Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutation.
A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.
Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)
Enzyme of the human immunodeficiency virus that is required for post-translational cleavage of gag and gag-pol precursor polyproteins into functional products needed for viral assembly. HIV protease is an aspartic protease encoded by the amino terminus of the pol gene.
A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Genes for MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that confer resistance to toxic compounds. Several superfamilies of these multidrug export proteins are known and found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TETRACYCLINE which inhibits aminoacyl-tRNA binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit during protein synthesis.
The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutations.
Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.
An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.
Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.
Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.
Antibacterial agent used primarily as a tuberculostatic. It remains the treatment of choice for tuberculosis.
The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Diseases of plants.
Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)
A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
One of the FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS that is used as an antimalarial or with a sulfonamide to treat toxoplasmosis.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.
Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.
A type of strength-building exercise program that requires the body muscle to exert a force against some form of resistance, such as weight, stretch bands, water, or immovable objects. Resistance exercise is a combination of static and dynamic contractions involving shortening and lengthening of skeletal muscles.
A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of CHLORAMPHENICOL, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis in the 50S ribosomal subunit where amino acids are added to nascent bacterial polypeptides.
Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.
A long acting sulfonamide that is used, usually in combination with other drugs, for respiratory, urinary tract, and malarial infections.
Nonsusceptibility of a microbe to the action of ampicillin, a penicillin derivative that interferes with cell wall synthesis.
Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction 7,8-dihyrofolate and NADPH to yield 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate and NADPH+, producing reduced folate for amino acid metabolism, purine ring synthesis, and the formation of deoxythymidine monophosphate. Methotrexate and other folic acid antagonists used as chemotherapeutic drugs act by inhibiting this enzyme. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC
Proteins encoded by the POL GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.
An antitubercular agent that inhibits the transfer of mycolic acids into the cell wall of the tubercle bacillus. It may also inhibit the synthesis of spermidine in mycobacteria. The action is usually bactericidal, and the drug can penetrate human cell membranes to exert its lethal effect. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p863)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
A subfamily of transmembrane proteins from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that are closely related in sequence to P-GLYCOPROTEIN. When overexpressed, they function as ATP-dependent efflux pumps able to extrude lipophilic drugs, especially ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, from cells causing multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although P-Glycoproteins share functional similarities to MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS they are two distinct subclasses of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS, and have little sequence homology.
Five membered rings containing a NITROGEN atom.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of dihydropteroate from p-aminobenzoic acid and dihydropteridine-hydroxymethyl-pyrophosphate. EC
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.
A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.
A group of SESQUITERPENES and their analogs that contain a peroxide group (PEROXIDES) within an oxepin ring (OXEPINS).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Large cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein particles that have an eight-fold symmetry with a central pore and petal-like structure giving the appearance of an octagonal dome. (The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 2nd ed.)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of VANCOMYCIN, an inhibitor of cell wall synthesis.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
A bacterial DNA topoisomerase II that catalyzes ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. Gyrase binds to DNA as a heterotetramer consisting of two A and two B subunits. In the presence of ATP, gyrase is able to convert the relaxed circular DNA duplex into a superhelix. In the absence of ATP, supercoiled DNA is relaxed by DNA gyrase.
A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
Non-susceptibility of an organism to the action of the cephalosporins.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.
A very toxic anthracycline aminoglycoside antineoplastic isolated from Streptomyces peucetius and others, used in treatment of LEUKEMIA and other NEOPLASMS.
Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
A potent, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in combination with nucleoside analogues for treatment of HIV INFECTIONS and AIDS.
Tuberculosis resistant to ISONIAZID and RIFAMPIN and at least three of the six main classes of second-line drugs (AMINOGLYCOSIDES; polypeptide agents; FLUOROQUINOLONES; THIOAMIDES; CYCLOSERINE; and PARA-AMINOSALICYLIC ACID) as defined by the CDC.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the antibiotic KANAMYCIN, which can bind to their 70S ribosomes and cause misreading of messenger RNA.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Diminished or failed response of PLANTS to HERBICIDES.
Substances that are destructive to protozoans.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
Inhibitors of the enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase (TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE), which converts dihydrofolate (FH2) to tetrahydrofolate (FH4). They are frequently used in cancer chemotherapy. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)
Substances obtained from various species of microorganisms that are, alone or in combination with other agents, of use in treating various forms of tuberculosis; most of these agents are merely bacteriostatic, induce resistance in the organisms, and may be toxic.
A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.
A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
An anthracenedione-derived antineoplastic agent.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.
Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.
Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.
DNA TOPOISOMERASES that catalyze ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. These enzymes bring about relaxation of the supercoiled DNA and resolution of a knotted circular DNA duplex.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for retroviral enzymes including reverse transcriptase, protease, and endonuclease/integrase. "pol" is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.
An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.
A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.
A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
A phospholipid-interacting antimalarial drug (ANTIMALARIALS). It is very effective against PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM with very few side effects.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
DNA elements that include the component genes and insertion site for a site-specific recombination system that enables them to capture mobile gene cassettes.
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.
A hydroxynaphthoquinone that has antimicrobial activity and is being used in antimalarial protocols.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.
This line KB is now known to be a subline of the ubiquitous KERATIN-forming tumor cell line HeLa. It was originally thought to be derived from an epidermal carcinoma of the mouth, but was subsequently found, based on isoenzyme analysis, HeLa marker chromosomes, and DNA fingerprinting, to have been established via contamination by HELA CELLS. The cells are positive for keratin by immunoperoxidase staining. KB cells have been reported to contain human papillomavirus18 (HPV-18) sequences.
A fluorescent probe with low toxicity which is a potent substrate for P-glycoprotein and the bacterial multidrug efflux transporter. It is used to assess mitochondrial bioenergetics in living cells and to measure the efflux activity of P-glycoprotein in both normal and malignant cells. (Leukemia 1997;11(7):1124-30)
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
3,6-Diamino-10-methylacridinium chloride mixt. with 3,6-acridinediamine. Fluorescent dye used as a local antiseptic and also as a biological stain. It intercalates into nucleic acids thereby inhibiting bacterial and viral replication.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Glucose in blood.

Clinical outcomes of Estonian patients with primary multidrug-resistant versus drug-susceptible tuberculosis. (1/3396)

Little is known about the clinical outcomes of patients with primary multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis. Clinical outcomes among 46 patients in Estonia with primary MDR tuberculosis and 46 patients with pansusceptible tuberculosis were compared. Patients with MDR tuberculosis were more likely than those with pansensitive tuberculosis to have treatment failure (odds ratio, 8.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.0-26.3) after adjusting for medical problems and weeks of effective treatment, often with second-line drugs. Ten patients (22%) with MDR tuberculosis and 2 (4%) with susceptible tuberculosis died of tuberculosis (P=.03). MDR tuberculosis (hazard ratio [HR], 7.8; 95% CI, 1.6-37.4), number of medical problems (HR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.5-4.4), and male sex (HR, 5.8; 95% CI, 1.1-29.6) were associated with death due to tuberculosis in multivariable analysis. Human immunodeficiency virus test results were negative for all 55 patients tested. These findings underscore the urgent need for increased attention to prevention and treatment of MDR tuberculosis globally.  (+info)

Development and spread of bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents: an overview. (2/3396)

Resistance to antimicrobial agents is emerging in a wide variety of nosocomial and community-acquired pathogens. The emergence and spread of multiply resistant organisms represent the convergence of a variety of factors that include mutations in common resistance genes that extend their spectrum of activity, the exchange of genetic information among microorganisms, the evolution of selective pressures in hospitals and communities that facilitate the development and spread of resistant organisms, the proliferation and spread of multiply resistant clones of bacteria, and the inability of some laboratory testing methods to detect emerging resistance phenotypes. Twenty years ago, bacteria that were resistant to antimicrobial agents were easy to detect in the laboratory because the concentration of drug required to inhibit their growth was usually quite high and distinctly different from that of susceptible strains. Newer mechanisms of resistance, however, often result in much more subtle shifts in bacterial population distributions. Perhaps the most difficult phenotypes to detect, as shown in several proficiency testing surveys, are decreased susceptibility to beta-lactams in pneumococci and decreased susceptibility to vancomycin in staphylococci. In summary, emerging resistance has required adaptations and modifications of laboratory diagnostic techniques, empiric anti-infective therapy for such diseases as bacterial meningitis, and infection control measures in health care facilities of all kinds. Judicious use is imperative if we are to preserve our arsenal of antimicrobial agents into the next decade.  (+info)

Antibiotic resistance: consequences of inaction. (3/3396)

Bacterial resistance presents therapeutic dilemmas to clinicians worldwide. The warnings were there long ago, but too few people heeded them. Thus an emerging problem has grown to a crisis. Resistance is an ecological phenomenon stemming from the response of bacteria to the widespread use of antibiotics and their presence in the environment. While determining the consequences of inaction on the present and future public health, we must work to remedy the lack of action in the past. By improving antibiotic use and decreasing resistance gene frequency at the local levels, we can move towards reversing the resistance problem globally.  (+info)

Consequences of inaction: importance of infection control practices. (4/3396)

The increasing prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens in health care facilities is due in large part to overuse of antibiotics and poor compliance with recommended infection control practices. To control the spread of such pathogens, health care facilities must reduce overuse and abuse of antibiotics, and they must implement new multidisciplinary programs to improve hand hygiene practices among health care workers and improve compliance with recommended barrier precautions.  (+info)

Minimizing potential resistance: the molecular view. (5/3396)

The major contribution of molecular biology to the study of antibiotic resistance has been the elucidation of nearly all biochemical mechanisms of resistance and the routes for dissemination of genetic information among bacteria. In this review, we consider the potential contribution of molecular biology to counteracting the evolution of resistant bacteria. In particular, we emphasize the fact that fundamental approaches have had direct practical effects on minimizing potential resistance: by improving interpretation of resistance phenotypes, by providing more adequate human therapy, by fostering more prudent use of antibiotics, and by allowing the rational design of new drugs that evade existing resistance mechanisms or address unexploited targets.  (+info)

Restricting the selection of antibiotic-resistant mutants: a general strategy derived from fluoroquinolone studies. (6/3396)

Studies with fluoroquinolones have led to a general method for restricting the selection of antibiotic-resistant mutants. The strategy is based on the use of antibiotic concentrations that require cells to obtain 2 concurrent resistance mutations for growth. That concentration has been called the "mutant prevention concentration" (MPC) because no resistant colony is recovered even when >10(10) cells are plated. Resistant mutants are selected exclusively within a concentration range (mutant selection window) that extends from the point where growth inhibition begins, approximated by the minimal inhibitory concentration, up to the MPC. The dimensions of the mutant selection window can be reduced in a variety of ways, including adjustment of antibiotic structure and dosage regimens. The window can be closed to prevent mutant selection through combination therapy with > or =2 antimicrobial agents if their normalized pharmacokinetic profiles superimpose at concentrations that inhibit growth. Application of these principles could drastically restrict the selection of drug-resistant pathogens.  (+info)

Detection of rpoB mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis by biprobe analysis. (7/3396)

A biprobe assay utilizing LightCycler technology was developed to detect rifampin resistance-associated gene mutations in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis rpoB gene. Three biprobes detected all mutations present in the 46 rifampin-resistant isolates. Wild-type sequences were correctly identified in each case. The method was reproducible, accurate, and easy to use.  (+info)

Emergence of rifampin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae as a result of antimicrobial therapy for penicillin-resistant strains. (8/3396)

A multidrug-resistant strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae was isolated in The Netherlands during a nosocomial outbreak among 36 patients who mainly had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. After the commencement of barrier nursing and short-term ceftriaxone-rifampin eradication therapy, the epidemic ceased. However, eradication therapy failed in 3 patients, and follow-up investigation of these patients showed the emergence of rifampin-resistant isolates.  (+info)

Following the discovery of penicillin in 1928, and its widespread use in clinical practice from the 1940s, several new antibiotic classes were introduced. Vancomycin was introduced in 1958, followed by the cephalosporins, beta-lactamase inhibitors, and quinolones. However, since the introduction of carbapenems in the 1980s, no new class of antibiotic has been added to our…
Following the discovery of penicillin in 1928, and its widespread use in clinical practice from the 1940s, several new antibiotic classes were introduced. Vancomycin was introduced in 1958, followed by the cephalosporins, beta-lactamase inhibitors, and quinolones. However, since the introduction of carbapenems in the 1980s, no new class of antibiotic has been added to our…
Multi Drug Resistance ist eine Erkrankung, die sich durch eine Überempfindlichkeit gegenüber bestimmten Antiparasitika und vielen anderen Medikamenten bemerkbar und Tiere empfänglich für eine potentiell tödliche Neurotoxikose macht. Die Krankheit wird durch die Degeneration des P-Glykoproteins verursacht, einem Protein, das normalerweise in den kapillaren Endothelzellen exprimiert wird, die als Teil der Blut-Hirnschranke fungieren, um Medikamente aus dem zentralen Nervensystem zu pumpen. Auf diese Weise beschränkt die Blut-Hirn-Schranke den Übergang von Medikamenten in das Nervensystem. Hunde mit dieser Gendeletion weisen erhöhte Hirnkonzentrationen von Medikamenten einschließlich Ivermectin, Moxidectin, Loperamid und Corticosteroiden.. Hunde, bei denen die Mutation reinerbig auftritt, exprimieren kein funktionales P-Glykoprotein und zeigen eine erhöhte Sensibilität gegenüber vielen Medikamenten. Für einige dieser Medikamente wird der Übergang in das Gehirn hochgradig verstärkt ...
4EYR: Insights into the mechanism of drug resistance: X-ray structure analysis of multi-drug resistant HIV-1 protease ritonavir complex.
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Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Newport. Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Newport is common worldwide. Outbreak investigations and targeted studies have identified dairy cattle as the main reservoir this serotype. Antimicrobial resistance (Newport MDR-AmpC) is particularly problematic in this serotype, and the prevalence of Newport MDR-AmpC isolates from humans in the United States has increased from 0% during 1996-1997 to 26% in 2001. MDR strains have been recorded as resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulphonamides and tetracycline (ACSSuT) and many of these strains show intermediate or full resistance to third-generation cephalosporins, kanamycin, potentiated sulphonamides, and gentamicin. Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Newport str SL254. The SL254 strain is an MDR strain from one of two distinct lineages of the Newport serovar. (NCBI BioProject: bp_list[1 ...
The presence of pan-resistant bacteria worldwide possesses a threat to global health. It is difficult to evaluate the extent of carriage of resistant bacteria in the population. Sewage sampling is a possible way to monitor populations. We evaluated the presence of pan-resistant bacteria in Israeli sewage collected from all over Israel, by modifying the pour plate method for heterotrophic plate count technique using commercial selective agar plates. This method enables convenient and fast sewage sampling and detection. We found that sewage in Israel contains multiple pan-resistant bacteria including carbapenemase resistant Enterobacteriacae carrying blaKPC and blaNDM-1, MRSA and VRE. blaKPC carrying Klebsiella pneumonia and Enterobacter cloacae were the most common Enterobacteriacae drug resistant bacteria found in the sewage locations we sampled. Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterobacter spp., Escherichia coli and Citrobacter spp. were the 4 main CRE isolated from Israeli sewage and also from clinical ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Clinical outcomes of intestinal transplant recipients colonized with multidrug-resistant organisms. T2 - a retrospective study. AU - Simkins, Jacques. AU - Morris, Michele I.. AU - Camargo, Jose F.. AU - Vianna, Rodrigo. AU - Beduschi, Thiago. AU - Abbo, Lilian M.. PY - 2017/9/1. Y1 - 2017/9/1. N2 - Rates of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) colonization among intestinal transplant (ITx) recipients have not been reported. Colonization rates with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (CR-GNB), and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were obtained retrospectively in adults undergoing ITx (isolated or multivisceral) from 1/2009 to 12/2015. We assessed for VRE, CR-GNB, and MRSA bacteremia during the first year post-transplant for patients colonized with VRE, CR-GNB, and MRSA, respectively, and for those who were not colonized. We evaluated whether the number of hospitalization days and one year post-transplant survival ...
INTRODUCTION: The term multidrug-resistants (MDR) applies to the bacterium that is simultaneously resistant to some antimicrobials belonging to different chemical classes 1-3.. Furthermore, Antibiotic resistance is a global challenge that impacts all pharmaceutically used antibiotic.. In recent years pharmaceutical companies have almost stopped producing new antibiotics which have led researchers to look for alternative antimicrobial. Herbs widely use for the treatment of infectious diseases in many developing countries 4. Therefore, in Sudan, with a high percentage of multidrug-resistant bacteria, we in urgent need to develop a new drug from our traditional medicine.. A wide range of medicinal plant parts use for extract as unprocessed drugs, and they possess various medicinal properties. The secondary metabolism of the plant was found to be a source of various phytochemicals that could directly be used as intermediates for the production of new drugs 5-8.. Nosocomial infection is one of the ...
Scientists and physicians at University of California San Diego School of Medicine, working with colleagues at the U.S. Navy Medical Research Center - Biological Defense Research Directorate, Texas A&M University, a San Diego-based biotech and elsewhere, have successfully used an experimental therapy involving bacteriophages -- viruses that target and consume specific strains of bacteria -- to treat a patient near death from a multidrug-resistant bacterium.
General Information: The SL254 strain is an MDR strain from one of two distinct lineages of the Newport serovar. Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Newport is common worldwide. Outbreak investigations and targeted studies have identified dairy cattle as the main reservoir this serotype. Antimicrobial resistance (Newport MDR-AmpC) is particularly problematic in this serotype, and the prevalence of Newport MDR-AmpC isolates from humans in the United States has increased from 0% during 1996-1997 to 26% in 2001. MDR strains have been recorded as resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulphonamides and tetracycline (ACSSuT) and many of these strains show intermediate or full resistance to third-generation cephalosporins, kanamycin, potentiated sulphonamides, and gentamicin. This group of Enterobactericiae have pathogenic characteristics and are one of the most common causes of enteric infections (food poisoning) worldwide. They were named after the scientist Dr. Daniel ...
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Antibiotic Resistance, Antibiotic Resistant Infection, Antimicrobial Resistance, Multidrug-Resistant Organism, Multi-Drug Resistant Bacteria.
PORTO ALEGRE, Brazil -- Hospital-acquired pneumonia caused by multidrug resistant strains of Pseudomonas bacteria are frequently lethal.
3OQA: Contribution of the 80s loop of HIV-1 protease to the multidrug-resistance mechanism: crystallographic study of MDR769 HIV-1 protease variants.
A new way to fight multidrug-resistant bacteria by blinding them rather than killing them proved highly effective in a model of burn injuries, UT Southwestern Medical Center research shows.
Today, a generation of microbes has emerged that are so resistant to available medications that they might again become serious threats. Even the once easily treated organisms, such as staphylococcus and streptococcus, have acquired resistance to many standard antimicrobials, making them much harder to treat. The urgency of this situation has prompted the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to issue guidelines that might help keep the situation under control, if universally followed. These guidelines include the concept that the proliferation of resistant organisms can be diminished if good sanitary practices are adhered to. This course will provide an overview of the mechanics of multidrug resistance and the most common resistant organisms.
The US FDA has issued a safety communication regarding investigational FMT, warning that there is a risk of serious infection caused by the transfer of multidrug-resistant organisms. ...
Objectives. Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter strain HK302 was isolated from an outbreak of nosocomial infections in Switzerland in 1977. The aim of the present study was to assess whether this archive strain belongs to one of the known international clonal lineages of Acinetobacter baumannii and whether it harbours a genomic structure related to the AbaR1-like resistance islands.. Methods. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and HindIII ribotyping were used to determine the taxonomic position of HK302 at the species and subspecies (clonal) levels. The position and structure of the putative resistance island were investigated by AbaR1-based PCR mapping followed by restriction analysis and partial sequencing of amplicons. A. baumannii AYE harbouring AbaR1 was used as a positive control for PCR mapping.. Results. The MLST allelic profile (1-1-1-1-5-1-1) and HindIII ribotype of HK302 were typical of A. baumannii European (EU) clone I. In addition, an AbaR1-related region inserted into the ATPase gene ...
A total of 183 patients were colonized or infected with multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates at a hospital in Spain during 2007-2010; prevalence increased over this period from 2.8% to 15.3%. To characterize these isolates, we performed molecular epidemiologic and drug resistance analysis. Genotyping showed that 104 (56.8%) isolates belonged to a single major clone (clone B), which was identified by multilocus sequence typing as sequence type (ST) 175. This clone was initially isolated from 5 patients in 2008, and then isolated from 23 patients in 2009 and 76 patients in 2010. PCR analysis of clone B isolates identified the bla(VIM-2) gene in all but 1 isolate, which harbored bla(IMP-22). ST175 isolates were susceptible to only amikacin (75%) and colistin (100%). Emergence of the ST175 clone represents a major health problem because it compromises therapy for treatment of P. aeruginosa nosocomial infections ...
The traditional markerless gene deletion technique based on overlap extension PCR has been used for generating gene deletions in multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. However, the method is time-consuming because it requires restriction digestion of the PCR products in DNA cloning and the con …
Carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii is most often associated with class D β-lactamases (OXA-23-like, OXA-40-like and OXA-58-like) and MBLs. OXA-type carbapenemases are predominant in A. baumannii, particularly in worldwide outbreaks of OXA-23 [24]. The molecular analysis of the isolates tested in this study revealed that 14 strains (51.8 %) carried the blaOXA-23-like gene and that two strains carried a blaOXA-24-like gene. All of the strains had a blaOXA-51-like gene, and four strains had a blaOXA-58 gene. In this study, the OXA-58 isolates presented lower MIC values for meropenem than OXA-23-like-positive isolates, which systematically exhibited higher MIC values (Table 1). The isolates with non-acquired OXA genes displayed a marked variation and included some carbapenem-resistant genes. Naturally occurring OXA carbapenemases, such as OXA-51-like enzymes (e.g., OXA 64-66, OXA 68-71, OXA 78-80, OXA-82, OXA-86, OXA-92 and OXA104-112), have been identified in A. baumannii isolates worldwide. In ...
Abstract. We performed whole genome sequencing on a clinical multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain 223/14. Investigation into its draft genome revealed the presence of KPC-6 variant, suggesting carbapenemase is present in this isolate. We found a plasmid-borne KPC gene (882 bp) inserted between two transposase genes in the genome of K. pneumoniae 223/14.. Keywords: Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase (KPC), multidrug resistance, whole genome sequencing ...
Multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli are emerging threats in the intensive care unit setting worldwide. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases, AmpC β-lactamases, and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are increasing at an alarming rate, leaving limited therapeutic options. In addition, multidrug resistance among Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii has widely disseminated and become a frequent cause of nosocomial infections within many intensive care units. Therefore, resistance is increasing to all currently available antibiotics, including cephalosporins, penicillins, aztreonam, carbapenems, fluoroquinolones, and aminoglycosides. Some multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria remain susceptible to only a few antibiotics such as tigecycline, fosfomycin, and polymyxins. The steady trend of increasing resistance coupled with the lack of novel antibiotics targeting resistant gram-negative bacilli has forced clinicians to increasingly apply more aggressive dosing strategies, ...
To understand the epidemiology of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii and define individual risk factors for MDR, we used epidemiologic methods, performed organism typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and conducted a matched case-control retrospective study. We investigated 118 patients, on 27 wards, in whom MDR A. baumannii was isolated from clinical cultures. Each case-patient had a control without MDR A. baumannii and was matched for hospital length of stay, ward, and calendar time. The epidemiologic investigation found small clusters of up to 6 patients each with no common identified source. Ten different PFGE clones were found, of which 2 dominated. The PFGE pattern differed within temporospatial clusters, and antimicrobial drug susceptibility patterns varied within and between clones. Multivariate analysis identified the following significant risk factors: male sex, cardiovascular disease, having undergone mechanical ventilation, and having been treated with
In February 2006, a patient colonized with a multidrug-resistant sequence type 56 Acinetobacter baumannii strain was admitted to a hospital in Madrid, Spain. This strain spread rapidly and caused a large outbreak in the hospital. Clinicians should be ...
Multidrug-resistant and highly virulent Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates are emerging, but the clonal groups (CGs) corresponding to these high-risk strains have remained imprecisely defined. We aimed to identify K. pneumoniae CGs on the basis of genome-wide sequence variation and to provide a simple bioinformatics tool to extract virulence and resistance gene data from genomic data. We sequenced 48 K. pneumoniae isolates, mostly of serotypes K1 and K2, and compared the genomes with 119 publicly available genomes. A total of 694 highly conserved genes were included in a core-genome multilocus sequence typing scheme, and cluster analysis of the data enabled precise definition of globally distributed hypervirulent and multidrug-resistant CGs. In addition, we created a freely accessible database, BIGSdb-Kp, to enable rapid extraction of medically and epidemiologically relevant information from genomic sequences of K. pneumoniae. Although drug-resistant and virulent K. pneumoniae populations were largely
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The spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria has been associated with the hospital setting, but these findings suggest that transmission of drug-resistant E. coli occurs both in the hospital and households, says Andreas Widmer, MD, lead author of the study. Our findings emphasize the importance of hand hygiene, not only after handling raw poultry, but also after contact with cutting boards used in poultry preparation.. Researchers from University Hospital in Basel, Switzerland collected and examined 298 cutting boards (154 from University Hospital and 144 from private households) after preparation of various meats (i.e., poultry, beef/veal, pork, lamb, game and fish) and before being cleaned. They also collected 20 pairs of gloves from hospital kitchen employees after they handled raw poultry. These samples were tested for the presence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, a family of gram-negative bacteria that includes Salmonella, E. coli and Klebsiella. In testing the cutting boards, ...
A series of clinical isolates of drug-resistant (DR) Acinetobacter baumannii with diverse drug susceptibility was detected from eight patients in the emergency intensive care unit of Tokai University Hospital. The initial isolate was obtained in March 2010 (A. baumannii Tokai strain 1); subsequently, seven isolates were obtained from patients (A. baumannii Tokai strains 2-8) and one isolate was obtained from an air-fluidized bed used by five of the patients during the 3 months from August to November 2011. The isolates were classified into three types of antimicrobial drug resistance patterns (RRR, SRR and SSR) according to their susceptibility (S) or resistance (R) to imipenem, amikacin and ciprofloxacin, respectively. Genotyping of these isolates by multilocus sequence typing revealed one sequence type, ST208, whilst that by a DiversiLab analysis revealed two subtypes. All the isolates were positive for bla OXA-51-like and bla OXA-66, as assessed by PCR and DNA sequencing. A. baumannii Tokai strains 1
Contrary to current medical dogma, researchers at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences report that the common antibiotic azithromycin kills many multidrug-resistant bacteria very effectively - when tested under conditions that closely resemble the human body and its natural antimicrobial factors.
Summary Pharmaceutical and Healthcare disease pipeline guide Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infections - Pipeline Review, H1 2017, provides an overview o
Resistant Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Infections Drugs Market Insights: Global Industry Analysis, Market Drivers, Restraints, Opportunities, Applications, Trends And Forecasts 2020-2026
Antibiotics are used in the prevention of different kinds of infectious diseases, but now-a-days, multidrug resistant strain of pathogenic bacteria is increasing due to the excess or misuse of antibiotics. These antibiotic resistant bacteria have become a great problem for the big population of Bangladesh. In this study, seven clinical samples were screened from about 250 patients having upper respiratory infections at Gonoshasthya Nagar Hospital, Dhanmondi, Dhaka. The isolated S. aureus was screened for their antibiotic resistance profiles. In this study, eleven antimicrobial drugs were used. The objective of this study was to check the sensitivity and resistance ability of S. aureus in different antibiotic concentrations and growth rate at room temperature after isolation, purification and characterization because infectious diseases could play a great role in human health in developing countries due to multidrug resistance activity of bacteria. S. aureus was found to be resistant to eight commonly
Uropathogenic E. coli are paradoxically able to both cause disease in the urinary tract, and reside there asymptomatically. The pandemic, multi-drug resistant E. coli subclone ST131-H30 (H30) is of special interest, as it has been found to persist in the gut and bladder of healthy people. In order to understand this persistence, we investigated whether H30 is competitive in these niches and thus able to persist by excluding other E. coli, as well as whether H30 may persist via within-host adaptation. In order to assess the E. coli clonal landscape, we developed a novel method based on deep sequencing of two loci, along with an algorithm for analysis of resulting data. Using this method, we assessed fecal and urinary samples from healthy women carrying H30, and found that even in the absence of antibiotic use, H30 could completely dominate the gut and, especially, urine of healthy carriers. In order to ascertain whether H30 adapts within host, we employed population-level whole genome sequencing, ...
Background: The emergence and rapid spreading of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains has become a major health threat worldwide. To better understand the genetic recombination related with the acquisition ...
Notably, ST648 clade 2 strains almost ubiquitously carried an identical ESBL plasmid, as discussed below. Strains from humans and animals with different backgrounds were distributed throughout the phylogeny (Fig. 1A), suggesting ST648s interspecies movement and zoonotic potential while lacking clear genomic signatures that would indicate ecological adaptation to individual host species and infection sites. The geographical distributions were also similar, where strains from different continents occurred throughout the phylogeny (Fig. 1A). These results suggest that ST648 is a host generalist rather than a specialist, with the capability of frequent cross-species transmission, thriving in different clinical and nonclinical contexts, similar to ST131 (8). By including strains from multiple geographic regions and wildlife (Fig. 1A), unique insights into this newly emerging clonal lineage were discovered beyond the usually narrower human, clinically centered focus.. We analyzed the accessory gene ...
is an innately multidrug-resistant pathogen which is emerging in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. species exhibits innate resistance to many antibiotics, including cephalosporins (except ceftazidime), aztreonam, and aminoglycosides (1, 8C10). Clinical strains frequently harbor acquired resistances, especially to ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, and carbapenems. We have recently described the first resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND)-type multidrug efflux pump in MexAB-OprM efflux pump: AxyABM can extrude cephalosporins (except cefepime), fluoroquinolones, and chloramphenicol. Moreover, AxyABM plays a major role in the innate resistance to aztreonam. Nevertheless, the mechanism(s) leading to aminoglycoside and cefepime resistance remain(s) unknown. It is likely that other efflux systems contribute to the antibiotic resistance of AXX-A strain (GenBank accession number type:entrez-nucleotide,attrs:text:AFRQ01000000″,term_id:339120535″AFRQ01000000). We examined this sequence looking ...
is an innately multidrug-resistant pathogen which is emerging in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. species exhibits innate resistance to many antibiotics, including cephalosporins (except ceftazidime), aztreonam, and aminoglycosides (1, 8C10). Clinical strains frequently harbor acquired resistances, especially to ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, and carbapenems. We have recently described the first resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND)-type multidrug efflux pump in MexAB-OprM efflux pump: AxyABM can extrude cephalosporins (except cefepime), fluoroquinolones, and chloramphenicol. Moreover, AxyABM plays a major role in the innate resistance to aztreonam. Nevertheless, the mechanism(s) leading to aminoglycoside and cefepime resistance remain(s) unknown. It is likely that other efflux systems contribute to the antibiotic resistance of AXX-A strain (GenBank accession number type:entrez-nucleotide,attrs:text:AFRQ01000000″,term_id:339120535″AFRQ01000000). We examined this sequence looking ...
A multidrug-resistant organism is a germ that is resistant to many antibiotics. Find out about prevention and treatment. Get answers to your questions.
Shop Multidrug efflux pump accessory protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Multidrug efflux pump accessory protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Recently the emergence of pan-resistant bacterial pathogens was published in The Lancet Infectious Disease, online August 11, 2010. In this study 107 enterobacteria isolates from UK, India and Pakistan harbouring a broad spectrum metallo-β- lactamase 1 (called New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1; NDM-1) were found to be highly resistant against most antibiotics. Two Klebsiella isolates from the UK have been shown to be resistant against all available antibiotics. These isolates or the plasmids conveying resistance were shown to have been transferred also from country-to-country.. This is the true beginning of a post-antibiotic era, which will have a dramatic impact on our current urological practice. Enterobacteria are the most important species causing urinary tract infections (UTI). Most of the isolates harbouring this NDM-1 enzyme also were from community-acquired UTI.. Whereas in Gram-positive bacteria several new antibiotics are seen on the market, there will be no new antibiotics against ...
Serotyping The thirteen isolates belonged to three serotypes: ten strains (77%) to serotype 4b; two strains (15%) to 1/2a, and one strain (8%) to 1/2b (Fig. 3). DISCUSSION Most industrialized countries have developed surveillance systems for listeriosis since 1987 (25), following outbreaks that demonstrated the importance of the foodborne transmission of the disease. Listeriosis has been mainly reported by those countries, with few or even no reports from Africa, Asia and South America. According to Rocourt et al. (25), whether this reflects different consumption patterns, dietary habits, different host susceptibility, or lack of testing facilities is not known. In order to help filling this gap, collecting some data from Brazil was one of the aims of this research. The first antibiotic resistant strain of L. monocytogenes was described in 1988 and, since then, other resistant strains have been detected in food and clinical isolates, including multidrug resistant strains (23). In this study, all ...
Bacterial pathogens that are multi-drug resistant compromise the effectiveness of treatment when they are the causative agents of infectious disease. These multi-drug resistance mechanisms allow bacteria to survive in the presence of clinically useful antimicrobial agents, thus reducing the efficacy of chemotherapy towards infectious disease. Importantly, active multi-drug efflux is a major mechanism for bacterial pathogen drug resistance. Therefore, because of their overwhelming presence in bacterial pathogens, these active multi-drug efflux mechanisms remain a major area of intense study, so that ultimately measures may be discovered to inhibit these active multi-drug efflux pumps.
The Cambridge-Chennai Centre Partnership on Antimicrobial Resistant Tuberculosis will bring together a multidisciplinary team of international researchers, and will be led by Professor Sharon Peacock and Dr Soumya Swaminathan. The team, including Professors Lalita Ramakrishnan, Ken Smith, Tom Blundell and Andres Floto, will focus on developing new diagnostic tools and treatments to address the sharp rise in cases of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (TB). This will include research into:
Analysis of adeABC gene expression in CIP 70-10 resistant mutants.Since it is likely that expression of AdeABC in clinical isolate BM4454 is secondary to an alteration in AdeRS, we analyzed this regulatory system in A. baumannii CIP 70-10. This reference strain is susceptible to antibiotics and harbors the adeABC and adeRS genes, as evidenced by PCR (data not shown) and sequencing (GenBank accession no. AY426969). The AdeR regulator from CIP 70-10 shared 98% amino acid identity with that from BM4454, and the AdeS sensor shared 96.7% amino acid identity with that from BM4454, although the latter protein was shorter by 4 amino acids. The proteins contained the conserved motifs previously reported for histidine kinases and response regulators (32), and inside these motifs, no differences were detected between the sequences from the two strains. Spontaneous one-step mutants of CIP 70-10 exhibiting a multidrug resistance phenotype indistinguishable from that of BM4454 were selected on BHI agar ...
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Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most intractable human pathogens that pose serious clinical challenge due to extensive prevalence of multidrug-resistant clinical isolates. Armed with abundant virulence and antibiotic resistance mechanisms, it is a major etiologic agent in a number of acute and …
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Parasakthi, N.; Vadivelu, J.; Ariffin, H.; Iyer, L.; Palasubramaniam, Selvi; Arasu, A. (2000) Epidemiology and molecular characterization of nosocomially transmitted multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 4 (3). pp. 123-128. ISSN 12019712. Full text not available from this repository ...
1) Magnet S, et al. (2001) Resistance-nodulation-cell division-type efflux pump involved in aminoglycoside resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii strain BM4454.. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 45(12):3375-80 PubMed: 11709311 ...
1) Magnet S, et al. (2001) Resistance-nodulation-cell division-type efflux pump involved in aminoglycoside resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii strain BM4454.. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 45(12):3375-80 PubMed: 11709311 ...
The authors note that as and when ART becomes universally available to drug users with HIV, and their health status improves, so their other health problems will take on increased prominence, such as non-AIDS related comorbitities and TB, all of which will come with their own treatment priorities. HIV infected drug users with TB co-infection creates various clinical challenges since TB can be difficult to diagnose in HIV patients due to atypical chest radiographs, high-rates of TB in parts of the body outside the usual setting of the lungs, and the reduced sensitivity of skin tests used to diagnose TB in HIV patients. While people with latent TB but not HIV infection have a roughly 1 in 11 lifetime risk of having their TB develop into full blown disease, it becomes a 1 in 11 annual risk in patients with HIV co-infection. Concentration of people with HIV and substance use disorders behind bars facilitates transmission of TB, including multidrug resistant strains, due to overcrowding and increased ...
Good Morning David, Ive done several years of Multi Drug Resistance Protein work. It was a tough nut to crack back a few years ago. We use JSB-1 primary antibody [far superior to C219] and the procedure is long... weve added extra IgG fragments to give the DAB some extra places to bind. Its really a nice, clean, amplified method. I can send you the worksheet for the procedure if youd like. Please find the related publications below (methods paper is #2). I think #3 may be of special interest to you. 1)Toth, K., Vaughan, M.M., Slocum, H.K., Fredericks, W.J., Chen, Y., Arredondo, M.A., Harstrick, A., Karakousis, C., Baker, R.M., Rustum, Y.M. Comparison of an Immunoperoxidase sandwich Staining Method and Western Blot Detection of P-glycoprotein in Human Cell Lines and Sarcomas. Amer. J. Path. 140:1009-1016, 1992. 2)Toth, K., Vaughan, M.M., Slocum, H.K., Arredondo, M.A., Takita, H., Baker, R.M., Tsuro, T., and Rustum, Y.M. New Immunohistochemical Sandwich Staining Method for MDR1 ...
Multiple drug resistance among bacteria has become a global issue with a considerable impact on the mortality associated with infectious diseases. This book is a detailed compilation of available knowledge on the surveillance and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in various countries throughout the world. Readers will be updated on current information on the understanding of mechanisms involved in drug resistance and the geographical distribution of resistance determinant markers. This volume should be a useful guide for microbiologists and clinicians interested in designing antimicrobial therapies tailored for patients in specific geographical regions ...
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacteria is a global health crisis due to the rapid emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria and the lengthy development
A recent investigative report by Steve Silberman from Wired about the highly resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, encountered by clinicians treating wounded
To study the prevalence and antibiotic resistance patterns ofMDR S. aureus frompyogenic infections in diabetic and non-diabetic patients fromdifferent..
Antimicrobial resistance represent a serious threat to public health and patient safety and is a worldwide problem. Each year, in the European Union (EU) at least 25 000 patients die of infections with multidrug-resistant bacteria. ...
MDROs are everywhere in the world. Hospitals and other healthcare settings battle resistant organisms to keep them from spreading throughout their buildings. MDROs are found in the community as well. Examples of infections from MDROs in the community are drug resistant pneumonias and skin and soft tissue infections.
All antibiotic resistance mechanisms in bacteria ultimately work by preventing, or mitigating the effects of, an antibacterial inhibitor binding to it
A technique for treating bacterial infections has successfully used light-activated quantum dots (QDs) to kill multiple multidrug-resistant strains.
Dr Hurd added that all scientific risk assessments have shown that there is negligible risk from antibiotic use on the farm. He said very few people are going to be treated with the antibiotic that are used on the farm when they are treated for a food poisoning event and most doctors will not prescribe antibiotics for food poising in the first place ...
chilling reality is that EPA states in its sludge rule that exposure through the air, water, or food to any of the pollutants (e ...
Antibiotic resistance to this drug has been increasing, especially in southern China. Recently the gene mcr-1, which confers ... Typical uses are for infections caused by strains of multiple drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa or carbapenemase-producing ... but no longer kills the bacterial cell. However, it still detectably increases the permeability of the bacterial cell wall to ... the antibiotic resistance, has been isolated from bacterial plasmids in Enterobacteriaceae. Polymyxins are a group of cyclic ...
Unlike multiple drug resistance, and antimicrobial resistance, antimicrobial tolerance is transient, and not inherited. ... 2016). "Enhanced Efflux Activity Facilitates Drug Tolerance in Dormant Bacterial Cells". Mol Cell. 62 (2): 284-294. doi:10.1016 ... and cancer persister cells that show tolerance for cancer drugs. Recognition of bacterial persister cells dates back to 1944 ... Resistance is caused by newly acquired genetic traits (by mutation or horizontal gene transfer) that are heritable and confer ...
Mutations in rpoB that confer resistance to rifamycins do so by altering the protein's drug-binding residues, thereby reducing ... Some bacteria contain multiple copies of the 16S rRNA gene, which is commonly used as the molecular marker to study phylogeny. ... The rpoB gene encodes the β subunit of bacterial RNA polymerase and the homologous plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (PEP). It ... Koch A, Mizrahi V, Warner DF (March 2014). "The impact of drug resistance on Mycobacterium tuberculosis physiology: what can we ...
Antibiotic resistance Drug resistance Multiple drug resistance Cerceo, Elizabeth; Deitelzweig, Steven B.; Sherman, Bradley M.; ... Vergidis, Paschalis I.; Falagas, Matthew E. (1 February 2008). "Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections: the ... Multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDRGN bacteria) are a type of Gram-negative bacteria with resistance to multiple ... This drug shows promise in infections from multi-drug resistant K. pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae carbapenemase [KPC]- and ESBL- ...
Chitsaz, Mohsen; Brown, Melissa H. (2017-03-03). "The role played by drug efflux pumps in bacterial multidrug resistance". ... In bacteria, overexpression of some efflux pumps can result in decreased susceptibility to multiple antibiotics. Laura J. V. ... Piddock (2006). "Multidrug-resistance efflux pumps ? not just for resistance". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 4 (8): 629-636. doi ... Multidrug resistance pumps (MDR pumps) also known Multidrug efflux pumps are a type of efflux pump and P-glycoprotein. MDR ...
... in multi-drug resistant gram-negative bacteria with no resistance observed by the researchers through multiple bacterial ... The development of the polymers is potentially a treatment for bacterial diseases. The research takes a novel approach to ... and was shown to be highly selective towards bacterial cell walls, leaving mammalian cells unharmed. Bacteria species tested ...
... or strains of bacteria that have resistance to multiple antibiotic drugs. Observing these mutations will help them develop ... Scientists are also analyzing bacterial growth on the ISS and the mutations that may determine the next superbug, ... "The Next Cancer Drug Might Start in Outer Space". Bloomberg.com. "Next Stop for Parkinson's Disease Research: Outer Space". ... Protein crystallization could also have an impact on the delivery method of a cancer drug that is currently on the market. The ...
... has been studied for its potential to treat various kinds of multiple drug resistance bacterial infections, as well as ... ISBN 978-1-4665-1557-4. (Chemical articles with multiple compound IDs, Multiple chemicals in an infobox that need indexing, ... be the key to sustainable drug design addressing serious problems with escalating emergence of multidrug-resistant bacterial ...
... and the concerning bacterial population amplifies. Therefore, the resistance gene is farther distributed in the organism and ... Multiple drug resistance (MDR), multidrug resistance or multiresistance is antimicrobial resistance shown by a species of ... Drug resistance MDRGN bacteria Xenobiotic metabolism NDM1 enzymatic resistance Herbicide resistance P-glycoprotein A.-P. ... Drug+Resistance,+Multiple at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Boucher, HW, Talbot GH, ...
... drug resistance, multiple MeSH G04.185.515.329.500 - drug resistance, multiple, bacterial MeSH G04.185.515.329.625 - drug ... drug resistance, fungal MeSH G04.185.515.286.383.500 - drug resistance, multiple, fungal MeSH G04.185.515.286.420 - drug ... chloramphenicol resistance MeSH G04.185.515.286.347.812 - drug resistance, multiple, bacterial MeSH G04.185.515.286.347.875 - ... drug resistance, microbial MeSH G04.185.515.286.347 - drug resistance, bacterial MeSH G04.185.515.286.347.500 - beta-lactam ...
... researchers have recognized the need for new drugs that inhibit bacterial efflux pumps, which cause resistance to multiple ... drugs designed to block the mechanisms of bacterial antibiotic resistance are used. For example, bacterial resistance against ... Tolerance and Resistance Cosmetics Database HCMV drug resistance mutations tool Combating Drug Resistance - An informative ... The development of antibiotic resistance in particular stems from the drugs targeting only specific bacterial molecules (almost ...
Saha, Mousumi; Sarkar, Agniswar (2021). "Review on Multiple Facets of Drug Resistance: A Rising Challenge in the 21st Century ... This allows the resistance to spread across the same pathogen or even similar bacterial pathogens. WHO report released April ... Resistance to recently developed drugs such as artemisinin has also been reported. The problem of drug resistance in malaria ... Resistance to HIV antivirals is problematic, and even multi-drug resistant strains have evolved. One source of resistance is ...
Multiple drug resistance Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Irving, Michael (2022-08-11). "New antibiotic molecule ... The drug inhibits the bacterial enzyme FabI, which is an important enzyme in bacterial fatty acid biosynthesis. Clinical trials ... "Global burden of bacterial antimicrobial resistance in 2019: a systematic analysis". The Lancet. 399 (10325): 629-655. doi: ... Global deaths attributable to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) numbered 1.27 million in 2019. That year, AMR may have contributed ...
... sometimes also referred to as multiple-drug resistant S. aureus due to resistance to non-penicillin antibiotics that some ... used as a drug of last resort for a variety of different bacterial infections; Ceftobiprole and ceftaroline - fifth-generation ... Drug resistance, such as antimicrobial resistance or antineoplastic resistance, may make the first-line drug ineffective, ... A drug of last resort (DoLR), also known as a heroic dose, is a pharmaceutical drug which is tried after all other drug options ...
The multidrug efflux transporter NorM from V. parahaemolyticus which mediates resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents ( ... protein family responsible for drug resistance. This gene is one of two members of the MATE transporter family located near ... This transporter family shares homology with the bacterial MATE (multi antimicrobial extrusion protein or multidrug and toxic ... NorM seems to function as drug/sodium antiporter which is the first example of Na+-coupled multidrug efflux transporter ...
The risk of bacterial antibiotic resistance has been studied by quantitatively monitoring the abundance of the tetQ gene in ... The Food and Drug Administration began to review the safety of triclocarban and triclosan in the 1970s, but due to the ... CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list, Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Articles without ... "Anti-bacterial personal hygiene products may not be worth potential risks." UC Davis Health System Feature Story: Anti- ...
Multiple mechanisms of streptogramin resistance have developed despite Synercid's fairly recent development. The three major ... This intravenously-injected drug is used to treat patients with bacteremia caused by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium ... However, when used in conjunction with one another, the streptogramins can inhibit bacterial growth and are bactericidal. ... In 1999 the FDA had approved Synercid, a drug containing streptogramins A and B in a 7:3 ratio respectively. ...
"Roles of Regulatory RNAs for Antibiotic Resistance in Bacteria and Their Potential Value as Novel Drug Targets". Frontiers in ... Biofilm is a type of bacterial growth pattern where multiple layers of bacterial cells adhere to a host surface. This mode of ... Several bacterial sRNAs are involved in the regulation of genes that confer antibiotic resistance. For example, the sRNA DsrA ... Bacterial sRNAs affect how genes are expressed within bacterial cells via interaction with mRNA or protein, and thus can affect ...
Drug resistance Pesticide resistance Périchon, B. "Cross Resistance". ScienceDirect. Encyclopedia of Microbiology. Retrieved 26 ... But resistance to antibiotics can arise in multiple ways. It is not necessarily the result of exposure to an antimicrobial ... Experimental work has shown that exposure to Zinc can lead to increased levels of bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Several ... In another case it is defined as the resistance of a virus to a new drug as a result of previous exposure to another drug. Or ...
In many cases, this leads to bacterial cell death. Streptogramin resistance is mediated through enzymatic drug inactivation, ... of requiring multiple points of mutation targeting both dalfopristin and quinupristin components to confer drug resistance. ... A stable drug-ribosome complex is created when the two drugs are used together. This complex inhibits protein synthesis through ... "Synercid (Quinupristin/Dalfopristin) I.V." Drug Approval Package. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Allington DR, Rivey MP ( ...
... a cyanobacterial indolinone that circumvents multiple drug resistance". Molecular Pharmacology. 49 (2): 288-94. PMID 8632761. ( ... 2003) observed inhibiting bacterial growth with up to 83% of the efficacy of TBT oxide. Current research also aims to produce ... Canizal G, Ascencio JA, Gardea-Torresday J, Yacamán MJ (2001). "Multiple Twinned Gold Nanorods Grown by Bio-reduction ... Simonin P, Jürgens UJ, Rohmer M (November 1996). "Bacterial triterpenoids of the hopane series from the prochlorophyte ...
... as well as ongoing mutations which confer multi-drug resistance in pathological microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses ( ... Eritoran, because of its structural similarity to the gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (lipid A) acts as TLR4 ... There were multiple factors that could be attributed to the failure of Eritoran against sepsis, which include poorly designed ... Drug Discovery. 13 (10): 741-58. doi:10.1038/nrd4368. PMID 25190187. S2CID 20904332. (CS1 German-language sources (de), Drugs ...
Some efflux systems are drug-specific, whereas others may accommodate multiple drugs with small multidrug resistance (SMR) ... This active efflux mechanism is responsible for various types of resistance to bacterial pathogens within bacterial species - ... multiple drug resistance proteins (MDRs)- also referred as P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs), ... "AcrAB efflux pump plays a major role in the antibiotic resistance phenotype of Escherichia coli multiple-antibiotic-resistance ...
... an increasing problem with serious Multiple Drug Resistant bacterial infections has led to some use of antibiotic combinations ... Single step high level resistance to the rifamycins occurs as the result of a single amino acid change in the bacterial DNA ... Infobox drug articles with non-default infobox title, Multiple chemicals in Infobox drug, Chemicals using indexlabels, Articles ... The drug is widely regarded as having helped conquer the issue of drug-resistant tuberculosis in the 1960s. Rifamycins have ...
Multiple chemicals in Infobox drug, Chemicals using indexlabels, Chemical articles with multiple CAS registry numbers, ... The first known colistin-resistance gene in a plasmid which can be transferred between bacterial strains is mcr-1. It was found ... "Emergence of Pan drug resistance amongst gram negative bacteria! The First case series from India". December 2014. "New worry: ... Multiple other cases were reported from other Indian hospitals. Although resistance to polymyxins is generally less than 10%, ...
Antimicrobial drug resistance rates for Mycoplasma pneumoniae were determined in clinical specimens and isolates obtained ... which renders multiple antibiotics directed at the bacterial cell wall ineffective in treating infections. M. pneumoniae ... Of 91 M. pneumoniae drug-resistant specimens, 11 (12.1%) carried nucleotide mutations associated with macrolide resistance in ... Only 12 - 29% of energy metabolism is directed at cell growth, which is unusually low for bacterial cells, and is thought to be ...
Bacterial drug resistance has become an increasingly major health problem. One of the mechanisms for drug resistance is ... family is responsible for multiple drug resistance (MDR) against a variety of structurally unrelated drugs. ABCB1 or MDR1 P- ... The substrates that reverse the resistance to anticancer drugs are called chemosensitizers. Drug resistance is a common ... ABC transporters are also involved in multiple drug resistance, and this is how some of them were first identified. When the ...
With the increase in cases of drug resistance to conventional medications, the development of new alternative drugs such as ... The ability for polypeptide antibiotics to inhibit bacterial cell wall growth and thus bacterial replication, is a main factor ... Despite multiple research articles on polypeptide antibiotics, the understanding of their exact mechanism of action and the ... Polypeptide antibiotic resistance eliminates the drug's effectiveness, thus allowing the bacteria to survive, replicate and ...
Isolates of P. penneri have been found to be multiple drug-resistant (MDR) with resistance to six to eight drugs. β-lactamase ... Swarming motility is the coordinated translocation of a bacterial population driven by flagellar rotation in film or on fluid ... Most isolated P. penneri strains are multiple-drug resistant, with 12 being the highest drug-resistance number reported. P. ... Most isolates of P. penneri from the experiment were found to be multiple drug-resistant including resistance to amoxy- ...
... drug resistance, multiple MeSH G12.392.300.500 - drug resistance, multiple, bacterial MeSH G12.392.300.625 - drug resistance, ... drug resistance, fungal MeSH G12.392.269.383.500 - drug resistance, multiple, fungal MeSH G12.392.269.420 - drug resistance, ... herb-drug interactions MeSH G12.392.269 - drug resistance, microbial MeSH G12.392.269.347 - drug resistance, bacterial MeSH ... multiple, fungal MeSH G12.392.300.750 - drug resistance, multiple, viral MeSH G12.392.395 - drug resistance, neoplasm MeSH ...
818 million to develop CRISPR-Cas3 drugs targeting two bacterial pathogens. Locus received $20 million upfront and up to $798 ... Many organisms contain multiple CRISPR-Cas systems suggesting that they are compatible and may share components. The company ... Martz, Lauren (August 31, 2017). "Cutting through resistance". Biocentury. Retrieved July 18, 2020. Maurer, Allan (November 19 ... Class 1 systems use a complex of multiple Cas proteins to degrade foreign nucleic acids. Class 2 systems use a single large Cas ...
Indian politicians have described linking this new drug resistance gene to India as "malicious propaganda" and blamed ... The carbapenems were developed to overcome antibiotic resistance mediated by bacterial beta-lactamase enzymes. However, the ... The authors warned that international travel and patients' use of multiple countries' healthcare systems could lead to the " ... Bacterial enzymes, Bacteriology, Beta-lactam antibiotics, EC 3.5.2, Antimicrobial resistance). ...
These PEGylated drugs are injected once weekly, rather than administering two or three times per week, as is necessary for ... Overall, IFN-α can be used to treat hepatitis B and C infections, while IFN-β can be used to treat multiple sclerosis. ... The H5N1 influenza virus, also known as bird flu, has resistance to interferon and other anti-viral cytokines that is ... Binding of molecules uniquely found in microbes-viral glycoproteins, viral RNA, bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide), ...
Hydrogen fluoride subsequently acidifies the bacterial cytoplasm, inactivating the essential enzymes for bacterial metabolism, ... While multiple clinical trials demonstrate that 38% SDF is more effective than 5% sodium fluoride varnish in preventing ECC, it ... Dental fluorosis is a dose-dependent adverse drug effect featured by temporary white marks. It can be induced by increased ... Topical fluoride can increase the resistance of enamel to acid. Bacteria in enamel, including Streptococcus mutans, generate ...
Chen HY, Shao CJ, Chen FR, Kwan AL, Chen ZP (April 2010). "Role of ERCC1 promoter hypermethylation in drug resistance to ... The presence of multiple methylated CpG sites in CpG islands of promoters causes stable silencing of genes. Silencing of a gene ... Estrem ST, Ross W, Gaal T, Chen ZW, Niu W, Ebright RH, Gourse RL (August 1999). "Bacterial promoter architecture: subsite ... Multiple enhancers, each often at tens or hundred of thousands of nucleotides distant from their target genes, loop to their ...
Multiple viral and host factors affect the pathogenesis of the virus. The S-protein, otherwise known as the spike protein, is ... Hydrogen peroxide is used to help eliminate bacterial spores in the alcohol; it is "not an active substance for hand antisepsis ... While work is underway to develop drugs that inhibit the virus, the primary treatment is symptomatic. Management involves the ... to recommendations for optimised disinfection procedures to avoid issues such as the increase of antimicrobial resistance ...
For cells with a longer cell cycle time and a significantly long G1 phase, there is a second peak of resistance late in G1. The ... The D period refers to the stage between the end of DNA replication and the splitting of the bacterial cell into two daughter ... forming single cells with multiple nuclei in a process called endoreplication. This occurs most notably among the fungi and ... are targeted in cancer therapy as the DNA is relatively exposed during cell division and hence susceptible to damage by drugs ...
Drug resistance is increasingly more common and presents a serious problem in persons who are immunocompromised. Prophylactic ... This is an uncommon form of chronic (more than one month in duration) candidal infection involving multiple areas in the mouth ... Peleg AY, Hogan DA, Mylonakis E (May 2010). "Medically important bacterial-fungal interactions". Nature Reviews. Microbiology. ... However, there is strong evidence that drugs that are absorbed or partially absorbed from the GI tract can prevent candidiasis ...
In support of this notion, Gemigliptin, an anti-diabetic drug, has been shown reduce insulin resistance and concurrently ... In mouse models of bacterial sepsis caused by of E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and ligation followed by puncture of the cecum, the ... This finding suggests that the LECT2 amyloidosis and its ethnic bias reflect multiple poorly understood factors. While the ... Blood levels of LECT2 in patients suffering bacterial sepsis correlated inversely with the severity of systemic inflammation ...
Bacterial colonization: Poor oral hygiene can result in colonization of the mouth with excessive amounts of bacteria, which is ... Owing to multiple factors, such as frailty, impaired efficacy of swallowing, decreased cough reflex and neurological ... Others: Age, male gender, diabetes mellitus, malnutrition, use of antipsychotic drugs, proton pump inhibitors, and angiotensin- ... or meropenem is recommended in cases of potential antibiotic resistance. The typical duration of antibiotic therapy is about 5 ...
Infection and Drug Resistance. 8: 119-128. doi:10.2147/IDR.S66739. PMC 4440423. PMID 26028977. Tarulli AW, Raynor EM (May 2007 ... Multiple vaccines are available for the prevention of Lyme disease in dogs. Lyme disease can affect several body systems and ... Successful infection of the mammalian host depends on bacterial expression of OspC. Tick bites often go unnoticed because of ... Multiple vaccines are available for the prevention of Lyme disease in dogs. The vaccine LYMErix was available from 1998 to 2002 ...
... pesticides have the potential to be a major factor in drug resistance. Organizations such as the World Health ... parasites and some viruses to multiple existing agents. Antibacterials are among the most commonly used drugs and among the ... Bacterial spores on the other hand cannot be killed by iodine, but they can be inhibited by iodophors. The growth of ... Many antiviral drugs are designed to treat infections by retroviruses, including HIV. Important antiretroviral drugs include ...
Bacterial cellulose is produced using the same family of proteins, although the gene is called BcsA for "bacterial cellulose ... Electrical insulation paper: Cellulose is used in diverse forms as insulation in transformers, cables, and other electrical ... The multiple hydroxyl groups on the glucose from one chain form hydrogen bonds with oxygen atoms on the same or on a neighbor ... are used as inactive fillers in drug tablets and a wide range of soluble cellulose derivatives, E numbers E461 to E469, are ...
The bacterial G6PD found in Leuconostoc mesenteroides was shown to be reactive toward 4-Hydroxynonenal, in addition to G6P. ... Multiple sequence alignment of over 100 known G6PDs from different organisms reveal sequence identity ranging from 30% to 94%. ... Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency Genetic resistance to malaria Thomas D, Cherest H, Surdin-Kerjan Y (March 1991). " ... August 2019). "Targeting tumor phenotypic plasticity and metabolic remodeling in adaptive cross-drug tolerance". Science ...
New drugs are the products of a long drug development process, the first step of which is often the discovery of a new enzyme ... Multiple weak bonds between the inhibitor and the enzyme active site combine to produce strong and specific binding. In ... Buynak JD (September 2007). "Cutting and stitching: the cross-linking of peptidoglycan in the assembly of the bacterial cell ... Gualerzi CO, Brandi L, Fabbretti A, Pon CL (2013). Antibiotics: Targets, Mechanisms and Resistance. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons ...
... and epidemiology of bacterial resistance". Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. 65 (2): 232-60, second page, table of ... Due to the degeneracy of the genetic code, multiple tRNAs will have the same amino acid but different anticodons. These ... Tetracyclines are considered broad-spectrum antibiotic agents; these drugs exhibit capabilities of inhibiting the growth of ... Arenz, S; Nguyen, F; Beckmann, R; Wilson, DN (28 April 2015). "Cryo-EM structure of the tetracycline resistance protein TetM in ...
The Elks Hall gathering entered the jail without meeting resistance and took Wesley Everest, dragging him away to a waiting car ... In 1976, an outbreak of bacterial pneumonia occurred in a convention of the Legion at the Bellevue Stratford Hotel in ... which had been the target of multiple arrests, large trials, and various incidents of mob violence nationally during the months ... Everest was taken alive, kicked and beaten, and a belt wrapped around his neck as he was dragged back to the town to be lynched ...
... have become increasingly difficult to address as infection-causing bacteria have developed resistance to multiple drugs. The ... Phages release endolysins from inside bacterial host cells that cleave the peptidoglycan bonds of the bacterial cell wall. Once ... "Antibiotic resistance". www.who.int. Retrieved 2021-05-04. Yoshikawa TT (July 2002). "Antimicrobial resistance and aging: ... Because phages have coevolved with their bacterial hosts, the endolysin system is very efficient at degrading bacterial cell ...
One strain possessed low-level resistance (MuL: MIC = 8-256 mg/L), and another possessed high-level resistance (MuH: MIC > 256 ... "Drug Product Database Online Query". health-products.canada.ca. Retrieved 30 July 2019. AlHoufie, Sari Talal S.; Foster, Howard ... This may be an adaptation to increase the throughput rate or to bind multiple substrates simultaneously. Pseudomonic acid A is ... It works by blocking a bacteria's ability to make protein, which usually results in bacterial death. Mupirocin was initially ...
The immunosuppressant drug cyclosporine, used to suppress the rejection of transplanted organs, is derived from the mold ... Some sausages, such as salami, incorporate starter cultures of molds to improve flavor and reduce bacterial spoilage during ... Cross-walls (septa) may delimit connected compartments along the hyphae, each containing one or multiple, genetically identical ... providing resistance to damage by ultraviolet radiation. Other mold spores have slimy sheaths and are more suited to water ...
Drug eruption: These are potential side effects of taking certain drugs such as penicillin. The reddened maculopapular rash ... Previously, observed resistance rates had been 10-30%; the increase is likely the result of overuse of macrolide antibiotics in ... Around 1900 the mortality rate in multiple places reached 25%. The improvement in prognosis can be attributed to the use of ... Ellis, Ronald W.; Brodeur, Bernard R. (2012). New Bacterial Vaccines. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 158. ISBN ...
Drug discovery is the process by which potential drugs are discovered or designed. In the past, most drugs have been discovered ... Anderson, Rosaleen (2012). Antibacterial agents chemistry, mode of action, mechanisms of resistance, and clinical applications ... an agreement was reached for non-exclusive production of insulin by multiple companies. Prior to the discovery and widespread ... hypothesized that an arsenic-containing dye with similar selective absorption properties could be used to treat bacterial ...
The drag rope is used to draw the bucket assembly horizontally. By skillful maneuver of the hoist and the drag ropes the bucket ... As the object is deformed, the foil is deformed, causing its electrical resistance to change. The strain gauge was invented in ... 1919 Toaster (pop-up) The toaster is typically a small electric kitchen appliance designed to toast multiple types of bread ... 1941 Deodorant Deodorants are substances applied to the body to reduce body odor caused by the bacterial breakdown of ...
Famous examples include drug trials in Africa without informed consent, the Guatemala syphilis experiments, the Tuskegee ... Meade T (1989). "'Living worse and costing more': resistance and riot in Rio de Janeiro, 1890-1917". J Lat Am Stud. 21 (2): 241 ... As a more modest example, infections caused by Haemophilus influenzae (Hib), a major cause of bacterial meningitis and other ... Gregson AL, Edelman R (November 2003). "Does antigenic overload exist? The role of multiple immunizations in infants". ...
In 2013 CBE Director Phil Stewart and CBE Industrial Coordinator Paul Sturman worked to partner with the U.S. Food and Drug ... The standards are the first to apply specifically to bacterial biofilms. The standards are an outgrowth of research by CBE ... The center conducts research that includes multiple scales of observation, from molecular to industrial field-scale, with ... Stewart, Philip S.; Costerton, J.W. (July 14, 2001). "Antibiotic resistance of bacteria in biofilms". Lancet. 358 (9276): 135- ...
Findings found that the use of "fecal/sewage" as a description, and the use of multiple descriptors of the smell, and ' ... Schmidt AC, Leroux JC (2020). "Treatments of trimethylaminuria: where we are and where we might be heading". Drug Discov Today ... Urinary tract infection Bacterial vaginosis Cervical cancer Advanced liver or kidney disease A similar foul-smelling odor of ... although this is not recommended as a long term solution due to antibiotic resistance and other side effects. Using slightly ...
... and any resistance to drugs used to treat microbial infections or any hospital-acquired co-infection. Earlier and aggressive ... Deitch, Edwin A. (1 June 1989). "Simple Intestinal Obstruction Causes Bacterial Translocation in Man". Archives of Surgery. 124 ... "multiple organ failure" in several chapters and do not use "multiple organ dysfunction syndrome" at all. There are different ... At present, there is no drug or device that can reverse organ failure that has been judged by the health care team to be ...
US Food & Drug Administration (July 2019). "Timeline of FDA Action on Antimicrobial Resistance". Food and Drug Administration. ... Bacterial diseases are a leading cause of death and a future without effective antibiotics would fundamentally change the way ... Multiple studies have found that increases in meat consumption are currently associated with human population growth and rising ... through regulatory change enacted by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which sought voluntary compliance from drug ...
The real danger lies in the fact that the psyllid can carry a deadly, bacterial tree disease called Huanglongbing (HLB), also ... The latter is called the "grapefruit juice effect", a common name for a related group of grapefruit-drug interactions. Due to ... As each hybrid is the product of (at least) two parent species, they are listed multiple times. Citrus maxima-based Amanatsu, ... Hybrids with kumquats (× Citrofortunella) have good cold resistance. A citrus tree in a container may have to be repotted every ...
Browsing by Subject "Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U ... Changing trends in drug resistance among typhoid salmonellae in Rawalpindi, Pakistan  Butt, T.; Ahmad, R.N.; Salman, M.; Kazmi ...
DNA, Bacterial / genetics* * Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial * Genomic Islands * Genomics * High-Throughput Nucleotide ... antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs), phages, biocide and metal-tolerance genes confirm the high genetic variability of S. ...
Categories: Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
CDC supports projects focused on innovative research to fight antibiotic resistance. ... Introduction of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella species and bacterial reservoirs of transmissible antibiotic resistance ... to test the effects of certain antibiotic drugs and their dosage and duration on antibiotic resistance (AR). People with CF ... Researchers will identify and isolate Aspergillus fumigatus samples from agricultural sites in multiple U.S. regions to better ...
15 Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial * 14 Bacterial Proteins * 14 Cattle * 14 Escherichia coli ... Antibiotic resistance among verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) and non-VTEC isolated from domestic animals and humans. ... Correction: A role for Tn6029 in the evolution of the complex antibiotic resistance gene loci in genomic island 3 in ... Escherichia coli ST302: Genomic Analysis of Virulence Potential and Antimicrobial Resistance Mediated by Mobile Genetic ...
17). Resistance to most commonly available antibiotics was moderate to very high among Gram-positive and Gram-negative isolates ... Shehabi AA, Zubi J, Zabalawi G. Emergence of multiple drug resistance among salmonella species in Jordan. European journal of ... Trends in antibiotic utilization and bacterial resistance: report of the national nosocomial resistance surveillance group. ... Multiple bacterial isolates from a single patient with the same resistance patterns were considered as one isolate for studying ...
Filters: Keyword is Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial and Author is Nayak, Rajesh [Clear All Filters] ...
Multiple Drug Resistance. Clinical Resistance-Mic Values, Breakpoints, Phenotype and Outcome. Clinical Uses of Antimicrobial ... Phenotypic VanA resistance is the most common and confers high-level resistance to vancomycin and teicoplanin. VanA resistance ... Chapter: Pharmaceutical Microbiology : Bacterial Resistance To Antibiotics. Vancomycin and teicoplanin are the two ... But multiple resistance was accumulating and by the 1980s empirical therapy of staphylococcal infections, particularly ...
This underscores an urgent demand for regular surveillance to address this antimicrobial resistance problem. Surveillance to ... Multiple drug resistance and ESBL production in bacterial urine culture isolates. Amer J Biosci. 2014;2:5-12. ... have investigated the prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and they have seen multiple mechanisms of drug-resistance ... Trends in the frequency of multiple drug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and their susceptibility to ertapenem, imipenem, and ...
This use of polypharmacology has the potential advantage of overcoming or delaying the onset of bacterial drug resistance. ... this project seeks to find a single drug that inhibits multiple enzymes from multiple metabolic pathways in the pathogen. ... Whereas most traditional drug discovery projects seek to find a single small molecule drug that inhibits a single enzyme, ... Many faculty use the results of their research to engage stakeholders, such as industry (through drug discovery, for example) ...
Metagenomic sequencing of bacterial genomic DNA was used to characterize the resistome of microbial communities present in ... Antibiotic resistance and integrase genes in a year-long metagenomic study showed that ARGs were driven mainly by environmental ... Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and gene-capturing systems such as integron-associated integrase genes (intI) play a key ... Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and gene-capturing systems such as integron-associated integrase genes (intI) play a key ...
Multiple drug resistance (resistance to two or more drugs) was observed in 95 % of the isolates. Significant bacteriuria was ... and Gram negative bacteria was the predominant isolates and showed multi drug resistance. This study aimed to assess bacterial ... The overall prevalence of UTI in pregnant women was 10.4 %. The predominant bacterial pathogens were Escherichia coli 47.5 % ... Colony counts yielding bacterial growth of 105/ml of urine or more of pure isolates were regarded as significant bacteriuria ...
Bacterial keratitis has developed in patients who inadvertently contaminated the multiple-dose container of their ophthalmic ... Resistance to bacitracin or other anti-infectives in fixed-combination preparations (i.e., polymyxin B, neomycin) may develop. ... Subscribe to Drugs.com newsletters Subscribe to Drugs.com newsletters for the latest medication news, new drug approvals, ... Drugs.com Mobile Apps The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own ...
Minimal evidence of antimicrobial resistance and no strains with unusual or clinically significant multiple-drug resistance ... Enteric bacterial pathogen detection in southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) is associated with coastal urbanization and ... Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bacterial Isolates from Sea Otters: One Health American Association of Zoo Veterinarians ... 2010).5 Some aspects of sea otter biology may make them especially vulnerable to infection by bacterial contaminants in ...
The growing multiple drug resistance among bacteria in hospital practice is posing a serious threat to the successful ... Emerging bacterial drug resistance in hospital practice. Indian Journal of Medical Sciences. 1997 Aug; 51(8): 275-80. en_US. ... Our data on the bacterial drug resistance at a tertiary care centre during 1995-1996 has been alarming with an incidence of 73 ... The resistance to gentamicin and ciprofloxacin ranged from 53 to 79%. Resistance to amikacin, netilmicin and the third ...
Drug Resistance, Bacterial 3 * Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial 2 * Environmental Monitoring 2 ... Surveillance of invasive bacterial disease in Alaska, 2016 Cite CITE. Title : Surveillance of invasive bacterial disease in ... Surveillance of invasive bacterial disease in Alaska, 2017 Cite CITE. Title : Surveillance of invasive bacterial disease in ... Surveillance of invasive bacterial disease in Alaska, 2015 Cite CITE. Title : Surveillance of invasive bacterial disease in ...
Pang B, Du P, Zhou Z, Diao B, Cui Z, Zhou H, et al. The transmission and antibiotic resistance variation in a multiple drug ... Open-access bacterial population genomics: BIGSdb software, the PubMLST.org website and their applications. Wellcome Open Res. ... resistance clade of Vibrio cholerae circulating in multiple countries in Asia. PLoS One. 2016;11:. e0149742. . DOIPubMedGoogle ... It is one of the most common bacterial pathogens leading to outbreaks and illness in China (1). In Guangxi, China, V. ...
Bacterial Resistance To Antibiotics. Common diseases that were caused by bacteria and resulted in death before antibiotics ... This can be done in multiple ways such as changing their own surface membranes the use of sIgA proteases, an extra cellular ... This was the time where sulfa drugs were discovered , and thousand of other drugs were identified . We entered into the new ... "Bacteria have developed resistance to all different classes of antibiotics discovered to date" . This is a major problem as we ...
The respiratory pathogen, Streptococcus pneumoniae has acquired multiple-drug resistance over the years. An attractive strategy ... This work presents Vitamin K3 as a potential anti-pneumococcal drug that targets FtsZ, the master coordinator of bacterial cell ... Resistance to drugs and recurrence of the disease are two leading causes of failure in treatment. For a more efficient ... Combinatorial approaches for mitigating resistance to KRAS-targeted therapies Biochem. J. (IF 3.766) Pub Date : 2022-09-30 ...
... an estimated 25,000 deaths in Europe alone and one person dying every 15 minutes in the US because of drug-resistant bacterial ... Tackling antimicrobial resistance on multiple fronts. An urgent change of direction is needed in how we respond to AMR ... Vaccines to reduce bacterial infections are also urgently needed - although these are also not seen as lucrative enough to ... Some can distinguish a bacterial infection from a viral infection on the spot in formats that are as easy to use as a pregnancy ...
Anti-Bacterial Agents, Bacteremia, Child, Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial, Febrile Neutropenia, Gram-Negative Bacteria, ...
Drug Resistance, Multiple Liver Cirrhosis Bacterial Infections Intervention(s) Primary Outcome(s) ... Prediction of Multidrug-resistant Bacterial Infection in Patients With Cirrhosis Scientific title: Prediction of Multidrug- ... 6. use of immunosuppressive drugs other than corticosteroids for the treatment of severe acute alcoholic hepatitis; and 7. ... 3. who presented their first confirmed diagnosis of bacterial infection during the study period, either at admission or during ...
... Recommendations of the Hospital Infection Control Practices ... Outbreak of multi-drug resistant Enterococcus faecium with transferable vanB class vancomycin resistance. J Clin Microbiol 1994 ... Prevention of bacterial endocarditis. Circulation 1984;70:1123-4. * Maki DG, Bohn MJ, Stolz SM, Kroncke GM, Acher CW, Myerowitz ... After VRE have become endemic on a ward or have spread to multiple wards or to the community, eradication becomes difficult and ...
that antibacterial drugs including Ciprofloxacin Tablets USP, 250 mg, 500 mg and 750 mg should only be used to treat bacterial ... In vitro resistance to ciprofloxacin develops slowly by multiple step mutations.. Ciprofloxacin is slightly less active when ... As with other drugs, some strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa may develop resistance fairly rapidly during treatment with ... Drug-drug Interactions:. When Ciprofloxacin Tablets USP, 250 mg, 500 mg and 750 mg is given concomitantly with food, there is a ...
Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial - Preferred Concept UI. M0368437. Scope note. The ability of bacteria to resist or to ... Multiple Antibacterial Drug Resistance. Tree number(s):. G06.099.225.812. G06.225.347.812. G07.690.773.984.269.347.812. G07.690 ... Drug Resistance, Multiple * Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial [G07.690.773.984.300.500] Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial ... Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial [G07.690.773.984.269.347.812] Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial ...
Anti-Bacterial Agents, Anti-Infective Agents, Drug Resistance, Bacterial, Drug Resistance, Multiple, Endemic Diseases, ... Escherichia coli, Fluoroquinolones, Genome, Bacterial, Humans, Salmonella typhi, Typhoid Fever, Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines ...
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Bacteria , Urinary Tract Infections , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Anti-Bacterial Agents ... Single and multiple antimicrobial resistances were observed in 6.8 and 93.2 of the isolates; respectively. No bacterial ... The overall prevalence of multiple drug resistance was 159/171 (93%): gram-positive 117/120 (97.5%) and gram-negative 42/51 (82 ... Background: Today, bacterial resistance is a public health challenge throughout the world, and infections caused by resistant ...
  • ICAP at Columbia University is being funded to develop a network of four hospitals in Kenya to improve their ability to detect bacterial infections, determine antibiotic resistance in the infections, assess antibiotic use and the prevalence of healthcare-acquired infections, and develop an antibiotic stewardship collaborative to improve the use of antimicrobials at the hospitals. (cdc.gov)
  • Des infections microbiennes ont été observées chez 30% (155/519) de l'ensemble des malades admis au service de soins intensifs pour adultes de l'Hôpital universitaire de Jordanie à Amman en 1993. (who.int)
  • But multiple resistance was accumulating and by the 1980s empirical therapy of staphylococcal infections, particularly nosocomial sepsis, was changed to the glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin. (pharmacy180.com)
  • Antibiotics are an important therapeutic tool for management of bacterial infections in stranded sea otters and for prevention of infection following invasive procedures in free-ranging otters. (vin.com)
  • 1 Results of this study point to potential sources of zoonotic infections in near shore waters heavily used for recreation and should help optimize selection of appropriate antibiotics for treatment of bacterial infections of sea otters, other marine species and humans in contact with them. (vin.com)
  • Penicillin antibiotics were among the first drugs to be effective against many previously serious diseases, such as syphilis and infections caused by staphylococci and streptococci. (123helpme.com)
  • With an estimated 25,000 deaths in Europe alone and one person dying every 15 minutes in the US because of drug-resistant bacterial infections, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is undoubtedly one of the greatest public health challenges of our time. (pmlive.com)
  • Vaccines to reduce bacterial infections are also urgently needed - although these are also not seen as lucrative enough to attract investment. (pmlive.com)
  • The good news is that advanced technical work is ongoing around the world to develop new technology and adapt existing tools so that they can diagnose bacterial infections. (pmlive.com)
  • This increase poses important problems, including a) the lack of available antimicrobial therapy for VRE infections, because most VRE are also resistant to drugs previously used to treat such infections (e.g., aminoglycosides and ampicillin), and b) the possibility that the vancomycin-resistant genes present in VRE can be transferred to other gram-positive microorganisms (e.g. (cdc.gov)
  • Vancomycin resistance in enterococci has coincided with the increasing incidence of high-level enterococcal resistance to penicillin and aminoglycosides, thus presenting a challenge for physicians who treat patients who have infections caused by these microorganisms (1,4). (cdc.gov)
  • To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Ciprofloxacin Tablets USP, 250 mg, 500 mg and 750 mg and other antibacterial drugs Ciprofloxacin Tablets USP, 250 mg, 500 mg and 750 mg should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • It's a problem now because over the last several decades there has been a real drought in the drug development pipeline with regards to new products to treat bacterial infections. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
  • Therefore, the pharmaceutical industry has more financial incentive to produce medication that people need to take for a long time, even the rest of their lives, as opposed to a short amount of time, as is the case for bacterial infections. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
  • Infections, including multi-drug resistant pathogens, are passed between patients in hospitals when there is not adequate infection and hygiene control. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
  • We must improve our ability to diagnose these infections in resource-limited settings, and also to document and monitor the types and rates of resistance through surveillance. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
  • Using whole exome sequencing and bacterial pathogen sequencing to investigate the genetic basis of pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections. (pacb.com)
  • The most alarming issue in the modern is the hardship encountered in treatment of infections caused by bacteria due to resistance of bacteria to antibiotics. (exclusivepapers.com)
  • Resistance to antimicrobials has provided continuing challenges in the treatment of infections since the first agents were used more than 70 years ago. (bpac.org.nz)
  • We may well be entering an age where, once again, it is not possible to successfully treat a range of infections caused by common bacterial pathogens. (bpac.org.nz)
  • In the past, antimicrobial resistance was largely limited to infections acquired in hospitals, but in recent years it has increasingly become a problem with infections acquired in the community, leading to the emergence of multiple drug resistant organisms. (bpac.org.nz)
  • One example is sequential treatment, whereby bacterial infections are treated by alternating the use of different antibiotics. (googleapis.com)
  • These consortiums can colonize a variety of surfaces, such as host tissues, dentures, and catheters, resulting in infections highly resistant to drugs, when compared with their planktonic counterparts. (mdpi.com)
  • Development of resistance to oseltamivir during treatment was more common among seasonal influenza A (H1N1) virus infections (27%) compared with seasonal influenza A (H3N2) (3%) or B (0%) viruses in another study [123]. (cdc.gov)
  • Therefore, since it is a global public health problem involving several sectors, it also requires a global solution in the context of the One Health approach to achieve adequate control through the prevention, reduction, and mitigation of drug-resistant infections. (who.int)
  • The story of drug resistance in TB is paralleled in many other bacteria over use and improper use of antibiotics stimulates drug resistance, which makes treatment of bacterial infections more difficult. (cdc.gov)
  • As resistance increases, the cost of treatment and management of human and animal infections is forecast by the World Health Organisation to skyrocket. (theconversation.com)
  • When this happens in bacterial infections, this is called antibiotic resistance. (theconversation.com)
  • They're the third most frequently occurring human infection (after respiratory and gastrointestinal infections) and the most common bacterial infection resulting in hospital admission . (theconversation.com)
  • For the better part of a century, antibiotics have given doctors great powers to cure all sorts of bacterial infections. (discovermagazine.com)
  • The emergence of drug resistance significantly hampers the treatment of human infections, including those caused by fungal pathogens such as Candida species. (microbialcell.com)
  • They are used in veterinary medicine to treat infections caused by a variety of bacterial pathogens, including the intestinal spirochetes Brachyspira spp. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Two million people acquire serious drug-resistant bacterial infections per year, with 23,000 deaths in the U.S., alone, according to Miller. (drugdiscoverynews.com)
  • The efficacy of current treatment methods for influenza virus infections is reduced due to increased drug resistance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We used differential abundance analysis, pathway analysis, clustering and classification techniques to explore whether the host response in KD is more similar to the response to bacterial or viral infection at the transcriptomic and proteomic levels through comparison of 'omic profiles from children with KD to those with bacterial and viral infections. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Unsupervised clustering showed that the majority of KD patients clustered with bacterial patients on both 'omic levels, whilst application of diagnostic signatures specific for bacterial and viral infections revealed that many transcriptomic KD samples had low probabilities of having bacterial or viral infections, suggesting that KD may be triggered by a different process not typical of either common bacterial or viral infections. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • This strategy of taking out persister cells may be promising for treating recalcitrant infections and holding the line against drug-resistant bacteria. (ask-bioexpert.com)
  • In the 1980s, some of the worst scourges of humanity seemed to have been vanquished: patients suffering from tuberculosis, diphtheria, urinary tract diseases or meningitis, cholera, syphilis, typhoid - all of them bacterial infections - could be helped with antibiotics. (emdgroup.com)
  • Every year sees the use of more than 90 billion packs of drugs for the treatment of infections. (emdgroup.com)
  • Patients who are at a higher risk from drug-resistant pathogens are also more vulnerable to illness from viral lung infections, such as influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome and coronavirus disease 2019. (nature.com)
  • By matching specific antibiotics to the bacteria that cause the infections, healthcare providers can fight antimicrobial resistance by reducing the number and strength of antibiotics patients take. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Many avenues are being examined, including finding new antibiotics that expose weaknesses in the bacterial life cycle, looking at ways to boost the immune system to fight bacterial infections, creating bacterial communities that drown out the effects of the infectious bacteria, using special viruses that target and kill infectious bacteria, and improving diagnostic tests to better target bacteria with the most appropriate antibiotics. (medlineplus.gov)
  • For decades this group of bugs has been the most common cause of infections contracted in hospitals, and it has developed resistance to multiple antibiotics. (economist.com)
  • Like cancer patients, transplant patients are easy prey for infections because their immunity is suppressed by the drugs that prevent organ rejection. (economist.com)
  • The increasing prevalence of nosocomial infections produced by multidrug-resistant (MDR) or extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa is frequently linked to widespread international strains designated high-risk clones. (repositoriosaludmadrid.es)
  • In this work, we attempted to decipher the interplay between resistance profiles, high-risk clones, and virulence, testing a large (n = 140) collection of well-characterized P. aeruginosa isolates from different sources (bloodstream infections, nosocomial outbreaks, cystic fibrosis, and the environment) in a Caenorhabditis elegans infection model. (repositoriosaludmadrid.es)
  • Reemergence may occur because of the development of antimicrobial resistance in existing infections (e.g., gonorrhea, malaria, pneumococcal disease) or breakdowns in public health measures for previously controlled infections (e.g., cholera, tuberculosis [TB], pertussis). (cdc.gov)
  • Often neglected is the fact that bacterial infections can involve high-density bacterial communities as well as bacteria growing in adaptively resistance biofilms. (pletzerlab.com)
  • The 3 stages of Pseudomonas infections are (1) bacterial attachment and colonization, (2) local infection, and (3) bloodstream dissemination and systemic disease. (medscape.com)
  • Rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) are increasing, as are rates of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and possible extensively drug-resistant (XDR) infections. (who.int)
  • P seudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic P. aeruginosa infections are often resistant to pathogen that often causes nosocomial infections treatment, 4 and carbapenem use has been strongly as- (e.g. pneumonia, bacteraemia and urinary sociated with resistance. (who.int)
  • were the reported increasing rates of resistance to antibiotics used second most common pathogen isolated from device- to treat P. aeruginosa infections, such as carbapenems associated HA infections in a study of intensive care and extended-spectrum cephalosporins ( Fig. 1A-B ). In units in Philippine hospitals. (who.int)
  • These widespread bacterial infections, which may result in painful urination, have been simply handled and cured with antibiotics for many years. (libgen.tw)
  • Tetracyclines remain especially useful in the management of infections by certain obligately intracellular bacterial pathogens such as Chlamydia , Mycoplasma , and Rickettsia . (mdwiki.org)
  • It is also one of a group of antibiotics which together may be used to treat peptic ulcers caused by bacterial infections. (mdwiki.org)
  • This prolonged risk may be due to inadequately treated or new bacterial infections, a prolonged state of inflammation as a result of the infection and its associated treatment, or immune-deficiencies that arise after an illness. (washington.edu)
  • Specific bacterial and parasitic enteric infections contribute a disproportionate burden to diarrheal disease, malnutrition, and poor academic performance. (washington.edu)
  • 17). Resistance to most commonly available antibiotics was moderate to very high among Gram-positive and Gram-negative isolates. (who.int)
  • While reports of 'superbugs' resistant to all known antibiotics abound, it is important to distinguish between reduced susceptibility and resistance, recognizing that there are conflicting definitions of resistance and resistance breakpoints. (pharmacy180.com)
  • In the current study, susceptibility to commonly used antibiotics was determined for 126 isolates of 15 bacterial species or groups, from necropsied, live-stranded, and apparently healthy wild sea otters examined between 1998 and 2005. (vin.com)
  • Our data on the bacterial drug resistance at a tertiary care centre during 1995-1996 has been alarming with an incidence of 73 to 99% resistance to the common antibiotics like ampicillin, chloramphenicol, cotrimoxazole and first generation cephalosporins among the gram negative isolates. (who.int)
  • The frightening observation was the emergence of resistant isolates which were sensitive only to two drugs, sensitive only to one drug and resistant to all the available antibiotics (2.64, 17.6 and 11.5% respectively) during 1994 to 1996. (who.int)
  • They've often had multiple surgeries and have received courses of various antibiotics before coming to us. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
  • But if he develops resistance to Colistin and he has a recurrence of the infection, there is a very real possibility that no antibiotics would be left to treat him. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
  • Bacteria become exposed to these types of antibiotics, and are more likely to develop resistance to them. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
  • This paper examines the consequences of bacterial resistance.The fight against upcoming contagious diseases has been of much concern due to the rise of antibiotics which hinder the fight against diseases caused by organism such as bacteria. (exclusivepapers.com)
  • The most alarming thing in this case, is since most of the microbes that cause diseases have adopted some mechanism in order to resist antibiotics drugs. (exclusivepapers.com)
  • misuse of drugs, unnecessary usage of existing antibiotics and the continuous use of drugs. (exclusivepapers.com)
  • This is doubly important given the rate at which bacteria adapt, as they will likely develop resistance to new antibiotics. (googleapis.com)
  • Ayari Fuentes-Hernandez, Jessica Plucain, Fabio Gori, Robert Beardmore, and colleagues demonstrate that two antibiotics known to act synergistically can be used in a specially designed sequential treatment to kill bacteria at dosages that, when the drugs are administered alone or in combination, cause rapid development of drug resistance and sustained bacterial growth. (googleapis.com)
  • Multiple antibiotics are needed to adequately treat tuberculosis. (cdc.gov)
  • Choose a bacterium that has become resistant to multiple antibiotics. (cutpriceessay.com)
  • How do antibiotics reduce bacterial biodiversity? (cutpriceessay.com)
  • The antibiotic resistance crisis is a result of antibiotics overuse and the shortage of initiatives by the pharma industry due to the strict regulatory requirements and economic constraints. (geneonline.com)
  • As opposed to therapeutic drugs, antibiotics are cheaper and yield tiny margins for manufacturers. (geneonline.com)
  • Bacterial genomes have incredible plasticity that allows them to react to xenobiotics, including antibiotics. (geneonline.com)
  • When a bacterial population is exposed to antibiotics, the survivors pass on the acquired resistant mutations to future generations. (geneonline.com)
  • Further, a few have also developed mechanisms to modify drug targets and bypass the effect of antibiotics. (geneonline.com)
  • These multiple drug resistant (MDR) bacteria can inhibit various categories of antibiotics by rapid mutations, pumping out the drug through efflux pumps, modifying the drug targets, and other mechanisms at tandem making it a huge risk factor to public health and safety [9]. (geneonline.com)
  • Single and dual mutations at positions 2058, 2503 and 2504 of 23S rRNA and their relationship to resistance to antibiotics that target the large ribosomal subunit. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 23S rRNA mutations A2058G, A2503U and U2504G play key roles in resistance to clinically useful antibiotics that target the large ribosomal subunit. (semanticscholar.org)
  • STEVENAGE, U.K.-Aimed at meeting the urgent need for new antibiotics to fight a worldwide healthcare crisis of rising antimicrobial resistance (AMR), British private biotechnology company Auspherix Ltd. has developed a novel class of antibacterials from its organogold chemistry platform which show low propensity for the emergence of resistance. (drugdiscoverynews.com)
  • EPs are energized by a proton motive force and can pump a vast range of detergents, drugs, antibiotics and also β-lactams, which are impermeable to the cytoplasmic membrane. (microbiology.pl)
  • Antidepressant fluoxetine induces multiple antibiotics resistance in Escherichia coli via ROS-mediated mutagenesis. (edu.au)
  • The bacteria rely on the enzyme cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE) to counter the toxic effects of bactericidal antibiotics (drugs that kill bacteria rather than just slowing their growth). (ask-bioexpert.com)
  • CSE inhibitors also suppress bacterial tolerance to antibiotics, disrupting biofilm formation and reducing the number of persister bacteria that survive antibiotic treatment. (ask-bioexpert.com)
  • By tamping down hydrogen sulfide production, the inhibitors boosted the effects of antibiotics against microorganisms and suppressed bacterial tolerance. (ask-bioexpert.com)
  • Building on work implicating the reactive small-molecule hydrogen sulfide in bacterial defense against antibiotics, Shatalin et al. (ask-bioexpert.com)
  • Emergent resistance to all clinical antibiotics calls for the next generation of therapeutics. (ask-bioexpert.com)
  • More and more pharmaceutical companies withdrew from the cost-intensive development of antibiotics and left the playing field to manufacturers of generics, located primarily in India and China, where the majority of today's antibiotic drugs are produced. (emdgroup.com)
  • It is now a predominant pathogen in many hospitals as it has acquired resistance genes to virtually all antibiotics capable of treating Gram-negative bacteria, including the fluoroquinolones and the cephalosporins. (uea.ac.uk)
  • The worry is that other bacteria could join this resistance faster than we can develop solutions, or that bacteria become impervious to even more antibiotics, leading to essentially untreatable diseases. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Resistance is happening quickly because of overuse and misuse of antibiotics over a long period of time, such as not completing antibiotic courses as prescribed, and using antibiotics in agriculture to promote growth in animals. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Changing the bacterial cell surface, preventing antibiotics from attaching or getting in. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Using fewer antibiotics as a society can help prevent resistance, saving antibiotics for when they are most appropriate. (medlineplus.gov)
  • As early as the 1950s, when the first generation of antibiotics became widely available, it became evident that the more an antibiotic was used, the faster bacteria developed mutations that conferred resistance to it. (economist.com)
  • We are in era where bacteria have developed resistance to multiple antibiotics and pose one of the greatest threats to human health. (pletzerlab.com)
  • The protection of antimicrobials in these structured bacterial communities is termed 'adaptive resistance' and has been proposed to also play a major role in reducing therapeutic effectiveness of antibiotics. (pletzerlab.com)
  • We work on combining antibiotics with short amino acids and study whether individual drug uptake systems can be hijacked to enhance efficacy in pathogenic strains. (pletzerlab.com)
  • How do bacteria develop resistance to multiple antibiotics simultaneously? (pletzerlab.com)
  • We are interested in how bacterial pathogens can develop resistance to two antibiotics simultaneously. (pletzerlab.com)
  • In addition to causing serious and often life-threatening diseases, these organisms exhibit innate resistance to many antibiotics and can develop new resistance after exposure to antimicrobial agents. (medscape.com)
  • Point prevalence studies (PPSs) serve as audit fact, the proper use of antibiotics leads to enhancing drug markers and practical surveillance tools to monitor and patient safety, reducing drug consumption and cost antibiotic prescribing patterns over time ( 11 ). (who.int)
  • Concordance between phenotypic and genotypic resistance was 93.27% overall for six antibiotics in three classes, but varied among aminoglycosides. (who.int)
  • In addition to the effects of systemic antibiotic therapy based on the isolated use of a certain drug, the use of associations of antibiotics has also shown promising clinical and microbiological results 3,5,8,17 . (bvsalud.org)
  • However, acquired (as opposed to inherent) resistance has proliferated in many pathogenic organisms and greatly eroded the formerly vast versatility of this group of antibiotics. (mdwiki.org)
  • The USA is also putting efforts into limiting AGPs and the use of antibiotics in pig farms, as published in guidance revised by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA, 2019). (ew-nutrition.com)
  • The major argument against AGPs and antibiotics in general is the already mentioned risk of the development of antimicrobial resistance , limiting the available tools to control and prevent diseases in human health. (ew-nutrition.com)
  • A. baumannii strains are also known to harbor multiple resistance against different types of antibiotics. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Antimicrobial drug resistance in bacterial pathogens is of national and international concern (1,2). (cdc.gov)
  • These isolates included both gram-positive and gram-negative strains of known pathogens, opportunistic pathogens, and environmental flora, including bacterial species with proven zoonotic potential. (vin.com)
  • An increasing body of evidence suggest that recovery of sea otter populations in California may be dependent on mitigating a number of types and sources of pollution, including bacterial pathogens, and that they provide an excellent example of how the "One Health" concept may help bring about positive changes. (vin.com)
  • It is one of the most common bacterial pathogens leading to outbreaks and illness in China ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • This study aimed to determine the risk factors and in vitro antibiotic susceptibility patterns of bacterial pathogens associated with neonatal sepsis in Federal Medical Centre (FMC) and Turai Umaru Yar'adua Maternal and Children Hospital (TUYMCH), Katsina, Nigeria. (bvsalud.org)
  • What's more, DARPA wants siRNAs 'whose sequence and objective can be reprogrammed 'on-the-fly' to inhibit multiple targets within multiple classes of pathogens,' meaning they can be easily tweaked and tailored in the lab to combat a new bacteria or virus, be it a naturally emerging disease or a carefully designed bioweapon. (discovermagazine.com)
  • We identified cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) as the primary generator of H2S in two major human pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and discovered small molecules that inhibit bacterial CSE. (ask-bioexpert.com)
  • Within 48 days, we identified, synthesized and experimentally tested 20 candidate antimicrobial peptides, of which two displayed high potency against diverse Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens (including multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae ) and a low propensity to induce drug resistance in Escherichia coli . (nature.com)
  • Value sets that are included in multiple MMGs may contain valid values for multiple scenarios and conditions (e.g., vaccine types, reasons not vaccinated per ACIP recommendations), allowing for harmonization of the value sets across MMGs/pathogens. (cdc.gov)
  • Although the magnitude of the antimicrobial resistance problem differs by country and geographical region, South-Asia is considered to be a major region for multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and gene-capturing systems such as integron-associated integrase genes ( intI ) play a key role in alterations of microbial communities and the spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria into the environment. (frontiersin.org)
  • Recent report in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia indicated the prevalence of UTI in pregnant women was 11.6 % and Gram negative bacteria was the predominant isolates and showed multi drug resistance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although manufacturers state that use of fixed-combination ophthalmic preparations containing anti-infectives and a corticosteroid may be indicated in ocular inflammatory conditions when risk of superficial ocular infection is high or when potentially dangerous numbers of bacteria are expected to be present in the eye, experts state avoid use of such preparations in patients with bacterial conjunctivitis because of risk of potentiating the infection. (drugs.com)
  • 3,7 Potentially pathogenic enteric bacteria appear to be more prevalent along urbanized coastlines and near river mouths, suggesting that land-sea pathogen spread may be an important component of exposure to some bacterial species (Miller et al . (vin.com)
  • The growing multiple drug resistance among bacteria in hospital practice is posing a serious threat to the successful antimicrobial therapy. (who.int)
  • Resistance among the gram positive bacteria was much less but the increase in methicillin resistant Staphylococci (52-65%) was a serious matter. (who.int)
  • These phages also evolve fast like the bacteria, so if bacteria grow resistance, so will the phages too. (123helpme.com)
  • The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. (bvsalud.org)
  • After surgery, we had some of the tissue from his leg sampled and sent to the lab and we found that he had grown a multi-drug resistant bacteria and it proved to be very, very difficult to treat. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
  • The drugs which are used for treatment of diseases have been encountered by resistant from the bacteria causing those diseases. (exclusivepapers.com)
  • Some bacteria which are documented as having resistance to drugs include staphylococci. (exclusivepapers.com)
  • To help mimic more challenging clinical scenarios, the bacteria used in the in vitro model of infection contained a gene that encodes a multidrug efflux pump, the genomic amplification of which results in increased drug resistance to both drugs. (googleapis.com)
  • Antimicrobial resistance occurs when bacteria and other microbes (viruses, fungi and parasites) become resistant to the medicines used to kill them. (theconversation.com)
  • But due to bacteria's nasty habit of evolving, along with widespread overuse of these drugs, disease-causing bacteria are evolving antibiotic resistance at an alarming rate, making it much harder, and at times impossible, to wipe them out. (discovermagazine.com)
  • The agency issued a call for proposals to develop a system of bacteria-beating drugs based on siRNAs , tiny scraps of genetic material that turn genes on and off. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Rapid detection of these patient-specific resistance patterns is therefore crucial for targeted treatment and successful control of the transmission of antibiotic-resistant tuberculosis bacteria-a goal that DZIF scientists have now taken a major step towards. (newzs.de)
  • How is natural selection involved in the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria? (cutpriceessay.com)
  • Unfortunately, the gradual increase in resistance among various bacteria are now threatening successful outcomes and jeopardizing the lives of critically ill patients. (geneonline.com)
  • Years of evolution have given bacteria the ability to acquire antimicrobial resistance by two primary means, spontaneous mutations, and horizontal gene transfer. (geneonline.com)
  • While Gram-negative bacteria produce β-lactamase, gram-positive bacteria resort to drug target modifications to achieve penicillin resistance [7]. (geneonline.com)
  • With centuries of evolution, certain bacteria have developed resistance to multiple classes of antimicrobials [8]. (geneonline.com)
  • EPs play a significant role in intrinsic and acquired bacterial resistance, mainly in Gram-negative bacteria. (microbiology.pl)
  • CSE inhibitors also suppress bacterial tolerance, disrupting biofilm formation and substantially reducing the number of persister bacteria that survive antibiotic treatment. (ask-bioexpert.com)
  • Many different varieties of bacteria have developed antimicrobial resistance, but some are more worrying than others. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This sexually transmitted disease can share its resistance genes between bacteria, increasing the speed of resistance. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These are just some of the leading bacteria in the resistance. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Bacteria multiply so fast, that even if we had the perfect antibiotic, resistance would still occur. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The host response to H pylori and its bacterial products is composed of T and B lymphocytes, denoting chronic gastritis, followed by infiltration of the lamina propria and gastric epithelium by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) that eventually phagocytize the bacteria. (medscape.com)
  • A cross-sectional study on the diversity and drug susceptibility pattern of bacteria isolated from inanimate objects and patient-care equipments of three wards of Arba Minch hospital were done. (researchsquare.com)
  • Because the binding sites for these antibacterial drugs overlap, cross-resistance is sometimes observed among lincosamides, macrolides and streptogramin B. Macrolide-inducible resistance to clindamycin occurs in some isolates of macrolide-resistant bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • 1 At least 80% of abscesses contain multiple bacteria types, which are typically a mixture of aerobic and anaerobic flora. (turkishjcrd.com)
  • Acinetobacter baumannii strains with multiple antimicrobial resistance are primarily known as opportunistic nosocomial bacteria but they may also be regarded as emerging bacterial contaminants of food samples of animal origin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Multiple bacterial isolates from a single patient with the same resistance patterns were considered as one isolate for studying minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using Micro Scan, Type TN dried panel (Baxter Health Care Corporation, West Sacramento, California, USA). (who.int)
  • VanB resistance is also acquired and the peptidoglycan precursor is again D-Ala-D-Lac, but isolates often remain susceptible to teicoplanin. (pharmacy180.com)
  • aureus on the skin of mice has been reported, but other mechanisms resulting in intermediate-level resistance occur in clinical isolates. (pharmacy180.com)
  • Colony counts yielding bacterial growth of 10 5 /ml of urine or more of pure isolates were regarded as significant bacteriuria for infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Multiple drug resistance (resistance to two or more drugs) was observed in 95 % of the isolates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A variety of data were gathered to inform these estimates, including multiple cause of death data, hospital discharges, minimally invasive tissue sampling, systematic literature reviews, and microbiology lab results from hospitals and national and multi-national surveillance systems, with a total of 471 million individual records or isolates and 7,585 study-location-years collected. (healthdata.org)
  • In vitro activity studies examining collections of geographically, temporally and genetically diverse gonococcal isolates, including multidrug-resistant strains particularly with resistance to ceftriaxone and azithromycin, are important. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To determine the frequency of polymorphisms and genome rearrangements as the possible genetic basis of C. glabrata drug resistance, we assessed genomic variation across 94 globally distributed isolates with distinct resistance phenotypes, whose sequence is deposited in GenBank. (microbialcell.com)
  • More than half of the azole or echinocandin resistant isolates do not possess exclusive polymorphisms in PDR1 or FKS1/2 , respectively, providing evidence of alternative genetic basis of antifungal resistance. (microbialcell.com)
  • Overall, our analysis of the genomic and phenotypic variation across isolates allowed to pinpoint, in a genome-wide scale, genetic changes enriched specifically in antifungal resistant strains, which provides a first step to identify additional determinants of antifungal resistance. (microbialcell.com)
  • On the other hand, the second most common etiological agent of systemic candidiasis - Candida glabrata - rapidly acquires resistance during antifungal therapy with azole antifungals and the emergence of clinical isolates resistant to the more recent echinocandin antifungals is on the rise [1] [2] . (microbialcell.com)
  • Validating the NCBI AMRFinder Tool and Resistance Gene Database Using Antimicrobial Resistance Genotype-Phenotype Correlations in a Collection of NARMS Isolates. (cdc.gov)
  • isolates, but as multiple mutations were isolated together, the roles of the individual mutations are unclear. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Totally, 109 bacterial isolates were identified. (researchsquare.com)
  • The bacterial isolates were identified as Staphylococcus aureus, Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS), Acinetobacter sp. (researchsquare.com)
  • Regarding the Gram-negative bacilli, isolates of Acinetobacter showed 100% resistance to ceftriaxone and ampicillin. (researchsquare.com)
  • Information on microbiological and susceptibility profiles of Monoglian bacterial isolates is scarce. (pitt.edu)
  • Resistance profiles, patient demographics and microbiological work-up of gram positive isolates were analyzed in order to develop infection control activities and policies at the National Center for Maternity and Children's Health (NCMCH) in Ulaanbataar, Mongolia. (pitt.edu)
  • Compared with published studies from neighboring nations, the rates of antimicrobial resistance among gram positive isolates at NCMCH, particularly with respect to S. aureus and S. pneumoniae, were much higher. (pitt.edu)
  • It is likely that patterns of microbial infection and antibiotic resistance in ICU patients differ widely from one hospital or country to another and are often facilitated by the increasing use of invasive techniques, immunosuppressive drugs and inappropriate antibiotic therapy [1,4-7]. (who.int)
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the incidence of microbial infection in association with antibiotic resistance among patients consecutively admitted to the adult ICU in the Jordan University Hospital in Amman over a one-year period. (who.int)
  • This study aimed to assess bacterial profile that causes urinary tract infection and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern among pregnant women visiting antenatal clinic at University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fixed-combination ophthalmic preparations containing bacitracin, neomycin, polymyxin B, and a corticosteroid (i.e., hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate) are used for topical treatment of corticosteroid-responsive ocular conditions when a corticosteroid is indicated and superficial bacterial ocular infection or risk of such infection exists. (drugs.com)
  • 2010). 5 Some aspects of sea otter biology may make them especially vulnerable to infection by bacterial contaminants in polluted runoff. (vin.com)
  • This report presents recommendations of the Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee for preventing and controlling the spread of vancomycin resistance, with a special focus on VRE. (cdc.gov)
  • Ideally, when we can, we try to use the narrowest spectrum of antibiotic that is going to be effective to treat that particular bacterial infection. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
  • Estimates were produced for two counterfactual scenarios: no infection and drug-susceptible infection. (healthdata.org)
  • It increases the resistance of a microorganism for antimicrobial agents and developed the human infection. (openmicrobiologyjournal.com)
  • Additional sporadic cases of oseltamivir-resistant 2009 H1N1 virus infection can be expected, and ongoing surveillance for oseltamivir resistance among influenza viruses is essential for public health since oseltamivir is the most widely used antiviral medication. (cdc.gov)
  • Sporadic cases of resistance to oseltamivir have been observed among persons with 2009 H1N1 virus infection (e.g., immunosuppressed patients with prolonged viral replication during oseltamivir treatment and persons who developed illness while receiving oseltamivir chemoprophylaxis) [114, 124]. (cdc.gov)
  • Rare cases of infection with 2009 H1N1 virus either resistant to or with reduced susceptibility to multiple neuraminidase inhibitors in severely immunosuppressed pediatric patients with prolonged viral replication have been reported [130, 131]. (cdc.gov)
  • But because resistance is a feature of an infection, rather than a single disease like COVID-19, it's traditionally been difficult to measure and track. (theconversation.com)
  • To do this, it first ensures that the plant offers little resistance to the infection. (newzs.de)
  • Drug-resistant Candida glabrata infection in cancer patients. (harvard.edu)
  • Influenza A virus infection due to drug resistance and side effects of the conventional antiviral drugs yet remains a serious public health threat for humans and animals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Host 'omic profiles offer insights into the host response to infection and inflammation, with the interrogation of multiple 'omic levels in parallel providing a more comprehensive picture. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Therefore, a stringent infection vigilance program comprising of routine sampling from the equipments and wards along with antimicrobial resistance surveillance and decontamination efforts must be instituted. (researchsquare.com)
  • Ms Jones is recovering from a severe bacterial infection that she contracted during her Caesarean section. (economist.com)
  • Repositorio consejería de sanidad de madrid: Interplay among Resistance Profiles, High-Risk Clones, and Virulence in the Caenorhabditis elegans Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection Model. (repositoriosaludmadrid.es)
  • Pseudomonal infection, as described by Pollack, occurs in 3 stages: (1) bacterial attachment and colonization, followed by (2) local invasion and (3) dissemination and systemic disease. (medscape.com)
  • Antimicrobiral Resistance and Infection Control. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • About half of women and multiple in 10 males will get a urinary tract infection (UTI) of their lifetime, with many individuals experiencing recurrent UTIs. (libgen.tw)
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin-resistant drug use to aggregate measures of bacterial resistance. (cdc.gov)
  • Copper Oxide Nanoparticles Induce Lysogenic Bacteriophage and Metal Resistance Genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. (edu.au)
  • In the new study, published in the journal Science (Vol. 372, Issue 6547, pp. 1169-1175), scientists investigated Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa that demonstrated resistance to multiple drugs. (ask-bioexpert.com)
  • To improve drug delivery strategies, we investigate drug/nutrient uptake mechanisms in Pseudomonas aeruginosa using various biological, genomic, and biochemical methods. (pletzerlab.com)
  • Antimicrobial resistance and population structure of Staphylococcus epidermidis recovered from animals and humans. (sciensano.be)
  • Sink your teeth into these 5 ways that sharks could benefit humans, potentially leading to new drug developments. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • Antimicrobial resistance surveillance in Escherichia coli by using normalized resistance interpretation. (sciensano.be)
  • A trend analysis of antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli from several livestock species in Belgium (2011-2014). (sciensano.be)
  • I. Vaporization of a mercury compound from mercuric chloride by multiple drug resistant strains of Escherichia coli. (wikidata.org)
  • Ehrlich is responsible for the method of screening for viable drugs to combat diseases that pharmaceutical companies use (Aminov 2010). (123helpme.com)
  • Doctors Without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) Infectious Diseases Advisor Rupa Kanapathipillai answers questions about how MSF sees the global threat of antibiotic resistance at its projects around the world. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
  • The health of the public has been widely affected by the upcoming microbes that cause diseases and which have grown resistant to antibiotic drug. (exclusivepapers.com)
  • By resisting these drugs it is hard to come up with drugs which can cure those diseases. (exclusivepapers.com)
  • It has been alarming in our modern hospitals when some drugs are declared resistant to the diseases they treat. (exclusivepapers.com)
  • There are cases were all the approved drugs can not be used on certain diseases caused by certain organisms. (exclusivepapers.com)
  • Viruses can also produce health problems by influencing the immune system to attack the body, resulting in auto-immune diseases such as diabetes, lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. (answersingenesis.org)
  • Drug-resistant diseases claim 700,000 lives each year globally 3 , which is expected to rise to 10 million deaths per year by 2050 on the basis of the present trends 4 . (nature.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: To examine the extent to which the strategies recommended by the National Foundation for Infectious Diseases (NFID)-Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) co-sponsored workshop, Antimicrobial Resistance in Hospitals: Strategies to Improve Antimicrobial Use and Prevent Nosocomial Transmission of Antimicrobial-Resistant Microorganisms, have been implemented and the relationship between the degree of implementation and hospital culture, leadership, and organizational factors. (duke.edu)
  • Phylogenetic analysis and draft genome characterization in terms of Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST), plasmid replicons, Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands (SPIs), antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs), phages, biocide and metal-tolerance genes confirm the high genetic variability of S. Napoli, also revealing a within-serovar phylogenetic structure more complex than previously known. (nih.gov)
  • However, not much is known about fluoroquinolone-resistance in ESBLs and its relationship with plasmid-encoded genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In order to assess the effect of anthropogenic activities on watersheds in southwestern British Columbia, the presence of putative antibiotic resistance and integrase genes was analyzed in the microbiome of agricultural, urban influenced, and protected watersheds. (frontiersin.org)
  • Analysis of the metagenomic sequences detected a total of 60 elements of resistance including 46 ARGs, intI1 , and groEL/ intI1 genes and 12 quaternary ammonium compounds ( qac ) resistance genes across all watershed locations. (frontiersin.org)
  • Antibiotic resistance and integrase genes in a year-long metagenomic study showed that ARGs were driven mainly by environmental factors from anthropogenized sites in agriculture and urban watersheds. (frontiersin.org)
  • Resistance to antimicrobial agents can occur when the genes that are responsible for the "defence mechanism" in the original organism are transferred to other organisms, thus also rendering them resistant. (bpac.org.nz)
  • Antimicrobial resistance occurs through different mechanisms, which include spontaneous (natural) genetic mutations and horizontal transfer of resistant genes through deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). (who.int)
  • This report presents the status of AMR in Africa by analysing the main types of resistance and the underlying genes where possible. (who.int)
  • Candida glabrata ranks as the second most common cause of candidiasis worldwide, supported by rapid acquisition of resistance to azole and echinocandin antifungals frequently prompted by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in resistance associated genes, such as PDR1 (azole resistance) or FKS1/2 (echinocandin resistance). (microbialcell.com)
  • Specifically, regarding the newly sequenced strains, a set of mutations/genes are proposed to underlie the observed unconventional azole resistance phenotype. (microbialcell.com)
  • Clinical acquisition of azole or echinocandin resistance in C. glabrata is generally attributed to the acquisition of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in a very limited number of resistance associated genes. (microbialcell.com)
  • Using a population-based approach that analyzes multiple loci around the chromosome, we demonstrate that neutral genetic variation in genes associated with antimicrobial drug resistance has sufficient variation to construct a robust phylogenetic tree for M. tuberculosis. (cdc.gov)
  • Antiepileptic drug carbamazepine promotes horizontal transfer of plasmid-borne multi-antibiotic resistance genes within and across bacterial genera. (edu.au)
  • Copper nanoparticles and copper ions promote horizontal transfer of plasmid-mediated multi-antibiotic resistance genes across bacterial genera. (edu.au)
  • Environmentally relevant concentrations of triclosan promotes horizontal transfer of multidrug resistance genes within and across bacterial genera. (edu.au)
  • Chlorine disinfection increases both intracellular and extracellular antibiotic resistance genes in a full-scale wastewater treatment plant. (edu.au)
  • Some members of the species have accumulated these resistance genes in large resistance islands, located in a "hot-spot" within the bacterial chromosome. (uea.ac.uk)
  • Additionally, mechanisms of carbapenem resistance have emerged that derive from the importation of the distantly related class D β-lactamase genes blaOXA-23 and blaOXA-58. (uea.ac.uk)
  • It has also been found that other resistance genes including the chromosomal class C β-lactamase genes conferring cephalosporin resistance are controlled in the same manner. (uea.ac.uk)
  • In addition, long-read sequencing of one representative XDR ST235 isolate identified an integron carrying multiple resistance genes (including bla VIM-2), with differences in gene composition and synteny from the P. aeruginosa class 1 integrons described previously. (who.int)
  • TetA (81.81%), tetB (72.72%), dfrA1 (63.63%), aac(3)-IV (63.63%), sul1 (63.63%) and aadA1 (45.45%) were the most commonly detected antibiotic resistance genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A. baumannii strains with similar genetic cluster (ERIC-Type) had the same prevalence of antibiotic resistance, antibiotic resistance genes and virulence factors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For example, Staphylococcus aureus has been shown to harbor a resistance gene mecA that can produce a penicillin-binding protein. (geneonline.com)
  • Plasmid-linked resistance to inorganic salts in Staphylococcus aureus. (wikidata.org)
  • Bacterial strains isolated from meat are both pathogenic and commensal such as Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus species, Listeria monocytogenes , Bacillus spp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Few long-term multicenter investigations have evaluat- acquisition of fluoroquinolone-resistant P. aeruginosa and ed the relationships between aggregate antimicrobial drug methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) (4-8). (cdc.gov)
  • We measured fluoro- gitudinal model incorporating total fluoroquinolone use and quinolone use as well as the percentages of MRSA and flu- the previous year's resistance (to account for autocorrela- oroquinolone-resistant P. aeruginosa across 24 US tion) did not show a significant effect of fluoroquinolone use hospitals during a 5-year period. (cdc.gov)
  • The CDC International Antibiotic-Resistant Gonorrhea Isolate Bank will provide complementary data to CDC's domestic specimens available through the Antibiotic Resistance Laboratory Network. (cdc.gov)
  • Such agricultural practices include farm cultivation.The case of resistant to drugs is widely reported in our hospitals today. (exclusivepapers.com)
  • This is because there are organisms which are resistant to almost all drugs which are used for their treatment. (exclusivepapers.com)
  • The threat of multiple drug resistant organisms in New Zealand. (bpac.org.nz)
  • From overseas surveillance studies it is apparent that many of the multiple drug resistant organisms are clonal i.e. have the same origin, and have been able to spread widely. (bpac.org.nz)
  • When TB is resistant to these 2 drugs, it is called multi-drug resistant TB or MDR TB. (cdc.gov)
  • MDR TB which is also resistant to a fluoroquinolone and any second-line injectable drug, is called XDR TB, which means extensively drug resistant. (cdc.gov)
  • Is XDR TB actually worse than drug-resistant TB? (cdc.gov)
  • I emailed Peter Cegielski, the team leader for drug-resistant TB at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the senior author on the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report publication. (cdc.gov)
  • What's more, some microbes are becoming multidrug-resistant, acquiring the ability to withstand multiple medicines. (theconversation.com)
  • TB is difficult to treat, and some resistant strains need years of daily treatment with multiple drugs, including months of painful injections and serious side effects that can leave patients deaf. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In Africa and Asia, drug-resistant tuberculosis alone now kills nearly 2m people a year, ten times more than in the 2010s. (economist.com)
  • Predicting extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis phenotypes with genetic mutations. (uams.edu)
  • The 20th century dream of eradicating the global scourge of tuberculosis (TB) evaporated with the failure of the old BCG vaccine to protect the populations at greatest risk, low compliance at following the complicated and lengthy treatment in countries with limited resources, which was followed by the spread of multiple-drug resistant (MDR) strains. (intechopen.com)
  • Use additional code (U80-U89), (U82-U84), if desired, to identify the antibiotic to which a bacterial agent is resistant. (who.int)
  • Despite advances in available therapies, children with drug-resistant and relapsed neuroblastoma have a dismal outlook with. (hrb.ie)
  • There is no cross-reactivity with non-tuberculous mycobacteria, and TB and rifampicin resistance were correctly detected in the presence of non-tuberculous DNA or mixed susceptible and resistant strains. (bvsalud.org)
  • These genomes were sequenced using a combination of 454, Illumina, and PacBio platforms and assembled using multiple genome assemblers. (pacb.com)
  • The resulting genome sequences were used to identify mycobacterial genotypes associated with virulence, invasion, and drug resistance. (pacb.com)
  • The authors used whole-genome sequencing to determine genetic changes occurring during monotherapy versus sequential treatments and found that both treatments promoted the amplification of the multidrug efflux pump gene, as well as other known drug-resistance mutations. (googleapis.com)
  • In bacterial cells evolution occurs rapidly in response to environmental pressures due to their simple genome and rapid reproduction rates. (cutpriceessay.com)
  • The genome annotation is continually updated, and the database functionality is being expanded to facilitate accelerated discovery of P aeruginosa drug targets and vaccine candidates. (medscape.com)
  • In the majority of cases, the reasons behind this treatment resistance (e.g., genetic mutations) and the subsequent return of the disease, remain unknown. (newzs.de)
  • This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutations. (harvard.edu)
  • Mutations in ribosomal protein L3 and 23S rRNA have previously been associated with tiamulin resistance in Brachyspira spp. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The data show a nonpredictable cross-resistance pattern between linezolid, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, and valnemulin, and the significance of mutations at distal nucleotides, either alone or in combination with other mutated nucleotide, in contributing to lineZolid resistance. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The in vitro development of pleuromutilin resistance in M. gallisepticum was studied and combinations of two or three mutations were necessary to produce high-level resistance. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Persister cells, which are found in abundance in biofilms, adopt a quiescent state and survive antimicrobial treatments, seeding disease recurrence and incubating new resistance mutations. (ask-bioexpert.com)
  • Xpert MTB/RIF detects M. tuberculosis as well as rifampicin resistance-conferring mutations directly from sputum, in an assay providing results within two hours. (bvsalud.org)
  • The mechanism of glycopeptide resistance is poorly understood, but strains show longer doubling times and decreased susceptibility to lysostaphin. (pharmacy180.com)
  • Minimal evidence of antimicrobial resistance and no strains with unusual or clinically significant multiple-drug resistance patterns were identified in this study. (vin.com)
  • During 2007-2008, increased resistance to oseltamivir associated with a specific mutation causing a histidine to tyrosine substitution (H275Y) in neuraminidase was reported among seasonal influenza A (H1N1) virus strains in many countries and became prevalent worldwide [132-134]. (cdc.gov)
  • The sensitivities of yeast strains deficient in PDR ABC transporters, to quinoline-ring antimalarial drugs. (harvard.edu)
  • A total of 22 A. baumanni strains were isolated from 126 animal meat samples and were genotyped by ERIC-PCR method and by PCR detection of their virulence and antimicrobial resistance determinants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CDC supports innovative research to slow antimicrobial resistance through various funding mechanisms . (cdc.gov)
  • [ 7 ] Thus, the need to define molecular mechanisms of drug resistance in scabies mites is urgent, as is the development and assessment of alternative therapeutic options. (medscape.com)
  • Furthermore, understanding of effects and biological fitness of current and emerging ( in vitro induced/selected and in vivo emerged) genetic resistance mechanisms for these antimicrobials, prediction of resistance emergence, time-kill curve analysis to evaluate antibacterial activity, appropriate mice experiments, and correlates between genetic and phenotypic laboratory parameters, and clinical treatment outcomes, would also be valuable. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The bacterium has utilized mainly all known mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance (AMR): inactivation of the antimicrobial, alteration of antimicrobial targets, increased export (e.g., through efflux pumps such as MtrCDE) and decreased uptake (e.g. through porins such as PorB). (biomedcentral.com)
  • These alterations then lead to antimicrobial resistance through various mechanisms. (geneonline.com)
  • A bacterial cell can employ multiple mechanisms at one time to develop drug resistance. (geneonline.com)
  • For example, the resistance to Fluoroquinolone is a cumulative effect of different biochemical mechanisms like i) mutation in the target site of the drug, ii) induction of efflux pumps to pump out the drug, and iii) protecting the target of the drug [4]. (geneonline.com)
  • Detailed knowledge of the linezolid binding site has facilitated the design of a new generation of oxazolidinones that show improved properties against the known resistance mechanisms. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Antimicrobial resistance is rising all over the world and new resistance mechanisms are emerging and spreading, highlighting the importance for novel anti-infective strategies. (pletzerlab.com)
  • Our lab investigates novel antimicrobial technologies that exploit nutrient uptake systems to overcome bacterial resistance mechanisms. (pletzerlab.com)
  • Medically reviewed by Drugs.com on May 4, 2022. (drugs.com)
  • Prescription drug prices lag inflation, according to new information from the Altarum November 2022 Health Sectors Economic Indicators Briefs. (cobioscience.com)
  • N. gonorrhoeae has quickly developed resistance to each recommended treatment over time and gonorrhea is classified as an Urgent Threat in CDC's 2019 Antibiotic Resistance Threats Report. (cdc.gov)
  • Researchers at IHME and the University of Oxford produced estimates of deaths, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), years lived with disability (YLDs), and years of life lost (YLLs) associated with and attributable to bacterial antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in 88 pathogen-drug combinations for 21 Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) regions and 7 super-regions in 2019. (healthdata.org)
  • Whereas most traditional drug discovery projects seek to find a single small molecule drug that inhibits a single enzyme, this project seeks to find a single drug that inhibits multiple enzymes from multiple metabolic pathways in the pathogen. (uwb.edu)
  • A new study suggests that the malaria drug hydroxychloroquine inhibits pathways that drive resistance to the chemotherapy agent cisplatin in head and neck cancers and restores tumor-killing effects of cisplatin in animal models. (newzs.de)
  • Clindamycin inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 23S RNA of the 50S subunit of the ribosome. (nih.gov)
  • Use of colistin-containing products within the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA): development of resistance in animals and possible impact on human and animal health. (sciensano.be)
  • The binding of ciprofloxacin to serum proteins is 20 to 40% which is not likely to be high enough to cause significant protein binding interactions with other drugs. (nih.gov)
  • By adding chemical groups or producing alternative proteins to bind competitively to the antibiotic, they can reduce drug efficacy. (geneonline.com)
  • The small intestines allows properly digested fats, proteins and starches to pass through the cells in order to be used by the body while providing a barrier to keep out foreign substances, large undigested molecules and bacterial products. (robbwolf.com)
  • Ossianix researchers are researching a way to attach therapeutic proteins to shark-derived antibodies, which could allow treatments to be transferred across the blood-brain barrier into the brain where they bind to a drug target. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • Using the nucleotide-binding sites of proteins TNR kinases specifically at heart as drug-targets, several chemical libraries have already been curated that consist of substances either knownor forecasted and purified to homogeneity [8]. (immune-source.com)
  • Conjugal transfer of plasmid-borne multiple antibiotic resistance in Streptococcus faecalis var. (wikidata.org)
  • Metagenomic sequencing of bacterial genomic DNA was used to characterize the resistome of microbial communities present in watersheds over a 1-year period. (frontiersin.org)
  • Little is known about several of these less common serotype IV STs causing human disease, including their genomic makeup and antimicrobial drug resistance profiles. (cdc.gov)
  • The idea behind the company's work came about some six years ago when a team headed by Charles and Alber embarked on a discovery program that used phenotypic assays to identify antibacterial compounds with drug-like properties that had activity against bacterial communities in various life forms. (drugdiscoverynews.com)
  • Mechanistic investigations are still ongoing, but both in-house data and recent publications from several academic groups suggest that auranofin's antibacterial activity is likely due to a complex mechanism of action involving modulation of multiple cellular pathways. (drugdiscoverynews.com)
  • AMPs that are used as the antibiotic of last resort are typically 12-50 amino acids long and produced by multiple higher-order organisms to combat invading microorganisms. (nature.com)
  • Mechanism of mercuric chloride resistance in microorganisms. (wikidata.org)
  • The major factor responsible for this resistance problem is the misuse of antimicrobials, which includes inappropriate prescribing by healthcare professionals (wrong choice of agent, prescribing when an antimicrobial is not indicated, inappropriate dose or duration of therapy) and lack of compliance by patients. (bpac.org.nz)
  • Unfortunately, Neisseria gonorrhoeae has developed resistance to all antimicrobials introduced for treatment of gonorrhoea since the mid-1930s, when sulphonamides were introduced. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The two drugs used were erythromycin (ERY) and doxycycline (DOX), both of which target the bacterial ribosome and act as inhibitors of translation. (googleapis.com)
  • Proteasome inhibitors, the therapeutic backbone of current treatments, are very effective in treating newly diagnosed cancers but resistance or intolerance to these molecules inevitably develop, leading to relapses. (newzs.de)
  • conducted a structure-based screen for inhibitors of a bacterial hydrogen sulfide-producing enzyme and found a group of inhibitors that act through an allosteric mechanism (see the Perspective by Mah). (ask-bioexpert.com)
  • thus, efflux pump inhibitors are thought to be useful in reducing the invasiveness and antimicrobial resistance of P aeruginosa and may be promising as new anti-infectious agents. (medscape.com)
  • Investigators will develop a context-specific healthcare facility assessment tool to evaluate current antibiotic stewardship practices and needs across multiple institutions in various countries and regions globally. (cdc.gov)
  • Antimicrobial resistance is increasing in Australia and globally. (theconversation.com)
  • This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids ( R FACTORS ). (bvsalud.org)
  • Differential roles of transcriptional mediator subunits in regulation of multidrug resistance gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (harvard.edu)
  • However, A. baumannii possesses an inherent class D β-lactamase gene (blaOXA-51-like) that can have the ability to confer carbapenem resistance. (uea.ac.uk)
  • VanA resistance is mediated by a sevengene cluster on the transposable genetic element Tn 1546 ( Figure 13.3 ). (pharmacy180.com)
  • Engineers are developing new systems to use genetic information, sense small changes in the body, assess new drugs, and deliver vaccines. (engineeringchallenges.org)
  • At its core, personalized medicine is about combining genetic information with clinical data to optimally tailor drugs and doses to meet the unique needs of an individual patient. (engineeringchallenges.org)
  • Non-antibiotic antimicrobial triclosan induces multiple antibiotic resistance through genetic mutation. (edu.au)
  • For example, the true magnitude of the antimicrobial drug resistance crisis is unknown because of the absence of systematic monitoring. (cdc.gov)
  • Still, multiple challenges remain in the quest for a widespread effective system of personalized medicine. (engineeringchallenges.org)
  • The actual increase in the incidence of VRE in U.S. hospitals might be greater than reported because the fully automated methods used in many clinical laboratories cannot consistently detect vancomycin resistance, especially moderate vancomycin resistance (as manifested in the VanB phenotype) (9-11). (cdc.gov)
  • Clinical resistance has not been documented for permethrin use, but it has been documented in 2 people with crusted scabies who had repeated regimens of multiple doses of ivermectin. (medscape.com)
  • The current "gold standard" for testing a drug's worth and safety is the randomized controlled clinical trial -- a study that randomly assigns people to a new drug or to nothing at all, a placebo, to assess how the drug performs. (engineeringchallenges.org)
  • The chronic gastritides are classified on the basis of their underlying cause (eg, H pylori, bile reflux, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs], autoimmunity or allergic response) and the histopathologic pattern, which may suggest the cause and the likely clinical course (eg, H pylori-associated multifocal atrophic gastritis). (medscape.com)
  • BackgroundThere are over 200 million reported cases of malaria each year, and most children living in endemic areas will experience multiple episodes of clinical disease before puberty. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Our team currently leads multiple clinical trials and implementation research studies to better understand the unique host, pathogen, environmental, and health system determinants of child health. (washington.edu)
  • Pathways activated in patients with KD included those involved in anti-viral and anti-bacterial responses. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Efflux pumps on the bacterial cell membrane can pump out a drug's antibiotic compounds, to reduce its effect. (geneonline.com)
  • There are five leading efflux transporter families in the prokaryotic kingdom: MF (Major Facilitator), MATE (Multidrug And Toxic Efflux), RND (Resistance-Nodulation-Division), SMR (Small Multidrug Resistance) and ABC (ATP Binding Cassette). (microbiology.pl)
  • Such organisms can only be treated by using toxic drugs or by undertaking experiments to analyze their cause and methodology to be applied. (exclusivepapers.com)
  • Evolution occurs in all living organisms from the smallest bacterial cells to the most complex animals. (cutpriceessay.com)
  • VanC resistance is intrinsic and chromosomally encoded in some enterococcal species such as Ent . (pharmacy180.com)
  • Eventually , many of the bacterial species that was intended to kill continued to survive treat. (123helpme.com)
  • Few studies have compared the bacterial species identified in cultures from abscesses formed in patients with CD and cDC. (turkishjcrd.com)
  • Antibiogram of Gram-positive cocci revealed that S. aureus and CNS manifest higher resistance to both penicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. (researchsquare.com)
  • Doctors are calling it a "miracle drug"-as they did with penicillin a century ago. (economist.com)
  • This is due to their virulence factors, which give them great resistance and pathogenicity. (bvsalud.org)
  • Consistent with previous data, we documented a clear inverse correlation between antimicrobial resistance and virulence in the C. elegans model. (repositoriosaludmadrid.es)
  • Altogether, our results provide a major step forward for understanding the interplay between P. aeruginosa resistance profiles, high-risk clones, and virulence. (repositoriosaludmadrid.es)
  • VIM-GES-CRPA recovered from opened bottles could represent either bacterial contamination during use or during the manufacturing process. (cdc.gov)
  • Surface micropattern limits bacterial contamination. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • Peptides target the bacterial stress response, persister-based resistance, and the outer membrane permeability barrier. (pletzerlab.com)
  • It has been estimated that more than 70% of antibiotic resistance occurs in the Asia-pacific region of the world, making antimicrobial resistance extremely problematic for Asian countries [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When significant diarrhea occurs, the drug should be discontinued. (nih.gov)
  • While out- use in hospitals and bacterial resistance. (cdc.gov)
  • Ecologic investigations across multiple hospitals have antibiograms at each hospital. (cdc.gov)
  • The purpose of this obser- on percent resistance for most drug-organism combina- vational study was to determine if volume of aggregate flu- tions, except for the relationship between levofloxacin use oroquinolone use in individual hospitals and bacterial and percent MRSA. (cdc.gov)
  • however, hospitals need to do much more to improve antimicrobial use and to increase their efforts to detect, report, and control the spread of antimicrobial resistance. (duke.edu)
  • This underscores an urgent demand for regular surveillance to address this antimicrobial resistance problem. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 3 contrast, resistance to aminoglycosides and fluoroqui- a Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Reference Laboratory, Research Institute for Tropical Medicine, Muntinlupa, Philippines. (who.int)
  • Tiamulin and valnemulin target the peptidyl transferase centre (PTC) on the bacterial ribosome. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Because bacterial keratitis may be associated with subsequent loss of vision as the result of corneal scarring or topographic irregularities and because untreated or severe bacterial keratitis may result in corneal perforation with potential for endophthalmitis and possible loss of the eye, optimal management involves rapid evaluation and diagnosis, timely initiation of treatment, and appropriate follow-up. (drugs.com)
  • Mild, acute bacterial conjunctivitis often resolves spontaneously without anti-infective treatment. (drugs.com)
  • In fiscal years 2016 through 2021, more than $52 million was awarded through the BAA to fight antimicrobial resistance. (cdc.gov)
  • 3:25 What can you do to fight antimicrobial resistance? (medlineplus.gov)
  • NIAID is researching ways to fight the antimicrobial resistance problem. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Moreover, monitoring antibiotic use and prescribing and tive antimicrobial drug regimen, dose, time, duration identifying resistance patterns is crucial in identifying of therapy, and route of administration ( 5 ). (who.int)
  • Methods: Bacterial metabolic pathways used by M. avium within the host environment, however, are poorly understood. (bvsalud.org)
  • In a current review article, we are highlighting the biofilm matrix and molecular mechanism of antimicrobial resistance in bacterial biofilms. (openmicrobiologyjournal.com)
  • Policy statement: automated real-time nucleic acid amplification technology for rapid and simultaneous detection of tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance: Xpert MTB/RIF system. (bvsalud.org)