Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Drug Resistance, Multiple: Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Antimalarials: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Drug Resistance, Fungal: The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.Pyrimethamine: One of the FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS that is used as an antimalarial or with a sulfonamide to treat toxoplasmosis.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutation.Sulfadoxine: A long acting sulfonamide that is used, usually in combination with other drugs, for respiratory, urinary tract, and malarial infections.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Chloroquine: The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.P-Glycoprotein: A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant: Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Parasitic Sensitivity Tests: Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.HIV Protease: Enzyme of the human immunodeficiency virus that is required for post-translational cleavage of gag and gag-pol precursor polyproteins into functional products needed for viral assembly. HIV protease is an aspartic protease encoded by the amino terminus of the pol gene.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Artemisinins: A group of SESQUITERPENES and their analogs that contain a peroxide group (PEROXIDES) within an oxepin ring (OXEPINS).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins: A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Dihydropteroate Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of dihydropteroate from p-aminobenzoic acid and dihydropteridine-hydroxymethyl-pyrophosphate. EC 2.5.1.15.HIV Reverse Transcriptase: A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Isoniazid: Antibacterial agent used primarily as a tuberculostatic. It remains the treatment of choice for tuberculosis.Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Rifampin: A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.Tetracycline: A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Streptomycin: An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Antiprotozoal Agents: Substances that are destructive to protozoans.Amodiaquine: A 4-aminoquinoline compound with anti-inflammatory properties.Atovaquone: A hydroxynaphthoquinone that has antimicrobial activity and is being used in antimalarial protocols.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Proguanil: A biguanide compound which metabolizes in the body to form cycloguanil, an anti-malaria agent.R Factors: A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.Tetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction 7,8-dihyrofolate and NADPH to yield 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate and NADPH+, producing reduced folate for amino acid metabolism, purine ring synthesis, and the formation of deoxythymidine monophosphate. Methotrexate and other folic acid antagonists used as chemotherapeutic drugs act by inhibiting this enzyme. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 1.5.1.3.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Genes, MDR: Genes for MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that confer resistance to toxic compounds. Several superfamilies of these multidrug export proteins are known and found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.Fluorenes: A family of diphenylenemethane derivatives.Tetracycline Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TETRACYCLINE which inhibits aminoacyl-tRNA binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit during protein synthesis.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Fungal: The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutations.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.HIV Protease Inhibitors: Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.Mutation, Missense: A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Anti-Retroviral Agents: Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.Ethambutol: An antitubercular agent that inhibits the transfer of mycolic acids into the cell wall of the tubercle bacillus. It may also inhibit the synthesis of spermidine in mycobacteria. The action is usually bactericidal, and the drug can penetrate human cell membranes to exert its lethal effect. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p863)Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Vincristine: An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Metronidazole: A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Cefixime: A third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic that is stable to hydrolysis by beta-lactamases.Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Failure to Thrive: A condition of substandard growth or diminished capacity to maintain normal function.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Antimony: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Sb, atomic number 51, and atomic weight 121.75. It is used as a metal alloy and as medicinal and poisonous salts. It is toxic and an irritant to the skin and the mucous membranes.Mefloquine: A phospholipid-interacting antimalarial drug (ANTIMALARIALS). It is very effective against PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM with very few side effects.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Drug Monitoring: The process of observing, recording, or detecting the effects of a chemical substance administered to an individual therapeutically or diagnostically.Ciprofloxacin: A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Azithromycin: A semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic structurally related to ERYTHROMYCIN. It has been used in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infections, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis.Macrolides: A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Etoposide: A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.Antibiotics, Antineoplastic: Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Amoxicillin: A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.Gonorrhea: Acute infectious disease characterized by primary invasion of the urogenital tract. The etiologic agent, NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE, was isolated by Neisser in 1879.Kanamycin: Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.Azoles: Five membered rings containing a NITROGEN atom.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Cephalosporin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of an organism to the action of the cephalosporins.Nevirapine: A potent, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in combination with nucleoside analogues for treatment of HIV INFECTIONS and AIDS.Liver Failure, Acute: A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.beta-Lactam Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.DNA, Protozoan: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Resistance Training: A type of strength-building exercise program that requires the body muscle to exert a force against some form of resistance, such as weight, stretch bands, water, or immovable objects. Resistance exercise is a combination of static and dynamic contractions involving shortening and lengthening of skeletal muscles.Pyrimidines: A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.IndiaMelarsoprol: Arsenical used in trypanosomiases. It may cause fatal encephalopathy and other undesirable side effects.Vinblastine: Antitumor alkaloid isolated from Vinca rosea. (Merck, 11th ed.)Parasitemia: The presence of parasites (especially malarial parasites) in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)Methicillin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.Fluoroquinolones: A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Ethanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.Chloramphenicol Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of CHLORAMPHENICOL, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis in the 50S ribosomal subunit where amino acids are added to nascent bacterial polypeptides.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.SesquiterpenesMitoxantrone: An anthracenedione-derived antineoplastic agent.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Vancomycin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of VANCOMYCIN, an inhibitor of cell wall synthesis.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Antibiotics, Antitubercular: Substances obtained from various species of microorganisms that are, alone or in combination with other agents, of use in treating various forms of tuberculosis; most of these agents are merely bacteriostatic, induce resistance in the organisms, and may be toxic.QuinolinesGenes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.PiperazinesCombined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Ampicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of a microbe to the action of ampicillin, a penicillin derivative that interferes with cell wall synthesis.Penicillin G Procaine: Semisynthetic antibiotic prepared by combining penicillin G with PROCAINE.Vancomycin: Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.pol Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the POL GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Ampicillin: Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Fluconazole: Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Naphthoquinones: Naphthalene rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Organophosphonates: Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Daunorubicin: A very toxic anthracycline aminoglycoside antineoplastic isolated from Streptomyces peucetius and others, used in treatment of LEUKEMIA and other NEOPLASMS.Ceftriaxone: A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Liver Failure: Severe inability of the LIVER to perform its normal metabolic functions, as evidenced by severe JAUNDICE and abnormal serum levels of AMMONIA; BILIRUBIN; ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE; ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES; and albumin/globulin ratio. (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed)Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Combination: This drug combination has proved to be an effective therapeutic agent with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It is effective in the treatment of many infections, including PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS.Erythromycin: A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Ofloxacin: A synthetic fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent that inhibits the supercoiling activity of bacterial DNA GYRASE, halting DNA REPLICATION.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Methotrexate: An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.P-Glycoproteins: A subfamily of transmembrane proteins from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that are closely related in sequence to P-GLYCOPROTEIN. When overexpressed, they function as ATP-dependent efflux pumps able to extrude lipophilic drugs, especially ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, from cells causing multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although P-Glycoproteins share functional similarities to MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS they are two distinct subclasses of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS, and have little sequence homology.Papua New Guinea: A country consisting of the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and adjacent islands, including New Britain, New Ireland, the Admiralty Islands, and New Hanover in the Bismarck Archipelago; Bougainville and Buka in the northern Solomon Islands; the D'Entrecasteaux and Trobriand Islands; Woodlark (Murua) Island; and the Louisiade Archipelago. It became independent on September 16, 1975. Formerly, the southern part was the Australian Territory of Papua, and the northern part was the UN Trust Territory of New Guinea, administered by Australia. They were administratively merged in 1949 and named Papua and New Guinea, and renamed Papua New Guinea in 1971.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Salvage Therapy: A therapeutic approach, involving chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery, after initial regimens have failed to lead to improvement in a patient's condition. Salvage therapy is most often used for neoplastic diseases.Clarithromycin: A semisynthetic macrolide antibiotic derived from ERYTHROMYCIN that is active against a variety of microorganisms. It can inhibit PROTEIN SYNTHESIS in BACTERIA by reversibly binding to the 50S ribosomal subunits. This inhibits the translocation of aminoacyl transfer-RNA and prevents peptide chain elongation.Directly Observed Therapy: A treatment method in which patients are under direct observation when they take their medication or receive their treatment. This method is designed to reduce the risk of treatment interruption and to ensure patient compliance.Sulfonamides: A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.Paclitaxel: A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Fluoxymesterone: An anabolic steroid that has been used in the treatment of male HYPOGONADISM, delayed puberty in males, and in the treatment of breast neoplasms in women.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Due to the nature of the virus the drugs used to treat HIV are called antiretroviral medicines, and the course of treatment is ... HAART also reduces the risk of developing drug resistance. Viral load tests are used to monitor the effects ART, to track viral ... and detect treatment failure. Successful combination ART should give a fall in viral load of 1.5 to 2 logs (30-100 fold) within ... These transient blips do not indicate that the virus is developing resistance to drug therapy. Blips appear to be more common ...
Dose failure (drug resistance). *Dyskinesia at peak dose (levodopa-induced dyskinesia). *Possible dopamine dysregulation: The ... As a drug, it is used in the clinical treatment of Parkinson's disease and dopamine-responsive dystonia. ... Nausea, which is often reduced by taking the drug with food, although protein reduces drug absorption. L-DOPA is an amino acid ... "Lodosyn", Drugs, nd, retrieved 12 November 2012. *^ "L-dopa for RLS". Bandolier. 1 April 2007. Archived from the original on 3 ...
One of the major causes of cancer treatment failures is the resistance that cancer cells develop towards chemotherapeutic drugs ... Vault RNAs, in conjunction with the vault complex, have been associated with drug resistance. Through recent discoveries, it ... Studies as such suggest that vtRNAs might have a role in blocking the drugs from getting to their target sites. It has been ... vtRNAs have been shown to play a role in this phenomenon due their interaction with certain chemotherapeutic drugs through ...
Resistance is a major cause of treatment failure in chemotherapeutic drugs. There are a few possible causes of resistance in ... can occur which prevent the drugs from binding to the protein, leading to resistance to these types of drugs. Drugs used in ... Pain can often be managed with drug or other treatment but the numbness is usually resistant to treatment. Some patients report ... Current chemotherapy regimens apply drug treatment in cycles, with the frequency and duration of treatments limited by toxicity ...
In 2013, there were reports of failure of miltefosine in the treatment of leishmaniasis. Although drug resistance was suspected ... "Increasing failure of miltefosine in the treatment of Kala-azar in Nepal and the potential role of parasite drug resistance, ... This drug is now listed as a core medication for the treatment of leishmaniasis under the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines ... 2014). "Failure of miltefosine treatment for visceral leishmaniasis in children and men in South-East Asia". PLoS ONE. 9 (6): ...
Goal 5: Limit Drug Resistance Grand Challenge #10: Discover Drugs and Delivery Systems that Minimize the Likelihood of Drug ... Potential benefits include reduced treatment failures and simple treatment regimens. Dr. Brett Finlay and a team at the ... and Mexico to further expose the biology of latency and then develop drugs against latent TB Grand Challenge #12: Create ...
Adherence to ART drugs delays onset of drug resistance, treatment failure, and subsequent necessity to use a different drug ... Drug treatments must also be stored properly. Costs of medication and continual treatment are prohibitive for many Bathoso. ... This can lead to increased toxicity of HIV/AIDS treatment drugs. General maternal malnutrition and vitamin deficiencies can ... Adherence to treatment, most commonly ART, remains a large barrier to effective provision of HIV treatment. In 2016, about 53% ...
Non-compliance with treatment regimens has also been highlighted as contributing increasing drug resistance. In Fry et al.'s ... Inadequacy of the current WHO re-treatment regimen in a central Siberian prison: treatment failure and MDR-TB. The ... note that while non-adherence does not directly increase drug resistance, the heightened bacterial load of non-compliant and ... The Economist, October 19, 2013 Nachega, J., & Chaisson, R. (2003). Tuberculosis Drug Resistance: A Global Threat. Clinical ...
... "resistance" genes. Resistant varieties accumulate, and treatment failure finally occurs. ... Treatment with an antihelminthic drug kills worms whose phenotype renders them susceptible to the drug, but resistant parasites ... Anthelmintic resistance[edit]. The ability of parasites to survive treatments that are generally effective at the recommended ... and has helped spur development of aminoacetonitrile derivatives for treatment against drug-resistant nematodes, as well as ...
Failure rates of 27% in certain African countries have been reported. This was caused by both drug resistance and additional ... "The phenomenon of treatment failures in Human African Trypanosomiasis". Tropical Medicine and International Health. 6: 906-914 ... Resistance can occur with point mutations within this transporter. Resistance has been present since the 1970s. Although ... "Melarsoprol Drug Information, Professional". www.drugs.com. 20 December 1994. Archived from the original on 30 December 2016. ...
The most important risks are Alanine transaminase elevation, hyperbilirubinemia, drug resistance development and drug ... One randomized, open-label study was done on patients that had previous failure of a ribavirin/peginterferon treatment. SVR24 ... Elbasvir/grazoprevir (trade name Zepatier /ˈzɛpətɪər/ ZEP-ə-teer) is a fixed-dose two drug combination for the treatment of ... "FDA approves Zepatier for treatment of chronic hepatitis C genotypes 1 and 4". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 31 ...
Penicillin, an antibiotic, is the drug of choice for the treatment of scarlet fever as for any other S. pyogenes infection. For ... However, occasional resistance to these drugs has been reported. In Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (StrepTSS), speA ... multi-organ failure, and death. While penicillin is an effective treatment of mild infection, it is less effective in a severe ... Emerging treatments for strep TSS include clindamycin and intravenous gamma-globulin. The presence of lysogenic bacteriophage ...
2013). "Potential Impact of a Free Online HIV Treatment Response Prediction System for Reducing Virological Failures and Drug ... In well-resourced healthcare settings, when treatment fails a resistance test may be run to predict to which drugs the ... treatments continue to fail, often due to the development of resistance. During drug therapy, low-level virus replication still ... HIV-TRePS is now in use in 70 countries as a tool to predict virological response to therapy and avoid treatment failure. The ...
However, treatment with such antibiotics has been associated with high failure rates.[citation needed] TEM-1 is the most ... Plasmids responsible for ESBL production frequently carry genes encoding resistance to other drug classes (for example, ... Several reports have documented failure of cephamycin therapy as a result of resistance due to porin loss. Some patients have ... Some confer resistance predominantly to ceftazidime, but OXA-17 confers greater resistance to cefotaxime and cefepime than it ...
... thereby reducing the risk that a single mutation in microbial or tumor DNA will lead to drug resistance and treatment failure. ... It allows drugs to be combined in such a way that the likelihood of drug resistance emerging is reduced. By knowing what ... Indeed, this method is used to create new drugs. It can help identify which patients are most likely to respond to treatment. ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Antony, H.A.; Parija, S.C. (2016). "Antimalarial drug resistance: An overview". ...
... until after the trial and failure of more commonly used treatment options to prevent the development of drug resistance. One of ... Drug resistance, such as antimicrobial resistance or antineoplastic resistance, may make the first-line drug ineffective, ... A drug of last resort (DoLR) is a pharmaceutical drug that is tried after all other drug options have failed to produce an ... Mann, Samuel J. (2012). Hypertension and you : old drugs, new drugs, and the right drugs for your high blood pressure. Lanham, ...
Development of resistance to one azole in this way will confer resistance to all drugs in the class. Another resistance ... resulting in clinical failure in immunocompromised patients (e.g., patients with advanced HIV receiving treatment for thrush or ... Fungal resistance to drugs in the azole class tends to occur gradually over the course of prolonged drug therapy, ... C. glabrata develops resistance by up regulating CDR genes, and resistance in C. krusei is mediated by reduced sensitivity of ...
... the WHO and all other TB programs continue to use DOTS as an important strategy for TB delivery for fear of drug resistance. ... "A meta-analysis of self-administered vs directly observed therapy effect on microbiologic failure, relapse, and acquired drug ... Directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS, also known as TB-DOTS) is the name given to the tuberculosis (TB) control ... Styblo refined, "a treatment system of checks and balances that provided high cure rates at a cost affordable for most ...
Identified genes influencing drug resistance to malaria parasites. Helped advance a new treatment which moved from animal to ... which infects three percent of the world's population and is the leading cause of liver failure in the US. Developing vaccine ... Discovered a promising drug therapy candidate for the treatment of Ebola. Investigating genetic and dietary factors that have ... Murtha, Alex (22 September 2017). "NIAID awards $11.5 million for study of malaria parasite, relationship to drug resistance". ...
... drug resistance, virologic failure: evolving concepts". Infectious disorders drug targets 11 (2): 167-74. PMID 21406048 . ... Mills E, Wu P, Ernst E (June 2005). "Complementary therapies for the treatment of HIV: in search of the evidence". Int J STD ... Reid, SR (2009-08-28). "Injection drug use, unsafe medical injections, and HIV in Africa: a systematic review". Harm reduction ... Nachega, JB; Marconi, VC; van Zyl, GU; Gardner, EM; Preiser, W; Hong, SY; Mills, EJ; Gross, R (2011 Apr). "HIV treatment ...
Resistance[edit]. Resistance is a major cause of treatment failure in chemotherapeutic drugs. There are a few possible causes ... can occur which prevent the drugs from binding to the protein, leading to resistance to these types of drugs.[117] Drugs used ... Antibody-drug conjugates[edit]. Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) comprise an antibody, drug and a linker between them. The ... sulfa drugs) and penicillin. In today's usage, the sense "any treatment of disease with drugs" is often expressed with the word ...
Drug resistance may lead to treatment failure, but treatment failure is not necessarily caused by drug resistance despite ... The treatment regime prescribed can have a substantial influence on the development of resistance. This can involve the drug ... there is very little drug resistance among children infected with malaria on the island of Madagascar, but what drug resistance ... Drug resistant parasites are often used to explain malaria treatment failure. However, they are two potentially very different ...
... and if the respiratory failure resulted from an overdose of sedative drugs such as opioids or benzodiazepines, then the ... Treatment of the underlying cause is required. Endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation are required in cases of ... The underlying causes include: Increased airways resistance (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, suffocation) ... The basic defect in type 1 respiratory failure is failure of oxygenation characterized by: This type of respiratory failure is ...
... cross resistance where mutations confer resistance to two or more treatments can be problematic. For antibiotic resistance, ... long-term anti-microbial therapies are ultimately doomed to failure. Without alternative strategies, the acquisition of drug ... Tolerance and Resistance Cosmetics Database HCMV drug resistance mutations tool Combating Drug Resistance - An informative ... "Drug resistance develops naturally, but careless practices in drug supply and use are hastening it unnecessarily." - Center for ...
However, failures of rifampin treatment have also been reported and resistance can develop. Recently macrolides have been used ... Therapeutic failures and persistent bacteremia have been reported with chloramphenicol, and successful treatment with this drug ... So, the drug of choice is ciprofloxacin. In the chronic phase, the treatment used traditionally has been streptomycin for 10 ... Before the antibiotic era, the only treatment for the acute phase was blood transfusion, but the effectiveness of this ...
Metformin is generally recommended as a first line treatment as there is some evidence that it decreases mortality;[7][25][104] ... Type 2 diabetes is due to insufficient insulin production from beta cells in the setting of insulin resistance.[13] Insulin ... Izzedine H, Launay-Vacher V, Deybach C, Bourry E, Barrou B, Deray G (November 2005). "Drug-induced diabetes mellitus". Expert ... Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, diabetic ketoacidosis, heart disease, strokes, diabetic retinopathy, kidney failure, ...
He also added that to date there happen to be no reported treatment failures here inside U. Examples of Gram-positive bacteria ... A recommendation to find medical care if the person receiving drugs are experiencing symptoms;. Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the ... has become a concern to some experts when it comes on the topic of antibiotic resistance. Nearly 50% with the men who took part ... He also added that to date there happen to be no reported treatment failures here inside U. Examples of Gram-positive bacteria ...
... against the gold standard of virologic failure (VF), examined evolution of drug resistance among those who stayed on a failing ... Evaluation of WHO immunologic criteria for treatment failure: implications for detection of virologic failure, evolution of ... India; WHO criteria; genotype; immunologic failure; resistance; resource-limited settings; virologic failure ... drug resistance and choice of second-line therapy in India.. Vallabhaneni S1, Chandy S, Heylen E, Ekstrand ML. ...
Low-frequency HIV-1 drug resistance mutations and risk of NNRTI-based antiretroviral treatment failure: a systematic review and ... Low-frequency HIV-1 drug resistance mutations and risk of NNRTI-based antiretroviral treatment failure: a systematic review and ... Drug Resistance, Viral, HIV Infections, HIV-1, Humans, Mutation, Risk, Treatment Failure. ... Low-frequency HIV-1 drug resistance mutations were associated with an increased risk of virologic failure (hazard ratio (HR], ...
... assess long-term treatment failure and drug resistance using novel resistance testing technologies; use the established AMPATH ... with viral failure and drug resistance; Aim 3: Study long-term immunologic, virologic and drug resistance outcomes and their ... HIV Treatment Failure and Drug Resistance in Western Kenyan Children. *Vreeman, Rachel (PI) ... The purpose of this proposal is to longitudinally investigate treatment failure, drug resistance and associated factors among a ...
New WHO Guidance Report- Treatment Failure and Drug Resistance. zakaria on 20 July 2017 ... HIV drug resistance report 2017. "Antimicrobial drug resistance is a growing challenge to global health and sustainable ... HIV drug resistance develops when people do not adhere to a prescribed treatment plan, often because they do not have ... UNAIDSHIVHepatitis CGlobal policy reportsofosbuvirPharmaguideHepatitispregnancyChanging treatmentdrug resistancecombination ...
Drug resistance is one of the main reasons why HIV treatments fail, said Dr. Gulick, director of the Cornell HIV Clinical ... Factors affecting HIV drug resistance include the virus itself, the antiretroviral drugs used, and the characteristics of the ... Drug resistance poses a problem in treating HIV patients, in part because of the viruss high mutation rate, Roy M. Gulick, M.D ... Failure to suppress viral load levels in the presence of antiretroviral drugs leads to the development of a resistant strain, ...
Drug resistance and treatment failure in leishmaniasis: A 21st century challenge.. Ponte-Sucre A1, Gamarro F2, Dujardin JC3, ... Drug resistance and treatment failure in leishmaniasis: A 21st century challenge. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017 Dec;11(12):e0006052. ... Drug resistance and treatment failure in leishmaniasis: A 21st century challenge. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017 Dec;11(12):e0006052. ... Drug resistance is a fundamental determinant of treatment failure, although other factors also contribute to this phenomenon, ...
New tools for monitoring drug resistance and treatment response in visceral leishmaniasis in the Indian subcontinent. (KALADRUG ...
Growth failure. Disease progression. Intolerant to or are showing evidence of toxicity from other antiretroviral treatments. ... Treatment. Official Title:. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring and Viral Resistance Testing in the Treatment of HIV-Infected Children ... Therapeutic Drug Monitoring and Viral Resistance Testing in the Treatment of HIV-Infected Children. The safety and scientific ... If not enough of the drug is found in the blood, the dose of the drug will be increased and the amount of the drug in the blood ...
Pretreatment HIV Drug Resistance and HIV-1 Subtype C Are Independently Associated With Virologic Failure: Results From the ... Intervention/treatment Phase HIV Infections Drug: Atazanavir Drug: Didanosine (enteric-coated) Drug: Efavirenz Drug: ... Time to Treatment Failure (PI Comparison) [ Time Frame: Virologic failure starting 14 weeks following randomization; disease ... Time to Treatment Failure (NRTI Comparison) [ Time Frame: Virologic failure starting 14 weeks following randomization; disease ...
22.7%), or acquired extensive drug resistance (100% vs. 24.4%). To prevent acquired drug resistance and poor outcomes, baseline ... We identified risk factors for acquisition of drug resistance during treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) ... Acquisition of resistance to capreomycin and of extensively drug-resistant TB were more likely among patients who received & ... lt;3 effective drugs than among patients who received >3 effective drugs (9.4% vs. 0% and 8.6% vs. 0.8%, respectively). ...
HIV drug resistance in children with treatment failure to first-line regimens in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. ... ARV resistance in children with first-line ARV treatment failure in Vietnam is unknown because antiretroviral therapy (ART) has ... 54 HIV-infected children were identified as having suspected treatment failure from June to December 2008 in HCMC. Selection ... failure to thrive, slow growth, CD4 falling below pretreatment value or below 50% of peak treatment value). The genotypic test ...
Minority HIV-1 Drug Resistance Mutations and the Risk of NNRTI-based Antiretroviral Treatment Failure: A Systematic Review and ... Minority HIV-1 Drug Resistance Mutations and the Risk of NNRTI-based Antiretroviral Treatment Failure: A Systematic Review and ... Minority HIV-1 Drug Resistance Mutations and the Risk of NNRTI-based Antiretroviral Treatment Failure: A Systematic Review and ... Minority HIV-1 Drug Resistance Mutations and the Risk of NNRTI-based Antiretroviral Treatment Failure: A Systematic Review and ...
Tuberculosis treatment failure and drug resistance--same strain or reinfection? Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical ... reinfection is not a common cause of treatment failure or drug resistance at 6 months. ... and may show new drug resistance, due to either inadequate treatment of the original episode or reinfection with a new strain ... and 3 single-drug resistance (SDR). Of the 6 who started with SDR, 3 became MDR. HIV infection was not associated with drug ...
Drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis arises from spontaneous chromosoma … ... and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) in the era of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection presents a ... Treatment Failure * Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant / drug therapy* * Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant / microbiology * ... Molecular mechanisms of drug resistance have been elucidated for the major first- and second-line drugs rifampicin, isoniazid, ...
Resistance can lead to treatment failures.. Background. Until 2000, pneumococcal infections caused 60,000 cases of invasive ... Campaigns for more judicious use of antibiotics and expanded use of vaccines may slow or reverse emerging drug resistance. ... There are several factors that create challenges for preventing emerging drug resistance of pneumococcus, including:. * ... The need for more expensive antibiotics, new antibiotic drug development, and for surveillance to track resistance patterns ...
Drug resistance - a global-scale failure. None , 30 Jun 2010 , Africa Fighting Malaria Drug resistance is seriously undermining ... Malaria treatment, over-diagnosis and protecting ACTs. None , 28 Jun 2010 , Africa Fighting Malaria News out on Friday from ... Substandard and counterfeit drugs can be lethal to patients and accelerate drug resistance across at-risk populations. ... Drug Registration - a necessary but not sufficient condition for good quality drugs - a preliminary analysis of 12 countries. ...
Read chapter 9 Addressing Diagnosis and Treatment Across the Spectrum of Drug Resistance: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB ... Our mission must be to treat TB regardless of resistance pattern…. It is failure to treat, not treatment failure, that accounts ... Hoffner discussed results on drug resistance from Belarus and Iran. In Belarus, surveillance for drug resistance performed in ... of diagnosis and treatment across this broad range of drug resistance, with eight speakers considering both the general topic ...
Open Access journal that focuses on the optimal treatment of infection (bacterial, fungal and viral) and the development and ... institution of preventative strategies to minimize the development and spread of resistance. ... Mycoplasma genitalium infection: current treatment options, therapeutic failure, and resistance-associated mutations Couldwell ... Lymphogranuloma venereum: diagnostic and treatment challenges Ceovic R, Jerkovic Gulin S. Infection and Drug Resistance 2015, 8 ...
Drug resistance? Primary malaria treatment fails to cure 4 patients in the UK. A key malaria treatment has failed for the first ... time, prompting scientists to fear the disease could be becoming resistant to the primary drugs used to counter it. The failure ... and insulin resistance (IR), and grouped together as the insulin resistance syndrome or syndrome X. There is also an increased ...
... and drug susceptibility testing are available have been published by the American Thoracic Society (ATS), the Centers for ... Recommendations for the treatment of tuberculosis in settings where mycobacterial cultures, radiographic facilities, ... Reasons for treatment failure in patients receiving appropriate regimens may include drug resistance, nonadherence to the drug ... Relapse, Treatment Failure, and Drug Resistance. Most relapses occur within six to 12 months after completion of therapy and ...
These often include the presence of drugs, forcing pathogens... ... Treatment failure in leishmaniasis: drug-resistance or another ... This has important implications on the development of drug resistance and on the frequency of treatment failure cases in ... Leishmania species and discuss its relevance for the development and spread of drug resistance and/or treatment failure in the ... These often include the presence of drugs, forcing pathogens to adapt and develop drug resistance in order to survive. The ...
  • and Aim 4: Enhance analyses of viral failure, drug resistance accumulation and associated demographic and clinical factors by examining the longitudinal banked samples available for a subset of the study cohort (n=327). (elsevier.com)
  • Drug resistance is one of the main reasons why HIV treatments fail, said Dr. Gulick, director of the Cornell HIV Clinical Trials Unit at Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York. (mdedge.com)
  • However, studies of the effectiveness of resistance testing are limited by several factors, including problems with the clinical cutoffs-when the drugs lose activity over time-and questions as to whether the studies had enrolled patients who had failed multiple treatments. (mdedge.com)
  • Drug resistance has also played a significant and clinical manifestation in different parts of the role in the occurrence and severity of epidemics in world. (cdc.gov)
  • 1 In areas with high rates of transmission (mostly in Africa south of the Sahara), where asymptomatic infections are frequent and health infra- structures are often inadequate, most malaria treatment is based on clinical diagnosis alone. (who.int)
  • Selection criteria were one of the clinical or immunological criteria defined by the Vietnam Ministry of Health (development or recurrence of a WHO stage III or IV condition, failure to thrive, slow growth, CD4 falling below pretreatment value or below 50% of peak treatment value). (biomedcentral.com)
  • After confirmation of drug resistance, Epidemic Intelligence Service officers obtained clinical and epidemiologic data by medical record review and interviews with household contacts and attending physicians for all patients. (cdc.gov)
  • Oseltamivir-resistance tests were not performed for these 8 patients because they all received oseltamivir therapy and their clinical symptoms resolved. (cdc.gov)
  • Treatment should be tailored and supervised based on the clinical and social factors of each patient. (aafp.org)
  • We evaluated parasite load (PL) over time as a potential biomarker of treatment outcome in ML. PL was assessed with kinetoplast DNA quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (kDNA-qPCR) at enrollment, days 14 and 21-28 of therapy and 3, 6, 12-18, and 18-24 months after treatment of ML and correlated to demographic, clinical, and parasitologic factors. (ajtmh.org)
  • When added to best supportive care, regorafenib significantly improves disease control, as measured by progression-free survival time in patients with GIST after progression which represents failure of all other therapies," said George Demetri, MD , of Dana-Farber, principal investigator of this clinical trial. (healthcanal.com)
  • Methods and analysis A pragmatic first trial will examine the clinical efficacy of a simple and low-cost TTO treatment against paediatric scabies and the prevention of associated secondary bacterial infections, with 1:1 randomisation of 200 participants (Aboriginal children, aged 5-16 years and living in remote Australia) into active control (permethrin 5% cream) and treatment (5% TTO gel) groups. (bmj.com)
  • Theoretical considerations, as well as the clinical experience to date, suggest that HAART can be a successful method of lifelong treatment for some patients. (aerzteblatt.de)
  • A new study is providing scientists with a better understanding of why some pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients fail to respond to treatment even when existing clinical predictive criteria point towards a positive treatment outcome. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The study assessed the frequency of SP resistance-conferring polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum -positive samples from two clinical studies in Lambaréné. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Their role on treatment responses and transmission potential was studied in an efficacy open-label clinical trial with a 28-day follow-up in 29 children under five with uncomplicated malaria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • PCR-corrected, 12/26 (46%) achieved an adequate clinical and parasitological response, 13/26 (50%) were late parasitological failures, while 1/26 (4%) had an early treatment failure, resulting in early trial discontinuation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using "virtual patients" created in a computer based on data from clinical studies, the team was recently able to examine the dynamics of development of drug resistance. (fu-berlin.de)
  • As a drug, it is used in the clinical treatment of Parkinson's disease and dopamine-responsive dystonia . (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent advances in antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) technology have also initiated a surge of new ADCs in clinical development and offer a targeted alternative to standard chemotherapy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • As with all cancer treatments, there is room to improve clinical benefit for this new generation of therapy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • If clearance of the infection within 4 days is verified, the patients are then followed up weekly over a follow-up period, typically 28 or 42 days, to observe for clinical and laboratory signs of treatment failure. (asm.org)
  • Considerable progress has been made in the treatment of metastatic RCC over the past decade, with the development and incorporation into clinical care of agents that block the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway (2) or the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. (mskcc.org)
  • Early molecular detection of MDRcancers before clinical failure has the potential to offer new approaches to fighting MDRcancer. (mdpi.com)
  • Analysis of drug-susceptibility patterns and gene sequences associated with clarithromycin and amikacin resistance in serial Mycobacterium abscessus isolates from clinical specimens from Northeast Thailand. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The finding may lead to novel strategies, as well as guidance from clinical biomarkers that could help predict and reduce the risk of drug resistance , a major obstacle in leukemia treatment. (medindia.net)
  • Resistance was assessed using standard International AIDS Society-USA (IAS-USA) recommendations. (nih.gov)
  • We need to proactively address the rising levels of resistance to HIV drugs if we are to achieve the global target of ending AIDS by 2030. (itpcmena.org)
  • A new five-year Global Action Plan calls on all countries and partners to join efforts to prevent, monitor and respond to HIV drug resistance and to protect the ongoing progress towards the Sustainable Development Goal of ending the AIDS epidemic by 2030. (itpcmena.org)
  • Drug resistance is a fundamental determinant of treatment failure, although other factors also contribute to this phenomenon, including the global HIV/AIDS epidemic with its accompanying impact on the immune system. (cdc.gov)
  • Improvements in human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) treatments in the United States have made the disease in many cases a chronic illness. (knowcancer.com)
  • Even without treatment, it takes a long time for HIV to progress to AIDS-usually 10 to 12 years. (wellspan.org)
  • Or download the AIDS info Drug Database App to bookmark your HIV medicines, make notes, and set daily pill reminders. (nih.gov)
  • While vast progress has been made in AIDS treatment in sub-Saharan Africa, barely a dent has been made in HIV infection rates among young women (which are significantly higher than among young men). (avac.org)
  • Current antiretroviral treatment (ART) guidelines recommend different combinations that have led to major improvements in the management of HIV and AIDS in the developed and developing world. (who.int)
  • Max von Kleist is using mathematical methods to study strategies to counter drug resistance in AIDS treatment. (fu-berlin.de)
  • We are working on mathematical models to improve treatment of infectious diseases like AIDS and influenza," von Kleist explains. (fu-berlin.de)
  • It is characterized by much slower progression to AIDS and resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Thus, the Office of AIDS Research, the National Institutes of Health, and the Department of Health and Human Services, in collaboration with the Henry J. Kaiser Foundation, have assumed a leadership role in formulating the scientific principles (NIH Panel) and developing the guidelines (DHHS/ Kaiser Panel) for the use of antiretroviral drugs that are presented in this report. (cdc.gov)
  • Viral load monitoring for HIV is the regular measurement of the viral load of individual HIV-positive people as part of their personal plan for treatment of HIV/AIDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral load monitoring is used by HIV-positive people to develop a plan for their personal treatment of HIV/AIDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the Asia Pacific region has witnessed success over the past decade in reducing malaria cases and deaths by approximately 25 percent, it also has the world's highest rates of anti-malarial drug resistance exacerbated by the circulation of fake medicines. (globalissues.org)
  • Head, Molecular Cell Genetics, Multidrug Resistance Unit , Centre for Cancer Research, US National Cancer Institute) and cites more than 260 References. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We're targeting a resistance mechanism that's shared by a whole bunch of pathogens," said Bruce Geller, professor of microbiology in OSU's College of Science and College of Agricultural Sciences, who's been researching molecular medicine for more than a decade. (medindia.net)
  • Understanding why Armenians do not seek or delay TB medical care is important to increase detection rates, improve treatment outcomes, and reduce ongoing transmission. (hindawi.com)
  • This generally very uncommon in the adherent patient, and (since you didn't mention to the contrary) raises the question as to whether you might have already had NNRTI resistance before you started treatments. (thebody.com)
  • Regions for which there is evidence of resistance should consider adding more sentinel sites to facilitate early detection of new resistance foci. (who.int)
  • To measure and achieve this, the World Health Assembly (WHA) highlighted two indicators: 70% global and in-country case detection rates and successful treatment of 85% of cases [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • WHO has urged regulatory authorities in malaria-endemic countries to take measures to halt the production and marketing of oAMT, and promote access to quality-assured ACTs for the treatment of falciparum malaria. (who.int)
  • In areas of low transmission where antimalarial drug resistance is present, countries should target rapid elimination of falciparum malaria to limit the risk of spread and minimize the impact of resistance in the region. (who.int)
  • P. falciparum resistance to artemisinin is present in 5 countries of the subregion: Cambodia, the Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Thailand and Viet Nam. (who.int)
  • PCR-HRM is an inexpensive option for the determination of drug resistance profile in P. falciparum and will see increasing use as an alternative to sequencing and 5'nuclease PCR assays in reference laboratories or once PCR systems that are able to conduct HRM become commonplace. (malariaworld.org)