Rifabutin: A broad-spectrum antibiotic that is being used as prophylaxis against disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection in HIV-positive patients.Antibiotics, Antitubercular: Substances obtained from various species of microorganisms that are, alone or in combination with other agents, of use in treating various forms of tuberculosis; most of these agents are merely bacteriostatic, induce resistance in the organisms, and may be toxic.Rifamycins: A group of ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS characterized by a chromophoric naphthohydroquinone group spanned by an aliphatic bridge not previously found in other known ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS. They have been isolated from fermentation broths of Streptomyces mediterranei.Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare Infection: A nontuberculous infection when occurring in humans. It is characterized by pulmonary disease, lymphadenitis in children, and systemic disease in AIDS patients. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection of birds and swine results in tuberculosis.Rifampin: A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)Mycobacterium avium Complex: A complex that includes several strains of M. avium. M. intracellulare is not easily distinguished from M. avium and therefore is included in the complex. These organisms are most frequently found in pulmonary secretions from persons with a tuberculous-like mycobacteriosis. Strains of this complex have also been associated with childhood lymphadenitis and AIDS; M. avium alone causes tuberculosis in a variety of birds and other animals, including pigs.Ethambutol: An antitubercular agent that inhibits the transfer of mycolic acids into the cell wall of the tubercle bacillus. It may also inhibit the synthesis of spermidine in mycobacteria. The action is usually bactericidal, and the drug can penetrate human cell membranes to exert its lethal effect. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p863)Clarithromycin: A semisynthetic macrolide antibiotic derived from ERYTHROMYCIN that is active against a variety of microorganisms. It can inhibit PROTEIN SYNTHESIS in BACTERIA by reversibly binding to the 50S ribosomal subunits. This inhibits the translocation of aminoacyl transfer-RNA and prevents peptide chain elongation.Clofazimine: A fat-soluble riminophenazine dye used for the treatment of leprosy. It has been used investigationally in combination with other antimycobacterial drugs to treat Mycobacterium avium infections in AIDS patients. Clofazimine also has a marked anti-inflammatory effect and is given to control the leprosy reaction, erythema nodosum leprosum. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p1619)Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Mycobacterium avium: A bacterium causing tuberculosis in domestic fowl and other birds. In pigs, it may cause localized and sometimes disseminated disease. The organism occurs occasionally in sheep and cattle. It should be distinguished from the M. avium complex, which infects primarily humans.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Ritonavir: An HIV protease inhibitor that works by interfering with the reproductive cycle of HIV. It also inhibits CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.Sulfisoxazole: A short-acting sulfonamide antibacterial with activity against a wide range of gram- negative and gram-positive organisms.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Lopinavir: An HIV protease inhibitor used in a fixed-dose combination with RITONAVIR. It is also an inhibitor of CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.Azithromycin: A semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic structurally related to ERYTHROMYCIN. It has been used in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infections, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis.Mycobacterium haemophilum: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that causes granulomatous or ulcerating skin lesions in immunosuppressed persons. This organism owes its name to its requirement for growth of high levels of iron, conveniently supplied as blood, heme, or ferric ammonium citrate.Investigational New Drug Application: An application that must be submitted to a regulatory agency (the FDA in the United States) before a drug can be studied in humans. This application includes results of previous experiments; how, where, and by whom the new studies will be conducted; the chemical structure of the compound; how it is thought to work in the body; any toxic effects found in animal studies; and how the compound is manufactured. (From the "New Medicines in Development" Series produced by the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association and published irregularly.)Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Nitriles: Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.Atovaquone: A hydroxynaphthoquinone that has antimicrobial activity and is being used in antimalarial protocols.Naphthoquinones: Naphthalene rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.Proguanil: A biguanide compound which metabolizes in the body to form cycloguanil, an anti-malaria agent.Product Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a product or its container or wrapper. It includes purpose, effect, description, directions, hazards, warnings, and other relevant information.Sulfadiazine: One of the short-acting SULFONAMIDES used in combination with PYRIMETHAMINE to treat toxoplasmosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and in newborns with congenital infections.Cytochromes b: Cytochromes of the b group that have alpha-band absorption of 563-564 nm. They occur as subunits in MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III.Nelfinavir: A potent HIV protease inhibitor. It is used in combination with other antiviral drugs in the treatment of HIV in both adults and children.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Aminosalicylic Acids: A group of 2-hydroxybenzoic acids that can be substituted by amino groups at any of the 3-, 4-, 5-, or 6-positions.Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Antimalarials: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)Medicine, Korean Traditional: Medical practice or discipline that is based on the knowledge, cultures, and beliefs of the people of KOREA.Pyrimidines: A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.Organic Cation Transporter 1: An organic cation transporter found in kidney. It is localized to the basal lateral membrane and is likely to be involved in the renal secretion of organic cations.Thymic Factor, Circulating: A thymus-dependent nonapeptide found in normal blood. Stimulates the formation of E rosettes and is believed to be involved in T-cell differentiation.Benzoxazines: OXAZINES with a fused BENZENE ring.
  • Rationale: Little is known regarding the application of therapeutic drug monitoring for treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease. (elsevier.com)
  • Objectives: To evaluate drug interactions of multidrug regimens and clinical usefulness of therapeutic drug monitoring in the management of MAC lung disease. (elsevier.com)
  • Therefore, therapeutic drug monitoring may not be beneficial in managing the therapy of patients with MAC lung disease. (elsevier.com)
  • The peak plasma drug concentrations and the peak plasma drug concentration/minimal inhibitory concentration ratios of CLR, RIF, and EMB did not differ between patients with unfavorable treatment outcomes and those with favorable outcomes. (elsevier.com)
  • SPORANOX® (itraconazole injection) , a potent cytochrome P450 3A4 isoenzyme system (CYP3A4) inhibitor, may increase plasma concentrations of drugs metabolized by this pathway. (globalrph.com)
  • Antibiotics such as rifabutin will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. (medlineplus.gov)
  • To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Talicia and other antibacterial drugs, Talicia should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria. (theindependentbd.com)
  • If you are taking this medication to treat Hansen's disease or to prevent infections due to HIV , the drug is usually taken for years or for life.Dosage is based on your medical condition and response to treatment. (medicinenet.com)
  • Thus, this trial will enroll patients with HIV and tuberculosis co-infections who are receiving a rifabutin-based re. (bioportfolio.com)
  • As with other bacterial infections, drug resistant forms of TB will develop over time as bacteria adapt to overcome the actions of commonly used antibiotics. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The safety and efficacy of these drugs in treating clinical infections due to such bacteria may or may not have been established in adequate and well-controlled clinical trials and the clinical significance of such susceptibility information in those instances is unknown. (fda.gov)
  • Among rapidly growing NTM, Mycobacterium abscessus is the most pathogenic and drug resistant opportunistic germ, responsible for disease manifestations ranging from "curable" skin infections to only "manageable" pulmonary disease. (frontiersin.org)
  • Recommendations for managing a particular drug interaction may differ depending on whether a new ARV drug is being initiated in a patient on a stable concomitant medication or if a new concomitant medication is being initiated in a patient on a stable ARV regimen. (nih.gov)
  • Talicia is the first and only FDA approved rifabutin-based H. pylori therapy. (drugs.com)
  • https://www.drugs.com/newdrugs/fda-approves-talicia-omeprazole-magnesium-amoxici. (medworm.com)
  • Further, in an analysis of data from this study, it was observed that subjects with measurable blood levels of drug at Day 13 had response rates of 90.3% in the Talicia arm vs. 64.7% in the active comparator arm3. (theindependentbd.com)
  • Ritonavir contains alcohol, which can produce reactions when coadministered with disulfiram (antabuse) or other drugs that produce disulfiram-like reactions (e.g., metronidazole). (natap.org)
  • Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared with rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. (rxlist.com)
  • In patients who have received inadvertent overdosage of Seegraf, no adverse drug reactions have been reported compared from those reported in patients receiving therapeutic doses. (mims.com)
  • 2. To evaluate the correlation between pharmacokinetic parameters of isoniazid and rifabutin and the occurrence of toxicity attributed to antituberculous therapy. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Drugs that inhibit the CYP450 enzyme system generally lead to decreased rates of metabolism of other drugs metabolized by the same enzyme, resulting in higher drug levels and increased potential for toxicity. (hivguidelines.org)
  • The etiology of iridocyclitis in HIV-positive patients includes sequelae of retinitis, retinochoroiditis, and drug toxicity. (medscape.com)
  • Rifabutin interferes with HSP-90 molecular chaperone, enhances ubiquitination and protein degradation, and inactivates bacterial RNA polymerase. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • FDA recognition of STIC standard(s) for a drug and bacterial family or genus/species does include recognition of surrogate testing methods included in recognized standards for that drug and bacterial family or genus/species. (fda.gov)
  • In comparison, for a patient who is undergoing treatment with saquinavir SGC (a relatively weak CYP450 inhibitor [ 1 ]) and two NRTIs, the usual dosage (300 mg daily or two or three times per week) of rifabutin should not be decreased ( 9 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Tacrolimus is an immunosuppressant drug used to prevent the body from rejecting a transplanted organ. (transplantliving.org)
  • The distribution of tacrolimus between whole blood and plasma depends on several factors eg, hematocrit, temperature at the time of plasma separation, drug concentration and plasma protein concentration. (mims.com)
  • If you are allergic to any drugs like this one, any other drugs, foods, or other substances. (mskcc.org)
  • A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. (kaiserpermanente.org)
  • Contact your doctor if you notice white patches in your mouth, a change in vaginal discharge , or other new symptoms.A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. (medicinenet.com)
  • Therefore, seek immediate medical attention if you develop any rash.A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. (medicinenet.com)
  • As with erythromycin and other macrolides, serious allergic reactions including angioneurotic oedema and anaphylaxis (rarely fatal), Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis (AGEP) and Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) have been reported. (medicines.org.uk)
  • You should not take this medicine if you are allergic to sulfa drugs, or if you are unable to urinate. (cigna.com)
  • It is strongly recommended to consult your doctor or pharmacist before you start taking Generic Sovaldi and especially emphasize if you are allergic to this drug or if you take other medicines to treat Hepatitis C. (arfamed.com)
  • Montelukast belongs to a group of drugs called leukotriene inhibitors which work by blocking leukotrienes, natural substances responsible for swelling in the airways, and tightening of muscles of airways, as well as nasal symptoms caused by allergies. (medicineshoppe.com)