Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutation.
A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.
Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)
Enzyme of the human immunodeficiency virus that is required for post-translational cleavage of gag and gag-pol precursor polyproteins into functional products needed for viral assembly. HIV protease is an aspartic protease encoded by the amino terminus of the pol gene.
A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Genes for MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that confer resistance to toxic compounds. Several superfamilies of these multidrug export proteins are known and found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TETRACYCLINE which inhibits aminoacyl-tRNA binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit during protein synthesis.
The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutations.
Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.
An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.
Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.
Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.
Antibacterial agent used primarily as a tuberculostatic. It remains the treatment of choice for tuberculosis.
The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Diseases of plants.
Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)
A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
One of the FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS that is used as an antimalarial or with a sulfonamide to treat toxoplasmosis.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.
Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.
A type of strength-building exercise program that requires the body muscle to exert a force against some form of resistance, such as weight, stretch bands, water, or immovable objects. Resistance exercise is a combination of static and dynamic contractions involving shortening and lengthening of skeletal muscles.
A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of CHLORAMPHENICOL, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis in the 50S ribosomal subunit where amino acids are added to nascent bacterial polypeptides.
Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.
A long acting sulfonamide that is used, usually in combination with other drugs, for respiratory, urinary tract, and malarial infections.
Nonsusceptibility of a microbe to the action of ampicillin, a penicillin derivative that interferes with cell wall synthesis.
Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction 7,8-dihyrofolate and NADPH to yield 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate and NADPH+, producing reduced folate for amino acid metabolism, purine ring synthesis, and the formation of deoxythymidine monophosphate. Methotrexate and other folic acid antagonists used as chemotherapeutic drugs act by inhibiting this enzyme. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC
Proteins encoded by the POL GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.
An antitubercular agent that inhibits the transfer of mycolic acids into the cell wall of the tubercle bacillus. It may also inhibit the synthesis of spermidine in mycobacteria. The action is usually bactericidal, and the drug can penetrate human cell membranes to exert its lethal effect. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p863)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
A subfamily of transmembrane proteins from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that are closely related in sequence to P-GLYCOPROTEIN. When overexpressed, they function as ATP-dependent efflux pumps able to extrude lipophilic drugs, especially ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, from cells causing multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although P-Glycoproteins share functional similarities to MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS they are two distinct subclasses of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS, and have little sequence homology.
Five membered rings containing a NITROGEN atom.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of dihydropteroate from p-aminobenzoic acid and dihydropteridine-hydroxymethyl-pyrophosphate. EC
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.
A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.
A group of SESQUITERPENES and their analogs that contain a peroxide group (PEROXIDES) within an oxepin ring (OXEPINS).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Large cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein particles that have an eight-fold symmetry with a central pore and petal-like structure giving the appearance of an octagonal dome. (The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 2nd ed.)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of VANCOMYCIN, an inhibitor of cell wall synthesis.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
A bacterial DNA topoisomerase II that catalyzes ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. Gyrase binds to DNA as a heterotetramer consisting of two A and two B subunits. In the presence of ATP, gyrase is able to convert the relaxed circular DNA duplex into a superhelix. In the absence of ATP, supercoiled DNA is relaxed by DNA gyrase.
A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
Non-susceptibility of an organism to the action of the cephalosporins.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.
A very toxic anthracycline aminoglycoside antineoplastic isolated from Streptomyces peucetius and others, used in treatment of LEUKEMIA and other NEOPLASMS.
Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
A potent, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in combination with nucleoside analogues for treatment of HIV INFECTIONS and AIDS.
Tuberculosis resistant to ISONIAZID and RIFAMPIN and at least three of the six main classes of second-line drugs (AMINOGLYCOSIDES; polypeptide agents; FLUOROQUINOLONES; THIOAMIDES; CYCLOSERINE; and PARA-AMINOSALICYLIC ACID) as defined by the CDC.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the antibiotic KANAMYCIN, which can bind to their 70S ribosomes and cause misreading of messenger RNA.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Diminished or failed response of PLANTS to HERBICIDES.
Substances that are destructive to protozoans.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
Inhibitors of the enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase (TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE), which converts dihydrofolate (FH2) to tetrahydrofolate (FH4). They are frequently used in cancer chemotherapy. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)
Substances obtained from various species of microorganisms that are, alone or in combination with other agents, of use in treating various forms of tuberculosis; most of these agents are merely bacteriostatic, induce resistance in the organisms, and may be toxic.
A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.
A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
An anthracenedione-derived antineoplastic agent.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.
Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.
Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.
DNA TOPOISOMERASES that catalyze ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. These enzymes bring about relaxation of the supercoiled DNA and resolution of a knotted circular DNA duplex.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for retroviral enzymes including reverse transcriptase, protease, and endonuclease/integrase. "pol" is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.
An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.
A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.
A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
A phospholipid-interacting antimalarial drug (ANTIMALARIALS). It is very effective against PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM with very few side effects.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
DNA elements that include the component genes and insertion site for a site-specific recombination system that enables them to capture mobile gene cassettes.
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.
A hydroxynaphthoquinone that has antimicrobial activity and is being used in antimalarial protocols.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.
This line KB is now known to be a subline of the ubiquitous KERATIN-forming tumor cell line HeLa. It was originally thought to be derived from an epidermal carcinoma of the mouth, but was subsequently found, based on isoenzyme analysis, HeLa marker chromosomes, and DNA fingerprinting, to have been established via contamination by HELA CELLS. The cells are positive for keratin by immunoperoxidase staining. KB cells have been reported to contain human papillomavirus18 (HPV-18) sequences.
A fluorescent probe with low toxicity which is a potent substrate for P-glycoprotein and the bacterial multidrug efflux transporter. It is used to assess mitochondrial bioenergetics in living cells and to measure the efflux activity of P-glycoprotein in both normal and malignant cells. (Leukemia 1997;11(7):1124-30)
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
3,6-Diamino-10-methylacridinium chloride mixt. with 3,6-acridinediamine. Fluorescent dye used as a local antiseptic and also as a biological stain. It intercalates into nucleic acids thereby inhibiting bacterial and viral replication.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Glucose in blood.

Triclosan and antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. (1/7957)

Triclosan (2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxydiphenyl ether) is an antimicrobial agent used in hygiene products, plastics and kitchenware, and for treating methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) outbreaks. S. aureus strains with low-level resistance to triclosan have emerged. It has been claimed that strains with decreased susceptibility to biocides may also be less susceptible to antibiotics. We tested the susceptibility of S. aureus clinical isolates to triclosan and several antibiotics. Triclosan MICs ranged between 0.025 and 1 mg/L. Some, but not all, strains were resistant to several antibiotics and showed low-level triclosan resistance. S. aureus mutants with enhanced resistance to triclosan (< or =1 mg/L) were isolated. In several cases this resistance was stably inherited in the absence of triclosan. These mutants were not more resistant than the parent strain to several antibiotics. Changes in triclosan MICs associated with the acquisition of a plasmid encoding mupirocin resistance were not observed, suggesting that the triclosan/mupirocin co-resistance seen in a previous study was not the result of a single resistance gene or separate genes on the same plasmid. The continuous exposure of a triclosan-sensitive S. aureus strain to sub-MIC concentrations of triclosan for 1 month did not result in decreased susceptibility to triclosan or to several antibiotics tested. Triclosan-induced potassium leakage and bactericidal effects on a triclosan-sensitive strain, a resistant strain and a strain selected for increased resistance were compared with those of non-growing organisms, exponentially growing organisms and organisms in the stationary phase. No significant differences between the strains were observed under these conditions despite their different MICs. Biocides have multiple target sites and so MICs often do not correlate with bactericidal activities. The ability of S. aureus to develop resistance to triclosan and the current view that triclosan may have a specific target in Escherichia coli, namely enoyl reductase, underline the need for more research on the mechanisms of action and resistance.  (+info)

Resistance of helicobacter pylori to metronidazole, tetracycline and amoxycillin. (2/7957)

Resistance to metronidazole, tetracycline and amoxycillin, and beta-lactamase production were determined for 153 clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori. Of these isolates, 77.8% were resistant to metronidazole (MIC > 8 mg/L), 58.8% to tetracycline (MIC > 16 mg/L) and 71.9% to amoxycillin (MIC > 0.5 mg/L); 39.2% were multiresistant. Resistance to metronidazole was more common in isolates from females than in those from males (P < 0.05). None of the isolates produced beta-lactamase, so the mechanism of amoxycillin resistance was not linked to production of beta-lactamase.  (+info)

Enterococcal glycopeptide resistance at an Italian teaching hospital. (3/7957)

Two thousand one hundred and thirteen strains of enterococci isolated at Pisa General Hospital in 1998 were analysed retrospectively to determine their glycopeptide resistance. Of all the microorganisms isolated in this period, 14.7% were enterococci (1405 Enterococcus faecalis, 19 Enterococcus faecium, six Enterococcus avium and 683 Enterococcus spp.). Two hundred and thirty (10.8%) of these enterococci were resistant or demonstrated reduced susceptibility to vancomycin and/or teicoplanin. The highest rate of resistance was found in outpatient enterococcal strains isolated from the urogenital tract. The frequency of enterococcal glycopeptide resistance at Pisa Hospital is higher than that reported from other areas of Italy.  (+info)

Antibiotic susceptibility and mechanisms of beta-lactam resistance in 1310 strains of pseudomonas aeruginosa: a French multicentre study (1996). (4/7957)

A total of 1310 consecutive strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were collected in 11 French hospitals in 1996. The percentages of susceptible isolates measured by the agar dilution method were: ticarcillin (53%), piperacillin (69%) (MIC 16 mg/L), ceftazidime (77%), cefepime (55%), cefpirome (40%), aztreonam (57.5%), imipenem (81.5%) (MIC 4 mg/L), amikacin (64.5%) (MIC 8 mg/L) and ciprofloxacin (58%) (MIC 1 mg/L). Resistance to beta-lactams was linked to the production of transferable beta-lactamases (30%), overproduction of cephalosporinase (29%) and to non-enzymic mechanisms (38%).  (+info)

pncA mutations in clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Korea. (5/7957)

BACKGROUND: Pyrazinamide (PZA) is among the first-line drugs for the treatment of tuberculosis. In vitro, it kills semidormant mycobacteria only at low pH. The purpose of this study was to compare PZA resistance with pyrazinamidase (PZase) activity and the genotype to better understand the molecular basis of PZA resistance and to expand the profile of pncA mutations worldwide. RESULTS: Of the 28 tested strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 6 were susceptible to PZA and positive for PZase activity and had no pncA mutations. Twenty-one strains were resistant to PZA and negative for PZase activity and had mutations in the pncA gene, including 15 point mutations, 5 insertions, and 2 deletions. One strain had no mutation in the pncA gene, even though it was resistant to PZA and negative for PZase activity. Three isolates had adenine to guanine point mutations in the -11 upstream region, making this the most common type of pncA mutations in this study, with at least two different RFLP patterns. CONCLUSION: These data help in the understanding of the molecular basis of PZA resistance. An adenine to guanine point mutation in the -11 upstream region was the most common type of pncA mutation in our isolates. The results of pncA mutation analyses should be carefully interpreted for epidemiologic purposes.  (+info)

Sub-inhibitory concentrations of vancomycin prevent quinolone-resistance in a penicillin-resistant isolate of Streptococcus pneumoniae. (6/7957)

BACKGROUND: The continuous spread of penicillin-resistant pneumococci represents a permanent threat in the treatment of pneumococcal infections, especially when strains show additional resistance to quinolones. The main objective of this study was to determine a treatment modality impeding the emergence of quinolone resistance. RESULTS: Exposure of a penicillin-resistant pneumococcus to increasing concentrations of trovafloxacin or ciprofloxacin selected for mutants resistant to these drugs. In the presence of sub-inhibitory concentrations of vancomycin, development of trovafloxacin-resistance and high-level ciprofloxacin-resistance were prevented. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the risk of quinolone-resistance in pneumococci, the observation might be of clinical importance.  (+info)

Characterization of mutations in the rpoB gene associated with rifampin resistance in Rhodococcus equi isolated from foals. (7/7957)

Treatment with a combination of erythromycin and rifampin has considerably improved survival rates of foals and immunocompromised patients suffering from severe pneumonia caused by Rhodococcus equi. Frequently, because of monotherapy, emergence of rifampin-resistant strains has been responsible for treatment failure. Using consensus oligonucleotides, we have amplified and sequenced the rifampin resistance (Rif(r))-determining regions of 12 rifampin-resistant R. equi strains isolated from three foals and of mutants selected in vitro from R. equi ATCC 3701, a rifampin-susceptible strain. The deduced amino acid sequences compared to those of four rifampin-susceptible R. equi strains showed several types of mutations. In 3 of the 10 strains isolated from one foal, His526Asn (Escherichia coli numbering) and Asp516Val mutations were associated with low-level resistance (rifampin MIC, 2 to 8 microg/ml), whereas His526Asp conferred high-level resistance (rifampin MIC, 128 microg/ml) in the 7 remaining strains. In strains from the two other foals, His526Asp and Ser531Leu mutations were found to be associated with high-level and low-level resistance, respectively. The in vitro mutants, highly resistant to rifampin, harbored His526Tyr and His526Arg substitutions. As described in other bacterial genera, His526, Ser531, and Asp516 are critical residues for rifampin resistance in R. equi, and the resistance levels are dependent on both the location and the nature of the substitution.  (+info)

Improved antimicrobial interventions have benefits. (8/7957)

Studies have shown benefits to patients from improved interventions involving antimicrobial therapy. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate prospectively the impact of improved interventions by (i) the use of TheraTrac 2, a computer software program which electronically links susceptibility testing results immediately to the pharmacy and alerts pharmacists of potential interventions, and (ii) the education of pharmacists involving microbiologic topics. The study group had the new intervention program. The control group had interventions performed the way that they had previously been done by manually reviewing hard copies of susceptibility testing data. In a 5-month period, all inpatients whose last names began with A to K were the study group; inpatients whose last names began with L to Z were controls. Three analyses were done; one analysis (analysis A) involved only patients with interventions, one analysis (analysis B) involved all patients for whom antimicrobial testing was done and who were matched for diagnosis-related groups (DRGs), regardless of whether an intervention occurred, and one analysis (analysis C) involved these DRG-matched patients by using severity-adjusted data. In analysis A, the study group had a 4.8% decreased rate of mortality, an average of a 16.5-day decreased length of stay per patient, and $20,886 decreased variable direct costs per patient. None of these differences was statistically significant. In analysis B, the study patients had a 1.2% higher mortality rate (P = 0.741), an average of a 2.7-day decreased length of stay per patient (P = 0.035), and $2,626 decreased variable direct costs per patient (P = 0.008). In analysis C, the study patients had a 1.4% lower mortality rate, a 1.2-day decreased length of stay per patient, and $1,466 decreased variable direct costs per patient. In conclusion, the institution of this program caused substantial cost savings.  (+info)

Antibiotic resistance is now considered to be a great curse to the present world. Researcher suspected that millions of people will die due to the rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance by 2050. There are lots of mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. All the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance can be narrowed into two part; mutation and horizontal gene transfer.. In this context, both type of antibiotic resistance mechanisms will be discussed. The last mechanism belongs to horizontal gene transfer-mediated resistance and most of the other mechanisms of antibiotic resistance are mutation-mediated. …. 10 mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in BacteriaRead More » ...
TY - CONF. T1 - Planning a cross-sectional study of antimicrobial resistance genes in Danish pig farms. AU - Birkegård, Anna Camilla. AU - Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq. AU - Toft, Nils. N1 - Conference code: 4. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. M3 - Poster. T2 - 4th ASM Conference on Antimicrobial Resistance in Zoonotic Bacteria and Foodborne Pathogens 2015. Y2 - 8 May 2015 through 11 May 2015. ER - ...
The term antimicrobial resistance refers to the ability of microorganisms to grow in the presence of an antimicrobial (drug) at a concentration that would normally kill them or inhibit their growth. Antimicrobial resistance has become a big threat to global health; having risen to dangerously high levels in all parts of the World, making it difficult to treat infectious diseases. This is forcing patients to incur extra expenses as they have to buy more expensive second-generation or third-generation medicines. Also, as a result of medicines not being effective, patients are forced to stay longer in hospitals; this translates to higher hospital bills. In an effort to establish the antimicrobial resistance status of bacteria isolated from chickens, a cross-sectional study was conducted to demonstrate the antimicrobial resistance profiles of bacteria isolated from three groups of chickens [sick (clinical), farm and slaughter]. The three chicken groups were studied so as to determine whether there ...
The EU Open Data Portal provides, via a metadata catalogue, a single point of access to data of the EU institutions, agencies and bodies for anyone to reuse.
The EU Open Data Portal provides, via a metadata catalogue, a single point of access to data of the EU institutions, agencies and bodies for anyone to reuse.
This report published in Communicable Diseases Intelligence Volume 27, No 4, December 2003 contains Australias surveillance strategy for antimicrobial resistance.
This paper aims to identify key evidence gaps in our knowledge of livestock and fisheries linked antimicrobial resistance in the developing world
99 households across Nairobi were randomly selected on the basis of socioeconomic stratification. A detailed survey was administered to household occupants, and samples (n=2102) were collected from the faeces of 75 wildlife species inhabiting household compounds (ie, the household and its perimeter; n=849), 13 livestock species (n=656), and humans (n=333), and from the external environment (n=288). Escherichia coli, our sentinel organism, was cultured and a single isolate from each sample tested for sensitivity to 13 antibiotics. Diversity of antimicrobial resistant phenotypes was compared between urban wildlife, humans, livestock, and the environment, to investigate whether wildlife are a net source for antimicrobial resistance in Nairobi. Generalised linear mixed models were used to determine whether the prevalence of antimicrobial resistant phenotypes and multidrug-resistant E coli carriage in urban wildlife is linked to variation in ecological traits, such as foraging behaviour, and to ...
Have you ever had a sore throat, cough, or fever? All of us have felt badly at least once in our lives! A doctor may have helped you by prescribing antibiotics to kill the microbes responsible for the infection, thus eliminating pain, cough, and fever. Thanks to medicines like antibiotics, we can recover quickly from diseases. Unfortunately, the extraordinary power of antibiotics is threatened by a phenomenon called antimicrobial resistance. What is antimicrobial resistance and is there anything we can do to stop it? In this article, we describe antimicrobial resistance, how it may arise, and how we can help to prevent it by vaccination.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). April 3, 2018. Health departments working with CDCs Antibiotic Resistance (AR) Lab Network found more than 220 instances of germs with unusual antibiotic resistance genes in the United States last year, according to a CDC Vital Signs report released today.. Germs with unusual resistance include those that cannot be killed by all or most antibiotics, are uncommon in a geographic area or the U.S., or have specific genes that allow them to spread their resistance to other germs.. Rapid identification of the new or rare threats is the critical first step in CDCs containment strategy to stop the spread of antibiotic resistance (AR). When a germ with unusual resistance is detected, facilities can quickly isolate patients and begin aggressive infection control and screening actions to discover, reduce, and stop transmission to others.. CDCs study found several dangerous pathogens, hiding in plain sight, that can cause infections that are difficult ...
The development of resistance to antibiotics is due to the widespread use of a wide variety of antimicrobials, coupled with the ability of bacteria to acquire and spread resistance and the ability of humans to disseminate them. The possible consequences of antimicrobial resistance leads to greater chances of hospitalization, prolongation of hospital stay and increased mortality. Furthermore, treatment of drug resistant bacteria requires the use of more toxic drugs and more expense for the patient and hospitals. The main objective of the present study was to determine the frequency and nature of antimicrobial resistance of microorganisms in oncologic and hematologic patients at a Mexican Pediatric Hospital. A retrospective, observational, and analytical study was realized, where we reviewed the clinical records of 20 cases. Blood cultures were obtained from the Laboratory of our institution from 2010 to 2011. The data obtained were organized and analyzed. We observed that the E. coli and S. ...
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The emerging threat posed by antibiotic resistance has affected public health systems all over the world. Surveillance of resistant bacteria in clinical settings and identifying them in mixed cultures is of paramount importance and can contribute to the control of their spreading. Culture-independent monitoring approaches are highly desirable, since they yield results much faster than traditional susceptibility testing. However, many rapid molecular methods like PCR only detect the sole presence of a potential resistance gene, do not provide information regarding efficient transcription, expression and functionality and, in addition, cannot assign resistance genes to species level in mixed cultures. By using plasmid-encoded TEM β-lactamase mediated ampicillin resistances as a proof of principle system, we (1) developed a fluorescence in situ hybridization-test (FISH) capable to detect the respective mRNAs, (2) implemented an immunofluorescence test to identify the corresponding proteins and (3)
Learn Antimicrobial resistance - theory and methods from Université technique du Danemark (DTU). The course will cover the topics related to antimicrobial resistance with basic definitions and overview on antimicrobials their use and the ...
Campaign to Prevent Antimicrobial Resistance. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Infectious Diseases Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion. Clinicians hold the solution!. Link to: Campaign to Prevent Antimicrobial Resistance Online Slideshow 240657 by bernad
Find helpful learner reviews, feedback, and ratings for Antimicrobial resistance - theory and methods from Technical University of Denmark (DTU). Read stories and highlights from Coursera learners who completed Antimicrobial resistance - theory and methods and wanted to share their experience. It was really a good lectures and please I want to know about my certificate in have already purchas...
Battle to Counteract Antimicrobial Resistance. Habitats for Sickness Control and Anticipation National Place for Irresistible Illnesses Division of Medicinal services Quality Advancement. Clinicians hold the arrangement!. Connection to: Crusade to Avert Antimicrobial Resistance Online
In women from 2 independent ethnic groups relocating from Thailand to the United States, investigators found a rapid increase in gut microbiome antibiotic resistance genes richness and abundance.
Friendly microbes in the intestinal tracts of healthy American children have numerous antibiotic resistance genes, according to results of a pilot study by
The AMR has often highlighted that simple measures like hand washing among physicians, maintaining hygiene can go a long way in the battle against antibiotic resistance along with regulation of prescribing and consumption of these drugs can. It has emphasised that broad range of interventions, encompassing both the simple and inexpensive, and larger-scale more complex actions are critical to address this public health concern ...
As pathogenic bacteria evolve, antibiotic resistance is spreading, compromising our ability to control and treat infectious diseases. Antibiotic Resistance thoroughly illuminates this crucial issue for healthcare professionals, researchers, students, and policymakers.
Scientists at the University of Birmingham have identified a new mechanism of antibiotic resistance in bacterial cells which could help us in understanding, and developing solutions to, the growing problem of antibiotic resistance.
The public section of the CAN-R website is designed to ensure that the public has access to the latest and most comprehensive information gathered from a variety of sources on antibiotic resistance and related issues in Canada.. ...
Looking at the 4-hours chart, the pair traded above the 1.1020 resistance level plus the 50% Fib retracement level of the downward move from the 1.1163 high to 1.0925 low.. However, the upward move was capped by the 1.1080 and 1.1090 resistance levels. Moreover, the pair is also facing hurdles near the 100 simple moving average (red, 4-hours) and the 61.8% Fib retracement level of the downward move from the 1.1163 high to 1.0925 low.. There is also a crucial bearish trend line forming with resistance near 1.1100 on the same chart. Therefore, the pair needs to climb above the 1.1080 and 1.1100 resistance levels to continue higher.. Conversely, if EUR/USD fails to break the 1.1080 and 1.1100 resistance levels, it could start a fresh decline. An immediate support is near the 1.0980 level, below which the pair could test the 1.0950 support area.. Fundamentally, the US nonfarm payrolls report for August 2019 was released by the US Department of Labor this past Friday. The market was looking for an ...
The patent-pending Resistance Anchor Cable™ system allows you to tailor the resistance level of the cables to your specific needs. Color-coded cable ends identify six different resistance levels, from Level 4 to Level 9. Each level represents an increase in resistance of approximately 2.5 pounds, or 1.1 kg., in comparison to the previous level. The Level 9 cables can also be used for isometric resistance exercises. A set consists of two Anchor Cables included in box.. ...
The patent-pending Resistance Anchor Cable™ system allows you to tailor the resistance level of the cables to your specific needs. Color-coded cable ends identify six different resistance levels, from Level 4 to Level 9. Each level represents an increase in resistance of approximately 2.5 pounds, or 1.1 kg., in comparison to the previous level. The Level 9 cables can also be used for isometric resistance exercises. A set consists of two Anchor Cables included in box.. ...
Dr. Windi Muziasari, CEO of Resistomap, talks about how they are fighting the spread of antibiotic resistance genes by providing robust tools for monitoring.
According to the CDC, 50 million courses of antibiotics prescribed by doctors each year may be unnecessary and may lead to antibiotic resistance.
Not only does antibiotic resistance (ABR) affect you, but it also affects global populations. Due to the ease of the sharing of genetic material between bacteria and the environmental resilience of many bacterial populations, ABR can spread quickly and efficiently. ABR is found in bacteria spanning dozens of countries around the globe and continues to...
The actions of the enzyme Rifampicin monooxygenase -- a flavoenzyme -- have been found responsible for the antibiotics resistance.
St Georges Professor Mike Sharland is developing new tools and treatments to fight infections in children and halt the spread of antibiotic resistance.
Howard Hughes Medical Institute researchers chiseling away at the problem of antibiotic resistance now have a detailed explanation of how the drugs main cellular target in bacteria evolves to become resistant to some of these medications.
UGAs Stephen Trent is studying antibiotic resistance, building better medications and vaccines to stop bacterial infections in their tracks.
On May 12, 2016, at a meeting of the Royal Society of Medicine in London, representatives from over 20 countries considered the immediate actions different nations can take to address the urgent, cross-border problem of antibiotic resistance.
A powerful new tool to identify genetic changes in disease-causing bacteria that are responsible for antibiotic resistance has been developed by researchers.
Page 3 of 5 - Antibiotic Resistance - posted in Best all time threads.: If information was quantified, then it wouldnt be information. Could the information in the word Cow be quantified as C O W? No. because individual letters arent information; They are units.Ummmm, a one of the biggest arguments by most creationists is evolution doesnt increase information. If youre looking for an increase youre quantifying.Red blood cell...
Learn about the consequences of antibiotic resistance, and how our solutions empower healthcare professionals to make targeted treatment decisions sooner.
The FEEDAP panel of EFSA considered the probiotic Toyocerin safe for use and acknowledged some effects in several production animal species. However, antibiotic resistance appeared to be an obstacle.
Eventbrite - Manchester MedX & MCR Global Health Society presents Antibiotic Resistance: A Global Ticking Timebomb - Thursday, 17 November 2016 at Citylabs. Find event and ticket information.
Inspired by Beyonce, UT researchers are getting into formation, because theyre about to slay antibiotic resistance with their development of a new drug screening technique.
Scientists have revealed that certain disease-causing bacteria get their resistance genes in a complex process involving bacterial sex; this can potentially lead to a more targeted effort in preventing the spread of antibiotic resistance
A path-breaking technique that will potentially help reverse drug resistance as well as enable the existing antibiotics to act effectively has been developed by researchers from the IIT Roorkee.
The experts say our resistance to antibiotics is now a serious global health threat. Find out how much you need to worry, and the action you should take.
Check out our Resistance Bands Pair, with five different resistance levels from 11-36kg, now you can intensify all your home or gym workouts.
Bitcoin price formed a base above the $37,600 level and started a fresh increase. BTC broke the key $38,500 resistance level to move into a positive zone.. The price even broke the $39,000 resistance level and settled well above the 100 hourly simple moving average. Finally, there was a break above the $40,000 resistance zone. There was also a break above a key bearish trend line with resistance near $39,000 on the hourly chart of the BTC/USD pair.. The price traded as high as $41,395 before there was a downside correction. Bitcoin traded below the $40,500 support level. There was a break below the 23.6% Fib retracement level of the recent increase from the $37,678 swing low to $41,395 high.. It is now consolidating near the $40,000 support zone. On the upside, an initial resistance is near the $40,500 level. The first key resistance is near the $40,750 level and a connecting bearish trend line.. ...
গত ২৯ এপ্রিল ২০১৭ তারিখে Antimicrobial Resistance: From Awareness to Action প্রতিপাদ্যকে সামনে রেখে পালিত হল বিশ্ব ভেটেরিনারি দিবস ২০১৭। শুধুমাত্র প্রাণিসম্পদ নয়, সমগ্র মানব গোষ্ঠির স্বাস্থ্যের কথা বিবেচনা করলে, প্রতিপাদ্যটি সময়ের একটি চরম দাবি। সরকারি অধিদপ্তরসহ স্বাস্থ্য ও চিকিৎসা ব্যবস্থার সাথে জড়িত সকল স্বায়ত্ত্বশাসিত, সরকারি-বেসরকারি প্রতিষ্ঠান, ব্যক্তি, উদ্যোক্তাসহ সকলেরই উচিত এর যথাযথ ...
The power to be resistant to certain detrimental situations and factors. Variation of Power Resistance. Sub-Power of Enhanced Condition. The user is resistant to certain detrimental conditions and factors, such as their species traditional weaknesses: for example a vampire that is resistant to...
Emergence of antibiotic resistance is increasing every year at an accelerating rate globally. MSS Murthy learns more about the phenomenon
EURUSD - Inside Bar At Resistance Levels Climbing 6 of the last 8 days, the Euro has been looking impressive in gaining +450 pips in the process. The pair
... drugs designed to block the mechanisms of bacterial antibiotic resistance are used. For example, bacterial resistance against ... Tolerance and Resistance Cosmetics Database HCMV drug resistance mutations tool Combating Drug Resistance - An informative ... Recently, researchers have recognized the need for new drugs that inhibit bacterial efflux pumps, which cause resistance to ... The development of antibiotic resistance in particular stems from the drugs targeting only specific bacterial molecules (almost ...
"Genetic engineering in vivo using translocatable drug-resistance elements. New methods in bacterial genetics". J. Mol. Biol. ... In 2011, ASM Press published a festschrift in his honor ("The Lure of Bacterial Genetics: A Tribute to John Roth"). "Thomas ... 2011). The Lure of Bacterial Genetics: A Tribute to John Roth. Washington, DC: ASM Press. p. 362. ISBN 978-1-55581-538-7. ... Roth, J.R.; Benson, N.; Galitski, T.; Haack, K.; Lawrence, J.; Miesel, L. (1996). "Rearrangements of the bacterial chromosome: ...
"Genetic engineering in vivo using translocatable drug-resistance elements. New methods in bacterial genetics". J. Mol. Biol. ... Beckwith, J.; Silhavy, T.J. (1992). The Power of Bacterial Genetics: A Literature Based Course. NY: Cold Spring Harbor ... Alternatively insertional inactivation could be used to suppress genes that express antibiotic-resistance in bacteria., While ... Transposon-based Insertional inactivation is considered for medical research from suppression of antibiotic resistance in ...
... of the drugs across the cell surface These pumps within the cellular membrane of certain bacterial species are used to pump ... Resistance to recently developed drugs such as artemisinin has also been reported. The problem of drug resistance in malaria ... Resistance to HIV antivirals is problematic, and even multi-drug resistant strains have evolved. One source of resistance is ... The WHO defines antimicrobial resistance as a microorganism's resistance to an antimicrobial drug that was once able to treat ...
For example, bacterial recombination has been shown to promote the transfer of multi drug resistance genes via homologous ... Bacterial DNA is placed into the bacteriophage genome via bacterial transduction. In bacterial conjugation, DNA is transferred ... "Bacterial recombination promotes the evolution of multi-drug-resistance in functionally diverse populations". Proceedings of ... Bacterial transformation is carried out by numerous interacting bacterial gene products. Evolution in bacteria was previously ...
"Bacterial drug resistance overcome by synthetic restructuring of antibiotics". Nature: d41586-021-02916-6. 27 October 2021. doi ... Oxepanoprolinamides function by insertion into bacterial ribosomes. They overcome a type of antibiotic resistance to ... "A synthetic antibiotic class overcoming bacterial multidrug resistance". Nature. doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04045-6. PMC 8549432. ... These drugs are fully synthetic. The molecules contain the aminooctose component of clindamycin. They were developed by Andrew ...
Her work on ABC transporters includes investigating their role in resistance to chemotherapy drugs; antigen presentation in ... adaptive immunity and viral infection; cystic fibrosis; and bacterial nutrition. In 2019, she was elected to the National ...
Infection and Drug Resistance. 11: 1959-1974. doi:10.2147/IDR.S172366. PMC 6208867. PMID 30464538. Levinson, Warren; Chin-Hong ... Perianal cellulitis, also known as perianitis or perianal streptococcal dermatitis, is a bacterial infection affecting the ... Boull C, Soutor C, Hordinsky M (2022). "Chapter 11: Bacterial Infections". Clinical Dermatology: Diagnosis and Management of ... Cellulitis describes a bacterial infection affecting the lower layers of the skin. Historically, perianal cellulitis may be ...
"Phylogenetic relationships of drug-resistance factors and other transmissible bacterial plasmids". Bacteriological Reviews. 32 ... Anderson, E S (October 1968). "The Ecology of Transferable Drug Resistance in the Enterobacteria". Annual Review of ... Jones, D; Sneath, P H (March 1970). "Genetic transfer and bacterial taxonomy". Bacteriological Reviews. 34 (1): 40-81. doi: ... Ambler, R. P. (December 1973). "Bacterial Cytochromes C and Molecular Evolution". Systematic Zoology. 22 (4): 554-565. doi: ...
Chitsaz, Mohsen; Brown, Melissa H. (2017-03-03). "The role played by drug efflux pumps in bacterial multidrug resistance". ... Laura J. V. Piddock (2006). "Multidrug-resistance efflux pumps ? not just for resistance". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 4 (8): ... Multidrug resistance pumps (MDR pumps) also known Multidrug efflux pumps are a type of efflux pump and P-glycoprotein. MDR ... Pathogenic bacterial and fungal species have developed MDR pumps which efflux out many antibiotics and antifugals, increasing ...
His research focuses on bacterial pathogen drug resistance, including to antibiotics. His Birmingham research group combines ...
Grynberg M, Erlandsen H, Godzik A (May 2003). "HEPN: a common domain in bacterial drug resistance and human neurodegenerative ... which includes several classes of enzymes that are responsible for some types of bacterial resistance to aminoglycosides. These ... and in many bacterial and archaea proteins. There are three classes of proteins with HEPN domains: Single-domain HEPN proteins ... enzymes deactivate various antibiotics by transferring a nucleotidyl group to the drug. A multidomain sacsin protein in genomes ...
"Roles of Regulatory RNAs for Antibiotic Resistance in Bacteria and Their Potential Value as Novel Drug Targets". Frontiers in ... Several bacterial sRNAs are involved in the regulation of genes that confer antibiotic resistance. For example, the sRNA DsrA ... Bacterial sRNAs affect how genes are expressed within bacterial cells via interaction with mRNA or protein, and thus can affect ... Biofilm is a type of bacterial growth pattern where multiple layers of bacterial cells adhere to a host surface. This mode of ...
She has also looked at how microbes evolve in drug gradients; finding that drug resistance is accelerated by the presence of a ... Bacterial colonies self-assemble on soft gel surfaces, and Allen has modelled how they compete for space. Allen uses algorithms ... Her research into antimicrobial resistance considers how antibiotic drugs interact with the physiology of a cell. ... "Mutational Pathway Determines Whether Drug Gradients Accelerate Evolution of Drug-Resistant Cells". Physical Review Letters. ...
Schuster FL, Visvesvara GS (February 2004). "Opportunistic amoebae: challenges in prophylaxis and treatment". Drug Resistance ... contain diverse bacterial endosymbionts that are similar to human pathogens, so they are considered to be potential emerging ... A paper published in 2013 has shown substantial effects of some FDA-approved drugs with an in vitro kill rate above 90%. These ... Baig AM, Iqbal J, Khan NA (August 2013). "In vitro efficacies of clinically available drugs against growth and viability of an ...
However, resistance has developed against some drugs, as a result of mutational changes in DHFR itself. DHFR mutations cause a ... Trimethoprim has shown to have activity against a variety of Gram-positive bacterial pathogens. However, resistance to ... Resistance can arise from DHFR gene amplification, mutations in DHFR, decrease in the uptake of the drugs, among others. ... Methotrexate, a competitive inhibitor of DHFR, is one such anticancer drug that inhibits DHFR. Other drugs include trimethoprim ...
Drug resistance Food preservation Food Irradiation Irradiation of Microbes from Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Pool Environments ... Bacterial cell surfaces may be damaged by the acceleration forces attained in centrifuges. Laboratory centrifuges routinely ... Pulses of low intensity may result in the increased production of secondary metabolites and a build-up of resistance. PEF ... Peterson, Brandon W.; Sharma, Prashant K.; Van Der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J. (2012). "Bacterial Cell Surface Damage Due ...
The Bacterial Cell-Wall Unit Carrier at the Membrane Frontier". Microbial Drug Resistance. 20 (3): 199-214. doi:10.1089/mdr. ... is an essential molecule involved in construction of the bacterial peptidoglycan cell wall. It is a receptor found in the ...
Results showed efficacy against TB, albeit with minor toxicity and acquired bacterial resistance to the drug. Because ... It may be useful in cases where resistance to other drugs is identified.[medical citation needed] Plague (Yersinia pestis): Has ... "Streptomycin". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Portal: Medicine (CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of July ... Streptomycin controls bacterial diseases of certain fruit, vegetables, seed, and ornamental crops. A major use is in the ...
His main research focus areas are HIV drug resistance and structure and function of bacterial cells. Goodsell has developed a ... protein-protein interactions and for computer-aided drug design. In particular he is a developer of AutoDock, the most widely- ...
Influenza viruses can show resistance to anti-viral drugs. Like the development of bacterial antibiotic resistance, this can ... Wu J, Yan P, Archibald C (2007). "Modelling the evolution of drug resistance in the presence of antiviral drugs". BMC Public ... However, virus strains have emerged that show drug resistance to some classes of drug. The United States authority on disease ... and over-use of these drugs has probably contributed to the spread of resistance. In particular, this high-level of resistance ...
The Bacterial Cell-Wall Unit Carrier at the Membrane Frontier". Microbial Drug Resistance. 20 (3): 199-214. doi:10.1089/mdr. ... On a larger scale, this is helpful when fighting, or preventing bacterial infections. Bacitracin is an example of one of these ... "Antagonism screen for inhibitors of bacterial cell wall biogenesis uncovers an inhibitor of undecaprenyl diphosphate synthase ...
... they develop resistance to drugs by transferring genes in atypical ways and recombining with related bacterial species." Early ... Petousis-Harris, Helen (30 September 2020). "Assessing the Safety of COVID-19 Vaccines: A Primer". Drug Safety. 43 (12): 1205- ... bacterial meningitis, bacteremia and otitis media (OM), commonly known as middle ear infection. The same paper signals concerns ...
In later years she published many important studies on the occurrence and significance of drug resistance plasmids in ... Richard P. Novick et al., "Uniform Nomenclature for Bacterial Plasmids: A Proposal", Bacteriol. Rev., March 1976, pp. 168-189 ... Datta, Naomi (September 1962). "Transmissible drug resistance in an epidemic strain of Salmonella typhimurium". Journal of ... She found that some resistance genes, including those for gentamicin resistance, are located on transposons and are readily ...
Antibiotic resistance to this drug has been increasing, especially in southern China. Recently the gene mcr-1, which confers ... but no longer kills the bacterial cell. However, it still detectably increases the permeability of the bacterial cell wall to ... the antibiotic resistance, has been isolated from bacterial plasmids in Enterobacteriaceae. Polymyxins are a group of cyclic ... Polymyxins B and E (also known as colistin) are used in the treatment of Gram-negative bacterial infections. They work mostly ...
Drug resistance occurs as bacterial or viral populations evolve to no longer respond to medications that previously worked. In ... One of the two types of HIV drug resistance is induced resistance. Induced resistance refers to resistance that occurs as a ... The other type of HIV drug resistance is primary resistance. Primary resistance refers to resistance that is not incurred as a ... Drug resistance Larder B (2001). "Mechanisms of HIV-1 drug resistance". AIDS. 15 Suppl 5: S27-34. doi:10.1097/00002030- ...
... of action of systemic antibiotics used in periodontal treatment and mechanisms of bacterial resistance to these drugs". Journal ... Using any of these, bacteria commonly develop resistance to different antibiotics, a phenomenon called multi-drug resistance. ... They are still widely used today for different bacterial infections, though many types of bacteria have developed resistance ... Rice LB (February 2012). "Mechanisms of resistance and clinical relevance of resistance to β-lactams, glycopeptides, and ...
Antibiotic resistance or development of multi-drug resistant bacterial strains is a key challenge for treating bacterial ... Bacterial Genes for Antibiotic Resistance Scenario's-What's the Difference?". Isb.vt.edu. Archived from the original on 6 June ... Anti-tuberculosis drugs, Cell culture reagents, Wikipedia medicine articles ready to translate, Withdrawn drugs, Japanese ... Briggs G (2011). Drugs in Pregnancy and Lactation: A Reference Guide to Fetal and Neonatal Risk. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins ...
Microbial Drug Resistance. 18 (3): 280-5. doi:10.1089/mdr.2012.0002. PMC 3412580. PMID 22432705. Dabrowski AN, Shrivastav A, ... The mechanism of bacterial killing by PGLYRP4 is based on induction of lethal envelope stress, which eventually leads to the ... PGLYRP4-induced bacterial killing does not involve cell membrane permeabilization, which is typical for defensins and other ... Laman JD, 't Hart BA, Power C, Dziarski R (July 2020). "Bacterial Peptidoglycan as a Driver of Chronic Brain Inflammation" (PDF ...
Drug resistance, such as antimicrobial resistance or antineoplastic resistance, may make the first-line drug ineffective, ... used as a drug of last resort for a variety of different bacterial infections; Ceftobiprole and ceftaroline - fifth-generation ... A drug of last resort (DoLR), also known as a heroic dose, is a pharmaceutical drug which is tried after all other drug options ... Mann, Samuel J. (2012). Hypertension and you : old drugs, new drugs, and the right drugs for your high blood pressure. Lanham, ...
818 million to develop CRISPR-Cas3 drugs targeting two bacterial pathogens. Locus received $20 million upfront and up to $798 ... Martz, Lauren (August 31, 2017). "Cutting through resistance". Biocentury. Retrieved July 18, 2020. Maurer, Allan (November 19 ... Eanes, Zachery (March 9, 2021). "Locus using gene-editing technology to get ahead of drug-resistant bacteria". The Herald-Sun. ... The intended therapeutic targets are antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections. The company was founded as a spin-off from ...
Indian politicians have described linking this new drug resistance gene to India as "malicious propaganda" and blamed ... The carbapenems were developed to overcome antibiotic resistance mediated by bacterial beta-lactamase enzymes. However, the ... Bacterial enzymes, Bacteriology, Beta-lactam antibiotics, EC 3.5.2, Antimicrobial resistance). ... in December 2009 in a Swedish national who fell ill with an antibiotic-resistant bacterial infection that he acquired in India ...
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration began referring to this category of infection as acute bacterial SSSIs (ABSSSI) in 2008. ... The increased prevalence of antibiotic resistance is evident in MRSA species commonly involved in SSSIs, which worsen prognoses ... See "Guidance for Industry Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Developing Drugs for Treatment" (PDF). Food and ... "Guidance for Industry - Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Developing Drugs for Treatment" (PDF). Food and ...
These PEGylated drugs are injected once weekly, rather than administering two or three times per week, as is necessary for ... The H5N1 influenza virus, also known as bird flu, has resistance to interferon and other anti-viral cytokines that is ... Binding of molecules uniquely found in microbes-viral glycoproteins, viral RNA, bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide), ... Both hepatitis B and hepatitis C are treated with IFN-α, often in combination with other antiviral drugs. Some of those treated ...
Hydrogen fluoride subsequently acidifies the bacterial cytoplasm, inactivating the essential enzymes for bacterial metabolism, ... Dental fluorosis is a dose-dependent adverse drug effect featured by temporary white marks. It can be induced by increased ... Topical fluoride can increase the resistance of enamel to acid. Bacteria in enamel, including Streptococcus mutans, generate ... These polysaccharides are necessary for adherence to enamel, while these acids are essential for the synthesis of bacterial ...
Chen HY, Shao CJ, Chen FR, Kwan AL, Chen ZP (April 2010). "Role of ERCC1 promoter hypermethylation in drug resistance to ... Estrem ST, Ross W, Gaal T, Chen ZW, Niu W, Ebright RH, Gourse RL (August 1999). "Bacterial promoter architecture: subsite ... November 1993). "A third recognition element in bacterial promoters: DNA binding by the alpha subunit of RNA polymerase". ...
A report given to the Food and Drug Administration by the Institute of Food Technologists thoroughly discusses the thermal ... Refrigeration does slow spoilage in food and reduce the risk of bacterial growth, however, it does not improve the quality of ... necessitating continued research to maintain disease-resistance. An important task within the realm of food safety is the ...
Their simulations suggested that drug resistance may arise from disruption of the binding process due to electrostatic ... transfer and spin exchange contributing to the magnetic field dependence of the primary photochemical reaction of bacterial ... group at Illinois and researchers at the University of Utah published research examining the development of drug resistance to ...
Hydrogen peroxide is used to help eliminate bacterial spores in the alcohol; it is "not an active substance for hand antisepsis ... While work is underway to develop drugs that inhibit the virus, the primary treatment is symptomatic. Management involves the ... to recommendations for optimised disinfection procedures to avoid issues such as the increase of antimicrobial resistance ...
For cells with a longer cell cycle time and a significantly long G1 phase, there is a second peak of resistance late in G1. The ... The D period refers to the stage between the end of DNA replication and the splitting of the bacterial cell into two daughter ... are targeted in cancer therapy as the DNA is relatively exposed during cell division and hence susceptible to damage by drugs ... Cancer cells with loss of Rb have primary resistance to Cdk4/6 inhibitors. Current evidence suggests that a semi-autonomous ...
Drug resistance is increasingly more common and presents a serious problem in persons who are immunocompromised. Prophylactic ... Peleg AY, Hogan DA, Mylonakis E (May 2010). "Medically important bacterial-fungal interactions". Nature Reviews. Microbiology. ... However, there is strong evidence that drugs that are absorbed or partially absorbed from the GI tract can prevent candidiasis ... Oral candidiasis can be treated with topical anti-fungal drugs, such as nystatin, miconazole, Gentian violet or amphotericin B ...
The narration and dialogue reflects the shattering of language under the influence of the drugs, in mutating phrases and puns ... "Bacterial Action" (poem), "Star-Time" (poem), "Just for a Moment" (poem), "I Was Never Deaf or Blind to Her Music" (poem), " ... to clarify the abuses and with the disorganised earthling resistance reflect the complex relationship existing between ... in the Middle East led to Europe being attacked with bombs releasing huge quantities of long-lived hallucinogenic drugs. Into ...
In support of this notion, Gemigliptin, an anti-diabetic drug, has been shown reduce insulin resistance and concurrently ... In mouse models of bacterial sepsis caused by of E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and ligation followed by puncture of the cecum, the ... Blood levels of LECT2 in patients suffering bacterial sepsis correlated inversely with the severity of systemic inflammation ... Meex RC, Watt MJ (2017). "Hepatokines: linking nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and insulin resistance". Nature Reviews. ...
Bacterial colonization: Poor oral hygiene can result in colonization of the mouth with excessive amounts of bacteria, which is ... Others: Age, male gender, diabetes mellitus, malnutrition, use of antipsychotic drugs, proton pump inhibitors, and angiotensin- ... or meropenem is recommended in cases of potential antibiotic resistance. The typical duration of antibiotic therapy is about 5 ... The use of antimicrobials is reserved for chemical pneumonitis complicated by secondary bacterial infection. There have been ...
Infection and Drug Resistance. 8: 119-128. doi:10.2147/IDR.S66739. PMC 4440423. PMID 26028977. Tarulli AW, Raynor EM (May 2007 ... Successful infection of the mammalian host depends on bacterial expression of OspC. Tick bites often go unnoticed because of ... The resistance of a genospecies of Lyme disease spirochetes to the bacteriolytic activities of the alternative complement ... It was granted fast track designation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in July 2017. In April 2020 Pfizer paid $130 ...
... pesticides have the potential to be a major factor in drug resistance. Organizations such as the World Health ... Bacterial spores on the other hand cannot be killed by iodine, but they can be inhibited by iodophors. The growth of ... Antibacterials are among the most commonly used drugs and among the drugs commonly misused by physicians, for example, in viral ... Many antiviral drugs are designed to treat infections by retroviruses, including HIV. Important antiretroviral drugs include ...
... (born 1948) is a microbiologist and immunologist focused on the immune response of bacterial and parasitic ... Carol Nacy, CEO of Sequella, Takes on the Global Crisis of Anti-Microbial Resistance BioBuzz". BioBuzz. 2018-08-27. Retrieved ... for her work to create new drugs for TB. Nacy is married to Monte S. Meltzer, M.D., has 5 children and 3 grandchildren. Yee, ...
... in order to fight against antibiotic resistance. Roberts, Jeffrey; Park, Joo-Seop (2004). "Mfd, the bacterial transcription ... Palisoc, Mhean (2019-01-03). "Merrikh Lab Working to Defeat Drug-Resistant Superbugs". Science and Technology Research News. ... quickens the bacterial mutation process. This work researches ways to slow the rate of bacterial mutations and to block their ... In 2015, Merrikh Lab at University of Washington discovered the bacterial protein called Mutation Frequency Decline (Mfd) ...
Hospital-acquired infections are being targeted due to their susceptibility to multi-drug resistance. In particular, Arenicin-3 ... Given the growing acquisition of multidrug resistance among bacterial pathogens, particularly in Gram-negative bacteria, the ... The drug arenicin was discovered by the company Adenium Biotech, which spun off from Novozymes A/S in 2011 and was given ... The arenicin family has shown to have bactericidal effects on a broad range of multi-drug resistant Gram-negative and Gram- ...
Bacterial cellulose is produced using the same family of proteins, although the gene is called BcsA for "bacterial cellulose ... Electrical insulation paper: Cellulose is used in diverse forms as insulation in transformers, cables, and other electrical ... are used as inactive fillers in drug tablets and a wide range of soluble cellulose derivatives, E numbers E461 to E469, are ... The bacterial mass is later digested by the ruminant in its digestive system (stomach and small intestine). Horses use ...
The bacterial G6PD found in Leuconostoc mesenteroides was shown to be reactive toward 4-Hydroxynonenal, in addition to G6P. ... Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency Genetic resistance to malaria Thomas D, Cherest H, Surdin-Kerjan Y (March 1991). " ... August 2019). "Targeting tumor phenotypic plasticity and metabolic remodeling in adaptive cross-drug tolerance". Science ... structures of F420-dependent glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase FGD1 involved in the activation of the anti-tuberculosis drug ...
New drugs are the products of a long drug development process, the first step of which is often the discovery of a new enzyme ... Buynak JD (September 2007). "Cutting and stitching: the cross-linking of peptidoglycan in the assembly of the bacterial cell ... Gualerzi CO, Brandi L, Fabbretti A, Pon CL (2013). Antibiotics: Targets, Mechanisms and Resistance. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons ... Drugs that inhibit enzymes needed for the replication of viruses are effective in treating viral infections. Antiviral drugs ...
Elevated Hsp70 levels in tumor cells may increase malignancy and resistance to therapy by complexing, and hence, stabilizing, ... "Modification of two distinct COOH-terminal domains is required for murine p53 activation by bacterial Hsp70". The Journal of ... "HSP70 polymorphisms in first psychotic episode drug-naïve schizophrenic patients". Life Sciences. 100 (2): 133-7. doi:10.1016/j ...
When the selected antibiotic is added to the agar, only bacterial cells containing the gene insert conferring resistance will ... Then they would take aliquots of the sample to test for the antimicrobial activity of a specific drug or protein (antimicrobial ... One method of bacterial culture is liquid culture, in which the desired bacteria are suspended in a liquid nutrient medium, ... There are several types of bacterial culture methods that are selected based on the agent being cultured and the downstream use ...
... demonstrate a high correlation between their resistance to bacterial adhesion and their hydrophobicity. A study of the ... leading to increased drag of up to 60%. The drag increase has been seen to decrease speeds by up to 10%, which can require up ... In the next 24 hours, this layer allows the process of bacterial adhesion to occur, with both diatoms and bacteria (e.g. Vibrio ... 2001), "Hydrophobicity in Bacterial Adhesion", Biofilm community interactions: chance or necessity? (PDF), BioLine, ISBN 978- ...
and pneumococci have developed resistance to it to varying degrees. "Cefpirome Sulfate spectrum of bacterial susceptibility and ... Drugs with no legal status, Drugboxes which contain changes to verified fields, Drugboxes which contain changes to watched ... Resistance" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 10 April 2012. v t e (Articles with changed ...
After significant safety concerns, the US Food and Drug Administration sharply curtailed the approved uses of the drug in early ... acute bacterial sinusitis and acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. The agency determined that the balance of ... Telithromycin fulfills a role that has arisen due to the rise of microbial resistance to existing macrolides and appears to be ... "The Adequacy of FDA Efforts to Assure the Safety of the Drug Supply", February 13, 2007. [1] Food and Drug Administration, ...
... and epidemiology of bacterial resistance". Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. 65 (2): 232-60, second page, table of ... Tetracyclines are considered broad-spectrum antibiotic agents; these drugs exhibit capabilities of inhibiting the growth of ... Arenz, S; Nguyen, F; Beckmann, R; Wilson, DN (28 April 2015). "Cryo-EM structure of the tetracycline resistance protein TetM in ...
Studies using the electron microscope showed that the electrical resistance of epithelial layers depends on the complexity and ... Cario, E (2005). "Bacterial interactions with cells of the intestinal mucosa: Toll-like receptors and NOD2". Gut. 54 (8): 1182- ... Sarmento, Bruno (30 September 2015). Concepts and Models for Drug Permeability Studies: Cell and Tissue based In Vitro Culture ... This channel allows various molecules, ions and electrical impulses to pass between the two cells. These complexes, consisting ...
... patient compliance and bacterial factors such as antibiotic resistance. Patients most often fail to respond to initial H. ... Several studies reported eradication rates of > 90% using a 10-day sequential regimen consisting of four drugs: a proton pump ... In areas of low clarithromycin resistance, including the United States, a 14-day course of "triple therapy" with an oral proton ... Bismuth-based quadruple therapy is recommended as first line therapy for patients in areas with high clarithromycin resistance ...
Anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in the world : third global report / the WHO/IUATLD Global Project on Anti-Tuberculosis Drug ... Anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in the world : fourth global report . / the WHO/IUATLD Global Project on Anti-Tuberculosis ... Drug Resistance Surveillance, 2002-2007  WHO/IUATLD Global Project on Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance Surveillance (‎World ... Resistance Surveillance, 1999-2002  WHO/IUATLD Global Project on Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance Surveillance; World Health ...
Title : Bacterial genetics and drug resistance Personal Author(s) : Davis, Bernard D. Published Date : Apr 1952;04-1952; Source ... Bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents: selected problems in France, 1996 to 1998. Cite ... Title : Bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents: selected problems in France, 1996 to 1998. Personal Author(s) : Aubry- ... Extensively Drug-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, South Korea, 2011-2012 Cite CITE. Title : Extensively Drug-Resistant ...
Emerging bacterial drug resistance in hospital practice. Indian Journal of Medical Sciences. 1997 Aug; 51(8): 275-80. en_US. ... Our data on the bacterial drug resistance at a tertiary care centre during 1995-1996 has been alarming with an incidence of 73 ... The growing multiple drug resistance among bacteria in hospital practice is posing a serious threat to the successful ... The resistance to gentamicin and ciprofloxacin ranged from 53 to 79%. Resistance to amikacin, netilmicin and the third ...
Mechanisms of resistance to fluoroquinolones: state of the art 1992-1994. Drugs. 1995;49(Suppl 2):S29-35. DOIGoogle Scholar ... Mechanisms of bacterial resistance to antibiotics and biocides. Prog Med Chem. 1998;35:133-97. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ... How important is drug resistance? Med Clin North Am. 2001;85:1367-79. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Bacterial resistance to fluoroquinolones: mechanisms and patterns. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1995;390:49-57.PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Near future may bring the need to change the treatment regimen of bacterial vaginosis. ... Drug Resistance, Bacterial* * Female * Gardnerella vaginalis / drug effects* * Gardnerella vaginalis / isolation & purification ... Antibiotic resistance of Gardnerella vaginalis isolated from cases of bacterial vaginosis] Ginekol Pol. 2011 Dec;82(12):900-4. ... Introduction: Gardnerella vaginalis is one of the dominant etiological factors related to bacterial vaginosis. Literature ...
Results of search for su:{Drug resistance, Bacterial.} Refine your search. *. Availability. * Limit to currently available ... Anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in the world : third global report / the WHO/IUATLD Global Project on Anti-Tuberculosis Drug ... by WHO/IUATLD Global Project on Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance Surveillance.. Material type: Text; Format: print Publication ... Anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in the world : fourth global report . / the WHO/IUATLD Global Project on Anti-Tuberculosis ...
Combating antimicrobial resistance, including antibiotic resistance: Draft resolution proposed by Australia, China, Costa Rica ... Browsing EB134 by Subject "Anti-Bacterial Agents". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W. X ...
drug resistance bacterial. Website summaries. Medical Information Search ... Drug ResistanceDrug Resistance, ViralDrug Resistance, NeoplasmDrug Resistance, MultipleDrug Resistance, MicrobialDrug ... Resistance, BacterialDrug Resistance, Multiple, BacterialDrug Resistance, FungalMutationDisease ResistanceDrug Resistance, ... MDRTetracycline ResistanceDrug Resistance, Multiple, FungalPenicillin ResistancePlant DiseasesPhenotypeAirway Resistance ...
Active Bacterial Core Surveillance (ABCs) publications that are not specific to a single pathogen. ... Fridkin SK, Cleveland AA, See I, Lynfield R. Emerging Infections Program as Surveillance for Antimicrobial Drug Resistance. ... for the Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Team of the Emerging Infections Program Network. Update from the Active Bacterial ... Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States, 2013. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2013. ...
Drug Resistance, Bacterial. en_US. dc.subject.mesh. Global Health. en_US. ... Regional operational framework for implementation of the WHO Global Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance. dc.contributor. ... Regional operational framework for implementation of the WHO Global Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance. en_US. ...
How the world belatedly responded to antimicrobial resistance. An imagined scenario from 2041 , The World If ... In the late 2020s bacterial resistance to older drugs suddenly exploded in rich countries. Most antibiotics were no longer ... They include a novel drug for tuberculosis-for which the last new drug was approved in 2012, the first new drug for the disease ... The first is that the practices that promoted drug resistance in the past have finally been phased out, after decades of ...
... new research shows the treatment of bacterial vaginosis can reduce this risk. ... HIV: Tenofovir Resistance Higher Than Expected * 2001. HIV: Low Risk for Drug Resistance From PrEP ... Pleasedo not use this form to submit personal or patient medical information or to report adverse drug events. You are ... Cite this: Bacterial Vaginosis Raises HIV Risk, Lowers Tenofovir Level - Medscape - Jul 19, 2016. ...
Epidemiological profile of invasive bacterial diseases in children in Casablanca, Morocco: antimicrobial susceptibilities and ... Eleven-year surveillance of antibiotic resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae in Casablanca (Morocco). Microbial Drug ... local data on the pattern of drug resistance in order to formulate appropriate recommendations for therapy. Furthermore, given ... Resistance of strains to erythromycin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim/sulfa-methoxazole and rifampicin were tested by the disk ...
... drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria becomes more and more serious. Therefore, it is interesting to develop a more reasonable ... Because they can destroy the bacterial cell structure and then kill the infectious bacterium, the bacterial cell wall lyases ... However, antibiotics abuse may cause bacterial drug resistance. Thus, there is an ever-increasing need to find new ways to ... With growing drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria, great effort has been placed on the study and development of lyases. ...
Pre-Existing Mutations Can Lead to Drug Resistance in HIV Health Biologists Reverse Bacterial Resistance to Antibiotics ... the findings of widespread collateral sensitivity interactions among clinically applied drugs anticipate that the resistance ... The emergence of drug-resistant bacteria combined with an increasing lack of novel classes of antibiotics has made antibiotic ... "Actually, some of our findings relate to drugs that are already used clinically and it is possible that benefits can be gained ...
Sputum Pharmacokinetics of TB Drugs and Bacterial Drug Resistance. This study is NOT currently recruiting participants. ... 4) Suspected drug resistance (drug susceptible allowed at the NIH CC) 5) Available to provide at least 3 sputa over 2 or more ... People ages 18 and older who have TB or NTM infection that is suspected to be drug resistant. They must be taking TB or NTM ... Peloquin C. Use of therapeutic drug monitoring in tuberculosis patients. Chest. 2004 Dec;126(6):1722-4. --Back to Top-- ...
And yet, if we dont take action now to Resist the Resistance, 4.1 million people across Africa could be dead by 2050. ... Antimicrobial resistance, or AMR, is a health care crisis you likely have never heard about. ... are empowered and start to acquire resistance to the drugs designed to kill them. This is called antimicrobial resistance, or ... Vanessa Carter nearly lost her face to antibiotic resistance.. She likely acquired a bacterial infection while in hospital ...
Categories: Drug Resistance, Bacterial Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Diagnosing and Treating Acute Bacterial Rhinosinusitis: New Guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Society of America - The ... Inappropriate use can cause harm by fostering antibiotic resistance, unnecessarily exposing patients to drug side effects and ... Read the full-text "IDSA Clinical Practice Guideline for Acute Bacterial Rhinosinusitis in Children and Adults online at http ... As well, he serves on the clinical and scientific advisory boards of several pharmaceutical companies for new drug discovery, ...
... Recommendations of the Hospital Infection Control Practices ... Outbreak of multi-drug resistant Enterococcus faecium with transferable vanB class vancomycin resistance. J Clin Microbiol 1994 ... Prevention of bacterial endocarditis. Circulation 1984;70:1123-4. * Maki DG, Bohn MJ, Stolz SM, Kroncke GM, Acher CW, Myerowitz ... Vancomycin resistance in enterococci has coincided with the increasing incidence of high-level enterococcal resistance to ...
Cell motility 02030 Bacterial chemotaxis. 02040 Flagellar assembly. Human Diseases Drug resistance: antimicrobial 01501 beta- ... 03070 Bacterial secretion system. Signal transduction 02020 Two-component system. Cellular Processes Cellular community - ...
The plasmid content of ESBL producing isolates and their participation in drug resistance were investigated. Results: Of the 80 ... The predominant bacterial pathogens were Escherichia coli (42%) followed by Klebsiella pneumonia (21%), Klebsiella oxytoca (12 ... Objective: To isolate ESBLs producing uropathogens and the plasmid underlying their resistance to antibiotics. Materials and ... bacterial isolates causing urinary tract infection in these women, the ESBL producers were found to be 16 (20%). Out of these ...
The emergence of drug resistance has been observed following the introduction of each new class of antibiotics. Nowadays, ... Bacterial resistance to antimicrobials risks diminishing the efficacy of these medicines and threatens human health. The ... Resistance levels in swine and poultry. Surveillance and monitoring studies on antimicrobial resistance provide information ... Antibiotic resistance develops because resistance genes can be transferred between bacteria and gene mutations occur. ...
CDC study examines clinician prescribing practices for flu antiviral drugs and antibiotics - CDC ... Such practices have led to an alarming increase in bacterial drug resistance. ... The authors of the study concluded that more needs to be done to educate clinicians on the benefits of flu antiviral drugs in ... New Study Shows Clinicians Under-Prescribing Flu Antiviral Drugs and Possibly Overprescribing Antibiotics. ...
Homeopathy, News, Anti-Bacterial Agents, Drug Resistance, Bacterial, Anti-Bacterial Agents, Anti-Bacterial Agents, Tonsillitis ... Homeopathy, News, Pharmaceutical Preparations, Anti-Bacterial Agents, Adrenal Cortex Hormones, Respiratory Tract Diseases ...
Bacterial CFUs were counted after baicalin treatment for 48 h. **p , 0.01, Data are shown as mean ± SD of three independent ... In the case of both malaria and tuberculosis, emergence of multidrug resistance towards frontline drugs has been reported in ... Bacterial CFUs were counted after baicalin treatment for 48 h. **p , 0.01, Data are shown as mean ± SD of three independent ... Host-directed therapy (HDT) has been shown to be an effective anti-TB strategy in the absence of effective anti-TB drugs. Here ...
Phylogenetic relationships of drug-resistance factors and other transmissible bacterial plasmids.. Bact. Rev 32:55 ... Meynell E., Datta N. 1967; Mutant drug resistance factors of high transmissibility.. Nature, Lond 214:885 ... Nishimura Y., IsHiBAsm M., Meynell E., Hirota Y. 1967; Specific piliation directed by a fertility factor and a resistance ... Selection of Mutant Bacterial Sex Factors Determining Altered Sex Pili * G. G. Meynell1, Eva Aufreiter1 ...
Categories: Drug Resistance, Bacterial Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
  • Antibiotic resistance is now considered to be a great curse to the present world. (lookformedical.com)
  • Researcher suspected that millions of people will die due to the rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance by 2050. (lookformedical.com)
  • There are lots of mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. (lookformedical.com)
  • In this context, both type of antibiotic resistance mechanisms will be discussed. (lookformedical.com)
  • The last mechanism belongs to horizontal gene transfer-mediated resistance and most of the other mechanisms of antibiotic resistance are mutation-mediated. (lookformedical.com)
  • As early as the 1950s, when the first generation of antibiotics became widely available, it became evident that the more an antibiotic was used, the faster bacteria developed mutations that conferred resistance to it. (economist.com)
  • ABSTRACT The aim of this prospective study in Morocco was to investigate the causes of invasive bacterial diseases in children in order to inform antibiotic therapy and vaccine choices. (who.int)
  • Our discovery of widespread antibiotic sensitivities in the multidrug-resistant pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa opens up the opportunity to limit the development of antibiotic resistance and perhaps even revert it. (scitechdaily.com)
  • The emergence of drug-resistant bacteria combined with an increasing lack of novel classes of antibiotics has made antibiotic resistance one of the immense threats to global health. (scitechdaily.com)
  • The current thinking on resistance evolution suggests that pathogens causing chronic infections become increasingly resistant in response to antibiotic treatment. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Killer infections like tuberculosis (TB) have become resistant to the antibiotic drugs that save lives. (who.int)
  • Inappropriate use can cause harm by fostering antibiotic resistance, unnecessarily exposing patients to drug side effects and adding cost. (cdc.gov)
  • The addition of clavulanate helps to overcome resistance by inhibiting an enzyme that breaks down the antibiotic. (cdc.gov)
  • This recommendation is a departure from previous rhinosinusitis guidelines, but was made to address antibiotic resistance and reflect the increased use of pneumococcal vaccines, which have changed the pattern of bacteria that cause sinus infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Although antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria existed before the use of antibiotics in human and veterinary medicine, increased use of antibiotics corresponded with greater antibiotic resistance. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Antibiotic resistance develops because resistance genes can be transferred between bacteria and gene mutations occur. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • For nearly all antibiotics reported in Figures 3 and 4 , antimicrobial resistance in E. coli has not increased since the 2006 antibiotic growth promoter ban. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • This suggests that it may be possible to reduce the amount of antibiotics used in livestock production and prevent further increases in antibiotic resistance by implementing good biosecurity, enhanced management practices and natural growth promoters on farms. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • 1,2 Conversely, not all patients who appear septic demonstrate an infection, and the widespread administration of antibiotics to all these patients carries problems of antibiotic resistance, drug toxicity, and increased medical costs. (scielo.br)
  • However, drug-based approaches have not, so far, yielded improved treatments for antibiotic-resistant infections. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • And in research to be published October 5 in Nature Biotechnology, the team describes a 'programmable' antibiotic technique that selectively targets the bad bugs, particularly those harboring antibiotic resistance genes, while leaving other, more innocent microbes alone. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The health of the public has been widely affected by the upcoming microbes that cause diseases and which have grown resistant to antibiotic drug. (exclusivepapers.com)
  • NaturalNews) For seven decades now, we've been using antibiotics to successfully fight bacterial infections, but standard antibiotic treatments are now steadily dwindling in effectiveness against new strains of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, or "superbugs. (naturalnews.com)
  • In most instances, antibiotic resistance, which is a natural phenomenon, occurs when bacteria undergo or acquire mutation to alter the target sites of drugs. (bartleby.com)
  • Most people are looking for new drugs or new drug targets, or rapid diagnostics" - tests that can quickly help doctors identify the best antibiotic for a given infection, he says. (kqed.org)
  • Efforts to refine those practices have been based primarily on health outcomes rather than considering antibiotic resistance. (kqed.org)
  • We didn't know what was happening with a lot of these pathogens" because antibiotic resistance screening had become a lower priority during COVID-19 surges, Chiller said. (healthjournalism.org)
  • If your results show you don't have a bacterial infection, you should not take antibiotic medicines. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Taking antibiotics when you don't need them won't help you feel better and may lead a serious problem known as antibiotic resistance . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Study the role of biofilm formation on antibiotic resistance of M. abscessus . (wadsworth.org)
  • Mycobacterium abscessus WhiB7 Regulates a Species-Specific Repertoire of Genes To Confer Extreme Antibiotic Resistance. (wadsworth.org)
  • They suggest that there is a connection between the evolution of resistance to chemotherapy and antibiotic resistance in bacterial communities. (genomeweb.com)
  • But multiple resistance was accumulating and by the 1980s empirical therapy of staphylococcal infections, particularly nosocomial sepsis, was changed to the glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin. (pharmacy180.com)
  • It has been estimated that more than 70% of antibiotic resistance occurs in the Asia-pacific region of the world, making antimicrobial resistance extremely problematic for Asian countries [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although antibiotics are available to treat different bacterial infections in humans, the leading cause for concern is continually changing bacteria and the development of antibiotic resistance. (javatpoint.com)
  • The overuse of antibiotics in intensive agricultural practices and the treatment of bacterial infections in people has been significant factor in the rise of bacterial antibiotic resistance. (javatpoint.com)
  • Moreover, capping antibiotic use could lead to higher drug prices, threatening access for those who need the medication. (timesofoman.com)
  • Then, in November 2017, the Centre for Antibiotic Resistance Research (CARe) at my own university held the first-ever major symposium on the topic, bringing together leading scholars in economics, ethics, law, policy, social science, and health care. (timesofoman.com)
  • In fact, the scientific community is progressively relying on natural compounds as alternatives to artificial chemicals in order to suppress increasing drug expenses and the resulting antibiotic resistance. (cheact.org)
  • We develop a mathematical model for 1tness landscapes generated by such tradeoffs, based on experiments that determine the antibiotic dose-response curves of Escherichia coli strains, and previous observations on antibiotic resistance mutations. (ed.ac.uk)
  • This implies that selection for antibiotic resistance in multiple mutational steps is relatively facile despite the complexity of the underlying landscape. (ed.ac.uk)
  • But growing antibiotic resistance is curbing the effectiveness of these drugs. (nas.edu)
  • Other strategies include avoiding antibiotic use for growth promotion in animals and restricting the use of medically important drugs across the board, in both humans and animals. (nas.edu)
  • This so-called "superbug" is increasingly resistant even to vancomycin, often a drug of last resort, and therefore new classes of antibiotic drugs are urgently required. (chemistryviews.org)
  • The choice of antibiotic for treatment of acute bacterial prostatitis (ABP) is based on the results of the initial culture and sensitivity. (medscape.com)
  • If the initial clinical response to therapy is satisfactory and the pathogen is susceptible to the chosen antibiotic, treatment is continued orally (PO) for 30 days to prevent sequelae such as chronic bacterial prostatitis and prostatic abscess formation. (medscape.com)
  • This study aimed to determine the risk factors and in vitro antibiotic susceptibility patterns of bacterial pathogens associated with neonatal sepsis in Federal Medical Centre (FMC) and Turai Umaru Yar'adua Maternal and Children Hospital (TUYMCH), Katsina, Nigeria. (bvsalud.org)
  • In collaboration with Prof. Iain Lamont , Prof. Weihui Wu, and A/Prof. Yongxin Jin we are investigating the best antibiotic combinations that could prevent resistance development. (pletzerlab.com)
  • Genome-wide discovery of epistatic loci affecting antibiotic resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae using evolutionary couplings. (cdc.gov)
  • Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a common cause of infections in hospitals, could also develop resistance to vancomycin, the antibiotic used as a last resort to treat serious infections caused by this resistant bacteria. (cdc.gov)
  • Resistance to the Antibiotic Vancomycin in Enterococcal Infections* in U.S. Hospitals Families and communities Changes in dietary habits, food processing and packaging, and availability of food from all parts of the world are contributing to an increase in illnesses due to foodborne diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • Antibiotic resistance of bacterial strains isolated from patients with community-acquired urinary tract infections: an exploratory study in Palestine. (who.int)
  • Use additional code (U80-U89), (U82-U84), if desired, to identify the antibiotic to which a bacterial agent is resistant. (who.int)
  • Because these illnesses are often caused by viruses, antibiotics may do no good and might increase your resistance to the antibiotic. (miamilakesvet.com)
  • If you become resistant to an antibiotic, it will no longer be effective in treating bacterial infections. (miamilakesvet.com)
  • Failing to finish antibiotics can also increase antibiotic resistance. (miamilakesvet.com)
  • Health care providers commonly use the antibiotic vancomycin to treat Enterococcal infections, but VRE are resistant to the drug. (medlineplus.gov)
  • However, the picture started to change sometime in the 1940s when human behaviour towards the use of antibiotics resulted in what was known as antibiotic resistance. (africanmusings.com)
  • Antibiotic resistance happens when bacteria develop the ability to outsmart the drugs that once killed them. (africanmusings.com)
  • Luckily, most of the reasons for antibiotic resistance are related to human use of the drug. (africanmusings.com)
  • The ones that survive when you did not complete the course have some exposure to the antibiotic and can build up resistance to it. (africanmusings.com)
  • Making efforts to use them responsibly is the first step towards curbing the menace of antibiotic resistance. (africanmusings.com)
  • A possible mechanism of action for the drug's antibiotic activity is via the inhibition of bacterial secretion pumps. (mental-health-matters.org)
  • The β-lactam antibiotic resistance is due to the secretion β-lactamase a protein that destroys antibiotics. (mental-health-matters.org)
  • Antibiotic resistance is a rising concern globally and the serious implications of prescribing antibiotics incorrectly have been highlighted continuously by key health organisations such as the NHS and World Health Organisation (WHO). (randoxbiosciences.com)
  • We are delighted to release our upgraded Respiratory Multiplex Array, a simple swab or sputum test which could help curb the antibiotic resistance pandemic. (randoxbiosciences.com)
  • Following the Lancet Infectious Diseases report last week that antibiotic resistance is growing at a rapid rate, with many 'superbugs' completely unresponsive to antibiotics, it is more important than ever that antibiotics are only prescribed when they will effectively treat an infection. (randoxbiosciences.com)
  • We need more than just guess work to combat the antibiotic resistance pandemic. (randoxbiosciences.com)
  • The more a person uses an antibiotic, the greater the risk of the bacteria developing resistance. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Neisseria meningitidis, a leading cause of bacterial meningitis and other serious infections, is responsible for approximately one-third of cases of bacterial meningitis in the Children's Hospital of Tunis. (who.int)
  • Moreover, the ketolides are associated with a low potential for inducing resistance, making them promising first-line agents for respiratory tract infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Fridkin SK, Cleveland AA, See I, Lynfield R. Emerging Infections Program as Surveillance for Antimicrobial Drug Resistance. (cdc.gov)
  • Complications and associated bacterial co-infections among children hospitalized with seasonal or pandemic influenza, United States, 2003-2010. (cdc.gov)
  • For decades this group of bugs has been the most common cause of infections contracted in hospitals, and it has developed resistance to multiple antibiotics. (economist.com)
  • Like cancer patients, transplant patients are easy prey for infections because their immunity is suppressed by the drugs that prevent organ rejection. (economist.com)
  • We provide specific characteristics of the illness to help doctors distinguish bacterial from viral sinus infections, and provide guidance on which antibiotics are best for appropriate and effective treatment. (cdc.gov)
  • This increase poses important problems, including a) the lack of available antimicrobial therapy for VRE infections, because most VRE are also resistant to drugs previously used to treat such infections (e.g., aminoglycosides and ampicillin), and b) the possibility that the vancomycin-resistant genes present in VRE can be transferred to other gram-positive microorganisms (e.g. (cdc.gov)
  • Vancomycin resistance in enterococci has coincided with the increasing incidence of high-level enterococcal resistance to penicillin and aminoglycosides, thus presenting a challenge for physicians who treat patients who have infections caused by these microorganisms (1,4). (cdc.gov)
  • Decades of research and development of numerous antibiotics helped to keep bacterial infections under control and save countless lives. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • By the late 1950s bacterial infections were difficult to treat and resistant bacteria were reported. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • These consortiums can colonize a variety of surfaces, such as host tissues, dentures, and catheters, resulting in infections highly resistant to drugs, when compared with their planktonic counterparts. (mdpi.com)
  • Most bacterial pathogens responsible for such infections are enclosed by polysaccharide capsules that protect them from phagocytosis and complement- mediated killing, ensuring their persistence on the respiratory mucosa and survival in the bloodstream and deep body tissues. (cdc.gov)
  • Penicillins are a group of antibiotics used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • They treat bacterial infections, not viruses. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This selective approach leaves the healthy microbial community intact, and our experiments suggest that by doing so you can keep resistance in check and so prevent certain types of secondary infections, eliminating two serious hazards associated with treatment by classical antibiotics. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Penicillin antibiotics were among the first drugs to be effective against many previously serious diseases, such as syphilis and infections caused by staphylococci and streptococci. (123helpme.com)
  • The most alarming issue in the modern is the hardship encountered in treatment of infections caused by bacteria due to resistance of bacteria to antibiotics. (exclusivepapers.com)
  • The BBC says: "Superbugs are now a major global health threat with multi-drug resistant bacteria causing around 400,000 infections and 25,000 deaths in Europe every year. (naturalnews.com)
  • Meanwhile, we can try to develop better methods of diagnosing whether infections are viral or bacterial. (naturalnews.com)
  • Although antibiotics can help treat bacterial infections, a possible side effect is that they can strengthen certain bacterial strains. (bartleby.com)
  • Antibiotics are supposed to be used for bacterial infections, but are wrongly being used for both viral and bacterial infections. (bartleby.com)
  • Reporters looking to write about the next chapter in antimicrobial resistance should get up to speed on fungal infections. (healthjournalism.org)
  • Used to help diagnose bacterial or fungal infections in your respiratory tract, such as bacterial pneumonia , tuberculosis , bronchiectasis , and histoplasmosis . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Used to detect bacterial infections in your digestive system, including food poisoning . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Antibiotics only treat bacterial infections. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Bacteriology will encompass classification of bacteria, bacterial pathogenicity and immunological responses by the animal to bacterial infections. (aber.ac.uk)
  • Diseases brought on by bacteria are called bacterial infections. (javatpoint.com)
  • Food poisoning, pneumonia, and meningitis are all frequent ailments from bacterial infections. (javatpoint.com)
  • The bacteria cause bacterial infections by entering the human body through various routes. (javatpoint.com)
  • People with weakened immune systems are more vulnerable to bacterial infections. (javatpoint.com)
  • See your doctor for a correct diagnosis and treatment plan if you suffer any of the symptoms listed below because bacterial illnesses have distinct symptoms similar to viral or influenza infections. (javatpoint.com)
  • Additionally, certain bacterial infections are treated using bacteriophages. (javatpoint.com)
  • Drug resistance threatens the effective treatment of a growing list of communicable diseases - from bacterial infections to viral to and fungal diseases. (timesofoman.com)
  • Antibiotics are powerful medicines that fight bacterial infections. (nas.edu)
  • There are several different classes of drugs in the antiviral family, and each is used for specific kinds of viral infections. (nas.edu)
  • Modern medicine needs new kinds of antibiotics and antivirals to treat drug-resistant infections. (nas.edu)
  • But novel drugs are needed to combat other epidemic viral infections such as influenza and hepatitis B. (nas.edu)
  • Since the discovery and application of the molecule sulfonamidocrisoidin (better known under the name of Prontosil ® ) and the discovery and development of penicillin during the 30s and 40s, humanity has lived a golden age regarding the treatment of bacterial infections ( Dodds, 2017 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of clindamycin hydrochloride capsules, USP and other antibacterial drugs, clindamycin hydrochloride capsules, USP should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • Often neglected is the fact that bacterial infections can involve high-density bacterial communities as well as bacteria growing in adaptively resistance biofilms. (pletzerlab.com)
  • Antimicrobial resistance is currently a very big global problem, initially reported in human patients but it has spread to the animal population, making it a very serious risk due to rampart difficult to treat microbial infections. (mak.ac.ug)
  • Many infections that were previously treatable and curable with our drugs are becoming (or are at risk of becoming) incurable, as medicines are not working against them. (pakistanchristianpost.com)
  • Gonorrhoea is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infections in Thailand, affecting both men and women, particularly between 15 and 24 years old. (pakistanchristianpost.com)
  • Tackling drug-resistant infections globally: final report and recommendations. (who.int)
  • Today, veterinarians use antibiotics to treat many types of bacterial infections, including skin, respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. (miamilakesvet.com)
  • The benefits of antibiotics outweigh the risk of side effects or secondary infections when your pet actually has a bacterial infection. (miamilakesvet.com)
  • The results from this study demonstrated that in addition to enhanced resistance against bacterial infections, line A chickens are also more resistant to coccidial infections compared to line B birds. (usda.gov)
  • The institute manages a research portfolio of grants aimed at the problem of antimicrobial resistance and hospital-acquired infections. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Ever since then, antibiotics have been used to treat bacterial infections and have significantly reduced unnecessary deaths. (africanmusings.com)
  • This could be a revolutionary medical development of an exciting possible alternative to antibiotics in treating drug-resistant bacteria and bacterial infections, without unwittingly strengthening bacterial resistance and putting lives at risk. (amr-insights.eu)
  • The increasing prevalence of nosocomial infections produced by multidrug-resistant (MDR) or extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa is frequently linked to widespread international strains designated high-risk clones. (repositoriosaludmadrid.es)
  • In this work, we attempted to decipher the interplay between resistance profiles, high-risk clones, and virulence, testing a large (n = 140) collection of well-characterized P. aeruginosa isolates from different sources (bloodstream infections, nosocomial outbreaks, cystic fibrosis, and the environment) in a Caenorhabditis elegans infection model. (repositoriosaludmadrid.es)
  • Given that only bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics, rapid diagnostic tests are urgently needed to distinguish between bacterial and viral infections. (randoxbiosciences.com)
  • Improving the diagnosis of respiratory infections is an important goal in improving patient management and reducing antimicrobial resistance. (randoxbiosciences.com)
  • Current diagnostic testing for respiratory infections takes at least 36 hours to confirm the nature of an infection, and they cannot name and categorise infections as bacterial or viral in the way that this new respiratory test can. (randoxbiosciences.com)
  • UTIs are among the most common bacterial infections in the United States. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Empiric antimicrobial therapy is important in the management of intra-abdominal infections and must be broad enough to cover all likely organisms because inappropriate initial antimicrobial therapy is associated with poor patient outcomes and the development of bacterial resistance. (helsinki.fi)
  • The overuse of antimicrobials is widely accepted as a major driver of some emerging infections (such as C. difficile), the selection of resistant pathogens in individual patients, and for the continued development of antimicrobial resistance globally. (helsinki.fi)
  • The global emergence of antibacterial resistance among common and atypical respiratory pathogens in the last decade necessitates the strategic application of antibacterial agents. (cdc.gov)
  • T2 - 4th ASM Conference on Antimicrobial Resistance in Zoonotic Bacteria and Foodborne Pathogens 2015. (lookformedical.com)
  • The predominant bacterial pathogens were Escherichia coli (42%) followed by Klebsiella pneumonia (21%), Klebsiella oxytoca (12%), Citrobacter spp. (scirp.org)
  • Finding a way to remove STX's teeth without drugs might provide a new approach to these difficult-to-treat pathogens. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Pathogens naturally evolve to resist drugs. (healthjournalism.org)
  • That lack of new drugs along with the spread of resistant pathogens, is leading to new dangers. (healthjournalism.org)
  • Unlike antibacterial drugs, which may cover a wide spectrum of pathogens, antiviral medications are used to treat a narrower range of organisms. (nas.edu)
  • The antibacterial activity of Withania somnifera was tested on clinically isolated bacterial pathogens, i.e. (scialert.net)
  • Use of antimicrobial feed additives in food animal production is associated with selection for drug resistance in bacterial pathogens, which can then be released into the environment through occupational exposures, high volume ventilation of animal houses, and land application of animal wastes. (cdc.gov)
  • Results indicate an increase in the number of total aerobic bacteria including both susceptible and drug-resistant enterococci isolated from air and surface samples, and suggest that food animal transport in open crates introduces a novel route of exposure to harmful microorganisms and may disseminate these pathogens into the general environment. (cdc.gov)
  • White blood cells protect the body from invasion by pathogens, and when levels of specific types of these cells are low, a child has a lowered resistance to bacterial infection. (acco.org)
  • We are interested in how bacterial pathogens can develop resistance to two antibiotics simultaneously. (pletzerlab.com)
  • When medicines stop working against disease-causing pathogens (such as, bacteria, virus, fungus or parasite) due to antimicrobial resistance, then diseases become difficult (or impossible) to treat. (pakistanchristianpost.com)
  • Acquired metallo-ß-lactamase determinants in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other major bacterial pathogens are of concern for development of antimicrobial drug resistance. (cdc.gov)
  • For the past several years, we have characterized the innate immune response of two lines of chickens (lines A and B) and compared their resistance against key food-borne pathogens: Salmonella, Enterococcus, and Campylobacter. (usda.gov)
  • Describe the key viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases of veterinary importance including biological features, transmission and control measures available under examination conditions. (aber.ac.uk)
  • Today, there are more antiviral drugs for HIV than for any other viral disease, transforming an infection that was once considered a death sentence into a manageable chronic condition. (nas.edu)
  • Ideally, Antibiotics should be used only if there are signs of a bacterial infection and not viral ones. (africanmusings.com)
  • The researchers were able to direct Cas9 at targets of their choosing by engineering spacer sequences to match bacterial genes then inserting these sequences into a cell along with the Cas9 gene. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Bacteria share genes, including those conferring drug resistance, in the form of rings of DNA known as plasmids. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • XDR Shigella strains can spread antimicrobial resistance genes to other enteric bacteria. (cdc.gov)
  • data are preliminary and based on broth microdilution susceptibility testing and/or presence of resistance genes and mutations found in whole genome sequences of bacterial DNA. (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure to antibiotics induces transcription of drug resistance genes resulting in delayed resistance. (wadsworth.org)
  • Finally, we identify bacteria that possess colibactin resistance genes but lack colibactin biosynthetic genes. (biorxiv.org)
  • Now, in a pair of studies published this week in PLoS Biology , scientists have found an array of new genes associated with that drug resistance, hinting at how we might battle the disease going forward. (kccu.org)
  • However, not much is known about fluoroquinolone-resistance in ESBLs and its relationship with plasmid-encoded genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Results: We used tightly controlled chemostat conditions and integrated transcriptomic datasets with statistical modeling to reveal the global effects of CO. CO is known to inhibit bacterial respiration, and we found expression of genes encoding energy-transducing pathways to be significantly affected via the global regulators, Fnr, Arc, and PdhR. (essex.ac.uk)
  • With these screens we can identify the functions of genes, such as those essential for cell survival, drug resistance or sensitivity. (galaxyproject.org)
  • With a positive screen, few cells survive the treatment and we are interested in identifying genes whose guide RNAs increase (are enriched), indicating knockout of those genes leads to resistance. (galaxyproject.org)
  • Gardnerella vaginalis is one of the dominant etiological factors related to bacterial vaginosis. (nih.gov)
  • The aim of this study was to determine the susceptibility of Gardnerella vaginalis strains isolated from women with bacterial vaginosis to metronidazole, clindamycin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. (nih.gov)
  • Near future may bring the need to change the treatment regimen of bacterial vaginosis. (nih.gov)
  • Implementing a combination of evidence-based targeted interventions to break the cycle of HIV transmission while effectively treating bacterial vaginosis could enhance HIV prevention in women in the highest HIV-burden region of the world," Dr Karim said in a statement. (medscape.com)
  • Cite this: Bacterial Vaginosis Raises HIV Risk, Lowers Tenofovir Level - Medscape - Jul 19, 2016. (medscape.com)
  • Objectives We sought to determine whether the relationship between a history of vaginal douching and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is mediated by endometrial infection with one or more novel bacterial vaginosis (BV)-associated organisms among Atopobium vaginae , the BV-associated bacterium 1 (BVAB1), neathia ( Leptotrichia ) amnionii and Sneathia sanguinegens . (bmj.com)
  • Assessment and optimisation of probiotic therapeutics against bacterial vaginosis biofilms. (gcu.ac.uk)
  • This report published in Communicable Diseases Intelligence Volume 27, No 4, December 2003 contains Australias surveillance strategy for antimicrobial resistance. (lookformedical.com)
  • Of 238 children aged ≤ 5 years admitted to the Children's Hospital of Casablanca for invasive diseases over a 12-month period, 185 were diagnosed with bacterial infection: 76 had chest-X-ray-confirmed pneumonia, 59 had meningitis and 50 had sepsis. (who.int)
  • My coauthors and I developed the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA)'s Clinical Practice Guideline for Acute Bacterial Rhinosinusitis in Children and Adults to help physicians make sense of how to best diagnose and treat rhinosinusitis. (cdc.gov)
  • Read the full-text "IDSA Clinical Practice Guideline for Acute Bacterial Rhinosinusitis in Children and Adults online at http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/54/8/1041.full.pdf+html or pick up the April 15 issue of Clinical Infectious Diseases . (cdc.gov)
  • Ehrlich is responsible for the method of screening for viable drugs to combat diseases that pharmaceutical companies use (Aminov 2010). (123helpme.com)
  • This paper examines the consequences of bacterial resistance.The fight against upcoming contagious diseases has been of much concern due to the rise of antibiotics which hinder the fight against diseases caused by organism such as bacteria. (exclusivepapers.com)
  • The most alarming thing in this case, is since most of the microbes that cause diseases have adopted some mechanism in order to resist antibiotics drugs. (exclusivepapers.com)
  • By resisting these drugs it is hard to come up with drugs which can cure those diseases. (exclusivepapers.com)
  • It has been alarming in our modern hospitals when some drugs are declared resistant to the diseases they treat. (exclusivepapers.com)
  • The drugs which are used for treatment of diseases have been encountered by resistant from the bacteria causing those diseases. (exclusivepapers.com)
  • There are cases were all the approved drugs can not be used on certain diseases caused by certain organisms. (exclusivepapers.com)
  • The future is going to be a fungal problem," said Tom Chiller, M.D., M.P.H.T.M., chief of CDC's mycotic diseases branch, during the "Antimicrobial resistance during and after COVID-19" panel at Health Journalism 2022 in Austin. (healthjournalism.org)
  • These include common veterinary infectious diseases, cancer, immune responses, veterinary drug treatments and pathology. (aber.ac.uk)
  • Immunology will be provided with an integrated series of lectures, directed learning and practical sessions covering the mediators of the immunological responses, diseases related to the immune system and the drugs that can be used to target these mediators. (aber.ac.uk)
  • The opportunity to combat these types of diseases has saved thousands of lives throughout history, thanks to the continuous research and development of new antimicrobial drugs. (frontiersin.org)
  • The CDC plan emphasizes four goals: rapid national and international detection and response to new, reemerging, and drug-resistant diseases applied research in disease diagnosis and prevention better communication and implementation of prevention strategies stronger connections between local, state, and federal public health providers to support disease tracking and prevention and control programs CDC's plan reflects its commitment to meeting the challenge of emerging infectious diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • The National Foundation for Infectious Diseases estimates that the cost of drug resistance approaches $4 billion per year and is increasing. (cdc.gov)
  • Drug-Resistant Infectious Diseases The long-term use and misuse of antibiotics has caused many microorganisms to adapt to these drugs. (cdc.gov)
  • This huge loss of human life due to antimicrobial resistance has made it the top killer among all other diseases and conditions. (pakistanchristianpost.com)
  • The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) is supporting research on several organisms that have developed resistance to antimicrobial drug treatment. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In the search for more effective therapeutic strategies, great effort has been placed on the study and development of lyases, which benefits from high potency activity toward drug-resistant strains and a low inherent susceptibility to emergence of new resistance phenotypes [ 3 - 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • While reports of 'superbugs' resistant to all known antibiotics abound, it is important to distinguish between reduced susceptibility and resistance, recognizing that there are conflicting definitions of resistance and resistance breakpoints. (pharmacy180.com)
  • The mechanism of glycopeptide resistance is poorly understood, but strains show longer doubling times and decreased susceptibility to lysostaphin. (pharmacy180.com)
  • A cross-sectional study on the diversity and drug susceptibility pattern of bacteria isolated from inanimate objects and patient-care equipments of three wards of Arba Minch hospital were done. (researchsquare.com)
  • Type (data element identifier LABAST6) in the Drug Susceptibility/Resistance repeating group. (cdc.gov)
  • Jurisdictions should include all other related and available data for the remaining data elements in the Epi/Lab and Drug Susceptibility/Resistance repeating groups. (cdc.gov)
  • Culture and susceptibility testing performed periodically during therapy will provide information not only on the therapeutic effect of the antimicrobial agent but also on the possible emergence of bacterial resistance. (druglib.com)
  • Our data on the bacterial drug resistance at a tertiary care centre during 1995-1996 has been alarming with an incidence of 73 to 99% resistance to the common antibiotics like ampicillin, chloramphenicol, cotrimoxazole and first generation cephalosporins among the gram negative isolates. (who.int)
  • The frightening observation was the emergence of resistant isolates which were sensitive only to two drugs, sensitive only to one drug and resistant to all the available antibiotics (2.64, 17.6 and 11.5% respectively) during 1994 to 1996. (who.int)
  • The plasmid content of ESBL producing isolates and their participation in drug resistance were investigated. (scirp.org)
  • The antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of bacterial isolates from suspected urinary tract infection (UTI) patients at Igbinedion University Teaching Hospital was carried out from November 2004 to November 2005 using the disc diffusion method. (academicjournals.org)
  • In addition, the isolates showed multi-drug resistance. (academicjournals.org)
  • The Taiwan Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance (TSAR) is a biennial nationwide surveillance program of inpatient and outpatient clinical isolates ( 10 ). (cdc.gov)
  • VanB resistance is also acquired and the peptidoglycan precursor is again D-Ala-D-Lac, but isolates often remain susceptible to teicoplanin. (pharmacy180.com)
  • aureus on the skin of mice has been reported, but other mechanisms resulting in intermediate-level resistance occur in clinical isolates. (pharmacy180.com)
  • Antimicrobial resistance prediction and phylogenetic analysis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates using the Oxford Nanopore MinION sequencer. (cdc.gov)
  • Forty-six isolates (88.5%) were resistant to at least three classes of drugs (multi drug resistance) and these were tested for sensitivity to 20 stock bacteriophages. (mak.ac.ug)
  • The detection in different hospitals of bla VIM -positive isolates that apparently were epidemiologically unrelated suggests that the environmental reservoir of bla VIM -containing strains is relatively broad and that this novel determinant has potential relevance for the emerging phenomenon of carbapenem resistance in P. aeruginosa . (cdc.gov)
  • Totally, 109 bacterial isolates were identified. (researchsquare.com)
  • The bacterial isolates were identified as Staphylococcus aureus, Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS), Acinetobacter sp. (researchsquare.com)
  • Regarding the Gram-negative bacilli, isolates of Acinetobacter showed 100% resistance to ceftriaxone and ampicillin. (researchsquare.com)
  • Plasmid- mediated colistin resistance in Escherichia coli from the Arabian Peninsula. (who.int)
  • Bacterial resistance to antimicrobials risks diminishing the efficacy of these medicines and threatens human health. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Sixty to 80 percent of livestock and poultry receive antimicrobials (synthetic antibiotics), and over half of the antibiotics they receive are the same drugs prescribed to humans. (organic-center.org)
  • Bacterial resistance to drugs has existed since antimicrobials came into widespread medical use in the 1940s. (healthjournalism.org)
  • But the scientific and economic challenges of developing new antimicrobials has led to a steep decline in the availability of new classes of antibiotics even as antimicrobial resistance has spread. (healthjournalism.org)
  • The protection of antimicrobials in these structured bacterial communities is termed 'adaptive resistance' and has been proposed to also play a major role in reducing therapeutic effectiveness of antibiotics. (pletzerlab.com)
  • Title on cover: Anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in the world : report no. 3. (who.int)
  • Towards universal access to diagnosis and treatment of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis by 2015 : WHO progress report 2011. (who.int)
  • In Africa and Asia, drug-resistant tuberculosis alone now kills nearly 2m people a year, ten times more than in the 2010s. (economist.com)
  • When tuberculosis cases are treated, poor drug prescription and poor case management are creating more tuberculosis patients excreting resistant tubercle bacilli. (who.int)
  • A doctor checks chest x-rays of a tuberculosis patient at a clinic in Mumbai, India, that treats those with drug-resistant strains of the disease. (kccu.org)
  • Tuberculosis , or TB, is a bacterial infection of the lungs that can be fatal. (kccu.org)
  • The researchers analyzed bacterial samples from more than 12,000 patients across Asia, Africa, South America and Europe, examining their resistance to 13 first- and second-line antibiotics - a "comprehensive [analysis] of the genetic variation in the bacteria" that cause tuberculosis, says Zamin Iqbal , a computational biologist at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory's European Bioinformatics Institute and co-author of the two studies. (kccu.org)
  • A bacterial illness known as tuberculosis is also referred to as TB. (javatpoint.com)
  • It is caused by a bacterial microorganism, the tubercle bacillus or Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (hyclassproject.com)
  • Thioridazine is known to kill extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis and to make methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus sensitive to β-lactam antibiotics. (mental-health-matters.org)
  • Predicting extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis phenotypes with genetic mutations. (uams.edu)
  • The 20th century dream of eradicating the global scourge of tuberculosis (TB) evaporated with the failure of the old BCG vaccine to protect the populations at greatest risk, low compliance at following the complicated and lengthy treatment in countries with limited resources, which was followed by the spread of multiple-drug resistant (MDR) strains. (intechopen.com)
  • Indeed, rates of S. pneumoniae resistance to penicillin now exceed 40% in many regions, and a high proportion of these strains are also resistant to macrolides. (cdc.gov)
  • That the use of any antibacterial agent or class of agents over time will result either in the development of resistance to these agents or in the emergence of new pathogenic strains that are intrinsically resistant is now widely accepted. (cdc.gov)
  • An example of the development of resistance is the mutation of S. pneumoniae to produce a multidrug-resistant strain ( 11 ). (cdc.gov)
  • An example of a new resistant pathogenic strain is exemplified by the emergence of Enterococcus gallinarum as a nosocomial pathogen due to its intrinsic resistance to vancomycin ( 12 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Resistance among the gram positive bacteria was much less but the increase in methicillin resistant Staphylococci (52-65%) was a serious matter. (who.int)
  • Multidrug and extensively drug-resistant TB (M/XDR-TB) : 2010 global report on surveillance and response. (who.int)
  • Diversity of antimicrobial resistant phenotypes was compared between urban wildlife, humans, livestock, and the environment, to investigate whether wildlife are a net source for antimicrobial resistance in Nairobi. (lookformedical.com)
  • People ages 18 and older who have TB or NTM infection that is suspected to be drug resistant. (nih.gov)
  • Antimicrobial resistance is what happens when the bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses that make us sick become resistant to these vital medicines. (who.int)
  • Levels of resistant E. coli in swine and poultry is described in Austrian national surveillance yearly report AURES that publishes detected resistances in some commensal and pathogenic micro-organisms since 2004. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • If scientists can find a way to weaken drug-resistant bacteria in a way that does not cause adverse events, it would be a substantial step forward in the war against superbugs. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Treatment by Cas9 programmed to target a part of the resistance gene killed most of the resistant Staph, but left behind the kanamycin-susceptible Staph. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • In a second series of experiments, researchers turned Cas9 on tetracycline resistance-harboring plasmids in a strain of the potentially deadly multidrug resistant bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Not only did the resistant cells become sensitive to tetracycline after Cas9 destroyed the plasmids, but the arrival of Cas9 in other Staph cells acted as an immunization, preventing them from taking on resistance-carrying plasmids. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • And, in a final set of experiments, conducted in collaboration with Vincent Fischetti's Laboratory of Bacterial Pathogenesis and Immunology, adjunct faculty member Chad Euler confirmed their test tube results on living skin, by using Cas9 to selectively kill kanamycin-resistant Staph infecting the shaved backs of mice. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • In addition to its potential as a much-needed new weapon against drug-resistant microbes, the new system could also be used to advance research on the complex populations of microbes in the body, about which very little is known. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Such agricultural practices include farm cultivation.The case of resistant to drugs is widely reported in our hospitals today. (exclusivepapers.com)
  • This is because there are organisms which are resistant to almost all drugs which are used for their treatment. (exclusivepapers.com)
  • Many of the infectious bacterial strains have already become completely resistant to nearly all of the antibiotics currently in use. (naturalnews.com)
  • Bacterial resistance, b-lactamases, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin sensitive (MSSA) S. aureus. (academicjournals.org)
  • To come up with that finding, instead of asking whether the bacteria were resistant or not - a simple up or down vote - they looked to see just how much drug was required to kill the bug. (kccu.org)
  • One approach would be to find two antibiotics that the bacteria can't be resistant to at once - so if the bacteria develops resistance to one, it would be susceptible to the other. (kccu.org)
  • Although the magnitude of the antimicrobial resistance problem differs by country and geographical region, South-Asia is considered to be a major region for multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, Alexander Fleming already warned in his speech after obtaining the Nobel Prize about the danger posed by the appearance of bacteria resistant to antibiotics due to the misuse of these molecules, making clear the importance of training and knowledge about the rational use of these drugs not only to health professionals, but also to the rest of the population ( Fleming, 1945 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Samples were analyzed for susceptible and drug-resistant strains. (cdc.gov)
  • Drug-resistant microorganisms have been proliferating because of the indiscriminate use of antibiotics by healthcare professionals. (bvsalud.org)
  • The irreversible increase in drug-resistant bacteria is cause for concern and has created a new role for phage therapy, especially in cases where the alternatives to control the signs and symptoms of drug-resistant infectious processes have been exhausted. (bvsalud.org)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae, a major cause of bacterial pneumonia, is becoming increasingly resistant to penicillin and many other antibiotics. (cdc.gov)
  • All five were also resistant to ceftazidime and cefepime, except for SAP-01/99, which had intermediate resistance to the above drugs. (cdc.gov)
  • Here is a list of some of the leading antimicrobial drug-resistant organisms NIAID is researching. (medlineplus.gov)
  • However, some bacteria are becoming resistant to the two most potent TB drugs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This is known as multi-drug-resistant TB (MDR TB). (medlineplus.gov)
  • This document describes the steps necessary to implement the shorter regimen and the new drugs for drug-resistant TB treatment, including diagnosis and bacterial confirmation of drug resistance, treatment regimen design, monitoring of treatment efficacy and safety, and programmatic evaluation. (cdc.gov)
  • The growing emergence of multi-drug resistant organisms and the limited development of new agents available to counteract them have caused an impending crisis with alarming implications, especially with regards to Gram-negative bacteria. (helsinki.fi)
  • And after a blood test, it's confirmed the patient has bacterial pneumonia, but the precise organism is not determined. (consultantlive.com)
  • Livermore, D.M. (2003) Bacterial Resistance: Origins, Epidemiology and Impact. (scirp.org)
  • Castelblanco RL, Lee M, Hasbun R. Epidemiology of bacterial meningitis in the USA from 1997 to 2010: a population-based observational study. (medscape.com)
  • Despite all the advances in medical science, bacterial illness in humans continues to be one of the leading causes of mortality. (javatpoint.com)
  • Bacterial resistance to antibiotics directly caused 1.27 million annual deaths among humans and indirectly causes or contributes or is associated with an additional 4.95 million annual deaths. (pakistanchristianpost.com)
  • Sink your teeth into these 5 ways that sharks could benefit humans, potentially leading to new drug developments. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • This report presents recommendations of the Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee for preventing and controlling the spread of vancomycin resistance, with a special focus on VRE. (cdc.gov)
  • The actual increase in the incidence of VRE in U.S. hospitals might be greater than reported because the fully automated methods used in many clinical laboratories cannot consistently detect vancomycin resistance, especially moderate vancomycin resistance (as manifested in the VanB phenotype) (9-11). (cdc.gov)
  • Vancomycin use increased dramatically in response to the increasing incidence of MRSA and resistance was first reported in the enterococci in 1988. (pharmacy180.com)
  • Phenotypic VanA resistance is the most common and confers high-level resistance to vancomycin and teicoplanin. (pharmacy180.com)
  • Resistance to vancomycin is via a sensor histidine kinase (VanS) and a response regulator (VanR). (pharmacy180.com)
  • Mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDR) of the drug targets gyr A and par C were determined by PCR and sequencing ( 14 ). (cdc.gov)
  • One thing they learned is that some mutations may cause a little resistance while others may cause a lot. (kccu.org)
  • In addition, the team was able to surface not just common mutations that scientists know about that lead to resistance but also less common ones that can be harder to spot. (kccu.org)
  • And if you know which resistance-causing mutations are present in a particular strain of the TB-causing bacteria in a patient, that could determine the course of treatment, says Iqbal. (kccu.org)
  • In 2016, Thailand government endorsed the National Strategic Plan on antimicrobial resistance 2017-2021, which was recently extended to 2022. (pakistanchristianpost.com)
  • 2015 . (http://www.who.int/antimicrobial- resistance/publications/situationanalysis/en/ , accessed 16 May 2017). (who.int)
  • 2014 (http://www.who.int/drugresistance/documents/surveillancereport/en/, accessed 16 May 2017). (who.int)
  • Because they can destroy the bacterial cell structure and then kill the infectious bacterium, the bacterial cell wall lyases are suitable candidates of antibacteria sources. (hindawi.com)
  • July 17, 2014 - A new study of flu treatment practices during the 2012-13 season found that clinicians under-prescribed flu antiviral drugs, such as oseltamivir (brand name "Tamiflu") and zanamivir (brand name "Relenza") among patients who sought health care for acute respiratory illness (ARI). (cdc.gov)
  • Principles of pharmacology will be an introduction to the principles of drug action and toxicity, concepts that form the basis of all future pharmacology and therapeutics teaching. (aber.ac.uk)
  • Additionally, it will introduce the pharmacology of antimicrobial drugs, together with the principles of antimicrobial resistance by bacteria. (aber.ac.uk)
  • Making this test available through GPs would have additional efficiency savings for the NHS, by eliminating the need for lengthy microbiology lab tests and unnecessarily prescribing drugs which are not needed. (randoxbiosciences.com)
  • Such organisms can only be treated by using toxic drugs or by undertaking experiments to analyze their cause and methodology to be applied. (exclusivepapers.com)
  • Cancer cells evolve drug resistance through somatic evolution and, unlike other organisms in the body, grow out of control once they reach the metastatic stage, the authors write. (genomeweb.com)
  • METHODS: 158 pediatric (2-120-month-old) patients suspected to have acute bacterial infection, based on clinical judgment in which other causes of SIRS were ruled out were included in the study. (scielo.br)
  • The intense inflammation in acute bacterial prostatitis (ABP) makes the prostate gland highly responsive to antibiotics, which otherwise penetrate poorly into the prostate. (medscape.com)
  • Alpha-blocker therapy should also be considered for acute bacterial prostatitis. (medscape.com)
  • In a study of 3000 men who received a prophylactic fluroquinolone-based regimen for 7 days to minimize the risk of iatrogenic acute prostatitis after undergoing TRUS-guided biopsy, fewer than 1% (n=20) developed acute bacterial prostatitis within a week of the procedure. (medscape.com)
  • Surveillance and monitoring studies on antimicrobial resistance provide information about the occurrence of resistances in food producing animals in different parts of the world. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • This underscores an urgent demand for regular surveillance to address this antimicrobial resistance problem. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To be sure, there are solutions to the drug resistance crisis: restricted consumption, better diagnostics and disease surveillance, and expanded clinical development of new drugs are three. (timesofoman.com)
  • 8. Antimicrobial resistance: global report on surveillance 2014. (who.int)
  • Therefore, a stringent infection vigilance program comprising of routine sampling from the equipments and wards along with antimicrobial resistance surveillance and decontamination efforts must be instituted. (researchsquare.com)
  • Another way people are trying to fight the resistance is through bacteriophages, and the process has shown improvement and effectiveness. (123helpme.com)
  • It remains a persistent foe in large part because the bacteria can mutate and evolve to develop resistance to our antibiotics (often within a patient, which can lead to relapse). (kccu.org)
  • Antibiotics successfully treat and prevent bacterial illness, but over time some bacterial strains develop resistance to them. (javatpoint.com)
  • Antiviral drugs are now available to treat a number of viruses, including influenza , human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV ), herpes, and hepatitis B and C . Like bacteria, viruses mutate over time and develop resistance to antiviral drugs. (nas.edu)
  • How do bacteria develop resistance to multiple antibiotics simultaneously? (pletzerlab.com)
  • Neopterin has also been proposed to aid in the diagnosis of bacterial infection. (scielo.br)
  • The wide use of these antimicrobial drugs has been attributed to the emergence of resistance in several bacterial species ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Ironically, these same miraculous drugs now jeopardize the miracle, as evidenced by the widespread emergence of antibacterial resistance in the last decade ( 3 - 7 ). (cdc.gov)
  • These medicines have been much more difficult to develop than antibacterial drugs because antivirals can damage host cells where the viruses reside. (nas.edu)
  • Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs , Vol. 27, no.4, p. 405-416 (2022). (uclouvain.be)
  • How the world belatedly responded to antimicrobial resistance. (economist.com)
  • We propose that this evolution is the result of a programmed and collective stress response performed by interacting cells, and that, given this fundamental connection, studying bacterial communities can provide deeper insights into the dynamics of adaptation and the evolution of cells within tumors," the researchers add. (genomeweb.com)
  • This practice could be related to the emergence of bacterial resistance, expanded duration of the disease and increased risk of adverse drug events and treatment costs [2]. (bvsalud.org)
  • Doctors are calling it a "miracle drug"-as they did with penicillin a century ago. (economist.com)
  • Antibiogram of Gram-positive cocci revealed that S. aureus and CNS manifest higher resistance to both penicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. (researchsquare.com)
  • Bacterial interactions in dental biofilm development. (thejcdp.com)
  • Bacterial strain inhibited by in vitro concentration of an antimicrobial agent that is associated with a high likelihood of therapeutic success. (cdc.gov)
  • 13. Mero E. Resistance to antibiotics of Shigella strains isolated in Somalia. (who.int)
  • We use a combination of bacterial genetics, biochemistry and high throughput genomic analysis to decipher mechanisms of drug resistance. (wadsworth.org)
  • The primary focus of the lab is to decipher the molecular mechanisms involved in the extreme drug resistance of Mycobacterium abscessus . (wadsworth.org)
  • High Levels of Intrinsic Tetracycline Resistance in Mycobacterium abscessus Are Conferred by a Tetracycline-Modifying Monooxygenase. (wadsworth.org)
  • A complex regulatory network controlling intrinsic multidrug resistance in Mycobacterium smegmatis. (wadsworth.org)
  • However, antibiotics abuse may cause bacterial drug resistance. (hindawi.com)
  • For example, a current study analyzing 19 essential oils in a single lab test revealed a range of bacterial repressive activities. (cheact.org)
  • Research into how bacteria develop drug resistance might also help in finding new treatments. (naturalnews.com)
  • We previously showed that if Cas9 is programmed with a target from a bacterial genome, it will kill the bacteria. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The application of "Precision Medicine" to the management of cancer, or "Precision Oncology," has quickly captured the imagination of scientists, clinicians, and the public because of its intuitively plausible scientific rationale: identification of the oncogenic mutation in a patient's cancer genome that drives the growth of her tumor, followed by treatment with target-selective drugs that block the phenotypic consequence of precisely that oncogenic mutation ( 1, 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • It's a bacterial immune system that has been modified for genome editing. (galaxyproject.org)
  • Most current chemotherapy agents are cytotoxic , meaning that they function by killing dividing cells (see How Chemotherapy Drugs Work ). (acco.org)
  • The accompanying page on drugs used in the treatment of pediatric cancers lists which of these side effects are more likely to be experienced with each chemotherapy agent. (acco.org)
  • This practice covers a protocol for the assessment of resistance of medical glove materials to permeation by potentially hazardous cancer chemotherapy drugs under conditions of continuous contact. (cdc.gov)
  • An assessment is made based on the permeation (breakthrough) of nine chemotherapy drugs through the glove material over a certain period of time. (cdc.gov)
  • Bacterial Meningitis. (medscape.com)
  • Bacterial meningitis in the United States, 1998-2007. (medscape.com)
  • van de Beek D, de Gans J, Spanjaard L, Weisfelt M, Reitsma JB, Vermeulen M. Clinical features and prognostic factors in adults with bacterial meningitis. (medscape.com)
  • van Samkar A, Brouwer MC, van der Ende A, van de Beek D. Zoonotic bacterial meningitis in human adults. (medscape.com)
  • Multi- drug resistance is a world-wide problem, attributed to the extensive use of antibiotics, selection pressure on bacterial strains and lack of new drugs, vaccines and diagnostic aids. (scialert.net)
  • The team coopted this bacterial version of an immune system, known as a CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) system and turned it against some of the microbes. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Background/Statement of Problem(s):One of the most critical challenges confronting the application of chemotherapeutic agents in general, and antibiotics in particular, is the development of resistance by target microbes such as bacteria, viruses etc. (bartleby.com)
  • The development of strategies to prevent the evolution of resistance strains of microbes has been a top priority. (bartleby.com)
  • Haemophilus influenzae is a major bacterial pathogen causing RTIs. (cdc.gov)
  • Depending on the location of the target in a bacterial cell, Cas9 may kill the cell or it may eradicate the target gene. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • A bacterial natural product of particular relevance to human health is colibactin, a chemically reactive small molecule genotoxin produced by gut bacteria harboring a 54 kb hybrid nonribosomal peptide synthetase-polyketide synthase (NRPS-PKS) biosynthetic gene cluster known as the pks island ( Figure 1a ). (biorxiv.org)
  • Our aim was to explore the impact of CO gas per se, without intervention of CORMs, on bacterial physiology and gene expression. (essex.ac.uk)
  • This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids ( R FACTORS ). (bvsalud.org)