Drug Therapy: The use of DRUGS to treat a DISEASE or its symptoms. One example is the use of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to treat CANCER.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Anti-Arrhythmia Agents: Agents used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. They may affect the polarization-repolarization phase of the action potential, its excitability or refractoriness, or impulse conduction or membrane responsiveness within cardiac fibers. Anti-arrhythmia agents are often classed into four main groups according to their mechanism of action: sodium channel blockade, beta-adrenergic blockade, repolarization prolongation, or calcium channel blockade.Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Pharmacogenetics: A branch of genetics which deals with the genetic variability in individual responses to drugs and drug metabolism (BIOTRANSFORMATION).Pharmacists: Those persons legally qualified by education and training to engage in the practice of pharmacy.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Drug Utilization Review: Formal programs for assessing drug prescription against some standard. Drug utilization review may consider clinical appropriateness, cost effectiveness, and, in some cases, outcomes. Review is usually retrospective, but some analysis may be done before drugs are dispensed (as in computer systems which advise physicians when prescriptions are entered). Drug utilization review is mandated for Medicaid programs beginning in 1993.Anticonvulsants: Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.Pharmaceutical Services: Total pharmaceutical services provided by qualified PHARMACISTS. In addition to the preparation and distribution of medical products, they may include consultative services provided to agencies and institutions which do not have a qualified pharmacist.Hypolipidemic Agents: Substances that lower the levels of certain LIPIDS in the BLOOD. They are used to treat HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions: Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.Drug Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.Community Pharmacy Services: Total pharmaceutical services provided to the public through community pharmacies.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Drug Costs: The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Primidone: An antiepileptic agent related to the barbiturates; it is partly metabolized to PHENOBARBITAL in the body and owes some of its actions to this metabolite. Adverse effects are reported to be more frequent than with PHENOBARBITAL. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p309)Insurance, Pharmaceutical Services: Insurance providing for payment of services rendered by the pharmacist. Services include the preparation and distribution of medical products.Managed Care Programs: Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.Antithyroid Agents: Agents that are used to treat hyperthyroidism by reducing the excessive production of thyroid hormones.Atrial Fibrillation: Abnormal cardiac rhythm that is characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the upper chambers of the heart (HEART ATRIA). In such case, blood cannot be effectively pumped into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES). It is caused by abnormal impulse generation.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Education, Pharmacy, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform graduate pharmacists of recent advances in their particular field.Drug Monitoring: The process of observing, recording, or detecting the effects of a chemical substance administered to an individual therapeutically or diagnostically.Flecainide: A potent anti-arrhythmia agent, effective in a wide range of ventricular and atrial ARRHYTHMIAS and TACHYCARDIAS.Leprostatic Agents: Substances that suppress Mycobacterium leprae, ameliorate the clinical manifestations of leprosy, and/or reduce the incidence and severity of leprous reactions.Cardiovascular Agents: Agents that affect the rate or intensity of cardiac contraction, blood vessel diameter, or blood volume.Phenytoin: An anticonvulsant that is used to treat a wide variety of seizures. It is also an anti-arrhythmic and a muscle relaxant. The mechanism of therapeutic action is not clear, although several cellular actions have been described including effects on ion channels, active transport, and general membrane stabilization. The mechanism of its muscle relaxant effect appears to involve a reduction in the sensitivity of muscle spindles to stretch. Phenytoin has been proposed for several other therapeutic uses, but its use has been limited by its many adverse effects and interactions with other drugs.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Phenylpropanolamine: A sympathomimetic that acts mainly by causing release of NOREPINEPHRINE but also has direct agonist activity at some adrenergic receptors. It is most commonly used as a nasal vasoconstrictor and an appetite depressant.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Medication Therapy Management: Assistance in managing and monitoring drug therapy for patients receiving treatment for cancer or chronic conditions such as asthma and diabetes, consulting with patients and their families on the proper use of medication; conducting wellness and disease prevention programs to improve public health; overseeing medication use in a variety of settings.Organogold Compounds: Organic compounds that contain GOLD as an integral part of the molecule. Some are used as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS. The term chrysotherapy derives from an ancient Greek term for gold.Graves Disease: A common form of hyperthyroidism with a diffuse hyperplastic GOITER. It is an autoimmune disorder that produces antibodies against the THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE RECEPTOR. These autoantibodies activate the TSH receptor, thereby stimulating the THYROID GLAND and hypersecretion of THYROID HORMONES. These autoantibodies can also affect the eyes (GRAVES OPHTHALMOPATHY) and the skin (Graves dermopathy).Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Societies, Pharmaceutical: Societies whose membership is limited to pharmacists.Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.Catheter Ablation: Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Methimazole: A thioureylene antithyroid agent that inhibits the formation of thyroid hormones by interfering with the incorporation of iodine into tyrosyl residues of thyroglobulin. This is done by interfering with the oxidation of iodide ion and iodotyrosyl groups through inhibition of the peroxidase enzyme.Anticholesteremic Agents: Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.Economics, Pharmaceutical: Economic aspects of the fields of pharmacy and pharmacology as they apply to the development and study of medical economics in rational drug therapy and the impact of pharmaceuticals on the cost of medical care. Pharmaceutical economics also includes the economic considerations of the pharmaceutical care delivery system and in drug prescribing, particularly of cost-benefit values. (From J Res Pharm Econ 1989;1(1); PharmacoEcon 1992;1(1))Diuretics: Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.Pharmacokinetics: Dynamic and kinetic mechanisms of exogenous chemical and DRUG LIBERATION; ABSORPTION; BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT; TISSUE DISTRIBUTION; BIOTRANSFORMATION; elimination; and DRUG TOXICITY as a function of dosage, and rate of METABOLISM. LADMER, ADME and ADMET are abbreviations for liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and toxicology.Polypharmacy: The use of multiple drugs administered to the same patient, most commonly seen in elderly patients. It includes also the administration of excessive medication. Since in the United States most drugs are dispensed as single-agent formulations, polypharmacy, though using many drugs administered to the same patient, must be differentiated from DRUG COMBINATIONS, single preparations containing two or more drugs as a fixed dose, and from DRUG THERAPY, COMBINATION, two or more drugs administered separately for a combined effect. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Epilepsy: A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)Amiodarone: An antianginal and class III antiarrhythmic drug. It increases the duration of ventricular and atrial muscle action by inhibiting POTASSIUM CHANNELS and VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS. There is a resulting decrease in heart rate and in vascular resistance.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Drug Information Services: Services providing pharmaceutic and therapeutic drug information and consultation.Pharmacy Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the receiving, storing, and distribution of pharmaceutical supplies.Individualized Medicine: Therapeutic approach tailoring therapy for genetically defined subgroups of patients.Epilepsy, Reflex: A subtype of epilepsy characterized by seizures that are consistently provoked by a certain specific stimulus. Auditory, visual, and somatosensory stimuli as well as the acts of writing, reading, eating, and decision making are examples of events or activities that may induce seizure activity in affected individuals. (From Neurol Clin 1994 Feb;12(1):57-8)Bisoprolol: A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic blocker. It is effective in the management of HYPERTENSION and ANGINA PECTORIS.Medication Adherence: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in taking drugs or medicine as prescribed. This includes timing, dosage, and frequency.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Hydrochlorothiazide: A thiazide diuretic often considered the prototypical member of this class. It reduces the reabsorption of electrolytes from the renal tubules. This results in increased excretion of water and electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, chloride, and magnesium. It is used in the treatment of several disorders including edema, hypertension, diabetes insipidus, and hypoparathyroidism.Clonazepam: An anticonvulsant used for several types of seizures, including myotonic or atonic seizures, photosensitive epilepsy, and absence seizures, although tolerance may develop. It is seldom effective in generalized tonic-clonic or partial seizures. The mechanism of action appears to involve the enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor responses.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.CresolsProspective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Tachycardia, Ventricular: An abnormally rapid ventricular rhythm usually in excess of 150 beats per minute. It is generated within the ventricle below the BUNDLE OF HIS, either as autonomic impulse formation or reentrant impulse conduction. Depending on the etiology, onset of ventricular tachycardia can be paroxysmal (sudden) or nonparoxysmal, its wide QRS complexes can be uniform or polymorphic, and the ventricular beating may be independent of the atrial beating (AV dissociation).Sulfasalazine: A drug that is used in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases. Its activity is generally considered to lie in its metabolic breakdown product, 5-aminosalicylic acid (see MESALAMINE) released in the colon. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p907)Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Drug Utilization: The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.United StatesPropafenone: An antiarrhythmia agent that is particularly effective in ventricular arrhythmias. It also has weak beta-blocking activity.Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Carbimazole: An imidazole antithyroid agent. Carbimazole is metabolized to METHIMAZOLE, which is responsible for the antithyroid activity.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Carbamazepine: An anticonvulsant used to control grand mal and psychomotor or focal seizures. Its mode of action is not fully understood, but some of its actions resemble those of PHENYTOIN; although there is little chemical resemblance between the two compounds, their three-dimensional structure is similar.Drugs, Generic: Drugs whose drug name is not protected by a trademark. They may be manufactured by several companies.Encainide: One of the ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS, it blocks VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS and slows conduction within the His-Purkinje system and MYOCARDIUM.Insurance Claim Review: Review of claims by insurance companies to determine liability and amount of payment for various services. The review may also include determination of eligibility of the claimant or beneficiary or of the provider of the benefit; determination that the benefit is covered or not payable under another policy; or determination that the service was necessary and of reasonable cost and quality.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Epilepsy, Tonic-Clonic: A generalized seizure disorder characterized by recurrent major motor seizures. The initial brief tonic phase is marked by trunk flexion followed by diffuse extension of the trunk and extremities. The clonic phase features rhythmic flexor contractions of the trunk and limbs, pupillary dilation, elevations of blood pressure and pulse, urinary incontinence, and tongue biting. This is followed by a profound state of depressed consciousness (post-ictal state) which gradually improves over minutes to hours. The disorder may be cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (caused by an identified disease process). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p329)Hypercholesterolemia: A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.Lipotropic Agents: Endogenous factors or drugs that increase the transport and metabolism of LIPIDS including the synthesis of LIPOPROTEINS by the LIVER and their uptake by extrahepatic tissues.Metoprolol: A selective adrenergic beta-1 blocking agent that is commonly used to treat ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS.Professional Role: The expected function of a member of a particular profession.Cost Sharing: Provisions of an insurance policy that require the insured to pay some portion of covered expenses. Several forms of sharing are in use, e.g., deductibles, coinsurance, and copayments. Cost sharing does not refer to or include amounts paid in premiums for the coverage. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Formularies as Topic: Works about lists of drugs or collections of recipes, formulas, and prescriptions for the compounding of medicinal preparations. Formularies differ from PHARMACOPOEIAS in that they are less complete, lacking full descriptions of the drugs, their formulations, analytic composition, chemical properties, etc. In hospitals, formularies list all drugs commonly stocked in the hospital pharmacy.Electrocardiography, Ambulatory: Method in which prolonged electrocardiographic recordings are made on a portable tape recorder (Holter-type system) or solid-state device ("real-time" system), while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It is useful in the diagnosis and management of intermittent cardiac arrhythmias and transient myocardial ischemia.Betahistine: A histamine analog and H1 receptor agonist that serves as a vasodilator. It is used in MENIERE DISEASE and in vascular headaches but may exacerbate bronchial asthma and peptic ulcers.Calcium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.Sotalol: An adrenergic beta-antagonist that is used in the treatment of life-threatening arrhythmias.Antirheumatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Pregnatrienes: Pregnane derivatives containing three double bonds in the ring structures.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Guideline Adherence: Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.Medication Errors: Errors in prescribing, dispensing, or administering medication with the result that the patient fails to receive the correct drug or the indicated proper drug dosage.ThiazinesCardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Tranquilizing Agents: A traditional grouping of drugs said to have a soothing or calming effect on mood, thought, or behavior. Included here are the ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS (minor tranquilizers), ANTIMANIC AGENTS, and the ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS (major tranquilizers). These drugs act by different mechanisms and are used for different therapeutic purposes.Hyperlipidemias: Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Cardiac Pacing, Artificial: Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Antipsychotic Agents: Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.Clinical Pharmacy Information Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of clinical pharmacy services.Tachycardia: Abnormally rapid heartbeat, usually with a HEART RATE above 100 beats per minute for adults. Tachycardia accompanied by disturbance in the cardiac depolarization (cardiac arrhythmia) is called tachyarrhythmia.Clomipramine: A tricyclic antidepressant similar to IMIPRAMINE that selectively inhibits the uptake of serotonin in the brain. It is readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and demethylated in the liver to form its primary active metabolite, desmethylclomipramine.Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Amlodipine: A long-acting dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It is effective in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS and HYPERTENSION.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Adrenal Cortex HormonesAntineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Sodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit SODIUM CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS. They act as DIURETICS. Excess use is associated with HYPOKALEMIA.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Arrhythmias, Cardiac: Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Immunoglobulins, Thyroid-Stimulating: Autoantibodies that bind to the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor (RECEPTORS, THYROTROPIN) on thyroid epithelial cells. The autoantibodies mimic TSH causing an unregulated production of thyroid hormones characteristic of GRAVES DISEASE.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Procainamide: A class Ia antiarrhythmic drug that is structurally-related to PROCAINE.Pain, Intractable: Persistent pain that is refractory to some or all forms of treatment.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.6-Mercaptopurine: An antimetabolite antineoplastic agent with immunosuppressant properties. It interferes with nucleic acid synthesis by inhibiting purine metabolism and is used, usually in combination with other drugs, in the treatment of or in remission maintenance programs for leukemia.Electric Countershock: An electrical current applied to the HEART to terminate a disturbance of its rhythm, ARRHYTHMIAS, CARDIAC. (Stedman, 25th ed)Nortriptyline: A metabolite of AMITRIPTYLINE that is also used as an antidepressive agent. Nortriptyline is used in major depression, dysthymia, and atypical depressions.Pharmacology: The study of the origin, nature, properties, and actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Disease Management: A broad approach to appropriate coordination of the entire disease treatment process that often involves shifting away from more expensive inpatient and acute care to areas such as preventive medicine, patient counseling and education, and outpatient care. This concept includes implications of appropriate versus inappropriate therapy on the overall cost and clinical outcome of a particular disease. (From Hosp Pharm 1995 Jul;30(7):596)Hyperthyroidism: Hypersecretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND. Elevated levels of thyroid hormones increase BASAL METABOLIC RATE.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Tachycardia, Supraventricular: A generic expression for any tachycardia that originates above the BUNDLE OF HIS.Defibrillators, Implantable: Implantable devices which continuously monitor the electrical activity of the heart and automatically detect and terminate ventricular tachycardia (TACHYCARDIA, VENTRICULAR) and VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION. They consist of an impulse generator, batteries, and electrodes.Gastrointestinal Diseases: Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Metabolic Detoxication, Drug: Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Valproic Acid: A fatty acid with anticonvulsant properties used in the treatment of epilepsy. The mechanisms of its therapeutic actions are not well understood. It may act by increasing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in the brain or by altering the properties of voltage dependent sodium channels.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cost Savings: Reductions in all or any portion of the costs of providing goods or services. Savings may be incurred by the provider or the consumer.Phenobarbital: A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Methylphenidate: A central nervous system stimulant used most commonly in the treatment of ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER in children and for NARCOLEPSY. Its mechanisms appear to be similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The d-isomer of this drug is referred to as DEXMETHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE.PropylaminesEducation, Pharmacy: Formal instruction, learning, or training in the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of drugs in the field of medicine.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Death, Sudden, Cardiac: Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)Azathioprine: An immunosuppressive agent used in combination with cyclophosphamide and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck Index, 11th ed)HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Barbiturates: A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Tachycardia, Ectopic Atrial: Abnormally rapid heartbeats originating from one or more automatic foci (nonsinus pacemakers) in the HEART ATRIUM but away from the SINOATRIAL NODE. Unlike the reentry mechanism, automatic tachycardia speeds up and slows down gradually. The episode is characterized by a HEART RATE between 135 to less than 200 beats per minute and lasting 30 seconds or longer.Pulmonary Veins: The veins that return the oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Atrioventricular Node: A small nodular mass of specialized muscle fibers located in the interatrial septum near the opening of the coronary sinus. It gives rise to the atrioventricular bundle of the conduction system of the heart.Quinidine: An optical isomer of quinine, extracted from the bark of the CHINCHONA tree and similar plant species. This alkaloid dampens the excitability of cardiac and skeletal muscles by blocking sodium and potassium currents across cellular membranes. It prolongs cellular ACTION POTENTIALS, and decreases automaticity. Quinidine also blocks muscarinic and alpha-adrenergic neurotransmission.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Mexiletine: Antiarrhythmic agent pharmacologically similar to LIDOCAINE. It may have some anticonvulsant properties.Antidepressive Agents: Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.Albendazole: A benzimidazole broad-spectrum anthelmintic structurally related to MEBENDAZOLE that is effective against many diseases. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p38)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Antiprotozoal Agents: Substances that are destructive to protozoans.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Atenolol: A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic blocker possessing properties and potency similar to PROPRANOLOL, but without a negative inotropic effect.PiperazinesHydralazine: A direct-acting vasodilator that is used as an antihypertensive agent.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Blood Pressure Determination: Techniques for measuring blood pressure.Health Maintenance Organizations: Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Pacemaker, Artificial: A device designed to stimulate, by electric impulses, contraction of the heart muscles. It may be temporary (external) or permanent (internal or internal-external).Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6: A cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of many drugs and environmental chemicals, such as DEBRISOQUINE; ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS; and TRICYCLIC ANTIDEPRESSANTS. This enzyme is deficient in up to 10 percent of the Caucasian population.Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic: Substances that contain a fused three-ring moiety and are used in the treatment of depression. These drugs block the uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin into axon terminals and may block some subtypes of serotonin, adrenergic, and histamine receptors. However the mechanism of their antidepressant effects is not clear because the therapeutic effects usually take weeks to develop and may reflect compensatory changes in the central nervous system.Propylthiouracil: A thiourea antithyroid agent. Propythiouracil inhibits the synthesis of thyroxine and inhibits the peripheral conversion of throxine to tri-iodothyronine. It is used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopeoia, 30th ed, p534)Niacin: A water-soluble vitamin of the B complex occurring in various animal and plant tissues. It is required by the body for the formation of coenzymes NAD and NADP. It has PELLAGRA-curative, vasodilating, and antilipemic properties.Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Anticoagulants: Agents that prevent clotting.Anthelmintics: Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).

Prednisone in MOPP chemotherapy for Hodgkin's disease. (1/16029)

High remission rates have been produced by MOPP (mustine, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone) chemotherapy in patients with advanced Hodgkin's disease, but the prednisone component has caused adverse effects in patients who have undergone radiotherapy. The remission rates and length of remission were reviewed in 211 patients with Hodgkin's disease who received chemotherapy either with or without prednisone. In contrast to the findings of a British study, there were no significant differences in remission rates or length of remission between patients who had received prednisone and patients who had not. There were differences between the British prospective study and this retrospective one, but it is difficult to know what accounted for the substantial differences in the findings.  (+info)

Double-blind intervention trial on modulation of ozone effects on pulmonary function by antioxidant supplements. (2/16029)

The aim of this study was to investigate whether the acute effects of ozone on lung function could be modulated by antioxidant vitamin supplementation in a placebo-controlled study. Lung function was measured in Dutch bicyclists (n = 38) before and after each training session on a number of occasions (n = 380) during the summer of 1996. The vitamin group (n = 20) received 100 mg of vitamin E and 500 mg of vitamin C daily for 15 weeks. The average ozone concentration during exercise was 77 microg/m3 (range, 14-186 microg/m3). After exclusion of subjects with insufficient compliance from the analysis, a difference in ozone exposure of 100 microg/m3 decreased forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) 95 ml (95% confidence interval (CI) -265 to -53) in the placebo group and 1 ml (95% CI -94 to 132) in the vitamin group; for forced vital capacity, the change was -125 ml (95% CI -384 to -36) in the placebo group and -42 ml (95% CI -130 to 35) in the vitamin group. The differences in ozone effect on lung function between the groups were statistically significant. The results suggest that supplementation with the antioxidant vitamins C and E confers partial protection against the acute effects of ozone on FEV1 and forced vital capacity in cyclists.  (+info)

Epidemiology of drug-resistant tuberculosis in Texas. (3/16029)

During 1987-1996, over 22,000 tuberculosis cases were reported in Texas, at an average annual incidence rate of 12.5 cases per 100,000 population. Counties with the highest rates were located along the Mexico-Texas border and in northwestern Texas. Nine percent of cases were resistant to at least one of the five first-line antituberculosis drugs used for treatment. Almost 5 percent (4.6%) were resistant to isoniazid, either alone or in combination with other antibiotics; 2.3% were resistant to rifampin; and only 1.3% were resistant to both isoniazid and rifampin. Being a recurrent case, being foreign-born, being 20-39 years of age, and residing in a Mexico-Texas border county were independent risk factors for isoniazid resistance and rifampin resistance. Tuberculosis patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection were more likely to have rifampin resistance and less likely to have isoniazid resistance than patients without HIV infection. Factors associated with multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis included a history of previous tuberculosis (relative risk (RR) = 4.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.5-6.8), non-US birth (RR = 2.69, 95% CI 2.1-3.5), age younger than 20 years (RR = 1.97, 95% CI 1.1-3.5), age 20-39 years (RR = 1.82, 95% CI 1.3-2.6), and residence in a Mexico-Texas border county (RR = 2.33, 95% CI 1.8-3.1).  (+info)

In vivo isolated kidney perfusion with tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in tumour-bearing rats. (4/16029)

Isolated perfusion of the extremities with high-dose tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) plus melphalan leads to dramatic tumour response in patients with irresectable soft tissue sarcoma or multiple melanoma in transit metastases. We developed in vivo isolated organ perfusion models to determine whether similar tumour responses in solid organ tumours can be obtained with this regimen. Here, we describe the technique of isolated kidney perfusion. We studied the feasibility of a perfusion with TNF-alpha and assessed its anti-tumour effects in tumour models differing in tumour vasculature. The maximal tolerated dose (MTD) proved to be only 1 microg TNF-alpha. Higher doses appeared to induce renal failure and a secondary cytokine release with fatal respiratory and septic shock-like symptoms. In vitro, the combination of TNF-alpha and melphalan did not result in a synergistic growth-inhibiting effect on CC 531 colon adenocarcinoma cells, whereas an additive effect was observed on osteosarcoma ROS-1 cells. In vivo isolated kidney perfusion, with TNF-alpha alone or in combination with melphalan, did not result in a significant anti-tumour response in either tumour model in a subrenal capsule assay. We conclude that, because of the susceptibility of the kidney to perfusion with TNF-alpha, the minimal threshold concentration of TNF-alpha to exert its anti-tumour effects was not reached. The applicability of TNF-alpha in isolated kidney perfusion for human tumours seems, therefore, questionable.  (+info)

Clinical experience and choice of drug therapy for human immunodeficiency virus disease. (5/16029)

To determine if providers experienced in the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease preferred different treatment regimens than providers with less experience, we analyzed data from a national survey of primary care providers' preferred regimens for the management of 30 HIV-related medical conditions. We mailed questionnaires to 999 correct addresses of providers in > 20 cities in the United States in May 1996. We received 524 responses (response rate, 52%). We found a statistically significant association between the number of HIV-infected patients cared for by the provider and the likelihood that the provider would report prescribing highly active antiretroviral therapy and multidrug combinations for treatment of opportunistic infections. Providers with few HIV-infected patients were substantially less likely to report using new therapeutic regimens or new diagnostic tools. We concluded that the preferred regimens of experienced providers are more likely to be consistent with the latest information on treatment for HIV disease than are those of less experienced providers.  (+info)

Early mycological treatment failure in AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis. (6/16029)

Cryptococcal meningitis causes significant morbidity and mortality in persons with AIDS. Of 236 AIDS patients treated with amphotericin B plus flucytosine, 29 (12%) died within 2 weeks and 62 (26%) died before 10 weeks. Just 129 (55%) of 236 patients were alive with negative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures at 10 weeks. Multivariate analyses identified that titer of cryptococcal antigen in CSF, serum albumin level, and CD4 cell count, together with dose of amphotericin B, had the strongest joint association with failure to achieve negative CSF cultures by day 14. Among patients with similar CSF cryptococcal antigen titers, CD4 cell counts, and serum albumin levels, the odds of failure at week 10 for those without negative CSF cultures by day 14 was five times that for those with negative CSF cultures by day 14 (odds ratio, 5.0; 95% confidence interval, 2.2-10.9). Prognosis is dismal for patients with AIDS-related cryptococcal meningitis. Multivariate analyses identified three components that, along with initial treatment, have the strongest joint association with early outcome. Clearly, more effective initial therapy and patient management strategies that address immune function and nutritional status are needed to improve outcomes of this disease.  (+info)

Successful short-term suppression of clarithromycin-resistant Mycobacterium avium complex bacteremia in AIDS. California Collaborative Treatment Group. (7/16029)

During a randomized study of clarithromycin plus clofazimine with or without ethambutol in patients with AIDS and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) bacteremia, eight participants received additional antimycobacterial drugs following the detection of a clarithromycin-resistant isolate (MIC, > 8 micrograms/mL). A macrolide (seven received clarithromycin, one azithromycin) and clofazimine were continued; additional treatment included various combinations of ethambutol, ciprofloxacin, amikacin, and rifabutin. After the detection of a resistant isolate and before receipt of additional antimycobacterials, the median peak MAC colony count in blood was 105 cfu/mL (range, 8-81,500 cfu/mL). After additional antimycobacterials, the median nadir MAC colony count was 5 cfu/mL (range, 0-110 cfu/mL). Five (63%) of eight patients had a > or = 1 log10 decrease, including two who achieved negative blood cultures; all of these responses occurred in patients originally assigned to clarithromycin plus clofazimine. Treatment of clarithromycin-resistant MAC bacteremia that emerges during clarithromycin-based treatment can decrease levels of bacteremia and transiently sterilize blood cultures.  (+info)

A prospective, randomized trial of tacrolimus/prednisone versus tacrolimus/prednisone/mycophenolate mofetil in renal transplant recipients. (8/16029)

BACKGROUND: Between September 20, 1995 and September 20, 1997, 208 adult patients undergoing renal transplantation were randomized to receive tacrolimus/prednisone (n=106) or tacrolimus/prednisone/mycophenolate mofetil (n=102), with the goal of reducing the incidence of rejection. METHODS: The mean recipient age was 50.7+/-13.7 years. Sixty-three (30.3%) patients were 60 years of age or older at the time of transplantation. The mean donor age was 34.5+/-21.7 years. The mean cold ischemia time was 30.5+/-9.2 hr. The mean follow-up is 15+/-7 months. RESULTS: The overall 1-year actuarial patient survival was 94%; the overall 1-year actuarial graft survival was 87%. When the patient and graft survival data were stratified to recipients under the age of 60 who did not have delayed graft function, the overall 1-year actuarial patient survival was 97%, and the corresponding 1-year actuarial graft survival was 93%. There were no differences between the two groups. The overall incidence of rejection was 36%; in the double-therapy group, it was 44%, whereas in the triple therapy group, it was 27% (P=0.014). The mean serum creatinine was 1.6+/-0.8 mg/dl. A total of 36% of the successfully transplanted patients were taken off prednisone; 32% of the patients were taken off antihypertensive medications. The incidence of delayed graft function was 21%, the incidence of cytomegalovirus was 12.5%, and the initial and final incidences of posttransplant insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus were 7.0% and 2.9%; again, there was no difference between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: This trial suggests that the combination of tacrolimus, steroids, and mycophenolate mofetil is associated with excellent patient and graft survival and a lower incidence of rejection than the combination of tacrolimus and steroids.  (+info)

  • The Kirby Institute at UNSW has welcomed the Therapeutic Goods Administration's approval of antiretroviral drug Truvada as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in Australia. (edu.au)
  • The Kirby Insitute at UNSW has launched a feasibility study to examine whether HIV negative people can take combination drug therapy to reduce their risk of acquiring the virus. (edu.au)
  • The program established a supply of subsidized ACTs, created a price system with a cost recovery plan, developed a plan to distribute the subsidized products to the ADDOs, trained dispensers, and strengthened the adverse drug reactions reporting system. (msh.org)
  • Importantly, the transition to ACTs has been accomplished in an environment where the safety and efficacy of the drugs and the quality of services are being monitored and regulated. (msh.org)
  • This study uses drug consumption to provide elements to help estimate quantities and financial requirements of ACTs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Most current antimalarial drugs are combinations of an artemisinin plus a 'partner' drug from another class, and are known as artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). (lstmed.ac.uk)
  • CYP2C19 is a liver enzyme that acts on at least 10% of drugs in current clinical use, most notably the antiplatelet treatment clopidogrel (Plavix) also drugs that treat pain associated with ulcers, such as omeprazole, antiseizure drugs such as mephenytoin, the antimalarial proguanil, and the anxiolytic diazepam. (wikipedia.org)
  • The challenge is to zero down drugs with molecular targets that restore the healthy state and result in lasting pain relief. (medindia.net)
  • The huge advantage of using such a fixed combination is that the active ingredients act on different but distinct molecular targets. (medindia.net)
  • Combination therapies are used against complex disorders that have multiple causes along with multiple targets and many small molecule drugs are capable of addressing multiple targets. (pitchengine.com)
  • Identification of novel combination-therapy drug targets, which work in synergy to mTOR inhibition using physiological human three-dimensional cancer models. (donau-uni.ac.at)
  • Investigative efforts to determine the role of events downstream of deoxy-HbS polymerization, such as endothelial cell activation, cellular adhesion, chronic inflammation, intravascular haemolysis and nitric oxide scavenging, have expanded drug targets which reverse the pathophysiology of SCD. (cdc.gov)
  • Our results indicate that all drugs increase phosphorylation of p53, leading to improved induction of p53 targets. (nature.com)
  • To maximize the impact of immunotherapy drug development, pretreatment stratification of targets associated with either the T cell-inflamed or noninflamed tumor microenvironment should be employed. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here, we review accumulating knowledge on its working mechanisms and evaluate PP as a novel anti-cancer drug that targets mitochondrial respiration. (frontiersin.org)
  • By simultaneously treating the cells with the cancer drug vemurafenib (Zelboraf), which specifically targets faulty BRAF proteins, the researchers were able to determine whether the drug was more effective when the action of other particular proteins was blocked. (ucsf.edu)
  • Their hunt began with a drug that targets PI3K, an enzyme that promotes the growth of many cancers, including T-ALL. (divinapharm.eu)
  • â When searching for cancer drugs, for example, RNAi may do a better job of approximating precision therapies, both of which only partially inhibit their biological targets,â McManus said. (divinapharm.eu)
  • Single (nafcillin for 6 weeks) and combined (nafcillin for 6 weeks plus gentamicin for 2 weeks) drug regimens were compared in two separate multicenter prospective randomized trials. (annals.org)
  • Many find the new drug regimens too demanding to take correctly, even though not doing so weakens the benefits of taking the drug. (thebody.com)
  • The researchers hope to soon test the drug combination in humans with pancreatic cancer. (healthcanal.com)
  • Now researchers have expanded its use to another deadly form of leukemia, drug-resistant T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia ( T-PLL ). (nfcr.org)
  • Researchers admit that the initial trial of the cladribine-alemtuzumab combination dealt with a very small number of patients and that larger studies will have to be done per standard medical protocol to confirm safety and efficacy. (nfcr.org)
  • ‌A new, pre-clinical study by researchers at Virginia Commonwealth University Massey Cancer Center suggests that a novel drug combination could lead to profound leukemia cell death by disrupting the function of two major pro-survival proteins. (vcu.edu)
  • In the study, published in the journal Cancer Research, researchers combined the drug ABT-737 with another agent BEZ235. (vcu.edu)
  • In the Phase III CombiRx trial, researchers led by Fred Lublin, MD , of The Mount Sinai Medical Center, sought to determine if Glatiramer Acetate (GA) and Interferon Beta-1a (IFN), the two most commonly-prescribed drugs for relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), were more effective in combination than as monotherapies. (mountsinai.org)
  • In 2013, after women in a clinical study led by UCLA researchers showed a dramatic improvement, the FDA granted palbociclib "breakthrough therapy" status, allowing it to be fast-tracked for approval. (ucla.edu)
  • Researchers and clinical staff are very hopeful about this type of combination therapy. (thebody.com)
  • Using their mouse disease model, the researchers showed that the combination of these two treatments enhanced killing of acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells-even if the disease was advanced. (thebioconnection.com)
  • Using this technique, the researchers eradicated a devastating blood cancer and certain solid tumour cells by jointly administering drugs that are only partially effective when used as single-agent therapies. (divinapharm.eu)
  • To find those drugs, the researchers turned to RNA interference (RNAi) â a technique that allows scientists to massively reduce the activity of specific genes. (divinapharm.eu)
  • This is especially true, he says, when researchers are seeking to mimic the effects of drugs, which often reduce the activity associated with a particular gene without completely eliminating it. (divinapharm.eu)
  • The team of researchers used this combination of antibiotics to destroy the enzymes present in the cell walls of the bacteria. (news-medical.net)
  • The combination led to reduced " P . Aeruginosa colony-forming units (CFUs)", the researchers added. (news-medical.net)
  • However, Lange was criticised for neglecting the needs of sex workers in the trials, and other researchers asserted that the concerns raised by activists are "entirely legitimate" since the known toxic effects of so-called 'pre-exposure' drugs will lead to liver failure and kidney disease, thereby killing people rather than protecting them. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, there is a little evidence about the efficacy and tolerability of combination single-pill antiplatelet therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents (DES). (kjim.org)
  • To minimize the non-specific toxicity of drug combination during cancer therapy, we prepared a new system synthesized from bacteria to deliver the anticancer drugs cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) and daunorubicin (DNR). (mdpi.com)
  • The drugs, which affect the structure and function of the cancer cell's DNA rather than the activity of its proteins, also slowed the growth of human lung cancer cells in mice. (healthcanal.com)
  • Mazur and Herner wondered whether tinkering with a cell's epigenetics could control the growth and proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells without causing many of the deleterious side effects seen by drugs that inhibit protein members of the Ras pathway, a cellular signaling cascade that controls cell growth, development and survival. (healthcanal.com)
  • Mazur tried eight drugs in combination with JQ1, each targeting either a known cancer-associated pathway or a step involved in epigenetics. (healthcanal.com)
  • Approved by the FDA in 1993, the drug cladribine offered hope for the then-fatal blood cancer called hairy cell leukemia, or HCL, and was soon expanded as a therapy for multiple sclerosis. (nfcr.org)
  • NUTLEY, N.J., January 07, 2008 /PRNewswire/ -- Data published in this week's New England Journal of Medicine show that oral Xeloda(R) (capecitabine) and oxaliplatin in combination with epirubicin is a comparable alternative to infused fluorouracil (5-FU) and cisplatin with epirubicin in patients with previously untreated, advanced esophagogastric cancer. (drugs.com)
  • For example, in cancer therapy, a physician often meets a patient having a genomic profile including more than five molecular aberrations. (deepdyve.com)
  • These anti-cancer mechanisms in turn pave the path for development of new drugs and strategies to tackle with the condition. (pitchengine.com)
  • The development of potential anti-cancer drugs mostly relies on tissue culture experiments performed on plastic culture dishes, also referred to as two-dimensional culture. (donau-uni.ac.at)
  • Adds Rosalie C. Sears, Ph.D. , a professor at Oregon Health & Science University , "It's clear we're not going to find a single magic bullet that cures cancer but will instead need several drugs that target multiple vulnerabilities. (sbpdiscovery.org)
  • Stephen Baylin, who is a professor of oncology and medicine from the Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins, and his team recently found that combinations of epigenetic therapy drugs potentiated anti-tumor responses in human cancer cell lines as well as in mouse models of cancer. (cusabio.com)
  • The full paper (Epigenetic Therapy Ties MYC Depletion to Reversing Immune Evasion and Treating Lung Cancer) can be read in the journal Cell. (cusabio.com)
  • The combination of DNMT inhibitor and HDAC inhibitor appeared to suppress cancer cell proliferation. (cusabio.com)
  • According to Professor Baylin, a large proportion of patients with lung cancer failed to respond to immune checkpoint therapy. (cusabio.com)
  • Estrogen-receptor-positive (ER+), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-) breast cancer subgroup represents the largest proportion of breast cancer cases and is traditionally treated with therapies, like tamoxifen or letrozole, that target the hormone receptor pathway. (ucla.edu)
  • The people were treated with a combination of palbociclib and letrozole, and had not received prior systemic therapy for their cancer. (ucla.edu)
  • 1. Female patients, age 16 years and older with epithelial ovarian, primary peritoneal or fallopian tube cancer who have relapsed within 12 months of previous platinum-based therapy. (isrctn.com)
  • Combined estrogen/progestogen therapy, but not estrogen alone, increases the risk of breast cancer when used for more than three to five years. (isharonline.org)
  • Anti-cancer drugs developed in Korea are receiving love calls from global pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies. (businesskorea.co.kr)
  • It is a drug that kills cancer cells by enhancing the self-healing ability of the patient. (businesskorea.co.kr)
  • The global pharmaceutical company BMS decided to use Pexa-Vec with its self-developed anti-cancer drug "Ipilimumab. (businesskorea.co.kr)
  • Preliminary study of the specific endothelin a receptor antagonist zibotentan in combination with docetaxel in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. (icr.ac.uk)
  • For patients with metastatic prostate cancer, the 5-year survival rate of 31% points to a need for novel therapies and improvement of existing modalities. (nature.com)
  • In vitro experiments reveal that AdRGD-PGp53 sensitizes prostate cancer cells to each of the drugs tested, conferring increased levels of cell death. (nature.com)
  • Debruyne F. Hormonal therapy of prostate cancer. (nature.com)
  • A new study by scientists at Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute have discovered a combination of two cancer-fighting drugs that successfully worked on pancreatic tumor in mice, shrinking them significantly, and paving the way for a speedy clinical trial designed to test their efficacy in humans. (news-medical.net)
  • ImmunoGen's lead product candidate, the clinical-phase mirvetuximab soravtansine (IMGN853), will be studied with Merck & Co.'s Keytruda ® (pembrolizumab) as a combination therapy for folate receptor alpha (FRα)-positive ovarian cancer. (genengnews.com)
  • ImmunoGen said it will add the combination to its ongoing Phase IB/II FORWARD II trial, in which the company is assessing mirvetuximab soravtansine for FRα-positive ovarian cancer in separate combinations with other anticancer agents. (genengnews.com)
  • Pyrvinium pamoate (PP) is an FDA-approved classical anthelmintic, but is now attracting particular attention as an anti-cancer drug after recent findings of its potent cytotoxicity against various cancer cell lines only during glucose starvation, as well as its anti-tumor activity against hypovascular pancreatic cancer cells transplanted in mice. (frontiersin.org)
  • therefore, a new drug strategy against cancer cells under such tumor microenvironment-mimicking conditions is anticipated. (frontiersin.org)
  • In preclinical testing, an experimental drug for pancreatic cancer blocks the formation of microtubules in the cell, hindering growth. (labmanager.com)
  • The drug, an experimental compound called PTC596 that had shown antitumor activity in mouse and human pancreatic cancer cells, seemed to have the right qualities: PTC596 has a durable half-life (most cancer drugs have a half-life of a few minutes to hours) and can evade a pump that many cancer cells use to expel drugs. (labmanager.com)
  • Based on those studies, Olive, Eberle-Singh, and their collaborators tested PTC596 in combination with gemcitabine (a first-line drug for pancreatic cancer) in genetically engineered mice with an aggressive form of pancreatic cancer that is generally resistant to chemotherapy. (labmanager.com)
  • Based on the drug's safety profile and our own findings, there's a good rationale for testing PTC596 in combination with standard therapy in patients with pancreatic cancer," says Olive. (labmanager.com)
  • They used mouse models with growing, drug-resistant cancer cells collected from human patients. (thebioconnection.com)
  • However, figuring out which drugs can synergise to kill cancer remains a challenge. (divinapharm.eu)
  • To demonstrate the power of their screening system, the scientists searched for targeted therapies that could join forces to kill an aggressive blood cancer called T cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL). (divinapharm.eu)
  • We wanted to find drugs that would kill T-ALL when combined with a PI3K inhibitor,â said Roose, a member of the UCSF Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center . (divinapharm.eu)
  • The study involved following thirty patients who were suffering from the asbestos related cancer, mesothelioma, and eveluating the success of combination drug therapy. (bloggernews.net)
  • And most of those who do respond eventually relapse because cancer cells evolve and become resistant to the drugs designed to stop them. (ohsu.edu)
  • Gleevec binds to the kinase domain of the mutant enzyme BCR-ABL1 Life expectancy in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia has soared to a level almost equal to that of the general population, according to a Swedish study quantifying the life-saving impact of Gleevec, the targeted therapy ushered from lab bench to clinical success by Brian Druker, M.D., director of the OHSU Knight Cancer Institute. (ohsu.edu)
  • ALTERNATIVE CANCER THERAPIES: When does an anecdote become a cure? (healthy.net)
  • Cerebral Therapeutics' infusion therapy may offer a more efficacious and reliable approach to treating neurological diseases for which oral and I.V. infused medicines are not able to achieve adequate control and/or are limited by systemic toxicities. (medindia.net)
  • However, selection of the most efficacious combinations for each patient can be a daunting task. (deepdyve.com)
  • Subsequently, hydroxycarbamide proved efficacious in adults with SCA and was Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved in 1998. (cdc.gov)
  • The use of anti-HIV drug combinations, when accompanied by anincrease in CD4 cell counts, may allow us to change standard treatmentfor CMV retinitis," Dr. Whitcup said. (nih.gov)
  • Some of these pathways [i.e., mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, or insulin like growth factor receptor (IGFR)] which are functionally related to the activity of the EGFR will be discussed in this review to provide a scientific rationale for the combination of drugs which target these pathways with anti-EGFR agents. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Our preclinical results suggest Ewing sarcoma is particularly sensitive to this combination therapy, a possible indication that the tumor's DNA repair defect provides us with a much needed advantage to knock out tumor cells," Shelat said. (healthcanal.com)
  • The main focus of such therapies is to target all the tumor components and impair their function. (pitchengine.com)
  • The scientists then treated mice with a second drug that blocked the stress response pathway and shrank the pancreatic tumor. (sbpdiscovery.org)
  • The second drug, the MEK inihibitor, blocks a key enzyme in this pathway, and prevents asparagine synthesis as well as asparagine-dependent protein synthesis in the tumor cells. (news-medical.net)
  • Multidrug therapy against leprosy : development and implementation over the past 25 years / [editor]: H. Sansarricq. (who.int)
  • A subsequent AI application for the selection of drug therapy used an expert system was also devised, but in this case, a knowledge base of only around 100 rules (extracted from medical professionals) was used for selection of the best antimicrobial therapy . (deepdyve.com)