Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutation.
A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.
Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)
Enzyme of the human immunodeficiency virus that is required for post-translational cleavage of gag and gag-pol precursor polyproteins into functional products needed for viral assembly. HIV protease is an aspartic protease encoded by the amino terminus of the pol gene.
A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Genes for MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that confer resistance to toxic compounds. Several superfamilies of these multidrug export proteins are known and found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TETRACYCLINE which inhibits aminoacyl-tRNA binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit during protein synthesis.
The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutations.
Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.
An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.
Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.
Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.
Antibacterial agent used primarily as a tuberculostatic. It remains the treatment of choice for tuberculosis.
The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Diseases of plants.
Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)
A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
One of the FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS that is used as an antimalarial or with a sulfonamide to treat toxoplasmosis.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.
Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.
A type of strength-building exercise program that requires the body muscle to exert a force against some form of resistance, such as weight, stretch bands, water, or immovable objects. Resistance exercise is a combination of static and dynamic contractions involving shortening and lengthening of skeletal muscles.
A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of CHLORAMPHENICOL, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis in the 50S ribosomal subunit where amino acids are added to nascent bacterial polypeptides.
Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.
A long acting sulfonamide that is used, usually in combination with other drugs, for respiratory, urinary tract, and malarial infections.
Nonsusceptibility of a microbe to the action of ampicillin, a penicillin derivative that interferes with cell wall synthesis.
Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction 7,8-dihyrofolate and NADPH to yield 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate and NADPH+, producing reduced folate for amino acid metabolism, purine ring synthesis, and the formation of deoxythymidine monophosphate. Methotrexate and other folic acid antagonists used as chemotherapeutic drugs act by inhibiting this enzyme. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC
Proteins encoded by the POL GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.
An antitubercular agent that inhibits the transfer of mycolic acids into the cell wall of the tubercle bacillus. It may also inhibit the synthesis of spermidine in mycobacteria. The action is usually bactericidal, and the drug can penetrate human cell membranes to exert its lethal effect. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p863)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
A subfamily of transmembrane proteins from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that are closely related in sequence to P-GLYCOPROTEIN. When overexpressed, they function as ATP-dependent efflux pumps able to extrude lipophilic drugs, especially ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, from cells causing multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although P-Glycoproteins share functional similarities to MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS they are two distinct subclasses of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS, and have little sequence homology.
Five membered rings containing a NITROGEN atom.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of dihydropteroate from p-aminobenzoic acid and dihydropteridine-hydroxymethyl-pyrophosphate. EC
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.
A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.
A group of SESQUITERPENES and their analogs that contain a peroxide group (PEROXIDES) within an oxepin ring (OXEPINS).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Large cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein particles that have an eight-fold symmetry with a central pore and petal-like structure giving the appearance of an octagonal dome. (The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 2nd ed.)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of VANCOMYCIN, an inhibitor of cell wall synthesis.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
A bacterial DNA topoisomerase II that catalyzes ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. Gyrase binds to DNA as a heterotetramer consisting of two A and two B subunits. In the presence of ATP, gyrase is able to convert the relaxed circular DNA duplex into a superhelix. In the absence of ATP, supercoiled DNA is relaxed by DNA gyrase.
A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
Non-susceptibility of an organism to the action of the cephalosporins.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.
A very toxic anthracycline aminoglycoside antineoplastic isolated from Streptomyces peucetius and others, used in treatment of LEUKEMIA and other NEOPLASMS.
Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
A potent, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in combination with nucleoside analogues for treatment of HIV INFECTIONS and AIDS.
Tuberculosis resistant to ISONIAZID and RIFAMPIN and at least three of the six main classes of second-line drugs (AMINOGLYCOSIDES; polypeptide agents; FLUOROQUINOLONES; THIOAMIDES; CYCLOSERINE; and PARA-AMINOSALICYLIC ACID) as defined by the CDC.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the antibiotic KANAMYCIN, which can bind to their 70S ribosomes and cause misreading of messenger RNA.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Diminished or failed response of PLANTS to HERBICIDES.
Substances that are destructive to protozoans.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
Inhibitors of the enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase (TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE), which converts dihydrofolate (FH2) to tetrahydrofolate (FH4). They are frequently used in cancer chemotherapy. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)
Substances obtained from various species of microorganisms that are, alone or in combination with other agents, of use in treating various forms of tuberculosis; most of these agents are merely bacteriostatic, induce resistance in the organisms, and may be toxic.
A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.
A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
An anthracenedione-derived antineoplastic agent.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.
Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.
Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.
DNA TOPOISOMERASES that catalyze ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. These enzymes bring about relaxation of the supercoiled DNA and resolution of a knotted circular DNA duplex.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for retroviral enzymes including reverse transcriptase, protease, and endonuclease/integrase. "pol" is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.
An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.
A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.
A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
A phospholipid-interacting antimalarial drug (ANTIMALARIALS). It is very effective against PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM with very few side effects.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
DNA elements that include the component genes and insertion site for a site-specific recombination system that enables them to capture mobile gene cassettes.
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.
A hydroxynaphthoquinone that has antimicrobial activity and is being used in antimalarial protocols.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.
This line KB is now known to be a subline of the ubiquitous KERATIN-forming tumor cell line HeLa. It was originally thought to be derived from an epidermal carcinoma of the mouth, but was subsequently found, based on isoenzyme analysis, HeLa marker chromosomes, and DNA fingerprinting, to have been established via contamination by HELA CELLS. The cells are positive for keratin by immunoperoxidase staining. KB cells have been reported to contain human papillomavirus18 (HPV-18) sequences.
A fluorescent probe with low toxicity which is a potent substrate for P-glycoprotein and the bacterial multidrug efflux transporter. It is used to assess mitochondrial bioenergetics in living cells and to measure the efflux activity of P-glycoprotein in both normal and malignant cells. (Leukemia 1997;11(7):1124-30)
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
3,6-Diamino-10-methylacridinium chloride mixt. with 3,6-acridinediamine. Fluorescent dye used as a local antiseptic and also as a biological stain. It intercalates into nucleic acids thereby inhibiting bacterial and viral replication.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Glucose in blood.

Tobramycin, amikacin, sissomicin, and gentamicin resistant Gram-negative rods. (1/10751)

Sensitivities to gentamicin, sissomicin, tobramycin, and amikacin were compared in 196 gentamicin-resistant Gram-negative rods and in 212 similar organisms sensitive to gentamicin, mainly isolated from clinical specimens. Amikacin was the aminoglycoside most active against gentamicin-resistant organisms, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, klebsiella spp, Escherichia coli, Proteus spp, Providencia spp, and Citrobacter spp being particularly susceptible. Most of the gentamicin-resistant organisms were isolated from the urine of patients undergoing surgery. Gentamicin was the most active antibiotic against gentamicin-sensitive E coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Serratia spp. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other Pseudomonas spp were most susceptible to tobramycin.  (+info)

Prodigious substrate specificity of AAC(6')-APH(2"), an aminoglycoside antibiotic resistance determinant in enterococci and staphylococci. (2/10751)

BACKGROUND: High-level gentamicin resistance in enterococci and staphylococci is conferred by AAC(6')-APH(2"), an enzyme with 6'-N-acetyltransferase and 2"-O-phosphotransferase activities. The presence of this enzyme in pathogenic gram-positive bacteria prevents the successful use of gentamicin C and most other aminoglycosides as therapeutic agents. RESULTS: In an effort to understand the mechanism of aminoglycoside modification, we expressed AAC(6')-APH(2") in Bacillus subtilis. The purified enzyme is monomeric with a molecular mass of 57 kDa and displays both the expected aminoglycoside N-acetyltransferase and O-phosphotransferase activities. Structure-function analysis with various aminoglycosides substrates reveals an enzyme with broad specificity in both enzymatic activities, accounting for AAC(6')-APH(2")'s dramatic negative impact on clinical aminoglycoside therapy. Both lividomycin A and paromomycin, aminoglycosides lacking a 6'-amino group, were acetylated by AAC(6')-APH(2"). The infrared spectrum of the product of paromomycin acetylation yielded a signal consistent with O-acetylation. Mass spectral and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of the products of neomycin phosphorylation indicated that phosphoryl transfer occurred primarily at the 3'-OH of the 6-aminohexose ring A, and that some diphosphorylated material was also present with phosphates at the 3'-OH and the 3"'-OH of ring D, both unprecedented observations for this enzyme. Furthermore, the phosphorylation site of lividomycin A was determined to be the 5"-OH of the pentose ring C. CONCLUSIONS: The bifunctional AAC(6')-APH(2") has the capacity to inactivate virtually all clinically important aminoglycosides through N- and O-acetylation and phosphorylation of hydroxyl groups. The extremely broad substrate specificity of this enzyme will impact on future development of aminoglycosides and presents a significant challenge for antibiotic design.  (+info)

Emergence of vancomycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Glycopeptide-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus Working Group. (3/10751)

BACKGROUND: Since the emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, the glycopeptide vancomycin has been the only uniformly effective treatment for staphylococcal infections. In 1997, two infections due to S. aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin were identified in the United States. METHODS: We investigated the two patients with infections due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides, as defined by a minimal inhibitory concentration of vancomycin of 8 to 16 microg per milliliter. To assess the carriage and transmission of these strains of S. aureus, we cultured samples from the patients and their contacts and evaluated the isolates. RESULTS: The first patient was a 59-year-old man in Michigan with diabetes mellitus and chronic renal failure. Peritonitis due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides developed after 18 weeks of vancomycin treatment for recurrent methicillin-resistant S. aureus peritonitis associated with dialysis. The removal of the peritoneal catheter plus treatment with rifampin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole eradicated the infection. The second patient was a 66-year-old man with diabetes in New Jersey. A bloodstream infection due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides developed after 18 weeks of vancomycin treatment for recurrent methicillin-resistant S. aureus bacteremia. This infection was eradicated with vancomycin, gentamicin, and rifampin. Both patients died. The glycopeptide-intermediate S. aureus isolates differed by two bands on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. On electron microscopy, the isolates from the infected patients had thicker extracellular matrixes than control methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates. No carriage was documented among 177 contacts of the two patients. CONCLUSIONS: The emergence of S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides emphasizes the importance of the prudent use of antibiotics, the laboratory capacity to identify resistant strains, and the use of infection-control precautions to prevent transmission.  (+info)

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae ETH1 gene, an inducible homolog of exonuclease III that provides resistance to DNA-damaging agents and limits spontaneous mutagenesis. (4/10751)

The recently sequenced Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome was searched for a gene with homology to the gene encoding the major human AP endonuclease, a component of the highly conserved DNA base excision repair pathway. An open reading frame was found to encode a putative protein (34% identical to the Schizosaccharomyces pombe eth1(+) [open reading frame SPBC3D6.10] gene product) with a 347-residue segment homologous to the exonuclease III family of AP endonucleases. Synthesis of mRNA from ETH1 in wild-type cells was induced sixfold relative to that in untreated cells after exposure to the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). To investigate the function of ETH1, deletions of the open reading frame were made in a wild-type strain and a strain deficient in the known yeast AP endonuclease encoded by APN1. eth1 strains were not more sensitive to killing by MMS, hydrogen peroxide, or phleomycin D1, whereas apn1 strains were approximately 3-fold more sensitive to MMS and approximately 10-fold more sensitive to hydrogen peroxide than was the wild type. Double-mutant strains (apn1 eth1) were approximately 15-fold more sensitive to MMS and approximately 2- to 3-fold more sensitive to hydrogen peroxide and phleomycin D1 than were apn1 strains. Elimination of ETH1 in apn1 strains also increased spontaneous mutation rates 9- or 31-fold compared to the wild type as determined by reversion to adenine or lysine prototrophy, respectively. Transformation of apn1 eth1 cells with an expression vector containing ETH1 reversed the hypersensitivity to MMS and limited the rate of spontaneous mutagenesis. Expression of ETH1 in a dut-1 xthA3 Escherichia coli strain demonstrated that the gene product functionally complements the missing AP endonuclease activity. Thus, in apn1 cells where the major AP endonuclease activity is missing, ETH1 offers an alternate capacity for repair of spontaneous or induced damage to DNA that is normally repaired by Apn1 protein.  (+info)

Isolation and chemical characterization of a capsular polysaccharide antigen shared by clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. (5/10751)

Enterococci are a common cause of serious infections, especially in newborns, severely immunocompromised patients, and patients requiring intensive care. To characterize enterococcal surface antigens that are targets of opsonic antibodies, rabbits were immunized with various gentamicin-killed Enterococcus faecalis strains, and immune sera were tested in an opsonophagocytic assay against a selection of clinical isolates. Serum raised against one strain killed the homologous strain (12030) at a dilution of 1:5,120 and mediated opsonic killing of 33% of all strains tested. In addition, this serum killed two (28%) of seven vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium strains. Adsorption of sera with the homologous strain eliminated killing activity. The adsorbing antigens were resistant to treatment with proteinase K and to boiling for 1 h, but were susceptible to treatment with sodium periodate, indicating that the antigen inducing opsonic activity is a polysaccharide. Antibodies in immune rabbit sera reacted with a capsule-like structure visualized by electron microscopy both on the homologous E. faecalis strain and on a vancomycin-resistant E. faecium strain. The capsular polysaccharides from E. faecalis 12030 and E. faecium 838970 were purified, and chemical and structural analyses indicated they were identical glycerol teichoic acid-like molecules with a carbohydrate backbone structure of 6-alpha-D-glucose-1-2 glycerol-3-PO4 with substitution on carbon 2 of the glucose with an alpha-2-1-D-glucose residue. The purified antigen adsorbed opsonic killing activity from immune rabbit sera and elicited high titers of antibodies (when used to immunize rabbits) that both mediated opsonic killing of bacteria and bound to a capsule-like structure visualized by electron microscopy. These results indicate that approximately one-third of a sample of 15 E. faecalis strains and 7 vancomycin-resistant E. faecium strains possess shared capsular polysaccharides that are targets of opsonophagocytic antibodies and therefore are potential vaccine candidates.  (+info)

Structural basis of multidrug recognition by BmrR, a transcription activator of a multidrug transporter. (6/10751)

Multidrug-efflux transporters demonstrate an unusual ability to recognize multiple structurally dissimilar toxins. A comparable ability to bind diverse hydrophobic cationic drugs is characteristic of the Bacillus subtilis transcription regulator BmrR, which upon drug binding activates expression of the multidrug transporter Bmr. Crystal structures of the multidrug-binding domain of BmrR (2.7 A resolution) and of its complex with the drug tetraphenylphosphonium (2.8 A resolution) revealed a drug-induced unfolding and relocation of an alpha helix, which exposes an internal drug-binding pocket. Tetraphenylphosphonium binding is mediated by stacking and van der Waals contacts with multiple hydrophobic residues of the pocket and by an electrostatic interaction between the positively charged drug and a buried glutamate residue, which is the key to cation selectivity. Similar binding principles may be used by other multidrug-binding proteins.  (+info)

Successful short-term suppression of clarithromycin-resistant Mycobacterium avium complex bacteremia in AIDS. California Collaborative Treatment Group. (7/10751)

During a randomized study of clarithromycin plus clofazimine with or without ethambutol in patients with AIDS and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) bacteremia, eight participants received additional antimycobacterial drugs following the detection of a clarithromycin-resistant isolate (MIC, > 8 micrograms/mL). A macrolide (seven received clarithromycin, one azithromycin) and clofazimine were continued; additional treatment included various combinations of ethambutol, ciprofloxacin, amikacin, and rifabutin. After the detection of a resistant isolate and before receipt of additional antimycobacterials, the median peak MAC colony count in blood was 105 cfu/mL (range, 8-81,500 cfu/mL). After additional antimycobacterials, the median nadir MAC colony count was 5 cfu/mL (range, 0-110 cfu/mL). Five (63%) of eight patients had a > or = 1 log10 decrease, including two who achieved negative blood cultures; all of these responses occurred in patients originally assigned to clarithromycin plus clofazimine. Treatment of clarithromycin-resistant MAC bacteremia that emerges during clarithromycin-based treatment can decrease levels of bacteremia and transiently sterilize blood cultures.  (+info)

Emergence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium phage-type DT104 among salmonellae causing enteritis in Israel. (8/10751)

The relative frequency of salmonella strains isolated from hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients in Southern Israel changed during the period, 1994-6. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium definitive phage-type 104 (DT104) appeared in Israel in 1994 and became the most prevalent strain in 1996. An outbreak of enteritis due to Salmonella enterica serotype Agona occurred in Israel, in October 1994 and lasted for 4 months. The relative frequency of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis remained almost constant during these years, with seasonal fluctuations only. The importance of the increase in the prevalence of Typhimurium DT104 has been the epidemic spread of a multiresistant strain of R-type ACT (A, ampicillin; C, chloramphenicol; T, tetracycline) belonging to this phage-type. Since 1995 the frequency of Typhimurium DT104 isolates that possess, in addition to the above R-type, a chromosomally encoded resistance to the quinolone drug, nalidixic acid, increased tenfold. In 1996, 27% of the Typhimurium DT104 isolates were of R-type ACTN. S. Enteritidis exhibited over 95% susceptibility to at least eight of the most commonly used antibiotic drugs, and none of the isolates was resistant to quinolone or fluoroquinoline.  (+info)

The multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) operon of the enteric bacterium Escherichia coli regulates multiple antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity. The goal o...
Citation Machine™ helps students and professionals properly credit the information that they use. Cite your map / chart in Microbial Drug Resistance format for free.
Subscribe - The international peer-reviewed journal covering the global spread and threat of multi-drug resistant clones of major pathogens that are widely documented in hospitals and the scientific community.
The international peer-reviewed journal covering the global spread and threat of multi-drug resistant clones of major pathogens that are widely documented in hospitals and the scientific community.
Study Flashcards On Microbial Drugs REVISED!!!!! at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
Definition of transferable resistance in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is transferable resistance? Meaning of transferable resistance as a finance term. What does transferable resistance mean in finance?
Experimental factors that increase population heterogeneity could increase apparent resistance rates. The activity of daptomycin is calcium dependent (10), and the levels of free calcium in MHA are variable (23). We determined the effect of calcium levels on population heterogeneity. As shown in Fig. 1B, the addition of 1 mM CaCl2 to the test agar results in homogeneous susceptibility and eliminates the appearance of falsely resistant colonies. Differences in calcium levels may have contributed to past differences in spontaneous resistance rates. Consistent with this idea, it has previously been demonstrated that resistance rates in liquid media increase as calcium levels decrease (29).. Based on the studies described above, we performed all resistance testing by plating overnight cultures on MHA supplemented with 1 mM CaCl2 and daptomycin at 8 times the MIC. Eight laboratory (American Type Culture Collection, Rockville, Md.) and eight clinical isolates (provided by D. Snydman, New England ...
Nicoloff, Hé.; Perreten, V.; McMurry, L.M.; Levy, S.B., 2006: Role for tandem duplication and lon protease in AcrAB-TolC- dependent multiple antibiotic resistance (Mar) in an Escherichia coli mutant without mutations in marRAB or acrRAB
EU - The European Union Summary Report on antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic and indicator bacteria from humans, animals and food in 2011 from EFSA and ECDC has found some significant national trends in resistance levels in isolates from animals and food. Among Salmonella isolates, more decreasing than increasing trends were found, whereas in the case of Campylobacter, significant national trends were mostly increasing. The study also looked at selected E.coli isolates and MRSA.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). April 3, 2018. Health departments working with CDCs Antibiotic Resistance (AR) Lab Network found more than 220 instances of germs with unusual antibiotic resistance genes in the United States last year, according to a CDC Vital Signs report released today.. Germs with unusual resistance include those that cannot be killed by all or most antibiotics, are uncommon in a geographic area or the U.S., or have specific genes that allow them to spread their resistance to other germs.. Rapid identification of the new or rare threats is the critical first step in CDCs containment strategy to stop the spread of antibiotic resistance (AR). When a germ with unusual resistance is detected, facilities can quickly isolate patients and begin aggressive infection control and screening actions to discover, reduce, and stop transmission to others.. CDCs study found several dangerous pathogens, hiding in plain sight, that can cause infections that are difficult ...
This week we focused on antibiotic sensitivity on the individual bacteria that were identified last week. The day before class, the bacteria that we have been working with all quarter were recultured in their original conditions. They were grown in a liquid media to be easily transferred onto new plates in lab (Picture 1). In order to test the antibiotic resistance of each bug, we performed what is called a modified Kirby Bauer test. This test is widely used among microbiologists when testing bacteria for any antibiotic resistance. The bacteria are grown in liquid culture, then placed on an agar plate (LB or BHI) that has been divided into four sections. Each section of the plate then has a small disk that is saturated with a specific antibiotic placed on top of the agar (Picture 2). The antibiotics disks we used were Ampicillin, Chloramphenicol, Tetracycline, Penicillin, Gentamicin, Enrofloxacin, Neomycin, and Streptomycin. The plates are then left to culture and grow.. All this was done to ...
The emerging threat posed by antibiotic resistance has affected public health systems all over the world. Surveillance of resistant bacteria in clinical settings and identifying them in mixed cultures is of paramount importance and can contribute to the control of their spreading. Culture-independent monitoring approaches are highly desirable, since they yield results much faster than traditional susceptibility testing. However, many rapid molecular methods like PCR only detect the sole presence of a potential resistance gene, do not provide information regarding efficient transcription, expression and functionality and, in addition, cannot assign resistance genes to species level in mixed cultures. By using plasmid-encoded TEM β-lactamase mediated ampicillin resistances as a proof of principle system, we (1) developed a fluorescence in situ hybridization-test (FISH) capable to detect the respective mRNAs, (2) implemented an immunofluorescence test to identify the corresponding proteins and (3)
As with all things biological, it depends. Some antibiotics, like rifampicin and chloramphenicol, readily give rise to spontaneous resistance mutations. These drugs target transcription and translation, respectively, and alterations of a single nucleotide in the bacterial genome can confer resistance. Since point mutations like these arise spontaneously at about one per million bacteria, there are…
Treating bacterial infections with antibiotics is becoming increasingly difficult as bacteria develop resistance not only to the antibiotics being used against them, but also to ones they have never encountered before. By analyzing genetic and phenotypic changes in antibiotic-resistant strains of E. coli, researchers at the RIKEN Quantitative Biology Center in Japan have revealed a common set of features that appear to be responsible for the development of resistance to several types of antibiotics.
Antibiotic resistance: the Institut Pasteurs microbiological expertise and unique collection of resistant strains contribute to research on group A streptogramins
Resistance to bacteriostasis by 2-thiazole alanine develops rapidly; however, such resistance is lost during growth in the absence of the analog. This induced resistance is accompanied by increased formation of an enzyme sensitive to 2-thiazole alanine. Maintenance of the elevated enzyme levels in growing cells, like resistance, requires the presence of the analog. ...
Implementing antibiotic-free programs in modern broiler production brings legitimate concerns for producers regarding performance, flock uniformity, and disease incidence. Experts will gather in February 2017 at BIOMIN world headquarters to explore the keys to ABF broiler production and guidelines for the responsible use of antibiotics.
BIOMIN welcomed 145 delegates from 23 countries representing the feed and poultry sectors over several days in mid-February in order to address how to solve the antibiotic-free production puzzle.
Page 3 of 5 - Antibiotic Resistance - posted in Best all time threads.: If information was quantified, then it wouldnt be information. Could the information in the word Cow be quantified as C O W? No. because individual letters arent information; They are units.Ummmm, a one of the biggest arguments by most creationists is evolution doesnt increase information. If youre looking for an increase youre quantifying.Red blood cell...
Scientists have revealed that certain disease-causing bacteria get their resistance genes in a complex process involving bacterial sex; this can potentially lead to a more targeted effort in preventing the spread of antibiotic resistance
The US Dollar broke a significant level of resistance against the Japanese Yen. Namely, the resistance of a medium descending pattern that captured the week long sideways trading below the 110.00 level was broken. The event signals the end of sideways trading.. As the pair continues to surge upwards, it will face the weekly R1 at 110.14. After breaking the weekly R1, the pair is set to reach for the next resistance level at the 110.50 mark.. On the other hand, at any moment the pair might begin to consolidate its gains by trading sideways and waiting for the support of the 55 and 100-hour simple moving averages to approach the rate and initiate a continuation of the surge. ...
A path-breaking technique that will potentially help reverse drug resistance as well as enable the existing antibiotics to act effectively has been developed by researchers from the IIT Roorkee.
Buy Oxygen by Singularity_prj on AudioJungle. Inhaling the intoxicating fresh air whether forest or mountain, you feel easily, and gets a bit drunk.
Check out our Resistance Bands Pair, with five different resistance levels from 11-36kg, now you can intensify all your home or gym workouts.
The experts say our resistance to antibiotics is now a serious global health threat. Find out how much you need to worry, and the action you should take.
The related resistance band squats page,you can find more similar resistance band squats from Double Cube,china resistance band squats manufacturer,We provide you excellent products buy services.
The antibiotic-resistant strain of gonorrhoea - now considered a superbug - was discovered in Japan two years ago.Experts have warned that the bacterias effects could match those of AIDS.
|p||strong|Bonpard Resistance|br /||/strong|Bonpard Resistance Supplement has been developed for horses with a compromised immune system. This often manifests itself as vague health issues leading to suboptimal performance.  The specific composition
Concept: For range extension of current measurement in moving coil instrument, a resistance is connected in parallel or shunt with coil resistance. Because for
Going directly after the problem with someone who doesnt want to change only creates more resistance. Find out more about rolling with resistance.
Bacteria not only develop resistance to antibiotics, they also can pick it up from their rivals. In a recent publication in Cell Reports, Researchers from the Biozentrum of the University of Bas ...
Can NZYMES help my pet, you may ask. See how NZYMES can help promote a better quality of life, with greater resistance to most health threats.
A common use for LTSpice® is to run a time domain transient analysis where a parameter (e.g. voltage or current) can be plotted against time. Occasionally, you may wish to know the behavior of a circuit versus another parameter such as resistance. This can be done by using the
Krishna V. Komanduri, MD; Stephen J. Schuster, MD; David Maloney, MD, PhD; and Michael Pulsipher, MD, describe the mechanisms of resistance after CAR T-cell infusion, including how their persistence relates to duration of response and whether patients can receive multiple infusions.
The relationship between current, voltage and resistance V = I*R was introduced by Ohm in the year 1827. Ohms Law: It states that the amount o
إذا أردت ان تعرف ما هو resistance؟؟ ابحث في Sesli Sözlük والذي يعتبر مصدر للحصول على المعرفة اللغوية للعديد من الكلمات في لغات العالم المختلفة.
Just because the market moves in one direction doesnt mean that all of the stocks are moving with it. Here are five stocks that are bumping up against overhead resistance.
Over the past few months, weve gotten a few good looks at Resistance 3, and what weve seen so far has been awfully promising. Easily the
How a gene was inadvertently delivered to a cancer cell, camouflaging it from the therapy and allowing the cancer to develop resistance to treatment. The patient ultimately died.
Что значит resistance? Узнай это здесь вместе с Сесли Сёзлюк - твой источник знаний для изучения множества языков по всему миру
Buy Beautiful Resistance: The Joy of Conviction in a Culture of Compromise by Jon Tyson in Paperback format at Koorong (9780735290693).
Traduction de resistance dans le dictionnaire Anglais-Allemand gratuit de LANGENSCHEIDT avec des exemples, des synonymes et la prononciation.
KEW 4105A PDF - INSTRUCTION MANUAL. Digital Earth Resistance Tester. MODEL A. KYORITSU ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENTS. WORKS, LTD. Buy Kyoritsu A Earth & Ground Resistance Tester
Assuming somebody does nothing it might take a few years to establish resistance to HPV. If someone takes the authors guidance, it requires just a few...
Watch Bavaria_Red__Cannes_Lions_2006__Gold video online on Rediff Videos. More videos of Bavaria_Red__Cannes_Lions_2006__Gold are available. Watch and share videos and updates by lapelicula.
Looking for Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance Study? Find out information about Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance Study. product obtained from several species of red algae, or seaweed seaweed, name commonly used for the multicellular marine algae. Simpler forms, consisting of... Explanation of Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance Study
Plasmid-mediated resistance is the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes which are carried on plasmids. The plasmids can be transferred between bacteria within the same species or between different species via conjugation. Plasmids often carry multiple antibiotic resistance genes, contributing to the spread of multidrug-resistance (MDR). Antibiotic resistance mediated by MDR plasmids severely limits the treatment options for the infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, especially Enterobacteriaceae family. The global spread of MDR plasmids has been enhanced by selective pressure from antibiotic usage in human and veterinary medicine. Resistance plasmids by definition carry one or more antibiotic resistance genes. They are frequently accompanied by the genes encoding virulence determinants, specific enzymes or resistance to toxic heavy metals. Multiple resistance genes are commonly arranged in the resistance cassettes. The antibiotic resistance genes found on the plasmids confer resistance ...
What is antibiotic resistance?. Diseases can become resistant to antibiotics, meaning that antibiotics will no no longer make a patient well. Antibiotic resistant diseases are one of the largest emerging health threats in the world.. Why are antibiotic resistance genes inserted into gmos?. Successfully inserting a new gene into tissue culture is a rare occurence. To determine if the insertion was successful, scientists attach an antibiotic resistance marker gene to the gene they wish to insert. After many attempted insertions, scientists place antibiotics on the tissue cultures. They know that those that survive contain the antibiotic resistance gene and most likely the gene they wish to see expressed. This antibiotic resistance gene stays in each cell of the organism throughout its life and often transfers to its offspring.. How might this lead to antibiotic resistant diseases?. There is concern that antibiotic resistance marker genes will confer antibiotic resistance traits onto bacteria ...
Antibiotic resistance is now considered to be a great curse to the present world. Researcher suspected that millions of people will die due to the rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance by 2050. There are lots of mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. All the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance can be narrowed into two part; mutation and horizontal gene transfer.. In this context, both type of antibiotic resistance mechanisms will be discussed. The last mechanism belongs to horizontal gene transfer-mediated resistance and most of the other mechanisms of antibiotic resistance are mutation-mediated. …. 10 mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in BacteriaRead More » ...
The results of this study showed that in Finland themefA gene is predominant among erythromycin-resistant M-phenotype isolates and the ermTR gene is predominant among isolates with MLSB resistance phenotypes. A comparison of susceptibilities between erythromycin-resistant S. pyogenes isolates in this study and isolates collected in 1990 (28) showed no changes in the antibiotic resistance patterns of the M- and CR-phenotype isolates. However, two interesting changes were seen in the antibiotic resistance pattern of the IR-phenotype isolates. In 1990, the proportion of the IR-phenotype isolates that were resistant to tetracycline was 10% (28), which was only a little more than the proportion found among erythromycin-susceptibleS. pyogenes isolates (4%). However, in 1994 and 1995 (this study), 93% of the IR phenotype isolates were resistant to tetracycline, which is comparable to the 82 and 100% rates of resistance found among the CR-phenotype isolates in 1990 (28) and 1994 and 1995, respectively, ...
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis pandemic is a major health problem, further complicated by an increasing incidence of drug-resistant isolates and the existence of highly transmissible strains, such as those in the Beijing family. Streptomycin (STR)-resistant M. tuberculosis clinical isolates have been analyzed to look for mutations in the rpsL, rrs, and gidB genes. In addition, the Rv1258c gene, which encodes Tap, an efflux pump that transports STR, has been sequenced. Mutations affecting codons 43 and 88 of the rpsL gene were found in 44.4% of the strains, and 16.7% of the strains carried mutations in the rrs gene, both of which probably contribute to STR resistance. Many strains presented with mutations in the gidB gene, but the implication of those mutations in STR resistance remains unclear. Interestingly, a cytosine nucleotide insertion between positions 580 and 581 (denominated Tap580) in the Rv1258c gene has been found in all Beijing isolates included in this study, suggesting that it might be a
Resistance against antibiotics, such as penicillin and cephalosporins, are haunting many hospitals and clinical practices. In a recent paper in the Journal of the American Chemical Society, researchers reported that they made laboratory versions of the ancient ancestors of the enzymes that lead to antibiotic resistance. By studying the ancient forefathers of these enzymes, researchers hope to understand how modern antibiotic resistance evolved and figure out new ways to deal with it. Antibiotic-resistant organisms cause thousands of human deaths every year. Anything new we can learn about antibiotic resistance may be potentially useful in coping with this problem, says Jose Sanchez-Ruiz at the University of Granada in Spain, one of the studys coauthors.. Antibiotic resistance isnt a modern phenomenon that only arose in the face of clinical antibiotic use in the past 60 years. Bacteria have been toting around enzymes to disarm antibiotics for millenia. Indeed, genes for antibiotic resistance ...
E. the staphylococcus. One could question why it took so long for the enterococcus to pick up the staphylococcal P-lactamase which has been recognized for decades. In fact, it does not seem to work very well in the enterococcus: the enzyme is bound to the membrane and is not excreted. A better construct of the gene has not appeared-perhaps selection is not adequate. References Bridges B 1996 Elevated mutation rate in mutT bacteria during starvation: evidence for DNA turnover. J Bacterioll78:270%2721 ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE DETERMINANTS 35 Bunny KL, Hall RM, Stokes HW 1995New mobile gene cassettes containing an aminoglycoside resistance gene, uucu7, and a chloramphenicol resistance gene, catb3, in an integron in pbwh301. If these genes moved very recently from soil microorganisms into bacteria they should be virtually identical in nucleotide sequence. This suggests either that antibiotic resistance genes were acquired very recently but we havent actually found the source yet, or they are much ...
In fall 2017, WHO released a report about a global shortage of antibiotics. This crisis has emerged simultaneously with a global rise in antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic resistance is a growing public health threat. Much of this antibiotic resistance is human-made. Shortages of antibiotics led to superbugs and are often caused by the overprescribing antibiotics, improperly taking prescribed antibiotics, and consuming substandard medicines as well as the extensive use of antibiotics in agriculture.. The over-prescription of drugs, improper consumption, parallel drug markets, and rampant antibiotic use all drive the growing global threat posed by antibiotic resistance. These factors are interrelated in different ways. For example, underdeveloped diagnostic facilities combined with overzealous prescription of antibiotics have led to increasing empirical treatment of infections. Responding to pressure from patients, doctors sometimes prescribe antibiotics for viral conditions despite their ...
Singh, T.A., et al. Understanding and combating the antibiotic resistance crisis. Microorganisms for Sustainable Environment and Health (2020): 315. Ventola, C.L. The antibiotic resistance crisis: part 1: causes and threats. Pharmacy and therapeutics 40.4 (2015): 277. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States, 2019. Atlanta, GA. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, CDC (2019). DOI: 10.15620/cdc:82532 Dyar, O.J., et al. What is antimicrobial stewardship? Clinical Microbiology and Infection 23.11 (2017): 793-8. May, L.S., et al. Antimicrobial Stewardship in the Emergency Department: characteristics and evidence for effectiveness of interventions. Clinical Microbiology and Infection (2020). Eudy, J.L., et al. Antimicrobial Stewardship Practice in the Ambulatory Setting from a National Cohort. US: Oxford University Press. Open forum infectious diseases 7.11 (2020). European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. ...
1) Tannock GW, et al. (1994) Molecular characterization of a plasmid-borne (pGT633) erythromycin resistance determinant (ermGT) from Lactobacillus reuteri 100-63.. Plasmid 31(1):60-71 PubMed: 8171126 ...
OR resistance/height2[All Fields] OR resistance/high[All Fields] OR resistance/homeostasis[All Fields] OR resistance/hyperglycemia[All Fields] OR resistance/hyperinsulinaemia[All Fields] OR resistance/hyperinsulinemia[All Fields] OR resistance/hyperinsulinemia/hyperglycemia[All Fields] OR resistance/hyperinsulinemic[All Fields] OR resistance/hyperinsulinism[All Fields] OR resistance/hyperlipidaemia[All Fields] OR resistance/hypersensitivity[All Fields] OR resistance/hypersusceptibility[All Fields] OR resistance/hypertension[All Fields] OR resistance/hypertriglyceridemia[All Fields] OR resistance/immunity[All Fields] OR resistance/impact[All Fields] OR resistance/impaired[All Fields] OR resistance/impedance[All Fields] OR resistance/inflammation[All Fields] OR resistance/inhibition[All Fields] OR resistance/innate[All Fields] OR resistance/insensitivity[All Fields] OR resistance/inspiratory[All Fields] OR resistance/insulinemia[All Fields] OR resistance/intermediate[All Fields] OR ...
Christine Boinett is a post-doctoral fellow working in Pathogen Genomics at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. In this film she describes how she uses DNA sequencing and computer analysis to investigate how bacteria develop resistance to certain antibiotics. During her degree, Christine spent a year in industry looking at drug resistance in HIV. Her fascination with drug resistance led her on to a PhD looking at how it develops in bacteria. Her current research at the Sanger Institute uses whole genome sequencing to reveal antibiotic resistance genes.. The Pathogen Genomics programme at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute investigates the genomes of a range of pathogens that affect human health, including viruses, bacteria and eukaryotic parasites. The aim of the programme is to find out more about how these organisms cause disease and spread within the population.. This is one of a series of films providing a unique insight into different careers in the field of genomics.. ...
An editorial in todays New York Times: The Rise of Antibiotic Resistance. Excerpt: The most urgent need is to minimize the overuse of antibiotics in medicine and agriculture, which accelerates the development of resistant strains. In the United States, the...
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has reported that at least 2 million illnesses and 23,000 deaths are caused each year in the United States by antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and scientists at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are using cutting-edge technology called whole genome sequencing (WGS) to help identify the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria as early as possible, as well as to take steps in controlling their further spread.. For the first time, we can rapidly determine the entire collection of known antibiotic resistance genes in an individual bacterium. This is allowing new insights into the nature and magnitude of the resistance threat, says Patrick McDermott, Ph.D., director of FDAs National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS). And, because the database of resistance genes is growing, due to work by scientists around the globe, we can see what others are nding and quickly ascertain if resistance threats emerging in other ...
The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of continuing or discontinuing 3TC treatment in the presence of HIV virus with 3TC resistance for persons who are on a regimen including least three other anti-HIV drugs. The overall aim is to determine whether continuing 3TC is of benefit in HIV-positive persons who have already shown resistance to this drug ...
Scientists in China say theyve identified a gene that makes a common, dangerous bacteria resistant to last-resort antibiotics called polymyxins.
The question on the minds of thousands of scientists minds across the world revolves around what the possible cause could be that continues to trigger the enormous spike in UTIs. The answer remains highly controversial. On the one hand, some researches argue that a strong link persists between the meat we consume and the bacteria we then acquire. These researchers highlight the close genetic matches between resistant E.coli from human patients and resistant strains found on chicken or turkey sold in supermarkets, in order to make the argument that resistance could be spreading with every bite from our chicken dinners. While on the other hand, other researchers dont agree as antibiotic resistance remains extremely common in our society therefore, it isnt surprising that genes carried by human E.coli are going to be similar to resistance genes in chicken E.coli. However, after taking both arguments into account, I believe that a strong link exists between the antibiotic treated meat we ...
This episode is focused on using antibiotics wisely and how YOU can help in the fight of antibiotic resistance. | Using antibiotics wisely, How YOU can help in the fight against antibiotic resistance Tuesday, February 9, 2016 on C. diff. Spores and More | VoiceAmerica - The Leader in Internet Media
Antibiotics do not work for viruses such as colds, influenza, most sore throats and bronchitis. Taking antibiotics when they are not needed increases the risk of future resistance when they are prescribed.. Colts Quarterback Matt Hasselbeck and ISDH Health Commissioner Dr. Adams Discuss Antibiotics. Antibiotic Use and Antibiotic Resistance Quick Fact El uso de antibióticos y resistencia antibiótica CDC - Get Smart About Antibiotics Materials. ...
Our latest data show some progress in reducing resistance among some germs that make people sick, but unfortunately were also seeing greater resistance in some pathogens, like certain types of salmonella, Dr. Robert Tauxe, deputy director of the division of foodborne, waterborne and environmental diseases at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, said in an agency news release.TUESDAY, July 1, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Theres good news and bad news about antibiotic resistance among the germs that cause foodborne illnesses, a new U.S. government report released Tuesday shows ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Resistance decay in individuals after antibiotic exposure in primary care. T2 - A systematic review and meta-analysis. AU - Bakhit, Mina. AU - Hoffmann, Tammy. AU - Scott, Anna Mae. AU - Beller, Elaine. AU - Rathbone, John. AU - Del Mar, Chris. PY - 2018/8/7. Y1 - 2018/8/7. N2 - BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is an urgent global problem, but reversibility is poorly understood. We examined the development and decay of bacterial resistance in community patients after antibiotic use.METHODS: This was a systematic review and meta-analysis. PubMed, EMBASE and CENTRAL (from inception to May 2017) were searched, with forward and backward citation searches of the identified studies. We contacted authors whose data were unclear, and of abstract-only reports, for further information. We considered controlled or times-series studies of patients in the community who were given antibiotics and where the subsequent prevalence of resistant bacteria was measured. Two authors extracted risk of ...
In women from 2 independent ethnic groups relocating from Thailand to the United States, investigators found a rapid increase in gut microbiome antibiotic resistance genes richness and abundance.
Summary of Facts and Submissions. I. The European application with the title Rapid detection of antibiotic resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis was filed as international application PCT/EP93/01063, claiming priorities from US 875,940 (P1; filed on 30 April 1992), US 929,206 (P2; filed on 14 August 1992), FR 92/11098 (P3; filed on 17 September 1992) and FR 93/04545 (fourth priority document; filed on 16 April 1993).. Claims 1 and 16 of the application as originally filed read:. 1. A process for the detection of a resistance to an antibiotic in a mycobacterium which comprises detecting a mutation in a gene selected from the katG gene or fragment thereof, the rpoB gene or fragment thereof and rpsL gene or fragment thereof.. 16. The process of claim 1 for the detection of resistance to the selected antibiotic which comprises:. - fragmenting the relevant gene or part thereof likely to carry the mutation into a plurality of fragments, such as by digestion of said relevant gene by selected ...
Friendly microbes in the intestinal tracts of healthy American children have numerous antibiotic resistance genes, according to results of a pilot study by
Resistance to antibiotics is hardly a new problem; ever since the advent of penicillin and other antibiotics more than 50 years ago defiant strains of bacteria have emerged. The harrowing aspect is that now almost every human pathogen treated with antibiotics is showing resistance, and many doctors fear that this will only be the tip of the iceberg. After all, every time any antibiotic is used, while it may kill the majority of the bacteria the drug was intended to destroy, there is a likelihood that a few germs will remain, surviving because of their resistant traits or their ability to mutate and become resistant to antibiotics. Once created, these resistant genes can multiply quickly, creating new strains of bacteria that could result in the patients next infection failing to respond to the previously administered antibiotic. In fact, bacteria can reproduce about every twenty minutes, meaning resistance is quickly spread, and the resistant strand eventually becomes the dominant strand of ...
According to the HPA, â€Åthe failure of patients to complete courses of prescribed antibiotics†has facilitated the spread of isoniazid-resistant TB.. Since the treatment regimen lasts six months or more, proper treatment of at-risk groups like the homeless and intravenous drug users is quite problematic thereby increasing the likelihood that the strain will continue spreading.. Incentives and other programs that encourage and reward those who adhere to the lengthy treatment routine are being utilized. These include giving out food vouchers, social service support, and accommodation assistance.. Between 1987 and 2003, London has seen TB cases double to 2,745 thereby accounting for 45% of all cases in England and Wales. Sir William Stewart, Chairman of the HPA, states: â€ÅThe bugs are cleverer than we are. They grow, multiply, and mutate more quickly than we can deal with them. Antibiotics, though still hugely important, are no longer the saviors that they were ...
Novel antibiotics are urgently needed to combat the rise of infections due to drug-resistant microorganisms. Numerous natural nucleosides and their synthetically modified analogues have been reported to have moderate to good antibiotic activity against different bacterial and fungal strains. Nucleoside-based compounds target several crucial processes of bacterial and fungal cells such as nucleoside metabolism and cell wall, nucleic acid, and protein biosynthesis. Nucleoside analogues have also been shown to target many other bacterial and fungal cellular processes although these are not well characterized and may therefore represent opportunities to discover new drugs with unique mechanisms of action. In this Perspective, we demonstrate that nucleoside analogues, cornerstones of anticancer and antiviral treatments, also have great potential to be repurposed as antibiotics so that an old drug can learn new tricks.. ...
As pathogenic bacteria evolve, antibiotic resistance is spreading, compromising our ability to control and treat infectious diseases. Antibiotic Resistance thoroughly illuminates this crucial issue for healthcare professionals, researchers, students, and policymakers.
The AMR has often highlighted that simple measures like hand washing among physicians, maintaining hygiene can go a long way in the battle against antibiotic resistance along with regulation of prescribing and consumption of these drugs can. It has emphasised that broad range of interventions, encompassing both the simple and inexpensive, and larger-scale more complex actions are critical to address this public health concern ...
Scientists at the University of Birmingham have identified a new mechanism of antibiotic resistance in bacterial cells which could help us in understanding, and developing solutions to, the growing problem of antibiotic resistance.
Isolation Of Multiple Drugs Resistance - INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial resistance is not new, but the number of resistant organisms, the geographic locations affected by drug resistance, and the breadth of resistance in single organisms are unprecedented and mounting. Diseases and disease agents that were once thought to be controlled by antibiotics …. Read More » ...
Antibiotic Resistance Without Fitness Cost. - posted in Creation vs Evolution: In the majority of studies performed, resistance caused bytarget alterations has been found to engender some cost tofitness (Table 1), but mutants with no measurable costshave also been observed. One example of a ‘no cost’ resistancemutation is the 42nd codon AAA (Lys)®AGA (Arg)substitution of the rpsL gene, responsible for resistance tohigh concentrations of streptomycin in S. typhimurium andoth...
Pre-defined mutations in viral RNA were noted, the presence of which was defined as genotypic resistance. Phenotypic resistance was defined as IC50 more than 10-fold higher than the median value for all viruses of the same subtype. Treatment-emergent resistance was defined as the presence of genotypic or phenotypic resistance from a post-Baseline sample in the setting of a previously non-resistant Baseline sample. Susceptible viruses were those that did not exhibit treatment-emergent resistance. The percentage of participants by earliest post-Baseline test day on which viral RNA was not detected was reported and stratified by resistant and susceptible viruses ...
Antibiotic resistance is a worldwide public health problem (Bush et al. in Nat Rev Microbiol 9:894-896, 2011). The lack of effective therapies against resistant bacteria globally leads to prolonged...
Looking at the 4-hours chart, the pair traded above the 1.1020 resistance level plus the 50% Fib retracement level of the downward move from the 1.1163 high to 1.0925 low.. However, the upward move was capped by the 1.1080 and 1.1090 resistance levels. Moreover, the pair is also facing hurdles near the 100 simple moving average (red, 4-hours) and the 61.8% Fib retracement level of the downward move from the 1.1163 high to 1.0925 low.. There is also a crucial bearish trend line forming with resistance near 1.1100 on the same chart. Therefore, the pair needs to climb above the 1.1080 and 1.1100 resistance levels to continue higher.. Conversely, if EUR/USD fails to break the 1.1080 and 1.1100 resistance levels, it could start a fresh decline. An immediate support is near the 1.0980 level, below which the pair could test the 1.0950 support area.. Fundamentally, the US nonfarm payrolls report for August 2019 was released by the US Department of Labor this past Friday. The market was looking for an ...
The patent-pending Resistance Anchor Cable™ system allows you to tailor the resistance level of the cables to your specific needs. Color-coded cable ends identify six different resistance levels, from Level 4 to Level 9. Each level represents an increase in resistance of approximately 2.5 pounds, or 1.1 kg., in comparison to the previous level. The Level 9 cables can also be used for isometric resistance exercises. A set consists of two Anchor Cables included in box.. ...
The patent-pending Resistance Anchor Cable™ system allows you to tailor the resistance level of the cables to your specific needs. Color-coded cable ends identify six different resistance levels, from Level 4 to Level 9. Each level represents an increase in resistance of approximately 2.5 pounds, or 1.1 kg., in comparison to the previous level. The Level 9 cables can also be used for isometric resistance exercises. A set consists of two Anchor Cables included in box.. ...
The British chemist Lesley Orgel had a rule: Evolution is cleverer than you. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have repeatedly proven him right.. Since humans started making antibiotics for ourselves in the 1940s, bacteria have evolved to counteract our efforts. They are now winning. There are strains of old foes that withstand everything we can throw at them. Meanwhile, our arsenal has dried up. Before 1962, scientists developed more than 20 new classes of antibiotics. Since then, they have made two.. More, hopefully, are coming. A team of scientists led by Kim Lewis from Northeastern University have identified a new antibiotic called teixobactin, which kills some kinds of bacteria by preventing them from building their outer coats. They used it to successfully treat antibiotic-resistant infections in mice. And more importantly, when they tried to deliberately evolve strains of bacteria that resist the drug, they failed. Teixobactin appears resistant to resistance.. Bacteria will eventually develop ...
The public section of the CAN-R website is designed to ensure that the public has access to the latest and most comprehensive information gathered from a variety of sources on antibiotic resistance and related issues in Canada.. ...
Nichols (1987) defines resistance as, anything clients do to subvert or slow the process of therapy. In family therapy, resistance is the rule, not the exception (p. 251).. There is no debate regarding whether or not we will encounter resistance in therapy. The real questions are these: Why do we encounter resistance? Who is the culprit? Is there something which the resistance is covering?. Why do we encounter resistance?. People do not like change. We would much rather maintain homeostasis, dysfunctional or not, because it is what we know. If we were to change, this would be taking on the unknown, which can be more scary than continuing on the dysfunctional path. We have all heard that we are creatures of habit. We have also heard that it takes various amount of time, everyone has a different opinion about the length, to begin a new habit. This means three things: 1. We have to stop doing what we know, 2. We have to begin doing something different, and most of the time scary, and 3. We have ...
Public Release: 18-Nov-2016 University of Gothenburg Polluted city air has now been identified as a possible means of transmission for resistant bacteria. Researchers in Gothenburg have shown that air samples from Beijing contain DNA from genes that make bacteria resistant to the most powerful antibiotics we have. This may be a more important means of…
Antibiotic resistance in children with urinary infections is high and could render some antibiotics ineffective as first-line treatments, warns a study published by The BMJ.
Issues in Depth is a series of symposia focused this year on antibiotics and antibiotic resistance. The series is sponsored by the ASBMB Minority Affairs Committee.. ...
Dr. Windi Muziasari, CEO of Resistomap, talks about how they are fighting the spread of antibiotic resistance genes by providing robust tools for monitoring.
35,000 people will die from Antibiotic Resistant infections in the US this year, while another 2.8 million will fight an Antibiotic Resistant infection.
Airway resistance is the resistance to the flow of air through the respiratory tract during inhalation and expiration. The level of resistance depends on many things, particularly the diameter of the airway and whether flow is laminar or turbulent. In this article we shall consider how these factors affect the air flow, and consider some clinical conditions in which airway resistance is affected.
According to the CDC, 50 million courses of antibiotics prescribed by doctors each year may be unnecessary and may lead to antibiotic resistance.
A Department of Health memo, leaked to the Health Service Journal, is being reported this morning. It was on the Today programme this morning, and it is in the Guardian as well, and elsewhere too, no doubt ...
Microbial Drug Resistance. 18 (3): 280-5. doi:10.1089/mdr.2012.0002. PMC 3412580. PMID 22432705. Shrivastav A, Dabrowski AN, ... expression regulates proinflammatory cytokines by microbial and dietary fatty acids". Immunobiology. 216 (6): 715-24. doi: ...
Microbial Drug Resistance. 26 (4): 311-318. doi:10.1089/mdr.2019.0260. PMID 31596673. Kshirsagar MM, Dodamani AS, Vishwakarma P ... In drug discovery labs, the disk diffusion test is performed slightly differently than in diagnostic labs. In this setting, it ... In drug discovery labs, especially bioprospecting labs, the assay is used to screen biological material (e.g. plant extracts, ... is a culture-based microbiology assay used in diagnostic and drug discovery laboratories. In diagnostic labs, the assay is used ...
Microbial Drug Resistance. 20 (3): 199-214. doi:10.1089/mdr.2014.0035. v t e v t e (Articles to be merged from November 2022, ...
Microbial Drug Resistance. 15 (1): 1-9. doi:10.1089/mdr.2009.0856. PMID 19216682. D-alanine-D-serine+ligase at the US National ... Fines M, Perichon B, Reynolds P, Sahm DF, Courvalin P (September 1999). "VanE, a new type of acquired glycopeptide resistance ... Depardieu F, Bonora MG, Reynolds PE, Courvalin P (November 2003). "The vanG glycopeptide resistance operon from Enterococcus ... Park IS, Lin CH, Walsh CT (September 1997). "Bacterial resistance to vancomycin: overproduction, purification, and ...
Microbial Drug Resistance. 8, 281-289 (2002). Ruiz J. Mechanisms of resistance to quinolones: target alterations, decreased ... Microbial Drug Resistance. 14 (1), 45-47 (2008). Falcone M, Mezzatesta ML, Perilli MG et al. Infections with VIM-1 metallo-beta ... Microbial Drug Resistance. 13 (1), 1-6 (2007). Daurel C, Fiant AL, Brémont S, Courvalin P, Leclercq R. Emergence of an ... Microbial Drug Resistance. 12 (4), 223-230 (2006). Yan JJ, Ko WC, Chuang CL, Wu JJ. Metallo-beta-lactamase-producing ...
2004). "Dissemination of transferable AmpC-type beta-lactamase (CMY-10) in a Korean hospital". Microbial Drug Resistance. 10 (3 ... Hall BG, Barlow M (April 2004). "Evolution of the serine beta-lactamases: past, present and future". Drug Resistance Updates. 7 ... Plasmids responsible for ESBL production frequently carry genes encoding resistance to other drug classes (for example, ... Some confer resistance predominantly to ceftazidime, but OXA-17 confers greater resistance to cefotaxime and cefepime than it ...
Microbial Drug Resistance. 18 (3): 280-5. doi:10.1089/mdr.2012.0002. PMC 3412580. PMID 22432705. Dabrowski AN, Shrivastav A, ...
Microbial Drug Resistance. 18 (3): 280-285. doi:10.1089/mdr.2012.0002. ISSN 1076-6294. PMC 3412580. PMID 22432705. Dziarski, ... His MS Thesis was titled, Phenotypic expression of spontaneous mutations to nalidixic acid resistance in Escherichia coli K-12 ... ISBN 978-0-7817-8744-4. OCLC 769141612.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link) Schaechter's mechanisms of microbial disease. ... "Google Scholar, Roman Dziarski". Schaechter's mechanisms of microbial disease. Moselio Schaechter, N. Cary Engleberg, Victor J ...
Microbial Drug Resistance. 19 (4): 274-81. doi:10.1089/mdr.2012.0248. PMID 23514607. Nordmann, Patrice; et al. (May 2012). " ... They are resistant because they produce an enzyme called a carbapenemase that disables the drug molecule. The resistance can ... No new drugs for the bacteria are in development and the bacteria's rapid adaptation to new drugs makes investment in their ... In a Thailand-based study of CRE in hospital settings, carbapenem resistance was defined as any strain that shows resistance to ...
Microbial Drug Resistance. 12 (1): 1-6. doi:10.1089/mdr.2006.12.1. PMID 16584300. McNerney R, Traoré H (2005). " ... May 2019). "Engineered bacteriophages for treatment of a patient with a disseminated drug-resistant Mycobacterium abscessus". ... tuberculosis for antibiotic resistance. In the future, mycobacteriophage could be used to treat infections by phage therapy. In ...
Microbial Drug Resistance. 20 (3): 199-214. doi:10.1089/mdr.2014.0035. ISSN 1076-6294. PMC 4050452. PMID 24799078. Kawakami, ...
The main problem with pathogenic drug treatments in the modern world is drug resistance. Many patients don't take the full ... This example can also be applied to S. aureus and other common microbial flora in humans. Currently, antimicrobials are the ... only the bacteria which have developed genetic mutations to combat the drug can survive. This reduces drug effectiveness and ... These drugs are specifically designed to kill microbes or inhibit further growth within the host environment. Multiple terms ...
Microbial Drug Resistance (Larchmont, N.Y.). 22 (5): 412-431. doi:10.1089/mdr.2015.0220. ISSN 1931-8448. PMID 26866778. ... Antibiotic resistance Drug resistance Multiple drug resistance Cerceo, Elizabeth; Deitelzweig, Steven B.; Sherman, Bradley M.; ... This drug shows promise in infections from multi-drug resistant K. pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae carbapenemase [KPC]- and ESBL- ... The lack of newly emerging antimicobrial drugs have resulted in the revisit of old antibiotic drugs such as colistin ( ...
In human lung cancer samples, V-ATPase expression was correlated with drug resistance. A large number of V-ATPase subunit ... Saris NE, Andersson MA, Mikkola R, Andersson LC, Teplova VV, Grigoriev PA, Salkinoja-Salonen MS (August 2009). "Microbial ... Some cationic drugs, such as chloroquine and sertraline, are known as lysosomotropic drugs. These drugs are weak bases that ... Mayers D (2008). Antimicrobial drug resistance handbook. Volume 2, Clinical and epidemiological aspects. Totowa, N.J.: Humana. ...
Microbial Drug Resistance (Larchmont, N.Y.). 18 (3): 280-285. doi:10.1089/mdr.2012.0002. ISSN 1931-8448. PMC 3412580. PMID ... "Host-Microbial Interactions in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis". American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 195 ... "How innate immunity proteins kill bacteria and why they are not prone to resistance". Current Genetics. 64 (1): 125-129. doi: ...
Kleckner N, Chan RK, Tye BK, Botstein D (October 1975). "Mutagenesis by insertion of a drug-resistance element carrying an ... The development of microbial genome sequencing was a major advance for the use of transposon mutagenesis. The function affected ... Hayes F (2003). "Transposon-based strategies for microbial functional genomics and proteomics". Annual Review of Genetics. 37 ( ...
"Genetic engineering in vivo using translocatable drug-resistance elements. New methods in bacterial genetics". J. Mol. Biol. ... Berg, Claire; Berg, Douglass E. "Transposable Elements Tools for Microbial Genetics". EcoSal. Engels, William R. "P Elements in ... Alternatively insertional inactivation could be used to suppress genes that express antibiotic-resistance in bacteria., While ... Transposon-based Insertional inactivation is considered for medical research from suppression of antibiotic resistance in ...
... and drug resistance". J. Bacteriol. 183 (18): 5385-94. doi:10.1128/jb.183.18.5385-5394.2001. PMC 95423. PMID 11514524. Burmølle ... Type of microbial aggregate suspension Microbial intelligence - Adaptive behavior by microscopic organisms including bacteria ... Induced systemic resistance and pathogen-induced systemic acquired resistance are both potential functions of biofilms in the ... the biofilm does have greater resistance to antimicrobials. This resistance to antibiotics in both stationary-phase cells and ...
... and microbial resistance continues to increase faster than the pace of new drug and vaccine development. More positive ... More importantly, the drug costs are only a portion of HIV/AIDS treatment costs. Drug-resistant strains are likely to spread ... of drugs under patent protection. Developing countries also are less willing to make microbial samples available to companies ... to increasing microbial resistance to existing antibiotics, and because related models have already underestimated the force of ...
Mor A (2000). "Peptide-based antibiotics: a potential answer to raging antimicrobial resistance". Drug Development Research. 50 ... Hancock RE, Falla T, Brown M (1995). "Cationic bactericidal peptides". Advances in Microbial Physiology. 37: 135-75. PMID ... Antimicrobial resistance Amiche M, Seon AA, Pierre TN, Nicolas P (August 1999). "The dermaseptin precursors: a protein family ... Dermaseptin use in a novel drug delivery system has been proposed. The system is based on the affinity of dermaseptins for the ...
Mutations in rpoB that confer resistance to rifamycins do so by altering the protein's drug-binding residues, thereby reducing ... In these cases, the single-copy rpoB gene can be used to study microbial diversity. An inhibitor of transcription in bacteria, ... Koch A, Mizrahi V, Warner DF (March 2014). "The impact of drug resistance on Mycobacterium tuberculosis physiology: what can we ... Initial studies were done by Jin and Gross to generate rpoB mutations in E. coli that conferred resistance to rifampicin. Three ...
For drug resistant cases, depending upon the pattern of drug resistance a number of regimen are available composed of a ... Based on the nature of anti-microbial resistance to the disease different treatment regimen are offered through the program. ... these provide additional drug resistance/ susceptibility testing services for a number of Anti-TB drugs. Standardized treatment ... New Cases and those which exhibit no resistance are offered a six-month, short course of the four first line drugs; Isoniazid-H ...
Pleiotropic Drug Resistance ABC transporters are hypothesized to be involved in stress response and export antimicrobial ... This unique ABC transporter is found in Nicotiana tabacum BY2 cells and is expressed in the presence of microbial elicitors. ... or other resistance. Active transport is usually associated with accumulating high concentrations of molecules that the cell ...
"High frequency of macrolide resistance mechanisms in clinical isolates of Corynebacterium species". Microbial Drug Resistance. ... In the same experiment, multi drug resistance was observed in 49.2% of strains. Corynebacterium striatum has been found to ... Similar resistance was noted in a study with all isolates showing resistance to ciprofloxacin. Of significant clinical ... Antibiotic resistance is the acquisition of resistance to antibiotic treatments through either horizontal gene transfer or ...
By culturing the blood, microbes can be identified and tested for resistance to antimicrobial drugs, which allows clinicians to ... Throughout the 1970s and 80s several manufacturers attempted to detect microbial growth by measuring changes in the electrical ... in which microbial proteins are ionized and characterized on the basis of their mass-to-charge ratios; each microbial species ... If microbial growth is detected, a Gram stain is conducted from the culture bottle to confirm that organisms are present and ...
"Redefining the relevance of established cancer cell lines to the study of mechanisms of clinical anti-cancer drug resistance". ... Bakermans, Corien (2015). Microbial Evolution under Extreme Conditions. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. p. 154. ISBN 9783110340716 ... Niu, Nifang; Wang, Liewei (March 2015). "human cell line models to predict clinical response to anticancer drugs". ... a cancer cell line to make predictions for healthy cells if the cancer cell line is known to be resistant to cytotoxic drugs ...
Ochiai, K.; Yamanaka, T.; Kimura, K.; Sawada, O. (1959). "Inheritance of drug resistance (and its transfer) between Shigella ... One important development in the study of microbial evolution came with the discovery in Japan in 1959 of horizontal gene ... Furthermore, Parker, after reviewing numerous genetic studies on plant disease resistance, failed to find a single example ... Schloss, Patrick D.; Handelsman, Jo (December 2004). "Status of the Microbial Census". Microbiology and Molecular Biology ...
Drug resistance is increasingly more common and presents a serious problem in persons who are immunocompromised. Prophylactic ... such as regular toothbrushing and use of anti-microbial mouthwashes. Since smoking is associated with many of forms of oral ... However, there is strong evidence that drugs that are absorbed or partially absorbed from the GI tract can prevent candidiasis ... Oral candidiasis can be treated with topical anti-fungal drugs, such as nystatin, miconazole, Gentian violet or amphotericin B ...
Squalene-hopene cyclase mutants derived from a wild type capable of multidrug efflux, a drug-resistance mechanism mediated by ... been proposed and patented as a biofertilizer technique that increases environmental resistance of plant-associated microbial ... October 2014). "Covalently linked hopanoid-lipid A improves outer-membrane resistance of a Bradyrhizobium symbiont of legumes ... Ourisson G, Albrecht P, Rohmer M (1982-07-01). "Predictive microbial biochemistry - from molecular fossils to procaryotic ...
... acquisition of drug resistance and recent evolution. In addition, they are working with local and national clinical ... "A human gut microbial gene catalogue established by metagenomic sequencing". Nature. 464 (7285): 59-65. Bibcode:2010Natur.464 ... Evidence for the rapid evolution of virulence and drug resistance". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 101 (26): ... Brown, N. L.; Camakaris, J; Lee, B. T.; Williams, T; Morby, A. P.; Parkhill, J; Rouch, D. A. (1991). "Bacterial resistances to ...
Drug Discovery. 16 (10): 718-735. doi:10.1038/nrd.2017.116. PMC 5942225. PMID 28729727.. ... IL-6 is secreted by macrophages in response to specific microbial molecules, referred to as pathogen-associated molecular ... November 2010). "Interleukin-6-deficient mice develop hepatic inflammation and systemic insulin resistance". Diabetologia. 53 ( ... "The quest to slow ageing through drug discovery". Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery. 19 (8): 513-532. doi:10.1038/s41573-020-0067 ...
This mediates resistance to aminoglycosides (AmrAB-OprA), tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones, and macrolides (BpeAB-OprB).[55] ... but is a broad-spectrum drug efflux system". Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 54 (8): 3113-20. doi:10.1128/AAC.01803-09. PMC ... Microbial Pathogenesis. 36 (5): 287-9. doi:10.1016/j.micpath.2004.01.001. PMID 15043863.. ... The pattern of resistance to antimicrobials is distinctive, and helps to differentiate the organism from P. aeruginosa. The ...
"Tentative Final Monograph for Health-Care Antiseptic Drug Products; Proposed Rule" (PDF). United States Federal Food and Drug ... "Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control. 8 (1): 109. doi:10.1186/s13756-019-0553-z. PMC 6591802. PMID 31285821.. ... Their ease of availability, no need for water or plumbing, and their proven effectiveness in reducing microbial load are just a ... Food and Drug Administration. 19 June 2020. Retrieved 27 June 2020.. *^ "British Columbians warned over hand sanitizers ...
Patil RS, Ghormade V, Deshpande MV (April 2000). "Chitinolytic enzymes: an exploration". Enzyme and Microbial Technology. 26 (7 ... Expression is mediated by the NPR1 gene and the salicylic acid pathway, both involved in resistance to fungal and insect attack ... an anti-tumor drug and as a general ingredient to be used in protein engineering.[42] ... 1997). "Transgenic potato plants with enhanced resistance to the tomato moth, Lacanobia oleracea: growth room trials". ...
Smoking causes damage to health or even death, while some drugs may also be harmful or fatal to people.[130][131] Both illegal ... See also: Immune system and Plant disease resistance. By means of cells that behave like nerves, plants receive and distribute ... The first plant receptors of conserved microbial signatures were identified in rice (XA21, 1995)[84] and in Arabidopsis ... "Illegal drugs drain $160 billion a year from American economy". Archived from the original on 15 February 2008.. ...
... difficile can be reduced and natural colonization resistance can develop over time as the natural microbial community recovers ... Other drugs for the treatment of CDI are under development and include rifalazil,[132] tigecycline,[132] ramoplanin,[132] ... "Origin of Adverse Drug Events in U.S. Hospitals, 2011 - Statistical Brief #158". Archived from the original on 7 April 2016. ... "Antibiotic resistance threats in the United States, 2013" (PDF). US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2013. Archived ...
Electrical and electronics industryEdit. Corona discharge on electrical apparatus can be detected by its ultraviolet emissions ... "How to increase serotonin in the human brain without drugs". Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience. 32 (6): 394-399. PMC ... "Far-UVC light: A new tool to control the spread of airborne-mediated microbial diseases". Scientific Reports. 8 (1): 2752. ... "Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control. 5: 10. doi:10.1186/s13756-016-0111-x. PMC 4827199. PMID 27069623.. ...
It allows patients, especially out-patients, to self-serve the drugs with minimal possibility of experiencing acute drug ... June 2017). "Organs-on-Chips with combined multi-electrode array and transepithelial electrical resistance measurement ... Many microbial species in the gut microbiota are strict anaerobes. In order to co-culture these oxygen intolerant anaerobes ... a significant hurdle for drugs to overcome when treating the brain, allowing for drug efficacy across this barrier to be ...
Richard Stenger Mars sample return plan carries microbial risk, group warns, CNN, November 7, 2000 ... the seal encountered too much resistance and did not come free. The sampling system automatically detected the lack of seal and ... requiring a steeper ascent path to avoid excess atmospheric drag, while slower burning liquid propulsion might take advantage ... DiGregorio accepts the conspiracy theory of a NASA coverup regarding the discovery of microbial life by the 1976 Viking landers ...
Emergence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with extensive resistance to second-line drugs-worldwide, 2000-2004. MMWR Morb Mortal ... 胸部X光、細菌培養(英语:microbial culture)、结核菌素试验[1]. ... 多重抗藥性結核病(MDR-TB)的定義是結核菌同時對兩種最有效的第一線藥物利福平和異煙肼具抗藥性。广泛耐药结核則是指同時對
Research, Center for Drug Evaluation and (২০১৯-০২-০৯)। "FDA Drug Safety Communication: FDA updates warnings for oral and ... জুলাই ২০১৩)। "Management of urinary tract infections in the era of increasing antimicrobial resistance."। Med Clin North Am। 97 ... Engleberg, N C; DiRita, V; Dermody, T S (২০০৭)। Schaechter's Mechanism of Microbial Disease। Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & ... Aronson, edited by Jeffrey K. (২০০৮)। Meyler's side effects of analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs। Amsterdam: Elsevier ...
... inhibiting the cariogenic microbial processes in dental plaque and increasing tooth resistance to acid breakdown. Fluoride has ... Dental fluorosis is a dose-dependent adverse drug effect featured by temporary white marks. It can be induced by increased ... the inhibition of the cariogenic microbial metabolism in dental plaque and the increase of tooth resistance to acid dissolution ... These processes contribute to reducing the risk of dental caries by inhibiting microbial metabolism in the tooth plaque. ...
... motion is only due to the natural resistance of the violin string, resistance of the bow hair, and light weight of the stroke. ... The spot may be aggravated by an allergic reaction to nickel plating on the chinrest clamp hardware, or by microbial pathogens ... and dragged détaché (détaché traîné) where smooth bow changes leave no audible gap between each note. Martelé (French; Italian ...
A report given to the Food and Drug Administration by the Institute of Food Technologists thoroughly discusses the thermal ... There are five main types of microbial pathogens which contaminate food and water: viruses, bacteria, fungi, pathogenic ... necessitating continued research to maintain disease-resistance. An important task within the realm of food safety is the ... ISBN 978-1-4939-2578-0 Jamuna Aswathanarayn & Rai, V. Ravishankar (2015). Microbial Food Safety and Preservation Techniques. ...
Lissette Martinez is an electrical engineer and rocket scientist. Martinez is the lead electrical engineer for the Space ... Genetic Roadmap Targets Drug Therapies Archived September 1, 2010, at the Wayback Machine from Hartford Business Review ... She holds a doctorate in Biology-Aquatic Microbial Ecology. Pedro Rodríguez is a scientist, inventor, mechanical engineer, Aero ... He received a BS degree in electrical engineering (magna cum laude) from the University of Puerto Rico - Mayagüez, and an MS ...
"Herb-Drug Interactions". NCCIH. 10 September 2015. Retrieved 26 June 2019. Kuhn MA (April 2002). "Herbal remedies: drug-herb ... believing that plants are subject to environmental pressures and therefore develop resistance to threats such as radiation, ... reactive oxygen species and microbial attack to survive, providing defensive phytochemicals of use in herbalism. Indigenous ... Some prescription drugs have a basis as herbal remedies, including artemisinin, digitalis, quinine and taxanes. In 2015, the ...
... pesticides have the potential to be a major factor in drug resistance. Organizations such as the World Health ... Low temperature is also used to inhibit microbial activity by slowing down microbial metabolism. Foods are often irradiated to ... Antibacterials are among the most commonly used drugs and among the drugs commonly misused by physicians, for example, in viral ... Many antiviral drugs are designed to treat infections by retroviruses, including HIV. Important antiretroviral drugs include ...
Carol Nacy, CEO of Sequella, Takes on the Global Crisis of Anti-Microbial Resistance BioBuzz". BioBuzz. 2018-08-27. Retrieved ... for her work to create new drugs for TB. Nacy is married to Monte S. Meltzer, M.D., has 5 children and 3 grandchildren. Yee, ...
"Evolutionary paths to antibiotic resistance under dynamically sustained drug selection". Nature Genetics. 44 (1): 101-105. doi: ... Bryson V, Szybalski W (1952). "Microbial selection". Science. 116 (115): 45-51. doi:10.1126/science.116.3003.45. PMID 14950177 ... The morbidostat is a similar device built to study the evolution of antimicrobial resistance. The aim is also to maintain ...
A microbiological culture, or microbial culture, is a method of multiplying microbial organisms by letting them reproduce in ... This can also be used when creating engineered strains of bacteria that contain an antibiotic-resistance gene. When the ... Then they would take aliquots of the sample to test for the antimicrobial activity of a specific drug or protein (antimicrobial ... Colony-forming unit Blood culture Microbial dark matter Microbial Food Cultures Screening cultures Sputum culture Synchronous ...
... leading to increased drag of up to 60%. The drag increase has been seen to decrease speeds by up to 10%, which can require up ... Microbial Biosystems: New Frontiers, Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Microbial Ecology (PDF), Halifax, Canada ... demonstrate a high correlation between their resistance to bacterial adhesion and their hydrophobicity. A study of the ... The additional drag can decrease speeds up to 10%, which can require up to a 40% increase in fuel to compensate. With fuel ...
... fulfills a role that has arisen due to the rise of microbial resistance to existing macrolides and appears to be ... After significant safety concerns, the US Food and Drug Administration sharply curtailed the approved uses of the drug in early ... "The Adequacy of FDA Efforts to Assure the Safety of the Drug Supply", February 13, 2007. [1] Food and Drug Administration, ... In January 2006, an article in the March issue of Annals of Internal Medicine was published, citing three recent drug-induced ...
For example, microbial biosynthetic gene clusters may utilize aa-tRNAs in the synthesis of non-ribosomal peptides and other ... Arenz, S; Nguyen, F; Beckmann, R; Wilson, DN (28 April 2015). "Cryo-EM structure of the tetracycline resistance protein TetM in ... Tetracyclines are considered broad-spectrum antibiotic agents; these drugs exhibit capabilities of inhibiting the growth of ... and epidemiology of bacterial resistance". Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. 65 (2): 232-60, second page, table of ...
... have become increasingly difficult to address as infection-causing bacteria have developed resistance to multiple drugs. The ... Angelopoulou A, Warda AK, Hill C, Ross RP (2019-11-02). "Non-antibiotic microbial solutions for bovine mastitis - live ... "Antibiotic resistance". www.who.int. Retrieved 2021-05-04. Yoshikawa TT (July 2002). "Antimicrobial resistance and aging: ... As of July 2020, the World Health Organization considers antibiotic resistance "one of the biggest threats to global health, ...
Infection and Drug Resistance. 7: 343-63. doi:10.2147/IDR.S51388. PMC 4271721. PMID 25548523. Jain SK, Persaud D, Perl TM, et ... Michels, H.T. (2006), Anti-Microbial Characteristics of Copper, ASTM Standardization News, October, pp. 28-31 Wang, Meng; Wei, ... "For gram-positives we need better drugs; for gram-negatives we need any drugs," said Dr. Brad Spellberg, an infectious-disease ... While antibiotic drugs to treat diseases caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus are available, few effective ...
Pang Z, Raudonis R, Glick BR, Lin TJ, Cheng Z (January-February 2019). "Antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: ... Notably, S. aureus has evolved several drug-resistant strains, including MRSA. Streptococcus pneumoniae is a bacterium that ... Gordon SV, Parish T (April 2018). "Microbe Profile: Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Humanity's deadly microbial foe". Microbiology ... Schroeder MR, Stephens DS (2016-09-21). "Macrolide Resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae". Frontiers in Cellular and Infection ...
Water vapor diffusion resistance (μ) of EPS is around 30-70. ICC-ES (International Code Council Evaluation Service) requires ... For example, polystyrene meets the stringent standards of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the European Commission/ ... Microbial Genomics. 8 (6): 1-19. doi:10.1099/mgen.0.000842. PMC 9455710. PMID 35678705. Roy, Robert (7 March 2006). "Immortal ... Several EPS producers have produced a variety of these increased thermal resistance EPS usage for this product in the UK and EU ...
The immunosuppressant drug cyclosporine, used to suppress the rejection of transplanted organs, is derived from the mold ... various cheeses including Brie and Blue cheese Rhizomucor miehei - microbial rennet for making vegetarian and other cheeses ... providing resistance to damage by ultraviolet radiation. Other mold spores have slimy sheaths and are more suited to water ... Several statin cholesterol-lowering drugs (such as lovastatin, from Aspergillus terreus) are derived from molds. ...
... 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. ... Emerging and other communicable diseases: antimicrobial resistance: report by the Director-General  ...
Action agenda for antimicrobial resistance in the Western Pacific Region  World Health Organization. Regional Office for the ... Antibiotic resistance : synthesis of recommendations by expert policy groups / Alliance for the Prudent Use of Antibiotics; J. ... Antibiotic resistance: using a cultural contexts of health approach to address a global health challenge  ... This policy brief has been developed in response to the contemporary challenge of antibiotic resistance (‎ABR)‎. ABR poses a ...
Fungal Biofilms and Drug Resistance On This Page Microbial Biofilms Antifungal-Drug Resistance Antimicrobial-Drug Resistance ... Antifungal-Drug Resistance. Antifungal drug resistance is quickly becoming a major problem in the expanding population of ... Antimicrobial-Drug Resistance. Microbial biofilms not only serve as a nidus for disease but also are often associated with high ... Antifungal drugs and fungal resistance: the need for a new generation of drugs. Gen Dent. 1999;47:352-5.PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
... which looks at the relationships within and across microbial communities-on and in people, animals, and the environment-to ... microbial ecology, microbiomes, and antimicrobial resistance. This work will lead to addressing how to, for example, protect ... For example, when a person takes antibiotics or antifungals, the drugs kill some germs that cause infections (pathogens) and ... CDC Studies Microbial Ecology to Protect People from Infections. *Scientists study microbial ecology, the relationships between ...
Microbial Drug Resistance. Material type: Continuing resourcePublication details: Larchmont, N.Y. : Mary Ann Liebert. ISSN: ... Drug resistance, Microbial -- periodicals Tags from this library: No tags from this library for this title. Log in to add tags. ...
In: Microbial drug resistance (Larchmont, N.Y.), Vol. 26, no.6, p. 537-544 (2020). doi:10.1089/mdr.2019.0282. ... ABC multidrug transporters : target for modulation of drug pharmacokinetics and drug-drug interactions. In: Current Drug ... Selection of quinolone resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae exposed in vitro to subinhibitory drug concentrations. In: ... High-level resistance to meropenem in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the absence of carbapenemases: role of ...
Drug Resistance, Microbial [‎3]‎. Emergencies [‎5]‎. Environmental Health [‎3]‎. Financial Management [‎6]‎. ...
Microbial drug resistance. *. v.1(1995)- Access via Liebert Online for Pitt and UPMC users ... Drug resistance updates. *. v.10(2007)- Access via ClinicalKey for Pitt and UPMC users ... Antimicrobial resistance & infection control. *. v.1(2012)- Free access via BioMed Central ...
Several lines of evidence, including the isolation of RT mutants that show cross resistance, suggest that, despite their ... Drug Resistance, Microbial * HIV / drug effects* * HIV / enzymology * HIV Reverse Transcriptase * Pyranocoumarins ... the drugs respond differently to the panel of drug-resistant HIV-1 RTs, indicating that while the binding sites of the drugs ... This collection of mutants can be used to determine whether a new drug will show cross resistance with known inhibitors and to ...
Categories: Drug Resistance, Microbial Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
We present PhyloPhlAn 3.0, an accurate, rapid, and easy-to-use method for large-scale microbial genome characterization and ... At the other extreme of resolution, it scales to large phylogenies comprising >17,000 microbial species. Examples including ... The increasing amount of sequenced microbial genomes and metagenomes requires platforms for efficient integrated analysis. Here ... present PhyloPhlAn 3.0, a pipeline allowing large-scale microbial genome characterization and phylogenetic contextualization at ...
Microbial Drug Resistance: mechanism, epidemiology, and disease. State. IA. Performing Organization. University of Iowa, Iowa ... Fifteen isolates displayed resistance to one or more tested antibiotics, and the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes were ... followed by antibiotic resistance testing and molecular analysis of the isolates. While no MRSA was detected, overall, 23.7% ( ...
... resulting in infections highly resistant to drugs, when compared with their planktonic counterparts. This refractory effect is ... 3. Candida/Bacteria Mixed Biofilms: Characterization and the Problematic of the Biofilms Drug Resistance 3.1. Mixed Candida ... microbial resistance, and recent advances in the management of this kind of consortia. Moreover, the challenges found in the ... Davies, D. Understanding biofilm resistance to antibacterial agents. Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 2003, 2, 114-122. [Google Scholar ...
Non-coding RNAs in drug and radiation resistance of bone and soft-tissue sarcoma: a systematic review ... Furthermore, whether drugs that selectively target gut microbial metabolism can improve ALD has never been tested. We used ... The microbial metabolite TMA is elevated in patients with AH, and inhibition of TMA production from gut microbes can protect ... Gut Microbial Trimethylamine is Elevated in Alcohol-Associated Hepatitis and Contributes to Ethanol-Induced Liver Injury in ...
Microbial Drug Resistance. 16(1): 9-19. doi:10.1089/mdr.2009.0082. Further Reading. -. You can view the full report (fee ... This work was published in the scientific journal Microbial Drug Resistance.. Reference. Frye J.G., R.L. Lindsey, G. Rondeau, S ... The antimicrobial-resistance genes in the bacteria will then attach themselves to the probes they match on the slide, making ... Then they designed a microarray of more than 700 DNA probes to detect the resistance genes, he explained. A DNA microarray is a ...
Microbial resistance to antimycobacterial drugs may be either initial or secondary. Initial resistance occurs in patients who ... many such patients will have resistance to other first-line drugs (e.g., ethambutol and streptomycin) when drug resistance is ... is not from a country with a high prevalence of drug resistance, and has no known exposure to a drug-resistant case). This four ... testing for resistance to rifampin could identify strains likely to have multiple drug resistance. The current minimal ...
D. Greenwood, "Sixty years on: antimicrobial drug resistance comes of age," The Lancet, vol. 346, supplement 1, p. S1, 1995. ... Certain drugs like nitrofurans and nitroimidazoles can cause cancer in human being. Similarly, some drugs can produce ... Antibiotic residues consumed along with food and honey can produce resistance in bacterial populations. Antibiotic resistance ... Antibiotic, Pesticide, and Microbial Contaminants of Honey: Human Health Hazards. Noori Al-Waili. ,1Khelod Salom. ,1Ahmed Al- ...
Incentives for New Drugs to Tackle Anti-Microbial Resistance. Ferraro, J., Towse, A., and Mestre-Ferrandiz, J. ... Resistance to antibiotics is growing, posing a major health risk in rich and poor countries. Additional ways of rewarding R&D ... Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) occurs when microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites change in ways that ... Antimicrobials Resistance: A Call for Multi-disciplinary Action. How Can HTA Help?. ...
Microbial Drug Resistance. Fakulta / Pracoviště MU. Lékařská fakulta Citace. Doi. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/mdr.2014.0013. ... three pulsed-field gel electrophoresis clusters and were characterized by low variability relative to antibiotic resistance ...
The drug-resistance problem is not limited to bacteria and antibiotics - anti-viral drugs for fighting diseases such as AIDS ... This leads to an ever-present concern that drugs can be rendered useless when the microbial world employs the survival-of-the- ... David L. Heymann, "Resistance to Anti-Infective Drugs and the Threat to Public Health," Cell 124 (February 24, 2006), pp. 671- ... Drug resistance is nothing new. The traditional approach to this problem, still potentially useful, is expanding the search for ...
Efflux genes have been established to be among factors for drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) ... making it impossible for drugs to attain intracellular concentration lethal to the organism. There is paucity of data on the ... pulmonary infections by conferring bacterial ability to pump-out drugs from intracellular compartment, ... is emergence of Multi-Drug Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDRTB) strains. ...
... and a decrease in drug resistance. To our knowledge, there have been no reviews on the impact of BV and its antimicrobial ... Microbial diseases are problematic, particularly with the emergence of drug resistance; therefore, researchers are looking for ... BV and its constituents in combination with antibiotic drugs emerge as a plausible approach to overcome drug resistance of ... The annual deaths attributable to anti-microbial resistance are expected to surpass those of cancer by 2050 [2]. Due to the ...
Microbial drug resistance has become a major public health concern worldwide. To acquire epidemiologic data on drug-resistant ... Drug-Resistance Patterns. Among isolates from 784 new TB case-patients ,18 years of age, the highest proportion of resistance ... Brewer TF, Choi HW, Seas C, Krapp F, Zamudio C, Shah L, et al. Self-reported risks for multiple-drug resistance among new ... The proportion of overall ethambutol resistance and resistance to all 4 tested first-line drugs was significantly higher among ...
Drug Resistance, Microbial [G06.225]. *Drug Resistance, Fungal [G06.225.383]. *Drug Resistance, Multiple, Fungal [G06.225. ... "Drug Resistance, Multiple, Fungal" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Drug Resistance, Multiple, ... "Drug Resistance, Multiple, Fungal" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Drug Resistance, Multiple, Fungal" by people in Profiles. ...
The peptides may also be less likely to induce drug resistance in these bacteria, according to the researchers. ... "In the last 40 years, there have been only two new classes of antibiotic drugs discovered and brought to the market," said ... The research could lead to new medicines to combat deadly drug-resistant bacteria. ... a bacteria that spreads in hospitals and is frequently drug-resistant. ...
... microbial load; multiple drug resistance; pH; seafoods; seawater. Abstract:. ... Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a major seafood- ... Kojic acid induces resistance against Colletotrichum brevisporum and enhances antioxidant properties of postharvest papaya ... The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of kojic acid (KA) treatments (2 mM and 5 mM) on the resistance of postharvest ... Colletotrichum; antioxidant activity; catalase; disease resistance; food loss; food safety; fungi; hydrogen peroxide; kojic ...
Drug Resistance, Microbial1. *Eugenics1. more Subject » Genre *Photographic prints22 ...
  • Why do we need to address anti-microbial resistance on farms? (countryfolks.com)
  • So, yes, we really do have anti-microbial resistance in ag. (countryfolks.com)
  • Fewer and fewer new anti-microbial drugs are emerging from their production lines. (theguardian.com)
  • The objective of this study is to evaluate, by means of BHI Agar diffusion method, the anti-microbial action of four calcium hydroxide-based formulations as intracanal medication. (bvsalud.org)
  • The kill time of PI is quite short, and in procedures where stability of the globe is more greatly compromised, iodine will need to be supplemented with a longer duration anti-microbial modality. (reviewofcontactlenses.com)
  • Qualilife diagnostic operates under the medical guidance of Dr. Roopa Viswanathan, who is responsible for study interpretations in accordance to the current CLSI, IDSA and BSAC guidelines for diagnosis of infectious diseases and anti-microbial testing. (qualilifediagnostics.com)
  • For example, when a person takes antibiotics or antifungals, the drugs kill some germs that cause infections (pathogens) and beneficial germs that protect our body from infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Fifteen isolates displayed resistance to one or more tested antibiotics, and the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes were present at a high level (29% [9/31] of S. aureus-positive participants). (cdc.gov)
  • Researchers are concerned that some of these organisms have acquired genetic resistance to the antibiotics used to kill them. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Efflux pump genes have been reported to have different families and classes and impart resistance to broad range of antibiotics like fluoroquinolone, tetracycline, ofloxacin, and isoniazid [2]. (scirp.org)
  • The problem is so severe that some authorities believe that we are entering the "post-antibiotic era" where widespread bacterial resistance will render most antibiotics ineffective. (anaesthetist.com)
  • Among the pharmaceuticals of most concern are antibiotics which have been shown to contribute to the proliferation of antibiotic resistance at low concentrations. (europa.eu)
  • Antibiotics represent a set of molecules with diverse physicochemical properties as well as multiple modes of action, as a result, exposure to mixtures of antibiotics via the reuse of treated wastewater has the potential to threaten the sustainability of agricultural production as well as contribute to the proliferation of antibiotic resistance in the environment. (europa.eu)
  • Excessive use of antibiotics and antimicrobial agents has produced an inexorable rise in antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens. (itseyeris.com)
  • Simonson said the other pillar of his anti-resistance campaign was simply infection control - fewer bacterial infections means fewer opportunities to use antibiotics. (healthjournalism.org)
  • iron depletion enhances membrane fluidity and drug diffusion leading to drug susceptible cells" at Joint Bilateral Seminar on "Antimicrobial Drug Resistance And The Development Of New Antibiotics" held at Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi, India organized by INSA and German Academy of Science, Leopoldina, between 22-25 November, 2007. (jnu.ac.in)
  • And some of the worst abuses have occurred outside of healthcare, with antibiotics introduced into the food chain, through agriculture and the lacing of livestock feed with anti-bacterial drugs. (theguardian.com)
  • Antibiotics have become drugs that are expensive to develop, which are only used in short courses and which are quickly rendered near obsolete by the evolution of bacterial resistance. (theguardian.com)
  • However, the easy availability and widespread (mis-)use of antibiotics has come at the price of a sharply increasing bacterial drug resistance due to Darwinian selection. (medscape.com)
  • Carbapenem resistance and resistance to other classes of antibiotics were confirmed by the Etest (bioMérieux) method with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) determined after a 24-hour incubation at 37°C. Susceptibility was defined according to the breakpoints of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. (who.int)
  • For decades this group of bugs has been the most common cause of infections contracted in hospitals, and it has developed resistance to multiple antibiotics. (economist.com)
  • As early as the 1950s, when the first generation of antibiotics became widely available, it became evident that the more an antibiotic was used, the faster bacteria developed mutations that conferred resistance to it. (economist.com)
  • However, acquired (as opposed to inherent) resistance has proliferated in many pathogenic organisms and greatly eroded the formerly vast versatility of this group of antibiotics. (mdwiki.org)
  • We are in era where bacteria have developed resistance to multiple antibiotics and pose one of the greatest threats to human health. (pletzerlab.com)
  • The protection of antimicrobials in these structured bacterial communities is termed 'adaptive resistance' and has been proposed to also play a major role in reducing therapeutic effectiveness of antibiotics. (pletzerlab.com)
  • Our work focuses on novel therapeutics and nanomedicines, based on natural host defence peptides, that work synergistically with antibiotics against several individual pathogens in biofilms (microbial communities) and infections, and study how they enhance the activity of antibiotics to eliminate polymicrobial infections. (pletzerlab.com)
  • We work on combining antibiotics with short amino acids and study whether individual drug uptake systems can be hijacked to enhance efficacy in pathogenic strains. (pletzerlab.com)
  • How do bacteria develop resistance to multiple antibiotics simultaneously? (pletzerlab.com)
  • We are interested in how bacterial pathogens can develop resistance to two antibiotics simultaneously. (pletzerlab.com)
  • Multi- drug resistance is a world-wide problem, attributed to the extensive use of antibiotics, selection pressure on bacterial strains and lack of new drugs, vaccines and diagnostic aids. (scialert.net)
  • Systemic use of antibiotics is significantly more correlated to the development of bacterial resistance than is the use of antibiotics administered through the topical ophthalmic route. (reviewofcontactlenses.com)
  • Traditionally, medicine and eye care have made the assumption that resistance was, for the most part, a product of cavalier prescribing habits and non-compliance by patients in using oral antibiotics. (reviewofcontactlenses.com)
  • We now know, however, that topical antibiotics do contribute to resistance, and not just of the local ocular flora, but of the nasopharynx as well. (reviewofcontactlenses.com)
  • However, the greater the necessity for repeated intervention, the more likely use of antibiotics will contribute to resistance-e.g., cataract surgery performed once is much less likely to contribute to resistance than 30 intravitreal injections. (reviewofcontactlenses.com)
  • The USA is also putting efforts into limiting AGPs and the use of antibiotics in pig farms, as published in guidance revised by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA, 2019). (ew-nutrition.com)
  • The major argument against AGPs and antibiotics in general is the already mentioned risk of the development of antimicrobial resistance , limiting the available tools to control and prevent diseases in human health. (ew-nutrition.com)
  • Although C. albicans is the predominant etiologic agent of candidiasis, other Candida species that tend to be less susceptible to the commonly used antifungal drugs such as C. krusei , C. glabrata , C. lusitaniae , and the newest Candida species, C. dubliniensis, have emerged as substantial opportunistic pathogens ( 10 ) . (cdc.gov)
  • Knowing how germs behave and change, and how human behaviors drive the emergence and spread of pathogens, helps public health better anticipate, prevent, and treat infections and helps slow the spread of antimicrobial resistance. (cdc.gov)
  • My research focuses on bacterial pathogens and antibiotic resistance. (futurelearn.com)
  • Since I joined Sharon Peacock's group in 2014 at the University of Cambridge, I have worked in the genomic epidemiology of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Vancomycin-resistance Enterococcus faecium, two major nosocomial pathogens. (futurelearn.com)
  • Since then, I have worked on multiple projects applying genome sequencing as a tool to detect antimicrobial resistance and infer transmission in bacterial pathogens. (futurelearn.com)
  • In 2018 I joined Professor Gordon Dougan's and Dr Ankur Mutreja's research groups based at the Cambridge Institute of Therapeutic Immunology and Infectious Diseases and I am currently leading a project of developing a molecular diagnostic assay for the detection of enteric pathogens and antibiotic resistance genes. (futurelearn.com)
  • She is currently the principal investigator on antimicrobial resistance surveillance projects which track antibiotic resistance trends, investigate genetic determinants of resistance and virulence and determine the transmission patterns between environmental and animal reservoirs of multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens. (futurelearn.com)
  • Western European countries have managed to decrease the rate of antimicrobial resistance in some pathogens. (risingkashmir.com)
  • PCR methods for the detection of microbial pathogens have made relatively little impact in diagnostic microbiology laboratories due to the common decision to use expensive commercially produced tests rather than the cheaper alternative of developing one's own tests or introducing tests developed by other workers. (nhbs.com)
  • PCR Detection of Microbial Pathogens, Second Edition presents alternatives to commercially produced PCR methods to detect microbial pathogens. (nhbs.com)
  • Authoritative and accessible, PCR Detection of Microbial Pathogens, Second Editio n serves microbiologists regardless of their particular interest because, when used together with the general principles, the sheer variety of procedures provided here enables the reader to design and introduce diagnostic tests in the laboratory with confidence. (nhbs.com)
  • Pathogens in the middle ear effusion of children with persistent otitis media: implications of drug resistance and complications. (medscape.com)
  • The germ theory developed considerably in the 20th century, with identification and characterization of many microbial pathogens and their pathogenic mechanisms and the introduction of antimicrobial drugs. (mhmedical.com)
  • Analysis of the structure and properties of pathogens of wound infections when performing split-skin grafting and optimizing the choice of drugs for starting empirical antibacterial therapy. (vestnik-surgery.com)
  • These microbial strains are germs with similar genetics but with one or more different genetic traits. (cdc.gov)
  • ABSTRACT We investigated the antibiotic resistance of various strains of Salmonella isolated from dif- ferent sources in Oman, namely sewage water, chicken and food handlers. (who.int)
  • A major challenge in the treatment of Tuberculosis (TB) is emergence of Multi-Drug Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDRTB) strains. (scirp.org)
  • Multi resistant mycobacterial strains (MDRTB) and extensive drug resistance (XDR) have been found to be on the increase and that efflux pump mechanism is an important factor responsible for drug resistance [1]. (scirp.org)
  • The relevance of the efflux mechanism to the resistance of clinical strains of M. tuberculosis is becoming clearer due to reports of experimental introduction of hypothetical efflux genes into M. smegmatis and demonstration of the overexpression of the genes and increases in drug resistance [1] [2]. (scirp.org)
  • Early studies [4] of drug accumulation in intact cells suggested that drug-resistant mycobacteria accumulated fewer drugs within their cells than the susceptible strains and these results were ascribed to the lower cell envelope permeability in resistant mycobacterial cells. (scirp.org)
  • However, higher occurrence of drug efflux genes in drug-resistant strains of mycobacterial cell envelope have been reported [1]. (scirp.org)
  • The sensitivities of yeast strains deficient in PDR ABC transporters, to quinoline-ring antimalarial drugs. (harvard.edu)
  • The prevalence of MRSA was low compared to previous studies.All strains isolated were non-multidrug resistant.There was no resistance to Vancomycin detected.Penicillins are still a viable option in the treatment of majority of S.aureus infections in our setting. (researchsquare.com)
  • MRSA strains are not only resistant to nearly all beta-lactams, but many have developed resistance to multiple other classes of antimicrobials. (researchsquare.com)
  • We develop a mathematical model for 1tness landscapes generated by such tradeoffs, based on experiments that determine the antibiotic dose-response curves of Escherichia coli strains, and previous observations on antibiotic resistance mutations. (ed.ac.uk)
  • It is becoming increasingly difficult to develop new drugs active against resistant strains. (theguardian.com)
  • Clinical isolates of Streptococcus faecalis were examined for plasmid content and plasmid-related traits in order to determine whether such strains carried conjugative antibiotic resistance plasmids whose transfer was stimulated by sex pheromones. (umn.edu)
  • Whole-genome sequencing of E. coli strains as they acquire drug resistance over a time course of antibiotic treatment is reported this week in Nature Genetics . (natureasia.com)
  • Two hundred and nine (30.2%) strains were resistant to one or more drugs. (who.int)
  • Candida glabrata is a major fungal pathogen notable for causing recalcitrant infections, rapid emergence of drug-resistant strains, and its ability to survive and proliferate within macrophages. (bvsalud.org)
  • The 20th century dream of eradicating the global scourge of tuberculosis (TB) evaporated with the failure of the old BCG vaccine to protect the populations at greatest risk, low compliance at following the complicated and lengthy treatment in countries with limited resources, which was followed by the spread of multiple-drug resistant (MDR) strains. (intechopen.com)
  • The increasing prevalence of nosocomial infections produced by multidrug-resistant (MDR) or extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa is frequently linked to widespread international strains designated high-risk clones. (repositoriosaludmadrid.es)
  • Fungal biofilm-associated infections are frequently refractory to conventional therapy because of resistance to antimicrobial agents. (cdc.gov)
  • Biofilm-associated Candida show uniform resistance to a wide spectrum of the currently available conventional antifungal agents, which implies that antimicrobial drugs that specifically target biofilm-associated infections are needed. (cdc.gov)
  • The use of drugs effective in combating biofilm-associated infections could lead to major developments in the treatment of fungal implant infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Research has shown that therapeutics (treatments) focused on microbial ecology and protecting a person's microbiome can protect people from infections, including healthcare-associated and antimicrobial-resistant infections, so that people live longer, healthier lives. (cdc.gov)
  • It is critical to understand the relationships and interactions within microbial communities to prevent infections and their spread, improve antibiotic and antifungal use, and slow the spread of antimicrobial resistance. (cdc.gov)
  • These consortiums can colonize a variety of surfaces, such as host tissues, dentures, and catheters, resulting in infections highly resistant to drugs, when compared with their planktonic counterparts. (mdpi.com)
  • Efflux genes have been established to be among factors for drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( M. tuberculosis ) pulmonary infections by conferring bacterial ability to pump-out drugs from intracellular compartment, making it impossible for drugs to attain intracellular concentration lethal to the organism. (scirp.org)
  • 2014) as MRSA has become endemic, the use of vancomycin for therapy of invasive MRSA infections has increased, along with concerns about development of vancomycin resistance among MRSA. (researchsquare.com)
  • The treatment of bacterial and fungal infections relies particularly on antimicrobial drugs, while the focus in treating viral infections is the alleviation of symptoms. (helsinki.fi)
  • Norway, as you have likely heard, has kept antibiotic use and resistance so low that even good old penicillin can be relied upon there to fight many bacterial infections. (healthjournalism.org)
  • Like cancer patients, transplant patients are easy prey for infections because their immunity is suppressed by the drugs that prevent organ rejection. (economist.com)
  • Another criterion of new antimicrobials is a wide spectrum of action, considering the fact that many skin infections are caused by various microbial associations. (medscape.com)
  • Antimicrobial resistance is currently a very big global problem, initially reported in human patients but it has spread to the animal population, making it a very serious risk due to rampart difficult to treat microbial infections. (mak.ac.ug)
  • Often neglected is the fact that bacterial infections can involve high-density bacterial communities as well as bacteria growing in adaptively resistance biofilms. (pletzerlab.com)
  • In this work, we attempted to decipher the interplay between resistance profiles, high-risk clones, and virulence, testing a large (n = 140) collection of well-characterized P. aeruginosa isolates from different sources (bloodstream infections, nosocomial outbreaks, cystic fibrosis, and the environment) in a Caenorhabditis elegans infection model. (repositoriosaludmadrid.es)
  • The prognosis is good for most infections in the immunocompetent host, but in patients who are immunocompromised, antifungal resistance is commonplace. (medscape.com)
  • The ever-changing resistance patterns of bacteria severely cripple the ability of health care providers to manage and treat infections. (reviewofcontactlenses.com)
  • The role of Microbiology gained prominence owing to the scenario of emerging and re-emerging infections and multi-drug resistance. (qualilifediagnostics.com)
  • Are Drug Efflux Genes Present among Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from Patients in Lagos, Nigeria? (scirp.org)
  • In October 2014, I completed my Ph.D. at LSHTM under the supervision of Prof. Taane Clark , which focused on strain genotyping and drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis using whole genome sequencing. (futurelearn.com)
  • Particularly, I have worked on the detection resistance from genome sequences of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus. (futurelearn.com)
  • Detection and characterization of mutations in genes related to isoniazid resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from Iran. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Microbial Drug Resistance (with reference to lipids and drug efflux pumps in Candida albicans and Mycobacterium tuberculosis ) and Pathogenicity. (jnu.ac.in)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Drug-susceptibility Patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa: Possible Guiding Design of Retreatment Regimen. (who.int)
  • Green E, Obi C.L, Nchabeleng M, Villiers B.E. de, Sein P.P, Letsoalo T, Hoosen A.A, Bessong P.O, Ndip R.N. Drug-susceptibility Patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa: Possible Guiding Design of Retreatment Regimen. (who.int)
  • The prevalence of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates (n=692) from Mpumalanga province was assessed. (who.int)
  • Predicting extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis phenotypes with genetic mutations. (uams.edu)
  • Phylogenetic and corresponding taxonomic characterization is crucial in microbial genomics, for contextualizing genomes without prior phenotypic information, and for determining their genetic novelty and genotype-phenotype relationships. (nature.com)
  • I have taught in multiple short courses on microbial genomics and antimicrobial resistance. (futurelearn.com)
  • US - A genetic screening technique has been used by the USDA Agricultural Research Service to detect more than 700 antimicrobial-resistance genes in bacteria such as E. coli and Salmonella that cause food poisoning. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • The researchers used what is called DNA microarray technology to find the resistance genes in a wide variety of bacteria such as Salmonella, E. coli , Campylobacter, Listeria and Enterococcus, among others. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Finding the genes that confer resistance is an important step for scientists looking for new ways to control these organisms. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Dr Frye and his colleagues selected about 1,000 unique genes from among 5,000 genes found in GenBank that included the words 'antimicrobial resistance' in their description. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Then they designed a microarray of more than 700 DNA probes to detect the resistance genes, he explained. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • To make the arrays, pieces of DNA called probes are designed to detect the genes that are known to confer antimicrobial resistance. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • The antimicrobial-resistance genes in the bacteria will then attach themselves to the probes they match on the slide, making the specific probe for that gene fluoresce and thus identifying the antimicrobial resistance gene that was in the bacterium. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Efflux genes have been detected in M. tuberculosis and have also been reported to be responsible for resistance to ant-TB treatment [5]. (scirp.org)
  • Other organisms acquire resistance, either by mutating or by sharing the resistance genes of resistant organisms. (anaesthetist.com)
  • Microbial analysis revealed that continued exposure increased antibiotic resistance in native microbial communities and that genes associated with multi-drug resistance and beta-lactam resistance dominated. (europa.eu)
  • Given the possible role of a mutated blaTEM gene as an additional mechanism to extended spectrum β-lactamase resistance, it is crucial to monitor gonococci carrying these resistance genes. (elsevier.com)
  • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays and sequencing was used to determine the presence of β-lactamase encoding genes (bla) including bla NDM-1 and plasmid-mediated quinolone and aminoglycoside resistance determinants. (who.int)
  • We show that this drug tolerance is associated with non-proliferation and is triggered by macrophage-induced oxidative stress, and that deletion of genes involved in reactive oxygen species detoxification significantly increases the emergence of echinocandin-resistant mutants. (bvsalud.org)
  • In the new work, graduate student Renee Domergue studied C. glabrata she had engineered to become permanently drug-resistant if the adhesion-promoting genes got turned on, which would only happen if Sir3 and the other proteins had stopped covering them up for some reason. (news-medical.net)
  • Turning to laboratory dishes again, Domergue discovered that the yeast rapidly became drug-resistant (indicating the adhesion-promoting genes had been turned on) when they were grown in artificial urine -- a mix of specific chemicals in known amounts. (news-medical.net)
  • They basically capture these antimicrobial resistance genes and then they move them within the bacteria or between bacteria. (cdc.gov)
  • The research could lead to new medicines to combat deadly drug-resistant bacteria. (mit.edu)
  • The researchers' newly designed peptides were shown to be effective against dangerous microbes such as Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) and Staphyloccus aureus, a bacteria that spreads in hospitals and is frequently drug-resistant. (mit.edu)
  • The peptides may also be less likely to induce drug resistance in these bacteria, according to the researchers. (mit.edu)
  • People think it's a change in the animal or a change in the drug, but it's a change in the bacteria that causes the disease. (countryfolks.com)
  • Generally, we have lots of bacteria in a system and a few of them are drug resistant," she explained. (countryfolks.com)
  • This is an important method of resistance for many bacteria. (anaesthetist.com)
  • This book shows how, due to their small size, nanoparticles can surmount existing drug resistance mechanisms, including decreased uptake and increased efflux of the drug from the microbial cell, biofilm formation, and intracellular bacteria. (itseyeris.com)
  • These drugs decimate ordinary bacteria. (theguardian.com)
  • They sequenced the whole genomes of initial drug sensitive E. coli and bacteria isolated from over a time course of up to 25 days under drug selection. (natureasia.com)
  • By contrast, the drastic increase of multidrug resistance among Gram-negative bacteria, especially Enterobacteriaceae such as Escherichia coli , Klebsiella spp. (medscape.com)
  • A cross-sectional study on the diversity and drug susceptibility pattern of bacteria isolated from inanimate objects and patient-care equipments of three wards of Arba Minch hospital were done. (researchsquare.com)
  • Nasal and throat swabs were collected and plated onto selective media to isolate methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), followed by antibiotic resistance testing and molecular analysis of the isolates. (cdc.gov)
  • Most isolates were distributed among three pulsed-field gel electrophoresis clusters and were characterized by low variability relative to antibiotic resistance patterns, in E. coli phylogroups and by the prevalence of virulence and bacteriocin determinants. (muni.cz)
  • No multi-drug Methicillin resistant S. aureus were isolated in the five-year period.PSSA accounted for 60.85%(401/659)of all S.aureus isolates.100% of MRSA isolated was sensitive to Vancomycin, Linezolid, Tigecycline, Tetracycline and Rifampicin. (researchsquare.com)
  • Complete ciprofloxacin resistance in gonococcal isolates in an urban Ugandan clinic: findings from a cross-sectional study. (cam.ac.uk)
  • AMR testing of N. gonorrhoeae isolates is needed to ensure optimal treatment and prevention of antibiotic resistance progression. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Forty-six isolates (88.5%) were resistant to at least three classes of drugs (multi drug resistance) and these were tested for sensitivity to 20 stock bacteriophages. (mak.ac.ug)
  • Regarding the Gram-negative bacilli, isolates of Acinetobacter showed 100% resistance to ceftriaxone and ampicillin. (researchsquare.com)
  • Understand the nano-bio interface to develop strategies for probing and modulating biological processes in order to counter therapeutic hurdles and Multi Drug Resistance (MDR) in infectious diseases. (jnu.ac.in)
  • While it is difficult to track the global impact of antibiotic resistance across all bacterial species, the World Health Organisation estimates that for tuberculosis alone multi-drug resistance accounts for more than 150,000 deaths each year. (theguardian.com)
  • Multiple-drug-resistant tuberculosis (i.e., resistance to at least isoniazid and rifampin) presents difficult treatment problems. (cdc.gov)
  • Extrapulmonary tuberculosis should be managed according to the principles and with the drug regimens outlined for pulmonary tuberculosis, except for children who have miliary tuberculosis, bone/joint tuberculosis, or tuberculous meningitis who should receive a minimum of 12 mo of therapy. (cdc.gov)
  • A 4-mo regimen of isoniazid and rifampin is acceptable therapy for adults who have active tuberculosis and who are sputum-smear and culture negative, if there is little possibility of drug resistance (see Section 1 above). (cdc.gov)
  • I'm speaking with Dr. Peter Cegielski, team leader for drug resistant TB with the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination at CDC. (cdc.gov)
  • In the past 15 to 20 years, clinicians have had to use second-line drugs more and more because of the emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. (cdc.gov)
  • To acquire epidemiologic data on drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR TB) among children, a major cause of illness and death for this population, we conducted a retrospective study of 2006-2015 data from 36 TB prevention and control institutions in Shandong Province, China. (cdc.gov)
  • In Africa and Asia, drug-resistant tuberculosis alone now kills nearly 2m people a year, ten times more than in the 2010s. (economist.com)
  • Microbial ecology includes interactions with people, animals, plants, food, and surfaces (e.g., healthcare bed rails or counter tops), all of which can serve as sources, or reservoirs, of germs that can lead to infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Scientists study microbial ecology, the relationships between germ communities and people, animals, plants, the food supply, and more to better understand how germs influence health, keep balanced microbiomes, and protect people from infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Drug-resistant Candida glabrata infection in cancer patients. (harvard.edu)
  • This should not be confused with the term "clinical resistance" which refers to the failure of an antimicrobial to eradicate infection, despite the apparent ability of the agent to kill the 'bug' in vitro. (anaesthetist.com)
  • It can be used to reliably investigate the activity of microbial drug resistance mechanisms and other microbial mechanisms relevant to infection or its treatment. (helsinki.fi)
  • Download full Functionalized Nanomaterials For The Management Of Microbial Infection Book or read online anytime anywhere, Available in PDF, ePub and Kindle. (itseyeris.com)
  • We cannot guarantee that Functionalized Nanomaterials For The Management Of Microbial Infection book is in the library. (itseyeris.com)
  • Functionalized Nanomaterials for the Management of Microbial Infection: A Strategy to Address Microbial Drug Resistance introduces the reader to the newly developing use of nanotechnology to combat microbial drug resistance. (itseyeris.com)
  • Successfully controlling drug-resistant microbes requires not just greater vigilance with our infection control tools, but it also requires developing and deploying creative and aggressive tactics. (cdc.gov)
  • Therefore, a stringent infection vigilance program comprising of routine sampling from the equipments and wards along with antimicrobial resistance surveillance and decontamination efforts must be instituted. (researchsquare.com)
  • Repositorio consejería de sanidad de madrid: Interplay among Resistance Profiles, High-Risk Clones, and Virulence in the Caenorhabditis elegans Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection Model. (repositoriosaludmadrid.es)
  • No drug resistance developed in blood, but Domergue did detect it in a mouse model of bladder infection that had been developed by collaborator David Johnson of the University of Maryland School of Medicine. (news-medical.net)
  • Thus, (-)- α-pinene has significant activity in the modulation of antibiotic resistance in C. jejuni, which appears to be mediated by multiple mechanisms that include inhibition of microbial efflux, decreased membrane integrity, and metabolic disruption. (elsevier.com)
  • There are several ways that the bacterium can side-step this attack, and we will use these as a model for all resistance mechanisms, even in other organisms such as fungi and viruses. (anaesthetist.com)
  • This chapter reviews the general classes of antimicrobial drugs, their mechanisms of action, mechanisms of resistance, and patterns of kill by different classes of the drugs. (mhmedical.com)
  • Antimicrobial resistance is rising all over the world and new resistance mechanisms are emerging and spreading, highlighting the importance for novel anti-infective strategies. (pletzerlab.com)
  • Our lab investigates novel antimicrobial technologies that exploit nutrient uptake systems to overcome bacterial resistance mechanisms. (pletzerlab.com)
  • To improve drug delivery strategies, we investigate drug/nutrient uptake mechanisms in Pseudomonas aeruginosa using various biological, genomic, and biochemical methods. (pletzerlab.com)
  • Biofilms can be composed of a population that developed from a single species or a community derived from multiple microbial species ( 14 , 17 ). (cdc.gov)
  • if we don't stop the spread of antimicrobial resistance, medical practice as we know it today will change forever. (cdc.gov)
  • In fact, in those outbreaks, death was strongly associated with drug-resistance to the two main, first-line anti-TB drugs. (cdc.gov)
  • There was concordance between disk diffusion and agar dilution for ciprofloxacin and tetracycline resistance and a significant discordance for third-generation cephalosporins. (cam.ac.uk)
  • A 35-Mdalton tetracycline-resistance plasmid called pCF-10 was identified. (umn.edu)
  • When TB is resistant to the 2 main, first-line drugs - isoniazid and rifampin - we call that multidrug-resistant TB or MDR TB. (cdc.gov)
  • So, the new definition of XDR TB is TB that's resistant to the 2 main first-line drugs - isoniazid and rifampin - and, in addition, is resistant to the two most important groups of second-line drugs - fluoroquinolones and injectable agents. (cdc.gov)
  • That's because there's building resistance in both those organisms. (countryfolks.com)
  • Evaluation of the sulfa drugs varied depending upon the quantity of inoculated organisms. (kyoto-u.ac.jp)
  • Enterobacteria, organisms usually found in the gut, had also acquired vancomycin resistance. (theguardian.com)
  • We present PhyloPhlAn 3.0, an accurate, rapid, and easy-to-use method for large-scale microbial genome characterization and phylogenetic analysis at multiple levels of resolution. (nature.com)
  • This provides invaluable insights into the overall characterization of microbial diversity affecting the human body and the planet. (nature.com)
  • abstract = "The aim of the study was to investigate the mode of action of (-)-α-pinene in terms of its modulation of antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter jejuni. (elsevier.com)
  • Antibiotic resistance is no longer an abstract risk: this is now a war. (theguardian.com)
  • This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutations. (harvard.edu)
  • Differential roles of transcriptional mediator subunits in regulation of multidrug resistance gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (harvard.edu)
  • It allows the comprehensive determination of microbial gene activity. (helsinki.fi)
  • This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids ( R FACTORS ). (bvsalud.org)
  • Plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene mcr-1 in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from market retail fruits in Guangzhou, China. (cdc.gov)
  • This resistance could be in part due to the surface-induced upregulation of drug efflux pumps. (cdc.gov)
  • Efflux pumps are transmembrane proteins which actively take part in transporting wide range of substrates including anti-TB drugs from cytoplasm to exterior of cell, thereby nullifying the inhibitory or lethal activity of the drugs (drug resistance). (scirp.org)
  • Consistent with previous data, we documented a clear inverse correlation between antimicrobial resistance and virulence in the C. elegans model. (repositoriosaludmadrid.es)
  • Altogether, our results provide a major step forward for understanding the interplay between P. aeruginosa resistance profiles, high-risk clones, and virulence. (repositoriosaludmadrid.es)
  • However, the drugs respond differently to the panel of drug-resistant HIV-1 RTs, indicating that while the binding sites of the drugs overlap they are not identical. (nih.gov)
  • This four-drug, 6-mo regimen is effective even when the infecting organism is resistant to INH. (cdc.gov)
  • Within the last few months we've heard a lot about extensively drug-resistant TB - or XDR TB - and there has been a big outbreak in South Africa that has received a lot of media coverage. (cdc.gov)
  • How does it differ from other forms of drug-resistant TB? (cdc.gov)
  • But the 'X' stands for 'Extensively' and the correct name is 'Extensively Drug-Resistant TB. (cdc.gov)
  • Now this is where XDR - or extensively drug-resistant - TB comes into the picture. (cdc.gov)
  • In the first reports on XDR TB, including the manuscript in Emerging Infectious Diseases, XDR TB was defined as TB that's resistant not only to the 2 main first-line drugs, but also to at least 3 of the 6 main classes of second-line drugs. (cdc.gov)
  • The Green Light Committee, or GLC, was set up in the year 2000 in response to the global epidemic of drug-resistant TB. (cdc.gov)
  • When I visited these places I found that physicians were eager to talk about their difficult cases, especially drug-resistant cases. (cdc.gov)
  • However, expanding prevalence of TB globally, especially drug-resistant (DR) TB among children, is still a major cause of childhood illness and death ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The others are drug resistant. (countryfolks.com)
  • Herein, we show that macrophage internalization induces cidal drug tolerance in C. glabrata, expanding the persister reservoir from which echinocandin-resistant mutants emerge. (bvsalud.org)
  • Engineers are developing new systems to use genetic information, sense small changes in the body, assess new drugs, and deliver vaccines. (engineeringchallenges.org)
  • [ 9 ] Another serious challenge of the field is the acquisition of pathogenicity by microorganisms previously considered as non-pathogenic, which could happen due to various mutations, increasing number of immune-compromised patients, etc. . [ 10 ] Hence, the development of new, more efficient drugs is of utmost importance. (medscape.com)
  • Multiple Benefits of Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance Determinants in Klebsiella pneumoniae ST11 High-Risk Clone and Recently Emerging ST307 Clone. (cdc.gov)
  • Using the morbidostat, the authors examine the evolution of drug resistance in E. coli populations under selection with one of several single drugs. (natureasia.com)
  • Results showed that there is high drug resistance of E. coli causing colibacillosis cases in chicken. (mak.ac.ug)
  • We'll be discussing trends of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli . (cdc.gov)
  • Sarah Gregory] Your study is about antimicrobial resistance (or AMR) among E. coli . (cdc.gov)
  • Microbial genomes are available at an ever-increasing pace, as cultivation and sequencing become cheaper and obtaining metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) becomes more effective. (nature.com)
  • Regardless of the scale, many current microbial genomic tasks thus include the need to place newly sequenced genomes and metagenomic assembled genomes into the microbial taxonomy and phylogenetically characterize them with respect to the closest relatives. (nature.com)
  • With such a volume of microbial genomes generated at a wide range of qualities and completeness, however, there are no scalable phylogenetic methods that can easily tackle these challenges for investigators studying genomes and metagenomes. (nature.com)
  • Most of these methods are limited in at least one way that prevents their ease of use to link newly sequenced genomes, or metagenomic assemblies, into the tremendous space of already characterized microbial phylogenies. (nature.com)
  • While computational methods for genome assembly of isolate sequencing and for quantitative analysis of known features of metagenomic data are now mature and well standardized, comparably convenient and automatic tools for downstream phylogenetic and taxonomic assessment of MAGs and microbial isolate genomes are instead lacking and limiting microbial genomic analyses. (nature.com)
  • As did species with new patterns of resistance. (theguardian.com)
  • Bronchial microbial patterns in severe exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) requiring mechanical ventilation. (medscape.com)
  • Do emerging antibiotic resistance patterns differ depending on practice patterns? (reviewofcontactlenses.com)
  • Nanobiotechnology & Nanomedicine (nano-based: drug delivery, therapy, toxicity and fluorescent bioimaging) for infectious diseases, while maintaining biocompatibility and biodegradability. (jnu.ac.in)
  • CDC invests in research around microbial ecology, which looks at the relationships within and across these microbial communities to determine how germs interact with one another and their environment. (cdc.gov)
  • This innovative work helps scientists better understand the role of microbial ecology in human health and how to leverage its role to develop and implement life-saving tools. (cdc.gov)
  • Although scientists know that microbial ecology plays important roles in maintaining human health, there are outstanding scientific questions. (cdc.gov)
  • Continued research will help public health scientists better understand microbial ecology treatment options to save lives. (cdc.gov)
  • As part of its AR Solutions Initiative, CDC invests in innovative research to better understand the microbiome, the role of microbial ecology in human health, and how to leverage these to develop and implement life-saving tools for prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • Microbial ecology studies the relationships of germs across many settings , including the diversity and abundance of germs within microbiomes. (cdc.gov)
  • Experts working in microbial ecology can help public health by studying the relationships between germs, including the factors (ecological pressure) that allow some germs to survive and multiply in a competitive environment, whereas other germs within the same species do not survive. (cdc.gov)
  • Therefore, three microbial groups were used: Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans. (bvsalud.org)
  • If INH resistance is demonstrated, rifampin and ethambutol should be continued for a minimum of 12 mo. (cdc.gov)
  • Their prevalence is increasing mainly due to drug resistance. (medscape.com)
  • This species, however, unlike C. albicans, has been shown to readily develop stable resistance to fluconazole in vitro and in infected patients, strongly suggesting that C. dubliniensis possesses a readily inducible fluconazole resistance mechanism ( 11 - 13 ). (cdc.gov)
  • 17,000 microbial species. (nature.com)
  • But what they leave behind are hardy species which have begun to learn tricks that allow them to evade antibiotic drugs. (theguardian.com)
  • A microbial threat for which there is limited surveillance and no effective treatment. (risingkashmir.com)
  • Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) to gonorrhoea is a threat to global health security. (cam.ac.uk)
  • One of the most serious issues in health care is the growing threat of microbial resistance to antibiotic therapy. (reviewofcontactlenses.com)
  • we consider antimicrobial resistance as a global health threat, this is. (cdc.gov)
  • They identify new drug resistance conferring mutations, as well as insights into the order and path of mutations in the evolution of resistance. (natureasia.com)
  • As Gunnar Simonsen, head of that country's microbial resistance surveillance system, told Rather, "Many Norwegians will not like to take drugs unless strictly necessary. (healthjournalism.org)
  • Background magnitude of the antimicrobial drug resistance crisis tious disease surveillance, more than 95 percent of is unknown because of the absence of systematic moni- these funds are limited to surveillance of diseases in toring. (cdc.gov)
  • Provocatively, we find that small molecule inhibition of gut microbial CutC/D activity protects mice from ethanol-induced liver injury. (elifesciences.org)
  • The microbial metabolite TMA is elevated in patients with AH, and inhibition of TMA production from gut microbes can protect mice from ethanol-induced liver injury. (elifesciences.org)
  • Broth microdilution and ethidium bromide accumulation assays were used to evaluate the (-)-α -pinene antimicrobial activity, modulation of antimicrobial resistance, and inhibition of antimicrobial efflux. (elsevier.com)
  • At its core, personalized medicine is about combining genetic information with clinical data to optimally tailor drugs and doses to meet the unique needs of an individual patient. (engineeringchallenges.org)
  • Finally, we show that the fungicidal drug amphotericin B can kill intracellular C. glabrata echinocandin persisters, reducing emergence of resistance. (bvsalud.org)
  • Working with colleagues at Harvard, WHO, and many others, we negotiated a pooled procurement mechanism through which the drug companies gave us massive discounts on the price of second-line drugs, anywhere from 60% to 95% discounts. (cdc.gov)
  • Antimicrobials Resistance: A Call for Multi-disciplinary Action. (ohe.org)
  • [ 12 , 13 ] Particularly, topical antimicrobials help to avoid systemic toxicity and side effects as well as to decrease the possibility of resistance acquisition. (medscape.com)
  • Although children metabolize drugs more rapidly than adults, guidance on drug regimens, dosages, appropriate monitoring, and duration of therapy for children is frequently extrapolated from adult data ( 14 ). (cdc.gov)
  • With the use of these drugs came issues of appropriate regimens, drug resistance, drug interactions, and toxicity. (mhmedical.com)
  • Several lines of evidence, including the isolation of RT mutants that show cross resistance, suggest that, despite their structural diversity, many of these inhibitors bind to a common site on HIV-1 RT. (nih.gov)
  • The diversity in the microbiome means leanbiome fat burner reviews it has almost all microbial pressures that are required to make improvements in wellness. (faerielands.com)
  • Many methods exist for more targeted microbial genome and metagenome phylogenetics. (nature.com)
  • RM0146 Misuse of therapeutic drugs. (sussex.ac.uk)
  • Higher efficacy of resveratrol against advanced breast cancer organoids: A comparison with that of clinically relevant drugs - Phytother Res 2022 Jun 1 - 'The lack of reliable drugs is a therapeutic challenge of advanced breast cancers (ABCs). (qualitycounts.com)
  • Pseudomonas showed resistance against most of the drugs except gentamicin. (kyoto-u.ac.jp)