Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant: Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.Drug Resistance, Multiple: Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Isoniazid: Antibacterial agent used primarily as a tuberculostatic. It remains the treatment of choice for tuberculosis.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Rifampin: A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis: Tuberculosis resistant to ISONIAZID and RIFAMPIN and at least three of the six main classes of second-line drugs (AMINOGLYCOSIDES; polypeptide agents; FLUOROQUINOLONES; THIOAMIDES; CYCLOSERINE; and PARA-AMINOSALICYLIC ACID) as defined by the CDC.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Streptomycin: An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Drug Resistance, Fungal: The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Antibiotics, Antitubercular: Substances obtained from various species of microorganisms that are, alone or in combination with other agents, of use in treating various forms of tuberculosis; most of these agents are merely bacteriostatic, induce resistance in the organisms, and may be toxic.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.P-Glycoprotein: A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).Tuberculosis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.Sputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Antimalarials: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)Pyrazinamide: A pyrazine that is used therapeutically as an antitubercular agent.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Tuberculosis, Miliary: An acute form of TUBERCULOSIS in which minute tubercles are formed in a number of organs of the body due to dissemination of the bacilli through the blood stream.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Tetracycline: A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Tetracycline Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TETRACYCLINE which inhibits aminoacyl-tRNA binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit during protein synthesis.R Factors: A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Tuberculosis, Lymph Node: Infection of the lymph nodes by tuberculosis. Tuberculous infection of the cervical lymph nodes is scrofula.Latent Tuberculosis: The dormant form of TUBERCULOSIS where the person shows no obvious symptoms and no sign of the causative agent (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) in the SPUTUM despite being positive for tuberculosis infection skin test.Ethambutol: An antitubercular agent that inhibits the transfer of mycolic acids into the cell wall of the tubercle bacillus. It may also inhibit the synthesis of spermidine in mycobacteria. The action is usually bactericidal, and the drug can penetrate human cell membranes to exert its lethal effect. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p863)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Erythromycin: A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.Tuberculosis, Osteoarticular: Tuberculosis of the bones or joints.Fluoroquinolones: A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.Tuberculosis, Gastrointestinal: TUBERCULOSIS that involves any region of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, mostly in the distal ILEUM and the CECUM. In most cases, MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS is the pathogen. Clinical features include ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and palpable mass in the ileocecal area.Tuberculosis, Spinal: Osteitis or caries of the vertebrae, usually occurring as a complication of tuberculosis of the lungs.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.IndiaAntigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.HIV Protease: Enzyme of the human immunodeficiency virus that is required for post-translational cleavage of gag and gag-pol precursor polyproteins into functional products needed for viral assembly. HIV protease is an aspartic protease encoded by the amino terminus of the pol gene.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutation.Chloroquine: The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.Tuberculosis, Bovine: An infection of cattle caused by MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. It is transmissible to man and other animals.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Genes, MDR: Genes for MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that confer resistance to toxic compounds. Several superfamilies of these multidrug export proteins are known and found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Mycobacterium: A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Mycobacterium bovis: The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.Tuberculosis, Cutaneous: Tuberculosis of the skin. It includes scrofuloderma and tuberculid, but not LUPUS VULGARIS.Ethionamide: A second-line antitubercular agent that inhibits mycolic acid synthesis.Parasitic Sensitivity Tests: Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.Tuberculin Test: One of several skin tests to determine past or present tuberculosis infection. A purified protein derivative of the tubercle bacilli, called tuberculin, is introduced into the skin by scratch, puncture, or interdermal injection.beta-Lactam Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)DNA Gyrase: A bacterial DNA topoisomerase II that catalyzes ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. Gyrase binds to DNA as a heterotetramer consisting of two A and two B subunits. In the presence of ATP, gyrase is able to convert the relaxed circular DNA duplex into a superhelix. In the absence of ATP, supercoiled DNA is relaxed by DNA gyrase.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Chloramphenicol Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of CHLORAMPHENICOL, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis in the 50S ribosomal subunit where amino acids are added to nascent bacterial polypeptides.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Macrolides: A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.Ciprofloxacin: A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Ampicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of a microbe to the action of ampicillin, a penicillin derivative that interferes with cell wall synthesis.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Tuberculosis, Meningeal: A form of bacterial meningitis caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS or rarely MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The organism seeds the meninges and forms microtuberculomas which subsequently rupture. The clinical course tends to be subacute, with progressions occurring over a period of several days or longer. Headache and meningeal irritation may be followed by SEIZURES, cranial neuropathies, focal neurologic deficits, somnolence, and eventually COMA. The illness may occur in immunocompetent individuals or as an OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTION in the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunodeficiency syndromes. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-9)HIV Reverse Transcriptase: A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Mice, Inbred C57BLCell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Georgia (Republic)Mycobacterium smegmatis: A rapid-growing, nonphotochromogenic species of MYCOBACTERIUM originally isolated from human smegma and found also in soil and water. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Ampicillin: Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Tuberculosis, Pleural: Tuberculosis of the serous membrane lining the thoracic cavity and surrounding the lungs.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Tuberculosis, Urogenital: A general term for MYCOBACTERIUM infections of any part of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Burkholderia gladioli: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that acts as both a human and plant pathogen.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Mutation, Missense: A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)Methicillin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins: A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Metronidazole: A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).Aminoglycosides: Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.Mice, Inbred BALB CDrug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Tetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction 7,8-dihyrofolate and NADPH to yield 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate and NADPH+, producing reduced folate for amino acid metabolism, purine ring synthesis, and the formation of deoxythymidine monophosphate. Methotrexate and other folic acid antagonists used as chemotherapeutic drugs act by inhibiting this enzyme. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC One of the FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS that is used as an antimalarial or with a sulfonamide to treat toxoplasmosis.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Fungal: The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutations.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.HIV Protease Inhibitors: Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.Directly Observed Therapy: A treatment method in which patients are under direct observation when they take their medication or receive their treatment. This method is designed to reduce the risk of treatment interruption and to ensure patient compliance.Kanamycin: Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests: A method where a culturing surface inoculated with microbe is exposed to small disks containing known amounts of a chemical agent resulting in a zone of inhibition (usually in millimeters) of growth of the microbe corresponding to the susceptibility of the strain to the agent.Pinellia: A plant genus of the family ARACEAE that contains pinellian (an acidic polysaccharide). The plant is an ingredient of some traditional Asian medicinal mixtures including sho-saiko-to, saiko-keishi-to, and banxia houpu decoction.AzerbaijanElectrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Tuberculosis, Ocular: Tuberculous infection of the eye, primarily the iris, ciliary body, and choroid.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Penicillin-Binding Proteins: Bacterial proteins that share the property of binding irreversibly to PENICILLINS and other ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS derived from LACTAMS. The penicillin-binding proteins are primarily enzymes involved in CELL WALL biosynthesis including MURAMOYLPENTAPEPTIDE CARBOXYPEPTIDASE; PEPTIDE SYNTHASES; TRANSPEPTIDASES; and HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES.Tuberculosis, Splenic: Infection of the spleen with species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Ofloxacin: A synthetic fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent that inhibits the supercoiling activity of bacterial DNA GYRASE, halting DNA REPLICATION.Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Azoles: Five membered rings containing a NITROGEN atom.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Tuberculosis, Hepatic: Infection of the LIVER with species of MYCOBACTERIUM, most often MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS. It is characterized by localized small tuberculous miliary lesions or tumor-like mass (TUBERCULOMA), and abnormalities in liver function tests.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Resistance Training: A type of strength-building exercise program that requires the body muscle to exert a force against some form of resistance, such as weight, stretch bands, water, or immovable objects. Resistance exercise is a combination of static and dynamic contractions involving shortening and lengthening of skeletal muscles.Insecticide Resistance: The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Quinolones: A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.Vancomycin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of VANCOMYCIN, an inhibitor of cell wall synthesis.Tuberculosis, Female Genital: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Cephalosporin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of an organism to the action of the cephalosporins.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Molecular Typing: Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Sulfadoxine: A long acting sulfonamide that is used, usually in combination with other drugs, for respiratory, urinary tract, and malarial infections.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
The term is used in the context of resistance that pathogens or cancers have "acquired", that is, resistance has evolved. ... A similar asexual method is used by fungi and is called "parasexuality". Examples of drug-resistant strains are to be found in ... The chances of drug resistance can sometimes be minimized by using multiple drugs simultaneously. This works because individual ... and tuberculosis account for more than 85% of the mortality from infection worldwide. Resistance to first-line drugs in most of ...
... like drug resistant tuberculosis. Nosocomial (hospital-acquired) infections, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus ... the multiple genes that code for antibiotic resistance to different drugs were then acquired by MRSA, making it nearly ... which can become an emerging threat for many pathogens. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) evolved from ... Emerging infections account for at least 12% of all human pathogens. EIDs are caused by newly identified species or strains (e. ...
... drug resistance has evolved in the parasites against the traditional antimonials. According to rough estimates, about 40% of ... of multiple Leishmania donovani clinical isolates provides insights into population structure and mechanisms of drug resistance ... patients in India are already resistant to this therapy. Another antimicrobial drug amphotericin B is also commonly used. ... They are capable of evading the microbicidal actions of macrophages, which can kill ordinary pathogens using reactive nitrogen ...
Pan A, Lorenzotti S, Zoncada A (January 2008). "Registered and investigational drugs for the treatment of methicillin-resistant ... the fungal strains are selected for producing only alkaloids that increase resistance to herbivores such as insects, while ... opportunistic human pathogen, Magnaporthe grisea, a plant pathogen, and Pichia pastoris, a yeast widely used for eukaryotic ... Fungi have evolved a high degree of metabolic versatility that allows them to use a diverse range of organic substrates for ...
Opportunistic pathogens Opportunistic pathogens can cause an infectious disease in a host with depressed resistance ( ... Coevolution between parasite and host can lead to hosts becoming resistant to the parasites or the parasites may evolve greater ... Sometimes, multiple antibiotics are used in case there is resistance to one antibiotic. Antibiotics only work for bacteria and ... "Smallpox: The Triumph over the Most Terrible of the Ministers of Death" Multidrug-Resistant "Tuberculosis". Centers for Disease ...
... endogenous cofactor capable of facilitating the formation of high-titer recombinant prions derived from multiple prion strains ... Models predict that the most effective way to achieve this, using a drug with the lowest possible dose, is to find a drug that ... Protease-resistant PrPSc-like protein (PrPres) is an isoform of PrPc from which is structurally altered and converted into a ... Brown P, Rau EH, Johnson BK, Bacote AE, Gibbs CJ, Gajdusek DC (Mar 2000). "New studies on the heat resistance of hamster- ...
Walsh FM, Amyes SG (2004). "Microbiology and drug resistance mechanisms of fully resistant pathogens". Current Opinion in ... Robert Koch, a pioneer in medical microbiology, worked on cholera, anthrax and tuberculosis. In his research into tuberculosis ... Multiple chromosomes have been found in the genus Vibrio. For instance, Vibrio cholerae, the cause of cholera, and V. ... Solid growth media, such as agar plates, are used to isolate pure cultures of a bacterial strain. However, liquid growth media ...
Resistant strains of M. tuberculosis have developed resistance to more than one TB drug, due to mutations in their genes. ... Much evidence suggests the different strains of the obligate human pathogen M. tuberculosis have co-evolved, migrated, and ... "Deficiency of double-strand DNA break repair does not impair Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence in multiple animal models of ... tuberculosis strains was made to study antibiotic resistance mechanisms. Results reveal new relationships and drug resistance ...
... diverse strategies for controlling drug-resistant pathogens". Chemical Biology & Drug Design. 85 (1): 56-78. doi:10.1111/cbdd. ... Antibacterial resistance may impose a biological cost, thereby reducing fitness of resistant strains, which can limit the ... Plasmids that carry several different resistance genes can confer resistance to multiple antibacterials.[72] Cross-resistance ... For example, emergent bacterial strains causing tuberculosis that are resistant to previously effective antibacterial ...
Resistance to ofloxacin and other fluoroquinolones may evolve rapidly, even during a course of treatment. Numerous pathogens, ... Other uses, along with other medications, include multidrug resistant tuberculosis. An eye drop may be used for a superficial ... "Complete Ofloxacin information from". Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Drlica K, Zhao X (1 ... "After multiple-dose administration of 200 mg and 300 mg doses, peak serum levels of 2.2 μg/mL and 3.6 μg/mL, respectively, are ...
The filamentation contributes to a pathogen's resistance to this antimicrobial agent. The induction of bacterial filamentation ... "grazing resistant" Filamentous preys are resistant to protist predation in a number of marine environments. In fact, there is ... Although bacteria have evolved complex molecular strategies to maintain their shape, many are able to alter their shape as a ... Morphological plasticity of some bacterial strains is able to show at different growth conditions. For instance, at enhanced ...
Bacterial pathogens such as pneumococcus and tuberculosis evolve slower still and have even larger genomes. In fact, there ... "The epidemiological fitness cost of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... To connect the epidemiological model to viral genealogies requires that multiple viral strains, with different nucleotide or ... Chao, D. L.; Bloom, J. D.; Kochin, B. F.; Antia, R.; Longini, I. M. (2011). "The global spread of drug-resistant influenza". ...
Opportunistic pathogens. Opportunistic pathogens can cause an infectious disease in a host with depressed resistance ( ... Multidrug-Resistant "Tuberculosis". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived March 9, 2010, at the Wayback Machine ... Sometimes, multiple antibiotics are used in case there is resistance to one antibiotic. Antibiotics only work for bacteria and ... Coevolution between parasite and host can lead to hosts becoming resistant to the parasites or the parasites may evolve greater ...
Some CRISPR loci evolve more rapidly than others, which allowed the strains' phylogenetic relationships to be determined. A ... disabling individual genes in groups of cells attempted to identify those involved in resistance to a melanoma drug. Each such ... These researchers recognized the diversity of the DR-intervening sequences among different strains of M. tuberculosis and used ... "High-resolution transcriptome maps reveal strain-specific regulatory features of multiple Campylobacter jejuni isolates". PLoS ...
... treat drug-resistant strains of the disease, and slow the evolution of drug resistance in the virus."[44][45] ... Help Stop TB was launched in March 2016 to help combat tuberculosis, a disease caused by a bacterium that is evolving ... The size of the tubes allows water molecules to pass through, but blocks larger pathogens and contaminants, purifying the water ... Since multiple computers process the same workunit to ensure accuracy, the World Community Grid servers can look at the points ...
One method is to identify the genetic basis of drought resistance in naturally drought resistant plants, i.e. the Bambara ... The domesticated strain as was more uniform in its orientation, but the wild strains were larger and propagated faster. The ... Several species of fungi have been domesticated for use directly as food, or in fermentation to produce foods and drugs. The ... For example, cattle have given humanity various viral poxes, measles, and tuberculosis; pigs and ducks have given influenza; ...
Multidrug-Resistant "Tuberculosis". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived March 9, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. ... Resistance to infection (immunity) may be acquired following a disease, by asymptomatic carriage of the pathogen, by harboring ... Sometimes, multiple antibiotics are used in case there is resistance to one antibiotic. Antibiotics only work for bacteria and ... Coevolution between parasite and host can lead to hosts becoming resistant to the parasites or the parasites may evolve greater ...
However, the Tharu people had lived in this zone long enough to evolve resistance via multiple genes. Medical studies among the ... Table 1. Innate Resistance to Plasmodia Year of discovery Pathogen Mechanism of resistance Authors ... Genotyping indicated that multiple P. vivax strains were invading the red cells of Duffy-negative people. The authors suggest ... and more resistant to hypotonic solutions. It is at least conceivable that they are also more resistant to attacks by the ...
... the antibodies might not disable the pathogen completely, or there might be multiple strains of the pathogen, not all of which ... 19 July 2017 Vaccines promoted as key to stamping out drug-resistant microbes "Immunization can stop resistant infections ... The live Mycobacterium tuberculosis vaccine developed by Calmette and Guérin is not made of a contagious strain but contains a ... Pregnant women are often screened for continued resistance to rubella. The human papillomavirus vaccine is recommended in the U ...
"Studies on a radio-resistant micrococcus. I. Isolation, morphology, cultural characteristics, and resistance to gamma radiation ... Individuals near the corpses were exposed to the pathogen and were likely to spread that pathogen to others. In modern times, ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Scamardella, J. M. (1999). "Not plants or animals: a brief history of the origin ... They evolved from symbiotic bacteria and retain a remnant genome. Like bacteria, plant cells have cell walls, and contain ...
"Extracellular DNA chelates cations and induces antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms". PLoS Pathogens. 4 (11 ... A polymer comprising multiple linked nucleotides (as in DNA) is called a polynucleotide. The backbone of the DNA strand is made ... Mol Gen Gen 211 (3) 407-414 Dunn DB, Smith JD (1955) Occurrence of a new base in the deoxyribonucleic acid of a strain of ... In contrast, other proteins have evolved to bind to particular DNA sequences. The most intensively studied of these are the ...
M. tuberculosis strains resistant to four or more of the front-line treatments (i.e., extremely drug-resistant [XDR] strains) ... available evidence suggests that pathogens with multiple mutations and combinations of r genes evolve and survive successfully ... Emergence of new forms of totally drug-resistant tuberculosis bacilli: super extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis or totally ... Tuberculosis is the archetypical human pathogen; it evolved with the human race and currently infects as much as one-third of ...
... outpacing drug discovery efforts and undermining the efficacy of existing antibiotics. The development of comprehensive ... Evolving strains of multi-drug resistant pathogens are a growing global concern, ... Evolving strains of multi-drug resistant pathogens are a growing global concern, outpacing drug discovery efforts and ... ability to rapidly detect multiple-drug resistant pathogens and mutations can help address emerging antibiotic resistance by ...
Some strains of pathogenic bacteria are now resistant to essentially all available antimicrobial drugs, and some remain ... but even if we use these drugs with exquisite precision, resistance will continue to evolve and spread. Ensuring adherence to ... vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, and gram-negative bacilli. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, perennially transmitted ... Articles address antimicrobial resistance in pathogens from the community, healthcare settings, and agriculture, among children ...
... pathogen resistance, and host-pathogen interactions in the context of malaria, tuberculosis, and cholera. Plasmodium vivax ... multidrug resistant Acinetobacter sp., and vancomycin-resistant Enterobacteriace. Presenters described the use of multiple- ... A third presenter described the use of CRISPR-based functional genomics for identifying new drug targets for tuberculosis and ... In the Greater Mekong Subregion, artemisinin-resistant malaria is widespread and associated with evolving polymorphisms in the ...
2012 Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing strains favor transmission but not drug resistance in China. Clin. Infect. Dis. 55, ... recent large-scale whole genome sequencing projects have made it clear that the pathogen has continued to evolve. As human ... 2011 Natural infection of guinea pigs exposed to patients with highly drug-resistant tuberculosis. Tuberculosis 91, 329-338. ( ... links to enhanced transmissibility have been inferred from cluster size in human populations exposed to multiple strain clades ...
... or pathogens evolving to become resistant to antibiotics, as of 2013. It cites the growth of drug-resistant strains of ... Providers battle dangerous, costly drug resistance. Williamson, Julie E. // Healthcare Purchasing News;Jun2001, Vol. 25 Issue 6 ... regarding the increase in resistant bacteria to multiple antibiotics. ... tuberculosis (TB) as well as a warning from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) about the antibiotic- ...
Now some super bugs-multiple drug-resistant bacteria-are emerging as an even greater threat. Multiple drug-resistant TB is no ... how a protein called LexA in the bacterium Escherichia coli promotes mutations and helps the pathogen evolve resistance to ... which is a drug of last resort, and some strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae are even resistant to vancomycin. Certain strains ... Antibiotic wonder drugs toppled tuberculosis (TB) and typhoid fever, controlled cholera and gonorrhea, reduced staphylococcal ...
Now some super bugs -- multiple drug-resistant bacteria -- are emerging as an even greater threat. Multiple drug-resistant TB ... how a protein called LexA in the bacterium Escherichia coli promotes mutations and helps the pathogen evolve resistance to ... which is a drug of last resort, and some strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae are even resistant to vancomycin. Certain strains ... Antibiotic "wonder drugs" toppled tuberculosis (TB) and typhoid fever, controlled cholera and gonorrhea, reduced staphylococcal ...
If you inhibit this pathway the bacteria cannot evolve says Scripp...Since the evolution of resistance is under the control of ... Resistance,Demonstrated,By,Scripps,Scientists,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current ... Now some super bugs -- multiple drug-resistant bacteria -- are emerging as an even greater threat. Multiple drug-resistant TB ... which is a drug of last resort, and some strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae are even resistant to vancomycin. Certain strains ...
... use bioinformatic tools to identify potential tuberculosis drug targets. ... Rapidly evolving pathogens that evade not only the immune system but also develop resistance to man-made drugs require constant ... Rise of multi-drug resistant strains of M. tuberculosis compounds the problem of preventing TB outbreaks. Continued efforts in ... Guruprasad explains ​"This approach has commercial pharmaceutical implications since many drugs are known to hit multiple ...
Tuberculosis Drug Resistance Mutation Database. PLoS Med. 2009;6: e1000002.. 31. Ford CB, Shah RR, Maeda MK, Gagneux S, Murray ... Whole Genome Sequencing Reveals Complex Evolution Patterns of Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Strains in ... Multiple deletions in the polyketide synthase gene repertoire of Mycobacterium tuberculosis reveal functional overlap of cell ... These findings have important implications for drug and vaccine development, and provide insight into TB host pathogen ...
One target for drug development might be a protein factor, DNA translocase Mfd, that enables bacteria to evolve rapidly by ... drugs to block Mfd and similar factors could be a revolutionary strategy to address the worldwide crisis of treatment-resistant ... This action speeds antibiotic resistance, including multi-drug resistance. Working on ... Lowering mutation rates in harmful bacteria might be an as yet untried way to hinder the emergence of antimicrobial pathogens. ...
The term is used in the context of resistance that pathogens or cancers have "acquired", that is, resistance has evolved. ... A similar asexual method is used by fungi and is called "parasexuality". Examples of drug-resistant strains are to be found in ... The chances of drug resistance can sometimes be minimized by using multiple drugs simultaneously. This works because individual ... and tuberculosis account for more than 85% of the mortality from infection worldwide. Resistance to first-line drugs in most of ...
With a deep look at antibiotic resistance, Broad scientists seek new ways to diagnose, treat, and even prevent resistant ... multi-drug resistance. This and other efforts to learn how bacteria evolve resistance will help preserve the utility of current ... to discern whether it is drug-sensitive or drug-resistant, and to distinguish between pathogens and healthy, beneficial ... For a closer look at how tuberculosis becomes impervious to multiple drugs, a group led by Broad scientist Ashlee Earl teamed ...
... to the development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in the 1980s and the current epidemic of drug-resistant tuberculosis ( ... Prolonged pathogen survival and horizontal gene transfer (HGT) pose a significance risk not only for exacerbations of multiple ... Sodium azide-resistant E. coli J53 (J53 Azr [F− met pro]), used as the recipient strain in conjugation experiments, was kindly ... E. coli serotype O157: H7 has evolved as a significant pathogen by the acquisition of genes from 53 different species, ...
... like drug resistant tuberculosis. Nosocomial (hospital-acquired) infections, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus ... the multiple genes that code for antibiotic resistance to different drugs were then acquired by MRSA, making it nearly ... which can become an emerging threat for many pathogens. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) evolved from ... Emerging infections account for at least 12% of all human pathogens. EIDs are caused by newly identified species or strains (e. ...
Inappropriate use of anti-TB drugs is contributing to the development of drug resistance strains, a problem which needs to be ... David Engelthaler (DE): We had been developing a number of advanced technologies to understand how pathogens evolve in their ... there are multiple independent populations of TB growing in the lung and some of these will become resistant before others, ... Caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis, TB is one of the top 10 causes of death worldwide, accounting for 1.6 ...
... latent resistance determinants may play an important role in the emergence of drug-resistant pathogens. ... 1993) Genetic and functional analysis of the multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) locus in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol 175: ... The clinical breakpoint for resistance to this β-lactam is 8 μg·mL−1 (41); that is, our nonpathogenic host strain attained ... selection pressure for cost-free resistance mutations has been observed in clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (36 ...
The emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria is no more a local problem and calls for global action. It h.. ... The effectiveness of current drugs is restricted by emergence of multi-drug resistant bacterial strains and they have become ... Detection of antibiotic resistance for ESBL and NDM-1 producers. Detection of resistance for these rapidly evolving ... Viral Diseases Escherichia coli Fifth Disease Gallbladder tuberculosis H1N1 HIV HIV Virology Hepatitis Virology Host-Pathogen ...
... strains of multidrug resistant bacteria, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Escherichia coli, ... Resistance stems from misguided efforts to try to sterilise our environment. Bacterial resistance to multiple antibiotics ... Center for Adaptation Genetics and Drug Resistance, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, USA. ... As such, you have helped create some of todays most resistant and feared pathogens. ...
... which is a drug of last resort, and some strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae are even resistant to vancomycin. Certain strains ... LexA promotes mutations and helps the pathogen evolve resistance to antibiotics. Interfering with this protein renders the ... Multiple drug-resistant TB is no longer susceptible to broad categories of antibiotics, such as rifampicin, isoniazid, and ... Some People Genetically Predisposed To Tuberculosis July 16, 2000 * Hawk Raised by Bald Eagles August 1, 2017 ...
M Tuberculosis is notorious for acquiring resistance to multiple drugs) (6) or S aureus. Suggesting that resistance will ... Does it work against pathogens?. They then asked, how effective is this antibiotic against common pathogens? Teixobactin was ... Tuberculosis) and enteroccocci (are intrinsically antibiotic resistant, causally associated with urinary tract infection among ... However, a strain of E coli (a gram negative bacteria) with defects in the outer membrane is susceptible to this antibiotic. ...
Thus, unencapsulating bacteria would be a good strategy for drug design, besides CPS itself being a good vaccine target, by ... Evolution of such multidrug resistance is due to the fact that, most of the antibiotics target bacterial survival mechanisms ... across various strains of the same bacteria or different bacterial species impose serious threat to public health. Evolution of ... Thus, unencapsulating bacteria would be a good strategy for drug design, besides CPS itself being a good vaccine target, by ...
Many other pathogens are developing resistance to multiple drugs, some to nearly all. Hospitals have become hotbeds for highly- ... Among the worlds 12 million cases of tuberculosis in 2010, WHO estimates that 650,000 involved multidrug-resistant TB strains ... The evolving threat of antimicrobial resistance - Options for action. Authors: World Health Organization ... For patients infected with some drug-resistant pathogens, mortality has been shown to increase by around 50%. Let me give an ...
... increasing emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains that require longer and more ... led to neglect in new drug development. However, the emergence of HIV and MTB drug resistance have fuelled the resurgence of TB ... Blumenthal A, Trujillo C, Ehrt S, Schnappinger D. Simultaneous analysis of multiple Mycobacterium tuberculosis knockdown ... MTB, an obligate pathogen well equipped to survive variable and hostile environments, is a formidable adversary. It has an ...
  • Infection control in healthcare settings, which is essential for preventing transmission of susceptible and resistant microorganisms alike, remains imperfect. (
  • In these small isolated hunter-gatherer populations, sustained infection would be favoured by low-virulence pathogens capable of persisting within the human host by chronic or latent infection and transmitting to susceptible new birth cohorts years or decades after initial infection. (
  • According to the U.S. Centers for Disease &, thousands of people annually contract an infection during a hospital stay and often attributable to microbial-resistant organisms. (
  • In addition, rapid death of both antibiotic-resistant strains and destruction of plasmid and genomic DNA were observed on copper and copper alloy surfaces, which could be useful in the prevention of infection spread and gene transfer. (
  • Severe acute respiratory syndrome, HIV/AIDS) that may have evolved from a known infection (e.g. influenza) or spread to a new population (e.g. (
  • The resulting sequence data is then automatically analyzed with a custom software package to provide a clinician-friendly report about the drug susceptibility of their patient's infection so they can best prescribe the right drugs. (
  • In addition, the virus experiences different selective pressures at multiple levels: during the course of infection, at transmission, and among individuals. (
  • This dataset substantially increases the availability of HIV-1 sequence data that spans multiple years of untreated infection, in particular for different geographical regions and viral subtypes. (
  • S. aureus strains that evade the immune response in healthy people with no known risk factors for infection are known as community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA). (
  • Dr. Fiona Brinkman 's expertise in pathogen bioinformatics has led her to develop internationally leading computational tools for analyses of human and microbe responses to infection. (
  • Some can be beneficial to the host and provide protection against pathogen infection. (
  • This work suggests that host-associated microbes warrant consideration as a driver of infection outcomes and pathogen transmission over time. (
  • Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies have revealed the inability of many anti-TB drugs to reach all sights of infection, e.g. granuloma, at a therapeutic level. (
  • The disease is difficult to cure, as many strains of the bacterium have developed resistance to the main drugs used to treat the infection. (
  • Here we assess the impact of HIV co-infection on the emergence of resistance and transmission of Mtb in the largest outbreak of multidrug-resistant TB in South America to date. (
  • By combining Bayesian evolutionary analyses and the reconstruction of transmission networks utilizing a new model optimized for TB, we find that HIV co-infection does not significantly affect the transmissibility or the mutation rate of Mtb within patients and was not associated with increased emergence of resistance within patients. (
  • Our results indicate that the HIV epidemic serves as an amplifier of TB outbreaks by providing a reservoir of susceptible hosts, but that HIV co-infection is not a direct driver for the emergence and transmission of resistant strains. (
  • However, treating individuals who are infected with both HIV and tuberculosis is complicated because the drugs currently used to treat one infection can interfere with the effectiveness of the drugs used to treat the other. (
  • Not only does HIV infection render people more susceptible to develop active TB by weakening their immune system, but anti-TB drugs can also directly interfere with antiretroviral treatment. (
  • To make matters worse, HIV co-infection is also associated with malabsorption of anti-TB drugs. (
  • To definitively resolve this issue and understand the phylogeny of USA300 isolates, we used comparative whole-genome sequencing to analyze 10 USA300 patient isolates from eight states in diverse geographic regions of the United States and multiple types of human infection. (
  • As the demographics of HIV infection evolve, both in the United States and around the world, it is clear that all healthcare professionals in all practice settings will be involved to some extent with HIV infection. (
  • On the basis of these data, we propose a new treatment framework-collateral sensitivity cycling-in which drugs with compatible collateral sensitivity profiles are used sequentially to treat infection and select against drug resistance development. (
  • The ability of drug combinations to improve treatment outcomes has been demonstrated in a variety of disease areas, including HIV infection ( 4 , 12 - 15 ). (
  • World Health Organization (WHO) defines Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) as the state at which a microorganism becomes resistant to a particular antimicrobial drug that was once able to treat the infection caused by that microorganism [ 5 , 6 ]. (
  • WGS of Kpn666 strain isolated from an asymptomatic urinary infection was performed using Illumina MiSeq and de novo assembly was done using SPADES version 3. (
  • In hospital infection, NovaBay is targeting chronic non-healing wounds, such as pressure, venous stasis and diabetic ulcers, with its proprietary anti-infective solution, NeutroPhase, which has received two 510(k) clearances from the Food and Drug Administration. (
  • The ATS-CDC recommendations are contained, for the most part, in three official joint statements: 'Diagnostic Standards and Classification of Tuberculosis,' 'Treatment of Tuberculosis and Tuberculosis Infection in Adults and Children,' and 'Control of Tuberculosis. (
  • The development of specific chemotherapeutic agents has revolutionized the prognosis of tuberculosis and tuberculous infection, making tuberculosis truly curable and preventable. (
  • Although patients with tuberculosis also generate larger particles containing numerous bacilli, these particles do not serve as effective vehicles for transmission of infection because they do not remain airborne, and if inhaled, do not reach alveoli. (
  • The Yeast Infection No More program offers the users a unique 5-Step holistic system that tackles the root cause of their yeast infection in order to help them eliminate it naturally and without any drugs or creams. (
  • The management of oral candidosis involves treatment of any predisposing factors (such as disinfection of dentures), together with treatment of the infection with topical or systemic antifungal drugs. (
  • Methods: Interferon-gamma release assay to detect tuberculosis (TB) infection from whole blood was tested in Hanoi, Viet Nam. (
  • Rhodococcus equi is an animal pathogen that was initially isolated from horses and is being increasingly reported as a cause of infection in humans with impaired cellular immunity. (
  • R. equi should be considered a serious pathogen, not a contaminant, particularly in an immunocompromised patient who presents with a central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection. (
  • Existing NAATs are, however, limited by inadequate levels of multiplexing (i.e. the number of strains or sequences detected in a single reaction) and inaccuracies with detecting mutations. (
  • Because of the potential harm of mutations, humans and other mammals have evolved to make as few as possible. (
  • Romesberg reasons that these rapid mutations may sometimes be part of a mechanism organisms have to rapidly evolve when they need to. (
  • These strains also accumulated a high number of mutations across their genomes. (
  • Our results show that even the genome of a nonpathogenic bacterium harbors a substantial reservoir of resistance genes, which can be readily accessed through overexpression mutations. (
  • The "superbugs" are microbes with increased resistance due to several mutations that contain high levels of resistance to the many diseases [ 5 ]. (
  • Exactly how Mfd encourages mutations and antibiotic resistance is still unclear. (
  • and 2) the detection of RIF resistance-associated mutations of the rpoB gene. (
  • However, a recent disturbing report of high resistance to azole was reported in Moshi, Tanzania associated with A. fumigatus with TR34/L98H and TR46/Y12F/T289A mutations [ 20 ]. (
  • Clinically acquired drug resistance is normally conferred by mutations in the target genes. (
  • The spread of infectious diseases results as much from changes in human behavior--including lifestyles and land use patterns, increased trade and travel, and inappropriate use of antibiotic drugs--as from mutations in pathogens. (
  • Here, we used a DNA barcoding approach to generate the genotype-to-fitness map for adaptation-driving mutations from a Saccharomyces cerevisiae population experimentally evolved by serial transfer under limiting glucose. (
  • This study examines the intrinsic fitness burden associated with RNA polymerase ( rpoB ) mutations conferring rifampin resistance in Escherichia coli K12 (MG1655) and explores the nature of adaptation to the costs of resistance. (
  • and in all cases, increased fitness was due to compensatory mutations, rather than to reversion to drug sensitivity. (
  • Because mutations that confer resistance can generate functional lesions in vital processes such as these, they are commonly associated with decreased rates of bacterial replication. (
  • By employing both continuous experimental evolution to provide longitudinal information on the order of changes and characterization of resistant endpoint isolates, we observe changes that are consistent with modifications of two enzymes of the folate biosynthesis pathway: dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) (FolP), with the mutations often being clustered near the active site of the enzymes. (
  • While changes to DHFR and DHPS might be expected, we also noted that mutations in a previously undescribed homolog of DHPS (DHPS2 or FolP2) that was annotated as being "nonfunctional" were also sufficient to generate TMP-SMX resistance, which serves as a cautionary tale for the use of automated annotation by investigators and for the future discovery of drugs against this genus. (
  • Given that chromosomal resistance mutations compromise the function of essential genes, a simple explanation for environmental variation of the cost of resistance is that different environments impose different levels of demand for activity of the mutated target enzyme. (
  • To test this hypothesis, we measured the fitness cost of rifampicin resistance mutations across environments that impose variable levels of demand for the mutated enzyme (RNA polymerase). (
  • a recent database lists the existence of more than 20,000 potential resistance genes (r genes) of nearly 400 different types, predicted in the main from available bacterial genome sequences ( 85 ). (
  • 149 ). The goal of this short article is not to summarize such a wealth of information but to review the situation as we see it now (most particularly with respect to the origins and evolution of resistance genes) and to provide some personal views on the future of antibiotic therapy of infectious diseases. (
  • A rapid process of sharing resistance exists among single-celled organisms, and is termed horizontal gene transfer in which there is a direct exchange of genes, particularly in the biofilm state. (
  • In studying what is behind trimethoprim resistance, for example, the researchers saw that potent, alternative genes that accelerate antibiotic resistance failed to crop up when Mfd was absent. (
  • Plasmid-mediated HGT of β-lactamase genes to an azide-resistant recipient E. coli strain occurred when the donor and recipient cells were mixed together on stainless steel and in suspension but not on copper surfaces. (
  • The most worrying trend is the horizontal transmission of antibiotic resistance genes via mobile elements such as plasmids and transposons, especially in Gram-negative pathogens ( 1 - 3 ). (
  • When S. aureus came into contact with these populations, the multiple genes that code for antibiotic resistance to different drugs were then acquired by MRSA, making it nearly impossible to control. (
  • Using this genetic analysis as a blueprint, the researchers believe that they can apply it to other potential antibiotic-resistant genes that have the potential to spread as widely as mrc-1. (
  • The aim of this study was to analyze antimicrobial resistance patterns and their encoding genes of P. mirabilis isolated in Constantine, Algeria. (
  • In addition, antimicrobial resistance has emerged in virtually all health care-associated (nosocomial) pathogens. (
  • In this study, treatment with mupirocin was shown to induce high levels of (p)ppGpp production in Enterococcus faecalis , indicating that this nosocomial pathogen can mount a classic stringent response. (
  • To understand resistance, imagine being a bacterium in a world bombarded with antimicrobials. (
  • To understand how CA-MRSA is evolving in complexity and spreading geographically, Dr. DeLeo's group sequenced the genomes of 10 patient samples of the USA300 bacterium recovered from individuals treated at different U.S. locations between 2002 and 2005. (
  • Antimicrobial resistance and antineoplastic resistance challenge clinical care and drive research. (
  • In these regions, basic TB research is rare, endemic countries being valued primarily as sites for drug trials and clinical studies. (
  • With its exceptional strength in epidemiological and clinical TB research, South Africa (SA) has become the leading site in the world for evaluating new TB drug candidates developed elsewhere. (
  • Closed genome and comparative phylogenetic analysis of the clinical multidrug resistant Shigella sonnei strain 866. (
  • genome and comparative phylogenetic analysis of the clinical multidrug resistant Shigella sonnei strain 866. (
  • Clofazimine improves clinical outcomes in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: a randomized controlled trial. (
  • In accordance with The Research Agenda of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases for Antimicrobial Resistance ( ), NIH funds basic, translational, and clinical research to understand basic mechanisms of resistance, identify and characterize novel targets for new drugs, vaccines and diagnostics, and support the development of such products through preclinical and early-stage clinical trials. (
  • A successful public-private partnership between NIH and Sequella yielded a promising new TB drug that was tested in a Phase I clinical trial. (
  • The clinical efficacy of penicillin and streptomycin brought public attention to this group of life-saving drugs and the word "antibiotic" soon became commonplace in scientific and ordinary language. (
  • Triazole resistance existing in Kenya calls for rational use of azole-based fungicides in agriculture over concerns of emerging antifungal resistance in clinical practice. (
  • Journal of Vaccines and Clinical Trials is a peer reviewed journal that focusses on the publication of advancements in the process of vaccine development encompassing laboratory and animal studies, preclinical stage studies, clinical trials and approval and licensure for novel vaccines and drugs. (
  • The journal also publishes findings on clinical trials of vaccines, drugs, dietary supplements and medical devices on human participants, in order to closely monitor its efficiency, associated safety issues, behavioral and physiological response, side effects and allergies if any. (
  • A total of 106 PMP (Proteus- Morganella- Providencia) strains were isolated from a large variety of clinical specimens, at University Hospital of Constantine in Algeria, and identified by the API 20E system and Bruker MALDI Biotyper 2. (
  • This talk will discuss clinical licensed (CLIA) laboratory validation of a clinical mNGS assay for identification of pathogens in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and implementation of the automated SURPI computational pipeline for rapid analysis and interpretation of mNGS data. (
  • This talk will also describe new mNGS-based technologies and diagnostic platforms in development, including host response profiling to discriminate infectious versus non-infectious etiologies, antibiotic resistance determination, and nanopore sequencing, and how these approaches can be incorporated into routine clinical diagnostic testing for infectious diseases. (
  • The implications of these results for our understanding of adaptive molecular evolution and the increasing clinical problem of antibiotic resistance are discussed. (
  • Though genetic mapping of various strains of MRSA, scientists have found that MSSA acquired the mecA gene in the 1960s, which accounts for its pathogenicity, before this it had a predominantly commensal relationship with humans. (
  • Hospitals have become hotbeds for highly-resistant pathogens, like MRSA, ESBL, and CPE, increasing the risk that hospitalization kills instead of cures. (
  • As an aside, without a doubt the `go to' blogger on all things antibiotic resistant is Maryn McKenna , author of Superbug: The Fatal Menace of MRSA . (
  • S. aureus strains resistant to the antibiotic are known as methicillin-resistant S. aureus or MRSA. (
  • The findings rule out the previously held possibility that multiple strains of USA300, the most troublesome type of CA-MRSA in the United States, emerged randomly with similar characteristics. (
  • The first study, which appears online this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , found that the USA300 group of CA-MRSA strains, collectively called the epidemic strain, comprises nearly identical clones that have emerged from a single bacterial strain. (
  • Scientists are pressing ahead quickly to learn more about how some MRSA strains evade the immune system and spread rapidly," says NIAID Director Anthony S. Fauci, M.D. "The information presented in these two studies adds important new insights to that expanding knowledge base. (
  • Ultimately, Dr. DeLeo and his colleagues hope that the work will lead to the development of new diagnostic tests that can quickly identify specific strains of MRSA. (
  • Mounting scientific evidence strongly links microbes to some forms of cancer, coronary artery disease, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, and chronic lung diseases. (
  • Brinkman's current research interests are centered around improving understanding of how microbes evolve and applying this knowledge to develop new diagnostics and therapeutics. (
  • Pathogens can readily adapt to challenges from hosts and treatments, but the extent to which conflict from microbes accelerates pathogen evolution is unclear. (
  • It is not difficult to make microbes resistant to penicillin in the laboratory by exposing them to concentrations not sufficient to kill them," Fleming warned in 1945 when he received the Nobel Prize in medicine or physiology , together with Florey and Chain, "and the same thing has occasionally happened in the body. (
  • 1 These drugs, though not used in humans, are closely related to human therapeutic drug families, such as vancomycin and streptogramins. (
  • This also supports a repository of S. aureus strains, including those resistant to vancomycin. (
  • Interestingly, growth curves and time-kill studies indicated that tolerance to vancomycin is enhanced in the Δ relA strain but diminished in the Δ relQ and Δ relAQ strains. (
  • In particular, the appearance of vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) strains in the late 1980s gave these organisms a tremendous selective advantage, increasing the likelihood of their propagation and persistence in hospitals ( 33 ). (
  • You might face fluoroquinolones used to treat animals, a practice which has led to the emergence of quinolone resistance in organisms like E coli, Salmonella spp, and Campylobacter spp. (
  • Considering E. coli as a case in point, this review explains the structure and functional roles of proteins involved in Group 1 Wzy dependent CPS biosynthesis, surface expression and anchorage in relevance to drug and vaccine developments. (
  • A system must be set up to monitor the global spread of a drug-resistant form of E.coli which can cause fatal blood poisoning, Canadian scientists urge. (
  • These findings have important implications for drug and vaccine development, and provide insight into TB host pathogen interactions. (
  • I will present some of our most recent results with the model pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa that highlight the particular potency of fast sequential treatments and the likely underlying evolutionary and molecular mechanisms. (
  • Antimicrobial resistance phenotypes of the recovered isolates were determined by disk diffusion. (
  • In a 10-year retrospective evaluation conducted on 765 Nocardia isolates submitted to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) from 1995 to 2004, 42% were found to be resistant to TMP-SMX ( 16 ). (
  • Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) studies of natural populations of M . tb have focused primarily on the emergence of drug resistance [ 23 - 26 ]. (
  • Whole-genome sequencing identification of a multidrug-resistant Listeria monocytogenes serotype 1/2a isolated from fresh mixed sausage in southern Brazil. (
  • In 2009, when M. abscessus genome sequence became available, several research groups worldwide started studying M. abscessus antibiotic resistance mechanisms. (
  • a landscape that was contaminated with respiratory irritants such as chlorine and phosgene, and characterized by stress and overcrowding, the partial starvation in civilians, and the opportunity for rapid passage of influenza in young soldiers would have provided the opportunity for multiple but small mutational charges throughout the viral genome. (
  • Since blaKPC-2 -producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) are related to the successful dissemination of a major clone defined as sequence type 258 (ST258), our goal was to perform whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of the first colistin-resistant K. pneumoniae strain (Kpn666) carrying blaKPC-2 identified in Uruguay in 2011 in order to identify genomic and phylogenetic traits. (
  • Genome sequencing can be used to discover new pathogens but it can also be used to monitor known ones. (
  • Feasibility of the system was first demonstrated by identifying and quantifying multiple viral RNAs and DNAs from respiratory tract pathogens. (
  • Resistance is now an important problem in virtually all areas of infectious diseases, including viral, bacterial, fungal, and parasitic diseases. (
  • HIV-1 undergoes multiple rounds of error-prone replication between transmission events, resulting in diverse viral populations within and among individuals. (
  • The methods of the present invention permit the detection and/or identification of genetic polymorphism such as those associated with human disease and permit the identification of pathogens (e.g., viral and bacterial strain identification). (
  • Antiretroviral regimens are complex, have serious side effects, pose difficulty with adherence, and carry serious potential consequences from the development of viral resistance because of nonadherence to the drug regimen or suboptimal levels of antiretroviral agents. (
  • Failure of therapy at 4--6 months might be ascribed to nonadherence, inadequate potency of drugs or suboptimal levels of antiretroviral agents, viral resistance, and other factors that are poorly understood. (
  • While it is unlikely that DENV would be used as a biothreat agent, DENV has emerged since World War II as the most important mosquito-borne viral pathogen infecting an estimated 100 million persons each year. (
  • have now analyzed the genomes, or total genetic content, of 252 samples of M. tuberculosis taken from the largest outbreak to date of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in South America. (
  • They sequenced the genomes of 110 bacterial strains and compared them to a genomic database of over 400 mrc-1 positive sequences taken from around the world. (
  • They then compared these genomes to each other and to a baseline USA300 strain used in earlier studies. (
  • Eight of the 10 USA300 patient samples were found to have nearly indistinguishable genomes, indicating they originated from a common strain. (
  • Droplet nuclei are produced when persons with pulmonary tuberculosis cough, sneeze, speak, or sing. (
  • In the specific case of antimicrobial agents, the complexity of the processes that contribute to emergence and dissemination of resistance cannot be overemphasized, and the lack of basic knowledge on these topics is one of the primary reasons that there has been so little significant achievement in the effective prevention and control of resistance development. (
  • Schematic representation of mechanisms of resistance to antimicrobial agents. (
  • The above scenario portrays the multiple and cumulative impacts of antimicrobial agents on the bacterial world. (
  • Challenges in M. abscessus treatment stem from the bacteria's high-level innate resistance and comprise long, costly and non-standardized administration of antimicrobial agents, poor treatment outcomes often related to adverse effects and drug toxicities, and high relapse rates. (
  • Disentangling how these evolutionary forces shape the evolution of the virus at the population scale is important for understanding pathogenesis, how drug- and immune-escape variants are likely to spread in populations, and the development of preventive vaccines. (
  • Adrian C. Williams and Robin I.M. Dunbar just published an interesting article titled "Big Brains, Meat, Tuberculosis, and the Nicotinamide Switches: Co-Evolutionary Relationships with Modern Repercussions? (
  • The Laboratory for Evolutionary Medicine ( ) at Baylor University is searching for a postdoctoral fellow, with a generous contract renewable for multiple years, to work with Dr. Michael Muehlenbein on a variety of projects relating to ecological immunology and One Health. (
  • The Laboratory for Evolutionary Medicine also has multiple graduate student positions, available through the Department of Biology at Baylor University. (
  • Evolutionary ecology meets the antibiotic crisis: Can we control pathogen adaptation? (
  • The findings add an evolutionary dimension to the epidemiology and emergence of USA300 and suggest a similar mechanism for the pandemic occurrence and spread of penicillin-resistant S. aureus (known as phage-type 80/81 S. aureus) in the 1950s. (
  • Properly distanced reference strains generate CGMs that accurately depict evolutionary relationships, distorted only by branch collapse. (
  • Using this model, we can look at how the pathogen or condition has evolved, or how the host, us, has evolved either way, an evolutionary argument looks for why we are the way we are and experiencing the types of ailments that we are. (
  • In Baquero F, Nombela C, Cassell G, Gutiérrez-Fuentes J (ed), Evolutionary Biology of Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens . (
  • Rapidly evolving pathogens that evade not only the immune system but also develop resistance to man-made drugs require constant scientific efforts on our part to combat them. (
  • It is thought that MSSA acquired the resistance gene through the horizontal gene transfer, a method in which genetic information can be passed within a generation, and spread rapidly through its own population as was illustrated in multiple studies. (
  • S. aureus resistance to penicillin rapidly evolved in the 1950s. (
  • A wide range of biochemical and physiological mechanisms may be responsible for resistance. (
  • Many excellent reviews describing the genetics and biochemistry of the origins, evolution, and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance have appeared over the last 60 years. (
  • Antibiotic discovery, modes of action, and mechanisms of resistance have been productive research topics in academia ( 27 ) and, until recently, in the pharmaceutical industry. (
  • Sixty years later, our understanding of resistance has grown vastly more sophisticated and the proliferation of new antimicrobial drugs has engendered an equally varied collection of resistance mechanisms ( Figure 1 ). (
  • Even when they do, we have multiple, redundant repair and proofreading mechanisms that would make even the most six-sigma-compliant NASA engineer jealous. (
  • Armed with your multidefence mechanisms derived from human, animal, or foodcrop hosts, you are not only well equipped to ward off the attacks of newer and more powerful drugs, but may also share your well developed arsenal with other unarmed, potentially infectious, travelling companions. (
  • Models can also help investigate the mechanisms by which drug resistance in TB is emerging. (
  • Suzanne Walker discovered targocil, a molecule that blocks certain mechanisms of drug resistance. (
  • Drug resistance in M. abscessus is conferred by an assortment of mechanisms. (
  • This article reviews the currently elucidated molecular mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in M. abscessus , with a focus on its drug-target-modifying and drug-modifying enzymes. (
  • As in the treatment of AIDS and tuberculosis, two effective drugs with different mechanisms of action can protect each other from the survival of resistant pathogens. (
  • Although they are usually considered opportunistic pathogens, affecting immunocompromised individuals, about one-third of nocardiosis patients are immunocompetent ( 4 , 5 ). (
  • Rapid death, inhibition of respiration, and destruction of genomic and plasmid DNA of both pathogens occurred on copper alloys accompanied by a reduction in bla copy number. (
  • Strains of S. aureus resistant to methicillin are endemic in hospitals and increasing in non-hospital settings such as locker rooms, day care centers and the general community. (
  • The study also offers a hypothesis for the origin of previous S. aureus outbreaks, such as those caused by penicillin-resistant strains in the 1950s and 1960s. (
  • They have wide applications in pathogen detection and development of diagnostics, as a means of biodefence, eliminating food pathogens and in control of phytopathogens. (
  • The data set includes samples susceptible to all first line drugs (A0 and E0) as well as INH-monoresistant, multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) samples ( Table 1 ). (
  • Since about half of antibiotic usage in the developed world (and perhaps more in the developing world) is inappropriate, there is a certain optimism that we can reverse the resistance problem if we improve use and thus return to an environment populated with susceptible strains. (
  • As a susceptible strain you have to acquire a survival mechanism. (
  • Compared to its parent, the Δ relA strain was more susceptible to several stress conditions, whereas complete elimination of (p)ppGpp in a Δ relAQ double mutant restored many of the stress-sensitive phenotypes of Δ relA . (
  • One example is a study of the transposable element IS6110 marker that found multiple lines of evidence suggestive of positive selection on M . tb populations within hosts [ 8 ]. (
  • Therefore, our work provides validation and biochemical insight into the innovation, amplification, and divergence model of gene evolution under continuous selection [Bergthorsson U, Andersson DI, Roth JR (2007) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:17004- and also illustrates the high frequency at which novel traits can evolve in bacterial populations. (
  • Tuberculosis (TB) has traditionally been viewed as a major historical plague that has wreaked havoc on human populations unequally hitting resource limited countries or classes the hardest. (
  • Our work is focused on the hypothesis, that exposure to low (ineffective) drug concentrations might particularly select for highly resistant and highly competitive MTBC strain populations. (
  • Mass drug administration (MDA) is a means of delivering safe and inexpensive essential medicines based on the principles of preventive chemotherapy, where populations or sub-populations are offered treatment without individual diagnosis. (
  • Epidemiological studies have shown that this cost of resistance plays a key role in determining the spread of resistance in pathogen populations, and it has even been suggested that the cost of resistance is the single most important driver of resistance evolution in pathogen populations ( A ndersson and H ughes 2010 ). (
  • In 2016, nearly half a million patients were newly infected with an MDR strain worldwide, killing 240.000. (
  • Given the fact MDR-TB infected nearly half a million people in 2016, killing more than 78,000, 2 drug-resistant TB is a significant concern. (
  • Despite a concerted global effort to prevent the spread of tuberculosis, approximately 10 million new cases and 2 million deaths were reported in 2016. (
  • J. Todd Weber Dr. Weber is the director of the Office of Antimicrobial Resistance, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (
  • The article focuses on the programs implemented by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to preserve the current antibiotic arsenal and limit bacterial resistance. (
  • The article reports on the prevalence of oseltamivir (OSTV)-resistant influenza in the U.S. According to a report published in the 2009 issue of the "Journal of the American Medical Association," the increasing resistance patterns to OSTV led the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (
  • The article discusses the report "Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States, 2013," released by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (
  • It cites the growth of drug-resistant strains of tuberculosis (TB) as well as a warning from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) about the antibiotic-resistant. (
  • However prevention is the most preferred method of avoiding antibiotic resistance. (
  • The mainstay in prevention and treatment of aspergillosis is the use triazole drugs. (
  • In 2013, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published a report outlining the top 18 drug-resistant threats to the United States, with each pathogen categorized based on level of concern, from urgent to serious and concerning. (
  • The Center for Disease Control and Prevention launched multiple efforts to prevent further spread of the disease before it became a problem for the agriculture and health systems of the US. (
  • Historically, the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) have provided guidance on the diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and control of tuberculosis in the United States and Canada. (