Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Drug Resistance, Multiple: Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Drug Resistance, Fungal: The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutation.P-Glycoprotein: A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant: Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Antimalarials: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)HIV Protease: Enzyme of the human immunodeficiency virus that is required for post-translational cleavage of gag and gag-pol precursor polyproteins into functional products needed for viral assembly. HIV protease is an aspartic protease encoded by the amino terminus of the pol gene.Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins: A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.HIV Reverse Transcriptase: A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.R Factors: A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Genes, MDR: Genes for MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that confer resistance to toxic compounds. Several superfamilies of these multidrug export proteins are known and found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.Tetracycline Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TETRACYCLINE which inhibits aminoacyl-tRNA binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit during protein synthesis.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Fungal: The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutations.Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.Streptomycin: An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Tetracycline: A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.Isoniazid: Antibacterial agent used primarily as a tuberculostatic. It remains the treatment of choice for tuberculosis.Chloroquine: The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Parasitic Sensitivity Tests: Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Rifampin: A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Pyrimethamine: One of the FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS that is used as an antimalarial or with a sulfonamide to treat toxoplasmosis.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Mutation, Missense: A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Kanamycin: Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.beta-Lactam Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.HIV Protease Inhibitors: Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.Resistance Training: A type of strength-building exercise program that requires the body muscle to exert a force against some form of resistance, such as weight, stretch bands, water, or immovable objects. Resistance exercise is a combination of static and dynamic contractions involving shortening and lengthening of skeletal muscles.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Chloramphenicol Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of CHLORAMPHENICOL, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis in the 50S ribosomal subunit where amino acids are added to nascent bacterial polypeptides.Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.Sulfadoxine: A long acting sulfonamide that is used, usually in combination with other drugs, for respiratory, urinary tract, and malarial infections.Ampicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of a microbe to the action of ampicillin, a penicillin derivative that interferes with cell wall synthesis.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Tetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction 7,8-dihyrofolate and NADPH to yield 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate and NADPH+, producing reduced folate for amino acid metabolism, purine ring synthesis, and the formation of deoxythymidine monophosphate. Methotrexate and other folic acid antagonists used as chemotherapeutic drugs act by inhibiting this enzyme. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 1.5.1.3.pol Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the POL GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Antibiotics, Antineoplastic: Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.Ethambutol: An antitubercular agent that inhibits the transfer of mycolic acids into the cell wall of the tubercle bacillus. It may also inhibit the synthesis of spermidine in mycobacteria. The action is usually bactericidal, and the drug can penetrate human cell membranes to exert its lethal effect. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p863)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Erythromycin: A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.P-Glycoproteins: A subfamily of transmembrane proteins from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that are closely related in sequence to P-GLYCOPROTEIN. When overexpressed, they function as ATP-dependent efflux pumps able to extrude lipophilic drugs, especially ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, from cells causing multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although P-Glycoproteins share functional similarities to MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS they are two distinct subclasses of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS, and have little sequence homology.Azoles: Five membered rings containing a NITROGEN atom.Anti-Retroviral Agents: Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Dihydropteroate Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of dihydropteroate from p-aminobenzoic acid and dihydropteridine-hydroxymethyl-pyrophosphate. EC 2.5.1.15.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Methicillin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Verapamil: A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.Artemisinins: A group of SESQUITERPENES and their analogs that contain a peroxide group (PEROXIDES) within an oxepin ring (OXEPINS).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Fluconazole: Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Vault Ribonucleoprotein Particles: Large cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein particles that have an eight-fold symmetry with a central pore and petal-like structure giving the appearance of an octagonal dome. (The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 2nd ed.)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Extrachromosomal Inheritance: Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.Vancomycin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of VANCOMYCIN, an inhibitor of cell wall synthesis.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.DNA Gyrase: A bacterial DNA topoisomerase II that catalyzes ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. Gyrase binds to DNA as a heterotetramer consisting of two A and two B subunits. In the presence of ATP, gyrase is able to convert the relaxed circular DNA duplex into a superhelix. In the absence of ATP, supercoiled DNA is relaxed by DNA gyrase.Macrolides: A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Ampicillin: Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Cephalosporin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of an organism to the action of the cephalosporins.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Fluoroquinolones: A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.Daunorubicin: A very toxic anthracycline aminoglycoside antineoplastic isolated from Streptomyces peucetius and others, used in treatment of LEUKEMIA and other NEOPLASMS.Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Nevirapine: A potent, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in combination with nucleoside analogues for treatment of HIV INFECTIONS and AIDS.Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis: Tuberculosis resistant to ISONIAZID and RIFAMPIN and at least three of the six main classes of second-line drugs (AMINOGLYCOSIDES; polypeptide agents; FLUOROQUINOLONES; THIOAMIDES; CYCLOSERINE; and PARA-AMINOSALICYLIC ACID) as defined by the CDC.Kanamycin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the antibiotic KANAMYCIN, which can bind to their 70S ribosomes and cause misreading of messenger RNA.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Herbicide Resistance: Diminished or failed response of PLANTS to HERBICIDES.Antiprotozoal Agents: Substances that are destructive to protozoans.HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Folic Acid Antagonists: Inhibitors of the enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase (TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE), which converts dihydrofolate (FH2) to tetrahydrofolate (FH4). They are frequently used in cancer chemotherapy. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)Antibiotics, Antitubercular: Substances obtained from various species of microorganisms that are, alone or in combination with other agents, of use in treating various forms of tuberculosis; most of these agents are merely bacteriostatic, induce resistance in the organisms, and may be toxic.Pyrimidines: A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.Ciprofloxacin: A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Mitoxantrone: An anthracenedione-derived antineoplastic agent.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Sulfonamides: A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.Paclitaxel: A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Organophosphonates: Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.Aminoglycosides: Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.Neoplastic Stem Cells: Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.DNA Topoisomerases, Type II: DNA TOPOISOMERASES that catalyze ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. These enzymes bring about relaxation of the supercoiled DNA and resolution of a knotted circular DNA duplex.PiperazinesGenes, pol: DNA sequences that form the coding region for retroviral enzymes including reverse transcriptase, protease, and endonuclease/integrase. "pol" is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.IndiaTreatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Etoposide: A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Zidovudine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.Vincristine: An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.DNA, Protozoan: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.Plasmodium: A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.QuinolinesChromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Mefloquine: A phospholipid-interacting antimalarial drug (ANTIMALARIALS). It is very effective against PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM with very few side effects.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Integrons: DNA elements that include the component genes and insertion site for a site-specific recombination system that enables them to capture mobile gene cassettes.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Molecular Typing: Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.Atovaquone: A hydroxynaphthoquinone that has antimicrobial activity and is being used in antimalarial protocols.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Quinolones: A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.KB Cells: This line KB is now known to be a subline of the ubiquitous KERATIN-forming tumor cell line HeLa. It was originally thought to be derived from an epidermal carcinoma of the mouth, but was subsequently found, based on isoenzyme analysis, HeLa marker chromosomes, and DNA fingerprinting, to have been established via contamination by HELA CELLS. The cells are positive for keratin by immunoperoxidase staining. KB cells have been reported to contain human papillomavirus18 (HPV-18) sequences.UzbekistanRhodamine 123: A fluorescent probe with low toxicity which is a potent substrate for P-glycoprotein and the bacterial multidrug efflux transporter. It is used to assess mitochondrial bioenergetics in living cells and to measure the efflux activity of P-glycoprotein in both normal and malignant cells. (Leukemia 1997;11(7):1124-30)Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Acriflavine: 3,6-Diamino-10-methylacridinium chloride mixt. with 3,6-acridinediamine. Fluorescent dye used as a local antiseptic and also as a biological stain. It intercalates into nucleic acids thereby inhibiting bacterial and viral replication.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.

Triclosan and antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. (1/7957)

Triclosan (2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxydiphenyl ether) is an antimicrobial agent used in hygiene products, plastics and kitchenware, and for treating methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) outbreaks. S. aureus strains with low-level resistance to triclosan have emerged. It has been claimed that strains with decreased susceptibility to biocides may also be less susceptible to antibiotics. We tested the susceptibility of S. aureus clinical isolates to triclosan and several antibiotics. Triclosan MICs ranged between 0.025 and 1 mg/L. Some, but not all, strains were resistant to several antibiotics and showed low-level triclosan resistance. S. aureus mutants with enhanced resistance to triclosan (< or =1 mg/L) were isolated. In several cases this resistance was stably inherited in the absence of triclosan. These mutants were not more resistant than the parent strain to several antibiotics. Changes in triclosan MICs associated with the acquisition of a plasmid encoding mupirocin resistance were not observed, suggesting that the triclosan/mupirocin co-resistance seen in a previous study was not the result of a single resistance gene or separate genes on the same plasmid. The continuous exposure of a triclosan-sensitive S. aureus strain to sub-MIC concentrations of triclosan for 1 month did not result in decreased susceptibility to triclosan or to several antibiotics tested. Triclosan-induced potassium leakage and bactericidal effects on a triclosan-sensitive strain, a resistant strain and a strain selected for increased resistance were compared with those of non-growing organisms, exponentially growing organisms and organisms in the stationary phase. No significant differences between the strains were observed under these conditions despite their different MICs. Biocides have multiple target sites and so MICs often do not correlate with bactericidal activities. The ability of S. aureus to develop resistance to triclosan and the current view that triclosan may have a specific target in Escherichia coli, namely enoyl reductase, underline the need for more research on the mechanisms of action and resistance.  (+info)

Resistance of helicobacter pylori to metronidazole, tetracycline and amoxycillin. (2/7957)

Resistance to metronidazole, tetracycline and amoxycillin, and beta-lactamase production were determined for 153 clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori. Of these isolates, 77.8% were resistant to metronidazole (MIC > 8 mg/L), 58.8% to tetracycline (MIC > 16 mg/L) and 71.9% to amoxycillin (MIC > 0.5 mg/L); 39.2% were multiresistant. Resistance to metronidazole was more common in isolates from females than in those from males (P < 0.05). None of the isolates produced beta-lactamase, so the mechanism of amoxycillin resistance was not linked to production of beta-lactamase.  (+info)

Enterococcal glycopeptide resistance at an Italian teaching hospital. (3/7957)

Two thousand one hundred and thirteen strains of enterococci isolated at Pisa General Hospital in 1998 were analysed retrospectively to determine their glycopeptide resistance. Of all the microorganisms isolated in this period, 14.7% were enterococci (1405 Enterococcus faecalis, 19 Enterococcus faecium, six Enterococcus avium and 683 Enterococcus spp.). Two hundred and thirty (10.8%) of these enterococci were resistant or demonstrated reduced susceptibility to vancomycin and/or teicoplanin. The highest rate of resistance was found in outpatient enterococcal strains isolated from the urogenital tract. The frequency of enterococcal glycopeptide resistance at Pisa Hospital is higher than that reported from other areas of Italy.  (+info)

Antibiotic susceptibility and mechanisms of beta-lactam resistance in 1310 strains of pseudomonas aeruginosa: a French multicentre study (1996). (4/7957)

A total of 1310 consecutive strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were collected in 11 French hospitals in 1996. The percentages of susceptible isolates measured by the agar dilution method were: ticarcillin (53%), piperacillin (69%) (MIC 16 mg/L), ceftazidime (77%), cefepime (55%), cefpirome (40%), aztreonam (57.5%), imipenem (81.5%) (MIC 4 mg/L), amikacin (64.5%) (MIC 8 mg/L) and ciprofloxacin (58%) (MIC 1 mg/L). Resistance to beta-lactams was linked to the production of transferable beta-lactamases (30%), overproduction of cephalosporinase (29%) and to non-enzymic mechanisms (38%).  (+info)

pncA mutations in clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Korea. (5/7957)

BACKGROUND: Pyrazinamide (PZA) is among the first-line drugs for the treatment of tuberculosis. In vitro, it kills semidormant mycobacteria only at low pH. The purpose of this study was to compare PZA resistance with pyrazinamidase (PZase) activity and the genotype to better understand the molecular basis of PZA resistance and to expand the profile of pncA mutations worldwide. RESULTS: Of the 28 tested strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 6 were susceptible to PZA and positive for PZase activity and had no pncA mutations. Twenty-one strains were resistant to PZA and negative for PZase activity and had mutations in the pncA gene, including 15 point mutations, 5 insertions, and 2 deletions. One strain had no mutation in the pncA gene, even though it was resistant to PZA and negative for PZase activity. Three isolates had adenine to guanine point mutations in the -11 upstream region, making this the most common type of pncA mutations in this study, with at least two different RFLP patterns. CONCLUSION: These data help in the understanding of the molecular basis of PZA resistance. An adenine to guanine point mutation in the -11 upstream region was the most common type of pncA mutation in our isolates. The results of pncA mutation analyses should be carefully interpreted for epidemiologic purposes.  (+info)

Sub-inhibitory concentrations of vancomycin prevent quinolone-resistance in a penicillin-resistant isolate of Streptococcus pneumoniae. (6/7957)

BACKGROUND: The continuous spread of penicillin-resistant pneumococci represents a permanent threat in the treatment of pneumococcal infections, especially when strains show additional resistance to quinolones. The main objective of this study was to determine a treatment modality impeding the emergence of quinolone resistance. RESULTS: Exposure of a penicillin-resistant pneumococcus to increasing concentrations of trovafloxacin or ciprofloxacin selected for mutants resistant to these drugs. In the presence of sub-inhibitory concentrations of vancomycin, development of trovafloxacin-resistance and high-level ciprofloxacin-resistance were prevented. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the risk of quinolone-resistance in pneumococci, the observation might be of clinical importance.  (+info)

Characterization of mutations in the rpoB gene associated with rifampin resistance in Rhodococcus equi isolated from foals. (7/7957)

Treatment with a combination of erythromycin and rifampin has considerably improved survival rates of foals and immunocompromised patients suffering from severe pneumonia caused by Rhodococcus equi. Frequently, because of monotherapy, emergence of rifampin-resistant strains has been responsible for treatment failure. Using consensus oligonucleotides, we have amplified and sequenced the rifampin resistance (Rif(r))-determining regions of 12 rifampin-resistant R. equi strains isolated from three foals and of mutants selected in vitro from R. equi ATCC 3701, a rifampin-susceptible strain. The deduced amino acid sequences compared to those of four rifampin-susceptible R. equi strains showed several types of mutations. In 3 of the 10 strains isolated from one foal, His526Asn (Escherichia coli numbering) and Asp516Val mutations were associated with low-level resistance (rifampin MIC, 2 to 8 microg/ml), whereas His526Asp conferred high-level resistance (rifampin MIC, 128 microg/ml) in the 7 remaining strains. In strains from the two other foals, His526Asp and Ser531Leu mutations were found to be associated with high-level and low-level resistance, respectively. The in vitro mutants, highly resistant to rifampin, harbored His526Tyr and His526Arg substitutions. As described in other bacterial genera, His526, Ser531, and Asp516 are critical residues for rifampin resistance in R. equi, and the resistance levels are dependent on both the location and the nature of the substitution.  (+info)

Improved antimicrobial interventions have benefits. (8/7957)

Studies have shown benefits to patients from improved interventions involving antimicrobial therapy. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate prospectively the impact of improved interventions by (i) the use of TheraTrac 2, a computer software program which electronically links susceptibility testing results immediately to the pharmacy and alerts pharmacists of potential interventions, and (ii) the education of pharmacists involving microbiologic topics. The study group had the new intervention program. The control group had interventions performed the way that they had previously been done by manually reviewing hard copies of susceptibility testing data. In a 5-month period, all inpatients whose last names began with A to K were the study group; inpatients whose last names began with L to Z were controls. Three analyses were done; one analysis (analysis A) involved only patients with interventions, one analysis (analysis B) involved all patients for whom antimicrobial testing was done and who were matched for diagnosis-related groups (DRGs), regardless of whether an intervention occurred, and one analysis (analysis C) involved these DRG-matched patients by using severity-adjusted data. In analysis A, the study group had a 4.8% decreased rate of mortality, an average of a 16.5-day decreased length of stay per patient, and $20,886 decreased variable direct costs per patient. None of these differences was statistically significant. In analysis B, the study patients had a 1.2% higher mortality rate (P = 0.741), an average of a 2.7-day decreased length of stay per patient (P = 0.035), and $2,626 decreased variable direct costs per patient (P = 0.008). In analysis C, the study patients had a 1.4% lower mortality rate, a 1.2-day decreased length of stay per patient, and $1,466 decreased variable direct costs per patient. In conclusion, the institution of this program caused substantial cost savings.  (+info)

Antibiotic resistance is now considered to be a great curse to the present world. Researcher suspected that millions of people will die due to the rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance by 2050. There are lots of mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. All the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance can be narrowed into two part; mutation and horizontal gene transfer.. In this context, both type of antibiotic resistance mechanisms will be discussed. The last mechanism belongs to horizontal gene transfer-mediated resistance and most of the other mechanisms of antibiotic resistance are mutation-mediated. …. 10 mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in BacteriaRead More » ...
The term antimicrobial resistance refers to the ability of microorganisms to grow in the presence of an antimicrobial (drug) at a concentration that would normally kill them or inhibit their growth. Antimicrobial resistance has become a big threat to global health; having risen to dangerously high levels in all parts of the World, making it difficult to treat infectious diseases. This is forcing patients to incur extra expenses as they have to buy more expensive second-generation or third-generation medicines. Also, as a result of medicines not being effective, patients are forced to stay longer in hospitals; this translates to higher hospital bills. In an effort to establish the antimicrobial resistance status of bacteria isolated from chickens, a cross-sectional study was conducted to demonstrate the antimicrobial resistance profiles of bacteria isolated from three groups of chickens [sick (clinical), farm and slaughter]. The three chicken groups were studied so as to determine whether there ...
The EU Open Data Portal provides, via a metadata catalogue, a single point of access to data of the EU institutions, agencies and bodies for anyone to reuse.
The EU Open Data Portal provides, via a metadata catalogue, a single point of access to data of the EU institutions, agencies and bodies for anyone to reuse.
This report published in Communicable Diseases Intelligence Volume 27, No 4, December 2003 contains Australias surveillance strategy for antimicrobial resistance.
This paper aims to identify key evidence gaps in our knowledge of livestock and fisheries linked antimicrobial resistance in the developing world
The development of resistance to antibiotics is due to the widespread use of a wide variety of antimicrobials, coupled with the ability of bacteria to acquire and spread resistance and the ability of humans to disseminate them. The possible consequences of antimicrobial resistance leads to greater chances of hospitalization, prolongation of hospital stay and increased mortality. Furthermore, treatment of drug resistant bacteria requires the use of more toxic drugs and more expense for the patient and hospitals. The main objective of the present study was to determine the frequency and nature of antimicrobial resistance of microorganisms in oncologic and hematologic patients at a Mexican Pediatric Hospital. A retrospective, observational, and analytical study was realized, where we reviewed the clinical records of 20 cases. Blood cultures were obtained from the Laboratory of our institution from 2010 to 2011. The data obtained were organized and analyzed. We observed that the E. coli and S. ...
The emerging threat posed by antibiotic resistance has affected public health systems all over the world. Surveillance of resistant bacteria in clinical settings and identifying them in mixed cultures is of paramount importance and can contribute to the control of their spreading. Culture-independent monitoring approaches are highly desirable, since they yield results much faster than traditional susceptibility testing. However, many rapid molecular methods like PCR only detect the sole presence of a potential resistance gene, do not provide information regarding efficient transcription, expression and functionality and, in addition, cannot assign resistance genes to species level in mixed cultures. By using plasmid-encoded TEM β-lactamase mediated ampicillin resistances as a proof of principle system, we (1) developed a fluorescence in situ hybridization-test (FISH) capable to detect the respective mRNAs, (2) implemented an immunofluorescence test to identify the corresponding proteins and (3)
Learn Antimicrobial resistance - theory and methods from Université technique du Danemark (DTU). The course will cover the topics related to antimicrobial resistance with basic definitions and overview on antimicrobials their use and the ...
Campaign to Prevent Antimicrobial Resistance. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Infectious Diseases Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion. Clinicians hold the solution!. Link to: Campaign to Prevent Antimicrobial Resistance Online Slideshow 240657 by bernad
Battle to Counteract Antimicrobial Resistance. Habitats for Sickness Control and Anticipation National Place for Irresistible Illnesses Division of Medicinal services Quality Advancement. Clinicians hold the arrangement!. Connection to: Crusade to Avert Antimicrobial Resistance Online
In women from 2 independent ethnic groups relocating from Thailand to the United States, investigators found a rapid increase in gut microbiome antibiotic resistance genes richness and abundance.
Friendly microbes in the intestinal tracts of healthy American children have numerous antibiotic resistance genes, according to results of a pilot study by
The AMR has often highlighted that simple measures like hand washing among physicians, maintaining hygiene can go a long way in the battle against antibiotic resistance along with regulation of prescribing and consumption of these drugs can. It has emphasised that broad range of interventions, encompassing both the simple and inexpensive, and larger-scale more complex actions are critical to address this public health concern ...
As pathogenic bacteria evolve, antibiotic resistance is spreading, compromising our ability to control and treat infectious diseases. Antibiotic Resistance thoroughly illuminates this crucial issue for healthcare professionals, researchers, students, and policymakers.
Scientists at the University of Birmingham have identified a new mechanism of antibiotic resistance in bacterial cells which could help us in understanding, and developing solutions to, the growing problem of antibiotic resistance.
The public section of the CAN-R website is designed to ensure that the public has access to the latest and most comprehensive information gathered from a variety of sources on antibiotic resistance and related issues in Canada.. ...
Looking at the 4-hours chart, the pair traded above the 1.1020 resistance level plus the 50% Fib retracement level of the downward move from the 1.1163 high to 1.0925 low.. However, the upward move was capped by the 1.1080 and 1.1090 resistance levels. Moreover, the pair is also facing hurdles near the 100 simple moving average (red, 4-hours) and the 61.8% Fib retracement level of the downward move from the 1.1163 high to 1.0925 low.. There is also a crucial bearish trend line forming with resistance near 1.1100 on the same chart. Therefore, the pair needs to climb above the 1.1080 and 1.1100 resistance levels to continue higher.. Conversely, if EUR/USD fails to break the 1.1080 and 1.1100 resistance levels, it could start a fresh decline. An immediate support is near the 1.0980 level, below which the pair could test the 1.0950 support area.. Fundamentally, the US nonfarm payrolls report for August 2019 was released by the US Department of Labor this past Friday. The market was looking for an ...
Dr. Windi Muziasari, CEO of Resistomap, talks about how they are fighting the spread of antibiotic resistance genes by providing robust tools for monitoring.
According to the CDC, 50 million courses of antibiotics prescribed by doctors each year may be unnecessary and may lead to antibiotic resistance.
Not only does antibiotic resistance (ABR) affect you, but it also affects global populations. Due to the ease of the sharing of genetic material between bacteria and the environmental resilience of many bacterial populations, ABR can spread quickly and efficiently. ABR is found in bacteria spanning dozens of countries around the globe and continues to...
The actions of the enzyme Rifampicin monooxygenase -- a flavoenzyme -- have been found responsible for the antibiotics resistance.
Howard Hughes Medical Institute researchers chiseling away at the problem of antibiotic resistance now have a detailed explanation of how the drugs main cellular target in bacteria evolves to become resistant to some of these medications.
On May 12, 2016, at a meeting of the Royal Society of Medicine in London, representatives from over 20 countries considered the immediate actions different nations can take to address the urgent, cross-border problem of antibiotic resistance.
A powerful new tool to identify genetic changes in disease-causing bacteria that are responsible for antibiotic resistance has been developed by researchers.
Page 3 of 5 - Antibiotic Resistance - posted in Best all time threads.: If information was quantified, then it wouldnt be information. Could the information in the word Cow be quantified as C O W? No. because individual letters arent information; They are units.Ummmm, a one of the biggest arguments by most creationists is evolution doesnt increase information. If youre looking for an increase youre quantifying.Red blood cell...
The FEEDAP panel of EFSA considered the probiotic Toyocerin safe for use and acknowledged some effects in several production animal species. However, antibiotic resistance appeared to be an obstacle.
Inspired by Beyonce, UT researchers are getting into formation, because theyre about to slay antibiotic resistance with their development of a new drug screening technique.
A path-breaking technique that will potentially help reverse drug resistance as well as enable the existing antibiotics to act effectively has been developed by researchers from the IIT Roorkee.
The experts say our resistance to antibiotics is now a serious global health threat. Find out how much you need to worry, and the action you should take.
ALL ABOUT DRUGS BY DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, WORLD DRUG TRACKER HELPING MILLIONS, MILLION HITS ON GOOGLE..............................................
গত ২৯ এপ্রিল ২০১৭ তারিখে "Antimicrobial Resistance: From Awareness to Action" প্রতিপাদ্যকে সামনে রেখে পালিত হল বিশ্ব ভেটেরিনারি দিবস ২০১৭। শুধুমাত্র প্রাণিসম্পদ নয়, সমগ্র মানব গোষ্ঠির স্বাস্থ্যের কথা বিবেচনা করলে, প্রতিপাদ্যটি সময়ের একটি চরম দাবি। সরকারি অধিদপ্তরসহ স্বাস্থ্য ও চিকিৎসা ব্যবস্থার সাথে জড়িত সকল স্বায়ত্ত্বশাসিত, সরকারি-বেসরকারি প্রতিষ্ঠান, ব্যক্তি, উদ্যোক্তাসহ সকলেরই উচিত এর যথাযথ ...
The power to be resistant to certain detrimental situations and factors. Variation of Power Resistance. Sub-Power of Enhanced Condition. The user is resistant to certain detrimental conditions and factors, such as their species traditional weaknesses: for example a vampire that is resistant to...
Emergence of antibiotic resistance is increasing every year at an accelerating rate globally. MSS Murthy learns more about the phenomenon
EURUSD - Inside Bar At Resistance Levels Climbing 6 of the last 8 days, the Euro has been looking impressive in gaining +450 pips in the process. The pair
Looking for Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance Study? Find out information about Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance Study. product obtained from several species of red algae, or seaweed seaweed, name commonly used for the multicellular marine algae. Simpler forms, consisting of... Explanation of Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance Study
Previous reports have suggested an increasing incidence of highly fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli causing bacteremia among cancer patients on prophylactic therapy. We used genotyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of chromosomal DNA digests and random amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting to study clonal relationships among such isolates obtained at 10 cancer centers located across Europe and the Middle East. Analysis by both methods indicated that isolates from different centers were genotypically unrelated to each other. There were five centers from which more than one individual patient isolate was available, and most demonstrated significant within-center genetic diversity of strains. Strains shared among patients could be identified at two centers. At the center with the largest number of bloodstream isolates from cancer patients available, fluoroquinolone-resistant control isolates from surgical patients and fluoroquinolone-susceptible control isolates from patients ...
Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance (AGAR) Sepsis Outcome Programs 2015 Report. The Commission provides funding to AGAR to conduct surveillance and prepare a report that brings together the key findings of the three sepsis outcome programs, as a means of increasing access to antimicrobial resistance surveillance data to inform response strategies. The first of these reports was prepared using analyses of 2015 AGAR data.. Read the latest Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance (AGAR) Sepsis Outcome Programs 2015 Report found at:. AGAR: AGAR Sepsis Outcome Programs 2015 report. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - High burden of antimicrobial resistance in Asia. AU - Jean, Shio Shin. AU - Hsueh, Po Ren. PY - 2011/4. Y1 - 2011/4. N2 - Antimicrobial resistance is associated with high mortality rates and high medical costs. Marked variations in the resistance profiles of bacterial and fungal pathogens as well as the quality of public hygiene have had a considerable impact on the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents in Asian countries. In Asia, one of the epicentres of antimicrobial drug resistance, there is an alarming number of antibiotic-resistant species, including penicillin- and erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae, multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (particularly mediated by CTX-M-9, CTX-M-14 and CTX-M-15), New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, MDR Salmonella enterica serotypes Choleraesuis and Typhi, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Occupational Exposure and Carriage of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes (tetW, ermB) in Pig Slaughterhouse Workers. AU - Van Gompel, Liese. AU - Dohmen, Wietske. AU - Luiken, Roosmarijn E. C.. AU - Bouwknegt, Martijn. AU - Heres, Lourens. AU - Van Heijnsbergen, Eri. AU - Jongerius-Gortemaker, Betty G M. AU - Scherpenisse, Peter. AU - Greve, Gerdit D. AU - Tersteeg-Zijderveld, Monique H G. AU - Wadepohl, Katharina. AU - Ribeiro Duarte, Ana Sofia. AU - Muñoz-Gómez, Violeta. AU - Fischer, Jennie. AU - Skarżyńska, Magdalena. AU - Wasyl, Dariusz. AU - Wagenaar, Jaap A. AU - Urlings, Bert A P. AU - Dorado-García, Alejandro. AU - Wouters, Inge M. AU - Heederik, Dick J J. AU - Schmitt, Heike. AU - Smit, Lidwien A M. PY - 2020. Y1 - 2020. N2 - Slaughterhouse staff is occupationally exposed to antimicrobial resistant bacteria. Studies reported high antimicrobial resistance gene (ARG) abundances in slaughter pigs. This cross-sectional study investigated occupational exposure to ...
July 25, 2018,. The Director General, Prof Mojisola Adeyeye is encouraging the fourteen directorates of NAFDAC to interact more with the Nigerian public through awareness and education of food- or drug-related public health issues. Three of the directorates: Drug Evaluation and Research (DER), Veterinary and Allied Products (VMAP) and Registrations and Regulatory Affairs (R&R) have put together this press release on antimicrobial resistance.. As part of its mandate in safeguarding the health of the citizenry, NAFDAC wishes to draw the attention of the general public to Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR), a subject that has become a global concern to both human and animal health. The incidence of AMR leads to treatment failure or infections that cannot be easily treated, death and economic loss. This is a real problem in Nigeria because we tend to not finish antibiotic medication or buy only what can be afforded. In a local hospital in Nigeria, it was reported that many neonates or newborn acquire ...
Its no secret that antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the most serious public health problems we face today: global in scope, more urgent with each passing day, and daunting when one considers the challenges that must be overcome to effectively address the crisis. Already, the Review on Antimicrobial Resistance…
The emergence of multidrug resistant bacteria world wide is a serious problem, and very few new drugs are under development. The selection of resistant bacteria is affected by factors such as mutation rate, biological fitness cost and the rate of fitness compensation. This thesis is focused on how mutation rate affects resistance to fluoroquinolones and on exploring a dosing strategy that might slow resistance development. In a set of urinary tract Escherichia coli isolates MIC values above the breakpoint for the fluoroquinolones norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin carried at least three resistance-associated mutations. In these isolates the number of resistance mutations correlated with the mutation rate. During step-wise selection for decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones, the accumulation of mutations in E. coli was associated with an increasing biological cost both in vitro and in vivo. However, in some lineages an additional selection step for resistance was associated with a partial ...
Antimicrobial resistance is increasing in nearly all health-care-associated pathogens. We examined changes in resistance prevalence during 1996-1999 in 23 hospitals by using two statistical methods. When the traditional chi-square test of pooled mean resistance prevalence was used, most organisms appear to have increased in prevalence. However, when a more conservative test that accounts for changes within individual hospitals was used, significant increases in prevalence of resistance were consistently observed only for oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, ciprofloxacin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and ciprofloxacin- or ofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli. These increases were significant only in isolates from patients outside intensive-care units (ICU). The increases seen are of concern; differences in factors present outside ICUs, such as excessive quinolone use or inadequate infection-control practices, may explain the observed trends ...
Resistance against antibiotics, such as penicillin and cephalosporins, are haunting many hospitals and clinical practices. In a recent paper in the Journal of the American Chemical Society, researchers reported that they made laboratory versions of the ancient ancestors of the enzymes that lead to antibiotic resistance. By studying the ancient forefathers of these enzymes, researchers hope to understand how modern antibiotic resistance evolved and figure out new ways to deal with it. "Antibiotic-resistant organisms cause thousands of human deaths every year. Anything new we can learn about antibiotic resistance may be potentially useful in coping with this problem," says Jose Sanchez-Ruiz at the University of Granada in Spain, one of the studys coauthors.. Antibiotic resistance isnt a modern phenomenon that only arose in the face of clinical antibiotic use in the past 60 years. Bacteria have been toting around enzymes to disarm antibiotics for millenia. Indeed, genes for antibiotic resistance ...
Given the significant spatial and temporal heterogeneity in antimicrobial resistance distribution and the factors that affect its evolution, dissemination and persistence, it is important to highlight that antimicrobial resistance must be viewed as an ecological problem. Monitoring the resistance prevalence of indicator bacteria such as Escherichia coli and enterococci in wild animals makes it possible to show that wildlife has the potential to serve as an environmental reservoir and melting pot of bacterial resistance. These researchers address the issue of antimicrobial-resistant microorganism proliferation in the environment and the related potential human health and environmental impact.
Edited by: Professor Steven Opal. The progressive loss of antibiotic activity as a result of dissemination of antibacterial resistance genes is increasingly recognized as global threat to humankind. Critical Care is therefore introducing a series of papers that examine the problem of progressive antibiotic resistance in the ICU. These articles will focus on the mechanisms of resistance, spread of antibiotic resistance genes, efforts to limit the further spread of MDR pathogens, and novel current and future therapeutic approaches to respond to the challenge of antibiotic resistance. We hope that this thematic series will inform the clinician about steps that we can take to confront the threat of antibiotic resistance.. This series of articles has not been sponsored. All articles have undergone the journals standard peer review process overseen by the Series Editor, with final decisions made by the Editor in Chief. The Series Editor and Editor in Chief declare no competing interests.. ...
Antimicrobial resistance has become an imminent concern for public health. As methods for detection and characterization of antimicrobial resistance move from targeted culture and polymerase chain reaction to high throughput metagenomics, appropriate resources for the analysis of large-scale data are required. Currently, antimicrobial resistance databases are tailored to smaller-scale, functional profiling of genes using highly descriptive annotations. Such characteristics do not facilitate the analysis of large-scale, ecological sequence datasets such as those produced with the use of metagenomics for surveillance. In order to overcome these limitations, we present MEGARes (https://megares.meglab.org), a hand-curated antimicrobial resistance database and annotation structure that provides a foundation for the development of high throughput acyclical classifiers and hierarchical statistical analysis of big data. MEGARes can be browsed as a stand-alone resource through the website or can be ...
Antimicrobial resistance is an important problem that requires an urgent response from the scientific community [1]. One of the main goals is to develop new molecules and antibiotics able to cover extended and pan-resistant strains. However, strategies are also needed to prevent the development of new resistant strains. The concept of antibiotic stewardship addresses this situation by seeking to increase appropriate antibiotic coverage and to reduce the unnecessary use of antibiotics [2, 3].. Early, appropriate empirical treatment is associated with better survival [4]. Furthermore, if the initial antibiotic treatment is subsequently modified in the light of the culture results, the patients outcome does not seem to be affected [5]. Many strategies for improving adequate empirical treatment coverage and for limiting the use of empirical broad-spectrum antibiotics have been developed, such as the use of risk factors or scores to identify patients who are particularly vulnerable to ...
In this study, we demonstrated through WGS that MSM transmit their antibiotic-resistant strains of N. gonorrhoeae directly to their partners. The resistance-determining genes/mutations were identical in MSM partners for 33/34 couples, suggesting transmission of the genetic determinants of antibiotic resistance between sexual partners is a key driver behind the spread of antibiotic-resistant gonorrhoea among MSM, who are a major risk group for gonorrhoea. To our knowledge, our study is the first to provide detailed genomic evidence for direct transmission of the genetic determinants for N. gonorrhoeae resistance between men across multiple antibiotic classes at a person-to-person level.. The increasing spread of antimicrobial resistance in N. gonorrhoeae has markedly limited empirical treatment options.1 Genomic epidemiology studies have previously found resistance mutations arising independently in several lineages, with subsequent dissemination.5 6 8 15 16 In each of these studies, highly ...
"Genetic engineering in vivo using translocatable drug-resistance elements. New methods in bacterial genetics". J. Mol. Biol. ... In 2011, ASM Press published a festschrift in his honor ("The Lure of Bacterial Genetics: A Tribute to John Roth"). Thomas Hunt ... 2011). The Lure of Bacterial Genetics: A Tribute to John Roth. Washington, DC: ASM Press. p. 362. ISBN 978-1-55581-538-7. CS1 ... As instructors of the summer Advanced Bacterial Genetics course at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, John Roth, David Botstein, ...
"Genetic engineering in vivo using translocatable drug-resistance elements. New methods in bacterial genetics". J. Mol. Biol. ... Beckwith, J.; Silhavy, T.J. (1992). The Power of Bacterial Genetics: A Literature Based Course. NY: Cold Spring Harbor ... Alternatively insertional inactivation could be used to suppress genes that express antibiotic-resistance in bacteria., While ... Transposon-based Insertional inactivation is considered for medical research from suppression of antibiotic resistance in ...
Antibiotic resistance Drug resistance Multiple drug resistance Cerceo, Elizabeth; Deitelzweig, Steven B.; Sherman, Bradley M.; ... Vergidis, Paschalis I.; Falagas, Matthew E. (2008-02-01). "Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections: the emerging ... This drug shows promise in infections from multi-drug resistant K. pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae carbapenemase [KPC]- and ESBL- ... The lack of newly emerging antimicobrial drugs have resulted in the revisit of old antibiotic drugs such as colistin and ...
"Phylogenetic relationships of drug-resistance factors and other transmissible bacterial plasmids". Bacteriological Reviews. 32 ... Anderson, E S (1968-10-01). "The Ecology of Transferable Drug Resistance in the Enterobacteria". Annual Review of Microbiology ... "Bacterial Cytochromes C and Molecular Evolution". ResearchGate. Retrieved 2017-09-07. Arnold, Michael L.; Fogarty, Nicole D. ( ... Jones, D.; Sneath, P. H. (1970-03-01). "Genetic transfer and bacterial taxonomy". Bacteriological Reviews. 34 (1): 40-81. ISSN ...
However, resistance has developed against some drugs, as a result of mutational changes in DHFR itself.[31] ... Trimethoprim has shown to have activity against a variety of Gram-positive bacterial pathogens.[37] However, resistance to ... Methotrexate, a competitive inhibitor of DHFR, is one such anticancer drug that inhibits DHFR.[34] Other drugs include ... Resistance can arise from DHFR gene amplification, mutations in DHFR, decrease in the uptake of the drugs, among others. ...
"Drug Resistance Plasmids in Lactobacillus Fermentum." Journal of General and Applied Microbiology 26, no. 1 (1979): 71-74. Type ... This would also increase resistance of the bacterial cell membranes to environmental challenge. A third mechanism is by causing ... So far no observed Lactobacillus fermentum strains have been observed to have transferable resistance or acquired resistance ... Different strains of Lactobacillus fermentum demonstrated uniform resistance patterns demonstrating resistance to glycopeptide ...
Mitomycin Resistance in Streptomyces lavendulae Includes a Novel Drug-Binding-Protein-Dependent Export System. Journal of ... Type strain of Streptomyces lavendulae at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase. ... Characterization of a Mitomycin-Binding Drug Resistance Mechanism from the Producing Organism, Streptomyces lavendulae. Journal ... Many studies show the presence of multiple pathways for resistance toward a single antibiotic with the resistance genes located ...
This may help guide antibiotic use, which can help save on cost and drug resistance. Patients with chronic kidney disease and ... 2012), "Bacterial infections in the neonate", Principles and Practice of Pediatric Infectious Diseases (4th ed.), Elsevier, ... The level of procalcitonin rises in a response to a proinflammatory stimulus, especially of bacterial origin. It is therefore ... Procalcitonin levels may be useful to distinguish bacterial infections from nonbacterial infections. ...
Grynberg M, Erlandsen H, Godzik A (May 2003). "HEPN: a common domain in bacterial drug resistance and human neurodegenerative ... which includes several classes of enzymes that are responsible for some types of bacterial resistance to aminoglycosides. These ... and in many bacterial and archaea proteins. There are three classes of proteins with HEPN domains: Single-domain HEPN proteins ... enzymes deactivate various antibiotics by transferring a nucleotidyl group to the drug. A multidomain sacsin protein in genomes ...
In later years she published many important studies on the occurrence and significance of drug resistance plasmids in ... Richard P. Novick et al., "Uniform Nomenclature for Bacterial Plasmids: A Proposal", Bacteriol. Rev., March 1976, pp. 168-189 ... Datta, Naomi (September 1962). "Transmissible drug resistance in an epidemic strain of Salmonella typhimurium". Journal of ... She found that some resistance genes, including those for gentamycin resistance, are located on transposons and are readily ...
2011). „An analogy between the evolution of drug resistance in bacterial communities and malignant tissues. Nat Rev Cancer 11: ... 2015). „Ancient hot and cold genes and chemotherapy resistance emergence. PNAS 112:10467-10472. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1512396112". ...
Results showed efficacy against TB, albeit with minor toxicity and acquired bacterial resistance to the drug. Because ... It may be useful in cases where resistance to other drugs is identified. Plague (Yersinia pestis) has historically been treated ... Streptomycin controls bacterial diseases of certain fruit, vegetables, seed, and ornamental crops. A major use is in the ... It binds to the small 16S rRNA of the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, interfering with the binding of formyl-methionyl- ...
Influenza viruses can show resistance to anti-viral drugs. Like the development of bacterial antibiotic resistance, this can ... Wu J, Yan P, Archibald C (2007). "Modelling the evolution of drug resistance in the presence of antiviral drugs". BMC Public ... However, virus strains have emerged that show drug resistance to both classes of drug. The United States authority on disease ... and over-use of these drugs has probably contributed to the spread of resistance. In particular, this high-level of resistance ...
... see drug resistance). Contagion[edit]. Skin flora do not readily pass between people: 30 seconds of moderate friction and dry ... Lingaas E, Fagernes M (2009). "Development of a method to measure bacterial transfer from hands". J Hosp Infect. 72 (1): 43-9. ... It is important to note that the human skin is host to numerous bacterial and fungal species, some of which are known to be ... Current treatment includes topical and systemic antibacterial drugs which result in decreased P. acnes colonisation and/or ...
"Inheritance of drug resistance (and its transfer) between Shigella strains and between Shigella and E. coli strains" (in ... Bacterial conjugation, a process in which a bacterial cell transfers genetic material to another cell by cell-to-cell contact. ... Transduction, the process in which bacterial DNA is moved from one bacterium to another by a bacterial virus (a bacteriophage, ... Integrons, a bacterial "kit" for transferring gene cassettes.. History[change , change source]. Horizontal gene transfer was ...
Drugs based on 2-nitromidazoles include benznidazole. Nitroimidazole antibiotics have been used to combat anaerobic bacterial ... 4-Nitroimidazole at Sigma-Aldrich Edwards, David I. "Nitroimidazole drugs - action and resistance mechanisms. I. Mechanism of ... 4- and 5-nitroimidazole are equivalent from the perspective of drugs since these tautomers readily interconvert. Drugs of the 5 ...
Antibiotic resistance to this drug has been increasing, especially in southern China. Recently the gene mcr-1, which confers ... but no longer kills the bacterial cell. However, it still detectably increases the permeability of the bacterial cell wall to ... the antibiotic resistance, has been isolated from bacterial plasmids in Enterobacteriaceae. Polymyxins are a group of cyclic ... Polymyxins B and E (also known as colistin) are used in the treatment of Gram-negative bacterial infections. They work mostly ...
Schuster, F.; Visvesvara, G. (2004). "Opportunistic amoebae: challenges in prophylaxis and treatment". Drug resistance updates ... contain diverse bacterial endosymbionts that are similar to human pathogens, so they are considered to be potential emerging ... A recent paper published in 2013 has shown substantial effects of some FDA approved drugs with an in-vitro kill rate above 90 ... Baig AM, Iqbal J, Khan NA (2013). "In vitro efficacies of clinically available drugs against the growth and viability of an ...
... bacterial colonies can build up resistance to the drugs through the natural selection of bacteria resistant to these ... Seventy percent of all antibiotics and related drugs are given to animals as feed additives. Nearly half of the antibiotics ...
... increases bacterial resistance. This resistance threatens the efficiency of medical treatment for humans fighting bacterial ... Due to the various antibiotics and pharmaceutical drugs found at a high density in contaminated water, antibiotic resistance ... "Antibiotic resistance". World Health Organization. 2017. Retrieved 2018-03-26.. *^ Landers, T. F. (2012). "A Review of ... World Health Organization(WHO). "Antibiotic use in food-producing animals must be curtailed to prevent increased resistance in ...
These bacterial enzymes rapidly destroy earlier-generation cephalosporins by breaking open the drug's beta-lactam chemical ring ... leading to antibiotic resistance. Though initially active against these bacteria, with widespread use of third-generation ... As such, drug levels in the blood may build up in persons with kidney injury or kidney disease. This includes those on dialysis ... The drug is given intravenously (IV) or intramuscularly (IM) every 8-12 hours (two or three times a day), with dose and ...
Drug resistance Microbiome Microorganism Human Microbiome Project Human virome Initial acquisition of microbiota List of ... Pulmonary bacterial microbiota belong to 9 major bacterial genera: Prevotella, Sphingomonas, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, ... However, a highly efficient innate host defense system constantly monitors the bacterial colonization and prevents bacterial ... The bacterial makeup for a given site on a body varies from person to person, not only in type, but also in abundance. Bacteria ...
... implication in drug resistance." Journal of Molecular Biology 299.2 (2000): 477-485. doi:10.1006/jmbi.2000.3740 Colette, and ... "Bacterial wall peptidoglycan, DD-peptidases and β-lactam antibiotics." Scand. J. Infect. Dis. Suppl 42 (1984): 17-37. PMID ... This enzyme is an excellent drug target because it is essential, is accessible from the periplasm, and has no equivalent in ... "Mechanism of penicillin action: penicillin and substrate bind covalently to the same active site serine in two bacterial D- ...
... mediating bacterial resistance to sulfonamide antimetabolite drugs. Possibly, many AbgT-family transporters act as exporters, ... Sulfonamide drugs (in) + H+ (out) → Sulfonamide drugs (out) + H+ (in) Antimicrobial resistance Membrane transport protein ... The AbgT family consists of the AbgT (YdaH; TC# 2.A.68.1.1) protein of E. coli and the MtrF drug exporter (TC# 2.A.68.1.2) of ... The 3-d structures of MtrF and a YdaH homologue have been solved, and functional studies show that it is a drug exporter. The 3 ...
In many cases, this leads to bacterial cell death. Streptogramin resistance is mediated through enzymatic drug inactivation, ... A stable drug-ribosome complex is created when the two drugs are used together. This complex inhibits protein synthesis through ... Constitutive ribosome modification has been seen in staphylococci with resistance seen in quinupristin only. While resistance ... Enzymatic drug inactivation may occur in staphylococcal and enterococcal species through production of dalfopristin- ...
... and extent of drug resistance. ... Natural bacterial transformation involves the transfer of DNA ... Resistance[edit]. Main article: Pneumococcal infection § Treatment. Resistant Pneumococci strains are called penicillin- ... "Critical decline in pneumococcal disease and antibiotic resistance in South Africa". NICD. Retrieved 20 July 2015.. ... van de Beek, Diederik; de Gans, Jan; Tunkel, Allan R.; Wijdicks, Eelco F.M. (5 January 2006). "Community-Acquired Bacterial ...
... and which will fail due to drug resistance. The software is currently being trialled in three UK hospitals to see whether it ... could help speed up diagnosis of drug-resistant infections and enable doctors to better target the prescription of antibiotics. ... Scientists have developed an easy-to-use computer program that can quickly analyse bacterial DNA from a patients infection and ... New laptop program can identify drug resistance from bacterial genomes. HealthResearchGeneticsInnovation ...
Antibiotic Capture by Bacterial Lipocalins Uncovers an Extracellular Mechanism of Intrinsic Antibiotic Resistance Omar M. El- ... A Bioengineered Three-Dimensional Cell Culture Platform Integrated with Microfluidics To Address Antimicrobial Resistance in ...
Trade-offs with stability modulate innate and mutationally acquired drug resistance in bacterial dihydrofolate reductase ... Trade-offs with stability modulate innate and mutationally acquired drug resistance in bacterial dihydrofolate reductase ... Trade-offs with stability modulate innate and mutationally acquired drug resistance in bacterial dihydrofolate reductase ... Trade-offs with stability modulate innate and mutationally acquired drug resistance in bacterial dihydrofolate reductase ...
Global Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment Market Portraiture. 2.1.1. Global Multiple Drug Resistance ... 2.1.2. Global Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment Market, by Drug Class, 2016. 2.1.3. Global Multiple Drug ... Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment Market, by Geography, 2016. Chapter 3. Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection ... The global multiple drug resistance bacterial infection treatment market was valued at US$ 26,169.09 Mn in 2016, and is ...
Dynamic Drug Combination Methods For Suppressing Bacterial Antibiotics Resistance Adaptation.pdf. PhD Theses. 15.23 MB. Adobe ... Bhone, M. K. (2014). Dynamic drug combination methods for suppressing bacterial antibiotics resistance adaptation. Doctoral ... This is particularly important because developing new drugs for the prevention of resistance adaptation of multi-drug resistant ... Due to multi-drug resistance problems in clinical settings and the need for newer compounds, there is great interest in ...
Gonococcal antimicrobial resistance in the Western Pacific Region [fact sheet]  World Health Organization. Regional Office for ... "Drug Resistance, Bacterial". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W. X. Y. Z. * 0-9 ...
"Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial" by people in this website by year, and whether "Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial" was ... "Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial". ...
... ... These bacterial and fungal drug-resistant infections, found in the observed COVID-19 patients, came from pathogens called out ... The vast majority of deaths during viral disease outbreaks are from secondary drug-resistant bacterial infections. This was the ... this might mean deescalating the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics to prevent the development of drug-resistance. In others, ...
Bacterial drug resistance, gene cassettes and integrons. By Colin Ward February 21st, 2011 ... Bacterial antibiotic resistance an ongoing problem. Antibiotic resistance is an ongoing and increasing problem that is ... They all belong to class 1 (hence intI1 and attI1) but carry different antibiotic resistance genes. The resistances conferred ... As the incidence of resistance continues to rise in disease-causing bacteria, so does multiple resistance leaving few options ...
... by Florian Rosado December 6, 2018. ... The study also provides a mechanism for how some bacterial infections can interfere with specific cancer drugs," ... Finding only a small amount of bacterial DNA in the cancer cells suggested that the infection did not have to persist to ... Our work provides an explanation for how a bacterial infection can trigger a series of events that lead to cancer. Of ...
Antibiotic resistance may be lessened through the use of antisense oligomers that interfere with the translation of proteins ... About a year ago, his research team identified a mutation in E. coli that increased drug sensitivity by blocking the AcrAB-TolC ... "Sequence-Specific Targeting of Bacterial Resistance Genes Increases Antibiotic Efficacy." This article explained that the PPMO ... When a bacterial machine called the efflux pump is in working order, it expels antibiotics, contributing to antibiotic ...
Learn how our physicians at the University of Miami Health System treat types of bacterial infections these infections. ... In most cases, if you have a bacterial infection, your doctor will prescribe an antibiotic medication to treat and cure the ... We create personalized treatment plans based on the cause of your infection and your health to prevent and fight bacterial, ... Multi-Drug Resistance Bacterial Infections. ... More deaths caused by bacterial infections. *More doctor visits ...
Phage therapy was used to treat a critical patient infected with multi-drug resistant strain of Acinetobacter baumannii, ... Drug Resistance - Antibiotic Resistance. Drug resistance is often a problem in malaria, tuberculosis, HIV, sexually transmitted ... Antibiotic Combination Therapy Can Help Overcome Drug-Resistant Bacterial Infections. Combining two antibiotics together can ... Drug-Resistant Nightmare Bacteria is Spreading More Widely. A family of highly drug-resistant and potentially deadly bacteria ...
Drug Resistance Forecasts May Inform Drug Design. UC San Diego Gets $5M for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Research.... ... Newly Isolated Bacterial Protein Opens Door to Novel Treatments for Tick-Borne Diseases. April 3, 2018. 0 ... Home News Newly Isolated Bacterial Protein Opens Door to Novel Treatments for Tick-Borne Diseases ... "Most people dont realize that they actually are walking around with more bacterial cells in their bodies than their own cells ...
Antibiotics and the Emergence of Bacterial Drug Resistance, from the edited h2g2, the Unconventional Guide to Life, the ... The Growth of Bacterial Drug Resistance. Why Do they Become Resistant?. Bacteria, like all other life forms, are subject to the ... and should the bleb contain a plasmid bearing a drug-resistance gene, then drug resistance has been passed from one bacterium ... Consequently, drug resistance in bacterial colonies can develop very quickly.. In addition, bacteria possess the ability to ...
Results of search for su:{Drug resistance, Bacterial.} Refine your search. *Availability * Limit to currently available items ... Anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in the world : third global report / the WHO/IUATLD Global Project on Anti-Tuberculosis Drug ... by WHO/IUATLD Global Project on Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance Surveillance Material type: Book; Format: print Publisher: ... Anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in the world : fourth global report . / the WHO/IUATLD Global Project on Anti-Tuberculosis ...
Balancing bacterial growth with drug resistance. Within some bacterial populations, a subset of cells grows more slowly than ... Enhanced efflux activity facilitates drug tolerance in dormant bacterial cells. Mol. Cell 62, 284-294 (2016).. ... Bacterial strains and plasmids. E. coli strains and plasmids used in this study are listed in table S1. Because of its high ... The HipA7 mutant kinase has been used as a model for studying persistence (1, 2, 21) because bacterial populations carrying the ...
A Ludwig Cancer Research study has discovered a novel means by which bacterial colonies in the small intestine support the ... Improving cancer therapies by exploiting drug resistance in cancer. Professor David Thomas ... Bacterial metabolism of bile acids boosts generation of immune cells, study shows. *Download PDF Copy ... Bacterial consortia that produce isoDCA and other metabolites that promote anti-inflammatory activity in colon-resident immune ...
Improving cancer therapies by exploiting drug resistance in cancer. Professor David Thomas ... Drugs that increase gut motility have also been known to improve rosacea symptoms, lending weight to the hypothesis that ... Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth. The medical condition that presents with an abnormally high concentration of bacteria in ... This is called into doubt by the high effectiveness of drugs such as Rifaximin in rosacea, despite its mostly local action ...
Europe Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment Market Growth 2019-2024. EMEA Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial ... Global Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment Market Growth 2019-2024. China Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial ... Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment Market Size, Share, Development by 2024. Uncategorized. Multiple Drug ... LP INFORMATION offers a latest published report on Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment Market Analysis and ...
Ineffectual usage of antibiotics has raised multidrug resistance to most of the commonly administered drugs against bacterial ... Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing for Drug Resistance. The resistance pattern to various conventionally used antibiotics ... One of the alternative approaches to overcome multidrug resistance is tantamount to pursue drugs that do not impose survival ... Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing for Drug Resistance. Staphylococcus aureus isolates were cultured to early exponential phase ...
1) (5, 6). Many of the genes contained in these regions are associated with virulence or drug resistance. A summary of the ... Bacterial Strains. Hospital-acquired, epidemic strain MRSA252. MRSA252 was isolated in 1997 from a 64-year-old female who ... Distinct from the characterized drug-resistance determinants associated with mobile genetic elements in MRSA252, there are ... An integrated plasmid confers resistance to the heavy metals arsenic and cadmium (Table 1). MSSA476 also carries resistance to ...
Bacterial infection (3). * Antibacterial drug resistance (2). * Antibiotics (2). * Antimicrobial resistance (2). ... Structural basis for maintenance of bacterial outer membrane lipid asymmetry *Javier Abellón-Ruiz ... Rights & permissionsfor article Structural basis for maintenance of bacterial outer membrane lipid asymmetry . Opens in a new ...
Antibacterial drug resistance (1). * Bacterial genes (1). * Genome informatics (1). * Sequencing (1). ... Rapid antibiotic-resistance predictions from genome sequence data for Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis * ... Corrigendum: Rapid antibiotic-resistance predictions from genome sequence data for Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium ... Rights & permissionsfor article Rapid antibiotic-resistance predictions from genome sequence data for ,i,Staphylococcus aureus ...
... drugs designed to block the mechanisms of bacterial antibiotic resistance are used. For example, bacterial resistance against ... Tolerance and Resistance Cosmetics Database HCMV drug resistance mutations tool Combating Drug Resistance - An informative ... Recently, researchers have recognized the need for new drugs that inhibit bacterial efflux pumps, which cause resistance to ... The development of antibiotic resistance in particular stems from the drugs targeting only specific bacterial molecules (almost ...
  • Despite the desperate need for new infectious disease therapies, limited progress has been made in the discovery of first-in-class antibacterial drugs to balance the relentless resistance development ( 10 , 11 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • But a U.S. Food and Drug Administration advisory panel concluded in 2005 that antibacterial soap is no more effective than plain old soap and water at removing germs. (psmag.com)
  • Ironically, these same miraculous drugs now jeopardize the miracle, as evidenced by the widespread emergence of antibacterial resistance in the last decade (3-7). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In short, the lack of concerted effort by governments and the pharmaceutical industry, together with the innate capacity of microbes to develop resistance at a rate that outpaces development of new drugs, suggests that existing strategies for developing viable, long-term anti-microbial therapies are ultimately doomed to failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Resistance to chemicals is only one aspect of the problem, another being resistance to physical factors such as temperature, pressure, sound, radiation and magnetism, and not discussed in this article, but found at Physical factors affecting microbial life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microbial Drug Resistance (Larchmont, N.Y.). 22 (5): 412-431. (wikipedia.org)
  • It should be noted that both pneumonia and meningitis have viral forms that remain fairly untreatable by drug therapy - in the case of meningitis the bacterial form meningococcal meningitis is much the most serious form, however. (h2g2.com)
  • Patients will have blood drawn at certain visits to test for LPV level, viral load, CD4 count, fasting lipids and glucose, and drug resistance. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Dr. Pal and his colleagues published their study (" Plasticity in Early Immune Evasion Strategies of a Bacterial Pathogen ") in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ( PNAS ). (genengnews.com)
  • When the drug is not intended to kill or inhibit a pathogen, then the term is equivalent to dosage failure or drug tolerance . (phys.org)
  • 2001) Pathogen frequency and resistance patterns in Brazilian hospitals: Summary of results from three years of the SENTRY antimicrobial surveillance program. (scirp.org)
  • positive patients in regard to bacterial species respective groups is indicated. (cdc.gov)
  • While chlamydia, the causative agent of trachoma, remains universally sensitive to azithromycin, there is concern that large scale programmes may alter the bacterial flora and induce resistance in streptococcal species. (bmj.com)
  • In this study the effect of a single dose of azithromcyin on the prevalence, species distribution, and resistance of conjunctival bacterial flora was determined. (bmj.com)
  • Does a single dose of azithromycin alter the distribution of bacterial species found in the conjunctival flora? (bmj.com)
  • There is a world within each of us, a living, evolving ecological system of 500 to 1,000 species of microbes, a ''bacterial nation'' in the words of Dr. Jeffrey I. Gordon, a microbiologist at Washington University in St. Louis. (nytimes.com)
  • One approach is to develop a new class of drugs made from defined consortia of microbes that would limit inflammation and promote colonic health, reducing the risk of colon cancer in people. (news-medical.net)
  • In these environments, intense evolutionary pressure pushes microbes to quickly develop resistance to multiple drugs. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Microbes growing onto solid surfaces form complex 3-D biofilm structures characterized by the production of extracellular polymeric compounds and an increased resistance to drugs. (mdpi.com)
  • In this study, the ability to distinguish between these bacterial 'sub-populations' gave Mykrobe an advantage over conventional testing in detecting resistance to second-line TB drugs. (ox.ac.uk)
  • This can be seen in cancerous tumors where some cells may develop resistance to the drugs used in chemotherapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chemicals contained in these preparations, besides harming beneficial organisms, may intentionally or inadvertently target organisms that have the potential to develop resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • They may develop resistance to certain drugs spontaneously through mutation. (fda.gov)
  • We did this by modifying vancomycin's membrane-binding properties to selectively bind to bacterial membranes rather than those of human cells, creating a series of supercharged vancomycin derivatives called vancapticins. (outbreaknewstoday.com)
  • To find out, they screened a spectrum of bile acids produced by bacterial metabolism for such effects in co-cultures of the precursor T cells from which Tregs arise and dendritic cells, which help direct the generation of Tregs. (news-medical.net)
  • The screen revealed that two products of bacterial bile metabolism--ω-MCA and isoDCA--significantly boosted the conversion of precursor T cells into peripheral Tregs. (news-medical.net)
  • 2020) Bacterial metabolism of bile acids promotes generation of peripheral regulatory T cells. (news-medical.net)
  • The bacterial serine-threonine protein kinase HipA promotes multidrug tolerance by phosphorylating the glutamate-tRNA ligase (GltX), leading to a halt in translation, inhibition of growth, and induction of a physiologically dormant state (persistence). (sciencemag.org)
  • Further studies with mutants led also to the clarification of other biosynthetic and catabolic pathways, and to basic findings in the areas of antibiotic action, drug resistance, active transport of metabolites and protein synthesis. (nap.edu)
  • In recent years, the use of assays for the genetic detection of mutations that confer resistance have been developed and evaluated. (bmj.com)
  • Bacterial consortia that produce isoDCA and other metabolites that promote anti-inflammatory activity in colon-resident immune cells could be one of the components of such interventions. (news-medical.net)
  • However, some clues exist, in the form of the hypersensitivity present in fibromyalgia, which is known to be the effect of endotoxins released as bacterial metabolites, or inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), or due to bacterial translocation. (news-medical.net)
  • Furthermore in vitro experiments supported this mechanism of how the immune cells can remove oxygen and in this way vigorously restrict the bacterial growth," adds Kasper Nørskov Kragh. (healthcanal.com)
  • Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich researchers have elucidated a mechanism that recycles bacterial ribosomes stalled on messenger RNAs that lack termination codons. (phys.org)
  • Kim L, McGee L, Tomczyk S, Beall B. Biological and epidemiological features of antibiotic-resistance Streptococcus pneumoniae in pre- and post-conjugate vaccine eras: A United States perspective external icon . (cdc.gov)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae can cause invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPDs), which can be treated with generally effective antimicrobial drugs. (cdc.gov)
  • Between January 2006 and December 2008, LiPA saved 25.3 and 32.2 days for TB diagnosis and rifampicin resistance of smear-positive samples, respectively. (bmj.com)
  • Interpretation A molecular diagnostic service, using a non-automated line probe assay approach, provides a rapid and reliable national service for diagnosing MTBC and rifampicin resistance. (bmj.com)
  • In 1998, national and population-based services were proposed for the diagnosis of TB and rifampicin resistance directly from smear-positive patient specimens, 8 and these were adopted in the UK and in other countries using LPAs. (bmj.com)