases.
3. Autoimmune inflammation: An inappropriate immune response against the body's own tissues.
4. Allergic inflammation: An immune response to a harmless substance, such as pollen or dust mites.
5. Parasitic inflammation: An immune response to parasites, such as worms or fungi.
6. Bacterial inflammation: An immune response to bacteria.
7. Viral inflammation: An immune response to viruses.
8. Fungal inflammation: An immune response to fungi.

There are several ways to reduce inflammation, including:

1. Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs).
2. Lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management, and getting enough sleep.
3. Alternative therapies, such as acupuncture, herbal supplements, and mind-body practices.
4. Addressing underlying conditions, such as hormonal imbalances, gut health issues, and chronic infections.
5. Using anti-inflammatory compounds found in certain foods, such as omega-3 fatty acids, turmeric, and ginger.

It's important to note that chronic inflammation can lead to a range of health problems, including:

1. Arthritis
2. Diabetes
3. Heart disease
4. Cancer
5. Alzheimer's disease
6. Parkinson's disease
7. Autoimmune disorders, such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.

Therefore, it's important to manage inflammation effectively to prevent these complications and improve overall health and well-being.

Lange, Joep (1995). "Combination Antiretroviral Therapy". Drugs. 49 (Supplement 1): 32-37. doi:10.2165/00003495-199500491-00008 ... During the mid-1990s, Lange began advocating for the use of combination therapy in the management of HIV/AIDS. He argued that ... He found that a baby's chance of contracting HIV falls to less than 1% if they receive anti-retroviral drugs while being nursed ... He was also a founding editor of the medical journal, Antiviral Therapy. In 2006 he became Professor of Medicine at the ...
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"Combination Therapy Targets Pancreatic Cancer Stem Cells". NCI Cancer Bulletin. 6 (8). 21 April 2009. Archived from the ... "Combination Chemotherapy With CS-1008 to Treat Ovarian Cancer" at ClinicalTrials.gov "Drug Dictionary: CS-1008". National ... The drug targets member 10b of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF10B, better known as death receptor 5 or ... v t e v t e (Drugs not assigned an ATC code, Articles with changed CASNo identifier, Chemicals that do not have a ChemSpider ID ...
... by combining rabbit serum therapy with the use of sulfa drugs. This combination became the lead treatment of meningitis until ... The combined use of the antiserum, sulfa drugs, and antibiotics significantly lowered the mortality rate from Hib. In the ...
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... have been found to cause lethal mutagenesis of the HIV-1 virus when used combination therapy. These two drugs are FDA approved ... and Steven Patterson found a novel combination therapy for rendering the HIV-1 virus harmless by using a combination therapy of ... "Exploiting Drug Repositioning for Discovery of a Novel HIV Combination Therapy". Journal of Virology. 84 (18): 9301-9308. doi: ... "Drug design success propels efforts to fight HIV with a combination of 2 FDA-approved drugs". ScienceDaily. Retrieved April 25 ...
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The drug is used in combination with plasma exchange and immunosuppressive therapy. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA ... "New Drug Therapy Approvals 2019". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 31 December 2019. Retrieved 15 September 2020. " ... Immune Drug Tackles Microvascular Thrombosis Disorder. February 2016 "FDA approves first therapy for the treatment of adult ... "Drug Trials Snapshots: Cablivi". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 11 February 2019. Archived from the original on 23 ...
Drug combination database. covers information on more than 1300 drug combinations in either clinical use or different testing ... T has recently highlighted combination therapy as a top research priority in oncology. Combination therapy with two or more ... such as the combination of medications and talk therapy to treat depression). 'Pharmaceutical' combination therapy may be ... Combination Therapy in Oncology , CureMatch". CureMatch Blog. Retrieved 2017-10-03. "Combination Therapies for Cancer - Annual ...
These are all antimalarial drugs and are still used in artemisinin-combination therapy. After Saigon fell on 30 April 1975, ... As the first line strategy, the troops were given synthetic drugs. Drug combinations using pyrimethamine and dapsone, ... The US Food and Drug Administration approved the drug in 2009. China portal Yunnan Baiyao Drug discovery Antimalarial ... mechanisms of action and combination therapy of artemisinin". Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy. 7 (8): 999-1013. doi: ...
A new combination drug therapy (sulfonamide, ceftriaxone, and amikacin) has also shown promise. The prognosis of nocardiosis is ... In patients who do not respond to sulfonamide treatment, other drugs, such as ampicillin, erythromycin, or minocycline, may be ... even with appropriate therapy. It is one of several conditions that have been called "the great imitator". Cutaneous ... cure rate with appropriate therapy. The cure rate falls to 63% with those infected with disseminated nocardiosis, with only ...
It is used as an injection therapy, often in combination with other drugs. It is used in combination with 5-fluorouracil as a ... Drugs.com. Retrieved 30 September 2018. "Sutent Approval History". www.drugs.com. Drugs.com. Retrieved 30 September 2018. ( ... N-indol-1-amide compound is a possible anti-tumor drug in combination with other anticancer treatment and has an IC50 value of ... In vitro protein binding is 99,5% for both drugs. The drugs are mainly metabolized in the liver by oxidative metabolism of ...
Matsunaga S, Kishi T, Iwata N (2017). "Combination Therapy with Zonisamide and Antiparkinson Drugs for Parkinson's Disease: A ... "Drug Approval Package: Zonegran (Zonisomide) NDA #20-789". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 24 December 1999. Archived ... Nakasa H, Nakamura H, Ono S, Tsutsui M, Kiuchi M, Ohmori S, Kitada M (April 1998). "Prediction of drug-drug interactions of ... "Zonisamide". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Portal: Medicine (CS1: long volume value, Articles ...
Treatment of infection often involves a combination of antifungal drug therapy and surgical excision. Ochroconis gallopava was ... Also, antifungal drug therapy and surgical excision can be used to treat the infection separately or together. O. gallopava ... These drugs and surgical methods are the most effective when the fungus is yet disseminated into the brain. Survival rate of ... However, both antifungal drugs and surgical excision do not guarantee the perfect cure; there are some reported cases of ...
"Near-Infrared Absorbing Polymeric Nanoparticles as a Versatile Drug Carrier for Cancer Combination Therapy". Advanced ... PSS NPs can not only serve as PTAs but also as a drug carrier to load various types of drugs, such as SN38, chemotherapy drugs ... Nam J, Son S, Ochyl LJ, Kuai R, Schwendeman A, Moon JJ (March 2018). "Chemo-photothermal therapy combination elicits anti-tumor ... Photomedicine Light Therapy Hyperthermia therapy Experimental cancer treatment Maeda H, Wu J, Sawa T, Matsumura Y, Hori K ( ...
Prednisone, the last drug in the CHOP combination therapy is a corticosteroid that acts as an immunosuppressant.[citation ... The most important part of this combination therapy, however, is the synergism between the drugs. While researchers are not ... Although this drug still cannot strictly target cancer cells, cancer cells have a higher average turnover of microtubules ... This also allows for patients to receive lower and fewer doses of the drug and experience fewer side effects. Newer cases are ...
... has become an important drug in the combination therapy for malaria treatment in Africa. It is often used in ... combination with artesunate as a by mouth artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria. ... August 2001). "Amodiaquine, sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, and combination therapy for treatment of uncomplicated falciparum ... Expert Opinion on Drug Safety. 6 (6): 631-5. doi:10.1517/14740338.6.6.631. PMID 17967151. S2CID 29173076. Profiles of Drug ...
"Fixed-dose combination therapy and secondary cardiovascular prevention: rationale, selection of drugs and target population". ... drug products. Physicians in many countries have wide discretion to prescribe customized drug products containing unique drug- ... Of course, for any FDC product, the potential market for a given combination of drugs/dosages would need to be sufficiently ... It is commonly manufactured as a fixed-dose combination (FDC) drug product targeting treatment or prevention of chronic disease ...
It became a key drug as part of the first combination therapy for treating AIDS. Realizing that this treatment could provide ... By exploring analogs to thymidine for use as antiviral drugs, his research created a new scientific paradigm for antiviral drug ... At the time, it was thought to be difficult to find antiviral drugs with a high therapeutic index, but professor Herbert E. ... The compound was originally named D4T, and Bristol-Myers Squibb developed and marketed this drug under its more common name, ...
"Combination Cancer Therapy Can Confer Benefit via Patient-to-Patient Variability without Drug Additivity or Synergy". Cell. 171 ... "Independent drug action and its statistical implications for development of combination therapies". Contemporary Clinical ... An early success was the discovery that the great majority of approved combination cancer therapies exhibit independent action ... Recent work has focused on deep learning as means to further understand complex protein networks and drug mechanisms. The ...
The drug antibody eribulin combination therapy is a joint venture between Eisai and Merck. The clinical trials combine eribulin ... a liposomal formulation and antibody drug combination therapy, both are for the treatment of solid tumors. The liposomal ... Infobox drug with local INN variant, Drugs with non-standard legal status, ECHA InfoCard ID from Wikidata, Drug has EMA link, ... Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. "Eribulin". Drug ...
Stencel, Christine (20 July 2004). "Up to $500 Million Needed Annually for Subsidy to Make Artemisinin Combination Therapy the ... 225 million partnership to bring effective malaria drugs to all who need them". The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and ... artemisinin-based combination therapy, and the contribution of modeling to policy choices" (PDF). Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 71 ( ... artemisinin-based combination therapies, ACTs). It works primarily through the commercial private sector, in addition to the ...
There is also current experimental research on non drug related therapies. Oxymatrine, for example, is a root extract found in ... On November 22, the FDA approved simeprevir for use in combination with peginterferon-alfa and ribavirin. Simeprevir has been ... It has been reported to be the first drug that has demonstrated safety and efficacy to treat certain types of HCV infection ... Because of this mode of spread the key groups at risk are intravenous drug users (IDUs), recipients of blood products and ...
Ashley, Elizabeth (2007). New directions in artemisinin-based combination therapy: chemotherapeutic studies of multi-drug ...
The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 18 (1): 57-62. doi:10.1002/j.1875-9114.1998.tb03827.x. ISSN 0277-0008. PMID ... Several studies also point at the increased effectiveness of combination of two or more sedatives in the treatment of hyper ... "The Crack Epidemic - The History of Crack Cocaine - Drug-Free World". Foundation for a Drug-Free World. Retrieved 2021-05-24. ... This involved the exposure to highly toxic amounts of the drug due to the bursting of cocaine packets being carried within the ...
Beginning in the 1990s, piperaquine was tested and adopted as a partner drug for artemisinin combination therapy. Guidelines ... This combination is one of several artemisinin combination therapies recommended by the World Health Organization for treatment ... and is instead used as a partner drug for artemisinin combination therapy. Piperaquine kills parasites by disrupting the ... Eastman RT, Fidock DA (2009). "Artemisinin-based combination therapies: a vital tool in efforts to eliminate malaria". Nature ...
However, resistance to HOMAPAK emerged, and drug recommendations by the WHO changed to artemisinin combination therapy (ACT). ... Substance and drug abuse is a public health very big concern in Uganda affecting both the child and adolescent populations.[ ... HIV treatment in Uganda has centered on human antiretroviral therapy through cross-training and increasing the scope of health ... Nasir, Ibrahim Said (September 2013). Factors Contributing to Drug Abuse Among the Youth in Kisenyi, Rubaga Division, Kampala ...
1981 - World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a new combination drug treatment for leprosy, MDT (Multi Drug Therapy). ... treat it with Multi-Drug Therapy, and reduce the risk that the disease spreads to others. There is also leprosy awareness ... which the people learn about the early symptoms of leprosy and understand the importance of seeking out free Multi-Drug Therapy ... 1960s - Leprologists work to discover new drugs that are effective against leprosy as many people are discovered to have ...
However, when metformin is combined with other drugs (combination therapy), hypoglycemia and other side effects are possible. ... The term "biguanidine" often refers specifically to a class of drugs that function as oral antihyperglycemic drugs used for ... Therefore, they are effective in Type 2 diabetics; and in Type 1 diabetes when used in conjunction with insulin therapy. Mainly ... Some biguanides are also used as antimalarial drugs. Examples include: Proguanil Chlorproguanil The disinfectants chlorhexidine ...
Today, a four-drug combination therapy exists, but it takes six months or more to be effective. This requires a degree of ... Currently, there are four first-line tuberculosis drugs given as a combination therapy over an extended period of time. Some ... When infections become resistant to first-line drugs, more expensive therapies must be used to treat them. Lengthier treatment ... Combination therapies are essential for treating active tuberculosis infections. ...
... undergoing only traditional drug therapy. The term autism encompasses a wide range of syndromes, such as Rett disorder, ... This finding was applied to humans in 1971 when Sterman trained an epileptic to control her seizures through a combination of ... allowing the patient to greatly reduce the drug therapy necessary for him to function successfully in school and offering a ... 70% of sufferers saw a 50% or more reduction in their migraines following combined neurotherapy and drug treatment, as opposed ...
In exchange for money she needed for drugs, Katrina gave Karen the combination to a Post Office box, which Katrina claimed ... In an unusual move, Cathy's portrayer, actress Amy Levitt, was videotaped while sitting in on real-life therapy sessions at ... Cathy rebelled by taking drugs, and spiralled into addiction. While on a bad acid trip, she murdered her drug dealer Artie ... The show also had a sustained anti-drug storyline centering on wild child Cathy Craig (Catherine Burns, Amy Levitt, Jane Alice ...
On 15 June 2006, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the use of a combination of two chemotherapy drugs, hycamtin and ... Treatment may consist of some combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Five-year survival rates in the ... "FDA Approves First Drug Treatment for Late-Stage Cervical Cancer". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 15 June 2006. Archived ... can be treated with radical hysterectomy with removal of the lymph nodes or radiation therapy. Radiation therapy is given as ...
Another common drug treatment is the alpha-agonist midodrine. Non-drug treatments include "head-up tilt" (elevating the head of ... Mesenchymal stem cell therapy may delay the progression of neurological deficits in patients with MSA-cerebellar type. Ronald ... MSA is characterized by the following, which can be present in any combination: autonomic dysfunction parkinsonism (muscle ... The drug riluzole is ineffective in treating MSA or PSP. Management by rehabilitation professionals including physiatrists, ...
It is normally used as one of the three drugs in a triple-combination therapy for the HIV virus. Commercially available ... It is soluble white powder administered orally in combination with other antiviral drugs. The drug prevents protease from ... After 38 weeks, 6% of the people in the three-drug group died while 11% of the people died in the two-drug group. There were ... Viral resistance to the drug leads to the drug becoming useless since the virus evolves to have cells that are able to resist ...
This combination provided him with the means to remain within the mortal realm after death. Vigo's spirit possesses and remains ... Slimer also appeared as a representative of The Real Ghostbusters in the animated anti-drug television special Cartoon All- ... Erin later loses her belief in the supernatural after years of psychiatric therapy paid by her family but regains it after ... Vigo's full name is a combination of the stage name of Norbert Grupe (aka Wilhelm von Homburg), who played Vigo, and William ...
... therapy is used (in combination with chemotherapy and radiation) as a treatment for some cancers. This treatment can ... Both hepatitis B and hepatitis C are treated with IFN-α, often in combination with other antiviral drugs. Some of those treated ... Shepherd J, Waugh N, Hewitson P (2000). "Combination therapy (interferon alfa and ribavirin) in the treatment of chronic ... Ishikawa T (October 2008). "Secondary prevention of recurrence by interferon therapy after ablation therapy for hepatocellular ...
Preventive therapy in healthy people who have had recent tick bites is not recommended and may only delay the onset of disease ... However, this drug may be associated with a wide range of side effects, and careful monitoring of blood levels is required. ... However, this combination is often not identified when patients initially present for care. The rash has a centripetal, or " ... Doxycycline (a tetracycline) is the drug of choice for patients with Rocky Mountain spotted fever. According to the CDC, " ...
New Drug Therapy Approvals 2018 (PDF). U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Report). January 2019. Archived from the ... An efficacy and safety study of elagolix in combination with add-back estradiol, an estrogen, and norethisterone acetate, a ... "Drug Development and Drug Interactions: Table of Substrates, Inhibitors and Inducers". FDA. 14 November 2017. Archived from the ... Drugs Today. 55 (4): 237-246. doi:10.1358/dot.2019.55.4.2930713. PMID 31050692. S2CID 143434963. "Elagolix". Drug Information ...
3: 252-259 Jiang GY, Li FC, Chen WK, Liu AM, Cai WQ (December 2011). "Therapy and prognosis of intracranial invasive olfactory ... Cyclophosphamide, vincristine and doxorubicin have been used as neoadjuvant chemotherapy drugs for grade C ... report of six cases treated by a novel combination of endoscopic surgery and radiosurgery". Minimally Invasive Neurosurgery. 44 ...
For these sorts of complex task situations learning and performance goals can be used effectively in combination if logically ... Stock, Jennifer; Cervone, Daniel (1990-10-01). "Proximal goal-setting and self-regulatory processes". Cognitive Therapy and ... a resource kit for the alcohol and other drugs field. Adelaide: Alcohol Education and Rehabilitation Foundation (AER); National ...
In addition to electroconvulsive therapy, Yang used psychotropic drugs, including diazepam, paroxetine, and buspirone, without ... per month to be treated using a combination of psychiatric medication and ECT, which Yang dubbed as "xingnao" (Chinese: 醒脑, ... "low-frequency pulse therapy", which is alleged by former patients to be more painful than ECT therapy. Electroconvulsive ... "Behavioral Correction Therapy Room" after media scrutiny). Yang claimed that ECT therapy "is only painful for those with ...
Along with the drug treatment, patients are recommended to receive an aggressive surgical debridement or an amputation in some ... Infections are usually treated using a combination of amphotericin B and surgery. Saksenaea vasiformis is one of the few fungi ... There has been some reported cases of immunocompromised hosts due to steroid treatment, antibiotic therapy, and compromised ... Infections by S. vasiformis are mainly treated with drug amphotericin B because this species is resistant to many antifungal ...
For example, for calcium the U.S. Food and Drug Administration set the recommended intake for adults over 70 years at 1,200 mg/ ... Schlenker, Eleanor; Gilbert, Joyce Ann (28 August 2014). Williams' Essentials of Nutrition and Diet Therapy. Elsevier Health ... a combination of vitamins and/or other chemical compounds, or a single element (as a compound or mixture of compounds), such as ...
After Todd is sent to prison for Marty's rape, he vows he will escape, and does so by drugging himself and forcing himself to ... Milazzo also stated that the combination of Todd's soft hair and intensity made Todd "a very complex character to look at". An ... She said Todd is in need of "intensive therapy", which will never work because he refuses to change. For example, as portrayed ... He witnesses Dani collapse from a drug overdose due to her abuse of oxycodone. While she is recovering at the hospital, an ...
"FDA approves pembrolizumab combination for the first-line treatment of cervical cancer". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 13 ... In 2013, Merck quietly applied for and won a breakthrough therapy designation for the drug. This regulatory pathway was new at ... Breakthrough therapy, Cancer immunotherapy, Merck & Co. brands, Monoclonal antibodies for tumors, Orphan drugs, Tissue agnostic ... some people have had to go on lifelong hormone therapy as a result (e.g. insulin therapy or thyroid hormones). People have also ...
... are targeted in cancer therapy as the DNA is relatively exposed during cell division and hence susceptible to damage by drugs ... Different cyclin-CDK combinations determine the downstream proteins targeted. CDKs are constitutively expressed in cells ... Cdk4/6 targeted therapy will only treat cancer types where Rb is expressed. Cancer cells with loss of Rb have primary ... Sherr CJ, Beach D, Shapiro GI (April 2016). "Targeting CDK4 and CDK6: From Discovery to Therapy". Cancer Discovery. 6 (4): 353- ...
Heart failure drug treatment: the fantastic four. Dr. Johann Bauersachs was awarded the Oskar-Lapp Award (2001) and the Albert- ... Novel antisense therapy targeting microRNA -132 in patients with heart failure: results of a first-in-human phase 1b randomized ... risk combination. A statement from the Acute Heart Failure Committee of the Heart Failure Association of the European Society ... His research interests include the pathogenesis and therapy of peripartum cardiomyopathy, as well as in the mechanisms mediated ...
Drugs missing an ATC code, Articles containing unverified chemical infoboxes, Anti-RNA virus drugs, Antiviral drugs, All stub ... Merimepodib was investigated in combination with remdesivir in a phase 2 clinical trial in the U.S. as a potential treatment of ... Antiviral Therapy. 10 (5): 635-43. PMID 16152757. Rustgi VK, Lee WM, Lawitz E, Gordon SC, Afdhal N, Poordad F, et al. (December ... Merimepodib (VX-497) is a drug which acts as an inhibitor of the enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase, which is required ...
"The Top 200 Drugs of 2019". ClinCalc.com. 10 October 2012. Retrieved 27 February 2020. "Levothyroxine - Drug Usage Statistics, ... therapy should be continued during pregnancy. Furthermore, therapy should be immediately administered to women diagnosed with ... Combination of levothyroxine with ketamine may cause hypertension and tachycardia; and tricyclic and tetracyclic ... "Levothyroxine". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine. "Levothyroxine sodium". Drug Information Portal. U. ...
She also struggled with insomnia and an eating disorder and began using drugs; by age 20, she had used "just about every drug ... Despite hormone replacement therapy, the surgery brought on premature menopause. "I choose not to keep my story private because ... at which point her public persona became an unlikely combination of alleged homewrecker, mother, sex symbol, and humanitarian. ... Celebrity profiles routinely covered her fascination with blood and knives, experiences with drugs, and her sex life, ...
She added that while Marcuse did not "appeal to mind-altering drugs as adjuncts to phantasy", many of his readers were "happy ... "combination of Marx and Freud" as "very clever". Celarent credited Marcuse with using psychoanalysis to transform Marx's ... MacIntyre criticized Marcuse for focusing on Freud's metapsychology rather than on psychoanalysis as a method of therapy. He ...
The drug deferoxamine binds with iron in the bloodstream and enhances its elimination in urine and faeces. Typical treatment ... Hoffbrand, A. V. (20 March 2003). "Role of deferiprone in chelation therapy for transfusional iron overload". Blood. 102 (1): ... The most common presentation is hepatic cirrhosis in combination with hypopituitarism, cardiomyopathy, diabetes, arthritis, or ... A minimally invasive approach to hereditary hemochromatosis treatment is the maintenance therapy with polymeric chelators. ...
The typical duration of antibiotic therapy is about 5 to 7 days. If there is a large accumulation of fluid within the lungs, ... Aspiration pneumonia is typically diagnosed by a combination of clinical circumstances (people with risk factors for aspiration ... Others: Age, male gender, diabetes mellitus, malnutrition, use of antipsychotic drugs, proton pump inhibitors, and angiotensin- ... in combination with impaired host immune function. Chronic inflammation of the lungs is a key feature in aspiration pneumonia ...
The extrasensory effect of food can cause it to feel like a drug and comforting, which may lead to health concerns such as ... Energy psychology is a form of therapeutic techniques aimed at using our senses (e.g., touch) in combination with psychological ... Massage therapy involves kneading different parts of the body with some pressure. This form of touch therapy breaks down tissue ... This type of therapy provides many benefits to the individuals who use it and is based off of using touch, smell, and any other ...
The development of novel drug therapies against tuberculosis are particularly important given the growing problem of multi-drug ... This genome-based approach allows for a high-throughput method of structure determination by a combination of experimental and ... Kuhn P, Wilson K, Patch MG, Stevens RC (October 2002). "The genesis of high-throughput structure-based drug discovery using ... The goal of the TB Structural Genomics Consortium is to determine the structures of potential drug targets in Mycobacterium ...
Muller (19 June 1998). European Drug Index: European Drug Registrations, Fourth Edition. CRC Press. pp. 545-. ISBN 978-3-7692- ... Allylestrenol therapy for BPH is associated with a significant decrease in prostate-specific antigen levels, which may mask the ... The medication is used alone and is not formulated in combination with an estrogen. It is taken by mouth. Side effects of ... Allylestrenol is the generic name of the drug and its INN, BAN, and JAN, while allylestrénol is its DCF and allilestrenolo is ...
... as some herbal remedies have the potential to cause adverse drug interactions when used in combination with various ... In 2015, the Australian Government's Department of Health published the results of a review of alternative therapies that ... "Herb-Drug Interactions". NCCIH. 10 September 2015. Retrieved 26 June 2019. Kuhn MA (April 2002). "Herbal remedies: drug-herb ... Certain herbs as well as common fruit interfere with cytochrome P450, an enzyme critical to much drug metabolism. In a 2018 ...
... is a Class A drug under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971. For Class A drugs, which are "considered to be the most likely ... Oxycodone in combination with naloxone in managed-release tablets, has been formulated to both deter abuse and reduce "opioid- ... Brennan MJ (March 2013). "The effect of opioid therapy on endocrine function". The American Journal of Medicine. 126 (3 Suppl 1 ... Oxycodone is listed as a Class A drug in the Misuse of Drugs Act of Singapore, which means offences concerning the drug attract ...
In 2016 he was co-editor of a book: "Chelation Therapy in the Treatment of Metal Intoxication." Chelators remove toxic amounts ... Aaseth has studies the effects of disease-modifying agents including anti-TNF-alpha drugs and also selenium compounds. Some of ... Aaseth J, Ajsuvakova OP, Skalny V, Skalnaya MG, Tinkov AA (2018). Chelator combination as therapeutic strategy in mercury and ... In early studies, Aaseth described an increasing trend in the use of drugs and narcotics among Norwegian teenagers, and ...
... and computational assessment of the synergistic pharmacodynamic drug-drug interactions of a triple combination therapy in ... therapy resistant BC cell line, JIMT-1. Our proposed triple combination therapy demonstrated synergism in JIMT-1 cells, thus ... This effort may form the basis for further investigation of the triple combination therapy in vivo at a mechanistic level in ... In the present work, we propose to use a triple combination therapy to combat this resistance phenomenon. Our strategy involves ...
Results of search for su:{Drug therapy, Combination.} Refine your search. *. Availability. * Limit to currently available ... Multidrug therapy against leprosy : development and implementation over the past 25 years / [editor]: H. Sansarricq. by ... Interactions between Chinese herbal medicinal products and orthodox drugs / Kelvin Chang and Lily Cheung. by Chan, Kelvin , ... Short-term priorities for antiretroviral drug optimization: meeting report. by World Health Organization. ...
We aimed to evaluate the tolerability of four-drug regimens used in the Research in Viral Eradication of HIV-1 Reservoirs ( ... By weeks 4, 12, and 24, 37.0%, 69.0%, and 94.0% were undetectable (viral load ConclusionsOverall, four-drug regimens were well ... Whilst their benefit over three-drug regimens is lacking, our findings should provide reassurance if a temporarily intensified ... started a four-drug regimen and 34 (63%) were intensified. Rapid ART initiation occurred in 28%, 100% started in ≤ 4 weeks. ...
Replacement therapy of hypothyroidism with T4 plus T3 does not improve mood and cognitive performance compared to the standard ... Cognition / drug effects * Cross-Over Studies * Double-Blind Method * Drug Therapy, Combination ... The efficacy of replacement therapy with the T4/T3 combination was not different from the T4 monotherapy with regard to all ... There is evidence from recent controlled clinical studies that replacement therapy of hypothyroidism with T4 in combination ...
Antimicrobial drug therapy. Median duration (range), mo. 6 (3-12). Combination therapy, no. (%). 17 (94). ...
Control medicines for asthma are drugs you take to control your asthma symptoms. You must use these medicines every day for ... Combination Therapy. Your provider may ask you to take both a steroid drug and a long-acting beta-agonist drug. ... control drugs; Wheezing - control drugs; Reactive airway disease - control drugs ... If your child cannot use an inhaler, your provider will give you a drug to use with a nebulizer. This machine turns liquid ...
Drug Therapy, Combination. fr. dc.subject.other. Communicable Diseases and their Control. fr. ...
Drug Therapy, Combination. G - Biological Sciences. Deleted term. Concept absorbed by. G04 - Biological Phenomena, Cell ...
Used in combination with clonidine for rapid (4-5 d) detoxification.. Very effective long-acting opioid antagonist that was ... Can intranasal drug use reduce HCV infection among injecting drug users?. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2011 Dec 15. 119(3):201-6. [QxMD ... United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. World Drug Report 2021. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Available at https ... Opioid replacement therapy reduces injecting drug use and thus reduces the mortality and morbidity associated with injecting ...
Categories: Drug Therapy, Combination Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Mental imagery is an emerging field in neurorehabilitation and has the potential to serve as an adjunct therapy to enhance ... While current therapies for PD include pharmacological, invasive, and physical interventions, there is a constant need for ... Anti-Cholinesterase Combination Drug Therapy as a Potential Treatment for Alzheimers Disease ... In a study assessing the effect of group treatment of combined MIP-physical therapy versus physical therapy only, positive ...
concentration (of a drug). The level of a drug in the blood or other body fluid or tissue. ... Combination therapy with anti-HIV-1 antibodies maintains viral suppression. Nature 561:479-484. September 2018. ... Dual-antibody combination therapy produces three to seven months of viral suppression without pills ... What made the dual combination in these two studies fail in some people was the old enemy that made dual-combination ART fail ...
Ozone therapy aims to deliver ozone into the body to help cancer, including breast cancer. However, it may not be a safe ... Hormone therapy prevents this from happening.. *Targeted drug therapy. Medicines that target the proteins on breast cancer ... People may require a combination of treatments, depending on the type and stage of breast cancer. ... Radiation therapy. High-energy radiation destroys cancer cells.. *Chemotherapy. These are drugs that fight cancer cells, either ...
Ive really found that to be a tidal shift in being able to use the drug either just with dexamethasone or in combination. But ... The very first BCMA-directed therapy is an antibody drug conjugate. Whats your strategy with belantamab; how do you think ... We know the safety profile of each of these drugs, selinexor combinations, GI side effects, fatigue, the need to be in an ... This is a drug thats gone through a bit of an evolution. I sometimes say there isnt a drug in myeloma that hasnt gone ...
Treatment with systemic cancer therapy or investigational therapy within 4 weeks of first study drug administration; radiation ... PK of MGA271 in combination with pembrolizumab. *Number of participants that develop anti-drug antibodies [ Time Frame: One ... A Phase 1, Open-Label, Dose Escalation Study of MGA271 in Combination With Pembrolizumab and in Combination With MGA012 in ... Anti-tumor activity of MGA271 in combination with pembrolizumab and in combination with MGA012 using both conventional RECIST ...
... or more drugs. Logistical regression was used to assess likelihood of prescription of drugs and/or therapy for specific ... Utilization of 5 different antihypertensive drug classes was compared for all patients receiving 1, 2, 3, 4, ... Combinations of agents are often required [37]. When drug therapy is intensified, patients should be monitored carefully for ... In two drugs combination therapy, ACEIs plus ARBs were prescribed highest 89 (21%), followed by ARBs plus diuretics 76 (18%), ...
RepoDB, a standard drug repurposing database which describes drug-disease combinations that were approved or that failed in ... such as drugs, diseases, genes, etc. Our work uses the semantic information between drug and disease concepts as features, ... We conclude that semantic properties of concepts in a knowledge graph can be exploited to prioritize drug repurposing ... a vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist is predicted to be the drug most likely to be approved after a clinical trial, and belongs ...
Combination of therapies (and Drugs) are better Combination of therapies in critical cases has shown higher benefits in the ... I believe your dads doctor has chosen a chemo drug that is already established in combination therapies (with performance ... which required a five-drug chemo combination therapy, so I know a bit about the chemo experience, and also nursed a friend to " ... which required a five-drug chemo combination therapy, so I know a bit about the chemo experience, and also nursed a friend to " ...
... receiving care at Moores Cancer Center at UC San Diego Health had better outcomes if they received personalized cancer therapy. ... Twenty percent of patients matched to all recommended drugs, including combination therapies. ... UC San Diego First to Test Cancer Drugs in Space Using Private Astronaut Mission. On May 21, 2023, scientists at University of ... "This can be challenging since we are customizing therapy based on the unique genomic pattern patients have, and thus it is ...
The development of targeted therapy represents an exciting new approach to cancer treatment. A small number of these drugs have ... The combination of a highly specific cancer drug that is able to attack a tumors weaknesses, and standard chemotherapy to ... Know the Flow: Targeted Therapy. Know the Flow is an educational game for you to test your knowledge. To play:. *Drag the ... Investigational EGFR-targeted therapy in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2010 Jun;19(6):709- ...
Comparison of combination therapy with single-drug therapy in early rheumatoid arthritis: a randomised trial. FIN-RACo trial ... The most obvious question to address is whether combination therapy-and, in particular, combination therapy with a TNF ... Most major studies that have compared initial combination therapy with initial monotherapy have shown that the combination ... To simply compare therapy A with therapy A+B and then, when patients in the A+B group look better at 1 or 2 years, to conclude ...
A combination of two medications helped some people with heavy methamphetamine use to quit. ... The study was funded in part by NIHs National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Results were published on January 14, 2021, in ... Combination therapy for methamphetamine use disorder. At a Glance. *A combination of two medications helped some people with ... The study tested a combination of medications to help people who use methamphetamine quit. SDI Productions / E+ via Getty ...
The US FDA has granted GBTs SCD therapy voxelotor an accelerated approval under the subpart H pathway based on positive Phase ... Janssen submits NDA to FDA for PAH combination therapy. *Stealth and Pharmanovia partner for commercialisation of elamipretide ... XtalPi announces $250m AI drug discovery collaboration with Eli Lilly. *University of Sydney will use AI to boost cancer drug ... Progressive Supranuclear Palsy Drugs in Development by Stages, Target, MoA, RoA, Molecule Type an... GlobalData ...
Combination Therapy with Fenofibrate. Zetia, administered in combination with fenofibrate, is indicated as adjunctive therapy ... Combination Therapy with HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (Statins). Zetia, administered in combination with a 3-hydroxy-3- ... Subscribe to Drugs.com newsletters Subscribe to Drugs.com newsletters for the latest medication news, new drug approvals, ... Drug Interactions [See also Drug Interactions (7)]. Zetia had no significant effect on a series of probe drugs (caffeine, ...
Combination therapies and drug delivery platforms in combating pancreatic cancer. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2019;370(3):682-694. ... therapy [116]. However, systemic neoadjuvant therapy allows patients to receive therapy when they have better performance ... Total neoadjuvant therapy with FOLFIRINOX in combination with losartan followed by chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced ... Second-line therapy primarily consists of doublet therapy using the alternative pyrimidine backbone to what was used in the ...
  • Artemisinin drug resistance is one of the major reasons for malaria treatment failures in the sub-Saharan African countries where artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is the first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria. (who.int)
  • The review provided pertinent information on artemisinin derivatives, artemisinin-based combination therapy, molecular action of artemisinin, definition of artemisinin resistance, genetic basis of artemisinin drug resistance and discovery of Kelch 13, and the importance of artemisinin resistance surveillance. (who.int)
  • For the treatment of falciparum malaria, WHO is recommending the use of a type of drug called artemisinin-based combination therapy, or ACTs. (cdc.gov)
  • This is a particularly important topic because for many years, we have had three major classes of agents in myeloma: proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory drugs, and CD38 monoclonal antibodies. (medscape.com)
  • Combining monoclonal antibodies and immunomodulatory drugs or proteasome inhibitors. (medscape.com)
  • EZH2 inhibitors have been just shifting from the bench to the bedside, but the combination scheme in cancer therapy has not been fully explored yet. (frontiersin.org)
  • Recently, a revolutionary drug design combining PARP inhibitors and EZH2 inhibitors based on PROTAC techniques has shed light on the resolution of PARP inhibitor resistance. (frontiersin.org)
  • This review summarizes the interactions between EZH2 and PARP, suggests the potential PARP inhibitor sensitization effect of EZH2 inhibitors, and further discusses the potential populations that benefit from the combination of EZH2 inhibitors and PARP inhibitors. (frontiersin.org)
  • According to a 2022 article , the aim of ozone therapy is to increase oxygen levels in the blood by administering ozone into the body. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The occurrence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is found to correlate with antimalarial drug resistance. (who.int)
  • Charlotte Rasmussen] I work for WHO which supports countries in monitoring that the antimalarial drug that is recommended by a country continues to work in that country. (cdc.gov)
  • Of 429 patients evaluated by the molecular tumor board, 62 percent were matched to at least one drug, report the researchers in the October 2, 2020 online issue of Nature Communications . (ucsd.edu)
  • Assessments will also be done to see how the drug acts in the body (pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics) and to evaluate potential anti-tumor activity of MGA271 in combination with pembrolizumab. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Led by Razelle Kurzrock, MD, director of the Center for Personalized Cancer Therapy at Moores Cancer Center and senior author of the study, a multidisciplinary molecular tumor board was established to advise treating physicians on course of care using an individual patient's molecular tumor makeup to design precision medicine strategies. (ucsd.edu)
  • Patients who underwent a molecular tumor board-recommended therapy were better matched to genomic alterations in their cancer and had improved outcomes," said Kurzrock. (ucsd.edu)
  • The tumor board acted in an advisory role and treating physicians chose not to use the board's recommended strategy in 38 percent of cases, opting instead for a standard therapy approach that might have been unmatched to the patient's genetic alterations or had a low degree of matching. (ucsd.edu)
  • The combination of a highly specific cancer drug that is able to attack a tumor's weaknesses, and standard chemotherapy to deliver a powerful attack on the tumor, may prove to be an excellent means of treating cancer. (cancerquest.org)
  • Experimental and computational assessment of the synergistic pharmacodynamic drug-drug interactions of a triple combination therapy in refractory HER2-positive breast cancer cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • To this end, we investigated experimentally and assessed computationally the in vitro pharmacodynamic drug - drug interactions of the various dual and triple combinations to assess their subsequent combinatorial effects (synergistic/additive/antagonistic) in a HER2- therapy resistant BC cell line , JIMT-1. (bvsalud.org)
  • Interactions between Chinese herbal medicinal products and orthodox drugs / Kelvin Chang and Lily Cheung. (who.int)
  • A 2018 article concludes that animal and in vitro studies suggest the potential benefits of ozone therapy for cancer treatment, alongside conventional treatments such as radiotherapy or chemotherapy. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A study concluded that apatinib may be useful in circumventing cancer cells' multidrug resistance to certain conventional antineoplastic drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Public Health Service task force rec- ommendations for the use of antiretroviral drugs in pregnant women infected with HIV-1 for maternal health and for reducing perinatal HIV-1 transmission in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • and c) specific considerations regarding use of antiretroviral drugs in pregnant HIV-1-infected women and their in- fants. (cdc.gov)
  • The workshop provided updated recommendations to the Public Health Service on the use of antiretroviral drugs for treatment of HIV-1 infection in pregnant women and for chemoprophylaxis to reduce perinatal HIV-1 transmission. (cdc.gov)
  • These studies are the most successful yet in a series using bNAbs as candidate antiretroviral drugs. (aidsmap.com)
  • The development of innate and/or acquired resistance to human epidermal growth factor receptor type-2 (HER2)-targeted therapy in HER2-positive breast cancer (HER2 + BC) is a major clinical challenge that needs to be addressed. (bvsalud.org)
  • In the present work , we propose to use a triple combination therapy to combat this resistance phenomenon. (bvsalud.org)
  • Ozone may also support chemotherapy drugs such as fluorouracil, in cells that had developed resistance to the drug. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The artemisinin drug resistance surveillance strategy involves continuous monitoring of Kelch 13-propeller biomarker to detect emergence of mutations which could herald drug resistance in the region. (who.int)
  • Some cancer cells have the ability to develop resistance to the cytotoxic effects of certain cancer drugs (called multidrug resistance ). (wikipedia.org)
  • [11] The study showed that apatinib reverses the ABCB1 - and ABCG2 -mediated multidrug resistance by inhibiting those functions and increasing the intracellular concentrations of the antineoplastic drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Charlotte Rasmussen] The resistance to antimalarial drugs has long been a challenge in Southeast Asia. (cdc.gov)
  • Unfortunately, in parts of Southeast Asia, we've seen resistance to both artemisinin and to most of the ACT partner drugs. (cdc.gov)
  • Resistance to partner drugs used together with an artemisinin is a particularly big problem in Cambodia. (cdc.gov)
  • Both of these sublineages contain a mutation (K444T) in the spike protein that confers resistance to the monoclonal antibody bebtelovimab [2], which was previously authorized as one of the second-line therapies to treat COVID-19. (cdc.gov)
  • Multidrug therapy against leprosy : development and implementation over the past 25 years / [editor]: H. Sansarricq. (who.int)
  • The efficacy of replacement therapy with the T4/T3 combination was not different from the T4 monotherapy with regard to all psychological test scores describing mood and cognitive functioning of the patients. (nih.gov)
  • This study was designed to compare the bimatoprost/timolol combination and dorzolamide/timolol combination in glaucoma for efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness in a local population of Trichy in the state of Tamilnadu. (ijp-online.com)
  • An important step is to monitor the efficacy of this drug. (cdc.gov)
  • The support we provide can include financial support, training in how to do efficacy monitoring, providing quality assured drug, and reviewing the data. (cdc.gov)
  • Mozavaptan, a vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist is predicted to be the drug most likely to be approved after a clinical trial, and belongs to the same drug class as tolvaptan, the only treatment for ADPKD that is currently approved. (nature.com)
  • The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted San Francisco-based Global Blood Therapeutics (GBT)'s sickle cell disease (SCD) therapy voxelotor an accelerated approval under the subpart H pathway. (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
  • Chemotherapy drugs effectively target processes that cancer cells need to grow and divide, such as the ability of the cancer cells to replicate their DNA. (cancerquest.org)
  • In short, though chemotherapy drugs are particularly toxic to cancer cells, they also damage healthy cells. (cancerquest.org)
  • Study findings signify the importance of ADDO interventions in improving malaria case management in drug retail outlets. (msh.org)
  • Health Organization, about drug resistant malaria treatment in Vietnam. (cdc.gov)
  • In Africa, historically, fever in children younger than 5 years challenges with human resources and inadequate supplies of has been considered to be due to malaria and has been treated drugs, equipment and medical supplies. (who.int)
  • According to Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Cancer (CAM Cancer) there are not enough valid studies on humans to support the use of ozone therapy as a cancer treatment. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Nor, despite promising studies in monkeys, have dual combinations previously worked in humans. (aidsmap.com)
  • While current therapies for PD include pharmacological, invasive, and physical interventions, there is a constant need for developing additional approaches for optimizing rehabilitation gains. (mdpi.com)
  • I'm looking forward to it as well because I know that you have really been one of the pioneer leaders in a lot of the work that we're going to be discussing today in some of the novel approaches and therapies, including chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy. (medscape.com)
  • Clinical trials can involve therapy with new drugs and new drug combinations or new approaches to stem cell transplantation. (lls.org)
  • Whilst their benefit over three-drug regimens is lacking, our findings should provide reassurance if a temporarily intensified regimen is clinically indicated to help facilitate treatment. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In most countries, methadone is administered initially in the setting of a drug treatment program, both to prevent diversion (selling) of supply and to assure that counseling and other services also are provided. (medscape.com)
  • Is ozone therapy a viable treatment option for breast cancer? (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Some research suggests ozone therapy may have potential benefits as a cancer treatment. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • There are currently few reliable human studies to show whether ozone therapy is safe and effective as a treatment for breast cancer though. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This article examines the scientific evidence around ozone therapy as a cancer treatment. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The article concludes that there is currently a lack of clinical research to show whether ozone therapy is effective as an additional cancer treatment. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • But as we're thinking about the next steps in treatment, I always look at what the patient profile is looking like, what kind of side effects they have, what kind of comorbidities they have, because that may help you decide on that next best therapy. (medscape.com)
  • The development of targeted therapy represents an exciting new approach to cancer treatment. (cancerquest.org)
  • The researchers found that people receiving the two drugs were more likely to respond to treatment. (nih.gov)
  • Overall, 13.6% of people who received the drugs responded to treatment, compared to only 2.5% who received the placebos. (nih.gov)
  • [2] It is an investigational cancer drug currently undergoing clinical trials as a potential targeted treatment for metastatic gastric carcinoma , metastatic breast cancer , adenoid cystic carcinoma , and advanced hepatocellular carcinoma . (wikipedia.org)
  • Early outpatient treatment of mild-to-moderate COVID-19 with a recommended first-line therapy , ritonavir-boosted nirmatrelvir (Paxlovid™) or remdesivir (Veklury®), or the second-line therapy, molnupiravir (Lagevrio™) have been shown to prevent hospitalizations and deaths [4-6]. (cdc.gov)
  • Combination antiretroviral therapy is the most effective pharmacotherapy for HIV treatment. (cdc.gov)
  • The facility survey recorded level of staffing, health services provided by the facility, availability and adequacy of medical equipment, availability of basic drugs and supplies and availability of treatment charts and guidelines. (who.int)
  • Smalheiser and Swanson were the first to demonstrate that the knowledge published in the biomedical literature could be computationally analyzed to identify and prioritize new drug therapies for diseases 2 . (nature.com)
  • There is evidence from recent controlled clinical studies that replacement therapy of hypothyroidism with T4 in combination with a small amount of T3 may improve the well-being of the patients. (nih.gov)
  • For groups of patients such as health care professionals or business executives for whom external incentives to stay away from drugs are important, naltrexone therapy has been very effective. (medscape.com)
  • When patients do not reach their goals by TLC, drug therapy should be started. (medscape.com)
  • Sur les 655 patients fébriles, 35,9 % ont été recensés comme étant atteints de paludisme en se fondant sur les résultats de laboratoire de l'hôpital. (who.int)
  • If I were to go to the CAR T-cell therapy route for those patients, do I have enough time? (medscape.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety of enoblituzumab (MGA271) in combination with Keytruda (pembrolizumab) when given to patients with B7-H3-expressing melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN), non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), Urothelial Cancer and other B7-H3 expressing cancers. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Utilization of 5 different antihypertensive drug classes was compared for all patients receiving 1, 2, 3, 4, or more drugs. (hindawi.com)
  • Chemotherapy (Docetaxel): Doctor wants to start chemo in few weeks because he said there was a study done that starting chemo along with ADT/hormone therapy extends life of Stage 4 patients by an average of 14 months. (cancer.org)
  • Patients receiving care for advanced cancer at Moores Cancer Center at UC San Diego Health were more likely to survive or experience a longer period without their disease progressing if they received personalized cancer therapy, report University of California San Diego School of Medicine researchers. (ucsd.edu)
  • The three-year survival for patients with the highest degree of matching and who received a personalized cancer therapy was approximately 55 percent compared to 25 percent in patients who received therapy that was unmatched or had low degrees of matching. (ucsd.edu)
  • Twenty percent of patients matched to all recommended drugs, including combination therapies. (ucsd.edu)
  • This can be challenging since we are customizing therapy based on the unique genomic pattern patients have, and thus it is difficult to predict the response. (ucsd.edu)
  • Zetia ® , administered alone, is indicated as adjunctive therapy to diet for the reduction of elevated total cholesterol (total-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein B (Apo B), and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) in patients with primary (heterozygous familial and non-familial) hyperlipidemia. (drugs.com)
  • Zetia, administered in combination with a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor (statin), is indicated as adjunctive therapy to diet for the reduction of elevated total-C, LDL-C, Apo B, and non-HDL-C in patients with primary (heterozygous familial and non-familial) hyperlipidemia. (drugs.com)
  • Zetia, administered in combination with fenofibrate, is indicated as adjunctive therapy to diet for the reduction of elevated total-C, LDL-C, Apo B, and non-HDL-C in adult patients with mixed hyperlipidemia. (drugs.com)
  • The combination of Zetia and atorvastatin or simvastatin is indicated for the reduction of elevated total-C and LDL-C levels in patients with HoFH, as an adjunct to other lipid-lowering treatments (e.g. (drugs.com)
  • Zetia is indicated as adjunctive therapy to diet for the reduction of elevated sitosterol and campesterol levels in patients with homozygous familial sitosterolemia. (drugs.com)
  • The combination of Zetia with a statin is contraindicated in patients with active liver disease or unexplained persistent elevations in hepatic transaminase levels. (drugs.com)
  • In future, the molecular imaging we have developed could be used to identify those patients who would benefit from surgical intervention at an early stage, thereby sparing them the need for less effective drug therapy for fibroid-stenosis,' says co-study leader Michael Bergmann from the Department of Visceral Surgery at MedUni Vienna's Department of General Surgery, summarising the great potential of these research findings. (eurekalert.org)
  • In this context, we shall examine the course of patients with fibroid-stenosis and possible reversibility under new drug therapies,' says first author Martina Scharitzer (Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine). (eurekalert.org)
  • After initial clinical assessment and baseline investigations, bimatoprost/timolol combination (Group A) was prescribed to 22 patients (2 patients lost after initial assessment) and dorzolamide/timolol combination (Group B) to 24 patients. (ijp-online.com)
  • The patients were reviewed after second and eighth weeks for cure rate and adverse drug reaction monitoring. (ijp-online.com)
  • This drug was chosen partly because genetic analysis of the parasites in the study showed that the parasites from all 46 patients had a single copy of the gene Pfmdr1 , confirming that all parasites were sensitive to mefloquine. (cdc.gov)
  • Almost 90% of HIV-positive TB patients were receiving cotrimoxazole preventive therapy and the coverage of antiretroviral therapy among TB patients coinfected with HIV reached 77% in 2014. (who.int)
  • Abacavir hypersensitivity reaction affects 5 to 8% of patients and can be observed during the first 6 weeks of antiretroviral therapy. (cdc.gov)
  • This knowledge, spread across a variety of sources, can be integrated within a knowledge graph, which thereby comprehensively describes known relationships between biomedical concepts, such as drugs, diseases, genes, etc. (nature.com)
  • However, it is commonly known that some drugs can be used to treat multiple diseases. (nature.com)
  • By weeks 4, 12, and 24, 37.0%, 69.0%, and 94.0% were undetectable (viral load ConclusionsOverall, four-drug regimens were well tolerated and had high levels of adherence. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A group of researchers have for the first time used infusions of antibodies to produce prolonged suppression of HIV viral load without antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the majority of a group given them. (aidsmap.com)
  • Our proposed triple combination therapy demonstrated synergism in JIMT-1 cells , thus corroborating our hypothesis. (bvsalud.org)
  • After one half-life, the concentration of a drug in the body amounts to half the starting dose of any drug to be eliminated from the body. (aidsmap.com)
  • The figure was 33% for those taking the 900mg dose of the drug and 10% for the placebo group. (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
  • [8] A fixed dose combination of latanoprost and timolol was first prostaglandin analogue/beta-blocker made available in the market. (ijp-online.com)
  • The intended applications of pharmacogenomics research include identifying responders and non-responders to medications, avoiding adverse events, optimizing drug dose and avoiding unnecessary healthcare costs. (cdc.gov)
  • Mental imagery is an emerging field in neurorehabilitation and has the potential to serve as an adjunct therapy to enhance patient function. (mdpi.com)
  • Drug therapy is indicated as an adjunct to diet when the response to a diet restricted in saturated fat and cholesterol and other nonpharmacologic measures alone has been inadequate. (drugs.com)
  • We apply the classifier to prioritize 21 preclinical drug repurposing candidates that have been suggested for Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD). (nature.com)
  • Identifying new indications for approved drugs, also known as drug repurposing, provides a relatively cheap and fast alternative to de novo drug discovery. (nature.com)
  • This is more so when drugs are in combination therapy, for instance, molecular surveillance can give a hint that one drug is failing despite the fact that in combination, it is still apparently clinically effective. (who.int)
  • Logistical regression was used to assess likelihood of prescription of drugs and/or therapy for specific conditions mentioned in the guidelines. (hindawi.com)
  • Researchers have begun testing drugs approved for other substance use disorders to treat people with methamphetamine addiction. (nih.gov)
  • We commend the FDA, and the broader SCD community, for its continuous commitment toward understanding the critical need for new clinical endpoints that support the development of much-needed new therapies to treat this devastating disease. (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
  • Adverse drug events are a serious public health problem. (cdc.gov)
  • at least 40% of costs associated with adverse drug events occurring outside hospitals can be prevented. (cdc.gov)
  • Although considerable information is accumulating on the relationship between genetic variation and drug metabolism and adverse effects, precious little evidence exists for their added value in clinical practice. (cdc.gov)
  • Ozone therapy may involve body saunas, blowing the gas into the body through cavities, or re-injecting ozone-enriched blood. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • We aimed to evaluate the tolerability of four-drug regimens used in the Research in Viral Eradication of HIV-1 Reservoirs (RIVER) study.MethodsAt enrolment, ART-naïve adult participants or those newly commenced on ART were initiated or intensified to four-drug regimens within 4 weeks of PHI. (ox.ac.uk)
  • As the issue is still the subject of controversial discussion, our study was assigned to confirm the superiority of a physiological combination of thyroid hormones (absorbed molar ratio 14 : 1) over T4 alone with regard to mood states and cognitive functioning. (nih.gov)
  • The study tested a combination of medications to help people who use methamphetamine quit. (nih.gov)
  • The study was funded in part by NIH's National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). (nih.gov)
  • Pharmacogenomics is the study of genetic variation as a factor in drug response, affecting both safety and effectiveness. (cdc.gov)
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) states that ozone is a toxic gas and they do not support the use of ozone for any medical condition. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The Food and Drug Administration has added pharmacogenomic information to the labeling for more than 70 drugs. (cdc.gov)
  • In this case, the patient did have autologous stem cell transplant, was on maintenance therapy, and has had three further lines of therapy. (medscape.com)
  • A combination of two medications helped some people with heavy methamphetamine use to quit. (nih.gov)
  • Ozone therapy for breast cancer: Does it work? (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Ozone therapy delivers ozone into the body with the aim of increasing oxygen levels and fighting cancer cells. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Ozone therapy is an alternative therapy that claims to affect the immune system and reverse low-oxygen levels that may allow cancer cells to grow. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Ozone therapy increases the immune system response and helps the production of cells that fight cancer. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Perhaps the most promising theme in the development of more specific cancer drugs is the targeting of cancer-specific processes, instead of processes common to all cells. (cancerquest.org)
  • Because these drugs are not directly toxic, and because they only affect cancer cells, they offer the hope of being highly specific with few side effects. (cancerquest.org)
  • Therefore, many specific cancer drugs are currently being used together with traditional chemotherapy. (cancerquest.org)
  • This section will offer some examples of drugs that have been/are being developed to target cancer-specific processes and spare normal cells. (cancerquest.org)
  • Drug Users and HIV-Combination Therapy (HAART): Factors Which Impede or Facilitate Adherence. (bvsalud.org)
  • This effort may form the basis for further investigation of the triple combination therapy in vivo at a mechanistic level in HER2- therapy resistant BC cells . (bvsalud.org)
  • There is not enough evidence to know the safety of ozone therapy in people who are pregnant or nursing. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Because statins decrease cholesterol synthesis and possibly the synthesis of other biologically active substances derived from cholesterol, Zetia in combination with a statin may cause fetal harm when administered to pregnant women. (drugs.com)
  • Additionally, there is no apparent benefit to therapy during pregnancy, and safety in pregnant women has not been established. (drugs.com)
  • If the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus and the lack of known clinical benefit with continued use during pregnancy. (drugs.com)
  • In addition, this approach requires multidisciplinary expertise as well as access to drugs or clinical trials not always available in smaller practices. (ucsd.edu)
  • The Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlet (ADDO) program was introduced in Tanzania in 2002 to improve the quality of retail services and especially of dispensing practices. (msh.org)
  • We also conducted exit interviews with caregivers to collect information on demographic characteristics, chief complaints, counselling and drug dispensing practices. (who.int)
  • Drugs or herbal products that induce certain enzymes including CYP3A4, may decrease the effectiveness of COCs or increase breakthrough bleeding. (nih.gov)
  • Dr. Fadlo Khuri discusses the difference between chemotherapy and targeted therapy. (cancerquest.org)
  • Replacement therapy of hypothyroidism with T4 plus T3 does not improve mood and cognitive performance compared to the standard T4 monotherapy. (nih.gov)
  • Results of search for 'su:{Drug therapy, Combination. (who.int)
  • Control medicines for asthma are drugs you take to control your asthma symptoms. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Normally, you use these medicines only when you are using an inhaled steroid drug and you still have symptoms. (medlineplus.gov)
  • We know the safety profile of each of these drugs, selinexor combinations, GI side effects, fatigue, the need to be in an infusion center on a weekly basis to potentially get fluids and supportive care measures. (medscape.com)
  • ObjectivesRapid initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is important for individuals with high baseline viral loads, such as in primary HIV-1 infection (PHI). (ox.ac.uk)
  • The survival is entirely dependent on how he responds to these therapies. (cancer.org)
  • A research team led by Dr. Madhukar Trivedi at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center launched a clinical trial to see if a combination of the two might help more people quit. (nih.gov)
  • Cost-effective range of bimatoprost/timolol combination was lower than that of dorzolamide/timolol combination. (ijp-online.com)
  • The fixed combination of bimatoprost/timolol was slightly more effective than that of dorzolamide/timolol combination in reducing IOP, and both treatments were generally well tolerated. (ijp-online.com)
  • Bimatoprost/timolol combination was more cost-effective (cost-effective analysis) than dorzolamide/timolol combination. (ijp-online.com)
  • Charlotte Rasmussen] Artesunate-mefloquine is also an ACT but with a different partner drug than the one previously used--namely mefloquine instead of piperaquine. (cdc.gov)
  • The currently recommended ACTs are a combination of the drug artemisinin and one of five different partner drugs. (cdc.gov)
  • 2 The specificity of current drugs does have one drawback. (cancerquest.org)
  • Cigarette smoking increases the risk of serious cardiovascular events from combination oral contraceptives (COC) use. (nih.gov)
  • Cigarette smoking increases the risk of serious cardiovascular events from combination oral contraceptive (COC) use. (nih.gov)