Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Drug Resistance, Multiple: Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Drug Resistance, Fungal: The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutation.P-Glycoprotein: A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant: Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Antimalarials: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)HIV Protease: Enzyme of the human immunodeficiency virus that is required for post-translational cleavage of gag and gag-pol precursor polyproteins into functional products needed for viral assembly. HIV protease is an aspartic protease encoded by the amino terminus of the pol gene.Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins: A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.HIV Reverse Transcriptase: A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.R Factors: A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Genes, MDR: Genes for MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that confer resistance to toxic compounds. Several superfamilies of these multidrug export proteins are known and found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.Tetracycline Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TETRACYCLINE which inhibits aminoacyl-tRNA binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit during protein synthesis.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Fungal: The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutations.Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.Streptomycin: An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Tetracycline: A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.Isoniazid: Antibacterial agent used primarily as a tuberculostatic. It remains the treatment of choice for tuberculosis.Chloroquine: The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Parasitic Sensitivity Tests: Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Rifampin: A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Pyrimethamine: One of the FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS that is used as an antimalarial or with a sulfonamide to treat toxoplasmosis.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Mutation, Missense: A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Kanamycin: Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.beta-Lactam Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.HIV Protease Inhibitors: Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.Resistance Training: A type of strength-building exercise program that requires the body muscle to exert a force against some form of resistance, such as weight, stretch bands, water, or immovable objects. Resistance exercise is a combination of static and dynamic contractions involving shortening and lengthening of skeletal muscles.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Chloramphenicol Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of CHLORAMPHENICOL, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis in the 50S ribosomal subunit where amino acids are added to nascent bacterial polypeptides.Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.Sulfadoxine: A long acting sulfonamide that is used, usually in combination with other drugs, for respiratory, urinary tract, and malarial infections.Ampicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of a microbe to the action of ampicillin, a penicillin derivative that interferes with cell wall synthesis.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Tetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction 7,8-dihyrofolate and NADPH to yield 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate and NADPH+, producing reduced folate for amino acid metabolism, purine ring synthesis, and the formation of deoxythymidine monophosphate. Methotrexate and other folic acid antagonists used as chemotherapeutic drugs act by inhibiting this enzyme. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 1.5.1.3.pol Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the POL GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Antibiotics, Antineoplastic: Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.Ethambutol: An antitubercular agent that inhibits the transfer of mycolic acids into the cell wall of the tubercle bacillus. It may also inhibit the synthesis of spermidine in mycobacteria. The action is usually bactericidal, and the drug can penetrate human cell membranes to exert its lethal effect. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p863)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Erythromycin: A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.P-Glycoproteins: A subfamily of transmembrane proteins from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that are closely related in sequence to P-GLYCOPROTEIN. When overexpressed, they function as ATP-dependent efflux pumps able to extrude lipophilic drugs, especially ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, from cells causing multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although P-Glycoproteins share functional similarities to MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS they are two distinct subclasses of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS, and have little sequence homology.Azoles: Five membered rings containing a NITROGEN atom.Anti-Retroviral Agents: Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Dihydropteroate Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of dihydropteroate from p-aminobenzoic acid and dihydropteridine-hydroxymethyl-pyrophosphate. EC 2.5.1.15.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Methicillin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Verapamil: A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.Artemisinins: A group of SESQUITERPENES and their analogs that contain a peroxide group (PEROXIDES) within an oxepin ring (OXEPINS).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Fluconazole: Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Vault Ribonucleoprotein Particles: Large cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein particles that have an eight-fold symmetry with a central pore and petal-like structure giving the appearance of an octagonal dome. (The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 2nd ed.)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Extrachromosomal Inheritance: Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.Vancomycin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of VANCOMYCIN, an inhibitor of cell wall synthesis.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.DNA Gyrase: A bacterial DNA topoisomerase II that catalyzes ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. Gyrase binds to DNA as a heterotetramer consisting of two A and two B subunits. In the presence of ATP, gyrase is able to convert the relaxed circular DNA duplex into a superhelix. In the absence of ATP, supercoiled DNA is relaxed by DNA gyrase.Macrolides: A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Ampicillin: Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Cephalosporin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of an organism to the action of the cephalosporins.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Fluoroquinolones: A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.Daunorubicin: A very toxic anthracycline aminoglycoside antineoplastic isolated from Streptomyces peucetius and others, used in treatment of LEUKEMIA and other NEOPLASMS.Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Nevirapine: A potent, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in combination with nucleoside analogues for treatment of HIV INFECTIONS and AIDS.Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis: Tuberculosis resistant to ISONIAZID and RIFAMPIN and at least three of the six main classes of second-line drugs (AMINOGLYCOSIDES; polypeptide agents; FLUOROQUINOLONES; THIOAMIDES; CYCLOSERINE; and PARA-AMINOSALICYLIC ACID) as defined by the CDC.Kanamycin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the antibiotic KANAMYCIN, which can bind to their 70S ribosomes and cause misreading of messenger RNA.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Herbicide Resistance: Diminished or failed response of PLANTS to HERBICIDES.Antiprotozoal Agents: Substances that are destructive to protozoans.HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Folic Acid Antagonists: Inhibitors of the enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase (TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE), which converts dihydrofolate (FH2) to tetrahydrofolate (FH4). They are frequently used in cancer chemotherapy. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)Antibiotics, Antitubercular: Substances obtained from various species of microorganisms that are, alone or in combination with other agents, of use in treating various forms of tuberculosis; most of these agents are merely bacteriostatic, induce resistance in the organisms, and may be toxic.Pyrimidines: A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.Ciprofloxacin: A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Mitoxantrone: An anthracenedione-derived antineoplastic agent.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Sulfonamides: A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.Paclitaxel: A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Organophosphonates: Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.Aminoglycosides: Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.Neoplastic Stem Cells: Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.DNA Topoisomerases, Type II: DNA TOPOISOMERASES that catalyze ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. These enzymes bring about relaxation of the supercoiled DNA and resolution of a knotted circular DNA duplex.PiperazinesGenes, pol: DNA sequences that form the coding region for retroviral enzymes including reverse transcriptase, protease, and endonuclease/integrase. "pol" is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.IndiaTreatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Etoposide: A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Zidovudine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.Vincristine: An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.DNA, Protozoan: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.Plasmodium: A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.QuinolinesChromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Mefloquine: A phospholipid-interacting antimalarial drug (ANTIMALARIALS). It is very effective against PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM with very few side effects.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Integrons: DNA elements that include the component genes and insertion site for a site-specific recombination system that enables them to capture mobile gene cassettes.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Molecular Typing: Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.Atovaquone: A hydroxynaphthoquinone that has antimicrobial activity and is being used in antimalarial protocols.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Quinolones: A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.KB Cells: This line KB is now known to be a subline of the ubiquitous KERATIN-forming tumor cell line HeLa. It was originally thought to be derived from an epidermal carcinoma of the mouth, but was subsequently found, based on isoenzyme analysis, HeLa marker chromosomes, and DNA fingerprinting, to have been established via contamination by HELA CELLS. The cells are positive for keratin by immunoperoxidase staining. KB cells have been reported to contain human papillomavirus18 (HPV-18) sequences.UzbekistanRhodamine 123: A fluorescent probe with low toxicity which is a potent substrate for P-glycoprotein and the bacterial multidrug efflux transporter. It is used to assess mitochondrial bioenergetics in living cells and to measure the efflux activity of P-glycoprotein in both normal and malignant cells. (Leukemia 1997;11(7):1124-30)Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Acriflavine: 3,6-Diamino-10-methylacridinium chloride mixt. with 3,6-acridinediamine. Fluorescent dye used as a local antiseptic and also as a biological stain. It intercalates into nucleic acids thereby inhibiting bacterial and viral replication.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.

Tobramycin, amikacin, sissomicin, and gentamicin resistant Gram-negative rods. (1/10751)

Sensitivities to gentamicin, sissomicin, tobramycin, and amikacin were compared in 196 gentamicin-resistant Gram-negative rods and in 212 similar organisms sensitive to gentamicin, mainly isolated from clinical specimens. Amikacin was the aminoglycoside most active against gentamicin-resistant organisms, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, klebsiella spp, Escherichia coli, Proteus spp, Providencia spp, and Citrobacter spp being particularly susceptible. Most of the gentamicin-resistant organisms were isolated from the urine of patients undergoing surgery. Gentamicin was the most active antibiotic against gentamicin-sensitive E coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Serratia spp. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other Pseudomonas spp were most susceptible to tobramycin.  (+info)

Prodigious substrate specificity of AAC(6')-APH(2"), an aminoglycoside antibiotic resistance determinant in enterococci and staphylococci. (2/10751)

BACKGROUND: High-level gentamicin resistance in enterococci and staphylococci is conferred by AAC(6')-APH(2"), an enzyme with 6'-N-acetyltransferase and 2"-O-phosphotransferase activities. The presence of this enzyme in pathogenic gram-positive bacteria prevents the successful use of gentamicin C and most other aminoglycosides as therapeutic agents. RESULTS: In an effort to understand the mechanism of aminoglycoside modification, we expressed AAC(6')-APH(2") in Bacillus subtilis. The purified enzyme is monomeric with a molecular mass of 57 kDa and displays both the expected aminoglycoside N-acetyltransferase and O-phosphotransferase activities. Structure-function analysis with various aminoglycosides substrates reveals an enzyme with broad specificity in both enzymatic activities, accounting for AAC(6')-APH(2")'s dramatic negative impact on clinical aminoglycoside therapy. Both lividomycin A and paromomycin, aminoglycosides lacking a 6'-amino group, were acetylated by AAC(6')-APH(2"). The infrared spectrum of the product of paromomycin acetylation yielded a signal consistent with O-acetylation. Mass spectral and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of the products of neomycin phosphorylation indicated that phosphoryl transfer occurred primarily at the 3'-OH of the 6-aminohexose ring A, and that some diphosphorylated material was also present with phosphates at the 3'-OH and the 3"'-OH of ring D, both unprecedented observations for this enzyme. Furthermore, the phosphorylation site of lividomycin A was determined to be the 5"-OH of the pentose ring C. CONCLUSIONS: The bifunctional AAC(6')-APH(2") has the capacity to inactivate virtually all clinically important aminoglycosides through N- and O-acetylation and phosphorylation of hydroxyl groups. The extremely broad substrate specificity of this enzyme will impact on future development of aminoglycosides and presents a significant challenge for antibiotic design.  (+info)

Emergence of vancomycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Glycopeptide-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus Working Group. (3/10751)

BACKGROUND: Since the emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, the glycopeptide vancomycin has been the only uniformly effective treatment for staphylococcal infections. In 1997, two infections due to S. aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin were identified in the United States. METHODS: We investigated the two patients with infections due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides, as defined by a minimal inhibitory concentration of vancomycin of 8 to 16 microg per milliliter. To assess the carriage and transmission of these strains of S. aureus, we cultured samples from the patients and their contacts and evaluated the isolates. RESULTS: The first patient was a 59-year-old man in Michigan with diabetes mellitus and chronic renal failure. Peritonitis due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides developed after 18 weeks of vancomycin treatment for recurrent methicillin-resistant S. aureus peritonitis associated with dialysis. The removal of the peritoneal catheter plus treatment with rifampin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole eradicated the infection. The second patient was a 66-year-old man with diabetes in New Jersey. A bloodstream infection due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides developed after 18 weeks of vancomycin treatment for recurrent methicillin-resistant S. aureus bacteremia. This infection was eradicated with vancomycin, gentamicin, and rifampin. Both patients died. The glycopeptide-intermediate S. aureus isolates differed by two bands on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. On electron microscopy, the isolates from the infected patients had thicker extracellular matrixes than control methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates. No carriage was documented among 177 contacts of the two patients. CONCLUSIONS: The emergence of S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides emphasizes the importance of the prudent use of antibiotics, the laboratory capacity to identify resistant strains, and the use of infection-control precautions to prevent transmission.  (+info)

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae ETH1 gene, an inducible homolog of exonuclease III that provides resistance to DNA-damaging agents and limits spontaneous mutagenesis. (4/10751)

The recently sequenced Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome was searched for a gene with homology to the gene encoding the major human AP endonuclease, a component of the highly conserved DNA base excision repair pathway. An open reading frame was found to encode a putative protein (34% identical to the Schizosaccharomyces pombe eth1(+) [open reading frame SPBC3D6.10] gene product) with a 347-residue segment homologous to the exonuclease III family of AP endonucleases. Synthesis of mRNA from ETH1 in wild-type cells was induced sixfold relative to that in untreated cells after exposure to the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). To investigate the function of ETH1, deletions of the open reading frame were made in a wild-type strain and a strain deficient in the known yeast AP endonuclease encoded by APN1. eth1 strains were not more sensitive to killing by MMS, hydrogen peroxide, or phleomycin D1, whereas apn1 strains were approximately 3-fold more sensitive to MMS and approximately 10-fold more sensitive to hydrogen peroxide than was the wild type. Double-mutant strains (apn1 eth1) were approximately 15-fold more sensitive to MMS and approximately 2- to 3-fold more sensitive to hydrogen peroxide and phleomycin D1 than were apn1 strains. Elimination of ETH1 in apn1 strains also increased spontaneous mutation rates 9- or 31-fold compared to the wild type as determined by reversion to adenine or lysine prototrophy, respectively. Transformation of apn1 eth1 cells with an expression vector containing ETH1 reversed the hypersensitivity to MMS and limited the rate of spontaneous mutagenesis. Expression of ETH1 in a dut-1 xthA3 Escherichia coli strain demonstrated that the gene product functionally complements the missing AP endonuclease activity. Thus, in apn1 cells where the major AP endonuclease activity is missing, ETH1 offers an alternate capacity for repair of spontaneous or induced damage to DNA that is normally repaired by Apn1 protein.  (+info)

Isolation and chemical characterization of a capsular polysaccharide antigen shared by clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. (5/10751)

Enterococci are a common cause of serious infections, especially in newborns, severely immunocompromised patients, and patients requiring intensive care. To characterize enterococcal surface antigens that are targets of opsonic antibodies, rabbits were immunized with various gentamicin-killed Enterococcus faecalis strains, and immune sera were tested in an opsonophagocytic assay against a selection of clinical isolates. Serum raised against one strain killed the homologous strain (12030) at a dilution of 1:5,120 and mediated opsonic killing of 33% of all strains tested. In addition, this serum killed two (28%) of seven vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium strains. Adsorption of sera with the homologous strain eliminated killing activity. The adsorbing antigens were resistant to treatment with proteinase K and to boiling for 1 h, but were susceptible to treatment with sodium periodate, indicating that the antigen inducing opsonic activity is a polysaccharide. Antibodies in immune rabbit sera reacted with a capsule-like structure visualized by electron microscopy both on the homologous E. faecalis strain and on a vancomycin-resistant E. faecium strain. The capsular polysaccharides from E. faecalis 12030 and E. faecium 838970 were purified, and chemical and structural analyses indicated they were identical glycerol teichoic acid-like molecules with a carbohydrate backbone structure of 6-alpha-D-glucose-1-2 glycerol-3-PO4 with substitution on carbon 2 of the glucose with an alpha-2-1-D-glucose residue. The purified antigen adsorbed opsonic killing activity from immune rabbit sera and elicited high titers of antibodies (when used to immunize rabbits) that both mediated opsonic killing of bacteria and bound to a capsule-like structure visualized by electron microscopy. These results indicate that approximately one-third of a sample of 15 E. faecalis strains and 7 vancomycin-resistant E. faecium strains possess shared capsular polysaccharides that are targets of opsonophagocytic antibodies and therefore are potential vaccine candidates.  (+info)

Structural basis of multidrug recognition by BmrR, a transcription activator of a multidrug transporter. (6/10751)

Multidrug-efflux transporters demonstrate an unusual ability to recognize multiple structurally dissimilar toxins. A comparable ability to bind diverse hydrophobic cationic drugs is characteristic of the Bacillus subtilis transcription regulator BmrR, which upon drug binding activates expression of the multidrug transporter Bmr. Crystal structures of the multidrug-binding domain of BmrR (2.7 A resolution) and of its complex with the drug tetraphenylphosphonium (2.8 A resolution) revealed a drug-induced unfolding and relocation of an alpha helix, which exposes an internal drug-binding pocket. Tetraphenylphosphonium binding is mediated by stacking and van der Waals contacts with multiple hydrophobic residues of the pocket and by an electrostatic interaction between the positively charged drug and a buried glutamate residue, which is the key to cation selectivity. Similar binding principles may be used by other multidrug-binding proteins.  (+info)

Successful short-term suppression of clarithromycin-resistant Mycobacterium avium complex bacteremia in AIDS. California Collaborative Treatment Group. (7/10751)

During a randomized study of clarithromycin plus clofazimine with or without ethambutol in patients with AIDS and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) bacteremia, eight participants received additional antimycobacterial drugs following the detection of a clarithromycin-resistant isolate (MIC, > 8 micrograms/mL). A macrolide (seven received clarithromycin, one azithromycin) and clofazimine were continued; additional treatment included various combinations of ethambutol, ciprofloxacin, amikacin, and rifabutin. After the detection of a resistant isolate and before receipt of additional antimycobacterials, the median peak MAC colony count in blood was 105 cfu/mL (range, 8-81,500 cfu/mL). After additional antimycobacterials, the median nadir MAC colony count was 5 cfu/mL (range, 0-110 cfu/mL). Five (63%) of eight patients had a > or = 1 log10 decrease, including two who achieved negative blood cultures; all of these responses occurred in patients originally assigned to clarithromycin plus clofazimine. Treatment of clarithromycin-resistant MAC bacteremia that emerges during clarithromycin-based treatment can decrease levels of bacteremia and transiently sterilize blood cultures.  (+info)

Emergence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium phage-type DT104 among salmonellae causing enteritis in Israel. (8/10751)

The relative frequency of salmonella strains isolated from hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients in Southern Israel changed during the period, 1994-6. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium definitive phage-type 104 (DT104) appeared in Israel in 1994 and became the most prevalent strain in 1996. An outbreak of enteritis due to Salmonella enterica serotype Agona occurred in Israel, in October 1994 and lasted for 4 months. The relative frequency of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis remained almost constant during these years, with seasonal fluctuations only. The importance of the increase in the prevalence of Typhimurium DT104 has been the epidemic spread of a multiresistant strain of R-type ACT (A, ampicillin; C, chloramphenicol; T, tetracycline) belonging to this phage-type. Since 1995 the frequency of Typhimurium DT104 isolates that possess, in addition to the above R-type, a chromosomally encoded resistance to the quinolone drug, nalidixic acid, increased tenfold. In 1996, 27% of the Typhimurium DT104 isolates were of R-type ACTN. S. Enteritidis exhibited over 95% susceptibility to at least eight of the most commonly used antibiotic drugs, and none of the isolates was resistant to quinolone or fluoroquinoline.  (+info)

The multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) operon of the enteric bacterium Escherichia coli regulates multiple antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity. The goal o...
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Subscribe - The international peer-reviewed journal covering the global spread and threat of multi-drug resistant clones of major pathogens that are widely documented in hospitals and the scientific community.
The international peer-reviewed journal covering the global spread and threat of multi-drug resistant clones of major pathogens that are widely documented in hospitals and the scientific community.
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Definition of transferable resistance in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is transferable resistance? Meaning of transferable resistance as a finance term. What does transferable resistance mean in finance?
Experimental factors that increase population heterogeneity could increase apparent resistance rates. The activity of daptomycin is calcium dependent (10), and the levels of free calcium in MHA are variable (23). We determined the effect of calcium levels on population heterogeneity. As shown in Fig. 1B, the addition of 1 mM CaCl2 to the test agar results in homogeneous susceptibility and eliminates the appearance of falsely resistant colonies. Differences in calcium levels may have contributed to past differences in spontaneous resistance rates. Consistent with this idea, it has previously been demonstrated that resistance rates in liquid media increase as calcium levels decrease (29).. Based on the studies described above, we performed all resistance testing by plating overnight cultures on MHA supplemented with 1 mM CaCl2 and daptomycin at 8 times the MIC. Eight laboratory (American Type Culture Collection, Rockville, Md.) and eight clinical isolates (provided by D. Snydman, New England ...
Nicoloff, Hé.; Perreten, V.; McMurry, L.M.; Levy, S.B., 2006: Role for tandem duplication and lon protease in AcrAB-TolC- dependent multiple antibiotic resistance (Mar) in an Escherichia coli mutant without mutations in marRAB or acrRAB
EU - The European Union Summary Report on antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic and indicator bacteria from humans, animals and food in 2011 from EFSA and ECDC has found some significant national trends in resistance levels in isolates from animals and food. Among Salmonella isolates, more decreasing than increasing trends were found, whereas in the case of Campylobacter, significant national trends were mostly increasing. The study also looked at selected E.coli isolates and MRSA.
The emerging threat posed by antibiotic resistance has affected public health systems all over the world. Surveillance of resistant bacteria in clinical settings and identifying them in mixed cultures is of paramount importance and can contribute to the control of their spreading. Culture-independent monitoring approaches are highly desirable, since they yield results much faster than traditional susceptibility testing. However, many rapid molecular methods like PCR only detect the sole presence of a potential resistance gene, do not provide information regarding efficient transcription, expression and functionality and, in addition, cannot assign resistance genes to species level in mixed cultures. By using plasmid-encoded TEM β-lactamase mediated ampicillin resistances as a proof of principle system, we (1) developed a fluorescence in situ hybridization-test (FISH) capable to detect the respective mRNAs, (2) implemented an immunofluorescence test to identify the corresponding proteins and (3)
As with all things biological, it depends. Some antibiotics, like rifampicin and chloramphenicol, readily give rise to spontaneous resistance mutations. These drugs target transcription and translation, respectively, and alterations of a single nucleotide in the bacterial genome can confer resistance. Since point mutations like these arise spontaneously at about one per million bacteria, there are…
Treating bacterial infections with antibiotics is becoming increasingly difficult as bacteria develop resistance not only to the antibiotics being used against them, but also to ones they have never encountered before. By analyzing genetic and phenotypic changes in antibiotic-resistant strains of E. coli, researchers at the RIKEN Quantitative Biology Center in Japan have revealed a common set of features that appear to be responsible for the development of resistance to several types of antibiotics.
Resistance to bacteriostasis by 2-thiazole alanine develops rapidly; however, such resistance is lost during growth in the absence of the analog. This induced resistance is accompanied by increased formation of an enzyme sensitive to 2-thiazole alanine. Maintenance of the elevated enzyme levels in growing cells, like resistance, requires the presence of the analog. ...
Implementing antibiotic-free programs in modern broiler production brings legitimate concerns for producers regarding performance, flock uniformity, and disease incidence. Experts will gather in February 2017 at BIOMIN world headquarters to explore the keys to ABF broiler production and guidelines for the responsible use of antibiotics.
BIOMIN welcomed 145 delegates from 23 countries representing the feed and poultry sectors over several days in mid-February in order to address how to solve the antibiotic-free production puzzle.
Page 3 of 5 - Antibiotic Resistance - posted in Best all time threads.: If information was quantified, then it wouldnt be information. Could the information in the word Cow be quantified as C O W? No. because individual letters arent information; They are units.Ummmm, a one of the biggest arguments by most creationists is evolution doesnt increase information. If youre looking for an increase youre quantifying.Red blood cell...
The US Dollar broke a significant level of resistance against the Japanese Yen. Namely, the resistance of a medium descending pattern that captured the week long sideways trading below the 110.00 level was broken. The event signals the end of sideways trading.. As the pair continues to surge upwards, it will face the weekly R1 at 110.14. After breaking the weekly R1, the pair is set to reach for the next resistance level at the 110.50 mark.. On the other hand, at any moment the pair might begin to consolidate its gains by trading sideways and waiting for the support of the 55 and 100-hour simple moving averages to approach the rate and initiate a continuation of the surge. ...
A path-breaking technique that will potentially help reverse drug resistance as well as enable the existing antibiotics to act effectively has been developed by researchers from the IIT Roorkee.
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The experts say our resistance to antibiotics is now a serious global health threat. Find out how much you need to worry, and the action you should take.
The antibiotic-resistant strain of gonorrhoea - now considered a superbug - was discovered in Japan two years ago.Experts have warned that the bacterias effects could match those of AIDS.
|p||strong|Bonpard Resistance|br /||/strong|Bonpard Resistance Supplement has been developed for horses with a compromised immune system. This often manifests itself as vague health issues leading to suboptimal performance.  The specific composition
Bacteria not only develop resistance to antibiotics, they also can pick it up from their rivals. In a recent publication in Cell Reports, Researchers from the Biozentrum of the University of Bas ...
Can NZYMES help my pet, you may ask. See how NZYMES can help promote a better quality of life, with greater resistance to most health threats.
Krishna V. Komanduri, MD; Stephen J. Schuster, MD; David Maloney, MD, PhD; and Michael Pulsipher, MD, describe the mechanisms of resistance after CAR T-cell infusion, including how their persistence relates to duration of response and whether patients can receive multiple infusions.
Just because the market moves in one direction doesnt mean that all of the stocks are moving with it. Here are five stocks that are bumping up against overhead resistance.
Over the past few months, weve gotten a few good looks at Resistance 3, and what weve seen so far has been awfully promising. Easily the
How a gene was inadvertently delivered to a cancer cell, camouflaging it from the therapy and allowing the cancer to develop resistance to treatment. The patient ultimately died.
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Traduction de resistance dans le dictionnaire Anglais-Allemand gratuit de LANGENSCHEIDT avec des exemples, des synonymes et la prononciation.
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Looking for Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance Study? Find out information about Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance Study. product obtained from several species of red algae, or seaweed seaweed, name commonly used for the multicellular marine algae. Simpler forms, consisting of... Explanation of Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance Study
Plasmid-mediated resistance is the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes which are carried on plasmids. The plasmids can be transferred between bacteria within the same species or between different species via conjugation. Plasmids often carry multiple antibiotic resistance genes, contributing to the spread of multidrug-resistance (MDR). Antibiotic resistance mediated by MDR plasmids severely limits the treatment options for the infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, especially Enterobacteriaceae family. The global spread of MDR plasmids has been enhanced by selective pressure from antibiotic usage in human and veterinary medicine. Resistance plasmids by definition carry one or more antibiotic resistance genes. They are frequently accompanied by the genes encoding virulence determinants, specific enzymes or resistance to toxic heavy metals. Multiple resistance genes are commonly arranged in the resistance cassettes. The antibiotic resistance genes found on the plasmids confer resistance ...
Antibiotic resistance is now considered to be a great curse to the present world. Researcher suspected that millions of people will die due to the rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance by 2050. There are lots of mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. All the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance can be narrowed into two part; mutation and horizontal gene transfer.. In this context, both type of antibiotic resistance mechanisms will be discussed. The last mechanism belongs to horizontal gene transfer-mediated resistance and most of the other mechanisms of antibiotic resistance are mutation-mediated. …. 10 mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in BacteriaRead More » ...
The results of this study showed that in Finland themefA gene is predominant among erythromycin-resistant M-phenotype isolates and the ermTR gene is predominant among isolates with MLSB resistance phenotypes. A comparison of susceptibilities between erythromycin-resistant S. pyogenes isolates in this study and isolates collected in 1990 (28) showed no changes in the antibiotic resistance patterns of the M- and CR-phenotype isolates. However, two interesting changes were seen in the antibiotic resistance pattern of the IR-phenotype isolates. In 1990, the proportion of the IR-phenotype isolates that were resistant to tetracycline was 10% (28), which was only a little more than the proportion found among erythromycin-susceptibleS. pyogenes isolates (4%). However, in 1994 and 1995 (this study), 93% of the IR phenotype isolates were resistant to tetracycline, which is comparable to the 82 and 100% rates of resistance found among the CR-phenotype isolates in 1990 (28) and 1994 and 1995, respectively, ...
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis pandemic is a major health problem, further complicated by an increasing incidence of drug-resistant isolates and the existence of highly transmissible strains, such as those in the Beijing family. Streptomycin (STR)-resistant M. tuberculosis clinical isolates have been analyzed to look for mutations in the rpsL, rrs, and gidB genes. In addition, the Rv1258c gene, which encodes Tap, an efflux pump that transports STR, has been sequenced. Mutations affecting codons 43 and 88 of the rpsL gene were found in 44.4% of the strains, and 16.7% of the strains carried mutations in the rrs gene, both of which probably contribute to STR resistance. Many strains presented with mutations in the gidB gene, but the implication of those mutations in STR resistance remains unclear. Interestingly, a cytosine nucleotide insertion between positions 580 and 581 (denominated Tap580) in the Rv1258c gene has been found in all Beijing isolates included in this study, suggesting that it might be a
Resistance against antibiotics, such as penicillin and cephalosporins, are haunting many hospitals and clinical practices. In a recent paper in the Journal of the American Chemical Society, researchers reported that they made laboratory versions of the ancient ancestors of the enzymes that lead to antibiotic resistance. By studying the ancient forefathers of these enzymes, researchers hope to understand how modern antibiotic resistance evolved and figure out new ways to deal with it. "Antibiotic-resistant organisms cause thousands of human deaths every year. Anything new we can learn about antibiotic resistance may be potentially useful in coping with this problem," says Jose Sanchez-Ruiz at the University of Granada in Spain, one of the studys coauthors.. Antibiotic resistance isnt a modern phenomenon that only arose in the face of clinical antibiotic use in the past 60 years. Bacteria have been toting around enzymes to disarm antibiotics for millenia. Indeed, genes for antibiotic resistance ...
In fall 2017, WHO released a report about a global shortage of antibiotics. This crisis has emerged simultaneously with a global rise in antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic resistance is a growing public health threat. Much of this antibiotic resistance is human-made. Shortages of antibiotics led to superbugs and are often caused by the overprescribing antibiotics, improperly taking prescribed antibiotics, and consuming substandard medicines as well as the extensive use of antibiotics in agriculture.. The over-prescription of drugs, improper consumption, parallel drug markets, and rampant antibiotic use all drive the growing global threat posed by antibiotic resistance. These factors are interrelated in different ways. For example, underdeveloped diagnostic facilities combined with overzealous prescription of antibiotics have led to increasing empirical treatment of infections. Responding to pressure from patients, doctors sometimes prescribe antibiotics for viral conditions despite their ...
1) Tannock GW, et al. (1994) Molecular characterization of a plasmid-borne (pGT633) erythromycin resistance determinant (ermGT) from Lactobacillus reuteri 100-63.. Plasmid 31(1):60-71 PubMed: 8171126 ...
OR resistance/height2[All Fields] OR resistance/high[All Fields] OR resistance/homeostasis[All Fields] OR resistance/hyperglycemia[All Fields] OR resistance/hyperinsulinaemia[All Fields] OR resistance/hyperinsulinemia[All Fields] OR resistance/hyperinsulinemia/hyperglycemia[All Fields] OR resistance/hyperinsulinemic[All Fields] OR resistance/hyperinsulinism[All Fields] OR resistance/hyperlipidaemia[All Fields] OR resistance/hypersensitivity[All Fields] OR resistance/hypersusceptibility[All Fields] OR resistance/hypertension[All Fields] OR resistance/hypertriglyceridemia[All Fields] OR resistance/immunity[All Fields] OR resistance/impact[All Fields] OR resistance/impaired[All Fields] OR resistance/impedance[All Fields] OR resistance/inflammation[All Fields] OR resistance/inhibition[All Fields] OR resistance/innate[All Fields] OR resistance/insensitivity[All Fields] OR resistance/inspiratory[All Fields] OR resistance/insulinemia[All Fields] OR resistance/intermediate[All Fields] OR ...
An editorial in todays New York Times: The Rise of Antibiotic Resistance. Excerpt: The most urgent need is to minimize the overuse of antibiotics in medicine and agriculture, which accelerates the development of resistant strains. In the United States, the...
The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of continuing or discontinuing 3TC treatment in the presence of HIV virus with 3TC resistance for persons who are on a regimen including least three other anti-HIV drugs. The overall aim is to determine whether continuing 3TC is of benefit in HIV-positive persons who have already shown resistance to this drug ...
The question on the minds of thousands of scientists minds across the world revolves around what the possible cause could be that continues to trigger the enormous spike in UTIs. The answer remains highly controversial. On the one hand, some researches argue that a strong link persists between the meat we consume and the bacteria we then acquire. These researchers highlight the "close genetic matches between resistant E.coli from human patients and resistant strains found on chicken or turkey sold in supermarkets," in order to make the argument that resistance could be spreading with every bite from our chicken dinners. While on the other hand, other researchers dont agree as antibiotic resistance remains extremely common in our society therefore, "it isnt surprising that genes carried by human E.coli are going to be similar to resistance genes in chicken E.coli." However, after taking both arguments into account, I believe that a strong link exists between the antibiotic treated meat we ...
This episode is focused on using antibiotics wisely and how YOU can help in the fight of antibiotic resistance. | Using antibiotics wisely, How YOU can help in the fight against antibiotic resistance Tuesday, February 9, 2016 on C. diff. Spores and More | VoiceAmerica - The Leader in Internet Media
Antibiotics do not work for viruses such as colds, influenza, most sore throats and bronchitis. Taking antibiotics when they are not needed increases the risk of future resistance when they are prescribed.. Colts Quarterback Matt Hasselbeck and ISDH Health Commissioner Dr. Adams Discuss Antibiotics. Antibiotic Use and Antibiotic Resistance Quick Fact El uso de antibióticos y resistencia antibiótica CDC - Get Smart About Antibiotics Materials. ...
Our latest data show some progress in reducing resistance among some germs that make people sick, but unfortunately were also seeing greater resistance in some pathogens, like certain types of salmonella," Dr. Robert Tauxe, deputy director of the division of foodborne, waterborne and environmental diseases at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, said in an agency news release.TUESDAY, July 1, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Theres good news and bad news about antibiotic resistance among the germs that cause foodborne illnesses, a new U.S. government report released Tuesday shows ...
In women from 2 independent ethnic groups relocating from Thailand to the United States, investigators found a rapid increase in gut microbiome antibiotic resistance genes richness and abundance.
Summary of Facts and Submissions. I. The European application with the title Rapid detection of antibiotic resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis was filed as international application PCT/EP93/01063, claiming priorities from US 875,940 (P1; filed on 30 April 1992), US 929,206 (P2; filed on 14 August 1992), FR 92/11098 (P3; filed on 17 September 1992) and FR 93/04545 (fourth priority document; filed on 16 April 1993).. Claims 1 and 16 of the application as originally filed read:. 1. A process for the detection of a resistance to an antibiotic in a mycobacterium which comprises detecting a mutation in a gene selected from the katG gene or fragment thereof, the rpoB gene or fragment thereof and rpsL gene or fragment thereof.. 16. The process of claim 1 for the detection of resistance to the selected antibiotic which comprises:. - fragmenting the relevant gene or part thereof likely to carry the mutation into a plurality of fragments, such as by digestion of said relevant gene by selected ...
Friendly microbes in the intestinal tracts of healthy American children have numerous antibiotic resistance genes, according to results of a pilot study by
Resistance to antibiotics is hardly a new problem; ever since the advent of penicillin and other antibiotics more than 50 years ago defiant strains of bacteria have emerged. The harrowing aspect is that now almost every human pathogen treated with antibiotics is showing resistance, and many doctors fear that this will only be the tip of the iceberg. After all, every time any antibiotic is used, while it may kill the majority of the bacteria the drug was intended to destroy, there is a likelihood that a few germs will remain, surviving because of their resistant traits or their ability to mutate and become resistant to antibiotics. Once created, these resistant genes can multiply quickly, creating new strains of bacteria that could result in the patients next infection failing to respond to the previously administered antibiotic. In fact, bacteria can reproduce about every twenty minutes, meaning resistance is quickly spread, and the resistant strand eventually becomes the dominant strand of ...
Microbial Drug Resistance. 24 (5): 563-577. doi:10.1089/mdr.2017.0266. PMID 29039729.. ... Drug interactions[edit]. Based on previous trial data and ongoing clinical trials, no significant drug-drug or food-drug ... "Infection and Drug Resistance. 6: 215-23. doi:10.2147/idr.s36140. PMC 3848746. PMID 24348053. Retrieved 2019-06-23.. ... However, drug-drug interactions similar to those observed with the cephalosporin class of antimicrobials and β-lactamase ...
Microbial Drug Resistance (Larchmont, N.Y.). 22 (5): 412-431. doi:10.1089/mdr.2015.0220. ISSN 1931-8448. PMID 26866778. ... Antibiotic resistance Drug resistance Multiple drug resistance Cerceo, Elizabeth; Deitelzweig, Steven B.; Sherman, Bradley M.; ... This drug shows promise in infections from multi-drug resistant K. pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae carbapenemase [KPC]- and ESBL- ... The lack of newly emerging antimicobrial drugs have resulted in the revisit of old antibiotic drugs such as colistin and ...
Microbial Drug Resistance. 19 (4): 130320064806005. doi:10.1089/mdr.2012.0248. PMID 23514607. Nordmann, Patrice; et al. (May ... They are resistant because they produce an enzyme called a carbapenemase that disables the drug molecule. The resistance can ... No new drugs for the bacteria are in development and the bacteria's rapid adaptation to new drugs makes investment in their ... In a Thailand-based study of CRE in hospital settings, carbapenem resistance was defined as any strain that shows resistance to ...
Microbial drug resistance (Larchmont, N.Y.). 12 (1): 1-6. doi:10.1089/mdr.2006.12.1. PMID 16584300. McNerney, R.; Traore, H. (1 ... tuberculosis for antibiotic resistance. In the future, mycobacteriophage could be used to treat infections by phage therapy. ...
Immunomodulatory regimens often have fewer side effects than existing drugs, including less potential for creating resistance ... when treating microbial disease.[3] Cell-based immunotherapies are effective for some cancers. Immune effector cells such as ... Immunosuppressive drugs[edit]. Immunosuppressive drugs help manage organ transplantation and autoimmune disease. Immune ... Immunomodulatory imide drugs (IMiDs). thalidomide and its analogues (lenalidomide, pomalidomide, and apremilast) ...
Drug resistance is increasingly more common and presents a serious problem in persons who are immunocompromised. Prophylactic ... such as regular toothbrushing and use of anti-microbial mouthwashes. Since smoking is associated with many of forms of oral ... Oral candidiasis can be treated with topical anti-fungal drugs, such as nystatin, miconazole, Gentian violet or amphotericin B ... In recurrent oral candidiasis, the use of azole antifungals risks selection and enrichment of drug-resistant strains of candida ...
The main problem with pathogenic drug treatments in the modern world is drug resistance. Many patients don't take the full ... This example can also be applied to S. aureus and other common microbial flora in humans. Currently, antimicrobials are the ... only the bacteria which have developed genetic mutations to combat the drug can survive. This reduces drug effectiveness and ... These drugs are specifically designed to kill microbes or inhibit further growth within the host environment. Multiple terms ...
... and microbial resistance continues to increase faster than the pace of new drug and vaccine development. More positive ... More importantly, the drug costs are only a portion of HIV/AIDS treatment costs. Drug-resistant strains are likely to spread ... of drugs under patent protection. Developing countries also are less willing to make microbial samples available to companies ... to increasing microbial resistance to existing antibiotics, and because related models have already underestimated the force of ...
Immunomodulatory regimens often have fewer side effects than existing drugs, including less potential for creating resistance ... when treating microbial disease. Cell-based immunotherapies are effective for some cancers. Immune effector cells such as ... Other drugs modulate immune responses. The body naturally does not launch an immune system attack on its own tissues. Immune ... Syn, Nicholas L; Teng, Michele W L; Mok, Tony S K; Soo, Ross A. "De-novo and acquired resistance to immune checkpoint targeting ...
Drug Develop. Res. (2000) 50: 440-447. Peypoux F, Bonmatin JM, Wallach J. Recent trends in the biochemistry of Surfactin; ... doi:10.1016/0927-7765(94)01183-6. Mor, A. Peptide-based antibiotics: A potential answer to raging antimicrobial resistance. ... 1999) 51:553-63 Pooja Singh and Swaranjit Singh Cameotra; Potential applications of microbial surfactants in biomedical ... sciences; Institute of Microbial Technology, Sector 39 A, Chandigarh 160036, India. Grau, A, J C. Gomez Fernandez, and R ...
"Genetic engineering in vivo using translocatable drug-resistance elements. New methods in bacterial genetics". J. Mol. Biol. ... Berg, Claire; Berg, Douglass E. "Transposable Elements Tools for Microbial Genetics". EcoSal. Engels, William R. "P Elements in ... Alternatively insertional inactivation could be used to suppress genes that express antibiotic-resistance in bacteria., While ... Transposon-based Insertional inactivation is considered for medical research from suppression of antibiotic resistance in ...
1975). "Mutagenesis by Insertion of a Drug-resistance Element Carrying an Inverted Repetition". Journal of Molecular Biology. ... The development of microbial genome sequencing was a major advance for the use of transposon mutagenesis. The function affected ... Hayes, Finbar (2003). "Transposon-Based Strategies for Microbial Functional Genomics and Proteomics". Annual Review of Genetics ...
... but found at Physical factors affecting microbial life. Drug, toxin, or chemical resistance is a consequence of evolution and ... Tolerance and Resistance Cosmetics Database HCMV drug resistance mutations tool Combating Drug Resistance - An informative ... "Drug resistance develops naturally, but careless practices in drug supply and use are hastening it unnecessarily." - Center for ... The chances of drug resistance can sometimes be minimized by using multiple drugs simultaneously. This works because individual ...
... thereby reducing the risk that a single mutation in microbial or tumor DNA will lead to drug resistance and treatment failure. ... It allows drugs to be combined in such a way that the likelihood of drug resistance emerging is reduced. By knowing what ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Antony, H.A.; Parija, S.C. (2016). "Antimalarial drug resistance: An overview". ... By knowing the interaction between a certain site of a drug and a receptor, other drugs can be formulated in a way that ...
... prevalence of drug resistance in bacteria, studies of infections occurring in AIDS patients, and the development of newer ... chemotherapeutic agents to combat microbial and zoonotic infections. Dr. Haffkine, an orthodox Jewish Ukrainian scientist ... including Multidrug resistance Tuberculosis. "History". Haffkine Institute. Retrieved 30 September 2014. "Museum of Maladies ...
... drug resistance, microbial MeSH G04.185.515.286.347 --- drug resistance, bacterial MeSH G04.185.515.286.347.500 --- beta-lactam ... drug resistance, fungal MeSH G04.185.515.286.383.500 --- drug resistance, multiple, fungal MeSH G04.185.515.286.420 --- drug ... drug resistance, multiple MeSH G04.185.515.329.500 --- drug resistance, multiple, bacterial MeSH G04.185.515.329.625 --- drug ... drug resistance, multiple, bacterial MeSH G04.185.515.286.347.875 --- kanamycin resistance MeSH G04.185.515.286.347.937 --- ...
NASA Microbial Drug Resistance Virulence (MDRV) (ISS Experiment) - NASA Effect of Spaceflight on Microbial Gene Expression and ... Microbial Drug Resistance Virulence (MDRV) Effect of Spaceflight on Microbial Gene Expression and Virulence (Microbe) National ... NASA Study of Microbial Communities Exposed to Weightlessness (Sample) (ISS Experiment) - NASA SOdium LOading in Microgravity ( ... BER-9B ExPRESS Rack with only cooling and electrical power, eight Mid Deck Locker payloads. Launched on HTV-6 Basic Express ...
Ochiai, K.; Yamanaka, T.; Kimura, K.; Sawada, O. (1959). "Inheritance of drug resistance (and its transfer) between Shigella ... One important development in the study of microbial evolution came with the discovery in Japan in 1959 of horizontal gene ... Furthermore, Parker, after reviewing numerous genetic studies on plant disease resistance, failed to find a single example ... Schloss, Patrick D.; Handelsman, Jo (December 2004). "Status of the Microbial Census". Microbiology and Molecular Biology ...
"Dramatic activation of antibiotic production in Streptomyces coelicolor by cumulative drug resistance mutations". Appl Environ ... StreptomeDB Antibiotics and Streptomyces : the future of antibiotic discovery Bioprospecting for Microbial Endophytes and Their ... to weaken bacterial-resistance. Novel antiinfectives being developed include Guadinomine (Streptomyces sp. K01-0509), an ... antiparasitic drugs, and immunosuppressants. Streptomyces isolates are typically initiated with the aerial hyphal formation ...
... this contributes unnecessarily to possible microbial resistance. Those quantities preceded the ADAA, so approving veterinary ... The development of resistant bacteria strains can be attributed to antibiotic use because resistance to the drugs was ... "Use of Antimicrobial Growth Promoters in Food Animals and Enterococcus faecium Resistance to Therapeutic Antimicrobial Drugs in ... creating veterinary feed directive drugs as a new category of animal drugs. Antibiotic use was once common practice before the ...
Drug Resistance ATPase-1 (Drug RA1) (Putative) Drug Resistance ATPase-2 (Drug RA2) Macrolide Exporter (MacB) Peptide-4 Exporter ... RNAi technology could also be considered for overcoming MDR in infectious diseases caused by microbial pathogens. In addition ... Bacterial drug resistance has become an increasingly major health problem. One of the mechanisms for drug resistance is ... The substrates that reverse the resistance to anticancer drugs are called chemosensitizers. Drug resistance is a common ...
... have high microbial resistance ("due to the low moisture content in the final product, the Zydis formulation does not allow ... Water soluble drugs might form eutectic mixtures and not freeze adequately, so dose is limited to 60 mg and the maximum drug ... In December, 1996, the Food and Drug Administration approved the first prescription drug with Zydis technology sold in the U.S ... 2013). "Oral disintirating tablet of antihypertensive drug". Journal of Drug Delivery & Therapeutics; 2013, 3(1). Archived from ...
... for resistance genes occurs. The complex nature of microbial communities and the multitude of antibiotics present in aquatic ... In December 2013, the Food and Drug Administration required all companies to prove within the next year, that triclocarban is ... the amount that it expresses correlates with the amount of resistance in a microbial population. The addition of triclocarban ... Microbial species found in soils also bioaccumulate triclocarban. However, the health of these microbes has not been found to ...
In this relate, filamentation could be not only a virulence, but also a resistance factor in these bacteria. Bacteria exhibit a ... It affects prokaryotic size and the distribution of microbial groups. There are several feeding mechanisms used to seek and ... The ability of bacteria to decrease their susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs importantly affects both bacterial ecology and ... The filamentation contributes to a pathogen's resistance to this antimicrobial agent. The induction of bacterial filamentation ...
Drug resistance Microbiome Microorganism Human Microbiome Project Human virome Initial acquisition of microbiota List of ... All the DNA, human and microbial, were analyzed with DNA sequencing machines. The microbial genome data were extracted by ... Ten Times More Microbial Cells than Body Cells in Humans? Alison Abbott for Nature News. Jan 8 2016 Scientists bust myth that ... Microbial density may be used as a prognostic tool in assessment of colorectal cancers. The microbiota may affect ...
... and extent of drug resistance. ... "Adaptive value of sex in microbial pathogens" (PDF). Infect. ... Resistance[edit]. Main article: Pneumococcal infection § Treatment. Resistant Pneumococci strains are called penicillin- ... "Critical decline in pneumococcal disease and antibiotic resistance in South Africa". NICD. Retrieved 20 July 2015.. ... Pikis, Andreas; Campos, Joseph M.; Rodriguez, William J.; Keith, Jerry M. (2001). "Optochin Resistance in Streptococcus ...
The international peer-reviewed journal covering the global spread and threat of multi-drug resistant clones of major pathogens ... Microbial Drug Resistance (MDR) is an international, peer-reviewed journal that covers the global spread and threat of multi- ... Microbial Drug Resistance is under the editorial leadership of Editor Alexander Tomasz, PhD, The Rockefeller University, ... More Likely to Develop Resistance after Exposure to Low Levels of Antibiotics Reports a Study in Microbial Drug Resistance... ...
The international peer-reviewed journal covering the global spread and threat of multi-drug resistant clones of major pathogens ...
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... 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R ... Expert consultation on antimicrobial resistance: report on a meeting 25 August 2010  ...
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Microbial Drug Resistance. Author(s). Garcia-Migura, L.; Sunde, M.; Karlsmose, S.; Veldman, K.T.; Schroeter, A.; Guerra, B.; ... Microbial Drug Resistance-Mechanisms Epidemiology and Disease 18 (2012)1. - ISSN 1076-6294 - p. 88 - 93.. ... antimicrobial susceptibility - resistance genes - food animals - protein s12 - integrons - bacteria - typhimurium - countries ... Isolates were investigated by polymerase chain reaction for aadA, strA, and strB streptomycin resistance genes. Out of 236 ...
... Elisabetta Caselli. 1 ... In the attempt to minimize the infectious risk for hospitalized patients, and to avoid increasing of drug resistance and ... Kummerer K. (2001) Drugs in the environment: emission of drugs, diagnostic aids and disinfectants into wastewater by hospitals ... PCHS did not select any drug‐resistant strain, but rather it induced a general decrease in the whole antibiotic resistance ...
A Novel, Drug Resistance-Independent, Fluorescence-Based Approach To Measure Mutation Rates in Microbial Pathogens. Erika Shor ... A Novel, Drug Resistance-Independent, Fluorescence-Based Approach To Measure Mutation Rates in Microbial Pathogens ... A Novel, Drug Resistance-Independent, Fluorescence-Based Approach To Measure Mutation Rates in Microbial Pathogens ... A Novel, Drug Resistance-Independent, Fluorescence-Based Approach To Measure Mutation Rates in Microbial Pathogens ...
Resistance to antibiotics is growing, posing a major health risk in rich and poor countries. Additional ways of rewarding R&D ... Incentives for New Drugs to Tackle Anti-Microbial Resistance. Incentives for New Drugs to Tackle Anti-Microbial Resistance. ... Incentives for New Drugs to Tackle Anti-Microbial Resistance.. Resistance to antibiotics is growing, posing a major health risk ... Antimicrobials Resistance: A Call for Multi-disciplinary Action. How Can HTA Help?. ...
The idea of silver-resistance among pathogenic microbes is explored, and placed in proper context with actual facts in this ...
Tackling antimicrobial resistance [fact sheet]  World Health Organization. Regional Office for the Western Pacific (Manila : ... A primer for media : antimicrobial resistance in the Western Pacific Region  World Health Organization. Regional Office for ... Regional Workshop on the Quality Control of Laboratory Diagnosis and Surveillance on Antimicrobial Resistance, Manila, ... antimicrobial resistance; essential medicines  Regional Committee for the Western Pacific, 067 (Manila : WHO Regional Office ...
Informal Consultation on Monitoring Resistance to Antimalarial Drugs in the Mekong Region (Cambodia, China, Lao Peoples ... Antimicrobial resistance (Resolution)  Regional Committee for the Western Pacific, 062 (Manila : WHO Regional Office for the ... Antimicrobial resistance (Resolution)  Regional Committee for the Western Pacific, 053 (Manila : WHO Regional Office for the ... Antimicrobial resistance (Resolution)  Regional Committee for the Western Pacific, 065 (Manila : WHO Regional Office for the ...
Microbial Drug Resistance. Material type: Continuing resourceAnalytics: Show analyticsPublisher: Larchmont, N.Y. : Mary Ann ... Liebert. ISSN: 1076-6294 Subject(s): Drug resistance, Microbial -- periodicals Tags from this library: No tags from this ...
Recombination and drug resistance in microbial populations. Many bacteria and viruses exchange genetic material with each other ... 2010) and on how drug concentrations affect the fitness landscape in multidrug resistance evolution (Engelstädter 2014). ... capable of integrating and reshuffling gene cassettes that may code for drug resistance determinants (Engelstädter et al. 2016 ... Population biological principles of resistance evolution in infectious diseases.. The Lancet Infectious Diseases 11: 236-247 ( ...
Results of search for su:{Drug Resistance, Microbial} Refine your search. *Availability * Limit to currently available items. ... Malaria drug resistance in Tanzania / by T. K. Mutabingwa.. by Mutabingwa, Theonest K , UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme ... Book; Format: print Publisher: Geneva : Global Forum for Health Research, 2001Other title: Anti-microbial resistance cost- ... Mekong malaria : malaria, multi-drug resistance and economic development in the greater Mekong subregion of Southeast Asia. ...
NISTs Quick Test May Speed Antibiotic Treatment and Combat Drug Resistance. September 22, 2017 ... Microbial Genomic Measurements. Increasingly, high stakes decisions impacting public health and safety are being made using ... Microbial communities (microbiomes) abound everywhere, forming resilient ecological networks adapted to their environments. ...
... and Antimicrobial Drug Resistance On This Page Population Mobility and Association with Infectious Diseases and Microbial ... Emergence of drug resistance in environments that enable sharing of drug-resistance genes between organisms has been documented ... Some of these organisms may have innate drug resistance or may reflect acquired resistance patterns that are not typical of ... Schunk M, Kumma WP, Miranda IB, Osman ME, Roewer S, Alano A, High prevalence of drug-resistance mutations in Plasmodium ...
View a list of ATCC Microbial Panels; each panel is comprised of ATCC Genuine Cultures grouped together based on their utility ... Candida albicans Drug Resistance Panel (ATCC® MP-8™) ATCC® Number: MP-8™ Organism: Candida albicans ... Alphabetical Microbial Panels * Aspergillus fumigatus Drug Testing Panel (ATCC® MP-12™) ATCC® Number: MP-12™ Applications: ... ATCC® Microbial Panels for Food & Water Testing. Save time and money with the Big-Six non-O157 STEC, Salmonella enterica, and ...
Microbial Drug Resistance. 24 (5): 563-577. doi:10.1089/mdr.2017.0266. PMID 29039729.. ... Drug interactions[edit]. Based on previous trial data and ongoing clinical trials, no significant drug-drug or food-drug ... "Infection and Drug Resistance. 6: 215-23. doi:10.2147/idr.s36140. PMC 3848746. PMID 24348053. Retrieved 2019-06-23.. ... However, drug-drug interactions similar to those observed with the cephalosporin class of antimicrobials and β-lactamase ...
Microbial identification and drug resistance detection using a capillary flow dipstick November 21, 2016 dtordrup Diagnostics 0 ... Microbial identification and drug resistance detection using a capillary flow dipstick * Paper analytics for counterfeit and ... The authors show applications in ABO blood typing, microbial identification and drug resistance detection, of which we examine ... including tests for microbial identification and antimicrobial resistance. With this technology, using a series of capillary ...
Microbial genetics (2). * Antibacterial drug resistance (1). Date ​ Choose a date option to show results from those dates only. ... The diagnostic accuracy of the MTBDRplus and MTBDRsl assays for drug-resistant TB detection when performed on sputum and ... Author Correction: Genome-wide analysis of multi- and extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis *Francesc Coll ... Rights & permissionsfor article The diagnostic accuracy of the MTBDR,i,plus,/i, and MTBDR,i,sl,/i, assays for drug-resistant TB ...
Microbial Drug Resistance. In press.. Gong, J, Forster, RJ, Yu, H, Chambers, JR, Sabour, PM, Wheatcroft, R and Chen, S (2002). ... FEMS Microbial Ecology 59: 147-157.. Gronow, S, Held, B, Lucas, S, Lapidus, A, Del Rio, TG, Nolan, M, Tice, H, Deshpande, S, ... Analysis of antimicrobial resistance genes detected in multiple-drug-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from broiler chicken ... Drugs 72: 1-16.. Shakouri, MD, Lji, PA, Mikkelsen, LL and Cowieson, AJ (2009). Intestinal function and gut microflora of ...
Drug Resistance Testing , Disease Testing o Product , Microbial Testing Instruments Automated Microbial Identification Systems ...
... microbial population dynamics; microbiology; multi-drug resistance; natural competence; systems biology ... Inter-species population dynamics enhance microbial horizontal gene transfer and spread of antibiotic resistance.. Cooper RM1, ... Inter-species population dynamics enhance microbial horizontal gene transfer and spread of antibiotic resistance ... Inter-species population dynamics enhance microbial horizontal gene transfer and spread of antibiotic resistance ...
Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli from food animals in Lagos, Nigeria. Microbial Drug Resistance. 21( ... Analysis of metal and biocides resistance genes in drug resistance and susceptible Salmonella enterica from food animals - ( ... Analysis of antimicrobial resistance genes detected in multiple-drug-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from broiler chicken ... Analysis of antimicrobial resistance genes detected in multiple-drug-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from broiler chicken ...
  • Together, these results show that fluorescence-based mutation reporters can be used to measure mutation rates in microbes under conditions of unequal drug susceptibility to reveal new insights about drivers of mutagenesis. (asm.org)
  • The idea of silver-resistance among pathogenic microbes is explored, and placed in proper context with actual facts in this white paper by the Immunogenic Research Foundation. (thesilveredge.com)
  • In short, the lack of concerted effort by governments and the pharmaceutical industry, together with the innate capacity of microbes to develop resistance at a rate that outpaces development of new drugs, suggests that existing strategies for developing viable, long-term anti-microbial therapies are ultimately doomed to failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • We examined samples from diabetic and non-diabetic foot ulcers/wounds for microbial association and tested the microbes for their antibiotic susceptibility and ability to produce biofilms. (elsevier.com)
  • Microbes growing onto solid surfaces form complex 3-D biofilm structures characterized by the production of extracellular polymeric compounds and an increased resistance to drugs. (mdpi.com)
  • Microbes have an extraordinary capacity for developing resistance, accelerated by the over-use of anti-microbials in clinical and agricultural practice. (pmlive.com)
  • Even if wealthy countries curb antibiotic pollution, drug-resistant microbes can hitch a ride across the globe with traveling people, migrating birds or traded food and livestock, he says. (sciencenews.org)
  • Resistance of artificial biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to imipenem and tobramycin. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Kolodkin-Gal lab, Assembly and Disassembly of Microbial Biofilms. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • This study showed how specific conditions of the dishwashers impact the abundance of microbial groups and investigated the interkingdom and intrakingdom interactions that shape these biofilms. (asm.org)
  • The significance of our research is in identifying the microbial composition of biofilms formed on dishwasher rubber seals, how diverse abiotic conditions affect microbiota, and which key microbial members were represented in early colonization and contamination of dishwashers, as these appliances can present a source of domestic cross-contamination that leads to broader medical impacts. (asm.org)
  • Antimicrobial drug failure may occur for many reasons, e.g., reduced adherence to drug therapy, suboptimal dosing, diagnostic and laboratory error, ineffective infection control, counterfeit or altered drugs, and resistance (innate or acquired). (cdc.gov)
  • Four potential scenarios were used, with variations in resistance and infection rates. (pmlive.com)
  • At the current rate of resistance, which is steadily climbing, doctors may have to weigh up the risk of a post-operative infection against the benefits of surgery - and could potentially conclude that the patient is safer living with the condition. (pmlive.com)
  • Comparison of phenotypic and genotypic detection of penicillin G resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine intramammary infection. (evira.fi)
  • Improved infection prevention and control measures in hospitals e.g. enough isolation rooms in hospitals, obligatory screening procedures for pan-drug and XDR-microorganisms etc. (apua.org)
  • By combining population level and molecular analyses, we demonstrate how living in dense microbial communities can generate strong natural selection to reach the growing edge. (pnas.org)
  • In the current medical practice involving the antimicrobial resistance testing, the benefits of molecular diagnostics, which are accuracy and promptness, are not fully utilized. (healthytimes.com.sg)
  • When antimicrobial resistance screening is carried out by molecular diagnostics, the test result is available in 3 hours,' said Professor Rossolini, the co-developer of the Allplex™ Entero-DR from Careggi University Hospital. (healthytimes.com.sg)
  • Our group takes full advantage of the rich facilities in the College, each filled with state-of-the-art equipment and expertise, including the Human Genome Sequencing Center , the Alkek Center for Metagenomics and Microbiome Research , the Center for Drug Discovery , the Alkek Center for Molecular Discovery (including their Metabolomics Core ), the Center for Cell and Gene Therapy , and the Cryo-Electron Microscopy Core . (bcm.edu)
  • Wiedenheft is part of a team of researchers, led by biochemist Jennifer Doudna, a leading authority on RNA molecular structures, and biophysicist Eva Nogales, an expert on electron microscopy and image analysis, that has provided the first sub-nanometer look at a central player in the microbial immune system. (healthcanal.com)
  • However, molecular analysis of the genetic events that lead to antibiotic resistance do not support this common assumption. (trueorigin.org)
  • Although many infections of clinical relevance are effectively managed with the use of vaccines, antimicrobial drugs, or newer therapies, challenges to the control of infectious diseases remain. (cdc.gov)
  • We propose an approach to fectively managed with the use of vaccines, antimicrobial global public health risk management that integrates popu- drugs, or newer therapies, challenges to the control of infec- lation factors with effective and timely application of policies and processes. (cdc.gov)
  • During the past century, developments in public health sanitation ( 1 ), infrastructure engineering ( 2 ), vaccines ( 3 ), and antimicrobial drugs have contributed substantially to the control of infectious diseases, markedly decreasing associated illness and death. (cdc.gov)
  • These challenges occur in industrialized and in developing countries and result at least in part from the failure of antimicrobial drugs to meet expectations for management and control of disease in clinical and public health contexts. (cdc.gov)
  • The use of antimicrobial drugs in the treatment of gonorrhea began in 1930 with the use of sulfonamides. (scielo.br)
  • A better understanding of the demographic and microbial characteristics of EPTB in the Turkish population would extend the knowledgebase of EPTB and allow us to develop better strategies to control tuberculosis (TB). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Theory predicts that this simple spatial effect, akin to plants competing for light in a forest, generates strong natural selection on microbial phenotypes. (pnas.org)
  • Microbial communities (microbiomes) abound everywhere, forming resilient ecological networks adapted to their environments. (nist.gov)
  • When we expose streams to pharmaceutical pollution, we are unwittingly altering their microbial communities, yet little is known about what this means for ecological function and water quality. (wakeupnaturally.com)
  • Our work suggests that positioning is a major basis for evolutionary competition in dense microbial communities. (pnas.org)
  • In addition, these microbial communities are central to bioremediation, such as in waste-water treatment, but also biofouling in industry and shipping ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • However, microbial communities in extreme environments in households and common household appliances have only been studied fairly recently. (asm.org)
  • Even the immune system of an organism is in essence a drug delivery system, albeit endogenous, and faces the same arms race problems as external drug delivery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although no country is immune to the effects of growing resistance, the consequences are likely to be particularly damaging in lower income regions, with Africa the hardest hit. (pmlive.com)
  • The microbial immune system can be likened to a vaccination program because of the adaptive-type nucleic acid-based line of defense deployed by a unit of DNA called CRISPR, which stands for Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats. (healthcanal.com)
  • Without alternative strategies, the acquisition of drug resistance by pathogenic microorganisms looms as possibly one of the most significant public health threats facing humanity in the 21st century. (wikipedia.org)
  • In such an assay, mutations in the reporter gene arise at some low rate in cells proliferating in culture and are then selected by plating the cultures on drug-containing medium, which kills wild-type cells. (asm.org)
  • This can be seen in cancerous tumors where some cells may develop resistance to the drugs used in chemotherapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The microbial biofilm is a complex structure of cells not comparable to a tissue but rather to an association, also defined as a "city of microorganisms" [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • A unique definition of biofilm is not possible because with this term, both 3-D structures growing onto solid surfaces and floating flocs of associated microbial cells without the need of a solid substrate can be indicated [ 7 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • By the time you reach adulthood, some 90-percent of the cells in your body are microbial. (healthcanal.com)
  • Antimicrobials Resistance: A Call for Multi-disciplinary Action. (ohe.org)
  • The KPMG report urges governments and global life sciences businesses to invest more in antibiotic research and development, yet, the recent acquisition of Cubist Pharmaceuticals by Merck & Co. notwithstanding, there is little sign of antimicrobials taking a more prominent place among firms' drugs portfolios. (pmlive.com)