Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutation.
A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.
Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)
Enzyme of the human immunodeficiency virus that is required for post-translational cleavage of gag and gag-pol precursor polyproteins into functional products needed for viral assembly. HIV protease is an aspartic protease encoded by the amino terminus of the pol gene.
A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Genes for MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that confer resistance to toxic compounds. Several superfamilies of these multidrug export proteins are known and found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TETRACYCLINE which inhibits aminoacyl-tRNA binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit during protein synthesis.
The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutations.
Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.
An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.
Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.
Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.
Antibacterial agent used primarily as a tuberculostatic. It remains the treatment of choice for tuberculosis.
The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Diseases of plants.
Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)
A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
One of the FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS that is used as an antimalarial or with a sulfonamide to treat toxoplasmosis.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.
Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.
A type of strength-building exercise program that requires the body muscle to exert a force against some form of resistance, such as weight, stretch bands, water, or immovable objects. Resistance exercise is a combination of static and dynamic contractions involving shortening and lengthening of skeletal muscles.
A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of CHLORAMPHENICOL, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis in the 50S ribosomal subunit where amino acids are added to nascent bacterial polypeptides.
Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.
A long acting sulfonamide that is used, usually in combination with other drugs, for respiratory, urinary tract, and malarial infections.
Nonsusceptibility of a microbe to the action of ampicillin, a penicillin derivative that interferes with cell wall synthesis.
Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction 7,8-dihyrofolate and NADPH to yield 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate and NADPH+, producing reduced folate for amino acid metabolism, purine ring synthesis, and the formation of deoxythymidine monophosphate. Methotrexate and other folic acid antagonists used as chemotherapeutic drugs act by inhibiting this enzyme. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 1.5.1.3.
Proteins encoded by the POL GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.
An antitubercular agent that inhibits the transfer of mycolic acids into the cell wall of the tubercle bacillus. It may also inhibit the synthesis of spermidine in mycobacteria. The action is usually bactericidal, and the drug can penetrate human cell membranes to exert its lethal effect. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p863)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
A subfamily of transmembrane proteins from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that are closely related in sequence to P-GLYCOPROTEIN. When overexpressed, they function as ATP-dependent efflux pumps able to extrude lipophilic drugs, especially ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, from cells causing multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although P-Glycoproteins share functional similarities to MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS they are two distinct subclasses of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS, and have little sequence homology.
Five membered rings containing a NITROGEN atom.
Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of dihydropteroate from p-aminobenzoic acid and dihydropteridine-hydroxymethyl-pyrophosphate. EC 2.5.1.15.
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.
A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.
A group of SESQUITERPENES and their analogs that contain a peroxide group (PEROXIDES) within an oxepin ring (OXEPINS).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Large cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein particles that have an eight-fold symmetry with a central pore and petal-like structure giving the appearance of an octagonal dome. (The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 2nd ed.)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of VANCOMYCIN, an inhibitor of cell wall synthesis.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
A bacterial DNA topoisomerase II that catalyzes ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. Gyrase binds to DNA as a heterotetramer consisting of two A and two B subunits. In the presence of ATP, gyrase is able to convert the relaxed circular DNA duplex into a superhelix. In the absence of ATP, supercoiled DNA is relaxed by DNA gyrase.
A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
Non-susceptibility of an organism to the action of the cephalosporins.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.
A very toxic anthracycline aminoglycoside antineoplastic isolated from Streptomyces peucetius and others, used in treatment of LEUKEMIA and other NEOPLASMS.
Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
A potent, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in combination with nucleoside analogues for treatment of HIV INFECTIONS and AIDS.
Tuberculosis resistant to ISONIAZID and RIFAMPIN and at least three of the six main classes of second-line drugs (AMINOGLYCOSIDES; polypeptide agents; FLUOROQUINOLONES; THIOAMIDES; CYCLOSERINE; and PARA-AMINOSALICYLIC ACID) as defined by the CDC.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the antibiotic KANAMYCIN, which can bind to their 70S ribosomes and cause misreading of messenger RNA.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Diminished or failed response of PLANTS to HERBICIDES.
Substances that are destructive to protozoans.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
Inhibitors of the enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase (TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE), which converts dihydrofolate (FH2) to tetrahydrofolate (FH4). They are frequently used in cancer chemotherapy. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)
Substances obtained from various species of microorganisms that are, alone or in combination with other agents, of use in treating various forms of tuberculosis; most of these agents are merely bacteriostatic, induce resistance in the organisms, and may be toxic.
A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.
A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
An anthracenedione-derived antineoplastic agent.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.
Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.
Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.
DNA TOPOISOMERASES that catalyze ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. These enzymes bring about relaxation of the supercoiled DNA and resolution of a knotted circular DNA duplex.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for retroviral enzymes including reverse transcriptase, protease, and endonuclease/integrase. "pol" is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.
An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.
A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.
A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
A phospholipid-interacting antimalarial drug (ANTIMALARIALS). It is very effective against PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM with very few side effects.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
DNA elements that include the component genes and insertion site for a site-specific recombination system that enables them to capture mobile gene cassettes.
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.
A hydroxynaphthoquinone that has antimicrobial activity and is being used in antimalarial protocols.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.
This line KB is now known to be a subline of the ubiquitous KERATIN-forming tumor cell line HeLa. It was originally thought to be derived from an epidermal carcinoma of the mouth, but was subsequently found, based on isoenzyme analysis, HeLa marker chromosomes, and DNA fingerprinting, to have been established via contamination by HELA CELLS. The cells are positive for keratin by immunoperoxidase staining. KB cells have been reported to contain human papillomavirus18 (HPV-18) sequences.
A fluorescent probe with low toxicity which is a potent substrate for P-glycoprotein and the bacterial multidrug efflux transporter. It is used to assess mitochondrial bioenergetics in living cells and to measure the efflux activity of P-glycoprotein in both normal and malignant cells. (Leukemia 1997;11(7):1124-30)
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
3,6-Diamino-10-methylacridinium chloride mixt. with 3,6-acridinediamine. Fluorescent dye used as a local antiseptic and also as a biological stain. It intercalates into nucleic acids thereby inhibiting bacterial and viral replication.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Glucose in blood.

Clinical outcomes of Estonian patients with primary multidrug-resistant versus drug-susceptible tuberculosis. (1/3396)

Little is known about the clinical outcomes of patients with primary multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis. Clinical outcomes among 46 patients in Estonia with primary MDR tuberculosis and 46 patients with pansusceptible tuberculosis were compared. Patients with MDR tuberculosis were more likely than those with pansensitive tuberculosis to have treatment failure (odds ratio, 8.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.0-26.3) after adjusting for medical problems and weeks of effective treatment, often with second-line drugs. Ten patients (22%) with MDR tuberculosis and 2 (4%) with susceptible tuberculosis died of tuberculosis (P=.03). MDR tuberculosis (hazard ratio [HR], 7.8; 95% CI, 1.6-37.4), number of medical problems (HR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.5-4.4), and male sex (HR, 5.8; 95% CI, 1.1-29.6) were associated with death due to tuberculosis in multivariable analysis. Human immunodeficiency virus test results were negative for all 55 patients tested. These findings underscore the urgent need for increased attention to prevention and treatment of MDR tuberculosis globally.  (+info)

Development and spread of bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents: an overview. (2/3396)

Resistance to antimicrobial agents is emerging in a wide variety of nosocomial and community-acquired pathogens. The emergence and spread of multiply resistant organisms represent the convergence of a variety of factors that include mutations in common resistance genes that extend their spectrum of activity, the exchange of genetic information among microorganisms, the evolution of selective pressures in hospitals and communities that facilitate the development and spread of resistant organisms, the proliferation and spread of multiply resistant clones of bacteria, and the inability of some laboratory testing methods to detect emerging resistance phenotypes. Twenty years ago, bacteria that were resistant to antimicrobial agents were easy to detect in the laboratory because the concentration of drug required to inhibit their growth was usually quite high and distinctly different from that of susceptible strains. Newer mechanisms of resistance, however, often result in much more subtle shifts in bacterial population distributions. Perhaps the most difficult phenotypes to detect, as shown in several proficiency testing surveys, are decreased susceptibility to beta-lactams in pneumococci and decreased susceptibility to vancomycin in staphylococci. In summary, emerging resistance has required adaptations and modifications of laboratory diagnostic techniques, empiric anti-infective therapy for such diseases as bacterial meningitis, and infection control measures in health care facilities of all kinds. Judicious use is imperative if we are to preserve our arsenal of antimicrobial agents into the next decade.  (+info)

Antibiotic resistance: consequences of inaction. (3/3396)

Bacterial resistance presents therapeutic dilemmas to clinicians worldwide. The warnings were there long ago, but too few people heeded them. Thus an emerging problem has grown to a crisis. Resistance is an ecological phenomenon stemming from the response of bacteria to the widespread use of antibiotics and their presence in the environment. While determining the consequences of inaction on the present and future public health, we must work to remedy the lack of action in the past. By improving antibiotic use and decreasing resistance gene frequency at the local levels, we can move towards reversing the resistance problem globally.  (+info)

Consequences of inaction: importance of infection control practices. (4/3396)

The increasing prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens in health care facilities is due in large part to overuse of antibiotics and poor compliance with recommended infection control practices. To control the spread of such pathogens, health care facilities must reduce overuse and abuse of antibiotics, and they must implement new multidisciplinary programs to improve hand hygiene practices among health care workers and improve compliance with recommended barrier precautions.  (+info)

Minimizing potential resistance: the molecular view. (5/3396)

The major contribution of molecular biology to the study of antibiotic resistance has been the elucidation of nearly all biochemical mechanisms of resistance and the routes for dissemination of genetic information among bacteria. In this review, we consider the potential contribution of molecular biology to counteracting the evolution of resistant bacteria. In particular, we emphasize the fact that fundamental approaches have had direct practical effects on minimizing potential resistance: by improving interpretation of resistance phenotypes, by providing more adequate human therapy, by fostering more prudent use of antibiotics, and by allowing the rational design of new drugs that evade existing resistance mechanisms or address unexploited targets.  (+info)

Restricting the selection of antibiotic-resistant mutants: a general strategy derived from fluoroquinolone studies. (6/3396)

Studies with fluoroquinolones have led to a general method for restricting the selection of antibiotic-resistant mutants. The strategy is based on the use of antibiotic concentrations that require cells to obtain 2 concurrent resistance mutations for growth. That concentration has been called the "mutant prevention concentration" (MPC) because no resistant colony is recovered even when >10(10) cells are plated. Resistant mutants are selected exclusively within a concentration range (mutant selection window) that extends from the point where growth inhibition begins, approximated by the minimal inhibitory concentration, up to the MPC. The dimensions of the mutant selection window can be reduced in a variety of ways, including adjustment of antibiotic structure and dosage regimens. The window can be closed to prevent mutant selection through combination therapy with > or =2 antimicrobial agents if their normalized pharmacokinetic profiles superimpose at concentrations that inhibit growth. Application of these principles could drastically restrict the selection of drug-resistant pathogens.  (+info)

Detection of rpoB mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis by biprobe analysis. (7/3396)

A biprobe assay utilizing LightCycler technology was developed to detect rifampin resistance-associated gene mutations in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis rpoB gene. Three biprobes detected all mutations present in the 46 rifampin-resistant isolates. Wild-type sequences were correctly identified in each case. The method was reproducible, accurate, and easy to use.  (+info)

Emergence of rifampin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae as a result of antimicrobial therapy for penicillin-resistant strains. (8/3396)

A multidrug-resistant strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae was isolated in The Netherlands during a nosocomial outbreak among 36 patients who mainly had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. After the commencement of barrier nursing and short-term ceftriaxone-rifampin eradication therapy, the epidemic ceased. However, eradication therapy failed in 3 patients, and follow-up investigation of these patients showed the emergence of rifampin-resistant isolates.  (+info)

Following the discovery of penicillin in 1928, and its widespread use in clinical practice from the 1940s, several new antibiotic classes were introduced. Vancomycin was introduced in 1958, followed by the cephalosporins, beta-lactamase inhibitors, and quinolones. However, since the introduction of carbapenems in the 1980s, no new class of antibiotic has been added to our…
Following the discovery of penicillin in 1928, and its widespread use in clinical practice from the 1940s, several new antibiotic classes were introduced. Vancomycin was introduced in 1958, followed by the cephalosporins, beta-lactamase inhibitors, and quinolones. However, since the introduction of carbapenems in the 1980s, no new class of antibiotic has been added to our…
Multi Drug Resistance ist eine Erkrankung, die sich durch eine Überempfindlichkeit gegenüber bestimmten Antiparasitika und vielen anderen Medikamenten bemerkbar und Tiere empfänglich für eine potentiell tödliche Neurotoxikose macht. Die Krankheit wird durch die Degeneration des P-Glykoproteins verursacht, einem Protein, das normalerweise in den kapillaren Endothelzellen exprimiert wird, die als Teil der Blut-Hirnschranke fungieren, um Medikamente aus dem zentralen Nervensystem zu pumpen. Auf diese Weise beschränkt die Blut-Hirn-Schranke den Übergang von Medikamenten in das Nervensystem. Hunde mit dieser Gendeletion weisen erhöhte Hirnkonzentrationen von Medikamenten einschließlich Ivermectin, Moxidectin, Loperamid und Corticosteroiden.. Hunde, bei denen die Mutation reinerbig auftritt, exprimieren kein funktionales P-Glykoprotein und zeigen eine erhöhte Sensibilität gegenüber vielen Medikamenten. Für einige dieser Medikamente wird der Übergang in das Gehirn hochgradig verstärkt ...
4EYR: Insights into the mechanism of drug resistance: X-ray structure analysis of multi-drug resistant HIV-1 protease ritonavir complex.
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Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Newport. Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Newport is common worldwide. Outbreak investigations and targeted studies have identified dairy cattle as the main reservoir this serotype. Antimicrobial resistance (Newport MDR-AmpC) is particularly problematic in this serotype, and the prevalence of Newport MDR-AmpC isolates from humans in the United States has increased from 0% during 1996-1997 to 26% in 2001. MDR strains have been recorded as resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulphonamides and tetracycline (ACSSuT) and many of these strains show intermediate or full resistance to third-generation cephalosporins, kanamycin, potentiated sulphonamides, and gentamicin. Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Newport str SL254. The SL254 strain is an MDR strain from one of two distinct lineages of the Newport serovar. (NCBI BioProject: bp_list[1 ...
The presence of pan-resistant bacteria worldwide possesses a threat to global health. It is difficult to evaluate the extent of carriage of resistant bacteria in the population. Sewage sampling is a possible way to monitor populations. We evaluated the presence of pan-resistant bacteria in Israeli sewage collected from all over Israel, by modifying the pour plate method for heterotrophic plate count technique using commercial selective agar plates. This method enables convenient and fast sewage sampling and detection. We found that sewage in Israel contains multiple pan-resistant bacteria including carbapenemase resistant Enterobacteriacae carrying blaKPC and blaNDM-1, MRSA and VRE. blaKPC carrying Klebsiella pneumonia and Enterobacter cloacae were the most common Enterobacteriacae drug resistant bacteria found in the sewage locations we sampled. Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterobacter spp., Escherichia coli and Citrobacter spp. were the 4 main CRE isolated from Israeli sewage and also from clinical ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Clinical outcomes of intestinal transplant recipients colonized with multidrug-resistant organisms. T2 - a retrospective study. AU - Simkins, Jacques. AU - Morris, Michele I.. AU - Camargo, Jose F.. AU - Vianna, Rodrigo. AU - Beduschi, Thiago. AU - Abbo, Lilian M.. PY - 2017/9/1. Y1 - 2017/9/1. N2 - Rates of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) colonization among intestinal transplant (ITx) recipients have not been reported. Colonization rates with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (CR-GNB), and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were obtained retrospectively in adults undergoing ITx (isolated or multivisceral) from 1/2009 to 12/2015. We assessed for VRE, CR-GNB, and MRSA bacteremia during the first year post-transplant for patients colonized with VRE, CR-GNB, and MRSA, respectively, and for those who were not colonized. We evaluated whether the number of hospitalization days and one year post-transplant survival ...
INTRODUCTION: The term multidrug-resistants (MDR) applies to the bacterium that is simultaneously resistant to some antimicrobials belonging to different chemical classes 1-3.. Furthermore, Antibiotic resistance is a global challenge that impacts all pharmaceutically used antibiotic.. In recent years pharmaceutical companies have almost stopped producing new antibiotics which have led researchers to look for alternative antimicrobial. Herbs widely use for the treatment of infectious diseases in many developing countries 4. Therefore, in Sudan, with a high percentage of multidrug-resistant bacteria, we in urgent need to develop a new drug from our traditional medicine.. A wide range of medicinal plant parts use for extract as unprocessed drugs, and they possess various medicinal properties. The secondary metabolism of the plant was found to be a source of various phytochemicals that could directly be used as intermediates for the production of new drugs 5-8.. Nosocomial infection is one of the ...
Scientists and physicians at University of California San Diego School of Medicine, working with colleagues at the U.S. Navy Medical Research Center - Biological Defense Research Directorate, Texas A&M University, a San Diego-based biotech and elsewhere, have successfully used an experimental therapy involving bacteriophages -- viruses that target and consume specific strains of bacteria -- to treat a patient near death from a multidrug-resistant bacterium.
General Information: The SL254 strain is an MDR strain from one of two distinct lineages of the Newport serovar. Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Newport is common worldwide. Outbreak investigations and targeted studies have identified dairy cattle as the main reservoir this serotype. Antimicrobial resistance (Newport MDR-AmpC) is particularly problematic in this serotype, and the prevalence of Newport MDR-AmpC isolates from humans in the United States has increased from 0% during 1996-1997 to 26% in 2001. MDR strains have been recorded as resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulphonamides and tetracycline (ACSSuT) and many of these strains show intermediate or full resistance to third-generation cephalosporins, kanamycin, potentiated sulphonamides, and gentamicin. This group of Enterobactericiae have pathogenic characteristics and are one of the most common causes of enteric infections (food poisoning) worldwide. They were named after the scientist Dr. Daniel ...
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Antibiotic Resistance, Antibiotic Resistant Infection, Antimicrobial Resistance, Multidrug-Resistant Organism, Multi-Drug Resistant Bacteria.
PORTO ALEGRE, Brazil -- Hospital-acquired pneumonia caused by multidrug resistant strains of Pseudomonas bacteria are frequently lethal.
3OQA: Contribution of the 80s loop of HIV-1 protease to the multidrug-resistance mechanism: crystallographic study of MDR769 HIV-1 protease variants.
A new way to fight multidrug-resistant bacteria by blinding them rather than killing them proved highly effective in a model of burn injuries, UT Southwestern Medical Center research shows.
Today, a generation of microbes has emerged that are so resistant to available medications that they might again become serious threats. Even the once easily treated organisms, such as staphylococcus and streptococcus, have acquired resistance to many standard antimicrobials, making them much harder to treat. The urgency of this situation has prompted the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to issue guidelines that might help keep the situation under control, if universally followed. These guidelines include the concept that the proliferation of resistant organisms can be diminished if good sanitary practices are adhered to. This course will provide an overview of the mechanics of multidrug resistance and the most common resistant organisms.
The US FDA has issued a safety communication regarding investigational FMT, warning that there is a risk of serious infection caused by the transfer of multidrug-resistant organisms. ...
Objectives. Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter strain HK302 was isolated from an outbreak of nosocomial infections in Switzerland in 1977. The aim of the present study was to assess whether this archive strain belongs to one of the known international clonal lineages of Acinetobacter baumannii and whether it harbours a genomic structure related to the AbaR1-like resistance islands.. Methods. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and HindIII ribotyping were used to determine the taxonomic position of HK302 at the species and subspecies (clonal) levels. The position and structure of the putative resistance island were investigated by AbaR1-based PCR mapping followed by restriction analysis and partial sequencing of amplicons. A. baumannii AYE harbouring AbaR1 was used as a positive control for PCR mapping.. Results. The MLST allelic profile (1-1-1-1-5-1-1) and HindIII ribotype of HK302 were typical of A. baumannii European (EU) clone I. In addition, an AbaR1-related region inserted into the ATPase gene ...
A total of 183 patients were colonized or infected with multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates at a hospital in Spain during 2007-2010; prevalence increased over this period from 2.8% to 15.3%. To characterize these isolates, we performed molecular epidemiologic and drug resistance analysis. Genotyping showed that 104 (56.8%) isolates belonged to a single major clone (clone B), which was identified by multilocus sequence typing as sequence type (ST) 175. This clone was initially isolated from 5 patients in 2008, and then isolated from 23 patients in 2009 and 76 patients in 2010. PCR analysis of clone B isolates identified the bla(VIM-2) gene in all but 1 isolate, which harbored bla(IMP-22). ST175 isolates were susceptible to only amikacin (75%) and colistin (100%). Emergence of the ST175 clone represents a major health problem because it compromises therapy for treatment of P. aeruginosa nosocomial infections ...
The traditional markerless gene deletion technique based on overlap extension PCR has been used for generating gene deletions in multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. However, the method is time-consuming because it requires restriction digestion of the PCR products in DNA cloning and the con …
Carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii is most often associated with class D β-lactamases (OXA-23-like, OXA-40-like and OXA-58-like) and MBLs. OXA-type carbapenemases are predominant in A. baumannii, particularly in worldwide outbreaks of OXA-23 [24]. The molecular analysis of the isolates tested in this study revealed that 14 strains (51.8 %) carried the blaOXA-23-like gene and that two strains carried a blaOXA-24-like gene. All of the strains had a blaOXA-51-like gene, and four strains had a blaOXA-58 gene. In this study, the OXA-58 isolates presented lower MIC values for meropenem than OXA-23-like-positive isolates, which systematically exhibited higher MIC values (Table 1). The isolates with non-acquired OXA genes displayed a marked variation and included some carbapenem-resistant genes. Naturally occurring OXA carbapenemases, such as OXA-51-like enzymes (e.g., OXA 64-66, OXA 68-71, OXA 78-80, OXA-82, OXA-86, OXA-92 and OXA104-112), have been identified in A. baumannii isolates worldwide. In ...
Abstract. We performed whole genome sequencing on a clinical multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain 223/14. Investigation into its draft genome revealed the presence of KPC-6 variant, suggesting carbapenemase is present in this isolate. We found a plasmid-borne KPC gene (882 bp) inserted between two transposase genes in the genome of K. pneumoniae 223/14.. Keywords: Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase (KPC), multidrug resistance, whole genome sequencing ...
Multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli are emerging threats in the intensive care unit setting worldwide. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases, AmpC β-lactamases, and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are increasing at an alarming rate, leaving limited therapeutic options. In addition, multidrug resistance among Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii has widely disseminated and become a frequent cause of nosocomial infections within many intensive care units. Therefore, resistance is increasing to all currently available antibiotics, including cephalosporins, penicillins, aztreonam, carbapenems, fluoroquinolones, and aminoglycosides. Some multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria remain susceptible to only a few antibiotics such as tigecycline, fosfomycin, and polymyxins. The steady trend of increasing resistance coupled with the lack of novel antibiotics targeting resistant gram-negative bacilli has forced clinicians to increasingly apply more aggressive dosing strategies, ...
To understand the epidemiology of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii and define individual risk factors for MDR, we used epidemiologic methods, performed organism typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and conducted a matched case-control retrospective study. We investigated 118 patients, on 27 wards, in whom MDR A. baumannii was isolated from clinical cultures. Each case-patient had a control without MDR A. baumannii and was matched for hospital length of stay, ward, and calendar time. The epidemiologic investigation found small clusters of up to 6 patients each with no common identified source. Ten different PFGE clones were found, of which 2 dominated. The PFGE pattern differed within temporospatial clusters, and antimicrobial drug susceptibility patterns varied within and between clones. Multivariate analysis identified the following significant risk factors: male sex, cardiovascular disease, having undergone mechanical ventilation, and having been treated with
In February 2006, a patient colonized with a multidrug-resistant sequence type 56 Acinetobacter baumannii strain was admitted to a hospital in Madrid, Spain. This strain spread rapidly and caused a large outbreak in the hospital. Clinicians should be ...
Multidrug-resistant and highly virulent Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates are emerging, but the clonal groups (CGs) corresponding to these high-risk strains have remained imprecisely defined. We aimed to identify K. pneumoniae CGs on the basis of genome-wide sequence variation and to provide a simple bioinformatics tool to extract virulence and resistance gene data from genomic data. We sequenced 48 K. pneumoniae isolates, mostly of serotypes K1 and K2, and compared the genomes with 119 publicly available genomes. A total of 694 highly conserved genes were included in a core-genome multilocus sequence typing scheme, and cluster analysis of the data enabled precise definition of globally distributed hypervirulent and multidrug-resistant CGs. In addition, we created a freely accessible database, BIGSdb-Kp, to enable rapid extraction of medically and epidemiologically relevant information from genomic sequences of K. pneumoniae. Although drug-resistant and virulent K. pneumoniae populations were largely
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The spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria has been associated with the hospital setting, but these findings suggest that transmission of drug-resistant E. coli occurs both in the hospital and households, says Andreas Widmer, MD, lead author of the study. Our findings emphasize the importance of hand hygiene, not only after handling raw poultry, but also after contact with cutting boards used in poultry preparation.. Researchers from University Hospital in Basel, Switzerland collected and examined 298 cutting boards (154 from University Hospital and 144 from private households) after preparation of various meats (i.e., poultry, beef/veal, pork, lamb, game and fish) and before being cleaned. They also collected 20 pairs of gloves from hospital kitchen employees after they handled raw poultry. These samples were tested for the presence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, a family of gram-negative bacteria that includes Salmonella, E. coli and Klebsiella. In testing the cutting boards, ...
A series of clinical isolates of drug-resistant (DR) Acinetobacter baumannii with diverse drug susceptibility was detected from eight patients in the emergency intensive care unit of Tokai University Hospital. The initial isolate was obtained in March 2010 (A. baumannii Tokai strain 1); subsequently, seven isolates were obtained from patients (A. baumannii Tokai strains 2-8) and one isolate was obtained from an air-fluidized bed used by five of the patients during the 3 months from August to November 2011. The isolates were classified into three types of antimicrobial drug resistance patterns (RRR, SRR and SSR) according to their susceptibility (S) or resistance (R) to imipenem, amikacin and ciprofloxacin, respectively. Genotyping of these isolates by multilocus sequence typing revealed one sequence type, ST208, whilst that by a DiversiLab analysis revealed two subtypes. All the isolates were positive for bla OXA-51-like and bla OXA-66, as assessed by PCR and DNA sequencing. A. baumannii Tokai strains 1
Contrary to current medical dogma, researchers at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences report that the common antibiotic azithromycin kills many multidrug-resistant bacteria very effectively - when tested under conditions that closely resemble the human body and its natural antimicrobial factors.
Summary Pharmaceutical and Healthcare disease pipeline guide Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infections - Pipeline Review, H1 2017, provides an overview o
Resistant Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Infections Drugs Market Insights: Global Industry Analysis, Market Drivers, Restraints, Opportunities, Applications, Trends And Forecasts 2020-2026
Antibiotics are used in the prevention of different kinds of infectious diseases, but now-a-days, multidrug resistant strain of pathogenic bacteria is increasing due to the excess or misuse of antibiotics. These antibiotic resistant bacteria have become a great problem for the big population of Bangladesh. In this study, seven clinical samples were screened from about 250 patients having upper respiratory infections at Gonoshasthya Nagar Hospital, Dhanmondi, Dhaka. The isolated S. aureus was screened for their antibiotic resistance profiles. In this study, eleven antimicrobial drugs were used. The objective of this study was to check the sensitivity and resistance ability of S. aureus in different antibiotic concentrations and growth rate at room temperature after isolation, purification and characterization because infectious diseases could play a great role in human health in developing countries due to multidrug resistance activity of bacteria. S. aureus was found to be resistant to eight commonly
Uropathogenic E. coli are paradoxically able to both cause disease in the urinary tract, and reside there asymptomatically. The pandemic, multi-drug resistant E. coli subclone ST131-H30 (H30) is of special interest, as it has been found to persist in the gut and bladder of healthy people. In order to understand this persistence, we investigated whether H30 is competitive in these niches and thus able to persist by excluding other E. coli, as well as whether H30 may persist via within-host adaptation. In order to assess the E. coli clonal landscape, we developed a novel method based on deep sequencing of two loci, along with an algorithm for analysis of resulting data. Using this method, we assessed fecal and urinary samples from healthy women carrying H30, and found that even in the absence of antibiotic use, H30 could completely dominate the gut and, especially, urine of healthy carriers. In order to ascertain whether H30 adapts within host, we employed population-level whole genome sequencing, ...
Background: The emergence and rapid spreading of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains has become a major health threat worldwide. To better understand the genetic recombination related with the acquisition ...
Notably, ST648 clade 2 strains almost ubiquitously carried an identical ESBL plasmid, as discussed below. Strains from humans and animals with different backgrounds were distributed throughout the phylogeny (Fig. 1A), suggesting ST648s interspecies movement and zoonotic potential while lacking clear genomic signatures that would indicate ecological adaptation to individual host species and infection sites. The geographical distributions were also similar, where strains from different continents occurred throughout the phylogeny (Fig. 1A). These results suggest that ST648 is a host generalist rather than a specialist, with the capability of frequent cross-species transmission, thriving in different clinical and nonclinical contexts, similar to ST131 (8). By including strains from multiple geographic regions and wildlife (Fig. 1A), unique insights into this newly emerging clonal lineage were discovered beyond the usually narrower human, clinically centered focus.. We analyzed the accessory gene ...
is an innately multidrug-resistant pathogen which is emerging in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. species exhibits innate resistance to many antibiotics, including cephalosporins (except ceftazidime), aztreonam, and aminoglycosides (1, 8C10). Clinical strains frequently harbor acquired resistances, especially to ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, and carbapenems. We have recently described the first resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND)-type multidrug efflux pump in MexAB-OprM efflux pump: AxyABM can extrude cephalosporins (except cefepime), fluoroquinolones, and chloramphenicol. Moreover, AxyABM plays a major role in the innate resistance to aztreonam. Nevertheless, the mechanism(s) leading to aminoglycoside and cefepime resistance remain(s) unknown. It is likely that other efflux systems contribute to the antibiotic resistance of AXX-A strain (GenBank accession number type:entrez-nucleotide,attrs:text:AFRQ01000000″,term_id:339120535″AFRQ01000000). We examined this sequence looking ...
is an innately multidrug-resistant pathogen which is emerging in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. species exhibits innate resistance to many antibiotics, including cephalosporins (except ceftazidime), aztreonam, and aminoglycosides (1, 8C10). Clinical strains frequently harbor acquired resistances, especially to ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, and carbapenems. We have recently described the first resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND)-type multidrug efflux pump in MexAB-OprM efflux pump: AxyABM can extrude cephalosporins (except cefepime), fluoroquinolones, and chloramphenicol. Moreover, AxyABM plays a major role in the innate resistance to aztreonam. Nevertheless, the mechanism(s) leading to aminoglycoside and cefepime resistance remain(s) unknown. It is likely that other efflux systems contribute to the antibiotic resistance of AXX-A strain (GenBank accession number type:entrez-nucleotide,attrs:text:AFRQ01000000″,term_id:339120535″AFRQ01000000). We examined this sequence looking ...
A multidrug-resistant organism is a germ that is resistant to many antibiotics. Find out about prevention and treatment. Get answers to your questions.
Shop Multidrug efflux pump accessory protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Multidrug efflux pump accessory protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Recently the emergence of pan-resistant bacterial pathogens was published in The Lancet Infectious Disease, online August 11, 2010. In this study 107 enterobacteria isolates from UK, India and Pakistan harbouring a broad spectrum metallo-β- lactamase 1 (called New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1; NDM-1) were found to be highly resistant against most antibiotics. Two Klebsiella isolates from the UK have been shown to be resistant against all available antibiotics. These isolates or the plasmids conveying resistance were shown to have been transferred also from country-to-country.. This is the true beginning of a post-antibiotic era, which will have a dramatic impact on our current urological practice. Enterobacteria are the most important species causing urinary tract infections (UTI). Most of the isolates harbouring this NDM-1 enzyme also were from community-acquired UTI.. Whereas in Gram-positive bacteria several new antibiotics are seen on the market, there will be no new antibiotics against ...
Serotyping The thirteen isolates belonged to three serotypes: ten strains (77%) to serotype 4b; two strains (15%) to 1/2a, and one strain (8%) to 1/2b (Fig. 3). DISCUSSION Most industrialized countries have developed surveillance systems for listeriosis since 1987 (25), following outbreaks that demonstrated the importance of the foodborne transmission of the disease. Listeriosis has been mainly reported by those countries, with few or even no reports from Africa, Asia and South America. According to Rocourt et al. (25), whether this reflects different consumption patterns, dietary habits, different host susceptibility, or lack of testing facilities is not known. In order to help filling this gap, collecting some data from Brazil was one of the aims of this research. The first antibiotic resistant strain of L. monocytogenes was described in 1988 and, since then, other resistant strains have been detected in food and clinical isolates, including multidrug resistant strains (23). In this study, all ...
Bacterial pathogens that are multi-drug resistant compromise the effectiveness of treatment when they are the causative agents of infectious disease. These multi-drug resistance mechanisms allow bacteria to survive in the presence of clinically useful antimicrobial agents, thus reducing the efficacy of chemotherapy towards infectious disease. Importantly, active multi-drug efflux is a major mechanism for bacterial pathogen drug resistance. Therefore, because of their overwhelming presence in bacterial pathogens, these active multi-drug efflux mechanisms remain a major area of intense study, so that ultimately measures may be discovered to inhibit these active multi-drug efflux pumps.
The Cambridge-Chennai Centre Partnership on Antimicrobial Resistant Tuberculosis will bring together a multidisciplinary team of international researchers, and will be led by Professor Sharon Peacock and Dr Soumya Swaminathan. The team, including Professors Lalita Ramakrishnan, Ken Smith, Tom Blundell and Andres Floto, will focus on developing new diagnostic tools and treatments to address the sharp rise in cases of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (TB). This will include research into:
Analysis of adeABC gene expression in CIP 70-10 resistant mutants.Since it is likely that expression of AdeABC in clinical isolate BM4454 is secondary to an alteration in AdeRS, we analyzed this regulatory system in A. baumannii CIP 70-10. This reference strain is susceptible to antibiotics and harbors the adeABC and adeRS genes, as evidenced by PCR (data not shown) and sequencing (GenBank accession no. AY426969). The AdeR regulator from CIP 70-10 shared 98% amino acid identity with that from BM4454, and the AdeS sensor shared 96.7% amino acid identity with that from BM4454, although the latter protein was shorter by 4 amino acids. The proteins contained the conserved motifs previously reported for histidine kinases and response regulators (32), and inside these motifs, no differences were detected between the sequences from the two strains. Spontaneous one-step mutants of CIP 70-10 exhibiting a multidrug resistance phenotype indistinguishable from that of BM4454 were selected on BHI agar ...
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Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most intractable human pathogens that pose serious clinical challenge due to extensive prevalence of multidrug-resistant clinical isolates. Armed with abundant virulence and antibiotic resistance mechanisms, it is a major etiologic agent in a number of acute and …
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Parasakthi, N.; Vadivelu, J.; Ariffin, H.; Iyer, L.; Palasubramaniam, Selvi; Arasu, A. (2000) Epidemiology and molecular characterization of nosocomially transmitted multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 4 (3). pp. 123-128. ISSN 12019712. Full text not available from this repository ...
1) Magnet S, et al. (2001) Resistance-nodulation-cell division-type efflux pump involved in aminoglycoside resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii strain BM4454.. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 45(12):3375-80 PubMed: 11709311 ...
1) Magnet S, et al. (2001) Resistance-nodulation-cell division-type efflux pump involved in aminoglycoside resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii strain BM4454.. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 45(12):3375-80 PubMed: 11709311 ...
The authors note that as and when ART becomes universally available to drug users with HIV, and their health status improves, so their other health problems will take on increased prominence, such as non-AIDS related comorbitities and TB, all of which will come with their own treatment priorities. HIV infected drug users with TB co-infection creates various clinical challenges since TB can be difficult to diagnose in HIV patients due to atypical chest radiographs, high-rates of TB in parts of the body outside the usual setting of the lungs, and the reduced sensitivity of skin tests used to diagnose TB in HIV patients. While people with latent TB but not HIV infection have a roughly 1 in 11 lifetime risk of having their TB develop into full blown disease, it becomes a 1 in 11 annual risk in patients with HIV co-infection. Concentration of people with HIV and substance use disorders behind bars facilitates transmission of TB, including multidrug resistant strains, due to overcrowding and increased ...
Good Morning David, Ive done several years of Multi Drug Resistance Protein work. It was a tough nut to crack back a few years ago. We use JSB-1 primary antibody [far superior to C219] and the procedure is long... weve added extra IgG fragments to give the DAB some extra places to bind. Its really a nice, clean, amplified method. I can send you the worksheet for the procedure if youd like. Please find the related publications below (methods paper is #2). I think #3 may be of special interest to you. 1)Toth, K., Vaughan, M.M., Slocum, H.K., Fredericks, W.J., Chen, Y., Arredondo, M.A., Harstrick, A., Karakousis, C., Baker, R.M., Rustum, Y.M. Comparison of an Immunoperoxidase sandwich Staining Method and Western Blot Detection of P-glycoprotein in Human Cell Lines and Sarcomas. Amer. J. Path. 140:1009-1016, 1992. 2)Toth, K., Vaughan, M.M., Slocum, H.K., Arredondo, M.A., Takita, H., Baker, R.M., Tsuro, T., and Rustum, Y.M. New Immunohistochemical Sandwich Staining Method for MDR1 ...
Multiple drug resistance among bacteria has become a global issue with a considerable impact on the mortality associated with infectious diseases. This book is a detailed compilation of available knowledge on the surveillance and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in various countries throughout the world. Readers will be updated on current information on the understanding of mechanisms involved in drug resistance and the geographical distribution of resistance determinant markers. This volume should be a useful guide for microbiologists and clinicians interested in designing antimicrobial therapies tailored for patients in specific geographical regions ...
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacteria is a global health crisis due to the rapid emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria and the lengthy development
A recent investigative report by Steve Silberman from Wired about the highly resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, encountered by clinicians treating wounded
To study the prevalence and antibiotic resistance patterns ofMDR S. aureus frompyogenic infections in diabetic and non-diabetic patients fromdifferent..
Antimicrobial resistance represent a serious threat to public health and patient safety and is a worldwide problem. Each year, in the European Union (EU) at least 25 000 patients die of infections with multidrug-resistant bacteria. ...
MDROs are everywhere in the world. Hospitals and other healthcare settings battle resistant organisms to keep them from spreading throughout their buildings. MDROs are found in the community as well. Examples of infections from MDROs in the community are drug resistant pneumonias and skin and soft tissue infections.
All antibiotic resistance mechanisms in bacteria ultimately work by preventing, or mitigating the effects of, an antibacterial inhibitor binding to it
A technique for treating bacterial infections has successfully used light-activated quantum dots (QDs) to kill multiple multidrug-resistant strains.
Dr Hurd added that all scientific risk assessments have shown that there is negligible risk from antibiotic use on the farm. He said very few people are going to be treated with the antibiotic that are used on the farm when they are treated for a food poisoning event and most doctors will not prescribe antibiotics for food poising in the first place ...
chilling reality is that EPA states in its sludge rule that exposure through the air, water, or food to any of the pollutants (e ...
Unlike multiple drug resistance, and antimicrobial resistance, antimicrobial tolerance is transient, and not inherited. ... 2016). "Enhanced Efflux Activity Facilitates Drug Tolerance in Dormant Bacterial Cells". Mol Cell. 62 (2): 284-294. doi:10.1016 ... and cancer persister cells that show tolerance for cancer drugs. Recognition of bacterial persister cells dates back to 1944 ... Resistance is caused by newly acquired genetic traits (by mutation or horizontal gene transfer) that are heritable and confer ...
Antibiotic resistance to this drug has been increasing, especially in southern China. Recently the gene mcr-1, which confers ... Typical uses are for infections caused by strains of multiple drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa or carbapenemase-producing ... but no longer kills the bacterial cell. However, it still detectably increases the permeability of the bacterial cell wall to ... the antibiotic resistance, has been isolated from bacterial plasmids in Enterobacteriaceae. Polymyxins are a group of cyclic ...
2011). „An analogy between the evolution of drug resistance in bacterial communities and malignant tissues. Nat Rev Cancer 11: ... Mentenanță CS1: Nume multiple: lista autorilor (link) *^ a b Zhang D, Yang X, Yang Z, Fei Fei, Shuyuan Li, et al. (2017). „ ... Mentenanță CS1: Nume multiple: lista autorilor (link) *^ What Is Cell Differentiation? FTCE Biology Grades 6-12 (002) Chapter ... Mentenanță CS1: Nume multiple: lista autorilor (link) *^ a b Lopez SLM, Jimenez C, Valverde A, Hernandez V, Peñarando J, et al ...
"Inheritance of drug resistance (and its transfer) between Shigella strains and between Shigella and E. coli strains" (in ... "On the mechanism of the development of multiple-drug-resistant clones of Shigella". Jpn. J. Microbiol. 4: 219-27. PMID 13681921 ... Bacterial conjugation, a process in which a bacterial cell transfers genetic material to another cell by cell-to-cell contact. ... Transduction, the process in which bacterial DNA is moved from one bacterium to another by a bacterial virus (a bacteriophage, ...
Antibiotic resistance Drug resistance Multiple drug resistance Cerceo, Elizabeth; Deitelzweig, Steven B.; Sherman, Bradley M.; ... Vergidis, Paschalis I.; Falagas, Matthew E. (2008-02-01). "Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections: the emerging ... Multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDRGN bacteria) are a type of Gram-negative bacteria with resistance to multiple ... This drug shows promise in infections from multi-drug resistant K. pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae carbapenemase [KPC]- and ESBL- ...
... that they reduce development of drug resistance since a pathogen or tumor is less likely to have resistance to multiple drugs ... Bacterial infectionsEdit. Combination therapy with two or more antibiotics are often used in an effort to treat multi-drug ... of multiple targeted drugs minimizes the chance of relapse when no single mutation confers cross-resistance to both drugs.[1] ... "Drug Combinations to Overcome Treatment Resistance". National Cancer Institute. 2016-12-21. Retrieved 2017-10-03.. ...
Bacterial drug resistance has become an increasingly major health problem. One of the mechanisms for drug resistance is ... family is responsible for multiple drug resistance (MDR) against a variety of structurally unrelated drugs. ABCB1 or MDR1 P- ... Drug Resistance ATPase-1 (Drug RA1) (Putative) Drug Resistance ATPase-2 (Drug RA2) Macrolide Exporter (MacB) Peptide-4 Exporter ... The substrates that reverse the resistance to anticancer drugs are called chemosensitizers. Drug resistance is a common ...
... researchers have recognized the need for new drugs that inhibit bacterial efflux pumps, which cause resistance to multiple ... drugs designed to block the mechanisms of bacterial antibiotic resistance are used. For example, bacterial resistance against ... Tolerance and Resistance Cosmetics Database HCMV drug resistance mutations tool Combating Drug Resistance - An informative ... The chances of drug resistance can sometimes be minimized by using multiple drugs simultaneously. This works because individual ...
... in multi-drug resistant gram-negative bacteria with no resistance observed by the researchers through multiple bacterial ... The development of the polymers is potentially a treatment for bacterial diseases. The research takes a novel approach to ... and was shown to be highly selective towards bacterial cell walls, leaving mammalian cells unharmed. Bacteria species tested ...
Chitsaz, Mohsen; Brown, Melissa H. (2017-03-03). "The role played by drug efflux pumps in bacterial multidrug resistance". ... In bacteria, overexpression of some efflux pumps can result in decreased susceptibility to multiple antibiotics. Laura J. V. ... Chitsaz, Mohsen; Brown, Melissa H. (2017-03-03). "The role played by drug efflux pumps in bacterial multidrug resistance". ... Chitsaz, Mohsen; Brown, Melissa H. (2017-03-03). "The role played by drug efflux pumps in bacterial multidrug resistance". ...
... and the concerning bacterial population amplifies. Therefore, the resistance gene is farther distributed in the organism and ... Multiple drug resistance (MDR), multidrug resistance or multiresistance is antimicrobial resistance shown by a species of ... Drug resistance MDRGN bacteria Xenobiotic metabolism NDM1 enzymatic resistance Herbicide resistance P-glycoprotein A.-P. ... Drug+Resistance,+Multiple at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Boucher, HW, Talbot GH, ...
The multidrug efflux transporter NorM from V. parahaemolyticus which mediates resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents ( ... protein family responsible for drug resistance. This gene is one of two members of the MATE transporter family located near ... This transporter family shares homology with the bacterial MATE (multi antimicrobial extrusion protein or multidrug and toxic ... NorM seems to function as drug/sodium antiporter which is the first example of Na+-coupled multidrug efflux transporter ...
In case of people having high risk of being infected with multiple drug resistance organisms such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, ... muramyl dipeptide in the peptidoglycan of the gram-positive bacterial cell wall, and CpG bacterial DNA. These PAMPs are ... altogether if infection is not present to decrease the chances that the person is infected with multiple drug resistance ... Fink MP, Warren HS (October 2014). "Strategies to improve drug development for sepsis". Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. 13 (10 ...
Multiple drug resistance[edit]. See also: Antineoplastic resistance. A major cause for the ineffectiveness of current ... Fungal strains such as Verticillium and bacterial strains such as Klebsiella pneumoniae can be used in the synthesis of silver ... chemotherapy treatments is multiple drug resistance which can arise from several mechanisms.[75] ... the drug is released without harmful radiation or relying on a specific chemical reaction to occur and the drug can be ...
The risk of bacterial antibiotic resistance has been studied by quantitatively monitoring the abundance of the tetQ gene in ... The Food and Drug Administration began to review the safety of triclocarban and triclosan in the 1970s, but due to the ... of antibiotics present in aquatic environments often leads to this sort of dynamic selection event and the multiple resistance ... "Anti-bacterial personal hygiene products may not be worth potential risks." UC Davis Health System Feature Story: Anti- ...
... a cyanobacterial indolinone that circumvents multiple drug resistance". Molecular Pharmacology. 49 (2): 288-94. PMID 8632761. v ... 2003) observed inhibiting bacterial growth with up to 83% of the efficacy of TBT oxide. Current research also aims to produce ... Canizal G, Ascencio JA, Gardea-Torresday J, Yacamán MJ (2001). "Multiple Twinned Gold Nanorods Grown by Bio-reduction ... Simonin P, Jürgens UJ, Rohmer M (November 1996). "Bacterial triterpenoids of the hopane series from the prochlorophyte ...
At least in part the antimicrobial resistance in S. aureus can be explained by its ability to adapt. Multiple two component ... dormant bacterial cells. S. aureus biofilms also have high resistance to host immune response. Though the exact mechanism of ... and beta-lactamase for drug resistance. Depending on the strain, S. aureus is capable of secreting several exotoxins, which can ... Because of the high level of resistance to penicillins and because of the potential for MRSA to develop resistance to ...
In many cases, this leads to bacterial cell death. Streptogramin resistance is mediated through enzymatic drug inactivation, ... of requiring multiple points of mutation targeting both dalfopristin and quinupristin components to confer drug resistance. ... A stable drug-ribosome complex is created when the two drugs are used together. This complex inhibits protein synthesis through ... "Synercid (Quinupristin/Dalfopristin) I.V." Drug Approval Package. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Allington DR, Rivey MP ( ...
... sometimes also referred to as multiple-drug resistant S. aureus due to resistance to non-penicillin antibiotics that some ... Certain situations such as severe bacterial related sepsis or septic shock can more commonly lead to situations in which a drug ... Drug resistance, such as antimicrobial resistance or antineoplastic resistance, may make the first-line drug ineffective, ... A drug of last resort (DoLR) is a pharmaceutical drug which is tried after all other drug options have failed to produce an ...
Multiple mechanisms of streptogramin resistance have developed despite Synercid's fairly recent development. The three major ... This intravenously-injected drug is used to treat patients with bacteremia caused by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium ... However, when used in conjunction with one another, the streptogramins can inhibit bacterial growth and are bactericidal. ... In 1999 the FDA had approved Synercid, a drug containing streptogramins A and B in a 7:3 ratio respectively. ...
... as well as ongoing mutations which confer multi-drug resistance in pathological microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses ( ... Eritoran, because of its structural similarity to the gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (lipid A) acts as TLR4 ... There were multiple factors that could be attributed to the failure of Eritoran against sepsis, which include poorly designed ... Fink MP, Warren HS (October 2014). "Strategies to improve drug development for sepsis". Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery. 13 (10 ...
"Roles of Regulatory RNAs for Antibiotic Resistance in Bacteria and Their Potential Value as Novel Drug Targets". Frontiers in ... Biofilm is a type of bacterial growth pattern where multiple layers of bacterial cells adhere to a host surface. This mode of ... Several bacterial sRNAs are involved in the regulation of genes that confer antibiotic resistance. For example, the sRNA DsrA ... Bacterial sRNAs affect how genes are expressed within bacterial cells via interaction with mRNA or protein, and thus can affect ...
Some efflux systems are drug-specific, whereas others may accommodate multiple drugs with small multidrug resistance (SMR) ... This active efflux mechanism is responsible for various types of resistance to bacterial pathogens within bacterial species - ... multiple drug resistance proteins (MDRs)- also referred as P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs), ... "AcrAB efflux pump plays a major role in the antibiotic resistance phenotype of Escherichia coli multiple-antibiotic-resistance ...
... or having intermediate resistance to an antibiotic.[5] Specific patterns of drug resistance or multi drug resistance may be ... Sometimes multiple samples may be taken if the source of an infection is not clear.[1] These samples are transferred to the ... is marked as resistant is also based on bacterial characteristics that are associated with known methods of resistance such as ... This resistance might be because a type of bacteria has intrinsic resistance to some antibiotics,[2] because of resistance ...
When treating infection, whether bacterial or viral, there is always a risk of the infectious agent to develop drug resistance ... The advance of etravirine over other NNRTIs is that multiple mutations are required for the development of drug resistance. The ... The perfect anti-HIV drug chemical should be effective against drug resistance mutation. Understanding the target RT enzyme and ... mechanism of drug action and the consequence of drug resistance mutations provide useful information which can be helpful to ...
Some efflux systems are drug-specific, whereas others may accommodate multiple drugs with small multidrug resistance (SMR) ... a given bacterial species may lead to a broad spectrum of resistance when considering the shared substrates of some multi-drug ... multiple drug resistance proteins (MDRs)- also referred as P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs), ... Antibiotic resistance. References[edit]. *^ Bay, Denice C.; Turner, Raymond J. (2016). Small Multidrug Resistance Efflux Pumps ...
Though antibiotics are required to treat severe bacterial infections, misuse has contributed to a rise in bacterial resistance ... can develop resistance to multiple antibiotics and cause life-threatening infections. Antibiotics have been around since 1928 ... 2050 it is estimated that 300 million people could die prematurely due to drug resistance and $60 - 100 trillion of economic ... 1] "Antimicrobial Resistance: Tackling a crisis for the health and wealth of nations" (PDF). Review on Antimicrobial Resistance ...
The ability of bacteria to decrease their susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs importantly affects both bacterial ecology and ... The filamentation contributes to a pathogen's resistance to this antimicrobial agent. The induction of bacterial filamentation ... Chloramphenicol antibiotic can induce the formation of filamentous cells, which contain multiple copies of unsegregated ... Bacterial size < 0.4 μm were not grazed well Bacterial size between 0.4 μm and 1.6 μm were "grazing vulnerable" Bacterial size ...
... drug occupancy at a purported site of action can be inferred indirectly by competition studies between unlabeled drug and ... Three different PET contrast agents have been developed to image bacterial infections in vivo: [18F]maltose,[19] [18F] ... The advantage is a better noise profile and resistance to the streak artifacts common with FBP, but the disadvantage is higher ... More modern scanners now include multiple rings, essentially forming a cylinder of detectors. ...
Recovered gorilla carcasses have contained multiple Ebola virus strains, suggesting multiple introductions of the virus. Bodies ... "U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).. *Ebola: What You Need to Know - Scientific American articles related to Ebola; note ... balance as well as treating any bacterial infections that may develop.[33] Dialysis may be needed for kidney failure, and ... with more than 1,000 cases and insecurity continuing to being the major resistance to providing an adequate response.[215][216] ...
... such as bacterial resistance.[194] Oral and topical probiotics are under evaluation as treatments for acne.[195] Probiotics may ... "Drug Trials Snapshots: Aklief". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 11 October 2019. Archived from the original on 19 ... They work by killing C. acnes and reducing inflammation.[20][82][90] Although multiple guidelines call for healthcare providers ... Aslam I, Fleischer A, Feldman S (March 2015). "Emerging drugs for the treatment of acne". Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs. 20 ...
Drug resistance is increasingly more common and presents a serious problem in persons who are immunocompromised. Prophylactic ... This is an uncommon form of chronic (more than one month in duration) candidal infection involving multiple areas in the mouth ... "Medically important bacterial-fungal interactions." Nature Reviews Microbiology 8.5 (2010): 340-349. Kourkoumpetis, ... ISBN 978-1-4377-0416-7. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Anil Ghom; ...
"Infection and Drug Resistance. 8: 119-128. doi:10.2147/IDR.S66739. PMC 4440423. PMID 26028977.. ... American indie rock band Typhoon are noted for having multiple songs which reference or are directly about Lyme disease.[273] ... In the US, the National Institutes of Health has supported research into bacterial persistence.[282] ... A hexavalent (OspA) protein subunit-based vaccine candidate VLA15 was granted fast track designation by the U.S. Food and Drug ...
CS1 maint: multiple names: listahan ng mga may-akda (link). *↑ 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 15.6 15.7 15.8 Ebby, Orin (2005). ... Anevlavis S; Bouros D (2010). "Community acquired bacterial pneumonia". Expert Opin Pharmacother. 11 (3): 361-74. doi:10.1517/ ... "Community-Acquired Pneumonia: From Common Pathogens To Emerging Resistance". Emergency Medicine Practice. 7 (12).. Unknown ... "Use of acid-suppressive drugs and risk of pneumonia: a systematic review and meta-analysis". CMAJ : Canadian Medical ...
CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link). *^ Saito Y, Liang G, Egger G, Friedman JM, Chuang JC, Coetzee GA, Jones PA ( ... response to drug. • DNA unwinding involved in DNA replication. • cellular response to hydroxyurea. • replication-born double- ... RAD51 family members are homologous to the bacterial RecA, Archaeal RadA and yeast Rad51.[5][6] The protein is highly conserved ... The Rad51-induced oocyte resistance to apoptosis is likely due to Rad51's central role in homologous recombinational repair of ...
"Journal of Food and Drug Analysis. 26 (2): S61-S71. doi:10.1016/j.jfda.2018.01.009. ISSN 1021-9498. PMID 29703387.. [permanent ... Hybrids with kumquats (× Citrofortunella) have good cold resistance. A citrus tree in a container may have to be repotted every ... The real danger lies that the psyllid can carry a deadly, bacterial tree disease called Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as ... As each hybrid is the product of (at least) two parent species, they are listed multiple times. ...
"Fluoroquinolone Antibacterial Drugs: Drug Safety Communication - FDA Advises Restricting Use for Certain Uncomplicated ... CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) *^ a b Drummond MB, Dasenbrook EC, Pitz MW, Murphy DJ, Fan E (November 2008). " ... COPD develops as a significant and chronic inflammatory response to inhaled irritants.[9] Chronic bacterial infections may also ... Concerns include the potential for antibiotic resistance and side effects including hearing loss, tinnitus, and changes to the ...
... malaria and pneumonia continue to plague India due to increased resistance to drugs. In 2011, India developed a 'totally drug- ... Several million more suffer from multiple episodes of diarrhea and still others fall ill on account of Hepatitis A, enteric ... Open air defecation leads to the spread of disease and malnutrition through parasitic and bacterial infections. ... Totally drug-resistant' tuberculosis reported in India; 12 patients have not responded to TB medication." New York Daily News ...
... intended to mitigate bacterial resistance.[5] Multidrug therapy (MDT) combining all three drugs was first recommended by the ... The leprosaria of the Middle Ages had multiple benefits: they provided treatment and safe living quarters for people with ... Ravina, E.; Kubinyi, H. (2011). The Evolution of Drug Discovery: From Traditional Medicines to Modern Drugs. John Wiley \& Sons ... intended to mitigate bacterial resistance.[5] The first trials of combined treatment were carried out in Malta in the 1970s. ...
... resistance to fluoroquinolones among the bacteria that cause urinary infections has been increasing.[42] The Food and Drug ... Urine culture is deemed positive if it shows a bacterial colony count of greater than or equal to 103 colony-forming units per ... Multiple white cells seen in the urine of a person with a urinary tract infection using a microscopy. ... "Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 8 March 2018. Archived from the original on 18 July 2019. Retrieved 17 July 2019.. ...
Bortezomib is used in the treatment of multiple myeloma.[103] Notably, multiple myeloma has been observed to result in ... Adams J (April 2003). "Potential for proteasome inhibition in the treatment of cancer". Drug Discovery Today. 8 (7): 307-15. ... Some prokaryotes, including many archaea and the bacterial order Actinomycetales, also share homologs of the 20S proteasome, ... cells expressing these proteasomes show enhanced resistance to toxicity induced by metallic ions such as cadmium.[23][25] ...
Victor FC, Gottlieb AB (2002). "TNF-alpha and apoptosis: implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of psoriasis". J Drugs ... It also induces insulin resistance by promoting serine-phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), which impairs ... other bacterial products, and Interleukin-1 (IL-1). In the skin, mast cells appear to be the predominant source of pre-formed ... Dashed grey lines represent multiple steps.. Upon contact with their ligand, TNF receptors also form trimers, their tips ...
Whilst drug resistance typically involves microbes chemically inactivating an antimicrobial drug or a cell mechanically ... but more serious infections are treated with antimicrobial drugs. Bacterial infections are treated with antibacterials (often ... These machines perform multiple biochemical tests simultaneously, using cards with several wells containing different ... In addition to drugs being specific to a certain kind of organism (bacteria, fungi, etc.), some drugs are specific to a certain ...
Hurt AC, Ho HT, Barr I (October 2006). "Resistance to anti-influenza drugs: adamantanes and neuraminidase inhibitors". Expert ... Bleeding from the ears and petechial hemorrhages in the skin also occurred."[193] The majority of deaths were from bacterial ... These vaccines can be effective against multiple strains and are used either as part of a preventative strategy, or combined ... The CDC recommended against using M2 inhibitors during the 2005-06 influenza season due to high levels of drug resistance.[150] ...
CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) *^ Chang TW, Wu PC, Hsu CL, Hung AF (2007). Anti-IgE antibodies for the ... Drugs targeting the IgE pathway[edit]. Currently, allergic diseases and asthma are usually treated with one or more of the ... Rihet P, Demeure CE, Bourgois A, Prata A, Dessein AJ (1991). "Evidence for an association between human resistance to ... but may be also effective in bacterial infections. Epidemiological research shows that IgE level is increased when infected by ...
Bacterial vaginosis[edit]. Probiotic treatment of bacterial vaginosis is the application or ingestion of bacterial species ... Multiple probiotics[edit]. Preliminary research is evaluating the potential physiological effects of multiple probiotic strains ... Determination of antibiotic resistance patterns. *Assessment of certain metabolic activities (e.g. D-lactate production, bile ... In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Federal Trade Commission (FTC) have issued warning letters and ...
Symptoms may not appear until some days after the bites have occurred.[5] Reactions often become more brisk after multiple ... Romero A, Potter MF, Potter DA, Haynes KF (2007). "Insecticide Resistance in the Bed Bug: A Factor in the Pest's Sudden ... Bacterial skin infection may occur due to skin break down from scratching.[5][11] Systemic poisoning may occur if the bites are ... and be a source of pharmacologically active molecules as a resource for the discovery of new drugs.[75] ...
Penicillin G is the drug of choice, although there have been some isolates found to show resistance. C. canimorsus is ... Tuftsin is responsible for the stimulation of phagocytosis, so its decrease in the presence of bacterial infection poses a ... The infection rapidly progresses toward multiple organ system failures and finally death. The mortality rate in individuals ... It has shown resistance to gentamicin. Treatment is recommended for a minimum of three weeks. Hospitalization is required in ...
Antibiotic resistance. Main article: Antibiotic resistance in gonorrhea. Many antibiotics that were once effective including ... In the US, it is the second-most-common bacterial sexually transmitted infections; chlamydia remains first.[64][65] According ... Emergence of multi-drug resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae (PDF) (Report). World Health Organisation. 2012. p. 2. Archived from ... the USPSTF also recommends routine screening in people who have previously tested positive for gonorrhea or have multiple ...
Antibiotic resistance. In many areas of the world, antibiotic resistance is increasing within cholera bacteria. In Bangladesh, ... Spanish physician Jaume Ferran i Clua developed a cholera inoculation in 1885, the first to immunize humans against a bacterial ... He was bedridden for nine months, and near death multiple times, but survived and fully recovered. ... The vaccine that the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommends, Vaxchora, is an oral attenuated live vaccine, that is ...
CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) *^ Rowe, Thomas C (2006). Federal narcotics laws and the war on drugs: money ... but farmers in many states have not yet begun to grow it because of resistance from the federal Drug Enforcement Administration ... and by molds and bacterial action). ... drug', even though it is not a 'drug' and it has the potential ... James F. Hopkins, "Slavery in the Hemp Industry", Drug Library *^ a b c d French, Laurence; Manzanárez, Magdaleno (2004). NAFTA ...
... resistance to chemical treatments (e.g. resistance to a herbicide[44]), reduction of spoilage,[45] or improving the nutrient ... in which drugs and drug combinations are optimized for each individual's unique genetic makeup.[34][35] ... In 1940, penicillin became available for medicinal use to treat bacterial infections in humans.[10] ... "Published GMO studies find no evidence of harm when corrected for multiple comparisons". Critical Reviews in Biotechnology. 37 ...
In July 2018, the Food and Drug Administration approved tecovirimat, the first drug approved for treatment of smallpox.[60] ... This was postponed to 30 June 1999.[111] Due to resistance from the U.S. and Russia, in 2002 the World Health Assembly agreed ... Secondary bacterial infection of the skin is a relatively uncommon complication of smallpox. When this occurs, the fever ... The cause of death from smallpox is not clear, but the infection is now known to involve multiple organs. Circulating immune ...
U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2017. Retrieved 18 June 2019.. *^ Georghiou GP, Hawley MK (1971). "Insecticide resistance ... Females normally mate only once and then reject further advances from males, while males mate multiple times.[27] A volatile ... Japanese Yagi bombs developed at Pingfan consisted of two compartments, one with houseflies and another with a bacterial slurry ... The housefly is, however, thought to exhibit multiple mechanisms for sex determination, such as male heterogamy (like most ...
... can occur which prevent the drugs from binding to the protein, leading to resistance to these types of drugs.[117] Drugs used ... Drug absorption and clearance are influenced by multiple factors, including age, gender, metabolism, disease state, organ ... "Antibiotic prophylaxis for bacterial infections in afebrile neutropenic patients following chemotherapy". The Cochrane ... Resistance[edit]. Resistance is a major cause of treatment failure in chemotherapeutic drugs. There are a few possible causes ...
I believe that the word resistance leader should be used in place of nationalist, because Borovets led resistance members in ... FYI Qutipin(Drug) is not a Russian brand nameEdit. Its from Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. Sun Pharmaceutical Industries ... If multiple reliable sources report different information, unless we have a more definitive source like a news article where ... to claim much more than There is ongoing research into whether ultraviolet blood irradiation can help with difficult bacterial ...
SoxRS-Mediated Lipopolysaccharide Modification Enhances Resistance against Multiple Drugs in Escherichia coli Joon-Hee Lee, ... The dlt Operon of Bacillus cereus Is Required for Resistance to Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides and for Virulence in Insects Z ... Identification and Characterization of a Novel Multidrug Resistance Operon, mdtRP (yusOP), of Bacillus subtilis Ji-Yun Kim, ... Comparative Genomics of the IncA/C Multidrug Resistance Plasmid Family W. Florian Fricke, Timothy J. Welch, Patrick F. ...
"Origin and Proliferation of Multiple-Drug Resistance in Bacterial Pathogens." Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 79 (1) (February 4): ... and it is unclear whether each bacterial taxon has its own mechanism(s) for multidrug resistance or whether there are common ... SUMMARY: Many studies report the high prevalence of multiply drug-resistant (MDR) strains. Because MDR infections are often ...
2.1.2. Global Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment Market, by Drug Class, 2016. 2.1.3. Global Multiple Drug ... Global Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment Market Portraiture. 2.1.1. Global Multiple Drug Resistance ... Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment Market, by Geography, 2016. Chapter 3. Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection ... The global multiple drug resistance bacterial infection treatment market was valued at US$ 26,169.09 Mn in 2016, and is ...
"Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial" by people in this website by year, and whether "Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial" was ... Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial*Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial. *Multiple Antibacterial Drug Resistance ... "Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial" by people in Profiles. ...
Europe Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment Market Growth 2019-2024. EMEA Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial ... Global Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment Market Growth 2019-2024. China Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial ... Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment Market Size, Share, Development by 2024. Uncategorized. Multiple Drug ... LP INFORMATION offers a latest published report on Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment Market Analysis and ...
Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment Market Research is expecting to accrue strong growth in forecasts frame ... 9.2.5.3 Italy Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment Market. 9.2.5.3.1 Italy Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial ... 9.2.5.4 Spain Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment Market. 9.2.5.4.1 Spain Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial ... 9.3.5.2 China Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment Market. 9.3.5.2.1 China Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial ...
The segregational stability of bacterial, low-copy-number plasmids is promoted primarily by active partition. The plasmid- ... Bacterial Proteins / genetics* * DNA, Bacterial * Drug Resistance, Multiple / genetics* * Evolution, Molecular * Molecular ... The genetic organization of the partition cassette of the multidrug resistance plasmid TP228 differs markedly from that of the ... The partition system of multidrug resistance plasmid TP228 includes a novel protein that epitomizes an evolutionarily distinct ...
DNA, Bacterial. Drug Utilization. Endemic Diseases. Subject: Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial. URI: http://www.who.int/iris ... Changing trends in drug resistance among typhoid salmonellae in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Authors: Butt, T.. Ahmad, R.N.. Salman, M ... Resistance to conventional antityphoid drugs in S. typhi decreased dramatically from 80% to 14%, while in S. paratyphi A ... resistance increased from 14% to 44%. Susceptibility to the fluoroquinolones decreased in both. No resistance to third ...
Enhanced virulence and/or antimicrobial resistance compared with other E. coli, plus ongoi … ... DNA, Bacterial / genetics * Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial* * Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field * Escherichia coli / ... Enhanced virulence and/or antimicrobial resistance compared with other E. coli, plus ongoing dissemination among locales, may ... A historical ST131 isolate lacked the 2007 ST131 isolates conserved fluoroquinolone resistance-associated single-nucleotide ...
Bacterial identification of uropathogens and drug susceptibility testing were done following standard microbiological ... Multi-drug resistant isolates were 16/49 (32.7%), 75% of them being Enterobacteriaceae isolates. More than one-third 9/26 (34.6 ... Most of the bacterial isolates from urinary stone patients were resistant to ampicillin, penicillin and trimethoprim- ... Sex, history of urinary tract infection and previous drug use were found to be risk factors. Routine diagnosis of urinary stone ...
Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment Market Is Expected To Reach US$ 44,060.77 Mn By 2025 - Credence Research ... Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment Market Is Expected To Reach US$ 44,060.77 Mn By 2025 - Credence Research ... "Global Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment Market - Market Growth, Future Prospects, Competitive Analysis, ... New Market Research Reports Title "Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment Market Is Expected To Reach US$ ...
... as well as the diversity and distribution of clinically relevant determinants of pathogenicity and antimicrobial resistance. A ... The species is naturally resistant to penicillins, and members of the population often carry acquired resistance to multiple ... as well as the diversity and distribution of clinically relevant determinants of pathogenicity and antimicrobial resistance. ... Origin and proliferation of multiple-drug resistance in bacterial pathogens. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 79, 101-116 (2015). ...
DNA, Bacterial / chemistry*, genetics*. Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial. Escherichia coli / drug effects, genetics*, ... 24874465 - A prospective antibacterial for drug-resistant pathogens: a dual warhead amphiphile des.... 23045955 - A novel class ... and its genome sequence is expected to provide insights into antimicrobial resistance as well as adaptive and virulence ...
... with higher mortality rates than drug-sensitive TB, particularly in immunocompromised patients. MDR-TB patients require ... DNA, Bacterial / analysis. Drug Resistance, Microbial / genetics. Drug Resistance, Multiple / genetics. Humans. Molecular ... making rifampin resistance a useful surrogate marker for multidrug resistance and indicating that second- and third-line drugs ... 10074516 - Molecular evidence for heterogeneity of the multiple-drug-resistant mycobacterium tuber.... 23605346 - Mycotoxin ...
The journal is essential reading for all researchers involved in anti-infective drug design and discovery. The journal also ... therapeutic agents related to anti-infective drug discovery. ... of important and recent patents on anti-infective drug ... Bacterial Quorum Sensing Inhibitors: Attractive Alternatives for Control of Infectious Pathogens Showing Multiple Drug ... Identification of Quinolone and Colistin Resistance Genes in Escherichia Coli Strains Isolated from Mucosal Samples of Patients ...
Environmental regulators monitor and control many of the pathways responsible for the release of resistance-driving chemicals ... Environmental regulators monitor and control many of the pathways responsible for the release of resistance-driving chemicals ... regulators should be contributing significantly to the development of global and national antimicrobial resistance (AMR) action ... regulators should be contributing significantly to the development of global and national antimicrobial resistance (AMR) action ...
almost 9 percent had multi-drug resistant... specific multi-drug resistant bacterial strains that are... ... drug resistance and hiv drug resistance drug resistant drug resistance or antibiotic viral drug resistance first line drug ... resistance depression fungal drug resistance world health multiple sclerosis drugs multiple sclerosis drug treatment ... Medications for Multiple Sclerosis. A variety of drugs are used to treat multiple... disease-modifying drugs, corticosteroids, ...
BACTERIAL ETIOLOGY OF SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS IN DAIRY GOATS AND MULTIPLE DRUG RESISTANCE OF THE ISOLATES ... Multiple drug resistance: Biochemically characterized bacterial isolates were tested for sensitivity against different ... Moreover, 138(85.71%) strains exhibited multi-drug resistance.. Prevalence of Enterococcus faecalis mediated UTI and its ... Global phenotypic characterization of effects of fluoroquinolone resistance selection on the metabolic activities and drug ...
Categories: Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Anti-Bacterial Agents (+8). Microbial Sensitivity Test (+4). Drug Resistance, Multiple (+10) ... They annotated these genes by gene description (NCBI). Known mutations related to drug resistance occurred in some genes, ... "Drug Resistance, Microbial" and "Biofilm") and even the field of study ("Systems Biology" and "Computer Simulation"). Such ... This procedure is the same as that used by other ORA packages such as GOstats [32]. Here, MeSH "D" (Chemicals and Drugs) ...
Drug Resistance, Bacterial. 1. Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial. 1. Dwarfism. 1. Dyspnea. ...
Resistance stems from misguided efforts to try to sterilise our environment. Bacterial resistance to multiple antibiotics ... Center for Adaptation Genetics and Drug Resistance, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, USA. ... The above scenario portrays the multiple and cumulative impacts of antimicrobial agents on the bacterial world. The message is ... They will tell us where the next resistance problem will arise and also where antibiotic selection pressure for resistance is ...
Anti-biofilm efficacy of a medieval treatment for bacterial infection requires the combination of multiple ingredients ... Dried whole-plant Artemisia annua slows evolution of malaria drug resistance and overcomes resistance to artemisinin. Mostafa A ... Dried whole-plant Artemisia annua slows evolution of malaria drug resistance and overcomes resistance to artemisinin ... Plant therapy overcomes malaria drug resistance. Mostafa A. Elfawal, Melissa J. Towler, Nicholas G. Reich, Pamela J. Weathers, ...
Thirty bacterial isolates were identified, mostly from deep wound swabs of 21 (28%) injured patients; 9/21 were infected with 2 ... Twenty-four percent had multiple injuries, 20% had osteomyelitis, and 53% had metal prosthetic implants. ... Antimicrobial Drug Resistance among Refugees from Syria, Jordan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(5):885-886. doi:10.3201/ ... As part of a program of antimicrobial drug stewardship and infection prevention and control, empiric antimicrobial drug ...
Multiple antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation help these strains avoid therapeutic drugs. Because Burkholderia and ... "Bacterial histidine kinases as novel antibacterial drug targets," ACS Chemical Biology, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 213-224, 2015. View ... Multiple alignments of nucleotide sequences were created in a MEGA 6.0 [25] environment using Multiple Sequence Alignment tools ... C. R. Woese, "Bacterial evolution," Microbiological Reviews, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 221-271, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View ...
Background The emergence of drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis(Mtb), especially those that are multidrug ... Thickening of the bacterial cell wall generally increases drug resistance by reducing drug permeability [26, 27, 28, 29]. Our ... We next examined whether the observed multiple drug resistance of Rv0071/74-9 m is caused by known drug-resistance gene ... Multiple mechanisms of resistance are acting in unison in the emergence of drug resistance. Our study here showed a newly ...
Metallo-,i,β,/i,-lactamases gene was found frequently indicating widespread multiple drug resistance bacteria. We suggest using ... Total bacterial contamination of cold, warm, and incubator water samples was 93.3%, 84.4%, and 89.0% consequently. Metallo-,i,β ... and another PCR for detecting whole bacterial presence. Contamination rates of cold, warm, and incubator water samples with ,i, ... Metallo-β-lactamases gene was found frequently indicating widespread multiple drug resistance bacteria. We suggest using new ...
Origin and proliferation of multiple-drug resistance in bacterial pathogens. HH Chang, T Cohen, YH Grad, WP Hanage, TF OBrien ... The effect of drug resistance on the fitness of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. T Cohen, B Sommers, M Murray ... The prevalence and drug sensitivity of tuberculosis among patients dying in hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: a ... Effects of smoking and solid-fuel use on COPD, lung cancer, and tuberculosis in China: a time-based, multiple risk factor, ...
What is multiple drug resistance? Meaning of multiple drug resistance as a finance term. What does multiple drug resistance ... Definition of multiple drug resistance in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... declared as multiple drug resistance (MDR).. BACTERIAL ETIOLOGY OF SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS IN DAIRY GOATS AND MULTIPLE DRUG ... Multiple drug resistance financial definition of multiple drug resistance https://financial-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/ ...
Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics*. *Escherichia coli/genetics/growth & development*. *Feces/microbiology* ... Here, we present the hypothesis that the emergence of resistance in pigs requires drug accumulation for 7 days or more. To test ... Here, we present the hypothesis that the emergence of resistance in pigs requires drug accumulation for 7 days or more. To test ... Escherichia coli resistance to quinolones has now become a serious issue in large-scale pig farms of China. It is necessary to ...
  • However, for different pathogens, different underlying mechanisms are traditionally used to explain these observations, and it is unclear whether each bacterial taxon has its own mechanism(s) for multidrug resistance or whether there are common mechanisms between distantly related pathogens. (harvard.edu)
  • In 2016, Beta Lactam held the largest market in the drug class segment due to factors such as rising prevalence of multiple drug resistance cases and development of drugs such as Ceftazidime-avibactam and Doripenem which exhibit broad spectrum activity to counteract drug resistance by bacteria. (abnewswire.com)
  • The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. (childrensmercy.org)
  • Multidrug-resistant bacteria can be difficult to treat and facilitates spread of antibiotic resistance. (theinsightpartners.com)
  • Studies of newly emerging resistance show that resistance in bacteria, as in cancer, arises in steps progressing from low level to high level, unless a plasmid is acquired on which full blown resistance is already present. (bmj.com)
  • article regarding high rates of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria colonizing Syrian children highlights the challenge of choosing empiric antimicrobial drugs to treat war-injured refugees from Syria ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Antimicrobial drug-resistant bacteria isolated from Syrian war-injured patients, August 2011-March 2013. (cdc.gov)
  • Metallo- β -lactamases gene was found frequently indicating widespread multiple drug resistance bacteria. (hindawi.com)
  • The Antibiotic sensitivity tests conducted on the bacteria isolates to ascertain their level of resistance to commonly used antibiotics revealed multiple drug resistance of four to eight antibiotics among the 32 strains of bacteria belonging to the genera Escherichia, Staphylococcus, Salmonella and Streptococcus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • That's left us to try to develop new drugs to stay one step ahead of the bacteria, but the more we look the more we don't find anything new. (medindia.net)
  • The study demonstrated that in vitro, the ability of an ultra-broad-spectrum drug of the carbapenem class called meropenem to fight three different genera of bacteria that express NDM-1, was restored by the new PPMO. (medindia.net)
  • Recently, variants of these bacteria have developed resistance to medically important chemotherapeutic agents. (mdpi.com)
  • These multidrug efflux pump systems reside in the biological membrane of the bacteria and actively extrude antimicrobial agents from bacterial cells. (mdpi.com)
  • There are fewer studies on antibiotic resistance in Edwardsiella tarda from aquaculture enterprises and this study provides further support to the view that there is a potential risk of transfer of resistant bacteria and their genes to human pathogen through the food chain. (scirp.org)
  • Incidence of multi-resistant bacteria is an indicator that permits better estimation of the magnitude of bacterial resistance in hospitals. (scielo.cl)
  • To evaluate the incidence of relevant multi-drug resistant bacteria in intensive care units (ICUs) of Chile. (scielo.cl)
  • Multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDRGN bacteria) are a type of Gram-negative bacteria with resistance to multiple antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overuse of antibiotics has resulted in some of these bacteria developing resistance to the drugs designed to kill them. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Superbugs are bacteria that are resistant to multiple antibiotics. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Gram-negative bacteria can develop resistance to polymyxins through various modifications of the LPS structure that inhibit the binding of polymyxins to LPS. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacterial efflux pumps are an intrinsic defense mechanism in gram-negative bacteria that expel toxins such as antibiotics that have permeated the outer cell membrane before they can reach their targets and kill the bacteria. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Ever since antibiotics became widely available about 50 years ago, they have been hailed as miracle drugs--magic bullets able to destroy disease-causing bacteria. (fda.gov)
  • But with each passing decade, bacteria that resist not only single, but multiple, antibiotics--making some diseases particularly hard to control--have become increasingly widespread. (fda.gov)
  • But some bacteria resist the effects of drugs and multiply and spread. (fda.gov)
  • Some bacteria have developed resistance to antibiotics naturally, long before the development of commercial antibiotics. (fda.gov)
  • After testing bacteria found in an arctic glacier and estimated to be over 2,000 years old, scientists found several of them to be resistant against some antibiotics, most likely indicating naturally occurring resistance. (fda.gov)
  • If they are not naturally resistant, bacteria can become resistant to drugs in a number of ways. (fda.gov)
  • This means that resistance can spread from one species of bacteria to other species, enabling them to develop multiple resistance to different classes of antibiotics. (fda.gov)
  • Frequent bacterial infections in HIV patients increase the usage and also highly expose bacteria to antibiotics. (intechopen.com)
  • Horizontal gene transfer was first described in Japan in a 1959 publication that demonstrated the transfer of antibiotic resistance between different species of bacteria . (wikipedia.org)
  • And its unique mechanism of action makes it useful in treating infections caused by multiple drug resistance bacteria. (biology-online.org)
  • With many disease-causing bacteria ratcheting up their shields against current drugs, new tactics are vital to protect people from treatment-resistant infections. (phys.org)
  • The researchers call bacterial proteins like Mfd "evolvability factors" because, by increasing mutation rates , they propel the evolution of bacteria. (phys.org)
  • Houra Merrikh in her microbiology lab at UW Medicine in Seattle, where she is studying new approaches for reducing antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic bacteria. (phys.org)
  • Multiple Drug Resistance (MDR) is a condition enabling disease-causing microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites) to resist distinct antimicrobials. (militaryconnection.com)
  • Multi-drug resistant organisms, or MDROs, are bacteria resistant to current antibiotic therapy and therefore difficult to treat. (militaryconnection.com)
  • Before the Iraq war, the pathogenic highly drug-resistant bacteria Acinetobacter attracted little attention. (militaryconnection.com)
  • All isolates of these bacteria were susceptible to REP8839 including multiple resistant strains. (pharmiweb.com)
  • The high isolation rate of aerobic bacteria and their increased resistance to the commonly used antibiotics warrants the need to practise aseptic procedures and rational use of antimicrobial agents leading to minimize infection rate and emergence of drug resistance. (who.int)
  • Computer simulations have been used in a recent study into the interactions between aminoglycoside antibiotics and their target site in bacteria to elucidate this mechanism and thereby suggest drug modifications. (medindia.net)
  • Previous experiments on bacteria have shown that specific point mutations in the bacterial ribosomal RNA confer high resistance against aminoglycosides. (medindia.net)
  • Bacteria have developed other ways of gaining resistance, not just through mutations, and further studies are underway. (medindia.net)
  • Extensive use of antibiotics, whether natural (isolated from bacteria or fungi) or synthetic, gives rise to development of antibiotic resistance, making it difficult to treat various infections, especially in hospitals where multi-resistant bacteria are involved in nosocomial infections. (mdpi.com)
  • The mechanisms underlying bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents reside in the ability of bacteria to quickly modify their genomes. (mdpi.com)
  • This plasticity is a consequence not only of spontaneous mutations or genome rearrangements that can occur during the bacterial life cycle, but also of exogenous gene acquisition through genetic exchange between bacteria and gene capture in integrons. (mdpi.com)
  • Rapid emergence of multi-drug resistant bacteria in Bangladesh has become a serious problem. (scirp.org)
  • Conversely, bacteria may acquire a novel defence mechanism called CRISPR (Clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats) that can restrict horizontal transfer of plasmids and bacteriophages to limit the spread of antibiotic resistance genes among bacterial species. (scirp.org)
  • Multiple Drug Resistant (MDR) organisms are microorganisms (predominately bacteria) resistant to more than one class of microbial agents. (scirp.org)
  • NaturalNews) Herbicides commonly used for both agriculture and home can induce antibiotic resistance in equally common disease-causing bacteria, according to a study conducted by researchers from Mexico and New Zealand and published in the journal mBio . (naturalnews.com)
  • Every day you see in the news that there are concerns about the ever increasing frequency of antibiotic resistance in bacteria that can cause disease in people and our animals," researcher Jack Heinemann said in an interview with GMWatch . (naturalnews.com)
  • The bacteria were exposed to five separate antibiotics, representing five different drug families: ampicillin (beta-lactams), chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin (fluroquinolones), kanamycin (aminoglycosides) and tetracycline. (naturalnews.com)
  • The researchers found that, in many cases, the antibiotic resistance of the bacteria increased dramatically, up to sixfold. (naturalnews.com)
  • Additionally, the antibiotic resistance properties of bacteria typically change when they are exposed to antibiotics and another chemical (in this case, herbicides) at the same time. (naturalnews.com)
  • Resistance of bacteria isolated from ocular infections to antimicrobial agents is a global concern. (who.int)
  • Many organisms, including the parasite that causes malaria, make a class of molecules called isoprenoids, which play multiple roles in keeping organisms healthy, whether plants, animals or bacteria. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The mechanism by which nosocomial bacteria, like A. baumanii, attain multidrug resistance to antibiotics is of considerable interest. (mendeley.com)
  • And with more and more worry regarding drug-resistant bacteria, finding a natural product that can actually help an antibiotic do its job is an amazing find. (bostonmagazine.com)
  • Although antibiotics are commonly used and widely available drugs for the treatment of bacterial infections,bacteria show multiple drug resistance, have a tendency to get genetically mutated and become resistant to commonly employed antibiotic drugs. (ias.ac.in)
  • High segment will be the fastest growing segment for the vectors market throughout the forecast period 2017-2025 majorly due to factors such as increasing number of patients suffering with Helicobacter pylori (clarithromycin-resistant), and Staphylococcus aureus, (vancomycin-resistant) infection and public-private partnership in the diagnosis and antibiotics development to treat antimicrobial drug resistance. (abnewswire.com)
  • Oxazolidinone and Glycolipopeptides will be the fastest growing market in the drug class segment throughout the forecast period 2017-2025 majorly due to factors such as large development gap in the antibiotic development and emergence of effective antibiotics such as Linezolid and Dalbavancin exhibiting improved pharmacodynamic activity and technological advancement in the rapid diagnostics testing kits. (abnewswire.com)
  • However, the high cost of R&D and lack of effective antibiotics are expected to hamper the market multidrug resistance antibiotics market during the forecast period. (theinsightpartners.com)
  • 2) What is the relative contribution from the release of antibiotics, metals, biocides, and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) to the emergence, maintenance and spread of AMR in the environment? (frontiersin.org)
  • Bacterial resistance to multiple antibiotics characterises the present decade. (bmj.com)
  • Should you happen to live in an animal host you face the same onslaught since antibiotics are used heavily in animal husbandry, both as growth enhancers and in treatment - and under this chronic selection pressure you enhance your resistance capabilities. (bmj.com)
  • In addition, by 1990, many common bacterial species had developed some degree of resistance to drug treatment and multiple antibiotics. (metroactive.com)
  • Antibiotic resistance is a major public health concern that has emerge over the recent years as several microbes that were previously susceptible to antibiotics have evolved to become insensitive to drugs even at higher concentrations perhaps due to mutation and apparent indiscriminate use and exposure or abuse of such drugs by fish farmers that use them for diseases prevention. (scirp.org)
  • For example, macrolide antibiotics bind to a specific part of the bacterial ribosome to impede the vital process of manufacturing proteins. (pewtrusts.org)
  • Although there is currently a shortage of new drugs in the antimicrobial realm, there are a few antibiotics currently being studied and tested for the treatment of serious Gram-negative bacterial infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, there has been interest in the drug Tigecycline, which is from the class of antibiotics called called glycylcyclines, for treating MDRGN infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • The formation of bacterial persisters is now known to be a common phenomenon that can occur by the formation of persister cells prior to the antibiotic treatment or in response to a variety of antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Resistance is caused by newly acquired genetic traits (by mutation or horizontal gene transfer) that are heritable and confer the ability to grow at elevated concentrations of antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • For years, doctors have prescribed diverse antibiotics to treat various bacterial infections. (bio-medicine.org)
  • However, it still detectably increases the permeability of the bacterial cell wall to other antibiotics, indicating that it still causes some degree of membrane disorganization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibiotics play a significant role in the management of severe cases of Cholera, so emerging multiple drug resistance among various strains of Vibrio cholera is a major public health concern nowadays. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 17). Resistance to most commonly available antibiotics was moderate to very high among Gram-positive and Gram-negative isolates. (who.int)
  • The collaboration will focus on the discovery and development of novel drug regimens comprising Mpex's EPIs combined with GSK's novel development stage compounds as well as existing commercial antibiotics to improve potency and broaden the spectrum of antibacterial activity. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • There are currently no drugs approved to inhibit the activity of these efflux pumps and restore the potency of otherwise effective antibiotics. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • The World Health Organization has already emphasized the urgency in designing new antimicrobial molecules, because conventional antibiotics are increasingly useless as therapeutics, especially against the so-called ESKAPE pathogens ( Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumanii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Enterobacter species), which showed a high propensity to develop antibiotic resistance ( McKenna, 2013 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The need for new antibiotics is great as bacterial strains with single and multiple drug resistance have continued to grow more prevalent since the 1980's. (mit.edu)
  • Combining antibiotics with an anti-evolution drug that reduces the rate of mutations in the pathogen might be one strategy against the development of antimicrobial resistance. (phys.org)
  • While most efforts against antimicrobial resistance concentrate on producing better antibiotics , the scientists note, "History shows that resistance arises regardless of the nature or potency of new drugs. (phys.org)
  • Objectives To systematically review studies investigating the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli in children and, when appropriate, to meta-analyse the relation between previous antibiotics prescribed in primary care and resistance. (bmj.com)
  • Pooled percentage prevalence of resistance to the most commonly used antibiotics in children in primary care, stratified by the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) status of the study country. (bmj.com)
  • Random effects meta-analysis was used to quantify the association between previous exposure to antibiotics in primary care and resistance. (bmj.com)
  • There was evidence that bacterial isolates from the urinary tract from individual children who had received previous prescriptions for antibiotics in primary care were more likely to be resistant to antibiotics, and this increased risk could persist for up to six months (odds ratio 13.23, 95% confidence interval 7.84 to 22.31). (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions Prevalence of resistance to commonly prescribed antibiotics in primary care in children with urinary tract infections caused by E coli is high, particularly in countries outside the OECD, where one possible explanation is the availability of antibiotics over the counter. (bmj.com)
  • Routine use of antibiotics in primary care contributes to antimicrobial resistance in children, which can persist for up to six months after treatment. (bmj.com)
  • No bacterial isolates was found to be sensitive to all antibiotics tested. (who.int)
  • In hospitals throughout the world, aminoglycosidic antibiotics are used to combat even the most severe bacterial infections, being very successful especially against tuberculosis and plague. (medindia.net)
  • The authors are now investigating the resistance mechanism by which bacterial enzymes actively modify and neutralize aminoglycosidic antibiotics. (medindia.net)
  • Antibiotics like tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones used in the treatment of bacterial infections interact mainly with dairy products and lead to adverse side effects. (medindia.net)
  • In the absence of the selecting drugs, chromosomal mutations for resistance to antibiotics and other chemotheraputic agents commonly engender a cost in the fitness of microorganisms. (genetics.org)
  • The emergence of multi-resistant bacterial strains is a major source of concern and has been correlated with the widespread use of antibiotics. (mdpi.com)
  • Thereafter, antibiogram of these strains was performed by using 11 different antibiotic discs where bacterial isolates from medical drainage system showed more resistant to antibiotics than the river water. (scirp.org)
  • Patients are inevitably exposed to higher antibiotics and other drugs which may result in further complications. (scirp.org)
  • Thus, the risk of herbicide-induced antibiotic resistance is greatest in agricultural settings, where both herbicides and antibiotics are in regular use. (naturalnews.com)
  • Most of the isolates were drug resistant to commonly used antibiotics. (who.int)
  • The antitubercular efficacy of spectinamides demonstrates that synthetic modifications to classical antibiotics can overcome the challenge of intrinsic efflux pump-mediated resistance and expands opportunities for target-based tuberculosis drug discovery. (nih.gov)
  • A new study out of McGill University in Canada found that concentrated extracts of the syrup "significantly repressed multiple drug resistance genes" and "efficiently reduced biofilm formation and increased the susceptibility of bacterial biofilms to antibiotics. (bostonmagazine.com)
  • Multiple drug resistance (MDR) has been a growing problem during the last decade, partly due to excessive use of antibiotics in human medicine and food animal production. (prolekare.cz)
  • This drug shows promise in infections from multi-drug resistant K. pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae carbapenemase [KPC]- and ESBL-producing strains) and Enterobacteriaceae with various mechanisms of resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is largely responsible for the inability to eradicate bacterial infections with antibiotic treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers will describe the epidemiology and risk factors for secondary bacterial or fungal co-infections, and the subset associated with resistant organisms, in COVID-19 patients in intensive care units at three health systems in the Chicago area. (cdc.gov)
  • The study aimed to determine the antibiotic susceptibilities of clinical MRSA strains to first-line drugs and drugs of last resort in the treatment of MRSA infections. (academicjournals.org)
  • Polymyxins B and E (also known as colistin) are used in the treatment of Gram-negative bacterial infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typical uses are for infections caused by strains of multiple drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. (wikipedia.org)
  • A comprehensive and cutting-edge review of how practicing physicians can best treat multiple drug resistance in bacterial, viral, protozoal, and helminthic infections. (bokus.com)
  • Des infections microbiennes ont été observées chez 30% (155/519) de l'ensemble des malades admis au service de soins intensifs pour adultes de l'Hôpital universitaire de Jordanie à Amman en 1993. (who.int)
  • Novel discovery-enabling and paradigm-shifting approaches are needed to address the ever increasing medical needs due to life-threatening bacterial infections and drug resistance. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • In fact, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), virtually all significant bacterial infections in the world are becoming resistant to the antibiotic treatment of choice. (fda.gov)
  • These "staph" infections range from urinary tract infections to bacterial pneumonia. (fda.gov)
  • Methicillin, one of the strongest in the arsenal of drugs to treat staph infections, is no longer effective against some strains of S. aureus. (fda.gov)
  • These findings are significant and provide the basis for rational development of therapeutic interventions against bacterial infections. (nature.com)
  • Bacterial infections that cause huge threats to HIV patients are tuberculosis, syphilis, bacterial enteric diseases and bacterial pneumonia. (intechopen.com)
  • Its drugs are intended to treat the various bacterial infections. (marketresearch.com)
  • The company's lead product Baxdela (delafloxacin) has been approved by the US FDA as an IV treatment for serious skin infections known as acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI). (marketresearch.com)
  • Delafloxacin is also being as an investigational antibiotic for Serious Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia (CABP) and Complicated Urinary Tract Infections (cUTI). (marketresearch.com)
  • Mdf's role also might possibly be enhanced or even exaggerated during bacterial infections of living things, in comparison to what happens when these bugs live in lab dishes. (phys.org)
  • But hundreds of cases have since been reported, and the Department of Defense says seven service members have died from the bacterial infections. (militaryconnection.com)
  • In exception, considerable success has been met by those targeting drug resistant infections. (pharmiweb.com)
  • This is highlighted by the rapid uptake of products focused on drug-resistant infections, such as Pfizer's Zyvox (linezolid). (pharmiweb.com)
  • Despite the problems faced by companies involved in antibacterials considerable success has been met by those targeting drug resistant infections such as MRSA. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Bacterial skin and skin structure infections are among the most common infections treated. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Drug resistance underpins a high unmet need in the management of skin infections. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Post-operative wound infections as well as emergence and spread of drug resistant strains have been found to pose a major problem in the field of surgery. (who.int)
  • This study investigated common aerobic bacterial isolates and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in patients with clinical diagnosis of post-surgical wound infections. (who.int)
  • Bacterial factors such as inoculum size, virulence, and infections are hospital acquired (nosocomial infection) invasive capability as well as immunological and and varies from one hospital to the other (Isibor et al. (who.int)
  • The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of different bacterial isolates and their antimicro- bial susceptibility pattern in patients with external ocular infections and to determine any associated risk factors. (who.int)
  • The discovery, at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, also is relevant for other infectious diseases including bacterial infections and tuberculosis. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Odom says isoprenoid synthesis is an attractive drug target not just for malaria but for tuberculosis and other bacterial infections because these organisms also rely on this same isoprenoid pathway. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The aim in this study was to investigate the spread status of antibiotic resistance genes, such as multiple beta-lactamase genes and aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme genes, from A. baumanii strains isolated from patients with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). (mendeley.com)
  • Pathogenic infectious diseases, like bacterial infections, are one of the most prevalent types of diseases all over the world. (ias.ac.in)
  • Conclusion: Based on several reports on cavarcrol analogues, more research on the development of carvacrol analogues will result in potent compounds that can overcome drug resistance which is currently a challenge in the treatment of diseases, such as bacterial infections, cancer, fungal infections etc. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Particularly, the finding of this new guanine riboswitch target is crucial as community-acquired bacterial infections have recently started to emerge. (prolekare.cz)
  • SUMMARY: Many studies report the high prevalence of multiply drug-resistant (MDR) strains. (harvard.edu)
  • MDR-TB patients require treatment with more-toxic second-line drugs and remain infectious for longer than patients infected with drug-sensitive strains, incurring higher costs due to prolonged hospitalization. (biomedsearch.com)
  • specific multi- drug resistant bacterial strains that are. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Moreover, 138(85.71%) strains exhibited multi-drug resistance. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Since about half of antibiotic usage in the developed world (and perhaps more in the developing world) is inappropriate, there is a certain optimism that we can reverse the resistance problem if we improve use and thus return to an environment populated with susceptible strains. (bmj.com)
  • The emergence of drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), especially those that are multidrug resistant poses a serious threat to global tuberculosis control. (springer.com)
  • Given that the Beijing/W strains are associated with outbreaks and multidrug resistance, they may harbor a genetic advantage and provide useful insight into the disease. (springer.com)
  • Rv0071/74-9 m also increased resistance to multiple drugs when transferred to different mycobacterial strains. (springer.com)
  • Conversely, 8 out of 10 fish farm locations studied were observed to have antibiotic-resistant strains, and 5 out of 8 drug-resistant strains were found to carry plasmid and the sizes of the plasmid ranges between 20.027 kb to 23.130 kb. (scirp.org)
  • Malaria in 2012 has become a resurgent threat in South East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, and drug-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum are posing massive problems for health authorities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inheritance of drug resistance (and its transfer) between Shigella strains and between Shigella and E. coli strains" (in Japanese). (wikipedia.org)
  • They discovered what they describe as a "striking" difference in resistance to a representative antibiotic-rifampicin-in strains with and without Mfd. (phys.org)
  • In this study, twenty bacterial strains were isolated from water of different medical waste and Buriganga river. (scirp.org)
  • Identification of the bacterial isolates was conducted by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) based assay of 16S rDNA extracted from those isolated strains. (scirp.org)
  • In conclusion, we confirm that multi-drug resistant bacterial strains are devoid of CRISPR locus suggesting a possible negative association between CRISPR locus and antibiotic resistance. (scirp.org)
  • Further studies to pinpoint are required to elucidate the underlying mechanism of the association between CRISPR and antibiotic resistance in these isolated strains. (scirp.org)
  • The isolated bacterial strains and their susceptibility were analyzed via VITEK-2 expert system. (mendeley.com)
  • aac-3-Ia and aac-6'-Ib genes hibernated in three A. baumanii strains that showed no drug-resistant phenotype. (mendeley.com)
  • Key to their potent antitubercular properties was their structural modification to evade the Rv1258c efflux pump, which is upregulated in MDR strains and is implicated in macrophage-induced drug tolerance. (nih.gov)
  • Among the bacterial strains tested, several clinical strains exhibiting multiple drug resistance were inhibited suggesting that PC1 targets a different metabolic pathway. (prolekare.cz)
  • This study was aimed to assess bacterial profile, antimicrobial susceptibility and associated factors among urinary stone patients at the University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bacterial identification of uropathogens and drug susceptibility testing were done following standard microbiological techniques. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The results showed that the number of VDP repeats in Rv0071/74 was related to the development of multidrug resistance, and the deletion of Rv0071/74-9 m from Beijing/W clinical strain restored drug susceptibility. (springer.com)
  • One demonstrated intermediate susceptibility to penicillin (MIC: 0.25 [micro]g/ml) and resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Mpex has a first rate entrepreneurial R&D team with deep experience in antibacterial research and has validated efflux pump inhibition for potentiation of antibacterial activity, as well as expanding the spectrum of bacterial susceptibility. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Resistance to nalidixic acid is a marker for reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones, and mutations which induce initial nalidixic acid resistance often precede the evolution of fluoroquinolone resistance [ 16 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Selection of the companion drug should be based on clinical experience, considerations of comparative safety, and appropriate in vitro susceptibility studies. (rxlist.com)
  • Consequently, in such retreatment patients, MYAMBUTOL should be combined with at least one of the second line drugs not previously administered to the patient and to which bacterial susceptibility has been indicated by appropriate in vitro studies. (rxlist.com)
  • Overall, this study provides a proof-of-concept and starting point for investigating the molecular mechanism of the reported increase in bacterial antibiotic susceptibility in the presence of PRMSE," the study said. (bostonmagazine.com)
  • You might face fluoroquinolones used to treat animals, a practice which has led to the emergence of quinolone resistance in organisms like E coli, Salmonella spp, and Campylobacter spp. (bmj.com)
  • coli, Staphylococcus, Salmonella and Streptococcus evaluated in this regard showed multiple drug resistance ranging from four to eight antibiotic. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Important bacterial etiologies are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Salmonella spp. (intechopen.com)
  • Salmonellosis is a bacterial infection that caused by Salmonella species that normally thrives in animal and human intestines. (biology-online.org)
  • Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi ( S . Typhi) is the bacterial agent of typhoid fever. (biomedcentral.com)
  • S . Typhi is atypical with respect to the majority of Salmonella serotypes as it does not have the ability to interact with multiple hosts and is restricted solely to infecting humans [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recent in vivo and in vitro experimental studies of the adaptation to these "costs of resistance" in Escherichia coli , HIV, and Salmonella typhimurium found that evolution in the absence of these drugs commonly results in the ascent of mutations that ameliorate these costs, rather than higher-fitness, drug-sensitive revertants. (genetics.org)
  • The results of recent in vitro experimental studies with a bacterium, Escherichia coli , and a retrovirus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and an in vivo study with Salmonella typhimurium on the adaptation to the fitness burdens associated with drug resistance question these perceptions about the genetic basis of adaptive evolution for microorganisms. (genetics.org)
  • The study was conducted on two common bacterial species, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (also known as Salmonella Typhimurium). (naturalnews.com)
  • However, these known resistance genes are mainly for single drug. (springer.com)
  • The acrAB genes produce multiple antibiotic efflux pump proteins. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A rapid process of sharing resistance exists among single-celled organisms, and is termed horizontal gene transfer in which there is a direct exchange of genes, particularly in the biofilm state. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2010 report found that genes for antibiotic resistance could be transferred by engineering GTAs in the laboratory. (wikipedia.org)
  • In studying what is behind trimethoprim resistance, for example, the researchers saw that potent, alternative genes that accelerate antibiotic resistance failed to crop up when Mfd was absent. (phys.org)
  • Distribution of Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence Genes in Enterococcus spp. (asm.org)
  • Drug-resistant genes carried by Acinetoba. (mendeley.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: A. baumanii can carry multiple drug-resistant genes at the same time and result in multi-drug resistance. (mendeley.com)
  • The global multiple drug resistance bacterial infection treatment market was valued at US$ 26,169.09 Mn in 2016, and is expected to reach US$ 44,060.77 Mn by 2025 expanding at a CAGR of 6.01 % from 2017 to 2025. (abnewswire.com)
  • LP INFORMATION offers a latest published report on Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment Market Analysis and Forecast 2019-2025 delivering key insights and providing a competitive advantage to clients through a detailed report. (ourcryptojournal.com)
  • According to this study, over the next five years the Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment market will register a xx% CAGR in terms of revenue, the global market size will reach US$ xx million by 2024, from US$ xx million in 2019. (ourcryptojournal.com)
  • In particular, this report presents the global market share (sales and revenue) of key companies in Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment business, shared in Chapter 3. (ourcryptojournal.com)
  • This report presents a comprehensive overview, market shares, and growth opportunities of Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment market by product type, application, key manufacturers and key regions and countries. (ourcryptojournal.com)
  • The multiple drug resistance bacterial infection treatment market is anticipated to grow owing to an increase in demand for rapid diagnostic testing kits and rising prevalence of antimicrobial drugs. (theinsightpartners.com)
  • The "Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment Market Analysis to 2027" is a specialized and in-depth study of the pharmaceutical industry with a special focus on the global market trend analysis. (theinsightpartners.com)
  • The report aims to provide an overview of in multiple drug resistance bacterial infection treatment market with detailed market segmentation by type, application and geography. (theinsightpartners.com)
  • The multiple drug resistance bacterial infection treatment market is expected to witness high growth during the forecast period. (theinsightpartners.com)
  • The report provides key statistics on the market status of the leading in multiple drug resistance bacterial infection treatment market players and offers key trends and opportunities in the market. (theinsightpartners.com)
  • The multiple drug resistance bacterial infection treatment market is segmented on the basis of type and application. (theinsightpartners.com)
  • It provides overview and forecast of the in multiple drug resistance bacterial infection treatment market based on various segments. (theinsightpartners.com)
  • The multiple drug resistance bacterial infection treatment market by each region is later sub-segmented by respective countries and segments. (theinsightpartners.com)
  • The report analyzes factors affecting multiple drug resistance bacterial infection treatment market from both demand and supply side and further evaluates market dynamics affecting the market during forecast period i.e., drivers, restraints, opportunities, and future trend. (theinsightpartners.com)
  • North America, Europe, APAC, MEA and South & Central America after evaluating political, economic, social and technological factors effecting the multiple drug resistance bacterial infection treatment market in these regions. (theinsightpartners.com)
  • The report covers key developments in the in multiple drug resistance bacterial infection treatment market as organic and inorganic growth strategies. (theinsightpartners.com)
  • The market players from in multiple drug resistance bacterial infection treatment market are anticipated to have lucrative growth opportunities in the future with the rising demand for in multiple drug resistance bacterial infection treatment market in the global market. (theinsightpartners.com)
  • Being female, history of urinary tract infection and history of drug use were the independent risk factors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sex, history of urinary tract infection and previous drug use were found to be risk factors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • New Market Research Reports Title "Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment Market Is Expected To Reach US$ 44,060.77 Mn By 2025 - Credence Research" Has Been Added to Credenceresearch.com Report Database. (dovernewsnow.com)
  • Aetiology of invasive bacterial infection and antimicrobial resistance in neonates in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis in line with the STROBE-NI reporting guidelines. (nature.com)
  • Trends in antimicrobial resistance in bloodstream infection isolates at a large urban hospital in Malawi (1998-2016): a surveillance study. (nature.com)
  • As part of a program of antimicrobial drug stewardship and infection prevention and control, empiric antimicrobial drug protocols were introduced. (cdc.gov)
  • Preventing further dissemination of MDR organisms among war-injured refugees from Syria at hosting healthcare facilities requires an effective surveillance system, investment in infection prevention and control, appropriate antimicrobial drug stewardship, and urgent laboratory capacity building inside Syria and in the refugee-host countries. (cdc.gov)
  • Charles Darkoh, a graduate student at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth), has been awarded a fellowship from the United Negro College Fund (UNCF) and Merck for his research into a major health problem multidrug-resistant Clostridium difficile bacterial infection. (bio-medicine.org)
  • It is likely that patterns of microbial infection and antibiotic resistance in ICU patients differ widely from one hospital or country to another and are often facilitated by the increasing use of invasive techniques, immunosuppressive drugs and inappropriate antibiotic therapy [1,4-7]. (who.int)
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the incidence of microbial infection in association with antibiotic resistance among patients consecutively admitted to the adult ICU in the Jordan University Hospital in Amman over a one-year period. (who.int)
  • Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Studies were eligible if they investigated and reported resistance in community acquired urinary tract infection in children and young people aged 0-17. (bmj.com)
  • Through this submission the company is seeking marketing approval for the use of Orapem against infection caused by multiple pathogens ( click here for press release). (pharmiweb.com)
  • Standard operating procedures to be followed care physicians worldwide is bacterial conjunctivi- throughout the study were prepared by the principal tis, which is largely present as an acute infection, investigator. (who.int)
  • In multiple murine infection models, these spectinamides were well tolerated, significantly reduced lung mycobacterial burden and increased survival. (nih.gov)
  • a lot of times I think the infectious disease community likes to have a silver bullet antibiotic to treat an infection, but they may actually be better to treat a single infection with multiple drugs to minimise the risk of developing resistance and so that's one avenue we're trying this methodology on. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Multi-drug resistant isolates were 16/49 (32.7%), 75% of them being Enterobacteriaceae isolates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Most of the bacterial isolates from urinary stone patients were resistant to ampicillin, penicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The species is naturally resistant to penicillins, and members of the population often carry acquired resistance to multiple antimicrobials. (nature.com)
  • Multidrug-resistant E. coli EC302/04 was isolated from a tracheal aspirate, and its genome sequence is expected to provide insights into antimicrobial resistance as well as adaptive and virulence mechanisms of E. coli involved in LRTI. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is an emerging problem of great importance to public health, with higher mortality rates than drug-sensitive TB, particularly in immunocompromised patients. (biomedsearch.com)
  • It is estimated that 90% of United Kingdom rifampin-resistant isolates are also resistant to isoniazid, making rifampin resistance a useful surrogate marker for multidrug resistance and indicating that second- and third-line drugs to which these isolates are susceptible are urgently required. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Resistance in approximately 95% of rifampin-resistant isolates is due to mutations in a 69-bp region of the rpoB gene, making this a good target for molecular genotypic diagnostic methods. (biomedsearch.com)
  • almost 9 percent had multi- drug resistant. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin resistance selection also decreased the sensitivity of 3626 and VPI to ethidium bromide, but gatifloxacin-resistant [3626.sup.GR] became more sensitive to it. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A new molecule that can increase the vulnerability of antibiotic resistant superbugs to existing drugs, has been developed. (medindia.net)
  • Combination of the new molecule PPMO or peptide-conjugated phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer and carbapenem class antibiotic called meropenem can have a therapeutic potential against the drug resistant superbugs. (medindia.net)
  • This review article summarizes the evolution of these bacterial drug efflux pump systems from a molecular biological standpoint and provides a framework for future work aimed at reducing the conditions that foster dissemination of these multidrug resistant causative agents through human populations. (mdpi.com)
  • The plasmid after treatment with mitomycin C and ethidium bromide were lost during the process of plasmid curing confirming that the multiple drug resistant exhibited by the isolates was plasmid mediated. (scirp.org)
  • When an organism is resistant to more than one drug, it is said to be multidrug-resistant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drug-resistant traits are accordingly inherited by subsequent offspring, resulting in a population that is more drug-resistant. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein stimulates the growth of cancer cells which are drug-resistant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Internal duplication and homology with bacterial transport proteins in the mdr1 (P-glycoprotein) gene from multidrug-resistant human cells. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Correlation between biofilm production and multiple drug resistance in imipenem resistant clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The little data available on the genotyping patterns of EHEC isolates from cattle and their resistance gene contents emphasize the need to establish genotyping databases in order to monitor and source track the source of emergence and spread of new resistant and integron-carrying genotypes. (nih.gov)
  • At the beginning of the twenty-first century, the increased appearances of multi-resistant bacterial pathogens have become a worldwide problem ( Arias and Murray, 2009 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Drug-resistant bacterial pathogens are posing a major threat to public health, contributing to more than 14 million deaths annually 1 . (nature.com)
  • methicillin-resistant S. aureus and multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant M. tuberculosis. (intechopen.com)
  • One company heavily involved in the development of antibacterials targeted against drug resistant microbes is Replidyne. (pharmiweb.com)
  • This subclone was closely associated with resistance to nalidixic acid, with all isolates from this group demonstrating a resistant phenotype and harbouring the same resistance-associated SNP in GyrA (Phe83). (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1 Staphylococcus aureus which was Inducible Clindamycin Resistance (iMLS B phenotype) was also methicillin resistant. (scirp.org)
  • Even though MRSA (Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus) or VRE (Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus) are resistant to only one class of antimicrobial agents they are frequently associated with resistance to other classes. (scirp.org)
  • Researchers have uncovered a way the malaria parasite becomes resistant to an investigational drug. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Using next-generation sequencing technology, the research team compared the genetics of malaria parasites that responded to the drug to the genetics of malaria parasites that were resistant to it. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • In vitro studies demonstrated a lack of cross resistance with existing tuberculosis therapeutics, activity against multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis and an excellent pharmacological profile. (nih.gov)
  • Antibacterial drugs: Redesigned antibiotic combats drug-resistant tuberculosis. (nih.gov)
  • Drug-resistant tuberculosis: a new shot on goal. (nih.gov)
  • A range of clinical bacterial isolates were resistant to important commonly used antimicrobials in the country, necessitating an effective surveillance to continuously monitor AMR in Ghana. (dovepress.com)
  • Multiple bacterial pathogens have now earned the status of multidrug resistant, extremely drug resistant, or pandrug resistant. (drugtopics.com)
  • World Health Organization in 2016 had started a joint initiative between Global Antibiotic Research and Development Partnership (GARDP) and the Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiatives (DNDi) to develop new antibiotic treatment for antimicrobial resistance ensuring its optimal use. (abnewswire.com)
  • There is little evidence that single-locus mutations confer resistance to multiple drugs. (springer.com)
  • During the evolution of antibiotic resistance, mutations that confer drug resistance often have pleiotropic effects on the structure and function of antibiotic-target proteins, usually essential metabolic enzymes. (biochemj.org)
  • This third edition provides a wide range of different technologies, ranging from conventional growth basic techniques, application of molecular biology, development of resistance mutations, and diagnosis and monitoring treatment response. (bokus.com)
  • Higher intracellular antibiotic concentrations achieved through efflux pump inhibition can increase the potency and pharmacological barrier against other drug resistance mechanisms (e.g., target-based mutations). (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Also, the data acquired in this research project seem to show that the role of Mfd in increasing mutations and promoting antibiotic resistance is highly conserved across bacterial species, and is not specific to only a few types of pathogens. (phys.org)
  • Exactly how Mfd encourages mutations and antibiotic resistance is still unclear. (phys.org)
  • In the article, which will be published on July 21st in the open-access journal PLoS Computational Biology , researchers from University of Warsaw, Poland, and University of California San Diego, USA, describe their study of the physical basis of one bacterial resistance mechanism - mutations of the antibiotic target site, namely RNA of the bacterial ribosome. (medindia.net)
  • Using computer simulations the researchers explained how various mutations in this specific RNA fragment influence its dynamics and lead to resistance. (medindia.net)
  • 1996 ) found that in tissue culture the mutations responsible for resistance to a protease inhibitor severely reduce the replication rate of this retrovirus. (genetics.org)
  • However, in the course of passage in the absence of the protease inhibitor, the fitness burden of these resistance mutations declined and the level of resistance increased. (genetics.org)
  • The origins of resistance are intensively studied and many mechanisms involved in resistance have been identified, such as exogenous gene acquisition by horizontal gene transfer (HGT), mutations in the targeted functions, and more recently, antibiotic tolerance through persistence. (mdpi.com)
  • Recent Patents on Anti-Infective Drug Discovery publishes review and research articles, drug clinical trial studies and guest edited thematic issues on recent patents in the field of anti-infective drug discovery e.g. on novel bioactive compounds, analogs & targets. (benthamscience.com)
  • Clinical testing in the development of a drug involves multiple phases. (pewtrusts.org)
  • Before clinical trials can begin, drug developers must file an investigational new drug application with FDA based on preclinical information that supports testing the drug candidate in humans. (pewtrusts.org)
  • Antimicrobial resistance and antineoplastic resistance challenge clinical care and drive research. (wikipedia.org)
  • By increasing permeability of the bacterial membrane system, polymyxin is also used in clinical work to increase the release of secreted toxins, such as Shiga toxin, from Escherichia coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mpex will be responsible for the discovery of EPI drug candidates and the development of combination product candidates through clinical proof of concept, at which point GlaxoSmithKline will have an option to exclusively license each product candidate for further development and commercialization on a worldwide basis. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • The rate at which bacterial pathogens are developing drug resistance combined with limited success in the introduction of new antibacterials in clinical practice highlights the need to identify new antibacterial molecules from unique sources 10 , 11 . (nature.com)
  • It also has multiple Oxazolidinone and Macrolide Programs in Pre-clinical and Clinical studies. (marketresearch.com)
  • The finding that Mfd is critical to the development of antibiotic resistance in mycobacterium TB could have potential clinical implications, the researchers noted. (phys.org)
  • Traditional typing systems based separately on clinical manifestations (such as PSI and CURB-65), pathogens(bacterial types, virulence, drug resistance, etc) or host immune state (immunocompetent, immunocompromised or immunodeficiency). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In view of the above factors, this study was undertaken to determine the rate of colonization of potential bacterial pathogens in the hands of final year MBBS undergraduate students who are regularly attending the wards, ICUs, OTs, etc. as a part of their clinical teaching curriculum. (scirp.org)
  • Because of their effectiveness, spectrum of activity, and generally good safety profile, fluoroquinolones were used widely for multiple clinical indications throughout the world. (doaj.org)
  • Although still clinically valuable, fluoroquinolone use has become limited in some clinical situations, as bacterial resistance has emerged over time. (doaj.org)
  • Fosmidomycin, an antibiotic, is being evaluated against malaria in phase 3 clinical trials in combination with other antimalarial drugs. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Although the classical antibiotic spectinomycin is a potent bacterial protein synthesis inhibitor, poor antimycobacterial activity limits its clinical application for treating tuberculosis. (nih.gov)
  • Even that simple task is really difficult so we tried to, in a small clinical trial, optimise the dosing of this drug called tacrolimus, and that in itself is a clinical chore. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • This protein factor, DNA translocase Mfd, seems to speed resistance in diverse species toward every antibiotic that was tested. (phys.org)
  • Bacterial isolates were identified till species level by performing gram staining and biochemical reactions. (scirp.org)
  • Using this, we have identified a pyrimidine compound (PC1) binding guanine riboswitches that shows bactericidal activity against a subgroup of bacterial species including well-known nosocomial pathogens. (prolekare.cz)
  • 230 scientific publications on pneumococcal disease epidemiology, drug resistance, pneumonia, respiratory disease outbreaks, and vaccines. (cdc.gov)
  • Some of these transcription factors are also multidrug-binding proteins, frequently recognizing the same array of drugs that are effluxed by the transporters that they regulate. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we describe recent crystallographic studies on MarR, BmrR and QacR, three bacterial transcription regulators that are also multidrug-binding proteins. (nih.gov)
  • The development of antibiotic resistance in particular stems from the drugs targeting only specific bacterial molecules (almost always proteins). (wikipedia.org)
  • In other aspects of their project, the scientists reported that Mfd depends on certain other proteins that work on the bacteria's genetic machinery in order to carry out its job in antibiotic resistance. (phys.org)
  • Enhanced virulence and/or antimicrobial resistance compared with other E. coli, plus ongoing dissemination among locales, may underlie ST131's success. (nih.gov)
  • Genomic analysis of diversity, population structure, virulence, and antimicrobial resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae , an urgent threat to public health. (nature.com)
  • In 2016, critical segment held the largest revenue share for the vector segment due to factors such as rising prevalence of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Carbapenem resistance cases, rising public awareness leading to early disease diagnosis and treatment, and regulatory agencies such as WHO, CDC taking initiatives to promote public health and welfare. (abnewswire.com)
  • The prevalence of bacterial pathogens among external ocular samples was high. (who.int)
  • In this study, CRISPR locus was also investigated within the genome of the isolated bacterial stains but unexpectedly, we did not find any CRISPR locus in their genome. (scirp.org)
  • Comparison of three molecular assays for rapid detection of rifampin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Given the alarming rise of resistance to tuberculosis drugs worldwide, the identification of resistance gene is critical for the future of tuberculosis control. (springer.com)
  • Mutational and computational analyses in EcDHFR and in DHFR enzymes from Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis demonstrate that natural variation at this site and its interacting hydrophobic residues modulates TMP resistance in other bacterial DHFRs as well, and may explain the different susceptibilities of bacterial pathogens to TMP. (biochemj.org)
  • Their topics include genetic and cellular multiple drug resistance in a diagnostic and therapeutic strategy in acute leukemia in children and adults, herb-drug interactions and implication in drug monitoring, bacteriophage therapies and enzybiotics as novel solutions to antibiotic resistance, nutrition and tuberculosis, reversing multidrug resistance by the isoquinoline alkaloid glaucine, and finding the genetic solution for cancer in the mechanism of taxol cytotoxicity. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Drug resistance is often a problem in malaria, tuberculosis, HIV, sexually transmitted diseases and hospital acquired diseases. (medindia.net)
  • Tuberculosis: Drug discovery goes au naturel. (nih.gov)
  • Tuberculosis is, in general, a multi-drug treated disease so tuberculosis combinations can be optimised. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Here, we present the hypothesis that the emergence of resistance in pigs requires drug accumulation for 7 days or more. (nih.gov)
  • Myambutol has reduced the incidence of the emergence of mycobacterial resistance to isoniazid when both drugs have been used concurrently. (drugs.com)
  • As a result, the emergence of antibiotic resistance has become a common and detrimental phenomenon in Bangladesh. (scirp.org)
  • Armed with your multidefence mechanisms derived from human, animal, or foodcrop hosts, you are not only well equipped to ward off the attacks of newer and more powerful drugs, but may also share your well developed arsenal with other unarmed, potentially infectious, travelling companions. (bmj.com)
  • Of the various bacterial resistance mechanisms against antimicrobial agents, multidrug efflux pumps comprise a major cause of multiple drug resistance. (mdpi.com)
  • Structural mechanisms of multidrug recognition and regulation by bacterial multidrug transcription factors. (nih.gov)
  • CDC supports innovative research to slow antibiotic resistance through various funding mechanisms . (cdc.gov)
  • These peptides have already been described as molecules presenting killing mechanisms at the membrane level, but also acting toward intracellular targets, which increases their success compartively to one-target specific drugs. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the sections that follow we review the range of molecular mechanisms that motivate quinolone resistance. (doaj.org)
  • MDR also stems from the fact that drug design has been largely based on limited chemical scaffolds leaving an opportunity for pathogens to circumvent antibiotic action mechanisms [1] . (prolekare.cz)
  • Most persister cells are bacterial, and there are also fungal persister cells, yeast persister cells, and cancer persister cells that show tolerance for cancer drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Foodborne illnesses caused by bacterial microorganisms are common worldwide and constitute a serious public health concern. (mdpi.com)
  • Without alternative strategies, the acquisition of drug resistance by pathogenic microorganisms looms as possibly one of the most significant public health threats facing humanity in the 21st century. (wikipedia.org)
  • The objective of this study was to identify the microorganisms present in patients with chronic urinary catheter and to determine antibiotic sensitivity and resistance. (ispub.com)
  • We argue that these bottlenecks are intrinsic to the population dynamics of parasitic and commensal microbes and discuss the implications of these results to the problem of drug resistance and adaptive evolution in parasitic and commmensal microorganisms in general. (genetics.org)
  • Microbial Drug Resistance (Larchmont, N.Y.). 22 (5): 412-431. (wikipedia.org)
  • In short, the lack of concerted effort by governments and the pharmaceutical industry, together with the innate capacity of microbes to develop resistance at a rate that outpaces development of new drugs, suggests that existing strategies for developing viable, long-term anti-microbial therapies are ultimately doomed to failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Resistance to chemicals is only one aspect of the problem, another being resistance to physical factors such as temperature, pressure, sound, radiation and magnetism, and not discussed in this article, but found at Physical factors affecting microbial life. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, new chapters on immunodeficiency diseases, vaccines and vaccination, molecular diagnostic methods, antibacterial resistance, antifungal chemotherapy, antiviral chemotherapy and microbial diseases of the urinary tract, cardiovascular system, musculoskeletal system and the integumentary system have been added. (booksmed.com)
  • This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS). (childrensmercy.org)
  • These findings not only identify Rv0071/74 with VDP repeats as a newly identified multidrug resistance gene but also provide a new model for the development of multiple drug resistance. (springer.com)
  • Unless the drug used makes sexual reproduction or cell-division or horizontal gene transfer impossible in the entire target population, resistance to the drug will inevitably follow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently the gene mcr-1, which confers the antibiotic resistance, has been isolated from bacterial plasmids in Enterobacteriaceae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Short report: association between chloroquine and amodiaquine resistance and allelic variation in the Plasmodium falciparum multiple drug resistance 1 gene and the chloroquine resistance transporter gene in isolates from the upper Nile in southern Sudan. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Direct Agarose Gel Probing, Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis, Plasmid detection, Genomic Location, and Resistance Gene Mapping Mark A Toleman 13. (bokus.com)
  • Two different amplification products, which were approximately 750 and 1,700 bp in size, were obtained from amplified variable regions (in-F/in-R primers) in 3 (14.3%) and 4 (19%) of the EHEC isolates, which corresponded to dfrA7(dihydrofolate reductase type I) and dfrA1/aadA1(dihydrofolate reductase/aminoglycoside adenyltransferase) resistance gene cassettes, respectively, and this was confirmed by sequencing. (nih.gov)
  • Integrons , a bacterial "kit" for transferring gene cassettes . (wikipedia.org)
  • Richardson and Palmer (2007) state: "Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has played a major role in bacterial evolution and is fairly common in certain unicellular eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • A single nucleotide mutation at either codon 83 or 87 of the gene encoding the GyrA protein ( gyrA ) confers resistance to nalidixic acid in S . Typhi [ 17 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this review, we focus on factors leading to integron rearrangements and gene capture facilitating antibiotic resistance acquisition, maintenance and spread. (mdpi.com)
  • This selective bacterial killing is only achieved when guaA , a gene coding for a GMP synthetase, is under the control of the riboswitch. (prolekare.cz)
  • To understand resistance, imagine being a bacterium in a world bombarded with antimicrobials. (bmj.com)
  • We're targeting a resistance mechanism that's shared by a whole bunch of pathogens," said Bruce Geller, professor of microbiology in OSU's College of Science and College of Agricultural Sciences, who's been researching molecular medicine for more than a decade. (medindia.net)
  • Out of 16 Staphylococcus aureus , 1 isolate showed Inducible Clindamycin Resistance (iMLS B phenotype) and 6 isolates showed complete resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin (constitutive MLS B phenotype). (scirp.org)
  • Fluoroquinolones target bacterial topoisomerases, in particular the DNA gyrase protein (GyrA) and inhibit DNA replication. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The critical role of antibiotic efflux has been well recognized in bacterial resistance, but to date, safe and effective efflux pump inhibitors have not been developed. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • 1) What are the benefits of controlling AMR in the environment over and above mitigating the potential transmission of resistance to humans? (frontiersin.org)
  • 1 These drugs, though not used in humans, are closely related to human therapeutic drug families, such as vancomycin and streptogramins. (bmj.com)
  • However, the mechanism underlying the occurrence of drug resistance against more than one drug is poorly understood. (springer.com)
  • The program includes multiple series of advanced leads that utilize a novel mechanism-of-action to inhibit bacterial protein synthesis. (pharmiweb.com)
  • The comparison shows that the antibacterial activity of silvernanospheres is better than that of silver nanowires which is attributed to its higher surface area and the difference in uptake mechanism by the bacterial cells. (ias.ac.in)
  • She is a frequent consultant for the World Health Organization and serves on multiple advisory boards and study committees and is a Fellow of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. (cdc.gov)
  • GlaxoSmithKline will participate in the alliance through its Infectious Diseases Centre of Excellence for Drug Discovery (ID CEDD). (fiercebiotech.com)
  • The global problem of advancing antimicrobial resistance has led to a renewed interest in their use. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fig. 3: Geographical distribution of Klebsiella pneumoniae clones harbouring resistance to carbapenems and third-generation cephalosporins. (nature.com)
  • The products are based on its ribosome crystallography platform, engineered to overcome the problem of drug resistance. (marketresearch.com)
  • Laboratory and animal studies are used to determine a drug's antibacterial activity under experimental conditions, its efficacy in animal models, and whether the drug candidate may be safe enough to test in people. (pewtrusts.org)
  • Antimicrobial resistance is a major threat to human health, hence there is an urgent need to discover antibacterial molecule(s). (nature.com)
  • Triclosan as a systemic antibacterial agent in a mouse model of acute bacterial challenge. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The invention is directed to a high-throughput screening system for identifying new antibacterial agents specifically targeted against an essential component of the bacterial translation apparatus, IF3. (google.es)
  • Dynamics of quinolone resistance in fecal Escherichia coli of finishing pigs after ciprofloxacin administration. (nih.gov)
  • It is necessary to study the dynamics of quinolone resistance in fecal Escherichia coli of pigs after antimicrobial administration. (nih.gov)
  • Enhanced Methodologies for Detecting Phenotypic Resistance in Mycobacteria Robert J H Hammond, Vincent Baron, Sam Lipworth, and Stephen H. Gillespie 9. (bokus.com)
  • The isolates are presented incomparison with their phenotypic resistance profiles and integron resistance genecontents. (nih.gov)
  • The increase in bacterial resistance to multiple drugs represents a serious and growing health risk. (nih.gov)
  • A high level of resistance was observed to ampicillin, penicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole while majority of isolates were most sensitive to nitrofurantoin and ciprofloxacin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Resistance in studies in countries outside the OECD was significantly higher: 79.8% (73.0% to 87.7%) for ampicillin, 60.3% (40.9% to 79.0%) for co-amoxiclav, 26.8% (11.1% to 43.0%) for ciprofloxacin, and 17.0% (9.8% to 24.2%) for nitrofurantoin. (bmj.com)
  • Individual organisms vary in their sensitivity to the drug used and some with greater fitness may be capable of surviving drug treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chemicals contained in these preparations, besides harming beneficial organisms, may intentionally or inadvertently target organisms that have the potential to develop resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • During conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, military doctors have seen multi-drug resistance bacterial organisms that previously did not exist. (militaryconnection.com)
  • Concurrently administer at least one other antituberculous drug to which the organisms have been demonstrated to be susceptible by appropriate in vitro tests. (rxlist.com)
  • Environmental regulators monitor and control many of the pathways responsible for the release of resistance-driving chemicals into the environment (e.g., antimicrobials, metals, and biocides). (frontiersin.org)
  • This study provides scientific theoretical guidance for the rational use of antimicrobials and the control of bacterial resistance. (nih.gov)
  • In addition to the development of Orapem, Replidyne has an active drug development program directed to inhibitors of bacterial DNA replication and it is the development of one candidate from this program, REP8839, that is the focus of today's DailyUpdates ( Feb 2nd, 2006 ). (pharmiweb.com)
  • Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (childrensmercy.org)
  • Multidrug resistance protein 1, which exports xenobiotics, such as cytotoxic drugs, out of cells leading to tumour cell resistance to multiple drugs [ PMID: 2876781 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The model describes the dynamics of bacterial populations facing different concentrations of the antimicrobial, showing how dead cells sequester the dangerous molecule and predicting the delayed growth of surviving cells-calculations borne out by experiments in the laboratory of Sattar Taheri-Araghi, an assistant professor of physics at CSUN and co-senior author of the study along with Košmrlj. (phys.org)
  • A historical ST131 isolate lacked the 2007 ST131 isolates' conserved fluoroquinolone resistance-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms in gyrA and parC. (nih.gov)