P-Glycoprotein: A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).Drug Resistance, Multiple: Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins: A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.P-Glycoproteins: A subfamily of transmembrane proteins from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that are closely related in sequence to P-GLYCOPROTEIN. When overexpressed, they function as ATP-dependent efflux pumps able to extrude lipophilic drugs, especially ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, from cells causing multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although P-Glycoproteins share functional similarities to MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS they are two distinct subclasses of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS, and have little sequence homology.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Genes, MDR: Genes for MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that confer resistance to toxic compounds. Several superfamilies of these multidrug export proteins are known and found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.R Factors: A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Acidic Glycosphingolipids: A subclass of GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS containing large polar heads made up of several sugar units. One or more of their terminal sugar units are bound to a negatively charged molecule at pH 7. Members of this class include: GANGLIOSIDES, uronoglycosphingolipids, SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS, phosphoglycosphingolipids, and phosphonoglycosphingolipids.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Leukotriene C4: The conjugation product of LEUKOTRIENE A4 and glutathione. It is the major arachidonic acid metabolite in macrophages and human mast cells as well as in antigen-sensitized lung tissue. It stimulates mucus secretion in the lung, and produces contractions of nonvascular and some VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Tetracycline: A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.Neutral Glycosphingolipids: A subclass of GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS containing one or more sugars within their head group connected directly to a ceramide moiety. They consist of monoglycosyl-, and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Vault Ribonucleoprotein Particles: Large cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein particles that have an eight-fold symmetry with a central pore and petal-like structure giving the appearance of an octagonal dome. (The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 2nd ed.)Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Drug Resistance, Fungal: The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Verapamil: A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.Colchicine: A major alkaloid from Colchicum autumnale L. and found also in other Colchicum species. Its primary therapeutic use is in the treatment of gout, but it has been used also in the therapy of familial Mediterranean fever (PERIODIC DISEASE).Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant: Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Mitoxantrone: An anthracenedione-derived antineoplastic agent.AcridinesPlant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Tetracycline Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TETRACYCLINE which inhibits aminoacyl-tRNA binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit during protein synthesis.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Tetrahydroisoquinolines: A group of ISOQUINOLINES in which the nitrogen containing ring is protonated. They derive from the non-enzymatic Pictet-Spengler condensation of CATECHOLAMINES with ALDEHYDES.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Streptomycin: An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Fungal: The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutations.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Antimalarials: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)HIV Protease: Enzyme of the human immunodeficiency virus that is required for post-translational cleavage of gag and gag-pol precursor polyproteins into functional products needed for viral assembly. HIV protease is an aspartic protease encoded by the amino terminus of the pol gene.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Isoniazid: Antibacterial agent used primarily as a tuberculostatic. It remains the treatment of choice for tuberculosis.Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.IndiaSequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.HIV Reverse Transcriptase: A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.Sulfinpyrazone: A uricosuric drug that is used to reduce the serum urate levels in gout therapy. It lacks anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and diuretic properties.QuinolinesRifampin: A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Flax: A plant genus of the family LINACEAE that is cultivated for its fiber (manufactured into linen cloth). It contains a trypsin inhibitor and the seed is the source of LINSEED OIL.Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.Chloroquine: The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Vincristine: An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)Antibiotics, Antineoplastic: Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Parasitic Sensitivity Tests: Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.Nitrofurantoin: A urinary anti-infective agent effective against most gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. Although sulfonamides and antibiotics are usually the agents of choice for urinary tract infections, nitrofurantoin is widely used for prophylaxis and long-term suppression.Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Rhodamine 123: A fluorescent probe with low toxicity which is a potent substrate for P-glycoprotein and the bacterial multidrug efflux transporter. It is used to assess mitochondrial bioenergetics in living cells and to measure the efflux activity of P-glycoprotein in both normal and malignant cells. (Leukemia 1997;11(7):1124-30)Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Daunorubicin: A very toxic anthracycline aminoglycoside antineoplastic isolated from Streptomyces peucetius and others, used in treatment of LEUKEMIA and other NEOPLASMS.HIV Protease Inhibitors: Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Topotecan: An antineoplastic agent used to treat ovarian cancer. It works by inhibiting DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE I.Cyclic P-OxidesMethotrexate: An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Pyrimethamine: One of the FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS that is used as an antimalarial or with a sulfonamide to treat toxoplasmosis.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Mutation, Missense: A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)Propionates: Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.Cladosporium: A mitosporic Loculoascomycetes fungal genus including some economically important plant parasites. Teleomorphs include Mycosphaerella and Venturia.Kanamycin: Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.beta-Lactam Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Resistance Training: A type of strength-building exercise program that requires the body muscle to exert a force against some form of resistance, such as weight, stretch bands, water, or immovable objects. Resistance exercise is a combination of static and dynamic contractions involving shortening and lengthening of skeletal muscles.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Estrone: An aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen. It is converted from ANDROSTENEDIONE directly, or from TESTOSTERONE via ESTRADIOL. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, PLACENTA, and the ADIPOSE TISSUE of men and postmenopausal women.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Paclitaxel: A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Organic Anion Transporters: Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Chloramphenicol Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of CHLORAMPHENICOL, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis in the 50S ribosomal subunit where amino acids are added to nascent bacterial polypeptides.Pseudomonas syringae: A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Vinblastine: Antitumor alkaloid isolated from Vinca rosea. (Merck, 11th ed.)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Sulfadoxine: A long acting sulfonamide that is used, usually in combination with other drugs, for respiratory, urinary tract, and malarial infections.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Ampicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of a microbe to the action of ampicillin, a penicillin derivative that interferes with cell wall synthesis.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Tetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction 7,8-dihyrofolate and NADPH to yield 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate and NADPH+, producing reduced folate for amino acid metabolism, purine ring synthesis, and the formation of deoxythymidine monophosphate. Methotrexate and other folic acid antagonists used as chemotherapeutic drugs act by inhibiting this enzyme. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 1.5.1.3.pol Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the POL GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Etoposide: A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Benzbromarone: Uricosuric that acts by increasing uric acid clearance. It is used in the treatment of gout.Myxovirus Resistance Proteins: Interferon-induced DYNAMIN-like GTP-binding proteins localized in the cytoplasm, nuclear pore complex and nucleus. They play a role in antiviral defense and immunity.Pyrimidines: A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Organophosphonates: Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.Ethambutol: An antitubercular agent that inhibits the transfer of mycolic acids into the cell wall of the tubercle bacillus. It may also inhibit the synthesis of spermidine in mycobacteria. The action is usually bactericidal, and the drug can penetrate human cell membranes to exert its lethal effect. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p863)DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Erythromycin: A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.Plant Immunity: The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Azoles: Five membered rings containing a NITROGEN atom.PiperazinesAnti-Retroviral Agents: Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Dihydropteroate Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of dihydropteroate from p-aminobenzoic acid and dihydropteridine-hydroxymethyl-pyrophosphate. EC 2.5.1.15.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Jaundice, Chronic Idiopathic: A benign, autosomally recessive inherited hyperbilirubinemia characterized by the presence of a dark pigment in the centrilobular region of the liver cells. There is a functional defect in biliary excretion of bilirubin, cholephilic dyes, and porphyrins. Affected persons may be asymptomatic or have vague constitutional or gastrointestinal symptoms. The liver may be slightly enlarged, and oral and intravenous cholangiography fails to visualize the biliary tract.Xenobiotics: Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.Camptothecin: An alkaloid isolated from the stem wood of the Chinese tree, Camptotheca acuminata. This compound selectively inhibits the nuclear enzyme DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE I. Several semisynthetic analogs of camptothecin have demonstrated antitumor activity.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Probenecid: The prototypical uricosuric agent. It inhibits the renal excretion of organic anions and reduces tubular reabsorption of urate. Probenecid has also been used to treat patients with renal impairment, and, because it reduces the renal tubular excretion of other drugs, has been used as an adjunct to antibacterial therapy.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Phytophthora infestans: A species of parasitic OOMYCETES in the family Peronosporaceae that is the causative agent of late blight of potato.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Oomycetes: Eukaryotes in the group STRAMENOPILES, formerly considered FUNGI, whose exact taxonomic level is unsettled. Many consider Oomycetes (Oomycota) a phylum in the kingdom Stramenopila, or alternatively, as Pseudofungi in the phylum Heterokonta of the kingdom Chromista. They are morphologically similar to fungi but have no close phylogenetic relationship to them. Oomycetes are found in both fresh and salt water as well as in terrestrial environments. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp683-4). They produce flagellated, actively motile spores (zoospores) that are pathogenic to many crop plants and FISHES.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.KB Cells: This line KB is now known to be a subline of the ubiquitous KERATIN-forming tumor cell line HeLa. It was originally thought to be derived from an epidermal carcinoma of the mouth, but was subsequently found, based on isoenzyme analysis, HeLa marker chromosomes, and DNA fingerprinting, to have been established via contamination by HELA CELLS. The cells are positive for keratin by immunoperoxidase staining. KB cells have been reported to contain human papillomavirus18 (HPV-18) sequences.Sulfonamides: A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Antiporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Methicillin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.Fluoresceins: A family of spiro(isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-(9H)xanthen)-3-one derivatives. These are used as dyes, as indicators for various metals, and as fluorescent labels in immunoassays.Leprostatic Agents: Substances that suppress Mycobacterium leprae, ameliorate the clinical manifestations of leprosy, and/or reduce the incidence and severity of leprous reactions.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Metabolic Detoxication, Drug: Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Chlorambucil: A nitrogen mustard alkylating agent used as antineoplastic for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, and others. Although it is less toxic than most other nitrogen mustards, it has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (Merck Index, 11th ed)Azides: Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
DJS is due to a defect in the multiple drug resistance protein 2 gene (ABCC2), located on chromosome 10. It is an autosomal ... Impaired biliary excretion of bilirubin glucuronides is due to a mutation in the canalicular multiple drug-resistance protein 2 ... Plentiful canalicular multiple drug-resistant protein causes bilirubin transfer to bile canaliculi. An isoform of this protein ...
Lymphocyte antigen 6E is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LY6E gene. Increased expression of Ly6E is associated with ... Ly6E is associated with drug resistance and tumor immune escape in breast cancer. Further research is required to validate Ly6E ... poor survival outcome in multiple malignancies as determined by a survey of more than 130 published clinical studies of gene ... immune escape and drug resistance". Cancer Research. 76: canres.2654.2015. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-15-2654. ISSN 0008-5472. ...
Gatignol, A., Durand, H. & Tiraby, G. (1988). "Bleomycin resistance conferred by a drug-binding protein". FEBS Lett. 230: 171- ... The Sh ble gene product binds the antibiotic in a one-to-one ratio so it can no longer cause cleavage of DNA. This resistance ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Pfeifer TA, Hegedus DD, Grigliatti TA, Theilmann DA (1997). "Baculovirus ... Resistance to zeocin is conferred by the product of the Sh ble gene first isolated from Streptoalloteichus hindustanus. ...
Le Hir H, Izaurralde E, Maquat LE, Moore MJ (2000). "The spliceosome deposits multiple proteins 20-24 nucleotides upstream of ... of differentially expressed genes in human melanoma cells with acquired resistance to various antineoplastic drugs". Int. J. ... The human DEK gene encodes the DEK protein. This gene encodes a protein with one SAP domain. The protein binds to cruciform and ... Gene. 343 (1): 1-9. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2004.08.029. PMID 15563827. Denisenko ON, O'Neill B, Ostrowski J, Van Seuningen I, ...
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ABCC10 gene. The protein encoded by ... 2004). "Analysis of the drug resistance profile of multidrug resistance protein 7 (ABCC10): resistance to docetaxel". Cancer ... Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants; however, not all variants have been fully described ... 2007). "Multidrug resistance-associated protein 7 expression is involved in cross-resistance to docetaxel in salivary gland ...
... protein family responsible for drug resistance. This gene is one of two members of the MATE transporter family located near ... The multidrug efflux transporter NorM from V. parahaemolyticus which mediates resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents ( ... is a protein which in humans is encoded by the SLC47A2 gene. This gene encodes a protein belonging to a family of transporters ... Brown MH, Paulsen IT, Skurray RA (January 1999). "The multidrug efflux protein NorM is a prototype of a new family of ...
The ER substrates or coenzyme A can be polyubiquitinated by multiple cycles of the reaction or, depending on linkage proteins, ... affect cell growth and ultimately contribute to drug resistance. The ratio of ERα and ERβ at a target site may be another way ... Together they play an important part in the interaction with other co-regulatory proteins that control gene transcription. AF-1 ... de Médina P, Favre G, Poirot M (Nov 2004). "Multiple targeting by the antitumor drug tamoxifen: a structure-activity study". ...
It also decreases the expression of multi-drug resistance, vascular endothelial growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase-2 ... enters the tumour cells by way of receptor-mediated endocytosis and begins to over-express genes coding for the p53 protein ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Peng, Zhaohui (May 1, 2004). "The Genesis of Gendicine: The Story Behind the ... Introgen's Advexin, a similar gene therapy that also uses adenovirus to deliver the p53 gene, was turned down by the FDA in ...
January 2002). "Augmented expression of P-gp/multi-drug resistance gene by all-trans retinoic acid in monocytic leukemic cells ... "Expression of low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (Lrp4) gene in the mouse germ cells". Gene Expression Patterns ... December 2006). "Neural crest-derived cells with stem cell features can be traced back to multiple lineages in the adult skin ... Below is a list of genes/protein products that can be used to identify various types of stem cells, or functional assays that ...
... breast cancer resistance protein). To solve the problems associated with multidrug-resistance by MDR1, different types of drugs ... roles of heme and siderophore iron transport in virulence and identification of a gene associated with multiple iron transport ... Drug Resistance ATPase-1 (Drug RA1) (Putative) Drug Resistance ATPase-2 (Drug RA2) Macrolide Exporter (MacB) Peptide-4 Exporter ... Bacterial drug resistance has become an increasingly major health problem. One of the mechanisms for drug resistance is ...
The application of TIMPs as therapeutic instrument through gene therapy or direct protein application is still in early stages ... Drug Resistance Updates. 7 (3): 195-208. doi:10.1016/j.drup.2004.04.002. Whittaker, Mark; Ayscough, Andrew (2001). "Matrix ... Instead, they inhibit multiple MMPs, some of which have protective functions or are not related to pathology. MMPs have been ... The drug is highly lipophilic and able to cross the blood brain barrier at higher doses. COL-3 accumulates in higher ...
This gene is a member of the superfamily of genes encoding ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport ... which is involved in multi-drug resistance, but the human locus is now thought to be a pseudogene incapable of encoding a ... functional ABC protein. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants; however, not all variants have been fully ... Putative ATP-binding cassette transporter sub-family C member 13 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ABCC13 gene. ...
... is a human enzyme encoded by the APOBEC3G gene that belongs to the APOBEC superfamily of proteins. This family of proteins has ... Mulder LC, Harari A, Simon V (2008). "Cytidine deamination induced HIV-1 drug resistance". PNAS. 105 (14): 5501-6. doi:10.1073/ ... Joao G, Mariana SM (2004). "HIV-1 Vif and APOBEC3G: Multiple roads to one goal". Retrovirology. 1 (28). doi:10.1186/1742-4690-1 ... "Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ...
... gene is overexpressed in cisplatin-resistant human cancer cell lines with decreased drug accumulation". Cancer Res. 56 (18): ... Miller DS (November 2001). "Nucleoside phosphonate interactions with multiple organic anion transporters in renal proximal ... Substrates include anticancer drugs such as vinblastine; therefore, this protein appears to contribute to drug resistance in ... this protein is a member of the MRP subfamily, which is involved in multi-drug resistance. This protein is expressed in the ...
... of differentially expressed genes in human melanoma cells with acquired resistance to various antineoplastic drugs". ... protein family. They differentiated BHLHE41/SHARP1 and BHLHE/40SHARP2 from other BHLH-protein encoding genes since they are not ... this acts as a suppressor for per gene transcription. BHLHE41 has also been implicated in multiple other pathways. Deregulation ... BHLHE41 is a member of the DEC subfamily within the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins gene family. BHLHE41 was mapped to ...
However, defects in proteins such as MAD2 that function predominantly at the SAC also are characterized in multiple myeloma. ... However, these treatments are often characterized by high rates of side effects and drug resistance. Other targets within the ... Cancer-associated mutations affecting known checkpoint genes like BUB1 or BUBR1 are actually rare. However, several proteins ... The activated GTP-bound form of Ran releases microtubule-stabilizing proteins, such as TPX2, from protein complexes in the ...
"Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel gene of Candida albicans, CDR1, conferring multiple resistance to drugs and ... MDR protein, P-glycoprotein, pleiotropic-drug-resistance protein, PDR protein, steroid-transporting ATPase, and ATP ... Keppler D, Konig J, Buchler M (1997). "The canalicular multidrug resistance protein, cMRP/MRP2, a novel conjugate export pump ... Loe DW, Deeley RG, Cole SP (1998). "Characterization of vincristine transport by the M(r) 190,000 multidrug resistance protein ...
... which suggests which genes are important for resistance to that drug. A dCas9 fusion with VP64, p65, and HSF1 (heat shock ... the dCas9-SAM system was developed to incorporate multiple transcriptional factors. Utilizing MS2, p65, and HSF1 proteins, ... In order for a protein to be made from the gene that encodes it, RNA polymerase must make RNA from the DNA template of the gene ... Researchers have used multiple guide RNAs to target dCas9 activation system to multiple genes in a specific mouse strain in ...
The chances of drug resistance can sometimes be minimized by using multiple drugs simultaneously. This works because individual ... Fecal bacteriotherapy Mass drug administration Multidrug resistance Pharmacoepidemiology Small multidrug resistance protein ... Unless the drug used makes sexual reproduction or cell-division or horizontal gene transfer impossible in the entire target ... Tolerance and Resistance Cosmetics Database HCMV drug resistance mutations tool Combating Drug Resistance - An informative ...
"Overexpression of PDZK1 within the 1q12-q22 Amplicon Is Likely To Be Associated with Drug-Resistance Phenotype in Multiple ... Na(+)/H(+) exchange regulatory cofactor NHE-RF3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PDZK1 gene. PDZK1 has been shown ... the multidrug resistance-associated protein". Lab. Invest. 79 (9): 1161-70. PMID 10496535. Ikemoto M, Arai H, Feng D, Tanaka K ... a novel protein containing PDZ interaction domains". Lab Invest. 78 (1): 117-25. PMID 9461128. "Entrez Gene: PDZK1 PDZ domain ...
This process is thought to be a significant cause of increased drug resistance when one bacterial cell acquires resistance, and ... The neochrome gene arrived about 180 million years ago. Pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) contain multiple genes from fungi. ... PDF article on Horizontal Gene Transfer The New Yorker, July 12, 1999, pp. 44-61 "Smallpox knows how to make a mouse protein. ... Citizendium:Horizontal gene transfer Citizendium:Horizontal gene transfer in prokaryotes Citizendium:Horizontal gene transfer ...
In these conditions, they regulate the tumor suppressor gene CDON. It has been shown that miR-181 targets the homeobox protein ... miR-181 could acquire a resistance to tamoxifen, the drug is successfully used to treat women with estrogen receptor-positive ... "MicroRNAs regulate critical genes associated with multiple myeloma pathogenesis". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... MiRNA signature for multiple myeloma (MM) has been described, including miR-181a and miR-181b, which modulate the expression of ...
"Resistance to multiple novel antifolates is mediated via defective drug transport resulting from clustered mutations in the ... is a protein which in humans is encoded by the SLC19A1 gene. Transport of folate compounds into mammalian cells can occur via ... "Structural analysis of the human RFC-1 gene encoding a folate transporter reveals multiple promoters and alternatively spliced ... Moscow JA, Gong M, He R, Sgagias MK, Dixon KH, Anzick SL, Meltzer PS, Cowan KH (September 1995). "Isolation of a gene encoding ...
The mtr (multiple transferable resistance) gene encodes for an efflux pump. Efflux pumps mediate resistance to a variety of ... The penA gene encodes an alternative penicillin-binding protein, PBP-2. This mechanism falls under the second general mechanism ... as treatment for this infection in developing countries because the cost for the drug is low As with the penicillin resistance ... Multiple amino acid substation mutations in the gyrA gene, which encodes for the DNA gyrase, have been seen extensively. DNA ...
... of differentially expressed genes in human melanoma cells with acquired resistance to various antineoplastic drugs". ... Gene ontology. Molecular function. • DNA binding. • protein dimerization activity. • protein homodimerization activity. • MRF ... their gene expressions are regulated by multiple extracellular stimuli". Frontiers in Bioscience. 10: 3151-71. doi:10.2741/1772 ... protein family.[12] They differentiated BHLHE41/SHARP1 and BHLHE/40SHARP2 from other BHLH-protein encoding genes since they are ...
SHC-transforming protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SHC1 gene. SHC has been found to be important in the ... regulation of apoptosis and drug resistance in mammalian cells. SCOP classifies the 3D structure as belonging to the SH2 domain ... SHC proteins are differentially regulated by the Multiple Copies in T-cell malignancy(MCT-1). This regulation affects the SHC- ... The gene SHC1 is located on chromosome 1 and encodes 3 main protein isoforms: p66SHC, p52SHC and p46SHC. These proteins differ ...
"Entrez Gene: EPHA2 EPH receptor A2". "Counteracting Drug Resistance in Melanoma". 2015. Hahn AS, Kaufmann JK, Wies E, ... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EPHA2 gene. This gene belongs to the ephrin receptor subfamily of the protein- ... Wilkinson DG (2001). "Multiple roles of EPH receptors and ephrins in neural development". Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 2 (3): 155-64. ... This gene encodes a protein that binds ephrin-A ligands. It may be implicated in BRAF mutated melanomas becoming resistant to ...
Decreased mutation rate for cellular resistance to doxorubicin and suppression of mdr1 gene activation by the cyclosporin PSC ... A hot-start reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction protocol that initiates multiple analyses simultaneously. Anal ... The drug resistance-related protein LRP is the human major vault protein. Nat Med 1995;1: 578-82.. *CrossRef, ... Vault-related resistance to anticancer drugs determined by the expression of the major vault protein LRP. Cytotechnology 1998; ...
The blaNDM-5 gene was acquired by horizontal plasmid transfer from NDM-5-producing Escherichia coli. We identified genomic ... transcriptional regulator protein of the multiple antimicrobial drug resistance repressor family; NDM, New Delhi metallo-β- ... Klebsiella pneumoniae: a major worldwide source and shuttle for antibiotic resistance. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2017;41:252-75. DOI ... The role of epidemic resistance plasmids and international high-risk clones in the spread of multidrug-resistant ...
... of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) ... Protein. Similar proteins. Species. Score. Length. Source. C6CS78. EmrB/QacA subfamily drug resistance transporter. ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Drug resistance transporter, EmrB/QacA subfamilyImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using ...
... the epidemic cannot be attributed to a sudden increase in parasite drug resistance of local parasite populations. ... despite a high prevalence of resistance to chloroquine, ... highly polymorphic loci from merozoite surface protein genes. ... Approximately 50% of the blood samples contained multiple msp1 or msp2 genotypes. The mean multiplicity of infection, i.e., the ... Malaria Epidemic and Drug Resistance, Djibouti. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(2):317-321. doi:10.3201/eid1102.040108.. ...
DJS is due to a defect in the multiple drug resistance protein 2 gene (ABCC2), located on chromosome 10. It is an autosomal ... Impaired biliary excretion of bilirubin glucuronides is due to a mutation in the canalicular multiple drug-resistance protein 2 ... Plentiful canalicular multiple drug-resistant protein causes bilirubin transfer to bile canaliculi. An isoform of this protein ...
... encoded by the cyp51A gene; although recently, other resistance mechanisms have also been implicated. In addition, a shift in ... This paper reviews the current situation of Aspergillus azole resistance and its implications in the clinical setting. ... The main mechanism of resistance is the modification of the azole target enzyme: 14-α sterol demethylase, ... there has been an increasing number of papers describing the emergence of azole resistance. Firstly reported in the USA and ...
Genes encoding multiple drug resistance-like proteins in Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. ... a Cryptococcus neoformans gene encoding a protein related to multidrug resistance proteins. ... Open innovation for phenotypic drug discovery: The PD2 assay panel.. Lee JA, Chu S, Willard FS, Cox KL, Sells Galvin RJ, Peery ... Acyl carrier protein synthases from gram-negative, gram-positive, and atypical bacterial species: Biochemical and structural ...
... suggesting diverse genetic/epigenetic mechanisms of crenolanib resistance. Drug combinations in experimental models restore ... Here, to investigate the mechanisms of crenolanib resistance, we perform whole exome sequencing of AML patient samples before ... Crenolanib, a potent type I pan-FLT3 inhibitor, is effective against both internal tandem duplications and resistance- ... to show that resistance occurs due to diverse molecular mechanisms, not primarily due to secondary FLT3 mutations. ...
Gatignol, A., Durand, H. & Tiraby, G. (1988). "Bleomycin resistance conferred by a drug-binding protein". FEBS Lett. 230: 171- ... The Sh ble gene product binds the antibiotic in a one-to-one ratio so it can no longer cause cleavage of DNA. This resistance ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Pfeifer TA, Hegedus DD, Grigliatti TA, Theilmann DA (1997). "Baculovirus ... Resistance to zeocin is conferred by the product of the Sh ble gene first isolated from Streptoalloteichus hindustanus. ...
... are associated with altered drug sensitivity and can be used as markers of drug resistance. Several techniques have been ... genes of interest were amplified by PCR, amplicons were analysed by both RFLP and LDR-FM assays, and results were compared. SNP ... falciparum SNPs associated with drug resistance. The aim of this study was to validate the reliability and accuracy of the LDR- ... falciparum SNPs associated with drug resistance in resource-limited countries. ...
Gene ID 89845. Other Names Multidrug resistance-associated protein 7, ATP-binding cassette sub-family C member 10, ABCC10, MRP7 ... This ABC full-transporter is a member of the MRP subfamily which is involved in multi-drug resistance. Multiple transcript ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins ... The Autophagy Receptor Motif Plotter predicts and scores autophagy receptor binding sites in your protein. Identifying proteins ...
It is known that mtDNA contains a displacement loop, and the coding gene sequence for 13 important protein components of the ... Mitochondrial respiratory function can be negatively affected by multiple factors, including mutations in mitochondrial DNA ( ... drug resistance. Introduction. Over 70 years ago, Warburg (1) observed that cancer cells frequently exhibit increased ... It is known that cells expressing MDR proteins, such as MDR or MRP, require ATP as the energy source to pump the drug ...
In two cases resistance correlated with enhanced expression of genes encoding multiple drug resistance proteins that mediate ... active drug efflux. Enhanced mRNA levels of the CDR1/CDR2 genes encoding ABC transporters were observed in fluconazole- ... isolates from another patient exhibited high mRNA levels of the MDR1 gene encoding a membrane transport protein of the major ... Molecular aspects of fluconazole resistance development in Candida albicans.. Franz R1, Ruhnke M, Morschhäuser J. ...
First new multiple sclerosis gene found in 30 years. 3. Obesity found to be a risk factor for multiple myeloma. 4. Antibody- ... Support for chromosomal theory of cancer found in cancers development of drug resistance. 9. Massive herds of animals found to ... altering protein found in developing B cells. 5. New use for a cell toxin found to inhibit survival proteins in cancer cells. 6 ... Normally, a protein called CYP7A1 stimulates production of the acids. When enough bile acids are made, they trigger a series of ...
First new multiple sclerosis gene found in 30 years. 3. Obesity found to be a risk factor for multiple myeloma. 4. Antibody- ... Support for chromosomal theory of cancer found in cancers development of drug resistance. 9. Massive herds of animals found to ... altering protein found in developing B cells. 5. New use for a cell toxin found to inhibit survival proteins in cancer cells. 6 ... Scientists bypass major hurdle to hemophilia gene therapyResearchers discover new mechanism of drug that alters genetic makeup ...
... for multiple independent coding mutations specifically in genes encoding enzymes or transporters involved in drug resistance ( ... 34 genes). Included in the 34 genes were ama-1, circumsporoziote protein (PVX_119355), and sporozoite surface protein 2 (PVX_ ... Further characterization of these highly variable genes could help to identify drug resistance genes as well as new vaccine ... Predicted polymorphisms in drug resistance genes in a Peruvian patient-derived P. vivax isolate. The result from the microarray ...
... transcript variant 2, (10ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company. ... This protein is a member of the MRP subfamily which is involved in multi-drug resistance. The human protein functions in the ... Gene Summary: The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC ... lacks multiple 3 exons but has two alternate 3 exons, as compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (2) is much shorter and ...
Analogous proteins may be responsible for the regulation of C. albicans genes encoding multiple drug resistance proteins, like ... To investigate if the observed genomic alterations involved genes coding for multiple drug resistance proteins or the drug ... In the isolates from patient 1, enhanced mRNA levels of theMDR1 gene, encoding a multiple drug resistance protein from the ... of MDR1 and/or other genes encoding multiple drug resistance proteins result in unrestrictedMDR1 expression. Such a putative ...
Effects of Lewis Y antigen on the gene expression of multiple drug resistance-associated proteins in human ovarian cancer RMG-I ... multi-drug resistance protein, MDR1 (zeige ABCB4 Antikörper)).Drugs with ER < 1 (zeige MIER1 Antikörper) almost do not bind the ... multidrug resistance protein , ATP-binding cassette sub-family B member 1 , P glycoprotein 1 , multidrug resistance protein 1B ... The protein encoded by this gene is an ATP-dependent drug efflux pump for xenobiotic compounds with broad substrate specificity ...
Expression of multiple drug-resistance genes was detected by qRT-PCR. Western blotting was used to detect the expression of ERS ... proteins, autophagy-related proteins, apoptosis-related proteins, and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway-related proteins. Results: Ten- ... whereas the expression of multiple drug-resistance genes (MRP3, MRP7, and P-glycoprotein), PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway-related ... This study aimed to investigate the effects of low-frequency ultrasound on autophagy and drug-resistance of paclitaxel (PTX)- ...
... agents for cancer therapy has limitations because of toxic side effects and the development of multiple drug resistance. ... 102000015098 Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 Human genes 0 description 1 * 108010078814 Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 Proteins 0 ... 229940042052 Antibiotics for systemic use Drugs 0 description 1 * 108020000948 Antisense Oligonucleotides Proteins 0 ... The proteins encoded by these genes bind, with high affinity in neoplastic-associated types, to and neutralize the products of ...
... and the multi-drug resistance 1 (MDR1) gene (2-4). YB1 represses genes associated with cell death, including the Fas cell death ... and protein synthesis (1). YB1 binds to Y-box sequences (TAACC) found in multiple gene promoters and can positively or ... and the multi-drug resistance 1 (MDR1) gene (2-4). YB1 represses genes associated with cell death, including the Fas cell death ... and protein synthesis (1). YB1 binds to Y-box sequences (TAACC) found in multiple gene promoters and can positively or ...
Multiple genes encoding proteins with potential functions including drug resistance, biofilm formation, and virulence, such as ... multiple putative transport protein, outer membrane protein, and transcriptional regulator genes that lacked a comprehensive ... The only gene related to drug resistance that displayed differential expression, albeit only a small increase, in S1ΔadeAB was ... However, multiple putative transcriptional-regulator-encoding genes (araC, lysR, and tetR family) and outer membrane protein- ...
The gene marA, encoding multiple antibiotic resistance protein MarA, was also induced fivefold. The genes nrdH and nrdI, ... A gene (mdaB) encoding MdaB (modulator of drug activity) was also induced 10-fold. Overproduction of MdaB imparts resistance to ... and the putative protein encoded by this gene was designated Dep. The Dep protein showed high homology to known efflux proteins ... as evidenced by lower levels of ribosomal proteins. Most of the genes encoding ribosomal L proteins showed reduced levels, ...
... and confer resistance to one or multiple antibiotics. The corresponding genes are not only clinically relevant, but also show ... For example, the S83L amino acid substitution in the major target protein (GyrA) confers resistance to nalidixic acid and other ... gyrase inhibitor drugs (32). The very same mutation is regularly observed in antibiotic-resistant laboratory and clinical E. ... multiple anbiotic resistance) regulon that coordinates the expression of a global network of at least 80 chromosomal genes (34 ...
  • Differentiated embryonic chondrocyte expressed gene 1 (DEC1, also known as Sharp2/Stra13/BHLHE40) is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays an important role in circadian rhythms, cell proliferation, apoptosis, cellular senescence, hypoxia response, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of tumor cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here, clusterin (CLU) was identified as a novel target gene of DEC1 and suppresses DNA damage-induced cell death in tumor cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Nanocarriers have potential to improve drug therapeutic index, ability for multifunctionality, divert ABC-transporter mediated drug efflux mechanism and selective targeting to tumor cells, cancer stem cells, tumor initiating cells, or cancer microenvironment. (frontiersin.org)
  • Selective nanocarrier targeting to tumor overcomes dose-limiting side effects, lack of selectivity, tissue toxicity, limited drug access to tumor tissues, high drug doses, and emergence of multiple drug resistance with conventional or combination chemotherapy. (frontiersin.org)
  • Tumor heterogeneity and tumor cell resistance to anticancer drugs thus remains key formidable challenges for effective targeting of drug delivery systems for successful chemotherapy. (frontiersin.org)
  • Drug resistance mechanism of antineoplastic agents (Table 1 ) and mechanism of MDR in tumor cells is shown in Figure 1 . (frontiersin.org)
  • Tumor cells bind to ECM proteins, such as type I collagen and fibronectin via syndecan 1 and very late antigen 4 (VLA-4) on MM cells and to BMSC VCAM-1 via VLA-4 on MM cells. (hindawi.com)
  • MiR-21 probably promotes the invasion and metastasis of tumor by downregulating the expression of Pdcd4, a 64 kDa protein inhibiting tumor progression [ 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • We did not get these same results with cancer cells grown in the lab - the growth inhibition we saw when the NADK and KHK genes were inactivated only occurs in tumors in a mammalian system, in a more realistic microenvironment where the tumor has to survive," said senior author Tariq Rana, PhD, professor of pediatrics at UC San Diego School of Medicine and Moores Cancer Center. (ucsd.edu)
  • Rana and team also identified several new genes that, when inactivated, had the opposite effect - they increased KRAS-mutant tumor growth, but not the growth of normal KRAS tumors. (ucsd.edu)
  • These types of genes are known as "tumor suppressors" because they normally keep cancer cell growth in check. (ucsd.edu)
  • One of these new tumor suppressor genes encodes INO80C, a large multi-subunit protein that, among other things, stabilizes the genome. (ucsd.edu)
  • The result is the re-growth of a tumor that is not sensitive to the original drug. (cancerquest.org)
  • Several reasons for the existence of the initial drug-resistant cells in the original tumor are described below. (cancerquest.org)
  • While the likelihood of a particular tumor cell being resistant to several drugs, especially those that attack different cellular processes, is unlikely the large number of cancer cells in a tumor make that a real possibility. (cancerquest.org)
  • Levels of Bcl-2 family proteins in cell lysates and tumor supernatants were determined by immunoblotting. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Knowledge of immunologic features of the tumor microenvironment associated with response and resistance will improve the identification of patients who will derive the most benefit from monotherapy and might reveal additional immunologic determinants that could be targeted in combination with checkpoint blockade. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Luo Z, Tian H, Liu L, Chen Z, Liang R, Chen Z, Wu Z, Ma A, Zheng M, Cai L. Tumor-targeted hybrid protein oxygen carrier to simultaneously enhance hypoxia-dampened chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy at a single dose. (thno.org)
  • Through disulfide reconfiguration to hybridize hemoglobin and albumin, tumor-targeted hybrid protein oxygen carriers (HPOCs) were fabricated, serving as nanomedicines for precise tumor oxygenation and simultaneous enhancement of hypoxia-dampened chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy. (thno.org)
  • The precise oxygen preservation and release of the HPOC guaranteed sufficient tumor oxygenation, which is able to break hypoxia-induced chemoresistance by downregulating the expressions of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp), resulting in minimized cellular efflux of chemodrug. (thno.org)
  • Cancer nanotheranostics-nanomedicines with integrated diagnostic and therapeutic functions-have received tremendous attention in recent years, especially for tumor-targeted drug delivery and modulation of tumor microenvironment, as well as precise imaging-guided therapy [ 1 - 4 ]. (thno.org)
  • However, the success of anticancer therapy is usually limited by the complex tumor microenvironment and induced therapeutic resistances. (thno.org)
  • Effects of hypoxia on tumor biology include tumor angiogenesis, vasculogenesis, invasiveness and metastasis, as well as resistance to therapies through multiple mechanisms [ 6 - 9 ]. (thno.org)
  • 1) Extreme heterogeneity of cellular, molecular and drug sensitivity in tumor. (scirp.org)
  • 4) Toxicity of drugs on tumor versus normal cells. (scirp.org)
  • As standard practice, the assay only tests the effect of drug on tumor cells, not including the effect on normal tissues. (scirp.org)
  • With the advent of new drugs that target specific molecular abnormalities, it is important to know whether the initial oncogenic event continues to play a functional role at later stages of tumor progression and at relapse with the development of chemotherapy resistance. (sciencemag.org)
  • Some of these exporters in humans are involved in tumor resistance, cystic fibrosis and a range of other inherited human diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2009) Characterization of ERG, AR and PTEN gene status in circulating tumor cells from patients with castration‐resistant prostate cancer. (els.net)
  • Interferon (IFN) is any of a class of proteins naturally produced by the cells of the vertebrate immune system ( leucocytes , T cells ), fibroblasts) in response to challenges by foreign agents ( antigens ) such as viruses , bacteria , and parasites and their products, as well as in response to tumor cells. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • We recently found that drug-resistant tumor cells are simultaneously resistant to ER stress-triggered cell death. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition to its role in cell growth and adhesion activated canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is usually linked to malignancy stem cells [26 27 that contribute to tumor bulk recurrence and resistance to chemotherapy. (cylch.org)
  • Therefore, the present study described the IGF1R gene and its associated signaling pathways, and offered details of IGF1R‑induced tumor chemoresistance associated with promoting cell proliferation, inhibition of apoptosis, regulation of ATP‑binding cassette transporter proteins and interactions with the extracellular matrix. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The present study offered additional explanations for tumor chemotherapy resistance and provided a theoretical basis of IGF1R and its downstream pathways for future possible chemotherapy treatment options. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Recently, the function of IGF1R in chemotherapeutic resistance has gained increasing attention, and relevant mechanisms of inducing resistance in cancer cells include overexpressing multi-drug-resistant proteins, dysregulating cell survival and death and interacting with the tumor microenvironment ( 7 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • We further predicted that mice with a large tumor burden [as measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)] would be more likely to have genetically complex tumors that would exhibit either primary or secondary resistance to erlotinib. (biologists.org)
  • Tumor growth and regression were monitored by MRI at the end of each treatment period and at the end of each drug-free month. (biologists.org)
  • Although multiple tumor nodules were generally observed in each mouse at the time of necropsy, only the largest one or two were amenable to tumor volume measurements using MRI. (biologists.org)
  • The Ras/Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is often implicated in sensitivity and resistance to leukemia therapy. (nature.com)
  • The Ras/Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway has key roles in the transmission of proliferative signals from membrane-bound receptors. (nature.com)
  • Both ATM and DNA-PK promote sequential activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/p90 rsk signaling cascade in a p53-independent fashion. (asm.org)
  • The study, published September 27 in Cancer Research , provides potential new drug targets for KRAS-driven cancers. (ucsd.edu)
  • Rana's approach to treating KRAS-driven cancers - inhibiting other genes or molecules in addition to KRAS - is called "synthetic lethality" because the intervention is only lethal to the mutated cells. (ucsd.edu)
  • Cancers are characterized by multiple oncogenic events that collectively contribute to the phenotype of advanced stage disease. (sciencemag.org)
  • Some patients who have a specific cancer-driving genetic mutation never respond to the matching drug, while nearly all those who initially respond eventually become resistant to the effects of the drug and their cancers relapse," said Stern. (healthcanal.com)
  • For this reason, Stern and colleagues reasoned that using drug combinations may be necessary to address the problem of drug resistance and enable effective treatment of cancers driven by signaling molecules that currently cannot be targeted, such as RAS. (healthcanal.com)
  • Perhaps the most interesting observation was that several drug combinations that included a statin, a drug class used clinically to lower cholesterol, killed RAS-driven melanoma cell lines, given the lack of success in treating such cancers," said Stern. (healthcanal.com)
  • There is a great need for drugs to treat cancers driven by RAS. (healthcanal.com)
  • RAS proteins are inappropriately active in up to a third of all human cancers, including melanoma and lung and pancreatic cancers. (healthcanal.com)
  • Background Beta-catenin protein is usually a vital component of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway which is usually described as an oncogenic cause in many human cancers . (cylch.org)
  • Levels of P-gp have been correlated with drug resistance in several different cancers [1,2,20, (cy7-5-azide.com)
  • Characterization and development of a peptide substrate-based phosphate transfer assay for the human vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 tyrosine kinase. (nih.gov)
  • IGF-1R is one of the tyrosine kinase receptors that share the same EGFR downstream molecules, including phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (AKT). (frontiersin.org)
  • The Hippo/MST2 (mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 2) pathway is a signalling cascade evolutionarily conserved in its structure. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • In six of nine patients, resistance was associated with a single amino acid substitution in a threonine residue of the Abl kinase domain known to form a critical hydrogen bond with the drug. (sciencemag.org)
  • STI-571 is a 2-phenylamino pyrimidine that targets the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding site of the kinase domain of ABL ( 11 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • In a search for alternative measures of BCR-ABL kinase activity, we found that the phosphotyrosine content of Crkl, an adaptor protein that is specifically and constitutively phosphorylated by BCR-ABL in CML cells ( 16-18 ), could be measured reproducibly and quantitatively in clinical specimens. (sciencemag.org)
  • The phosphoinositol-3-kinase/serine-threonine protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) signalling pathway, which plays important biological roles in normal cellular physiology, has been demonstrated to be activated in breast cancer [ 3 - 4 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway consist of a kinase cascade that is regulated by phosphorylation and de-phosphorylation by specific kinases, phosphatases as well as GTP/GDP exchange proteins, adaptor proteins and scaffolding proteins. (nature.com)
  • We have identified a novel pathway of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) signaling that results in nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation and chemoresistance in response to DNA damage. (asm.org)
  • In turn, p90 rsk interacts with the IκB kinase 2 (IKK-2) catalytic subunit of IKK, thereby inducing NF-κB activity and cell survival. (asm.org)
  • In response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) generated by topoisomerase (topo) I and II poisons, IκB-α is phosphorylated at Ser32 and Ser36 by the IκB kinase (IKK) complex ( 6 , 10 , 15 , 37 ), which is formed by the IKK-1 and IKK-2 catalytic subunits and by a scaffold subunit termed IKK-γ/NEMO ( 32 ). (asm.org)
  • Finally, we show that the genes containing the largest ratio of nonsynonymous-to-synonymous SNPs include two AP2 transcription factors and the P. vivax multidrug resistance-associated protein (PvMRP1), an ABC transporter shown to be associated with quinoline and antifolate tolerance in Plasmodium falciparum . (pnas.org)
  • Changes in the level of the drug target enzyme, sterol 14α-demethylase, as a consequence of enhanced transcription or amplification of the ERG11 gene (previously termed ERG16 ), may lead to reduced susceptibility of yeasts to fluconazole ( 35 , 37 ) although gene dosage effects are limited ( 9 ). (asm.org)
  • Increased expression ( transcription ) of the gene that controls levels of the target molecule can cause a large increase in the amount of that target molecule in the cell. (cancerquest.org)
  • Ligands such as fatty acids activate these receptors, causing them to heterodimerize with the retinoid X receptors (RXR) and increase target gene transcription. (qiagen.com)
  • CDKs are generally classified into two major groups, based on whether they control cell cycle progression which includes CDK1 to CDK6 or regulate gene transcription by RNAPII that includes CDK 7, CDK8, CDK9 and CDK19. (omicsonline.org)
  • LncRNA genes usually contain few introns and have low levels of transcription, low conservation among different species, and in most cases have spatiotemporal expression specificity [6- (termedia.pl)
  • 6. Proposed a list of genes essential for reconstitution of translation (a "minimal translatome") and have begun synthesizing and testing the genes using "BioBricks", revealing unexpected properties of transcription terminators. (openwetware.org)
  • This resistance was due to ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of the ER stress-activated transcription factor CAAT/enhancer-β liver-enriched inhibitory protein (C/EBP-β LIP). (biomedcentral.com)
  • An isoform of this protein is localized to the apical hepatocyte membrane, allowing transport of glucuronide and glutathione conjugates back into the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fluconazole-resistant isolates from another patient exhibited high mRNA levels of the MDR1 gene encoding a membrane transport protein of the major facilitator superfamily that was not detectably expressed in any of the fluconazole-susceptible isolates. (nih.gov)
  • At present, many P. vivax studies still rely on a small set of polymorphic antigens such as circumsporozoite protein, merozoite surface proteins, and apical membrane antigen (AMA-1) to assess diversity ( 15 - 20 ). (pnas.org)
  • We show that it has widespread effects in E. coli affecting genes encoding proteins involved in cell metabolism and membrane synthesis and functions. (asm.org)
  • Here, we describe the identification of more than 300 phosphorylation sites from Arabidopsis thaliana plasma membrane proteins. (plantcell.org)
  • Kurihara, Sawazumi, Takeuchi: Exploration of interactions between membrane proteins embedded in supported lipid bilayers and their antibodies by reflectometric interference spectroscopy-based sensing. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Scudamore RA, Beveridge TJ, Goldner M. Outer membrane penetration barriers as components of intrinsic resistance to B-lactam and other antibiotics in E. coli K-12. (springer.com)
  • Damper PD, Epstein W. Role of membrane potential in bacterial resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics. (springer.com)
  • The integral membrane proteins of ABC exporters appear to have evolved independently at least three times. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like the ABC exporters, it is possible that the integral membrane proteins of ABC uptake systems also evolved at least 3 times independently, based on their high resolution 3-dimensional structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • ER stress-resistant cells were cross-resistant to multiple chemotherapeutic drugs: such multidrug resistance (MDR) was due to the overexpression of the plasma-membrane transporter MDR related protein 1 (MRP1). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, researchers have attended to drugs that target IGF1R since IGF1R functions as a membrane receptor. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In the kidney, pendrin protein is located at or near the apical membrane of type B- and non-A non-B intercalated cells (IC) of the CCD ( 44 , 45 ). (physiology.org)
  • Systemic HCO 3 − loading increases and acid loading decreases pendrin protein expression in the apical membrane of non-A IC ( 18 , 39 , 58 ). (physiology.org)
  • Both are glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane glycoproteins encoded by neighbouring genes located on chromosome 19q13 in the human genome. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Genes belonging to the regulon involved in synthesis of Cys are upregulated. (asm.org)
  • LCN16 shares many features with endophytes (plant-associated bacteria), such as genes coding for plant polymer degrading enzymes, iron uptake/transport, siderophore and phytohormone synthesis, aromatic compound degradation and detoxification enzymes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The synthesis of antibiotics by microbes and the resistance of microbes to antibiotics are two sides of the same evolutionary coin. (springer.com)
  • This method estimates unidirectional ATP synthesis, but it is unclear if it has been validated to take into account the multiple assumptions that allow net ATP generation to be calculated [ 12 , 13 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • DNA 2.0 was founded in early 2003 to exploit the synergy between a highly efficient gene synthesis process and new protein optimization technologies. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Protein synthesis is central to this field and also to antibiotic development. (openwetware.org)
  • 1. Modular alteration of aminoacyl-tRNA substrates using chemical synthesis to reveal key elements for substrate function in translation, 2. (openwetware.org)
  • Zeocin and other related chemicals in the bleomycin family of compounds are primarily used in molecular biology as an antibiotic, especially for the selection of eukaryotic cell lines when used in conjunction with vectors containing a selectable marker for zeocin resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • With state-of-the art molecular biology and protein biochemistry labs, we work with our clients to rapidly evaluate in parallel to identify the optimal expression system for candidate proteins. (abgent.com)
  • Molecular aspects of fluconazole resistance development in Candida albicans. (nih.gov)
  • These results demonstrate that in AIDS patients with recurrent OPC the development of fluconazole resistance is usually caused by molecular changes in a previously susceptible C. albicans strain from the same patient. (nih.gov)
  • From each of two AIDS patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis, five Candida albicans isolates from recurrent episodes of infection which became gradually resistant against fluconazole during antimycotic treatment were analyzed for molecular changes responsible for drug resistance. (asm.org)
  • concanavalin A-Alexafluor 488 (Molecular Probes, Eugene, Oreg. (asm.org)
  • Through biochemical and molecular analysis of clinical material, we find that drug resistance is associated with the reactivation of BCR-ABL signal transduction in all cases examined. (sciencemag.org)
  • The BCR-ABL oncogene is expressed at all stages, but blast crisis is characterized by multiple additional genetic and molecular changes. (sciencemag.org)
  • Thus, miRNA detection represents a new molecular biomarker strategy for insulin resistance, where micrograms of patient material is needed to monitor efficacy during drug or life-style interventions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) family is a group of highly conserved molecular chaperones with important functions in protein folding and in signal transduction. (novusbio.com)
  • Minimal qualifications include expertise in molecular biology and 2 first-authored research papers in international peer-reviewed journals. (openwetware.org)
  • This protein can bind to several other so-called nuclear receptors to form distinct molecular complexes called heterodimers. (eurekalert.org)
  • however, in recent years, the emergence of multiple-drug-resistant bacteria has been a primary concern. (asm.org)
  • Previously we described one such compound, 4,5-dihydroxy-2-cyclopenten-1-one (DHCP), having antibacterial activity against a variety of gram-negative and -positive bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella , Bacillus , and Staphylococcus spp. (asm.org)
  • 22 ] have shown the potential of PWN-associated bacteria, respectively, in the xenobiotic degradation and in the neutralization of H 2 O 2 . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Plasmid-determined resistance to antimicrobial drugs and toxic metal ions in bacteria. (springer.com)
  • Incidence of R-factors among gram-negative bacteria in drug-free human and animal communities. (springer.com)
  • There are fewer studies on antibiotic resistance in Edwardsiella tarda from aquaculture enterprises and this study provides further support to the view that there is a potential risk of transfer of resistant bacteria and their genes to human pathogen through the food chain. (scirp.org)
  • These genes might alter virulence of the host, confer metabolic benefits, or enable the bacteria to colonize new environments ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The ability and frequency with which antimicrobial resistance genes disseminate between bacteria in humans, the environment, and animals is still debated, and the role of plasmids in this movement between ecosystems, including the food chain, is also still contested, despite mounting evidence that it occurs ( 8 , 9 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Since the presence of microorganisms (bacteria and yeasts) can modulate not only the lifespan of the fly, but also serve as source of nutrients we are investigating how exposure to microbes differentially affects gene expression in wild type and mutant flies under different dietary regiments, as well as how these manipulations affect the ability of microbes to colonize their fruit fly hosts. (liu.edu)
  • MiRNAs regulate target genes in two ways: repressing the translation of mRNAs to inhibit protein expression or directly degrading mRNAs [ 7 - 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • FXR can down-regulate genes by inducing the small heterodimer partner (SHP), a nuclear receptor that lacks a DNA binding domain ( 11 , 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In normal and cancer cells, insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and IGF-II) and their high-affinity binding proteins (six known IGFBPs) comprise a major superfamily of protein hormones that regulate cell growth, metabolism, and death. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 17 Some members of the Bcl-2 protein family when bound to the mitochondria regulate the function of the large polymeric channel, permeability transition pore complex, 18 located at the point of contact between the inner and the outer mitochondrial membranes. (bmj.com)
  • Systemic and tubule lumen Cl − concentrations regulate pendrin protein levels and activity ( 43 , 53 , 56 ). (physiology.org)
  • Accumulating evidence strongly suggests that the pathogenesis of melanoma is also shaped by the aberrant activity of epigenetic factors that regulate gene expression through the modification of DNA and chromatin. (intechopen.com)
  • 2006). An integrated analysis of high-density oligonucleotide array CGH and gene expression profiling data from 155 multiple myeloma samples identified a promiscuous array of abnormalities contributing to the dysregulation of NF-KB in approximately 20% of patients. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Substantial advances have been made in understanding the biology of multiple myeloma (MM) through the study of the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. (hindawi.com)
  • Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematologic malignancy characterized by the accumulation of monoclonal plasma cells in the bone marrow (BM), over 10% by definition [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Bortezomib (BTZ), a registered proteasome inhibitor (PI) for multiple myeloma, has also been proposed as a potential antirheumatic agent. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Abgent has over fifteen years of experience producing recombinant proteins in E. coli and mammalian cells (CHO and HEK293, etc), and we have added a powerful yeast expression platform to our menu of services. (abgent.com)
  • In some cases, reduced accumulation of drug in cells appears to account for resistance without changes in sterol 14α-demethylase or sterol C5-desaturase ( 36 ). (asm.org)
  • PTX-resistant PC-3 cells were divided into a control group, PTX group, ultrasound group, ultrasound + PTX group, ultrasound + PTX + autophagy-related gene 5 (Atg5) siRNA group, and ultrasound + 4-PBA (an ERs inhibitor) group. (dovepress.com)
  • Functional genomic technologies are generating vast amounts of data describing the presence of transcripts or proteins in plant cells. (plantcell.org)
  • MLN4924 promoted induction of Bim and Noxa in the CLL cells leading to rebalancing of Bcl-2 family members toward the proapoptotic BH3-only proteins. (aacrjournals.org)
  • MLN4924 disrupts NF-κB activation and induces Bim expression in CLL cells, thereby preventing stroma-mediated resistance. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Indeed, the BM niche appears to play an important role in differentiation, migration, proliferation, survival, and drug resistance of the malignant plasma cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Indeed, the BM niche appears to play an important role in differentiation, migration, proliferation, survival, and drug resistance of the malignant plasma cells providing the preclinical evidences for targeting MM cells and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) as an antitumor strategy in this disease [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • MM cells home to the BM and adhere to ECM proteins and to BMSC. (hindawi.com)
  • Conclusion -These findings indicate that Mcl-1 and Bcl-X L , but not Bcl-2, are involved in the survival of normal and neoplastic cells in the biliary tree. (bmj.com)
  • In this study, BE(2)-C neuroblastoma cells previously selected for resistance to either vincristine (BE/VCR10) or colchicine (BE/CHCb0.2) were found to display significant decreases in neuronal-specific class III β-tubulin. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Expression levels of the microtubule-depolymerizing protein stathmin were significantly increased in BE/VCR10 cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A marked decrease in the neuronal protein, MAP2c, was identified in the vincristine-selected cells and, to a lesser extent, in the colchicine-selected cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Seven β-tubulin isotypes have been identified in mammalian cells, encoded by different genes and with a distinct pattern of tissue expression ( 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Several of these isotypes, specifically class II β-tubulin (encoded by the Hβ9 gene), class III β-tubulin (encoded by the Hβ4 gene), and class IVa β-tubulin (encoded by the H5β gene), are highly expressed in cells of neuronal origin ( 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Neuroblastoma is believed to arise in the embryonal neural crest, and as a result, microtubules in neuroblastoma cells consist of high levels of neuronal-specific tubulin isotypes and microtubule-associated proteins. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein was detectable only in muscle satellite cells and was increased in diabetes patients compared with controls, consistent with the observation that global miRNA changes were opposite from those found during myogenic differentiation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells secrete a unique 50 kD protein. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a unique 50 kD protein secreted by retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, has trophic activity. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Since azoles are fungistatic drugs for C. albicans , cells repetitively exposed to these antifungals adapt to the drug pressure and eventually become azole resistant. (asm.org)
  • Hagmann W, Jesnowski R, Matthias Löhr J (2010) Interdependence of gemcitabine treatment, transporter expression and resistance in human pancreatic carcinoma cells. (springer.com)
  • The pendrin/SLC26A4 Cl − /HCO 3 − exchanger, encoded by the PDS gene, is expressed in cortical collecting duct (CCD) non-A intercalated cells. (physiology.org)
  • Our recent deletion analysis of the 5′-flanking region of the human PDS (h PDS ) gene defined both positive and negative regulatory elements in the h PDS promoter and proposed a major role for these control elements in the regulated expression of this gene in renal epithelial cells ( 1 ). (physiology.org)
  • Whilst leukaemia initiating cells with a more mature phenotype have now also been found [ 2 , 3 ], the subset remains of particular interest since it is enriched for quiescent, chemoresistant cells which are associated with the likelihood of relapse [ 4 - 6 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In the case of C4.4A, very recent data have demonstrated that high protein expression in tumour cells of non-small cell pulmonary adenocarcinomas is associated with a particularly severe disease progression. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Then Adriamycin drug sensitivities of both drug-resistant and drug-free K562/ADR cells were determined and compared by MTT assay. (cy7-5-azide.com)
  • The results showed that Adriamycin was more cytotoxic in drug-free K562/ADR cells than drug-resistant K562/ADR cells. (cy7-5-azide.com)
  • Moreover, the drug-resistant K562/ADR cell line presented high expression levels of P-gp and CD147, suggesting that both proteins are associated with the MDR phenotype in leukemic cells. (cy7-5-azide.com)
  • Similarly, in the lung resistance protein ( LRP ) expression-increased group, patients with a poor outcome showed significant increase of cIAP1 and cIAP2 expression compared with those with longer survival (Nakagawa et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Panova M., A.M.H. Blakeslee, A.W. Miller, T. Mäkinen, G.M. Ruiz, K. Johannesson & C. André (2011) Survival of a North Atlantic marine snail in multiple glacial refugia-implications for phylogeographic patterns. (liu.edu)
  • In the isolates from patient 1, enhanced mRNA levels of the MDR1 gene, encoding a multiple drug resistance protein from the superfamily of major facilitators, and constitutive high expression of the ERG11 gene, coding for the drug target enzyme sterol 14α-demethylase, correlated with a stepwise development of fluconazole resistance. (asm.org)
  • In the isolates from patient 2, increased MDR1 mRNA levels and the change from heterozygosity to homozygosity for a mutant form of the ERG11 gene correlated with continuously decreased drug susceptibility. (asm.org)
  • P-gp is a 170kDa transmembrane protein encoded by the MDR1 gene. (cy7-5-azide.com)
  • Drug combinations in experimental models restore crenolanib sensitivity. (nature.com)
  • For a number of drugs, Plasmodium falciparum single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with altered drug sensitivity and can be used as markers of drug resistance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the past few years, rapid progress in mass spectrometric technology has allowed analysis and identification of proteins with unprecedented levels of sensitivity, and numerous proteomic studies have tackled the aforementioned challenges. (plantcell.org)
  • In the present study, we sought to determine the genetic diversity of E. tenella isolates prevalent in chicken farms in Hubei Province of China and examine their sensitivity to three anticoccidial drugs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Finally, sensitivity of the field isolates to three commonly used anticoccidial drugs (diclazuril, decoquinate and maduramycin) were tested to assess the prevalence of drug resistance in E. tenella in Hubei Province of China. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Finally, drug sensitivity tests demonstrated that all field isolates were sensitive to diclazuril but resistant to decoquinate (except for the isolates from eastern Hubei) and maduramicin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Drug sensitivity testing demonstrated that E. tenella isolates in Hubei Province were sensitive to diclazuril, but resistant to maduramycin and decoquinate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although the availability of the genome sequence provides new opportunities to discover drug and vaccine targets and to perform gene expression ( 13 , 14 ) and proteomic studies, the lack of worldwide genetic diversity data has hampered population studies. (pnas.org)
  • The recent advances in gene-expression microarray technologies present an unprecedented opportunity to study type 2 diabetes mellitus at a genome-wide scale and across different models. (harvard.edu)
  • About 50% of the genome sequence is currently available in public databases and a large proportion of the genes are also represented by partial cDNA sequences. (nsf.gov)
  • Culture-based analyses, targeted gene-based amplicon sequencing (bacteriome, mycobiome, and resistome), and shotgun metagenomics approaches have previously been performed on ISS environmental sample sets using whole genome amplification (WGA). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project (BDGP) strives to disrupt each Drosophila gene by the insertion of a single transposable element. (genetics.org)
  • Publication of the human genome and proteomics-based protein profiling studies catalyzed resurgence in protein interaction analysis. (thermofisher.com)
  • 2008), temperature stress genome, including gene duplication (Andersson and (Riehle et al. (deepdyve.com)
  • 2011). from the genome upon the relaxation of selection during Acaryochloris genomes also contain multiple plasmids laboratory study (Sandegren and Andersson 2009). (deepdyve.com)
  • Large scale recombinome studies of MLL rearranged leukemia has identified a mechanism for such cases which involves either a fragment of the MLL gene being inserted elsewhere in the genome, or a fragment of a locus being inserted proximally to the MLL gene . (cy7-5-azide.com)
  • To date, studies examining the contribution of microtubules and associated proteins to the efficacy of microtubule-destabilizing agents in neuroblastoma have been limited. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The massive amounts of publically available genomic information can be condensed using our DeNovo Genes algorithm into mathematical rules on how proteins function. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Subsequently, sequences of the major sporozoite surface antigen (SAG), micronemal protein 2 (MIC-2) and cytochrome b ( cytb ) genes from genomic DNA, and the Eimeria tenella cation-transport ATPase ( Et Cat ATPase) gene from cDNA were obtained for genotyping using multi-sequence alignments. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Approximately 6300 lines that maximize genomic coverage were selected to be sent to the Bloomington Stock Center for public distribution, bringing the size of the BDGP gene disruption collection to 7140 lines. (genetics.org)
  • Transposon insertions in newly generated lines could now be precisely localized by sequencing genomic DNA flanking the insertions and computationally associated with known or predicted genes. (genetics.org)
  • Within core chromosomal genes we find that one SNP per every 985 bases of coding sequence distinguishes this recent Peruvian isolate, designated IQ07, from the reference Salvador I strain obtained in 1972. (pnas.org)
  • Other lines contain an insertion at least 2 kb from others in the collection and likely mutate additional incompletely annotated or uncharacterized genes and chromosomal regulatory elements. (genetics.org)
  • but it is difficult, if not impossible, for most researchers to identify in vivo phosphorylation sites within their proteins of interest. (plantcell.org)
  • 2) Microenvironment difference between in vivo and in vitro. (scirp.org)
  • Both informatic and protein detection validation was used to verify the predictions of in vivo changes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It would appear that miRNAs can produce marked changes in target protein abundance in vivo by working in a combinatorial manner. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In vivo gene tr. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Here, we introduce the biochemical features and in vivo effects of individual shelterin proteins, discuss shelterin functions in hematopoiesis, and review emerging knowledge implicating the shelterin complex in hematological disorders. (jci.org)
  • a major worldwide source and shuttle for antibiotic resistance. (cdc.gov)
  • A study was carried out to investigate antibiotic resistance patterns and plasmid profiling of Edwardsiella tarda isolated from farmed-cultured Heterobranchus longifilis in Lagos State, Southwest of Nigeria. (scirp.org)
  • Antibiotic resistance is a major public health concern that has emerge over the recent years as several microbes that were previously susceptible to antibiotics have evolved to become insensitive to drugs even at higher concentrations perhaps due to mutation and apparent indiscriminate use and exposure or abuse of such drugs by fish farmers that use them for diseases prevention. (scirp.org)
  • Little is known about fungal biofilms, which may cause infection and antibiotic resistance. (asm.org)
  • In the latter setting, they serve as a nidus for disease and are associated with high-level antibiotic resistance of the associated organisms ( 29 ). (asm.org)
  • 0.05) in the antibiotic resistance pattern between biofilm-positive and biofilm-negative S. aureus isolates. (scirp.org)
  • Forty eight ABC genes have been reported in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the complicated life cycle of ancient flatworms that cause schistosomiasis, Case Western Reserve University researchers have identified a gene activator crucial to development of the parasites within humans - a potential target for a vaccine. (redorbit.com)
  • Skeletal muscle insulin resistance (IR) is considered a critical component of type II diabetes, yet to date IR has evaded characterization at the global gene expression level in humans. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The HSP90 protein structure is so well conserved that some HSP90 antibodies are reactive with a broad range of species from humans to chickens (1). (novusbio.com)
  • In humans there are 17 known genes encoding the HSP90 family members. (novusbio.com)
  • By utilizing a highly conserved mutant allele of the bacterial mismatch-repair system, we were able to gain unprecedented precision in the control over the generation of desired modifications in multiple bacterial species. (pnas.org)
  • There are two types of bacterial resistance: intrinsic and acquired. (uspharmacist.com)
  • Bacterial plasmids are key vectors of horizontal gene transfer, mediating the mobilization of genetic material from 1 bacterium to another. (cdc.gov)
  • Their ability to capture DNA and to spread within and between bacterial species by conjugation facilitates the rapid dissemination of potentially beneficial genes through a bacterial population. (cdc.gov)
  • 1996), have an detection due to the transient nature of many gene dupli- extraordinarily large number of recent gene duplicates com- cates in microorganisms, which may be rapidly deleted pared with other bacterial genomes (Miller et al. (deepdyve.com)
  • While a wild-type TAC1 allele drives high expression of CDR1/2 in response to inducers, we showed previously that TAC1 can be hyperactive by a gain-of-function (GOF) point mutation responsible for constitutive high expression of CDR1/2 . (asm.org)
  • Analysis of Plasmodium falciparum isolates collected before, during, and after a 1999 malaria epidemic in Djibouti shows that, despite a high prevalence of resistance to chloroquine, the epidemic cannot be attributed to a sudden increase in parasite drug resistance of local parasite populations. (cdc.gov)
  • The CARE-2 fingerprint patterns of the isolates demonstrated that in all four patients fluconazole resistance developed in a previously more susceptible strain. (nih.gov)
  • In both patients, a single C. albicans strain was responsible for the recurrent infections, but the CARE-2 fingerprint pattern of the isolates exhibited minor genetic alterations, indicating that microevolution of the strains took place during fluconazole therapy. (asm.org)
  • Central to the mode of action of azole antifungals against C. albicans is the accumulation of 14α-methylergosta-8,24(28)-dien-3β,6α-diol during treatment, and defects in sterol C5-desaturation prevent the diol from accumulating and also cause resistance in the clinic in isolates from AIDS patients ( 10-12 ). (asm.org)
  • The plasmid after treatment with mitomycin C and ethidium bromide were lost during the process of plasmid curing confirming that the multiple drug resistant exhibited by the isolates was plasmid mediated. (scirp.org)
  • RAPD analysis and multi-sequence alignments of the SAG, MIC-2, Et Cat ATPase and cytb showed genetic diversity among these isolates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis was used to detect biofilm-associated genes and characterize the isolates. (scirp.org)
  • Majority of the isolates 29/36 (81.6%) were biofilm positive with only 2 (5.5%) and 5 (13.8%) as strong biofilm-formers and moderate biofilm-formers respectively. (scirp.org)
  • None of the isolates harboured the fnbA and cna genes. (scirp.org)
  • This result revealed that phenotypically most of the S. aureus isolates were biofilm formers but few of them chromosomally harbour the biofilm-associated genes. (scirp.org)
  • However, it did not confer cross-resistance to any of the antibiotics tested ( 15 ). (asm.org)
  • This substitution of threonine with isoleucine was sufficient to confer STI-571 resistance in a reconstitution experiment. (sciencemag.org)
  • DALLAS - Aug. 10, 2005 - Ongoing studies by researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center and other institutions have uncovered the biochemical basis of many of the factors contributing to what is known as the metabolic syndrome, suggesting potential new drug targets for treating the condition. (eurekalert.org)
  • and the possibility that not all genes are P -element targets. (genetics.org)
  • Multiple coactivators and corepressors interact with PPAR/RXR heterodimers to direct target gene specificity. (qiagen.com)
  • The ligand-binding specificity determinant is reflected in the amino-terminal cysteine-rich domain of the extracellular α subunit, primarily recognizing and binding to IGF-1 and IGF-2. (spandidos-publications.com)