Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutation.
A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.
Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)
Enzyme of the human immunodeficiency virus that is required for post-translational cleavage of gag and gag-pol precursor polyproteins into functional products needed for viral assembly. HIV protease is an aspartic protease encoded by the amino terminus of the pol gene.
A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Genes for MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that confer resistance to toxic compounds. Several superfamilies of these multidrug export proteins are known and found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TETRACYCLINE which inhibits aminoacyl-tRNA binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit during protein synthesis.
The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutations.
Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.
An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.
Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.
Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.
Antibacterial agent used primarily as a tuberculostatic. It remains the treatment of choice for tuberculosis.
The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Diseases of plants.
Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)
A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
One of the FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS that is used as an antimalarial or with a sulfonamide to treat toxoplasmosis.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.
Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.
A type of strength-building exercise program that requires the body muscle to exert a force against some form of resistance, such as weight, stretch bands, water, or immovable objects. Resistance exercise is a combination of static and dynamic contractions involving shortening and lengthening of skeletal muscles.
A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of CHLORAMPHENICOL, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis in the 50S ribosomal subunit where amino acids are added to nascent bacterial polypeptides.
Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.
A long acting sulfonamide that is used, usually in combination with other drugs, for respiratory, urinary tract, and malarial infections.
Nonsusceptibility of a microbe to the action of ampicillin, a penicillin derivative that interferes with cell wall synthesis.
Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction 7,8-dihyrofolate and NADPH to yield 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate and NADPH+, producing reduced folate for amino acid metabolism, purine ring synthesis, and the formation of deoxythymidine monophosphate. Methotrexate and other folic acid antagonists used as chemotherapeutic drugs act by inhibiting this enzyme. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 1.5.1.3.
Proteins encoded by the POL GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.
An antitubercular agent that inhibits the transfer of mycolic acids into the cell wall of the tubercle bacillus. It may also inhibit the synthesis of spermidine in mycobacteria. The action is usually bactericidal, and the drug can penetrate human cell membranes to exert its lethal effect. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p863)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
A subfamily of transmembrane proteins from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that are closely related in sequence to P-GLYCOPROTEIN. When overexpressed, they function as ATP-dependent efflux pumps able to extrude lipophilic drugs, especially ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, from cells causing multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although P-Glycoproteins share functional similarities to MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS they are two distinct subclasses of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS, and have little sequence homology.
Five membered rings containing a NITROGEN atom.
Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of dihydropteroate from p-aminobenzoic acid and dihydropteridine-hydroxymethyl-pyrophosphate. EC 2.5.1.15.
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.
A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.
A group of SESQUITERPENES and their analogs that contain a peroxide group (PEROXIDES) within an oxepin ring (OXEPINS).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Large cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein particles that have an eight-fold symmetry with a central pore and petal-like structure giving the appearance of an octagonal dome. (The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 2nd ed.)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of VANCOMYCIN, an inhibitor of cell wall synthesis.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
A bacterial DNA topoisomerase II that catalyzes ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. Gyrase binds to DNA as a heterotetramer consisting of two A and two B subunits. In the presence of ATP, gyrase is able to convert the relaxed circular DNA duplex into a superhelix. In the absence of ATP, supercoiled DNA is relaxed by DNA gyrase.
A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
Non-susceptibility of an organism to the action of the cephalosporins.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.
A very toxic anthracycline aminoglycoside antineoplastic isolated from Streptomyces peucetius and others, used in treatment of LEUKEMIA and other NEOPLASMS.
Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
A potent, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in combination with nucleoside analogues for treatment of HIV INFECTIONS and AIDS.
Tuberculosis resistant to ISONIAZID and RIFAMPIN and at least three of the six main classes of second-line drugs (AMINOGLYCOSIDES; polypeptide agents; FLUOROQUINOLONES; THIOAMIDES; CYCLOSERINE; and PARA-AMINOSALICYLIC ACID) as defined by the CDC.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the antibiotic KANAMYCIN, which can bind to their 70S ribosomes and cause misreading of messenger RNA.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Diminished or failed response of PLANTS to HERBICIDES.
Substances that are destructive to protozoans.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
Inhibitors of the enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase (TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE), which converts dihydrofolate (FH2) to tetrahydrofolate (FH4). They are frequently used in cancer chemotherapy. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)
Substances obtained from various species of microorganisms that are, alone or in combination with other agents, of use in treating various forms of tuberculosis; most of these agents are merely bacteriostatic, induce resistance in the organisms, and may be toxic.
A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.
A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
An anthracenedione-derived antineoplastic agent.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.
Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.
Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.
DNA TOPOISOMERASES that catalyze ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. These enzymes bring about relaxation of the supercoiled DNA and resolution of a knotted circular DNA duplex.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for retroviral enzymes including reverse transcriptase, protease, and endonuclease/integrase. "pol" is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.
An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.
A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.
A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
A phospholipid-interacting antimalarial drug (ANTIMALARIALS). It is very effective against PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM with very few side effects.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
DNA elements that include the component genes and insertion site for a site-specific recombination system that enables them to capture mobile gene cassettes.
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.
A hydroxynaphthoquinone that has antimicrobial activity and is being used in antimalarial protocols.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.
This line KB is now known to be a subline of the ubiquitous KERATIN-forming tumor cell line HeLa. It was originally thought to be derived from an epidermal carcinoma of the mouth, but was subsequently found, based on isoenzyme analysis, HeLa marker chromosomes, and DNA fingerprinting, to have been established via contamination by HELA CELLS. The cells are positive for keratin by immunoperoxidase staining. KB cells have been reported to contain human papillomavirus18 (HPV-18) sequences.
A fluorescent probe with low toxicity which is a potent substrate for P-glycoprotein and the bacterial multidrug efflux transporter. It is used to assess mitochondrial bioenergetics in living cells and to measure the efflux activity of P-glycoprotein in both normal and malignant cells. (Leukemia 1997;11(7):1124-30)
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
3,6-Diamino-10-methylacridinium chloride mixt. with 3,6-acridinediamine. Fluorescent dye used as a local antiseptic and also as a biological stain. It intercalates into nucleic acids thereby inhibiting bacterial and viral replication.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Glucose in blood.

Tobramycin, amikacin, sissomicin, and gentamicin resistant Gram-negative rods. (1/10751)

Sensitivities to gentamicin, sissomicin, tobramycin, and amikacin were compared in 196 gentamicin-resistant Gram-negative rods and in 212 similar organisms sensitive to gentamicin, mainly isolated from clinical specimens. Amikacin was the aminoglycoside most active against gentamicin-resistant organisms, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, klebsiella spp, Escherichia coli, Proteus spp, Providencia spp, and Citrobacter spp being particularly susceptible. Most of the gentamicin-resistant organisms were isolated from the urine of patients undergoing surgery. Gentamicin was the most active antibiotic against gentamicin-sensitive E coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Serratia spp. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other Pseudomonas spp were most susceptible to tobramycin.  (+info)

Prodigious substrate specificity of AAC(6')-APH(2"), an aminoglycoside antibiotic resistance determinant in enterococci and staphylococci. (2/10751)

BACKGROUND: High-level gentamicin resistance in enterococci and staphylococci is conferred by AAC(6')-APH(2"), an enzyme with 6'-N-acetyltransferase and 2"-O-phosphotransferase activities. The presence of this enzyme in pathogenic gram-positive bacteria prevents the successful use of gentamicin C and most other aminoglycosides as therapeutic agents. RESULTS: In an effort to understand the mechanism of aminoglycoside modification, we expressed AAC(6')-APH(2") in Bacillus subtilis. The purified enzyme is monomeric with a molecular mass of 57 kDa and displays both the expected aminoglycoside N-acetyltransferase and O-phosphotransferase activities. Structure-function analysis with various aminoglycosides substrates reveals an enzyme with broad specificity in both enzymatic activities, accounting for AAC(6')-APH(2")'s dramatic negative impact on clinical aminoglycoside therapy. Both lividomycin A and paromomycin, aminoglycosides lacking a 6'-amino group, were acetylated by AAC(6')-APH(2"). The infrared spectrum of the product of paromomycin acetylation yielded a signal consistent with O-acetylation. Mass spectral and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of the products of neomycin phosphorylation indicated that phosphoryl transfer occurred primarily at the 3'-OH of the 6-aminohexose ring A, and that some diphosphorylated material was also present with phosphates at the 3'-OH and the 3"'-OH of ring D, both unprecedented observations for this enzyme. Furthermore, the phosphorylation site of lividomycin A was determined to be the 5"-OH of the pentose ring C. CONCLUSIONS: The bifunctional AAC(6')-APH(2") has the capacity to inactivate virtually all clinically important aminoglycosides through N- and O-acetylation and phosphorylation of hydroxyl groups. The extremely broad substrate specificity of this enzyme will impact on future development of aminoglycosides and presents a significant challenge for antibiotic design.  (+info)

Emergence of vancomycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Glycopeptide-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus Working Group. (3/10751)

BACKGROUND: Since the emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, the glycopeptide vancomycin has been the only uniformly effective treatment for staphylococcal infections. In 1997, two infections due to S. aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin were identified in the United States. METHODS: We investigated the two patients with infections due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides, as defined by a minimal inhibitory concentration of vancomycin of 8 to 16 microg per milliliter. To assess the carriage and transmission of these strains of S. aureus, we cultured samples from the patients and their contacts and evaluated the isolates. RESULTS: The first patient was a 59-year-old man in Michigan with diabetes mellitus and chronic renal failure. Peritonitis due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides developed after 18 weeks of vancomycin treatment for recurrent methicillin-resistant S. aureus peritonitis associated with dialysis. The removal of the peritoneal catheter plus treatment with rifampin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole eradicated the infection. The second patient was a 66-year-old man with diabetes in New Jersey. A bloodstream infection due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides developed after 18 weeks of vancomycin treatment for recurrent methicillin-resistant S. aureus bacteremia. This infection was eradicated with vancomycin, gentamicin, and rifampin. Both patients died. The glycopeptide-intermediate S. aureus isolates differed by two bands on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. On electron microscopy, the isolates from the infected patients had thicker extracellular matrixes than control methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates. No carriage was documented among 177 contacts of the two patients. CONCLUSIONS: The emergence of S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides emphasizes the importance of the prudent use of antibiotics, the laboratory capacity to identify resistant strains, and the use of infection-control precautions to prevent transmission.  (+info)

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae ETH1 gene, an inducible homolog of exonuclease III that provides resistance to DNA-damaging agents and limits spontaneous mutagenesis. (4/10751)

The recently sequenced Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome was searched for a gene with homology to the gene encoding the major human AP endonuclease, a component of the highly conserved DNA base excision repair pathway. An open reading frame was found to encode a putative protein (34% identical to the Schizosaccharomyces pombe eth1(+) [open reading frame SPBC3D6.10] gene product) with a 347-residue segment homologous to the exonuclease III family of AP endonucleases. Synthesis of mRNA from ETH1 in wild-type cells was induced sixfold relative to that in untreated cells after exposure to the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). To investigate the function of ETH1, deletions of the open reading frame were made in a wild-type strain and a strain deficient in the known yeast AP endonuclease encoded by APN1. eth1 strains were not more sensitive to killing by MMS, hydrogen peroxide, or phleomycin D1, whereas apn1 strains were approximately 3-fold more sensitive to MMS and approximately 10-fold more sensitive to hydrogen peroxide than was the wild type. Double-mutant strains (apn1 eth1) were approximately 15-fold more sensitive to MMS and approximately 2- to 3-fold more sensitive to hydrogen peroxide and phleomycin D1 than were apn1 strains. Elimination of ETH1 in apn1 strains also increased spontaneous mutation rates 9- or 31-fold compared to the wild type as determined by reversion to adenine or lysine prototrophy, respectively. Transformation of apn1 eth1 cells with an expression vector containing ETH1 reversed the hypersensitivity to MMS and limited the rate of spontaneous mutagenesis. Expression of ETH1 in a dut-1 xthA3 Escherichia coli strain demonstrated that the gene product functionally complements the missing AP endonuclease activity. Thus, in apn1 cells where the major AP endonuclease activity is missing, ETH1 offers an alternate capacity for repair of spontaneous or induced damage to DNA that is normally repaired by Apn1 protein.  (+info)

Isolation and chemical characterization of a capsular polysaccharide antigen shared by clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. (5/10751)

Enterococci are a common cause of serious infections, especially in newborns, severely immunocompromised patients, and patients requiring intensive care. To characterize enterococcal surface antigens that are targets of opsonic antibodies, rabbits were immunized with various gentamicin-killed Enterococcus faecalis strains, and immune sera were tested in an opsonophagocytic assay against a selection of clinical isolates. Serum raised against one strain killed the homologous strain (12030) at a dilution of 1:5,120 and mediated opsonic killing of 33% of all strains tested. In addition, this serum killed two (28%) of seven vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium strains. Adsorption of sera with the homologous strain eliminated killing activity. The adsorbing antigens were resistant to treatment with proteinase K and to boiling for 1 h, but were susceptible to treatment with sodium periodate, indicating that the antigen inducing opsonic activity is a polysaccharide. Antibodies in immune rabbit sera reacted with a capsule-like structure visualized by electron microscopy both on the homologous E. faecalis strain and on a vancomycin-resistant E. faecium strain. The capsular polysaccharides from E. faecalis 12030 and E. faecium 838970 were purified, and chemical and structural analyses indicated they were identical glycerol teichoic acid-like molecules with a carbohydrate backbone structure of 6-alpha-D-glucose-1-2 glycerol-3-PO4 with substitution on carbon 2 of the glucose with an alpha-2-1-D-glucose residue. The purified antigen adsorbed opsonic killing activity from immune rabbit sera and elicited high titers of antibodies (when used to immunize rabbits) that both mediated opsonic killing of bacteria and bound to a capsule-like structure visualized by electron microscopy. These results indicate that approximately one-third of a sample of 15 E. faecalis strains and 7 vancomycin-resistant E. faecium strains possess shared capsular polysaccharides that are targets of opsonophagocytic antibodies and therefore are potential vaccine candidates.  (+info)

Structural basis of multidrug recognition by BmrR, a transcription activator of a multidrug transporter. (6/10751)

Multidrug-efflux transporters demonstrate an unusual ability to recognize multiple structurally dissimilar toxins. A comparable ability to bind diverse hydrophobic cationic drugs is characteristic of the Bacillus subtilis transcription regulator BmrR, which upon drug binding activates expression of the multidrug transporter Bmr. Crystal structures of the multidrug-binding domain of BmrR (2.7 A resolution) and of its complex with the drug tetraphenylphosphonium (2.8 A resolution) revealed a drug-induced unfolding and relocation of an alpha helix, which exposes an internal drug-binding pocket. Tetraphenylphosphonium binding is mediated by stacking and van der Waals contacts with multiple hydrophobic residues of the pocket and by an electrostatic interaction between the positively charged drug and a buried glutamate residue, which is the key to cation selectivity. Similar binding principles may be used by other multidrug-binding proteins.  (+info)

Successful short-term suppression of clarithromycin-resistant Mycobacterium avium complex bacteremia in AIDS. California Collaborative Treatment Group. (7/10751)

During a randomized study of clarithromycin plus clofazimine with or without ethambutol in patients with AIDS and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) bacteremia, eight participants received additional antimycobacterial drugs following the detection of a clarithromycin-resistant isolate (MIC, > 8 micrograms/mL). A macrolide (seven received clarithromycin, one azithromycin) and clofazimine were continued; additional treatment included various combinations of ethambutol, ciprofloxacin, amikacin, and rifabutin. After the detection of a resistant isolate and before receipt of additional antimycobacterials, the median peak MAC colony count in blood was 105 cfu/mL (range, 8-81,500 cfu/mL). After additional antimycobacterials, the median nadir MAC colony count was 5 cfu/mL (range, 0-110 cfu/mL). Five (63%) of eight patients had a > or = 1 log10 decrease, including two who achieved negative blood cultures; all of these responses occurred in patients originally assigned to clarithromycin plus clofazimine. Treatment of clarithromycin-resistant MAC bacteremia that emerges during clarithromycin-based treatment can decrease levels of bacteremia and transiently sterilize blood cultures.  (+info)

Emergence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium phage-type DT104 among salmonellae causing enteritis in Israel. (8/10751)

The relative frequency of salmonella strains isolated from hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients in Southern Israel changed during the period, 1994-6. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium definitive phage-type 104 (DT104) appeared in Israel in 1994 and became the most prevalent strain in 1996. An outbreak of enteritis due to Salmonella enterica serotype Agona occurred in Israel, in October 1994 and lasted for 4 months. The relative frequency of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis remained almost constant during these years, with seasonal fluctuations only. The importance of the increase in the prevalence of Typhimurium DT104 has been the epidemic spread of a multiresistant strain of R-type ACT (A, ampicillin; C, chloramphenicol; T, tetracycline) belonging to this phage-type. Since 1995 the frequency of Typhimurium DT104 isolates that possess, in addition to the above R-type, a chromosomally encoded resistance to the quinolone drug, nalidixic acid, increased tenfold. In 1996, 27% of the Typhimurium DT104 isolates were of R-type ACTN. S. Enteritidis exhibited over 95% susceptibility to at least eight of the most commonly used antibiotic drugs, and none of the isolates was resistant to quinolone or fluoroquinoline.  (+info)

The multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) operon of the enteric bacterium Escherichia coli regulates multiple antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity. The goal o...
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Subscribe - The international peer-reviewed journal covering the global spread and threat of multi-drug resistant clones of major pathogens that are widely documented in hospitals and the scientific community.
The international peer-reviewed journal covering the global spread and threat of multi-drug resistant clones of major pathogens that are widely documented in hospitals and the scientific community.
Study Flashcards On Microbial Drugs REVISED!!!!! at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
Definition of transferable resistance in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is transferable resistance? Meaning of transferable resistance as a finance term. What does transferable resistance mean in finance?
Experimental factors that increase population heterogeneity could increase apparent resistance rates. The activity of daptomycin is calcium dependent (10), and the levels of free calcium in MHA are variable (23). We determined the effect of calcium levels on population heterogeneity. As shown in Fig. 1B, the addition of 1 mM CaCl2 to the test agar results in homogeneous susceptibility and eliminates the appearance of falsely resistant colonies. Differences in calcium levels may have contributed to past differences in spontaneous resistance rates. Consistent with this idea, it has previously been demonstrated that resistance rates in liquid media increase as calcium levels decrease (29).. Based on the studies described above, we performed all resistance testing by plating overnight cultures on MHA supplemented with 1 mM CaCl2 and daptomycin at 8 times the MIC. Eight laboratory (American Type Culture Collection, Rockville, Md.) and eight clinical isolates (provided by D. Snydman, New England ...
Nicoloff, Hé.; Perreten, V.; McMurry, L.M.; Levy, S.B., 2006: Role for tandem duplication and lon protease in AcrAB-TolC- dependent multiple antibiotic resistance (Mar) in an Escherichia coli mutant without mutations in marRAB or acrRAB
EU - The European Union Summary Report on antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic and indicator bacteria from humans, animals and food in 2011 from EFSA and ECDC has found some significant national trends in resistance levels in isolates from animals and food. Among Salmonella isolates, more decreasing than increasing trends were found, whereas in the case of Campylobacter, significant national trends were mostly increasing. The study also looked at selected E.coli isolates and MRSA.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). April 3, 2018. Health departments working with CDCs Antibiotic Resistance (AR) Lab Network found more than 220 instances of germs with unusual antibiotic resistance genes in the United States last year, according to a CDC Vital Signs report released today.. Germs with unusual resistance include those that cannot be killed by all or most antibiotics, are uncommon in a geographic area or the U.S., or have specific genes that allow them to spread their resistance to other germs.. Rapid identification of the new or rare threats is the critical first step in CDCs containment strategy to stop the spread of antibiotic resistance (AR). When a germ with unusual resistance is detected, facilities can quickly isolate patients and begin aggressive infection control and screening actions to discover, reduce, and stop transmission to others.. CDCs study found several dangerous pathogens, hiding in plain sight, that can cause infections that are difficult ...
This week we focused on antibiotic sensitivity on the individual bacteria that were identified last week. The day before class, the bacteria that we have been working with all quarter were recultured in their original conditions. They were grown in a liquid media to be easily transferred onto new plates in lab (Picture 1). In order to test the antibiotic resistance of each bug, we performed what is called a modified Kirby Bauer test. This test is widely used among microbiologists when testing bacteria for any antibiotic resistance. The bacteria are grown in liquid culture, then placed on an agar plate (LB or BHI) that has been divided into four sections. Each section of the plate then has a small disk that is saturated with a specific antibiotic placed on top of the agar (Picture 2). The antibiotics disks we used were Ampicillin, Chloramphenicol, Tetracycline, Penicillin, Gentamicin, Enrofloxacin, Neomycin, and Streptomycin. The plates are then left to culture and grow.. All this was done to ...
The emerging threat posed by antibiotic resistance has affected public health systems all over the world. Surveillance of resistant bacteria in clinical settings and identifying them in mixed cultures is of paramount importance and can contribute to the control of their spreading. Culture-independent monitoring approaches are highly desirable, since they yield results much faster than traditional susceptibility testing. However, many rapid molecular methods like PCR only detect the sole presence of a potential resistance gene, do not provide information regarding efficient transcription, expression and functionality and, in addition, cannot assign resistance genes to species level in mixed cultures. By using plasmid-encoded TEM β-lactamase mediated ampicillin resistances as a proof of principle system, we (1) developed a fluorescence in situ hybridization-test (FISH) capable to detect the respective mRNAs, (2) implemented an immunofluorescence test to identify the corresponding proteins and (3)
As with all things biological, it depends. Some antibiotics, like rifampicin and chloramphenicol, readily give rise to spontaneous resistance mutations. These drugs target transcription and translation, respectively, and alterations of a single nucleotide in the bacterial genome can confer resistance. Since point mutations like these arise spontaneously at about one per million bacteria, there are…
Treating bacterial infections with antibiotics is becoming increasingly difficult as bacteria develop resistance not only to the antibiotics being used against them, but also to ones they have never encountered before. By analyzing genetic and phenotypic changes in antibiotic-resistant strains of E. coli, researchers at the RIKEN Quantitative Biology Center in Japan have revealed a common set of features that appear to be responsible for the development of resistance to several types of antibiotics.
Antibiotic resistance: the Institut Pasteurs microbiological expertise and unique collection of resistant strains contribute to research on group A streptogramins
Resistance to bacteriostasis by 2-thiazole alanine develops rapidly; however, such resistance is lost during growth in the absence of the analog. This induced resistance is accompanied by increased formation of an enzyme sensitive to 2-thiazole alanine. Maintenance of the elevated enzyme levels in growing cells, like resistance, requires the presence of the analog. ...
Implementing antibiotic-free programs in modern broiler production brings legitimate concerns for producers regarding performance, flock uniformity, and disease incidence. Experts will gather in February 2017 at BIOMIN world headquarters to explore the keys to ABF broiler production and guidelines for the responsible use of antibiotics.
BIOMIN welcomed 145 delegates from 23 countries representing the feed and poultry sectors over several days in mid-February in order to address how to solve the antibiotic-free production puzzle.
Page 3 of 5 - Antibiotic Resistance - posted in Best all time threads.: If information was quantified, then it wouldnt be information. Could the information in the word Cow be quantified as C O W? No. because individual letters arent information; They are units.Ummmm, a one of the biggest arguments by most creationists is evolution doesnt increase information. If youre looking for an increase youre quantifying.Red blood cell...
Scientists have revealed that certain disease-causing bacteria get their resistance genes in a complex process involving bacterial sex; this can potentially lead to a more targeted effort in preventing the spread of antibiotic resistance
The US Dollar broke a significant level of resistance against the Japanese Yen. Namely, the resistance of a medium descending pattern that captured the week long sideways trading below the 110.00 level was broken. The event signals the end of sideways trading.. As the pair continues to surge upwards, it will face the weekly R1 at 110.14. After breaking the weekly R1, the pair is set to reach for the next resistance level at the 110.50 mark.. On the other hand, at any moment the pair might begin to consolidate its gains by trading sideways and waiting for the support of the 55 and 100-hour simple moving averages to approach the rate and initiate a continuation of the surge. ...
A path-breaking technique that will potentially help reverse drug resistance as well as enable the existing antibiotics to act effectively has been developed by researchers from the IIT Roorkee.
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The experts say our resistance to antibiotics is now a serious global health threat. Find out how much you need to worry, and the action you should take.
The antibiotic-resistant strain of gonorrhoea - now considered a superbug - was discovered in Japan two years ago.Experts have warned that the bacterias effects could match those of AIDS.
|p||strong|Bonpard Resistance|br /||/strong|Bonpard Resistance Supplement has been developed for horses with a compromised immune system. This often manifests itself as vague health issues leading to suboptimal performance.  The specific composition
Going directly after the problem with someone who doesnt want to change only creates more resistance. Find out more about rolling with resistance.
Bacteria not only develop resistance to antibiotics, they also can pick it up from their rivals. In a recent publication in Cell Reports, Researchers from the Biozentrum of the University of Bas ...
Can NZYMES help my pet, you may ask. See how NZYMES can help promote a better quality of life, with greater resistance to most health threats.
Krishna V. Komanduri, MD; Stephen J. Schuster, MD; David Maloney, MD, PhD; and Michael Pulsipher, MD, describe the mechanisms of resistance after CAR T-cell infusion, including how their persistence relates to duration of response and whether patients can receive multiple infusions.
إذا أردت ان تعرف ما هو resistance؟؟ ابحث في Sesli Sözlük والذي يعتبر مصدر للحصول على المعرفة اللغوية للعديد من الكلمات في لغات العالم المختلفة.
Just because the market moves in one direction doesnt mean that all of the stocks are moving with it. Here are five stocks that are bumping up against overhead resistance.
Over the past few months, weve gotten a few good looks at Resistance 3, and what weve seen so far has been awfully promising. Easily the
How a gene was inadvertently delivered to a cancer cell, camouflaging it from the therapy and allowing the cancer to develop resistance to treatment. The patient ultimately died.
Что значит resistance? Узнай это здесь вместе с Сесли Сёзлюк - твой источник знаний для изучения множества языков по всему миру
Traduction de resistance dans le dictionnaire Anglais-Allemand gratuit de LANGENSCHEIDT avec des exemples, des synonymes et la prononciation.
Assuming somebody does nothing it might take a few years to establish resistance to HPV. If someone takes the authors guidance, it requires just a few...
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Looking for Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance Study? Find out information about Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance Study. product obtained from several species of red algae, or seaweed seaweed, name commonly used for the multicellular marine algae. Simpler forms, consisting of... Explanation of Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance Study
Plasmid-mediated resistance is the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes which are carried on plasmids. The plasmids can be transferred between bacteria within the same species or between different species via conjugation. Plasmids often carry multiple antibiotic resistance genes, contributing to the spread of multidrug-resistance (MDR). Antibiotic resistance mediated by MDR plasmids severely limits the treatment options for the infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, especially Enterobacteriaceae family. The global spread of MDR plasmids has been enhanced by selective pressure from antibiotic usage in human and veterinary medicine. Resistance plasmids by definition carry one or more antibiotic resistance genes. They are frequently accompanied by the genes encoding virulence determinants, specific enzymes or resistance to toxic heavy metals. Multiple resistance genes are commonly arranged in the resistance cassettes. The antibiotic resistance genes found on the plasmids confer resistance ...
What is antibiotic resistance?. Diseases can become resistant to antibiotics, meaning that antibiotics will no no longer make a patient well. Antibiotic resistant diseases are one of the largest emerging health threats in the world.. Why are antibiotic resistance genes inserted into gmos?. Successfully inserting a new gene into tissue culture is a rare occurence. To determine if the insertion was successful, scientists attach an antibiotic resistance marker gene to the gene they wish to insert. After many attempted insertions, scientists place antibiotics on the tissue cultures. They know that those that survive contain the antibiotic resistance gene and most likely the gene they wish to see expressed. This antibiotic resistance gene stays in each cell of the organism throughout its life and often transfers to its offspring.. How might this lead to antibiotic resistant diseases?. There is concern that antibiotic resistance marker genes will confer antibiotic resistance traits onto bacteria ...
Antibiotic resistance is now considered to be a great curse to the present world. Researcher suspected that millions of people will die due to the rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance by 2050. There are lots of mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. All the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance can be narrowed into two part; mutation and horizontal gene transfer.. In this context, both type of antibiotic resistance mechanisms will be discussed. The last mechanism belongs to horizontal gene transfer-mediated resistance and most of the other mechanisms of antibiotic resistance are mutation-mediated. …. 10 mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in BacteriaRead More » ...
The results of this study showed that in Finland themefA gene is predominant among erythromycin-resistant M-phenotype isolates and the ermTR gene is predominant among isolates with MLSB resistance phenotypes. A comparison of susceptibilities between erythromycin-resistant S. pyogenes isolates in this study and isolates collected in 1990 (28) showed no changes in the antibiotic resistance patterns of the M- and CR-phenotype isolates. However, two interesting changes were seen in the antibiotic resistance pattern of the IR-phenotype isolates. In 1990, the proportion of the IR-phenotype isolates that were resistant to tetracycline was 10% (28), which was only a little more than the proportion found among erythromycin-susceptibleS. pyogenes isolates (4%). However, in 1994 and 1995 (this study), 93% of the IR phenotype isolates were resistant to tetracycline, which is comparable to the 82 and 100% rates of resistance found among the CR-phenotype isolates in 1990 (28) and 1994 and 1995, respectively, ...
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis pandemic is a major health problem, further complicated by an increasing incidence of drug-resistant isolates and the existence of highly transmissible strains, such as those in the Beijing family. Streptomycin (STR)-resistant M. tuberculosis clinical isolates have been analyzed to look for mutations in the rpsL, rrs, and gidB genes. In addition, the Rv1258c gene, which encodes Tap, an efflux pump that transports STR, has been sequenced. Mutations affecting codons 43 and 88 of the rpsL gene were found in 44.4% of the strains, and 16.7% of the strains carried mutations in the rrs gene, both of which probably contribute to STR resistance. Many strains presented with mutations in the gidB gene, but the implication of those mutations in STR resistance remains unclear. Interestingly, a cytosine nucleotide insertion between positions 580 and 581 (denominated Tap580) in the Rv1258c gene has been found in all Beijing isolates included in this study, suggesting that it might be a
Resistance against antibiotics, such as penicillin and cephalosporins, are haunting many hospitals and clinical practices. In a recent paper in the Journal of the American Chemical Society, researchers reported that they made laboratory versions of the ancient ancestors of the enzymes that lead to antibiotic resistance. By studying the ancient forefathers of these enzymes, researchers hope to understand how modern antibiotic resistance evolved and figure out new ways to deal with it. Antibiotic-resistant organisms cause thousands of human deaths every year. Anything new we can learn about antibiotic resistance may be potentially useful in coping with this problem, says Jose Sanchez-Ruiz at the University of Granada in Spain, one of the studys coauthors.. Antibiotic resistance isnt a modern phenomenon that only arose in the face of clinical antibiotic use in the past 60 years. Bacteria have been toting around enzymes to disarm antibiotics for millenia. Indeed, genes for antibiotic resistance ...
E. the staphylococcus. One could question why it took so long for the enterococcus to pick up the staphylococcal P-lactamase which has been recognized for decades. In fact, it does not seem to work very well in the enterococcus: the enzyme is bound to the membrane and is not excreted. A better construct of the gene has not appeared-perhaps selection is not adequate. References Bridges B 1996 Elevated mutation rate in mutT bacteria during starvation: evidence for DNA turnover. J Bacterioll78:270%2721 ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE DETERMINANTS 35 Bunny KL, Hall RM, Stokes HW 1995New mobile gene cassettes containing an aminoglycoside resistance gene, uucu7, and a chloramphenicol resistance gene, catb3, in an integron in pbwh301. If these genes moved very recently from soil microorganisms into bacteria they should be virtually identical in nucleotide sequence. This suggests either that antibiotic resistance genes were acquired very recently but we havent actually found the source yet, or they are much ...
In fall 2017, WHO released a report about a global shortage of antibiotics. This crisis has emerged simultaneously with a global rise in antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic resistance is a growing public health threat. Much of this antibiotic resistance is human-made. Shortages of antibiotics led to superbugs and are often caused by the overprescribing antibiotics, improperly taking prescribed antibiotics, and consuming substandard medicines as well as the extensive use of antibiotics in agriculture.. The over-prescription of drugs, improper consumption, parallel drug markets, and rampant antibiotic use all drive the growing global threat posed by antibiotic resistance. These factors are interrelated in different ways. For example, underdeveloped diagnostic facilities combined with overzealous prescription of antibiotics have led to increasing empirical treatment of infections. Responding to pressure from patients, doctors sometimes prescribe antibiotics for viral conditions despite their ...
Singh, T.A., et al. Understanding and combating the antibiotic resistance crisis. Microorganisms for Sustainable Environment and Health (2020): 315. Ventola, C.L. The antibiotic resistance crisis: part 1: causes and threats. Pharmacy and therapeutics 40.4 (2015): 277. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States, 2019. Atlanta, GA. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, CDC (2019). DOI: 10.15620/cdc:82532 Dyar, O.J., et al. What is antimicrobial stewardship? Clinical Microbiology and Infection 23.11 (2017): 793-8. May, L.S., et al. Antimicrobial Stewardship in the Emergency Department: characteristics and evidence for effectiveness of interventions. Clinical Microbiology and Infection (2020). Eudy, J.L., et al. Antimicrobial Stewardship Practice in the Ambulatory Setting from a National Cohort. US: Oxford University Press. Open forum infectious diseases 7.11 (2020). European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. ...
1) Tannock GW, et al. (1994) Molecular characterization of a plasmid-borne (pGT633) erythromycin resistance determinant (ermGT) from Lactobacillus reuteri 100-63.. Plasmid 31(1):60-71 PubMed: 8171126 ...
OR resistance/height2[All Fields] OR resistance/high[All Fields] OR resistance/homeostasis[All Fields] OR resistance/hyperglycemia[All Fields] OR resistance/hyperinsulinaemia[All Fields] OR resistance/hyperinsulinemia[All Fields] OR resistance/hyperinsulinemia/hyperglycemia[All Fields] OR resistance/hyperinsulinemic[All Fields] OR resistance/hyperinsulinism[All Fields] OR resistance/hyperlipidaemia[All Fields] OR resistance/hypersensitivity[All Fields] OR resistance/hypersusceptibility[All Fields] OR resistance/hypertension[All Fields] OR resistance/hypertriglyceridemia[All Fields] OR resistance/immunity[All Fields] OR resistance/impact[All Fields] OR resistance/impaired[All Fields] OR resistance/impedance[All Fields] OR resistance/inflammation[All Fields] OR resistance/inhibition[All Fields] OR resistance/innate[All Fields] OR resistance/insensitivity[All Fields] OR resistance/inspiratory[All Fields] OR resistance/insulinemia[All Fields] OR resistance/intermediate[All Fields] OR ...
Christine Boinett is a post-doctoral fellow working in Pathogen Genomics at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. In this film she describes how she uses DNA sequencing and computer analysis to investigate how bacteria develop resistance to certain antibiotics. During her degree, Christine spent a year in industry looking at drug resistance in HIV. Her fascination with drug resistance led her on to a PhD looking at how it develops in bacteria. Her current research at the Sanger Institute uses whole genome sequencing to reveal antibiotic resistance genes.. The Pathogen Genomics programme at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute investigates the genomes of a range of pathogens that affect human health, including viruses, bacteria and eukaryotic parasites. The aim of the programme is to find out more about how these organisms cause disease and spread within the population.. This is one of a series of films providing a unique insight into different careers in the field of genomics.. ...
An editorial in todays New York Times: The Rise of Antibiotic Resistance. Excerpt: The most urgent need is to minimize the overuse of antibiotics in medicine and agriculture, which accelerates the development of resistant strains. In the United States, the...
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has reported that at least 2 million illnesses and 23,000 deaths are caused each year in the United States by antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and scientists at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are using cutting-edge technology called whole genome sequencing (WGS) to help identify the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria as early as possible, as well as to take steps in controlling their further spread.. For the first time, we can rapidly determine the entire collection of known antibiotic resistance genes in an individual bacterium. This is allowing new insights into the nature and magnitude of the resistance threat, says Patrick McDermott, Ph.D., director of FDAs National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS). And, because the database of resistance genes is growing, due to work by scientists around the globe, we can see what others are nding and quickly ascertain if resistance threats emerging in other ...
The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of continuing or discontinuing 3TC treatment in the presence of HIV virus with 3TC resistance for persons who are on a regimen including least three other anti-HIV drugs. The overall aim is to determine whether continuing 3TC is of benefit in HIV-positive persons who have already shown resistance to this drug ...
Scientists in China say theyve identified a gene that makes a common, dangerous bacteria resistant to last-resort antibiotics called polymyxins.
The question on the minds of thousands of scientists minds across the world revolves around what the possible cause could be that continues to trigger the enormous spike in UTIs. The answer remains highly controversial. On the one hand, some researches argue that a strong link persists between the meat we consume and the bacteria we then acquire. These researchers highlight the close genetic matches between resistant E.coli from human patients and resistant strains found on chicken or turkey sold in supermarkets, in order to make the argument that resistance could be spreading with every bite from our chicken dinners. While on the other hand, other researchers dont agree as antibiotic resistance remains extremely common in our society therefore, it isnt surprising that genes carried by human E.coli are going to be similar to resistance genes in chicken E.coli. However, after taking both arguments into account, I believe that a strong link exists between the antibiotic treated meat we ...
This episode is focused on using antibiotics wisely and how YOU can help in the fight of antibiotic resistance. | Using antibiotics wisely, How YOU can help in the fight against antibiotic resistance Tuesday, February 9, 2016 on C. diff. Spores and More | VoiceAmerica - The Leader in Internet Media
Antibiotics do not work for viruses such as colds, influenza, most sore throats and bronchitis. Taking antibiotics when they are not needed increases the risk of future resistance when they are prescribed.. Colts Quarterback Matt Hasselbeck and ISDH Health Commissioner Dr. Adams Discuss Antibiotics. Antibiotic Use and Antibiotic Resistance Quick Fact El uso de antibióticos y resistencia antibiótica CDC - Get Smart About Antibiotics Materials. ...
Our latest data show some progress in reducing resistance among some germs that make people sick, but unfortunately were also seeing greater resistance in some pathogens, like certain types of salmonella, Dr. Robert Tauxe, deputy director of the division of foodborne, waterborne and environmental diseases at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, said in an agency news release.TUESDAY, July 1, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Theres good news and bad news about antibiotic resistance among the germs that cause foodborne illnesses, a new U.S. government report released Tuesday shows ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Resistance decay in individuals after antibiotic exposure in primary care. T2 - A systematic review and meta-analysis. AU - Bakhit, Mina. AU - Hoffmann, Tammy. AU - Scott, Anna Mae. AU - Beller, Elaine. AU - Rathbone, John. AU - Del Mar, Chris. PY - 2018/8/7. Y1 - 2018/8/7. N2 - BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is an urgent global problem, but reversibility is poorly understood. We examined the development and decay of bacterial resistance in community patients after antibiotic use.METHODS: This was a systematic review and meta-analysis. PubMed, EMBASE and CENTRAL (from inception to May 2017) were searched, with forward and backward citation searches of the identified studies. We contacted authors whose data were unclear, and of abstract-only reports, for further information. We considered controlled or times-series studies of patients in the community who were given antibiotics and where the subsequent prevalence of resistant bacteria was measured. Two authors extracted risk of ...
In women from 2 independent ethnic groups relocating from Thailand to the United States, investigators found a rapid increase in gut microbiome antibiotic resistance genes richness and abundance.
Summary of Facts and Submissions. I. The European application with the title Rapid detection of antibiotic resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis was filed as international application PCT/EP93/01063, claiming priorities from US 875,940 (P1; filed on 30 April 1992), US 929,206 (P2; filed on 14 August 1992), FR 92/11098 (P3; filed on 17 September 1992) and FR 93/04545 (fourth priority document; filed on 16 April 1993).. Claims 1 and 16 of the application as originally filed read:. 1. A process for the detection of a resistance to an antibiotic in a mycobacterium which comprises detecting a mutation in a gene selected from the katG gene or fragment thereof, the rpoB gene or fragment thereof and rpsL gene or fragment thereof.. 16. The process of claim 1 for the detection of resistance to the selected antibiotic which comprises:. - fragmenting the relevant gene or part thereof likely to carry the mutation into a plurality of fragments, such as by digestion of said relevant gene by selected ...
Friendly microbes in the intestinal tracts of healthy American children have numerous antibiotic resistance genes, according to results of a pilot study by
Resistance to antibiotics is hardly a new problem; ever since the advent of penicillin and other antibiotics more than 50 years ago defiant strains of bacteria have emerged. The harrowing aspect is that now almost every human pathogen treated with antibiotics is showing resistance, and many doctors fear that this will only be the tip of the iceberg. After all, every time any antibiotic is used, while it may kill the majority of the bacteria the drug was intended to destroy, there is a likelihood that a few germs will remain, surviving because of their resistant traits or their ability to mutate and become resistant to antibiotics. Once created, these resistant genes can multiply quickly, creating new strains of bacteria that could result in the patients next infection failing to respond to the previously administered antibiotic. In fact, bacteria can reproduce about every twenty minutes, meaning resistance is quickly spread, and the resistant strand eventually becomes the dominant strand of ...
According to the HPA, â€Åthe failure of patients to complete courses of prescribed antibiotics†has facilitated the spread of isoniazid-resistant TB.. Since the treatment regimen lasts six months or more, proper treatment of at-risk groups like the homeless and intravenous drug users is quite problematic thereby increasing the likelihood that the strain will continue spreading.. Incentives and other programs that encourage and reward those who adhere to the lengthy treatment routine are being utilized. These include giving out food vouchers, social service support, and accommodation assistance.. Between 1987 and 2003, London has seen TB cases double to 2,745 thereby accounting for 45% of all cases in England and Wales. Sir William Stewart, Chairman of the HPA, states: â€ÅThe bugs are cleverer than we are. They grow, multiply, and mutate more quickly than we can deal with them. Antibiotics, though still hugely important, are no longer the saviors that they were ...
Novel antibiotics are urgently needed to combat the rise of infections due to drug-resistant microorganisms. Numerous natural nucleosides and their synthetically modified analogues have been reported to have moderate to good antibiotic activity against different bacterial and fungal strains. Nucleoside-based compounds target several crucial processes of bacterial and fungal cells such as nucleoside metabolism and cell wall, nucleic acid, and protein biosynthesis. Nucleoside analogues have also been shown to target many other bacterial and fungal cellular processes although these are not well characterized and may therefore represent opportunities to discover new drugs with unique mechanisms of action. In this Perspective, we demonstrate that nucleoside analogues, cornerstones of anticancer and antiviral treatments, also have great potential to be repurposed as antibiotics so that an old drug can learn new tricks.. ...
As pathogenic bacteria evolve, antibiotic resistance is spreading, compromising our ability to control and treat infectious diseases. Antibiotic Resistance thoroughly illuminates this crucial issue for healthcare professionals, researchers, students, and policymakers.
The AMR has often highlighted that simple measures like hand washing among physicians, maintaining hygiene can go a long way in the battle against antibiotic resistance along with regulation of prescribing and consumption of these drugs can. It has emphasised that broad range of interventions, encompassing both the simple and inexpensive, and larger-scale more complex actions are critical to address this public health concern ...
Scientists at the University of Birmingham have identified a new mechanism of antibiotic resistance in bacterial cells which could help us in understanding, and developing solutions to, the growing problem of antibiotic resistance.
Isolation Of Multiple Drugs Resistance - INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial resistance is not new, but the number of resistant organisms, the geographic locations affected by drug resistance, and the breadth of resistance in single organisms are unprecedented and mounting. Diseases and disease agents that were once thought to be controlled by antibiotics …. Read More » ...
Antibiotic Resistance Without Fitness Cost. - posted in Creation vs Evolution: In the majority of studies performed, resistance caused bytarget alterations has been found to engender some cost tofitness (Table 1), but mutants with no measurable costshave also been observed. One example of a ‘no cost’ resistancemutation is the 42nd codon AAA (Lys)®AGA (Arg)substitution of the rpsL gene, responsible for resistance tohigh concentrations of streptomycin in S. typhimurium andoth...
Pre-defined mutations in viral RNA were noted, the presence of which was defined as genotypic resistance. Phenotypic resistance was defined as IC50 more than 10-fold higher than the median value for all viruses of the same subtype. Treatment-emergent resistance was defined as the presence of genotypic or phenotypic resistance from a post-Baseline sample in the setting of a previously non-resistant Baseline sample. Susceptible viruses were those that did not exhibit treatment-emergent resistance. The percentage of participants by earliest post-Baseline test day on which viral RNA was not detected was reported and stratified by resistant and susceptible viruses ...
Antibiotic resistance is a worldwide public health problem (Bush et al. in Nat Rev Microbiol 9:894-896, 2011). The lack of effective therapies against resistant bacteria globally leads to prolonged...
Looking at the 4-hours chart, the pair traded above the 1.1020 resistance level plus the 50% Fib retracement level of the downward move from the 1.1163 high to 1.0925 low.. However, the upward move was capped by the 1.1080 and 1.1090 resistance levels. Moreover, the pair is also facing hurdles near the 100 simple moving average (red, 4-hours) and the 61.8% Fib retracement level of the downward move from the 1.1163 high to 1.0925 low.. There is also a crucial bearish trend line forming with resistance near 1.1100 on the same chart. Therefore, the pair needs to climb above the 1.1080 and 1.1100 resistance levels to continue higher.. Conversely, if EUR/USD fails to break the 1.1080 and 1.1100 resistance levels, it could start a fresh decline. An immediate support is near the 1.0980 level, below which the pair could test the 1.0950 support area.. Fundamentally, the US nonfarm payrolls report for August 2019 was released by the US Department of Labor this past Friday. The market was looking for an ...
The British chemist Lesley Orgel had a rule: Evolution is cleverer than you. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have repeatedly proven him right.. Since humans started making antibiotics for ourselves in the 1940s, bacteria have evolved to counteract our efforts. They are now winning. There are strains of old foes that withstand everything we can throw at them. Meanwhile, our arsenal has dried up. Before 1962, scientists developed more than 20 new classes of antibiotics. Since then, they have made two.. More, hopefully, are coming. A team of scientists led by Kim Lewis from Northeastern University have identified a new antibiotic called teixobactin, which kills some kinds of bacteria by preventing them from building their outer coats. They used it to successfully treat antibiotic-resistant infections in mice. And more importantly, when they tried to deliberately evolve strains of bacteria that resist the drug, they failed. Teixobactin appears resistant to resistance.. Bacteria will eventually develop ...
The public section of the CAN-R website is designed to ensure that the public has access to the latest and most comprehensive information gathered from a variety of sources on antibiotic resistance and related issues in Canada.. ...
Public Release: 18-Nov-2016 University of Gothenburg Polluted city air has now been identified as a possible means of transmission for resistant bacteria. Researchers in Gothenburg have shown that air samples from Beijing contain DNA from genes that make bacteria resistant to the most powerful antibiotics we have. This may be a more important means of…
Antibiotic resistance in children with urinary infections is high and could render some antibiotics ineffective as first-line treatments, warns a study published by The BMJ.
Issues in Depth is a series of symposia focused this year on antibiotics and antibiotic resistance. The series is sponsored by the ASBMB Minority Affairs Committee.. ...
Dr. Windi Muziasari, CEO of Resistomap, talks about how they are fighting the spread of antibiotic resistance genes by providing robust tools for monitoring.
35,000 people will die from Antibiotic Resistant infections in the US this year, while another 2.8 million will fight an Antibiotic Resistant infection.
Airway resistance is the resistance to the flow of air through the respiratory tract during inhalation and expiration. The level of resistance depends on many things, particularly the diameter of the airway and whether flow is laminar or turbulent. In this article we shall consider how these factors affect the air flow, and consider some clinical conditions in which airway resistance is affected.
According to the CDC, 50 million courses of antibiotics prescribed by doctors each year may be unnecessary and may lead to antibiotic resistance.
A Department of Health memo, leaked to the Health Service Journal, is being reported this morning. It was on the Today programme this morning, and it is in the Guardian as well, and elsewhere too, no doubt ...
Not only does antibiotic resistance (ABR) affect you, but it also affects global populations. Due to the ease of the sharing of genetic material between bacteria and the environmental resilience of many bacterial populations, ABR can spread quickly and efficiently. ABR is found in bacteria spanning dozens of countries around the globe and continues to...
Howard Hughes Medical Institute researchers chiseling away at the problem of antibiotic resistance now have a detailed explanation of how the drugs main cellular target in bacteria evolves to become resistant to some of these medications.
Microbial Drug Resistance. 24 (5): 563-577. doi:10.1089/mdr.2017.0266. PMID 29039729.. ... Drug interactions[edit]. Based on previous trial data and ongoing clinical trials, no significant drug-drug or food-drug ... "Infection and Drug Resistance. 6: 215-23. doi:10.2147/idr.s36140. PMC 3848746. PMID 24348053. Retrieved 2019-06-23.. ... However, drug-drug interactions similar to those observed with the cephalosporin class of antimicrobials and β-lactamase ...
Microbial Drug Resistance. 18 (3): 280-5. doi:10.1089/mdr.2012.0002. PMC 3412580. PMID 22432705. Shrivastav A, Dabrowski AN, ... expression regulates proinflammatory cytokines by microbial and dietary fatty acids". Immunobiology. 216 (6): 715-24. doi: ...
Microbial Drug Resistance. 26 (4): 311-318. doi:10.1089/mdr.2019.0260. PMID 31596673. Kshirsagar MM, Dodamani AS, Vishwakarma P ... a plant or microbial extract). The agar plate is therefore inoculated with a bacterial strain of known phenotype (often an ATCC ... In drug discovery labs, the disk diffusion test is performed slightly differently than in diagnostic labs. In this setting, it ... In drug discovery labs, especially bioprospecting labs, the assay is used to screen biological material (eg. plant extracts, ...
Microbial Drug Resistance. 15 (1): 1-9. doi:10.1089/mdr.2009.0856. PMID 19216682. D-alanine-D-serine+ligase at the US National ... Fines M, Perichon B, Reynolds P, Sahm DF, Courvalin P (September 1999). "VanE, a new type of acquired glycopeptide resistance ... Depardieu F, Bonora MG, Reynolds PE, Courvalin P (November 2003). "The vanG glycopeptide resistance operon from Enterococcus ... Park IS, Lin CH, Walsh CT (September 1997). "Bacterial resistance to vancomycin: overproduction, purification, and ...
Microbial Drug Resistance. 8, 281-289 (2002). Ruiz J. Mechanisms of resistance to quinolones: target alterations, decreased ... Microbial Drug Resistance. 14 (1), 45-47 (2008). Falcone M, Mezzatesta ML, Perilli MG et al. Infections with VIM-1 metallo-beta ... Microbial Drug Resistance. 13 (1), 1-6 (2007). Daurel C, Fiant AL, Brémont S, Courvalin P, Leclercq R. Emergence of an ... Microbial Drug Resistance. 12 (4), 223-230 (2006). Yan JJ, Ko WC, Chuang CL, Wu JJ. Metallo-beta-lactamase-producing ...
2004). "Dissemination of transferable AmpC-type beta-lactamase (CMY-10) in a Korean hospital". Microbial Drug Resistance. 10 (3 ... Hall BG, Barlow M (April 2004). "Evolution of the serine beta-lactamases: past, present and future". Drug Resistance Updates. 7 ... Plasmids responsible for ESBL production frequently carry genes encoding resistance to other drug classes (for example, ... Some confer resistance predominantly to ceftazidime, but OXA-17 confers greater resistance to cefotaxime and cefepime than it ...
Microbial Drug Resistance. 18 (3): 280-5. doi:10.1089/mdr.2012.0002. PMC 3412580. PMID 22432705. Dabrowski AN, Shrivastav A, ...
Microbial Drug Resistance. 19 (4): 274-81. doi:10.1089/mdr.2012.0248. PMID 23514607. Nordmann, Patrice; et al. (May 2012). " ... They are resistant because they produce an enzyme called a carbapenemase that disables the drug molecule. The resistance can ... No new drugs for the bacteria are in development and the bacteria's rapid adaptation to new drugs makes investment in their ... In a Thailand-based study of CRE in hospital settings, carbapenem resistance was defined as any strain that shows resistance to ...
Microbial Drug Resistance (Larchmont, N.Y.). 22 (5): 412-431. doi:10.1089/mdr.2015.0220. ISSN 1931-8448. PMID 26866778. ... Antibiotic resistance Drug resistance Multiple drug resistance Cerceo, Elizabeth; Deitelzweig, Steven B.; Sherman, Bradley M.; ... This drug shows promise in infections from multi-drug resistant K. pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae carbapenemase [KPC]- and ESBL- ... The lack of newly emerging antimicobrial drugs have resulted in the revisit of old antibiotic drugs such as colistin and ...
The main problem with pathogenic drug treatments in the modern world is drug resistance. Many patients don't take the full ... This example can also be applied to S. aureus and other common microbial flora in humans. Currently, antimicrobials are the ... only the bacteria which have developed genetic mutations to combat the drug can survive. This reduces drug effectiveness and ... These drugs are specifically designed to kill microbes or inhibit further growth within the host environment. Multiple terms ...
Microbial Drug Resistance (Larchmont, N.Y.). 18 (3): 280-285. doi:10.1089/mdr.2012.0002. ISSN 1931-8448. PMC 3412580. PMID ... "Host-Microbial Interactions in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis". American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 195 ... "How innate immunity proteins kill bacteria and why they are not prone to resistance". Current Genetics. 64 (1): 125-129. doi: ...
In human lung cancer samples, V-ATPase expression was correlated with drug resistance. A large number of V-ATPase subunit ... Saris NE, Andersson MA, Mikkola R, Andersson LC, Teplova VV, Grigoriev PA, Salkinoja-Salonen MS (August 2009). "Microbial ... Some cationic drugs, such as chloroquine and sertraline, are known as lysosomotropic drugs. These drugs are weak bases that ... Mayers D (2008). Antimicrobial drug resistance handbook. Volume 2, Clinical and epidemiological aspects. Totowa, N.J.: Humana. ...
... and microbial resistance continues to increase faster than the pace of new drug and vaccine development. More positive ... More importantly, the drug costs are only a portion of HIV/AIDS treatment costs. Drug-resistant strains are likely to spread ... of drugs under patent protection. Developing countries also are less willing to make microbial samples available to companies ... to increasing microbial resistance to existing antibiotics, and because related models have already underestimated the force of ...
Kleckner N, Chan RK, Tye BK, Botstein D (October 1975). "Mutagenesis by insertion of a drug-resistance element carrying an ... The development of microbial genome sequencing was a major advance for the use of transposon mutagenesis. The function affected ... Hayes F (2003). "Transposon-based strategies for microbial functional genomics and proteomics". Annual Review of Genetics. 37 ( ...
Immunomodulatory regimens often have fewer side effects than existing drugs, including less potential for creating resistance ... when treating microbial disease.[3] Cell-based immunotherapies are effective for some cancers. Immune effector cells such as ... Immunosuppressive drugs[edit]. Immunosuppressive drugs help manage organ transplantation and autoimmune disease. Immune ... Immunomodulatory imide drugs (IMiDs). thalidomide and its analogues (lenalidomide, pomalidomide, and apremilast) ...
Pleiotropic Drug Resistance ABC transporters are hypothesized to be involved in stress response and export antimicrobial ... This unique ABC transporter is found in Nicotiana tabacum BY2 cells and is expressed in the presence of microbial elicitors. ... or other resistance. Active transport is usually associated with accumulating high concentrations of molecules that the cell ...
Immunomodulatory regimens often have fewer side effects than existing drugs, including less potential for creating resistance ... when treating microbial disease. Cell-based immunotherapies are effective for some cancers. Immune effector cells such as ... Hoos A (April 2016). "Development of immuno-oncology drugs - from CTLA4 to PD1 to the next generations". Nature Reviews. Drug ... Other drugs modulate immune responses and can be used to induce immune regulation. It has been observed in a preclinical trial ...
Drug resistance is increasingly more common and presents a serious problem in persons who are immunocompromised. Prophylactic ... such as regular toothbrushing and use of anti-microbial mouthwashes. Since smoking is associated with many of forms of oral ... Oral candidiasis can be treated with topical anti-fungal drugs, such as nystatin, miconazole, Gentian violet or amphotericin B ... In recurrent oral candidiasis, the use of azole antifungals risks selection and enrichment of drug-resistant strains of candida ...
"Genetic engineering in vivo using translocatable drug-resistance elements. New methods in bacterial genetics". J. Mol. Biol. ... Berg, Claire; Berg, Douglass E. "Transposable Elements Tools for Microbial Genetics". EcoSal. Engels, William R. "P Elements in ... Alternatively insertional inactivation could be used to suppress genes that express antibiotic-resistance in bacteria., While ... Transposon-based Insertional inactivation is considered for medical research from suppression of antibiotic resistance in ...
By culturing the blood, microbes can be identified and tested for resistance to antimicrobial drugs, which allows clinicians to ... Throughout the 1970s and 80s several manufacturers attempted to detect microbial growth by measuring changes in the electrical ... in which microbial proteins are ionized and characterized on the basis of their mass-to-charge ratios; each microbial species ... If microbial growth is detected, a Gram stain is conducted from the culture bottle to confirm that organisms are present and ...
... and drug resistance". J. Bacteriol. 183 (18): 5385-94. doi:10.1128/jb.183.18.5385-5394.2001. PMC 95423. PMID 11514524. Burmølle ... yet this industry continues to suffer from microbial colonization. No matter the sophistication, microbial infections can ... Induced systemic resistance and pathogen-induced systemic acquired resistance are both potential functions of biofilms in the ... the biofilm does have greater resistance to antimicrobials. This resistance to antibiotics in both stationary-phase cells and ...
"High frequency of macrolide resistance mechanisms in clinical isolates of Corynebacterium species". Microbial Drug Resistance. ... In the same experiment, multi drug resistance was observed in 49.2% of strains. Corynebacterium striatum has been found to ... Similar resistance was noted in a study with all isolates showing resistance to ciprofloxacin. Of significant clinical ... Antibiotic resistance is the acquisition of resistance to antibiotic treatments through either horizontal gene transfer or ...
For drug resistant cases, depending upon the pattern of drug resistance a number of regimen are available composed of a ... Based on the nature of anti-microbial resistance to the disease different treatment regimen are offered through the program. ... these provide additional drug resistance/ susceptibility testing services for a number of Anti-TB drugs. Standardized treatment ... New Cases and those which exhibit no resistance are offered a six month, short course of the four first line drugs; Isoniazid-H ...
Mor A (2000). "Peptide-based antibiotics: a potential answer to raging antimicrobial resistance". Drug Development Research. 50 ... Hancock RE, Falla T, Brown M (1995). "Cationic bactericidal peptides". Advances in Microbial Physiology. 37: 135-75. PMID ... Antimicrobial resistance Amiche M, Seon AA, Pierre TN, Nicolas P (August 1999). "The dermaseptin precursors: a protein family ... Dermaseptin use in a novel drug delivery system has been proposed. The system is based on the affinity of dermaseptins for the ...
Another possible application is the monitoring of mutations associated to drug-resistance in order to administer the more ... It is used to sequence all the microbial genomes in a sample by using the Shotgun approach. Its aim is to identify the nucleic ... in order to provide information about features of the viruses within the samples such as drug resistance, viral genotypes and ... Discover if viruses can shape the microbiome Detection of all the drug-resistance variants in one test Contribution to the ...
... acquisition of drug resistance and recent evolution. In addition, they are working with local and national clinical ... "A human gut microbial gene catalogue established by metagenomic sequencing". Nature. 464 (7285): 59-65. Bibcode:2010Natur.464 ... Evidence for the rapid evolution of virulence and drug resistance". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 101 (26): ... Brown, N. L.; Camakaris, J; Lee, B. T.; Williams, T; Morby, A. P.; Parkhill, J; Rouch, D. A. (1991). "Bacterial resistances to ...
"Redefining the relevance of established cancer cell lines to the study of mechanisms of clinical anti-cancer drug resistance". ... Bakermans, Corien (2015). Microbial Evolution under Extreme Conditions. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. p. 154. ISBN 9783110340716 ... "human cell line models to predict clinical response to anticancer drugs". Pharmacogenomics. 16 (3): 273-285. doi:10.2217/pgs. ... a cancer cell line to make predictions for healthy cells if the cancer cell line is known to be resistant to cytotoxic drugs ...
Squalene-hopene cyclase mutants derived from a wild type capable of multidrug efflux, a drug-resistance mechanism mediated by ... been proposed and patented as a biofertilizer technique that increases environmental resistance of plant-associated microbial ... October 2014). "Covalently linked hopanoid-lipid A improves outer-membrane resistance of a Bradyrhizobium symbiont of legumes ... Ourisson G, Albrecht P, Rohmer M (1982-07-01). "Predictive microbial biochemistry - from molecular fossils to procaryotic ...
Ochiai, K.; Yamanaka, T.; Kimura, K.; Sawada, O. (1959). "Inheritance of drug resistance (and its transfer) between Shigella ... One important development in the study of microbial evolution came with the discovery in Japan in 1959 of horizontal gene ... Furthermore, Parker, after reviewing numerous genetic studies on plant disease resistance, failed to find a single example ... Schloss, Patrick D.; Handelsman, Jo (December 2004). "Status of the Microbial Census". Microbiology and Molecular Biology ...
... and extent of drug resistance. ... "Adaptive value of sex in microbial pathogens" (PDF). Infect. ... Resistance[edit]. Main article: Pneumococcal infection § Treatment. Resistant Pneumococci strains are called penicillin- ... "Critical decline in pneumococcal disease and antibiotic resistance in South Africa". NICD. Retrieved 20 July 2015.. ... Pikis, Andreas; Campos, Joseph M.; Rodriguez, William J.; Keith, Jerry M. (2001). "Optochin Resistance in Streptococcus ...
An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains the recreational drug ethanol, a type of alcohol produced ... Fermented tea (also known as post-fermented tea or dark tea) is a class of tea that has undergone microbial fermentation, from ... "Ethanol Causes Acute Inhibition of Carbohydrate, Fat, and Protein Oxidation and Insulin Resistance". J. Clin. Invest. 81 (4): ... Alcohol is one of the most widely used recreational drugs in the world, with about 33% of people being current drinkers.[4] As ...
Tablets or capsules of activated carbon are used in many countries as an over-the-counter drug to treat diarrhea, indigestion, ... It is a measure of the activated carbon's resistance to attrition. It is an important indicator of activated carbon to maintain ... Microbial regeneration[64]. *Electrochemical regeneration[65]. *Ultrasonic regeneration[66]. *Wet air oxidation[67] ... Such materials combine high hydrophobicity and chemical stability with electrical and thermal conductivity and can be used as ...
At the Federal level, consistent with Section 341 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act,[67] the Food and Drug ... airtight plastic container with a mixture of carbon dioxide and nitrogen that inhibits microbial growth and prolongs the ... Other possible gluten-free pasta ingredients may include hydrocolloids to improve cooking pasta with high heat resistance, ... "Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, Title 21, Chapter 9, S. IV, Sec. 341" (PDF). Retrieved 7 July 2012.. ...
After filtrating the microbial culture of the Corynebacterium diphtheriae and injecting it into the lab animals, they were able ... the first active drug on heart rate (Dacorene) or the first synthetic no-depolarising muscle relaxant (Flaxedil). The discovery ... a great pharmacy for the Resistance thanks to the initiative of Vallery-Radot, Pasteur's nephew. The Germans became suspicious ... Afterwards, the German authorities ordered that the Institute's stores containing microbial cultures could be opened only by ...
... resistance to fluoroquinolones among the bacteria that cause urinary infections has been increasing.[42] The Food and Drug ... Engleberg, N C; DiRita, V; Dermody, T S (2007). Schaechter's Mechanism of Microbial Disease. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & ... "Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 8 March 2018. Archived from the original on 18 July 2019. Retrieved 17 July 2019.. ... Aronson, edited by Jeffrey K. (2008). Meyler's side effects of analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs. Amsterdam: Elsevier ...
Skett P, Gibson GG (2001). 》Chapter 3: Induction and Inhibition of Drug Metabolism》. 》Introduction to Drug Metabolism》 3판. ... Mackie RI, White BA (October 1990). "Recent advances in rumen microbial ecology and metabolism: potential impact on nutrient ... Fisher JF, Meroueh SO, Mobashery S (February 2005). "Bacterial resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics: compelling opportunism, ... Wlodawer A, Vondrasek J (1998). "Inhibitors of HIV-1 protease: a major success of structure-assisted drug design". 》Annual ...
2000). "Antiretroviral resistance during successful therapy of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection". Proc. Natl. Acad ... Chigwedere P, Seage GR, Gruskin S, Lee TH, Essex M (October 2008). "Estimating the Lost Benefits of Antiretroviral Drug Use in ... "Microbial translocation is a cause of systemic immune activation in chronic HIV infection". Nat. Med. 12 (12): 1365-71. doi: ... Wodak A, Cooney A (2006). "Do needle syringe programs reduce HIV infection among injecting drug users: a comprehensive review ...
... drug resistance, virologic failure: evolving concepts". Infectious disorders drug targets 11 (2): 167-74. PMID 21406048.. ... "Microbial translocation is a cause of systemic immune activation in chronic HIV infection". Nat. Med. 12 (12): 1365-71. PMID ... 1 June 2013). "Antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV infection in injecting drug users in Bangkok, Thailand (the Bangkok Tenofovir ... 2005 Jan 21). "Antiretroviral postexposure prophylaxis after sexual, injection-drug use, or other nonoccupational exposure to ...
This bacterium has developed multi-drug antibiotic resistance and uses colonization and secreted factors in virulence (enzymes ... "Integrated Microbial Genomes and Microbiomes". United States Department of Energy.. *^ Pidot, Sacha J.; Gao, Wei; Buultjens, ... "In Gilmore MS, Clewell DB, Ike Y. Enterococci: From Commensals to Leading Causes of Drug Resistant Infection. PMID 24649504.. ... Enterococci: From Commensals to Leading Causes of Drug Resistant Infection. Boston: Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary. PMID ...
Lack of carbon, nitrogen, and organic growth factors so as to prevent microbial multiplication ... which do not possess the resistance, from growing. Media lacking an amino acid such as proline in conjunction with E. coli ... US Food and Drug Administration scientist tests for Salmonella. The most common growth media for microorganisms are nutrient ... such as antibiotic resistance or the ability to synthesize a certain metabolite. Normally, the presence of a specific gene or ...
Whilst drug resistance typically involves microbes chemically inactivating an antimicrobial drug or a cell mechanically ... Microbial growth is determined by the time taken for the liquid to form a colloidal suspension. This technique is used for ... In addition to drugs being specific to a certain kind of organism (bacteria, fungi, etc.), some drugs are specific to a certain ... stopping the uptake of a drug, another form of drug resistance can arise from the formation of biofilms. Some bacteria are able ...
"A live microbial feed supplement which beneficially affects the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance."[59] ... Determination of antibiotic resistance patterns. *Assessment of certain metabolic activities (e.g. D-lactate production, bile ... In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Federal Trade Commission (FTC) have issued warning letters and ... "live microbial feed supplement which beneficially affects the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance." He ...
... gonococci and commensal Neisseria species can coexist for long time periods in the pharynx and share anti-microbial resistance ... Emergence of multi-drug resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae (PDF) (Report). World Health Organisation. 2012. p. 2. Archived from ... Antibiotic resistance. Main article: Antibiotic resistance in gonorrhea. Many antibiotics that were once effective including ... "Antibiotic-resistant gonorrhoea on the rise, new drugs needed". World Health Organization. 7 July 2017. Archived from the ...
There is also concern with respect to the numerous well-established interactions of herbs and drugs.[41] In consultation with a ... reactive oxygen species and microbial attack in order to survive, providing defensive phytochemicals of use in herbalism.[85][ ... believing that plants are subject to environmental pressures and therefore develop resistance to threats such as radiation, ... In the United States, herbal remedies are regulated dietary supplements by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) under current ...
Antibiotic resistance. In many areas of the world, antibiotic resistance is increasing within cholera bacteria. In Bangladesh, ... Snow proposed a microbial origin for epidemic cholera in 1849. In his major "state of the art" review of 1855, he proposed a ... The vaccine that the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommends, Vaxchora, is an oral attenuated live vaccine, that is ... Doxycycline is typically used first line, although some strains of V. cholerae have shown resistance.[14] Testing for ...
As a second drug added to corticosteroids, leukotriene inhibitors appear inferior to Beta2-adrenergic agonist drugs in the ... ALOX5 gene knockout mice demonstrate an enhanced resistance and lessened pathology to Brucella abortus infection[31] and, at ... they recruit and further activate circulating blood neutrophils and monccytes to sites of microbial invasion, tissue injury, ... While only one ALOX5-inhibiting drug has proven useful for treating human diseases, other drugs that act down-stream in the ...
Failure of homeostasis due to trauma, drugs and infectious microbes not only damages the gut but can lead to influx of damaging ... "The effect of bovine colostrum supplementation in older adults during resistance training". International Journal of Sport ... through its immunoglobulin and other anti-microbial factors) and growth/healing factor constituents.[55] As pointed out by ... reduces the acute non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced increase in intestinal permeability". Clinical Science (London, ...
... resistance to chemical treatments (e.g. resistance to a herbicide[44]), reduction of spoilage,[45] or improving the nutrient ... in which drugs and drug combinations are optimized for each individual's unique genetic makeup.[34][35] ... Diaz E (editor). (2008). Microbial Biodegradation: Genomics and Molecular Biology (1st ed.). Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1 ... Examples in food crops include resistance to certain pests,[41] diseases,[42] stressful environmental conditions,[43] ...
இவ்வகையான நுண்ணுயிர் கொல்லிகளில் சிலவற்றை ஒருசேர எதிர்க்கும் திறனுள்ள (Multi Drug Resistance or Extensively Drug Resistance), M ... microbial smear), நுண்ணுயிர் வளர்ப்பு (microbial culture) என்பன தேவையாகின்றன. அத்துடன் டியூபெர்குலின் சோதனையும், இரத்த நிணநீர் ... "Emergence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with extensive resistance to second-line drugs-worldwide, 2000-2004". MMWR Morb Mortal ... Multi Drug Resistance) மிகப் பெரும் சிக்கலாகக் காணப்படுகிறது. இதனால் புதிதாக உருவாகியிருக்கும் நுண்ணுயிர் வகைக்கு மக்கள் ...
The reef lizardfish secretes a mucus coating which reduces drag when they swim. But some parasites find the mucus good to eat. ... The great hammerhead uses its hammer both to locate electrical signatures of stingrays buried in the sand and to pin them down ... The reef lizardfish secretes a mucus coating which reduces drag when they swim and also protects it from some parasites. But ... The whitetip reef shark is highly responsive to olfactory, acoustic, and electrical cues given off by potential prey. Its ...
Microbial mediation of plant-herbivore interactions. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 227-252. ISBN 0-471-61324-X.. CS1 maint: Uses ... For example, the tall fescue endophyte, N. coenophialum, has been associated with enhanced resistance to the migratory root- ... Drug and Chemical Toxicology. 19 (1-2): 85-96. doi:10.3109/01480549609002198. PMID 8804555.. ... Simons L, Bultman TL, Sullivan TJ (2008). "Effects of methyl jasmonate and an endophytic fungus on plant resistance to insect ...
In case of people having high risk of being infected with multiple drug resistance organisms such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, ... Microbial factors[edit]. Bacterial virulence factors, such as glycocalyx and various adhesins, allow colonization, immune ... Fink MP, Warren HS (October 2014). "Strategies to improve drug development for sepsis". Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. 13 (10 ... therapeutic drug monitoring is important to ensure adequate drug therapeutic level while at the same time preventing the drug ...
It is mechanistically distinct from multidrug resistance: It is not caused by mutant microbes, but rather by microbial cells ... to the action of antimicrobial drugs. When such persisting microbial cells cannot be eliminated by the immune system, they ... entirely circumvents antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic resistance Antibiotic sensitivity Bacteria Biofilm Chronic wound ... Resistance is caused by newly acquired genetic traits (by mutation or horizontal gene transfer) that are heritable and confer ...
"Infection and drug resistance. 6: 133-61. doi:10.2147/IDR.S12718. PMC 3815002. PMID 24194646.. ... Shors, Teri (2013). The microbial challenge : a public health perspective (3rd ed.). Burlington, Mass.: Jones & Bartlett ... Eckardt AJ, Baumgart DC (January 2011). "Viral gastroenteritis in adults". Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery. 6 ( ... Eckardt AJ, Baumgart DC (2011). "Viral gastroenteritis in adults". Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery. 6 (1): 54- ...
Drug candidates[edit]. Tirilazad is an antioxidant steroid derivative that inhibits the lipid peroxidation that is believed to ... a function that is particularly important in stress resistance in plants.[103] Ascorbic acid is present at high levels in all ... "Role of oxidants in microbial pathophysiology". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 10 (1): 1-18. PMC 172912 . PMID 8993856 ... Cortés-Jofré M, Rueda JR, Corsini-Muñoz G, Fonseca-Cortés C, Caraballoso M, Bonfill Cosp X (2012). "Drugs for preventing lung ...
When infection attacks the body, anti-infective drugs can suppress the infection. Several broad types of anti-infective drugs ... Microbial culture may also be used in the identification of viruses: the medium in this case being cells grown in culture that ... Resistance to infection (immunity) may be acquired following a disease, by asymptomatic carriage of the pathogen, by harboring ... In a microbial culture, a growth medium is provided for a specific agent. A sample taken from potentially diseased tissue or ...
Ten Times More Microbial Cells than Body Cells in Humans? *^ Alison Abbott for Nature News. Jan 8 2016 Scientists bust myth ... The puzzle of how corals managed to acquire resistance to a specific pathogen led to a 2007 proposal, that a dynamic ... "KEGG for representation and analysis of molecular networks involving diseases and drugs". Nucleic Acids Research. 38 (Database ... "Microbial Informatics and Experimentation. 1 (1): 5. doi:10.1186/2042-5783-1-5. PMC 3348666. PMID 22587826.. ...
"Bacterial Resistance to Antibiotics". The Microbial World: Lectures in Microbiology, Department of Bacteriology, University of ... Ochiai K, Yamanaka T, Kimura K, Sawada, O (1959). "Inheritance of drug resistance (and its transfer) between Shigella strains ... "Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease 11: 194-7. Vaadatud 09.06.2008. ... Hawkey PM, Jones AM (September 2009). "The changing epidemiology of resistance". Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 64 ( ...
The international peer-reviewed journal covering the global spread and threat of multi-drug resistant clones of major pathogens ... Microbial Drug Resistance (MDR) is an international, peer-reviewed journal that covers the global spread and threat of multi- ... Microbial Drug Resistance is under the editorial leadership of Editor Alexander Tomasz, PhD, The Rockefeller University, ... More Likely to Develop Resistance after Exposure to Low Levels of Antibiotics Reports a Study in Microbial Drug Resistance... ...
The international peer-reviewed journal covering the global spread and threat of multi-drug resistant clones of major pathogens ...
If required by your instructor, you can add annotations to your citations. Just select Add Annotation while finalizing your citation. You can always edit a citation as well. ...
... 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R ... Expert consultation on antimicrobial resistance: report on a meeting 25 August 2010  ...
Cite your map / chart in Microbial Drug Resistance format for free. ...
Final Report Summary - EFFORT (Ecology from Farm to Fork Of microbial drug Resistance and Transmission). Executive Summary:. ... Resistance can then spread in populations and the environment. In human medicine, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) leads to ... Regarding antimicrobial resistance, decisions are targeted at the reduction of resistance in relevant bacteria. As second ... Microbial Metagenomics utilising NGS has emerged as an important scientific methodology to simultaneously reveal microbial ...
Finding biomarkers of anti-microbial drug resistance via a systems biology analysis of fungal pathogen interactions with the ... We tackle the issues of anti-microbial drug resistance head on via a multidisciplinary systems biology study combining ... medical and health sciences/basic medicine/pharmacology and pharmacy/drug resistance. */social sciences/sociology/demography/ ... will be applied to identify biomarkers of resistance to currently available treatments and to develop novel putative drug ...
Microbial Drug Resistance. Author(s). Garcia-Migura, L.; Sunde, M.; Karlsmose, S.; Veldman, K.T.; Schroeter, A.; Guerra, B.; ... Microbial Drug Resistance-Mechanisms Epidemiology and Disease 18 (2012)1. - ISSN 1076-6294 - p. 88 - 93.. ... antimicrobial susceptibility - resistance genes - food animals - protein s12 - integrons - bacteria - typhimurium - countries ... Isolates were investigated by polymerase chain reaction for aadA, strA, and strB streptomycin resistance genes. Out of 236 ...
... Elisabetta Caselli. 1 ... In the attempt to minimize the infectious risk for hospitalized patients, and to avoid increasing of drug resistance and ... Kummerer K. (2001) Drugs in the environment: emission of drugs, diagnostic aids and disinfectants into wastewater by hospitals ... PCHS did not select any drug‐resistant strain, but rather it induced a general decrease in the whole antibiotic resistance ...
A Novel, Drug Resistance-Independent, Fluorescence-Based Approach To Measure Mutation Rates in Microbial Pathogens. Erika Shor ... A Novel, Drug Resistance-Independent, Fluorescence-Based Approach To Measure Mutation Rates in Microbial Pathogens ... A Novel, Drug Resistance-Independent, Fluorescence-Based Approach To Measure Mutation Rates in Microbial Pathogens ... A Novel, Drug Resistance-Independent, Fluorescence-Based Approach To Measure Mutation Rates in Microbial Pathogens ...
Resistance to antibiotics is growing, posing a major health risk in rich and poor countries. Additional ways of rewarding R&D ... Incentives for New Drugs to Tackle Anti-Microbial Resistance. Incentives for New Drugs to Tackle Anti-Microbial Resistance. ... Incentives for New Drugs to Tackle Anti-Microbial Resistance.. Resistance to antibiotics is growing, posing a major health risk ... Antimicrobials Resistance: A Call for Multi-disciplinary Action. How Can HTA Help?. ...
... Curr ... In this review, we discuss the release and development of new antibacterial drugs and their properties as well as the current ... Antibiotics impose severe selective pressure for the development of resistance, and currently bacteria resistant to all of them ... As current levels of antimicrobial resistance are alarming, the World Health Organization urged the development of new ...
The idea of silver-resistance among pathogenic microbes is explored, and placed in proper context with actual facts in this ...
We provide secure, cost-effective access to the UKs richest collection of digital content: giving you access to the latest data and content from leading international publishers and providers.. Find out more at jisc.ac.uk. ...
Tackling antimicrobial resistance [fact sheet]  World Health Organization. Regional Office for the Western Pacific (Manila : ... A primer for media : antimicrobial resistance in the Western Pacific Region  World Health Organization. Regional Office for ... Regional Workshop on the Quality Control of Laboratory Diagnosis and Surveillance on Antimicrobial Resistance, Manila, ... antimicrobial resistance; essential medicines  Regional Committee for the Western Pacific, 067 (Manila : WHO Regional Office ...
Informal Consultation on Monitoring Resistance to Antimalarial Drugs in the Mekong Region (Cambodia, China, Lao Peoples ... Antimicrobial resistance (Resolution)  Regional Committee for the Western Pacific, 062 (Manila : WHO Regional Office for the ... Antimicrobial resistance (Resolution)  Regional Committee for the Western Pacific, 053 (Manila : WHO Regional Office for the ... Antimicrobial resistance (Resolution)  Regional Committee for the Western Pacific, 065 (Manila : WHO Regional Office for the ...
Fungal Biofilms and Drug Resistance On This Page Microbial Biofilms Antifungal-Drug Resistance Antimicrobial-Drug Resistance ... Antifungal-Drug Resistance. Antifungal drug resistance is quickly becoming a major problem in the expanding population of ... Antimicrobial-Drug Resistance. Microbial biofilms not only serve as a nidus for disease but also are often associated with high ... Antifungal drugs and fungal resistance: the need for a new generation of drugs. Gen Dent. 1999;47:352-5.PubMed ...
Microbial Drug Resistance. Material type: Continuing resourceAnalytics: Show analyticsPublisher: Larchmont, N.Y. : Mary Ann ... Liebert. ISSN: 1076-6294 Subject(s): Drug resistance, Microbial -- periodicals Tags from this library: No tags from this ...
Recombination and drug resistance in microbial populations. Many bacteria and viruses exchange genetic material with each other ... 2010) and on how drug concentrations affect the fitness landscape in multidrug resistance evolution (Engelstädter 2014). ... capable of integrating and reshuffling gene cassettes that may code for drug resistance determinants (Engelstädter et al. 2016 ... Population biological principles of resistance evolution in infectious diseases.. The Lancet Infectious Diseases 11: 236-247 ( ...
Linear regression analysis showed that the association between antimicrobial drug use and resistance was specific and robust ... in 21 European countries in 2000-2005 and explores whether the notion that antimicrobial drug use determines resistance can be ... data indicate a relation between use and resistance and support interventions designed to reduce antimicrobial drug consumption ... The data obtained from the European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption and the European Antimicrobial Resistance ...
Results of search for su:{Drug Resistance, Microbial} Refine your search. *Availability * Limit to currently available items. ... Malaria drug resistance in Tanzania / by T. K. Mutabingwa.. by Mutabingwa, Theonest K , UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme ... Book; Format: print Publisher: Geneva : Global Forum for Health Research, 2001Other title: Anti-microbial resistance cost- ... Mekong malaria : malaria, multi-drug resistance and economic development in the greater Mekong subregion of Southeast Asia. ...
NISTs Quick Test May Speed Antibiotic Treatment and Combat Drug Resistance. September 22, 2017 ... Microbial Genomic Measurements. Increasingly, high stakes decisions impacting public health and safety are being made using ... Microbial communities (microbiomes) abound everywhere, forming resilient ecological networks adapted to their environments. ...
... Novel Anticancer Therapy Reportedly Overcomes Drug Resistance and Adverse Effects. ... Drug Resistance Breast Cancer Metastasis, and Chemo Resistance Gene Identified as Target for Nanoparticle-Based Therapy. ... Drug Resistance Fast and Inexpensive Molecular Assay Developed to Tackle Antibiotic-Resistant Gonorrhea. ... Drug Resistance Microbial Fusion and Exchange from Two Different Species Observed. Drug Resistance ...
Microbial systems are capable of producing substantial volumes of bulk chemicals at levels competitive with chemical synthetic ... Novel Anticancer Therapy Reportedly Overcomes Drug Resistance and Adverse Effects. Dietary Soy Metabolite Produced by Gut ... Microbial Culture Systems for Bioprocessing. Microbial systems are capable of producing substantial volumes of bulk chemicals ... GEN: In microbial bioprocessing, E. coli is the most widely used host, due to its ease of cultivation, the wide variety of ...
View a list of ATCC Microbial Panels; each panel is comprised of ATCC Genuine Cultures grouped together based on their utility ... Candida albicans Drug Resistance Panel (ATCC® MP-8™) ATCC® Number: MP-8™ Organism: Candida albicans ... Alphabetical Microbial Panels * Aspergillus fumigatus Drug Testing Panel (ATCC® MP-12™) ATCC® Number: MP-12™ Applications: ... ATCC® Microbial Panels for Food & Water Testing. Save time and money with the Big-Six non-O157 STEC, Salmonella enterica, and ...
Microbial Drug Resistance. 24 (5): 563-577. doi:10.1089/mdr.2017.0266. PMID 29039729.. ... Drug interactions[edit]. Based on previous trial data and ongoing clinical trials, no significant drug-drug or food-drug ... "Infection and Drug Resistance. 6: 215-23. doi:10.2147/idr.s36140. PMC 3848746. PMID 24348053. Retrieved 2019-06-23.. ... However, drug-drug interactions similar to those observed with the cephalosporin class of antimicrobials and β-lactamase ...
The role of social interactions involving antibiotic resistance, however, has been more elusive. Enzymes that inactivate β- ... Sorg RA, Lin L, van Doorn GS, Sorg M, Olson J, Nizet V et al (2016). Collective resistance in microbial communities by ... Domingues, I., Gama, J., Carvalho, L. et al. Social behaviour involving drug resistance: the role of initial density, initial ... Social behaviour involving drug resistance: the role of initial density, initial frequency and population structure in shaping ...
Microbial identification and drug resistance detection using a capillary flow dipstick November 21, 2016 dtordrup Diagnostics 0 ... Microbial identification and drug resistance detection using a capillary flow dipstick * Paper analytics for counterfeit and ... The authors show applications in ABO blood typing, microbial identification and drug resistance detection, of which we examine ... including tests for microbial identification and antimicrobial resistance. With this technology, using a series of capillary ...
Microbial genetics (2). * Antibacterial drug resistance (1). Date ​ Choose a date option to show results from those dates only. ... The diagnostic accuracy of the MTBDRplus and MTBDRsl assays for drug-resistant TB detection when performed on sputum and ... Author Correction: Genome-wide analysis of multi- and extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis *Francesc Coll ... Rights & permissionsfor article The diagnostic accuracy of the MTBDR,i,plus,/i, and MTBDR,i,sl,/i, assays for drug-resistant TB ...
... microbial population dynamics; microbiology; multi-drug resistance; natural competence; systems biology ... Inter-species population dynamics enhance microbial horizontal gene transfer and spread of antibiotic resistance.. Cooper RM1, ... Inter-species population dynamics enhance microbial horizontal gene transfer and spread of antibiotic resistance ... Inter-species population dynamics enhance microbial horizontal gene transfer and spread of antibiotic resistance ...
  • Microbial Drug Resistance (MDR) is an international, peer-reviewed journal that covers the global spread and threat of multi-drug resistant clones of major pathogens that are widely documented in hospitals and the scientific community. (liebertpub.com)
  • The EFFORT project studies the complex epidemiology and ecology of antimicrobial resistance and the interactions between bacterial communities of commensals and pathogens in animals, the food chain and the environment. (europa.eu)
  • We propose a systems biology study of the specificity of response of the cell-mediated immune system to fungal microorganisms in order to investigate the genetic basis of susceptibility to fungal disease and elucidate molecular mechanisms of drug resistance in fungal pathogens. (europa.eu)
  • This project meets the criteria of the call, the strategic objective of which is "to confront the increasing emergence and spread of antimicrobial drug resistant pathogens in Europe" by addressing a well-defined class of infectious disease caused by fungal pathogens, with significant morbidity and mortality in a large segment of the population, and a high economic cost due to resistance. (europa.eu)
  • Persistent microbial contamination of hospital surfaces has been suggested to contribute to HAI s onset, representing a reservoir for hospital pathogens. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The potential induction of antibiotic resistance represents a highly undesirable side‐effect of chemical cleaning, as MDR pathogens have been constantly and rapidly growing in the recent decades and a high proportion of HAIs is caused by MDR bacteria (Caini et al . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Although C. albicans is the predominant etiologic agent of candidiasis, other Candida species that tend to be less susceptible to the commonly used antifungal drugs such as C. krusei , C. glabrata , C. lusitaniae , and the newest Candida species, C. dubliniensis, have emerged as substantial opportunistic pathogens ( 10 ) . (cdc.gov)
  • Our study confronts the use of antimicrobial agents in ambulatory care with the resistance trends of 2 major pathogens, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Escherichia coli, in 21 European countries in 2000-2005 and explores whether the notion that antimicrobial drug use determines resistance can be supported by surveillance data at national aggregation levels. (cdc.gov)
  • The term is used in the context of resistance that pathogens or cancers have "acquired", that is, resistance has evolved. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contamination of hospital surfaces by clinically-relevant pathogens represents a major concern in healthcare facilities, due to its impact on transmission of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and to the growing drug resistance of HAI-associated pathogens. (plos.org)
  • Here, we wanted to study the impact of the Bacillus -based cleanser on the drug-resistance features of the healthcare pathogens population. (plos.org)
  • With the high rate of use of antimicrobial drugs throughout the world, the emergence and spread of drug-resistant pathogens is a major threat to long-term infection control. (bcm.edu)
  • Understanding the impact of this change is crucial for the sustainability of production and much research effort has focused upon the transmissibility of antimicrobial resistance within and between commensal and pathogen populations, the role of efflux pumps in low level resistance and persistence of pathogens in the gut and the impact of disinfection on the control of pathogens. (reading.ac.uk)
  • On the other hand, conventional chemicals‐based sanitation do not prevent recontamination and can select drug‐resistant strains, resulting in over 50% of surfaces persistently contaminated. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Second, disinfectants can select resistant microbial strains against the disinfectant itself (Bock et al . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Drug resistance-based mutation reporters are used extensively to measure mutation rates, but they are suitable only when the compared strains have identical drug tolerance levels-a condition that is not satisfied under many "real-world" circumstances, e.g., when comparing mutation rates among a series of environmental or clinical isolates. (asm.org)
  • Such assays typically work well for laboratory strains but have significant limitations when comparing clinical or environmental isolates that have various intrinsic levels of drug tolerance, which confounds the interpretation of results. (asm.org)
  • Acquisition of mutations underlies evolution in all contexts, and in pathogenic microbes this process can result in the emergence of dangerous drug-resistant strains. (asm.org)
  • Although drug resistance-based mutation assays have a number of advantages, most particularly in their relative ease and rapidity, their major limitation is that they allow direct comparisons of mutation rates only between strains that have the same level of drug sensitivity. (asm.org)
  • However, it remains to be seen if the currently used microbial strains will be able to utilize this source effectively. (genengnews.com)
  • iv) enterococci are less sensitive than staphylococci to biocides and antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus might show low-level biocide resistance. (nih.gov)
  • Synergy between imipenem or meropenem and BRL 42715 was observed for all of the strains, demonstrating the role of cephalosporinase in carbapenem resistance. (nih.gov)
  • Malaria in 2012 has become a resurgent threat in South East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, and drug-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum are posing massive problems for health authorities. (wikipedia.org)
  • The quantification of biofilm relays currently on a number of different approaches and techniques, often leading to different evaluations of the ability to form biofilms of the studied microbial strains. (mdpi.com)
  • To study antimicrobial resistance and the presence of integrons and antimicrobial gene cassettes in Shigella flexneri strains. (scielo.cl)
  • A major problem in the fight against tuberculosis is the emergence of strains that have acquired resistance to all available antibiotics. (springer.com)
  • The study, published this week in mSphere®, an open-access journal of the American Society for Microbiology, improves physicians' understanding of Klebsiella infections and could point toward better ways to fight multi-drug resistant strains of these bacteria. (eurekalert.org)
  • Moreover, Mtb strains resistant to several drugs (MDR-TB and XDR-TB) are becoming a threat to public health worldwide. (intechopen.com)
  • Among the 17 cases of S. pneumoniae, 11 cases (64.7%) were multi-drug resistant strains but all were susceptible to vancomycin. (koreamed.org)
  • Multidrug resistant strains of E. coli are a matter of concern as resistance genes are easily transferable to other strains. (scielo.br)
  • We tackle the issues of anti-microbial drug resistance head on via a multidisciplinary systems biology study combining bacterial genetics, clinical and pharmacological research in a systems biology approach, integrating traditional wet-lab methods with those of functional genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and bioinformatics. (europa.eu)
  • An integrative approach, combining high-throughput and traditional wet-lab work with computational and bioinformatics methods, will be applied to identify biomarkers of resistance to currently available treatments and to develop novel putative drug target genes and pathways in different fungi. (europa.eu)
  • Isolates were investigated by polymerase chain reaction for aadA, strA, and strB streptomycin resistance genes. (wur.nl)
  • None of the 60 Salmonella isolates exhibiting MIC 4¿mg/L harbored resistance genes. (wur.nl)
  • 2013). Here, we show bacterial predation by Acinetobacter baylyi increases cross-species HGT by orders of magnitude, and we observe predator cells functionally acquiring adaptive resistance genes from adjacent prey. (nih.gov)
  • Molecular Characterization of Cotrimoxazole Resistance Genes and Their Associated Integrons in Clinical Isolates of Gram-Negative Bacteria from Tanzania. (uib.no)
  • A rapid process of sharing resistance exists among single-celled organisms, and is termed horizontal gene transfer in which there is a direct exchange of genes, particularly in the biofilm state. (wikipedia.org)
  • Strikingly, this procedure did not select resistant species, but conversely induced an evident decrease of antibiotic resistance genes in the contaminating microbial population. (plos.org)
  • Both multi- and extensively drug resistant Mtb (MDR and XDR, respectively) are increasing in prevalence, but the full set of Mtb genes involved are not known. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Antimicrobial resistance can be acquired in a short time frame, both by genetic mutation and by direct transfer of resistance genes across genus and species boundaries. (routledge.com)
  • Ecology of Antibiotic Resistance Genes. (routledge.com)
  • Genetic Methods for Detecting Bacterial Resistance Genes. (routledge.com)
  • Washington, DC - August 2, 2017--A team of US researchers has discovered that three different species of Klebsiella bacteria can cause life-threatening infections in hospital patients and that all three share genes that confer resistance to the most commonly used antibiotics. (eurekalert.org)
  • Not only are these cousins of K. pneumoniae causing similar infections, but they are also sharing these powerful drug resistance genes," says Long. (eurekalert.org)
  • The sequencing of all bacterial genetic material present showed that all three Klebsiella species were sharing drug-resistance genes amongst themselves--including at least two genes that code for powerful enzymes that disable a broad spectrum of penicillin-like antibiotics. (eurekalert.org)
  • Antimicrobial resistance, genetic diversity and multilocus sequence typing of Escherichia coli from humans, retail chicken and ground beef in Egypt. (usda.gov)
  • The prevalence and antimicrobial resistance phenotypes of Salmonella, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus sp. (usda.gov)
  • Recent examples of important emerging infectious diseases include pro- longed diarrheal illness due to waterborne Cryptosporidium, hemorrhagic colitis and renal failure from foodborne Escherichia coli O157:H7, pneumonia and middle-ear infections caused by drug-resistant pneumococci, and rodentborne hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. (cdc.gov)
  • Antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli is of particular concern because it is the most common Gram-negative pathogen in humans. (scielo.br)
  • ATCC offers clinical and environmental isolates exhibiting resistance to numerous antimicrobial agents. (atcc.org)
  • When the authors tested clinical isolates, they found several samples were able to grow in all concentrations of antibiotic, suggesting antibiotic resistance. (davidtordrup.dk)
  • This study was performed to determine the significance of cross-resistance to new azole drugs among C. glabrata isolates recovered as a cause of infection in azole-treated hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. (asm.org)
  • however, the potential of clinically significant resistance has become evident with recent reports noting the development of C. glabrata candidemia in patients receiving fluconazole ( 11 ) and voriconazole ( 7 ) therapy and the observation of cross-resistance developing in isolates recovered from the oral cavity and bloodstream ( 5 ). (asm.org)
  • We performed this study to evaluate the clinical significance of azole cross-resistance in C. glabrata isolates recovered from colonizing and invasive sites of patients receiving azole therapy after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). (asm.org)
  • Since HIV drug resistance was first recognized, many studies have documented the emergence of isolates with reduced susceptibility under the selective pressure of drug therapy, both in vitro and in vivo . (springer.com)
  • Resistant isolates have been characterized with regard to cross resistance to other drugs, enzymatic activity of the target protein, mutations in the target gene and protein, and the relationship of these mutations to the x-ray crystallographic structure of the enzyme. (springer.com)
  • Effect of stage of disease and drug dose on zidovudine susceptibilities of isolates of human immunodeficiency virus. (springer.com)
  • E. coli Bacteria More Likely to Develop Resistance after Exposure to Low Levels of Antibiotics Reports a Study in Microbial Drug Resistance . (liebertpub.com)
  • 2017 ), an antibiotic considered till 2016 as a last‐resort drug for treatment of infections sustained by multidrug‐resistant (MDR) Gram‐negative bacteria. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • As current levels of antimicrobial resistance are alarming, the World Health Organization urged the development of new antimicrobials to fight infections produced by multidrug resistant bacteria. (unam.mx)
  • Antibiotics impose severe selective pressure for the development of resistance, and currently bacteria resistant to all of them exist. (unam.mx)
  • Finally, we are also very interested in the evolution of antibiotic resistance in bacteria, especially in how recombination affects this important evolutionary process. (engelstaedterlab.org)
  • Using capillary flow technology, the authors were able to miniaturise classical microbiological assays for the identification of particular bacteria and detection of drug resistance. (davidtordrup.dk)
  • Intrinsic resistance (intrinsic insusceptibility) is found with bacterial spores, mycobacteria and Gram-negative bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • A special situation is found with bacteria present in biofilms, which can be considered as being an intrinsic resistance mechanism resulting from physiological (phenotypic) adaptation of cells. (nih.gov)
  • Plasmid-mediated resistance to some other biocides in Gram-negative bacteria and in staphylococci has been described, but its significance remains uncertain. (nih.gov)
  • As to the future, there is a need to establish conclusively whether there is a clear-cut linkage between antibiotic and biocide resistance in non-sporulating bacteria and whether biocides can select for antibiotic resistance. (nih.gov)
  • Antimicrobial resistance tests are routinely being carried out using a conventional culture method, in which the bacteria are cultured for more than one day by using selective media, and when they grow, the identification is employed. (healthytimes.com.sg)
  • Some people who have taken azithromycin to prevent MAC (Mycobacterium avium Complex, a bacterial infection common in HIV-infected persons) have been found to carry antibiotic-resistant bacteria (germs that grow despite the presence of drugs used to kill them). (nih.gov)
  • When bacteria like Streptococcus (a type of bacteria that causes pneumonia and meningitis) are frequently exposed to antibiotics, the bacteria can become resistant to the drugs. (nih.gov)
  • Chapters on resistance mechanisms describe the latest findings on what makes different groups of bacteria susceptible or resistant to antibiotics. (routledge.com)
  • They reveal the staggering diversity of bacteria and the need for a foundational understanding that will stimulate development of antibiotics capable of avoiding resistance mechanisms. (routledge.com)
  • Examining the success and limitations of complementary approaches, such as combining ß-lactam antibiotics with ß-lactamase inhibitors, the book brings together information on resistance mechanisms in different groups of bacteria to help future efforts to more effectively develop and deploy antimicrobial therapies. (routledge.com)
  • Sessile-like bacteria displayed a higher resistance to the two antibiotics used alone or in combination than did suspended cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A slight but significant enhancement of beta-lactamase induction in immobilized cells as compared with their suspended counterparts was insufficient to explain the high resistance of sessile-like bacteria. (biomedsearch.com)
  • They are drug-resistant bacteria that are increasingly difficult to treat because they are resistant to many of the available antibiotics. (eurekalert.org)
  • A variety of foods and environmental sources harbor bacteria that are resistant to one or more antimicrobial drugs used in medicine and agriculture. (scielo.br)
  • Microbial Drug Resistance is under the editorial leadership of Editor Alexander Tomasz, PhD , The Rockefeller University, Laboratory of Microbiology, and other leading investigators. (liebertpub.com)
  • Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • SEOUL, South Korea, Nov. 26, 2018 /PRNewswire/ - Seegene Inc. (096530.KQ), a leading developer of multiplex PCR assays, announced that multi-site clinical trials for measuring clinical performance on screening the drug resistance of Enterobacteriaceae with the Allplex™ Entero-DR assay have been undergoing in 23 hospitals affiliated with the Italian Association for Clinical Microbiology (AMCLI). (healthytimes.com.sg)
  • Since 2001, we've seen a global explosion of drug-resistant Klebsiella infections," says S. Wesley Long, Associate Medical Director of the Diagnostic Microbiology Lab at Houston Methodist Hospital in Texas and lead author of the study. (eurekalert.org)
  • It covers both basic research and clinical aspects of drug resistance, and involves disciplines as diverse as molecular biology, biochemistry, cell biology, pharmacology, microbiology, preclinical therapeutics, oncology and clinical medicine. (elsevier.com)
  • The disk diffusion test (also known as the agar diffusion test, Kirby-Bauer test, disc-diffusion antibiotic susceptibility test, disc-diffusion antibiotic sensitivity test and KB test) is a culture-based microbiology assay used in diagnostic and drug discovery laboratories. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biofilms can be composed of a population that developed from a single species or a community derived from multiple microbial species ( 14 , 17 ). (cdc.gov)
  • We examined samples from diabetic and non-diabetic foot ulcers/wounds for microbial association and tested the microbes for their antibiotic susceptibility and ability to produce biofilms. (elsevier.com)
  • Resistance of artificial biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to imipenem and tobramycin. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Kolodkin-Gal lab, Assembly and Disassembly of Microbial Biofilms. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Together, these results show that fluorescence-based mutation reporters can be used to measure mutation rates in microbes under conditions of unequal drug susceptibility to reveal new insights about drivers of mutagenesis. (asm.org)
  • The idea of silver-resistance among pathogenic microbes is explored, and placed in proper context with actual facts in this white paper by the Immunogenic Research Foundation. (thesilveredge.com)
  • In short, the lack of concerted effort by governments and the pharmaceutical industry, together with the innate capacity of microbes to develop resistance at a rate that outpaces development of new drugs, suggests that existing strategies for developing viable, long-term anti-microbial therapies are ultimately doomed to failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microbes growing onto solid surfaces form complex 3-D biofilm structures characterized by the production of extracellular polymeric compounds and an increased resistance to drugs. (mdpi.com)
  • Microbes have an extraordinary capacity for developing resistance, accelerated by the over-use of anti-microbials in clinical and agricultural practice. (pmlive.com)
  • 2016 ), and also, more importantly, against antibiotics, as recently reported for chlorhexidine induction of resistance against Colistin (Wand et al . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Resistance to antibiotics is growing, posing a major health risk in rich and poor countries. (ohe.org)
  • The lack of reliable, low-cost technologies for the detection of bacterial infection and antibiotic resistance in the clinic contributes to over- and misuse of antibiotics and rising resistance. (davidtordrup.dk)
  • To test for antimicrobial resistance, the authors loaded the capillary tubes with increasing concentrations of the antibiotics ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim. (davidtordrup.dk)
  • Nucleosided derived antibiotics to fight microbial drug resistance: New utilities for an established class of drugs? (cf.ac.uk)
  • Novel antibiotics are urgently needed to combat the rise of infections due to drug-resistant microorganisms. (cf.ac.uk)
  • In this Perspective, we demonstrate that nucleoside analogues, cornerstones of anticancer and antiviral treatments, also have great potential to be repurposed as antibiotics so that an old drug can learn new tricks. (cf.ac.uk)
  • Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a long-established, widely-studied problem. (nih.gov)
  • In addition to the overuse of antibiotics in human medicine, their use for livestock farming is also linked to resistance in humans. (weforum.org)
  • This post takes a look at the data on the global use of antibiotics in livestock, and what can be done to limit its impacts on global health and antimicrobial resistance. (weforum.org)
  • The book begins with a history of antimicrobial agents and bacterial resistance, and outlines the forces that contributed to the abuse of antibiotics and precipitated the current crisis. (routledge.com)
  • Resistance to ß-Lactam Antibiotics Mediated by ß-Lactamases. (routledge.com)
  • For pneumococcal meningitis, careful selection of antibiotics and ongoing research about antibiotics susceptibility will be needed due to multi-drug resistance. (koreamed.org)
  • The global economic impact of anti-microbial resistance forecasts that, if unchecked, drug-resistant infections could cost the world 10 million extra deaths a year and cost up to $100tn by 2050. (pmlive.com)
  • In this review, we discuss the release and development of new antibacterial drugs and their properties as well as the current advances in the development of alternative approaches to combat bacterial infections, including the repurposing of drugs, anti-virulence therapies, the use of photosensitizers, phage therapy, and immunotherapies, with an emphasis on what is currently known about the possible development of bacterial resistance against them. (unam.mx)
  • Antibacterial Drug Discovery in the 21st Century. (routledge.com)
  • This book provides very good coverage of antibacterial resistance…The opening chapters are well-structured, supplying logical subject matter development. (routledge.com)
  • plant extracts, bacterial fermentation broths) and drug candidates for antibacterial activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance. (usda.gov)
  • Candida glabrata is a fungal pathogen that shows a high degree of genetic diversity and fast emergence of antifungal drug resistance. (asm.org)
  • Describe the association between antimicrobial drug use and the emergence of resistance. (cdc.gov)
  • Since therapy with ZDV and 3TC alone is unlikely to maintain virologic control, emergence of substantial high-level EFV resistance should have led to virologic failure. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The fact that there were relatively few virologic failures in that study provides indirect but strong evidence that simultaneous discontinuation of EFV, ZDV, and 3TC is unlikely to be associated with emergence of EFV resistance. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Continuing evolution of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) complex genomes associated with resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs is threatening tuberculosis disease control efforts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Despite clonal expansion and a lack of lateral gene transfer in Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb), the evolution of drug resistance is threatening tuberculosis disease (TB) control efforts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A number of infections, including pneumonia, tuberculosis, and salmonellosis are already showing increasing resistance to antibiotic treatment, making them more difficult to treat. (weforum.org)
  • Mechanism of Drug Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (routledge.com)
  • A better understanding of the demographic and microbial characteristics of EPTB in the Turkish population would extend the knowledgebase of EPTB and allow us to develop better strategies to control tuberculosis (TB). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Infection and Drug Resistance. (uib.no)
  • Four potential scenarios were used, with variations in resistance and infection rates. (pmlive.com)
  • At the current rate of resistance, which is steadily climbing, doctors may have to weigh up the risk of a post-operative infection against the benefits of surgery - and could potentially conclude that the patient is safer living with the condition. (pmlive.com)
  • Comparison of phenotypic and genotypic detection of penicillin G resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine intramammary infection. (evira.fi)
  • Thus, when several mechanisms of resistance to beta-lactam agents are present in the same strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, there is no additive effect between these mechanisms. (nih.gov)
  • Rapid and Consistent Evolution of Colistin Resistance in Extensively Drug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa during Morbidostat Culture. (uni-tuebingen.de)
  • known to be multi-drug resistant and difficult to treat. (europa.eu)
  • The purpose of this study is to find out if anti-HIV drugs can be stopped without the virus becoming resistant to the drugs. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • There is evidence that stopping anti-HIV therapy will not make the virus resistant to efavirenz (EFV), an anti-HIV drug that remains in the body longer than most treatment drugs. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • When an organism is resistant to more than one drug, it is said to be multidrug-resistant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drug-resistant traits are accordingly inherited by subsequent offspring, resulting in a population that is more drug-resistant. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein stimulates the growth of cancer cells which are drug-resistant. (wikipedia.org)
  • These results indicate that this probiotic-based procedure is active not only in controlling surface microbial contamination but also in lowering drug-resistant species, suggesting that it may have relevant clinical and therapeutical implications for the management of HAIs. (plos.org)
  • A new study published in the journal Ecosphere confirms that in urban streams, persistent pharmaceutical pollution can cause aquatic microbial communities to become resistant to drugs. (wakeupnaturally.com)
  • extensively drug-resistant (XDR) occurs when MDR Mtb have additional resistance to fluoroquinolones and at least one second-line injectable. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ignoring the tide of drug resistant infections risks rolling back the hard won medical advances of the last century at precisely the first moment in history when we can actually go the other way and close the global health gap. (pmlive.com)
  • the sensitivity of drug-resistant mutants does not. (springer.com)
  • Studies on resistance to chloroquine by Plasmodium falciparum with potential application to the development of a modified in vitro susceptibility test / by Michael Davis Rogers. (who.int)
  • Malaria epidemiology, drug protection and drug susceptibility in a holendemic area of Liberia / by Anders Björkman. (who.int)
  • Chapters describe the genetics and different mechanisms of resistance and together successfully cover the resistance problem as it impacts successful treatment of infectious diseases. (routledge.com)
  • The presence of integrons class 1, 2 and 3 and antimicrobial resistance gene cassettes was investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers for each gene. (scielo.cl)
  • Detection of mutations associated with zidovudine resistance in human immunodeficiency virus utilizing the polymerase chain reaction. (springer.com)
  • Theory predicts that this simple spatial effect, akin to plants competing for light in a forest, generates strong natural selection on microbial phenotypes. (pnas.org)
  • To investigate the effect of lineage-specific effects on the identification of drug resistance associations, we applied genome-wide association study (GWAS) and convergence-based (PhyC) methods to multiple drug resistance phenotypes of a global dataset of Mtb lineages 2 and 4 , using both lineage-wise and combined approaches. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We report 17 potential novel associations between antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and Mtb genomic variants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2010) and on how drug concentrations affect the fitness landscape in multidrug resistance evolution (Engelstädter 2014). (engelstaedterlab.org)
  • A well-established cause of multidrug resistance (MDR) involves the increased expression of members of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily, many of which transport chemotherapeutic compounds from cells. (usp.br)
  • Multidrug resistance proteins can act as efflux pumps allowing. (usp.br)
  • The authors show applications in ABO blood typing, microbial identification and drug resistance detection, of which we examine the latter two. (davidtordrup.dk)
  • However, MBL prevalence and the standardization for phenotypical detection of this resistance mechanism still had not been established. (usp.br)
  • This assay can be adapted to other organisms and used to compare mutation rates in contexts where unequal drug sensitivity is anticipated. (asm.org)
  • Individual organisms vary in their sensitivity to the drug used and some with greater fitness may be capable of surviving drug treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is a need for increased sensitivity of genome-wide approaches in order to elucidate the genetic basis of anti-microbial drug resistance and gain a more detailed understanding of Mtb genome evolution in a context of widespread antimicrobial therapy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Many traditional mutation rate measurement assays are based on detecting mutations that cause resistance to a particular drug. (asm.org)
  • Because most genomes are extremely stable and mutation rates are typically very low, the most convenient and widely used mutation measurement assays are set up as selections, where mutation of a reporter gene confers resistance to a particular drug ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • In this post, we look at a multiplex microfluidic system for performing microbiological assays, including tests for microbial identification and antimicrobial resistance. (davidtordrup.dk)
  • For microbial identification, the system relies on classical fermentation assays, which suggest the presence of E.Coli or S.Typhiurium based on fermentation of certain sugars. (davidtordrup.dk)
  • Throughout the study, patients will have blood drawn on specified days for plasma EFV assays, intracellular NRTI-TP assays, and demonstration of EFV resistance. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • After plasma EFV assays have been completed and HIV resistance has not been demonstrated, three patients will have a clonal analysis performed. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The EFFORT project was a multi-disciplinary research programme which investigated the epidemiology and ecology of antimicrobial resistance in food-producing animals, the (farm) environment, and food of animal origin, companion animals and wildlife to evaluate and quantify the AMR exposure pathways for humans. (europa.eu)
  • Focus was on understanding the eco-epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance from animal origin and based on this, predicting and limiting the future evolution and exposure to humans of the most clinically important resistance by synthesising different sources of information in our prediction models. (europa.eu)
  • Microbial Drug Resistance-Mechanisms Epidemiology and Disease 18 (2012)1. (wur.nl)
  • Here we report the development and validation of a novel method of measuring mutation rates, which detects mutations that cause loss of fluorescence rather than acquisition of drug resistance. (asm.org)
  • Acquired resistance to biocides may arise by cellular mutation or by the acquisition of genetic elements. (nih.gov)
  • Because the drug is so specific, any mutation in these molecules will interfere with or negate its destructive effect, resulting in antibiotic resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fifth mutation in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase contributes to the development of high-level resistance to zidovudine. (springer.com)
  • The Journal addresses the serious challenges of trying to decipher the molecular mechanisms of drug resistance. (liebertpub.com)
  • Today, molecular biology is an integral part of studies aimed at understanding the evolution and ecology of gastrointestinal microbial communities. (cambridge.org)
  • By combining population level and molecular analyses, we demonstrate how living in dense microbial communities can generate strong natural selection to reach the growing edge. (pnas.org)
  • In the current medical practice involving the antimicrobial resistance testing, the benefits of molecular diagnostics, which are accuracy and promptness, are not fully utilized. (healthytimes.com.sg)
  • When antimicrobial resistance screening is carried out by molecular diagnostics, the test result is available in 3 hours,' said Professor Rossolini, the co-developer of the Allplex™ Entero-DR from Careggi University Hospital. (healthytimes.com.sg)
  • Our group takes full advantage of the rich facilities in the College, each filled with state-of-the-art equipment and expertise, including the Human Genome Sequencing Center , the Alkek Center for Metagenomics and Microbiome Research , the Center for Drug Discovery , the Alkek Center for Molecular Discovery (including their Metabolomics Core ), the Center for Cell and Gene Therapy , and the Cryo-Electron Microscopy Core . (bcm.edu)
  • Wiedenheft is part of a team of researchers, led by biochemist Jennifer Doudna, a leading authority on RNA molecular structures, and biophysicist Eva Nogales, an expert on electron microscopy and image analysis, that has provided the first sub-nanometer look at a central player in the microbial immune system. (healthcanal.com)
  • High rate of antimicrobial resistance and multiple mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase gene among Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from HIV-infected adults in a community setting in Tanzania. (uib.no)
  • If MAC preventive therapy is delayed, Streptococcus in the body may be less likely to develop resistance. (nih.gov)
  • Extensively revised, with contributions from international leaders in their fields, Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobials, Second Edition blends scientific and practical approaches to the social, economic, and medical issues related to this growing problem. (routledge.com)
  • This second edition of Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobials builds upon the success of the first edition. (routledge.com)
  • This book provides a wealth of valuable information for clinicians and scientists about the topic of bacterial resistance to antimicrobials. (routledge.com)
  • Fungal biofilm-associated infections are frequently refractory to conventional therapy because of resistance to antimicrobial agents. (cdc.gov)
  • Unique associations with XDR in lineage-specific analyses provide evidence of diverging evolutionary trajectories between lineages 2 and 4 in response to antimicrobial drug therapy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Understanding mechanisms of resistance is crucial to the future of antimicrobial therapy. (routledge.com)
  • Caution is advised when considering voriconazole therapy for C. glabrata candidemia that occurs in patients with extensive prior azole drug exposure. (asm.org)
  • Nevirapine resistance mutations of HIV-1 selected during therapy. (springer.com)
  • Is the Subject Area "Drug therapy" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • In such an assay, mutations in the reporter gene arise at some low rate in cells proliferating in culture and are then selected by plating the cultures on drug-containing medium, which kills wild-type cells. (asm.org)
  • We have also investigated the evolutionary dynamics of integrons, which are widespread bacterial 'gene-capture devices' capable of integrating and reshuffling gene cassettes that may code for drug resistance determinants (Engelstädter et al . (engelstaedterlab.org)
  • Inter-species population dynamics enhance microbial horizontal gene transfer and spread of antibiotic resistance. (nih.gov)
  • Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) plays a major role in the spread of antibiotic resistance. (nih.gov)
  • Unless the drug used makes sexual reproduction or cell-division or horizontal gene transfer impossible in the entire target population, resistance to the drug will inevitably follow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Population structure within the Mtb complex, due to clonal expansion, lack of lateral gene transfer and low levels of recombination between lineages, may be reducing statistical power to detect drug resistance associated variants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The resistance of Shigella flexneri to antimicrobial agents can be associated to the presence of integrons that may contain and express antimicrobial resistance gene cassettes. (scielo.cl)
  • Resistance can then spread in populations and the environment. (europa.eu)
  • Biofilm-associated Candida show uniform resistance to a wide spectrum of the currently available conventional antifungal agents, which implies that antimicrobial drugs that specifically target biofilm-associated infections are needed. (cdc.gov)
  • The use of drugs effective in combating biofilm-associated infections could lead to major developments in the treatment of fungal implant infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) - that is, a declining effectiveness of medicines to treat bacterial infections - is identified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as one of the greatest threats to global health, development and food security. (weforum.org)
  • My research focuses on antimicrobial biocides, an area of continuing global importance due in part to the rise in hospital acquired infections (HAIs) and emerging microbial resistance. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • This can be seen in cancerous tumors where some cells may develop resistance to the drugs used in chemotherapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The microbial biofilm is a complex structure of cells not comparable to a tissue but rather to an association, also defined as a "city of microorganisms" [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • A unique definition of biofilm is not possible because with this term, both 3-D structures growing onto solid surfaces and floating flocs of associated microbial cells without the need of a solid substrate can be indicated [ 7 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • By the time you reach adulthood, some 90-percent of the cells in your body are microbial. (healthcanal.com)
  • We need to understand the pathogen on a population level, then we can use the bacterial genomes to predict virulence or antibiotic resistance of the strain, or mortality," notes Long, a clinical microbiologist. (eurekalert.org)
  • Antimicrobials Resistance: A Call for Multi-disciplinary Action. (ohe.org)
  • The KPMG report urges governments and global life sciences businesses to invest more in antibiotic research and development, yet, the recent acquisition of Cubist Pharmaceuticals by Merck & Co. notwithstanding, there is little sign of antimicrobials taking a more prominent place among firms' drugs portfolios. (pmlive.com)
  • Describe patterns of antimicrobial drug use across regions in Europe. (cdc.gov)
  • List European countries that show the highest antimicrobial drug resistance proportions. (cdc.gov)
  • Linear regression analysis showed that the association between antimicrobial drug use and resistance was specific and robust for 2 of 3 compound pathogen combinations, stable over time, but not sensitive enough to explain all of the observed variations. (cdc.gov)
  • Ecologic studies based on routine surveillance data indicate a relation between use and resistance and support interventions designed to reduce antimicrobial drug consumption at a national level in Europe. (cdc.gov)
  • We investigate the evolution and maintenance of natural transformation and other forms of microbial recombination through both mathematical models and experimental evolution. (engelstaedterlab.org)
  • 2014), and 2) how various ecological factors influence the impact of recombination on microbial evolution. (engelstaedterlab.org)
  • Population biological principles of resistance evolution in infectious diseases. (engelstaedterlab.org)
  • Drug, toxin, or chemical resistance is a consequence of evolution and is a response to pressures imposed on any living organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmid/transposon-mediated resistance to inorganic and organic mercury compounds by hydrolases and reductases has been extensively studied. (nih.gov)
  • At the same time, the once-abundant supply of new and improved antimicrobial compounds has worn thin, as drug development becomes increasingly challenging and pharmaceutical companies invest in more lucrative markets ( 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Increasingly, high stakes decisions impacting public health and safety are being made using microbial genomic sequencing data. (nist.gov)
  • As whole genome sequencing of Mtb becomes more routinely applied [ 11 ], association approaches using genomic variation have the potential to provide new insights into these resistance mechanisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Even the immune system of an organism is in essence a drug delivery system, albeit endogenous, and faces the same arms race problems as external drug delivery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although no country is immune to the effects of growing resistance, the consequences are likely to be particularly damaging in lower income regions, with Africa the hardest hit. (pmlive.com)
  • By understanding the mechanisms behind microbial immune systems, we can better understand how they are similar and where they are different from the human immune system. (healthcanal.com)
  • The microbial immune system can be likened to a vaccination program because of the adaptive-type nucleic acid-based line of defense deployed by a unit of DNA called CRISPR, which stands for Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats. (healthcanal.com)
  • Glioblastoma multiforme, a highly malignant tumor is difficult to cure because of its resistance to chemotherapy treatment. (usp.br)
  • This resistance could be in part due to the surface-induced upregulation of drug efflux pumps. (cdc.gov)