Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutation.
A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.
Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)
Enzyme of the human immunodeficiency virus that is required for post-translational cleavage of gag and gag-pol precursor polyproteins into functional products needed for viral assembly. HIV protease is an aspartic protease encoded by the amino terminus of the pol gene.
A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Genes for MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that confer resistance to toxic compounds. Several superfamilies of these multidrug export proteins are known and found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TETRACYCLINE which inhibits aminoacyl-tRNA binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit during protein synthesis.
The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutations.
Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.
An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.
Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.
Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.
Antibacterial agent used primarily as a tuberculostatic. It remains the treatment of choice for tuberculosis.
The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Diseases of plants.
Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)
A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
One of the FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS that is used as an antimalarial or with a sulfonamide to treat toxoplasmosis.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.
Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.
A type of strength-building exercise program that requires the body muscle to exert a force against some form of resistance, such as weight, stretch bands, water, or immovable objects. Resistance exercise is a combination of static and dynamic contractions involving shortening and lengthening of skeletal muscles.
A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of CHLORAMPHENICOL, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis in the 50S ribosomal subunit where amino acids are added to nascent bacterial polypeptides.
Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.
A long acting sulfonamide that is used, usually in combination with other drugs, for respiratory, urinary tract, and malarial infections.
Nonsusceptibility of a microbe to the action of ampicillin, a penicillin derivative that interferes with cell wall synthesis.
Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction 7,8-dihyrofolate and NADPH to yield 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate and NADPH+, producing reduced folate for amino acid metabolism, purine ring synthesis, and the formation of deoxythymidine monophosphate. Methotrexate and other folic acid antagonists used as chemotherapeutic drugs act by inhibiting this enzyme. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC
Proteins encoded by the POL GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.
An antitubercular agent that inhibits the transfer of mycolic acids into the cell wall of the tubercle bacillus. It may also inhibit the synthesis of spermidine in mycobacteria. The action is usually bactericidal, and the drug can penetrate human cell membranes to exert its lethal effect. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p863)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
A subfamily of transmembrane proteins from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that are closely related in sequence to P-GLYCOPROTEIN. When overexpressed, they function as ATP-dependent efflux pumps able to extrude lipophilic drugs, especially ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, from cells causing multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although P-Glycoproteins share functional similarities to MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS they are two distinct subclasses of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS, and have little sequence homology.
Five membered rings containing a NITROGEN atom.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of dihydropteroate from p-aminobenzoic acid and dihydropteridine-hydroxymethyl-pyrophosphate. EC
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.
A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.
A group of SESQUITERPENES and their analogs that contain a peroxide group (PEROXIDES) within an oxepin ring (OXEPINS).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Large cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein particles that have an eight-fold symmetry with a central pore and petal-like structure giving the appearance of an octagonal dome. (The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 2nd ed.)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of VANCOMYCIN, an inhibitor of cell wall synthesis.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
A bacterial DNA topoisomerase II that catalyzes ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. Gyrase binds to DNA as a heterotetramer consisting of two A and two B subunits. In the presence of ATP, gyrase is able to convert the relaxed circular DNA duplex into a superhelix. In the absence of ATP, supercoiled DNA is relaxed by DNA gyrase.
A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
Non-susceptibility of an organism to the action of the cephalosporins.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.
A very toxic anthracycline aminoglycoside antineoplastic isolated from Streptomyces peucetius and others, used in treatment of LEUKEMIA and other NEOPLASMS.
Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
A potent, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in combination with nucleoside analogues for treatment of HIV INFECTIONS and AIDS.
Tuberculosis resistant to ISONIAZID and RIFAMPIN and at least three of the six main classes of second-line drugs (AMINOGLYCOSIDES; polypeptide agents; FLUOROQUINOLONES; THIOAMIDES; CYCLOSERINE; and PARA-AMINOSALICYLIC ACID) as defined by the CDC.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the antibiotic KANAMYCIN, which can bind to their 70S ribosomes and cause misreading of messenger RNA.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Diminished or failed response of PLANTS to HERBICIDES.
Substances that are destructive to protozoans.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
Inhibitors of the enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase (TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE), which converts dihydrofolate (FH2) to tetrahydrofolate (FH4). They are frequently used in cancer chemotherapy. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)
Substances obtained from various species of microorganisms that are, alone or in combination with other agents, of use in treating various forms of tuberculosis; most of these agents are merely bacteriostatic, induce resistance in the organisms, and may be toxic.
A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.
A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
An anthracenedione-derived antineoplastic agent.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.
Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.
Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.
DNA TOPOISOMERASES that catalyze ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. These enzymes bring about relaxation of the supercoiled DNA and resolution of a knotted circular DNA duplex.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for retroviral enzymes including reverse transcriptase, protease, and endonuclease/integrase. "pol" is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.
An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.
A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.
A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
A phospholipid-interacting antimalarial drug (ANTIMALARIALS). It is very effective against PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM with very few side effects.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
DNA elements that include the component genes and insertion site for a site-specific recombination system that enables them to capture mobile gene cassettes.
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.
A hydroxynaphthoquinone that has antimicrobial activity and is being used in antimalarial protocols.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.
This line KB is now known to be a subline of the ubiquitous KERATIN-forming tumor cell line HeLa. It was originally thought to be derived from an epidermal carcinoma of the mouth, but was subsequently found, based on isoenzyme analysis, HeLa marker chromosomes, and DNA fingerprinting, to have been established via contamination by HELA CELLS. The cells are positive for keratin by immunoperoxidase staining. KB cells have been reported to contain human papillomavirus18 (HPV-18) sequences.
A fluorescent probe with low toxicity which is a potent substrate for P-glycoprotein and the bacterial multidrug efflux transporter. It is used to assess mitochondrial bioenergetics in living cells and to measure the efflux activity of P-glycoprotein in both normal and malignant cells. (Leukemia 1997;11(7):1124-30)
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
3,6-Diamino-10-methylacridinium chloride mixt. with 3,6-acridinediamine. Fluorescent dye used as a local antiseptic and also as a biological stain. It intercalates into nucleic acids thereby inhibiting bacterial and viral replication.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Glucose in blood.

Triclosan and antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. (1/7957)

Triclosan (2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxydiphenyl ether) is an antimicrobial agent used in hygiene products, plastics and kitchenware, and for treating methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) outbreaks. S. aureus strains with low-level resistance to triclosan have emerged. It has been claimed that strains with decreased susceptibility to biocides may also be less susceptible to antibiotics. We tested the susceptibility of S. aureus clinical isolates to triclosan and several antibiotics. Triclosan MICs ranged between 0.025 and 1 mg/L. Some, but not all, strains were resistant to several antibiotics and showed low-level triclosan resistance. S. aureus mutants with enhanced resistance to triclosan (< or =1 mg/L) were isolated. In several cases this resistance was stably inherited in the absence of triclosan. These mutants were not more resistant than the parent strain to several antibiotics. Changes in triclosan MICs associated with the acquisition of a plasmid encoding mupirocin resistance were not observed, suggesting that the triclosan/mupirocin co-resistance seen in a previous study was not the result of a single resistance gene or separate genes on the same plasmid. The continuous exposure of a triclosan-sensitive S. aureus strain to sub-MIC concentrations of triclosan for 1 month did not result in decreased susceptibility to triclosan or to several antibiotics tested. Triclosan-induced potassium leakage and bactericidal effects on a triclosan-sensitive strain, a resistant strain and a strain selected for increased resistance were compared with those of non-growing organisms, exponentially growing organisms and organisms in the stationary phase. No significant differences between the strains were observed under these conditions despite their different MICs. Biocides have multiple target sites and so MICs often do not correlate with bactericidal activities. The ability of S. aureus to develop resistance to triclosan and the current view that triclosan may have a specific target in Escherichia coli, namely enoyl reductase, underline the need for more research on the mechanisms of action and resistance.  (+info)

Resistance of helicobacter pylori to metronidazole, tetracycline and amoxycillin. (2/7957)

Resistance to metronidazole, tetracycline and amoxycillin, and beta-lactamase production were determined for 153 clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori. Of these isolates, 77.8% were resistant to metronidazole (MIC > 8 mg/L), 58.8% to tetracycline (MIC > 16 mg/L) and 71.9% to amoxycillin (MIC > 0.5 mg/L); 39.2% were multiresistant. Resistance to metronidazole was more common in isolates from females than in those from males (P < 0.05). None of the isolates produced beta-lactamase, so the mechanism of amoxycillin resistance was not linked to production of beta-lactamase.  (+info)

Enterococcal glycopeptide resistance at an Italian teaching hospital. (3/7957)

Two thousand one hundred and thirteen strains of enterococci isolated at Pisa General Hospital in 1998 were analysed retrospectively to determine their glycopeptide resistance. Of all the microorganisms isolated in this period, 14.7% were enterococci (1405 Enterococcus faecalis, 19 Enterococcus faecium, six Enterococcus avium and 683 Enterococcus spp.). Two hundred and thirty (10.8%) of these enterococci were resistant or demonstrated reduced susceptibility to vancomycin and/or teicoplanin. The highest rate of resistance was found in outpatient enterococcal strains isolated from the urogenital tract. The frequency of enterococcal glycopeptide resistance at Pisa Hospital is higher than that reported from other areas of Italy.  (+info)

Antibiotic susceptibility and mechanisms of beta-lactam resistance in 1310 strains of pseudomonas aeruginosa: a French multicentre study (1996). (4/7957)

A total of 1310 consecutive strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were collected in 11 French hospitals in 1996. The percentages of susceptible isolates measured by the agar dilution method were: ticarcillin (53%), piperacillin (69%) (MIC 16 mg/L), ceftazidime (77%), cefepime (55%), cefpirome (40%), aztreonam (57.5%), imipenem (81.5%) (MIC 4 mg/L), amikacin (64.5%) (MIC 8 mg/L) and ciprofloxacin (58%) (MIC 1 mg/L). Resistance to beta-lactams was linked to the production of transferable beta-lactamases (30%), overproduction of cephalosporinase (29%) and to non-enzymic mechanisms (38%).  (+info)

pncA mutations in clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Korea. (5/7957)

BACKGROUND: Pyrazinamide (PZA) is among the first-line drugs for the treatment of tuberculosis. In vitro, it kills semidormant mycobacteria only at low pH. The purpose of this study was to compare PZA resistance with pyrazinamidase (PZase) activity and the genotype to better understand the molecular basis of PZA resistance and to expand the profile of pncA mutations worldwide. RESULTS: Of the 28 tested strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 6 were susceptible to PZA and positive for PZase activity and had no pncA mutations. Twenty-one strains were resistant to PZA and negative for PZase activity and had mutations in the pncA gene, including 15 point mutations, 5 insertions, and 2 deletions. One strain had no mutation in the pncA gene, even though it was resistant to PZA and negative for PZase activity. Three isolates had adenine to guanine point mutations in the -11 upstream region, making this the most common type of pncA mutations in this study, with at least two different RFLP patterns. CONCLUSION: These data help in the understanding of the molecular basis of PZA resistance. An adenine to guanine point mutation in the -11 upstream region was the most common type of pncA mutation in our isolates. The results of pncA mutation analyses should be carefully interpreted for epidemiologic purposes.  (+info)

Sub-inhibitory concentrations of vancomycin prevent quinolone-resistance in a penicillin-resistant isolate of Streptococcus pneumoniae. (6/7957)

BACKGROUND: The continuous spread of penicillin-resistant pneumococci represents a permanent threat in the treatment of pneumococcal infections, especially when strains show additional resistance to quinolones. The main objective of this study was to determine a treatment modality impeding the emergence of quinolone resistance. RESULTS: Exposure of a penicillin-resistant pneumococcus to increasing concentrations of trovafloxacin or ciprofloxacin selected for mutants resistant to these drugs. In the presence of sub-inhibitory concentrations of vancomycin, development of trovafloxacin-resistance and high-level ciprofloxacin-resistance were prevented. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the risk of quinolone-resistance in pneumococci, the observation might be of clinical importance.  (+info)

Characterization of mutations in the rpoB gene associated with rifampin resistance in Rhodococcus equi isolated from foals. (7/7957)

Treatment with a combination of erythromycin and rifampin has considerably improved survival rates of foals and immunocompromised patients suffering from severe pneumonia caused by Rhodococcus equi. Frequently, because of monotherapy, emergence of rifampin-resistant strains has been responsible for treatment failure. Using consensus oligonucleotides, we have amplified and sequenced the rifampin resistance (Rif(r))-determining regions of 12 rifampin-resistant R. equi strains isolated from three foals and of mutants selected in vitro from R. equi ATCC 3701, a rifampin-susceptible strain. The deduced amino acid sequences compared to those of four rifampin-susceptible R. equi strains showed several types of mutations. In 3 of the 10 strains isolated from one foal, His526Asn (Escherichia coli numbering) and Asp516Val mutations were associated with low-level resistance (rifampin MIC, 2 to 8 microg/ml), whereas His526Asp conferred high-level resistance (rifampin MIC, 128 microg/ml) in the 7 remaining strains. In strains from the two other foals, His526Asp and Ser531Leu mutations were found to be associated with high-level and low-level resistance, respectively. The in vitro mutants, highly resistant to rifampin, harbored His526Tyr and His526Arg substitutions. As described in other bacterial genera, His526, Ser531, and Asp516 are critical residues for rifampin resistance in R. equi, and the resistance levels are dependent on both the location and the nature of the substitution.  (+info)

Improved antimicrobial interventions have benefits. (8/7957)

Studies have shown benefits to patients from improved interventions involving antimicrobial therapy. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate prospectively the impact of improved interventions by (i) the use of TheraTrac 2, a computer software program which electronically links susceptibility testing results immediately to the pharmacy and alerts pharmacists of potential interventions, and (ii) the education of pharmacists involving microbiologic topics. The study group had the new intervention program. The control group had interventions performed the way that they had previously been done by manually reviewing hard copies of susceptibility testing data. In a 5-month period, all inpatients whose last names began with A to K were the study group; inpatients whose last names began with L to Z were controls. Three analyses were done; one analysis (analysis A) involved only patients with interventions, one analysis (analysis B) involved all patients for whom antimicrobial testing was done and who were matched for diagnosis-related groups (DRGs), regardless of whether an intervention occurred, and one analysis (analysis C) involved these DRG-matched patients by using severity-adjusted data. In analysis A, the study group had a 4.8% decreased rate of mortality, an average of a 16.5-day decreased length of stay per patient, and $20,886 decreased variable direct costs per patient. None of these differences was statistically significant. In analysis B, the study patients had a 1.2% higher mortality rate (P = 0.741), an average of a 2.7-day decreased length of stay per patient (P = 0.035), and $2,626 decreased variable direct costs per patient (P = 0.008). In analysis C, the study patients had a 1.4% lower mortality rate, a 1.2-day decreased length of stay per patient, and $1,466 decreased variable direct costs per patient. In conclusion, the institution of this program caused substantial cost savings.  (+info)

Antibiotic resistance is now considered to be a great curse to the present world. Researcher suspected that millions of people will die due to the rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance by 2050. There are lots of mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. All the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance can be narrowed into two part; mutation and horizontal gene transfer.. In this context, both type of antibiotic resistance mechanisms will be discussed. The last mechanism belongs to horizontal gene transfer-mediated resistance and most of the other mechanisms of antibiotic resistance are mutation-mediated. …. 10 mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in BacteriaRead More » ...
TY - CONF. T1 - Planning a cross-sectional study of antimicrobial resistance genes in Danish pig farms. AU - Birkegård, Anna Camilla. AU - Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq. AU - Toft, Nils. N1 - Conference code: 4. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. M3 - Poster. T2 - 4th ASM Conference on Antimicrobial Resistance in Zoonotic Bacteria and Foodborne Pathogens 2015. Y2 - 8 May 2015 through 11 May 2015. ER - ...
The term antimicrobial resistance refers to the ability of microorganisms to grow in the presence of an antimicrobial (drug) at a concentration that would normally kill them or inhibit their growth. Antimicrobial resistance has become a big threat to global health; having risen to dangerously high levels in all parts of the World, making it difficult to treat infectious diseases. This is forcing patients to incur extra expenses as they have to buy more expensive second-generation or third-generation medicines. Also, as a result of medicines not being effective, patients are forced to stay longer in hospitals; this translates to higher hospital bills. In an effort to establish the antimicrobial resistance status of bacteria isolated from chickens, a cross-sectional study was conducted to demonstrate the antimicrobial resistance profiles of bacteria isolated from three groups of chickens [sick (clinical), farm and slaughter]. The three chicken groups were studied so as to determine whether there ...
The EU Open Data Portal provides, via a metadata catalogue, a single point of access to data of the EU institutions, agencies and bodies for anyone to reuse.
The EU Open Data Portal provides, via a metadata catalogue, a single point of access to data of the EU institutions, agencies and bodies for anyone to reuse.
This report published in Communicable Diseases Intelligence Volume 27, No 4, December 2003 contains Australias surveillance strategy for antimicrobial resistance.
This paper aims to identify key evidence gaps in our knowledge of livestock and fisheries linked antimicrobial resistance in the developing world
99 households across Nairobi were randomly selected on the basis of socioeconomic stratification. A detailed survey was administered to household occupants, and samples (n=2102) were collected from the faeces of 75 wildlife species inhabiting household compounds (ie, the household and its perimeter; n=849), 13 livestock species (n=656), and humans (n=333), and from the external environment (n=288). Escherichia coli, our sentinel organism, was cultured and a single isolate from each sample tested for sensitivity to 13 antibiotics. Diversity of antimicrobial resistant phenotypes was compared between urban wildlife, humans, livestock, and the environment, to investigate whether wildlife are a net source for antimicrobial resistance in Nairobi. Generalised linear mixed models were used to determine whether the prevalence of antimicrobial resistant phenotypes and multidrug-resistant E coli carriage in urban wildlife is linked to variation in ecological traits, such as foraging behaviour, and to ...
Have you ever had a sore throat, cough, or fever? All of us have felt badly at least once in our lives! A doctor may have helped you by prescribing antibiotics to kill the microbes responsible for the infection, thus eliminating pain, cough, and fever. Thanks to medicines like antibiotics, we can recover quickly from diseases. Unfortunately, the extraordinary power of antibiotics is threatened by a phenomenon called antimicrobial resistance. What is antimicrobial resistance and is there anything we can do to stop it? In this article, we describe antimicrobial resistance, how it may arise, and how we can help to prevent it by vaccination.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). April 3, 2018. Health departments working with CDCs Antibiotic Resistance (AR) Lab Network found more than 220 instances of germs with unusual antibiotic resistance genes in the United States last year, according to a CDC Vital Signs report released today.. Germs with unusual resistance include those that cannot be killed by all or most antibiotics, are uncommon in a geographic area or the U.S., or have specific genes that allow them to spread their resistance to other germs.. Rapid identification of the new or rare threats is the critical first step in CDCs containment strategy to stop the spread of antibiotic resistance (AR). When a germ with unusual resistance is detected, facilities can quickly isolate patients and begin aggressive infection control and screening actions to discover, reduce, and stop transmission to others.. CDCs study found several dangerous pathogens, hiding in plain sight, that can cause infections that are difficult ...
The development of resistance to antibiotics is due to the widespread use of a wide variety of antimicrobials, coupled with the ability of bacteria to acquire and spread resistance and the ability of humans to disseminate them. The possible consequences of antimicrobial resistance leads to greater chances of hospitalization, prolongation of hospital stay and increased mortality. Furthermore, treatment of drug resistant bacteria requires the use of more toxic drugs and more expense for the patient and hospitals. The main objective of the present study was to determine the frequency and nature of antimicrobial resistance of microorganisms in oncologic and hematologic patients at a Mexican Pediatric Hospital. A retrospective, observational, and analytical study was realized, where we reviewed the clinical records of 20 cases. Blood cultures were obtained from the Laboratory of our institution from 2010 to 2011. The data obtained were organized and analyzed. We observed that the E. coli and S. ...
The emerging threat posed by antibiotic resistance has affected public health systems all over the world. Surveillance of resistant bacteria in clinical settings and identifying them in mixed cultures is of paramount importance and can contribute to the control of their spreading. Culture-independent monitoring approaches are highly desirable, since they yield results much faster than traditional susceptibility testing. However, many rapid molecular methods like PCR only detect the sole presence of a potential resistance gene, do not provide information regarding efficient transcription, expression and functionality and, in addition, cannot assign resistance genes to species level in mixed cultures. By using plasmid-encoded TEM β-lactamase mediated ampicillin resistances as a proof of principle system, we (1) developed a fluorescence in situ hybridization-test (FISH) capable to detect the respective mRNAs, (2) implemented an immunofluorescence test to identify the corresponding proteins and (3)
Learn Antimicrobial resistance - theory and methods from Université technique du Danemark (DTU). The course will cover the topics related to antimicrobial resistance with basic definitions and overview on antimicrobials their use and the ...
Campaign to Prevent Antimicrobial Resistance. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Infectious Diseases Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion. Clinicians hold the solution!. Link to: Campaign to Prevent Antimicrobial Resistance Online Slideshow 240657 by bernad
Find helpful learner reviews, feedback, and ratings for Antimicrobial resistance - theory and methods from Technical University of Denmark (DTU). Read stories and highlights from Coursera learners who completed Antimicrobial resistance - theory and methods and wanted to share their experience. It was really a good lectures and please I want to know about my certificate in have already purchas...
Battle to Counteract Antimicrobial Resistance. Habitats for Sickness Control and Anticipation National Place for Irresistible Illnesses Division of Medicinal services Quality Advancement. Clinicians hold the arrangement!. Connection to: Crusade to Avert Antimicrobial Resistance Online
In women from 2 independent ethnic groups relocating from Thailand to the United States, investigators found a rapid increase in gut microbiome antibiotic resistance genes richness and abundance.
Friendly microbes in the intestinal tracts of healthy American children have numerous antibiotic resistance genes, according to results of a pilot study by
The AMR has often highlighted that simple measures like hand washing among physicians, maintaining hygiene can go a long way in the battle against antibiotic resistance along with regulation of prescribing and consumption of these drugs can. It has emphasised that broad range of interventions, encompassing both the simple and inexpensive, and larger-scale more complex actions are critical to address this public health concern ...
As pathogenic bacteria evolve, antibiotic resistance is spreading, compromising our ability to control and treat infectious diseases. Antibiotic Resistance thoroughly illuminates this crucial issue for healthcare professionals, researchers, students, and policymakers.
Scientists at the University of Birmingham have identified a new mechanism of antibiotic resistance in bacterial cells which could help us in understanding, and developing solutions to, the growing problem of antibiotic resistance.
The public section of the CAN-R website is designed to ensure that the public has access to the latest and most comprehensive information gathered from a variety of sources on antibiotic resistance and related issues in Canada.. ...
Looking at the 4-hours chart, the pair traded above the 1.1020 resistance level plus the 50% Fib retracement level of the downward move from the 1.1163 high to 1.0925 low.. However, the upward move was capped by the 1.1080 and 1.1090 resistance levels. Moreover, the pair is also facing hurdles near the 100 simple moving average (red, 4-hours) and the 61.8% Fib retracement level of the downward move from the 1.1163 high to 1.0925 low.. There is also a crucial bearish trend line forming with resistance near 1.1100 on the same chart. Therefore, the pair needs to climb above the 1.1080 and 1.1100 resistance levels to continue higher.. Conversely, if EUR/USD fails to break the 1.1080 and 1.1100 resistance levels, it could start a fresh decline. An immediate support is near the 1.0980 level, below which the pair could test the 1.0950 support area.. Fundamentally, the US nonfarm payrolls report for August 2019 was released by the US Department of Labor this past Friday. The market was looking for an ...
Dr. Windi Muziasari, CEO of Resistomap, talks about how they are fighting the spread of antibiotic resistance genes by providing robust tools for monitoring.
According to the CDC, 50 million courses of antibiotics prescribed by doctors each year may be unnecessary and may lead to antibiotic resistance.
Not only does antibiotic resistance (ABR) affect you, but it also affects global populations. Due to the ease of the sharing of genetic material between bacteria and the environmental resilience of many bacterial populations, ABR can spread quickly and efficiently. ABR is found in bacteria spanning dozens of countries around the globe and continues to...
The actions of the enzyme Rifampicin monooxygenase -- a flavoenzyme -- have been found responsible for the antibiotics resistance.
St Georges Professor Mike Sharland is developing new tools and treatments to fight infections in children and halt the spread of antibiotic resistance.
Howard Hughes Medical Institute researchers chiseling away at the problem of antibiotic resistance now have a detailed explanation of how the drugs main cellular target in bacteria evolves to become resistant to some of these medications.
UGAs Stephen Trent is studying antibiotic resistance, building better medications and vaccines to stop bacterial infections in their tracks.
On May 12, 2016, at a meeting of the Royal Society of Medicine in London, representatives from over 20 countries considered the immediate actions different nations can take to address the urgent, cross-border problem of antibiotic resistance.
A powerful new tool to identify genetic changes in disease-causing bacteria that are responsible for antibiotic resistance has been developed by researchers.
Page 3 of 5 - Antibiotic Resistance - posted in Best all time threads.: If information was quantified, then it wouldnt be information. Could the information in the word Cow be quantified as C O W? No. because individual letters arent information; They are units.Ummmm, a one of the biggest arguments by most creationists is evolution doesnt increase information. If youre looking for an increase youre quantifying.Red blood cell...
Learn about the consequences of antibiotic resistance, and how our solutions empower healthcare professionals to make targeted treatment decisions sooner.
The FEEDAP panel of EFSA considered the probiotic Toyocerin safe for use and acknowledged some effects in several production animal species. However, antibiotic resistance appeared to be an obstacle.
Inspired by Beyonce, UT researchers are getting into formation, because theyre about to slay antibiotic resistance with their development of a new drug screening technique.
A path-breaking technique that will potentially help reverse drug resistance as well as enable the existing antibiotics to act effectively has been developed by researchers from the IIT Roorkee.
The experts say our resistance to antibiotics is now a serious global health threat. Find out how much you need to worry, and the action you should take.
গত ২৯ এপ্রিল ২০১৭ তারিখে Antimicrobial Resistance: From Awareness to Action প্রতিপাদ্যকে সামনে রেখে পালিত হল বিশ্ব ভেটেরিনারি দিবস ২০১৭। শুধুমাত্র প্রাণিসম্পদ নয়, সমগ্র মানব গোষ্ঠির স্বাস্থ্যের কথা বিবেচনা করলে, প্রতিপাদ্যটি সময়ের একটি চরম দাবি। সরকারি অধিদপ্তরসহ স্বাস্থ্য ও চিকিৎসা ব্যবস্থার সাথে জড়িত সকল স্বায়ত্ত্বশাসিত, সরকারি-বেসরকারি প্রতিষ্ঠান, ব্যক্তি, উদ্যোক্তাসহ সকলেরই উচিত এর যথাযথ ...
The power to be resistant to certain detrimental situations and factors. Variation of Power Resistance. Sub-Power of Enhanced Condition. The user is resistant to certain detrimental conditions and factors, such as their species traditional weaknesses: for example a vampire that is resistant to...
Emergence of antibiotic resistance is increasing every year at an accelerating rate globally. MSS Murthy learns more about the phenomenon
EURUSD - Inside Bar At Resistance Levels Climbing 6 of the last 8 days, the Euro has been looking impressive in gaining +450 pips in the process. The pair
Looking for Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance Study? Find out information about Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance Study. product obtained from several species of red algae, or seaweed seaweed, name commonly used for the multicellular marine algae. Simpler forms, consisting of... Explanation of Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance Study
Previous reports have suggested an increasing incidence of highly fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli causing bacteremia among cancer patients on prophylactic therapy. We used genotyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of chromosomal DNA digests and random amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting to study clonal relationships among such isolates obtained at 10 cancer centers located across Europe and the Middle East. Analysis by both methods indicated that isolates from different centers were genotypically unrelated to each other. There were five centers from which more than one individual patient isolate was available, and most demonstrated significant within-center genetic diversity of strains. Strains shared among patients could be identified at two centers. At the center with the largest number of bloodstream isolates from cancer patients available, fluoroquinolone-resistant control isolates from surgical patients and fluoroquinolone-susceptible control isolates from patients ...
Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance (AGAR) Sepsis Outcome Programs 2015 Report. The Commission provides funding to AGAR to conduct surveillance and prepare a report that brings together the key findings of the three sepsis outcome programs, as a means of increasing access to antimicrobial resistance surveillance data to inform response strategies. The first of these reports was prepared using analyses of 2015 AGAR data.. Read the latest Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance (AGAR) Sepsis Outcome Programs 2015 Report found at:. AGAR: AGAR Sepsis Outcome Programs 2015 report. ...
Profiles of gyrA Mutations and Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance Genes in Shigella Isolates with Different Levels of Fluoroquinolone Susceptibility
What is antibiotic resistance?. Diseases can become resistant to antibiotics, meaning that antibiotics will no no longer make a patient well. Antibiotic resistant diseases are one of the largest emerging health threats in the world.. Why are antibiotic resistance genes inserted into gmos?. Successfully inserting a new gene into tissue culture is a rare occurence. To determine if the insertion was successful, scientists attach an antibiotic resistance marker gene to the gene they wish to insert. After many attempted insertions, scientists place antibiotics on the tissue cultures. They know that those that survive contain the antibiotic resistance gene and most likely the gene they wish to see expressed. This antibiotic resistance gene stays in each cell of the organism throughout its life and often transfers to its offspring.. How might this lead to antibiotic resistant diseases?. There is concern that antibiotic resistance marker genes will confer antibiotic resistance traits onto bacteria ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - High burden of antimicrobial resistance in Asia. AU - Jean, Shio Shin. AU - Hsueh, Po Ren. PY - 2011/4. Y1 - 2011/4. N2 - Antimicrobial resistance is associated with high mortality rates and high medical costs. Marked variations in the resistance profiles of bacterial and fungal pathogens as well as the quality of public hygiene have had a considerable impact on the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents in Asian countries. In Asia, one of the epicentres of antimicrobial drug resistance, there is an alarming number of antibiotic-resistant species, including penicillin- and erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae, multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (particularly mediated by CTX-M-9, CTX-M-14 and CTX-M-15), New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, MDR Salmonella enterica serotypes Choleraesuis and Typhi, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Occupational Exposure and Carriage of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes (tetW, ermB) in Pig Slaughterhouse Workers. AU - Van Gompel, Liese. AU - Dohmen, Wietske. AU - Luiken, Roosmarijn E. C.. AU - Bouwknegt, Martijn. AU - Heres, Lourens. AU - Van Heijnsbergen, Eri. AU - Jongerius-Gortemaker, Betty G M. AU - Scherpenisse, Peter. AU - Greve, Gerdit D. AU - Tersteeg-Zijderveld, Monique H G. AU - Wadepohl, Katharina. AU - Ribeiro Duarte, Ana Sofia. AU - Muñoz-Gómez, Violeta. AU - Fischer, Jennie. AU - Skarżyńska, Magdalena. AU - Wasyl, Dariusz. AU - Wagenaar, Jaap A. AU - Urlings, Bert A P. AU - Dorado-García, Alejandro. AU - Wouters, Inge M. AU - Heederik, Dick J J. AU - Schmitt, Heike. AU - Smit, Lidwien A M. PY - 2020. Y1 - 2020. N2 - Slaughterhouse staff is occupationally exposed to antimicrobial resistant bacteria. Studies reported high antimicrobial resistance gene (ARG) abundances in slaughter pigs. This cross-sectional study investigated occupational exposure to ...
Mapping Antimicrobial Resistance and Antimicrobial Use Partnership (MAAP): A Fleming Fund Regional Grant Program for Africa. Introduction. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has emerged as a grave health and policy issue, and the world is faced with increasing multidrug resistance in common pathogens. Undoubtedly, we are steadily approaching a post-antibiotic era, unless global efforts on AMR containment are escalated. The World Health Assembly adopted the Global Action Plan on AMR in 2015 and emphasized a need for global surveillance to strengthen the evidence base on AMR burden and for guiding actions.. The Fleming Fund Regional Grant (Round One) Program, an initiative by the Government of the United Kingdom, aims to expand the volume of historical and current data on Antimicrobial Resistance and Antimicrobial Use (AMU) across Africa and Asia. Other Fleming Fund supported programs include country grants and fellowship schemes.. Mapping Antimicrobial Resistance and Antimicrobial Use Partnership ...
July 25, 2018,. The Director General, Prof Mojisola Adeyeye is encouraging the fourteen directorates of NAFDAC to interact more with the Nigerian public through awareness and education of food- or drug-related public health issues. Three of the directorates: Drug Evaluation and Research (DER), Veterinary and Allied Products (VMAP) and Registrations and Regulatory Affairs (R&R) have put together this press release on antimicrobial resistance.. As part of its mandate in safeguarding the health of the citizenry, NAFDAC wishes to draw the attention of the general public to Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR), a subject that has become a global concern to both human and animal health. The incidence of AMR leads to treatment failure or infections that cannot be easily treated, death and economic loss. This is a real problem in Nigeria because we tend to not finish antibiotic medication or buy only what can be afforded. In a local hospital in Nigeria, it was reported that many neonates or newborn acquire ...
In a 2013 paper published in Lancet Infectious Diseases, the state of antimicrobial resistance worldwide was described. This follow-up paper, led by Ramanan Laxminarayan and coauthored by several leading scientists on antimicrobial resistance across the world, describes what has changed since then.
In a 2013 paper published in Lancet Infectious Diseases, the state of antimicrobial resistance worldwide was described. This follow-up paper, led by Ramanan Laxminarayan and coauthored by several leading scientists on antimicrobial resistance across the world, describes what has changed since then.
Its no secret that antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the most serious public health problems we face today: global in scope, more urgent with each passing day, and daunting when one considers the challenges that must be overcome to effectively address the crisis. Already, the Review on Antimicrobial Resistance…
The emergence of multidrug resistant bacteria world wide is a serious problem, and very few new drugs are under development. The selection of resistant bacteria is affected by factors such as mutation rate, biological fitness cost and the rate of fitness compensation. This thesis is focused on how mutation rate affects resistance to fluoroquinolones and on exploring a dosing strategy that might slow resistance development. In a set of urinary tract Escherichia coli isolates MIC values above the breakpoint for the fluoroquinolones norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin carried at least three resistance-associated mutations. In these isolates the number of resistance mutations correlated with the mutation rate. During step-wise selection for decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones, the accumulation of mutations in E. coli was associated with an increasing biological cost both in vitro and in vivo. However, in some lineages an additional selection step for resistance was associated with a partial ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antibiotic Resistance Profiles in Salmonella Serotypes Isolated from Samples of Beef and Pork Obtained from Retail Establishments in Mexico.. AU - Praveena, S.. AU - Echeverry, A.. AU - Loneragan, Guy. AU - Miller, Markus. AU - Pond, A.. AU - Karunasena, E.. AU - Brashears, Mindy. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. M3 - Article. JO - IAFP. JF - IAFP. ER - ...
Antimicrobial resistance is increasing in nearly all health-care-associated pathogens. We examined changes in resistance prevalence during 1996-1999 in 23 hospitals by using two statistical methods. When the traditional chi-square test of pooled mean resistance prevalence was used, most organisms appear to have increased in prevalence. However, when a more conservative test that accounts for changes within individual hospitals was used, significant increases in prevalence of resistance were consistently observed only for oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, ciprofloxacin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and ciprofloxacin- or ofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli. These increases were significant only in isolates from patients outside intensive-care units (ICU). The increases seen are of concern; differences in factors present outside ICUs, such as excessive quinolone use or inadequate infection-control practices, may explain the observed trends ...
Resistance against antibiotics, such as penicillin and cephalosporins, are haunting many hospitals and clinical practices. In a recent paper in the Journal of the American Chemical Society, researchers reported that they made laboratory versions of the ancient ancestors of the enzymes that lead to antibiotic resistance. By studying the ancient forefathers of these enzymes, researchers hope to understand how modern antibiotic resistance evolved and figure out new ways to deal with it. Antibiotic-resistant organisms cause thousands of human deaths every year. Anything new we can learn about antibiotic resistance may be potentially useful in coping with this problem, says Jose Sanchez-Ruiz at the University of Granada in Spain, one of the studys coauthors.. Antibiotic resistance isnt a modern phenomenon that only arose in the face of clinical antibiotic use in the past 60 years. Bacteria have been toting around enzymes to disarm antibiotics for millenia. Indeed, genes for antibiotic resistance ...
Given the significant spatial and temporal heterogeneity in antimicrobial resistance distribution and the factors that affect its evolution, dissemination and persistence, it is important to highlight that antimicrobial resistance must be viewed as an ecological problem. Monitoring the resistance prevalence of indicator bacteria such as Escherichia coli and enterococci in wild animals makes it possible to show that wildlife has the potential to serve as an environmental reservoir and melting pot of bacterial resistance. These researchers address the issue of antimicrobial-resistant microorganism proliferation in the environment and the related potential human health and environmental impact.
Edited by: Professor Steven Opal. The progressive loss of antibiotic activity as a result of dissemination of antibacterial resistance genes is increasingly recognized as global threat to humankind. Critical Care is therefore introducing a series of papers that examine the problem of progressive antibiotic resistance in the ICU. These articles will focus on the mechanisms of resistance, spread of antibiotic resistance genes, efforts to limit the further spread of MDR pathogens, and novel current and future therapeutic approaches to respond to the challenge of antibiotic resistance. We hope that this thematic series will inform the clinician about steps that we can take to confront the threat of antibiotic resistance.. This series of articles has not been sponsored. All articles have undergone the journals standard peer review process overseen by the Series Editor, with final decisions made by the Editor in Chief. The Series Editor and Editor in Chief declare no competing interests.. ...
Antimicrobial resistance has become an imminent concern for public health. As methods for detection and characterization of antimicrobial resistance move from targeted culture and polymerase chain reaction to high throughput metagenomics, appropriate resources for the analysis of large-scale data are required. Currently, antimicrobial resistance databases are tailored to smaller-scale, functional profiling of genes using highly descriptive annotations. Such characteristics do not facilitate the analysis of large-scale, ecological sequence datasets such as those produced with the use of metagenomics for surveillance. In order to overcome these limitations, we present MEGARes (https://megares.meglab.org), a hand-curated antimicrobial resistance database and annotation structure that provides a foundation for the development of high throughput acyclical classifiers and hierarchical statistical analysis of big data. MEGARes can be browsed as a stand-alone resource through the website or can be ...
The options for treating some of the most common forms of food-borne illnesses are getting fewer and fewer because they are showing more signs of antimicrobial resistance.. Multi-drug resistant forms of Salmonella are spreading across Europe according to a new report from the European Food Safety Authority.. And there is also high resistance to the antimicrobial ciprofloxacin in Campylobacter in both humans and animals in some Member States.. The report, EFSA-ECDC European Union Summary Report on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in zoonotic and indicator bacteria from humans, animals and food, which analyses data from 2013, says that encouragingly, co-resistance to critically important antimicrobials for both bacteria remains low.. For the first time, EFSA and ECDC have used similar criteria to interpret data.. Findings in antimicrobial resistance in humans, animals and foods are now more comparable. This is a step forward in the fight against antimicrobial resistance, said Marta Hugas, Acting ...
Antimicrobial resistance is an important problem that requires an urgent response from the scientific community [1]. One of the main goals is to develop new molecules and antibiotics able to cover extended and pan-resistant strains. However, strategies are also needed to prevent the development of new resistant strains. The concept of antibiotic stewardship addresses this situation by seeking to increase appropriate antibiotic coverage and to reduce the unnecessary use of antibiotics [2, 3].. Early, appropriate empirical treatment is associated with better survival [4]. Furthermore, if the initial antibiotic treatment is subsequently modified in the light of the culture results, the patients outcome does not seem to be affected [5]. Many strategies for improving adequate empirical treatment coverage and for limiting the use of empirical broad-spectrum antibiotics have been developed, such as the use of risk factors or scores to identify patients who are particularly vulnerable to ...
In this study, we demonstrated through WGS that MSM transmit their antibiotic-resistant strains of N. gonorrhoeae directly to their partners. The resistance-determining genes/mutations were identical in MSM partners for 33/34 couples, suggesting transmission of the genetic determinants of antibiotic resistance between sexual partners is a key driver behind the spread of antibiotic-resistant gonorrhoea among MSM, who are a major risk group for gonorrhoea. To our knowledge, our study is the first to provide detailed genomic evidence for direct transmission of the genetic determinants for N. gonorrhoeae resistance between men across multiple antibiotic classes at a person-to-person level.. The increasing spread of antimicrobial resistance in N. gonorrhoeae has markedly limited empirical treatment options.1 Genomic epidemiology studies have previously found resistance mutations arising independently in several lineages, with subsequent dissemination.5 6 8 15 16 In each of these studies, highly ...
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Singh, T.A., et al. Understanding and combating the antibiotic resistance crisis. Microorganisms for Sustainable Environment and Health (2020): 315. Ventola, C.L. The antibiotic resistance crisis: part 1: causes and threats. Pharmacy and therapeutics 40.4 (2015): 277. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States, 2019. Atlanta, GA. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, CDC (2019). DOI: 10.15620/cdc:82532 Dyar, O.J., et al. What is antimicrobial stewardship? Clinical Microbiology and Infection 23.11 (2017): 793-8. May, L.S., et al. Antimicrobial Stewardship in the Emergency Department: characteristics and evidence for effectiveness of interventions. Clinical Microbiology and Infection (2020). Eudy, J.L., et al. Antimicrobial Stewardship Practice in the Ambulatory Setting from a National Cohort. US: Oxford University Press. Open forum infectious diseases 7.11 (2020). European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. ...
CHEMICAL RESISTANCE DATA for Fittings SheetThe judging criteria of the chemical resistance data are made under the fixed circumstances. Thus, depending on how you use hoses, out product may not be used even though the chemical resistance
Antibiotic resistance pattern of streptococcus pyogenes isolated from clinical samples with special reference to quinolone resistance-IJMR-Print ISSN No:-2394-546X Online ISSN No:-2394-5478Article DOI No:-10.18231,Indian Journal of Microbiology Research-IP Innovative Publication Pvt Limited, Medical Journals Publicat
In fall 2017, WHO released a report about a global shortage of antibiotics. This crisis has emerged simultaneously with a global rise in antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic resistance is a growing public health threat. Much of this antibiotic resistance is human-made. Shortages of antibiotics led to superbugs and are often caused by the overprescribing antibiotics, improperly taking prescribed antibiotics, and consuming substandard medicines as well as the extensive use of antibiotics in agriculture.. The over-prescription of drugs, improper consumption, parallel drug markets, and rampant antibiotic use all drive the growing global threat posed by antibiotic resistance. These factors are interrelated in different ways. For example, underdeveloped diagnostic facilities combined with overzealous prescription of antibiotics have led to increasing empirical treatment of infections. Responding to pressure from patients, doctors sometimes prescribe antibiotics for viral conditions despite their ...
Microbial antibiotic resistance is an emerging environmental pollution problem with deleterious effects on water supplies and human health. Currently, little is known about the role of environmental factors in the maintenance, propagation and attenuation of antibiotic resistance. This study investigated the effects of antibiotic exposure concentrations, nutrient availability, and microbial growth rate on resistance dynamics, as well as, the porous medium transport characteristics of antibiotic resistance vectors. Exposure to high antibiotic concentrations increased, (1) the percentage of resistant bacterial strains in soil, (2) the persistence of resistant strains in soil and (3) the relative abundance of resistance genes in bacteria; and decreased the Shannon Weaver diversity index. Rich growth medium enhanced resistance plasmid maintenance and stability even in the absence of selective pressure of the antibiotic possibly be alleviating the metabolic burden imparted on the carrier bacteria by ...
Previous reports on pediatric HAIs are sparse, with many studies restricted to a few hospitals or a limited time period. 14 - 16 While many studies provide data on HAI incidence among pediatric patients, few focus on pathogens and antimicrobial resistance profiles. This report is an update of the NHSNs previous pediatric-specific HAI antimicrobial resistance report, 2 and it provides a summary of pathogens and AST data reported from ,2,500 healthcare facilities. This report can be used by the pediatric infectious disease community and other pediatric or neonatal healthcare professionals, as well as by infection control and public health organizations, to inform prevention and antimicrobial stewardship policies that seek improvements in antimicrobial prescribing for pediatric patients.. Overall, 60% of pathogens included in this analysis were reported from general acute-care hospitals. Because of federal reporting requirements for participation in the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services ...
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The database contains the evidence presented by the Data Visualization tool (available on EFSA website) accompanying the publication of the 2015 European Union Summary Report on antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Data correspond to occurrence of resistance in Salmonella from animals and humans, occurrence of resistance in E. Coli in animals and prevalence of ESBL-producing E.coli in animals and meat, in EU Member States.
Antibiotic resistance is an ancient feature of gut microbial communities and sharing habitat with humans has had an important impact on the structure and function of gut microbiota of non-human primates, according to a study involving wild and captive baboons.
Managing Antibiotic Resistance - Antibiotics or no antibiotics? How to prevent HAIs and the spread of bacterial resistance? Do you need to reinforce your environmental control measures? bioMérieux can help you meet the daily challenges of fighting antibiotic resistance in your workplace.
EU - Bacteria most frequently causing food-borne infections, such as Salmonella and Campylobacter, show significant resistance to common antimicrobials, according to the EFSA-ECDC European Union Summary Report on antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic and indicator bacteria from humans, animals and food in 2012.
Antibiotic resistant pathogens have existed for thousands of years, long before antibiotics. The problem today is not too many antibiotics being prescribed-the problem is too many antibiotics being fed to animals, and too many of the wrong antibiotics being prescribed to patients.. In 1946, animals began being fed antibiotics, after it was learned antibiotics helped the animals grow faster and bigger. In 2008, the American Livestock industry reported animals consumed eight times more antibiotics than people; and in one year, animals consumed twenty-nine million pounds of antibiotics versus three million pounds of antibiotics consumed by humans. Today 80% of ALL antibiotics used in the United States are fed to livestock, poultry and fish; and ninety percent of the food we consume is from factory farms, where animals are routinely fed antibiotics to overcome unsanitary conditions. Antibiotic resistant pathogens can be acquired by consuming meat and dairy products from animals and fish fed ...
We have reached the conclusion that the use of fosfomycin for P. aeruginosa infections, even in combined therapy, might not be as promising as expected. This study should encourage the scientific community to assess the in vivo cost of resistance for specific antibiotic-bacterial species combination …
This report, Antibiotic resistance threats in the United States, 2013 gives a first-ever snapshot of the burden and threats posed by the antibiotic-resistant germs having the most impact on human health. Each year in the United States, at least 2 mil ...
Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are pervasive in gut microbiota, but it remains unclear how often ARGs are transferred, particularly to pathogens. Traditionally, ARG spread is attributed to horizontal transfer mediated either by DNA transformation, bacterial conjugation or generalized transduction. However, recent viral metagenome (virome) analyses suggest that ARGs are frequently carried by phages, which is inconsistent with the traditional view that phage genomes rarely encode ARGs. Here we used exploratory and conservative bioinformatic strategies found in the literature to detect ARGs in phage genomes, and experimentally assessed a subset of ARG predicted using exploratory thresholds. ARG abundances in 1181 phage genomes were vastly overestimated using exploratory thresholds (421 predicted vs 2 known), due to low similarities and matches to protein unrelated to antibiotic resistance. Consistent with this, four ARGs predicted using exploratory thresholds were experimentally evaluated and failed to
Scientists at two European Union agencies have combined their expertise to analyse Member State data and compile the first joint EU report on antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic bacteria affecting humans, animals and food.
Global Antibacterial Drugs Market to 2022 - Vaccines Retain Market Prominence While Pipeline Offers Innovative Approaches to Tackling Antimicrobial Resistance Summary The antibacterial drug market covers the drugs used in the prophylaxis and treatment of bacterial infections. With a growing global concern over antimicrobial resistance and its progressive growth, there is a pronounced need for…
The European Commission has tabled a comprehensive Action Plan on Antimicrobial resistance which unveils12 concrete actions to be implemented.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has reported that at least 2 million illnesses and 23,000 deaths are caused each year in the United States by antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and scientists at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are using cutting-edge technology called whole genome sequencing (WGS) to help identify the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria as early as possible, as well as to take steps in controlling their further spread.. For the first time, we can rapidly determine the entire collection of known antibiotic resistance genes in an individual bacterium. This is allowing new insights into the nature and magnitude of the resistance threat, says Patrick McDermott, Ph.D., director of FDAs National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS). And, because the database of resistance genes is growing, due to work by scientists around the globe, we can see what others are nding and quickly ascertain if resistance threats emerging in other ...
Drug resistance is the reduction in effectiveness of a medication such as an antimicrobial or an antineoplastic in curing a disease or condition. The term is used in the context of resistance that pathogens or cancers have acquired, that is, resistance has evolved. Antimicrobial resistance and antineoplastic resistance challenge clinical care and drive research. When an organism is resistant to more than one drug, it is said to be multidrug-resistant. Even the immune system of an organism is in essence a drug delivery system, albeit endogenous, and faces the same arms race problems as external drug delivery. The development of antibiotic resistance in particular stems from the drugs targeting only specific bacterial molecules (almost always proteins). Because the drug is so specific, any mutation in these molecules will interfere with or negate its destructive effect, resulting in antibiotic resistance. Furthermore there is mounting concern over the abuse of antibiotics in the farming of ...
Increasing bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a critical problem worldwide, with many health organisations making the issue a priority for future development and research. Whilst there is a desperate need for new effective antimicrobials to be developed, it is also important to understand the mechanisms and epidemiology of the resistant pathogens currently present in the community. This collection of articles published in Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials ​​​​​​​showcases the latest research and review articles investigating the current state of antimicrobial resistance worldwide, along with those which examine potential future developments. If you would like your manuscript to be considered for this collection, please indicate so at the time of submission ...
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: NARMS Cooperative Agreement Program to Strengthen Antibiotic Resistance Surveillance in Retail Food Specimens (U01) Clinical Trials Not Allowed PAR-20-124. FDA
An editorial in todays New York Times: The Rise of Antibiotic Resistance. Excerpt: The most urgent need is to minimize the overuse of antibiotics in medicine and agriculture, which accelerates the development of resistant strains. In the United States, the...
A Massey University led research study is looking at how drug-resistant bacteria may be spread in households - including whether pets and suburban wild birds transmit antibiotic resistant bacteria.
Over 70 international experts in medicine, infectious diseases, microbiology and epidemiology (see list in Additional file 1: Annex 1), coming from 33 countries, met from June 27-29 June 2011 in Annecy (France) for the third edition of the World HAI Forum on healthcare-associated infections. The aim of this meeting was to release a global call to action to fight antibiotic resistance. While most meetings focus on scientific developments retrospectively in an academic format, World HAI Forums, which are held every two years, gives participating experts a chance to do prospective analysis of subjects that are not usually discussed [1]. A large part of the time is devoted to sharing best practices, successes and failures in the fight against health care associated infections and resistant bacteria, as a basis for building effective action plans. ...
Antibiotic resistant at Plymouth University Peninsula Schools of Medicine and Dentistry. Internationally recognised for development of novel antibiotics and investigation of uropathogenic E coli
by Vetscite. The combination and sequence of antibiotics can promote or hinder the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.. It is estimated that each year in the United States 2 million people become infected with bacteria that are resistant to one or more types of antibiotics, and at least 23,000 people will die because of these infections. This problem is being exacerbated by overuse of antibiotics for livestock and also in community clinical practice. This overuse, combined with the slow pace of novel drug discovery is a growing threat to public health. In response to this, Moffitt Cancer Center researchers have developed a novel mathematical method inspired by Darwinian evolution to use current antibiotics to eliminate or reduce the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.. According to the Centers for Disease Control, one of the core actions that can be taken to fight antibiotic-resistant infections is to improve the use of antibiotics that currently exist. One approach to ...
"Genetic engineering in vivo using translocatable drug-resistance elements. New methods in bacterial genetics". J. Mol. Biol. ... In 2011, ASM Press published a festschrift in his honor ("The Lure of Bacterial Genetics: A Tribute to John Roth"). "Thomas ... 2011). The Lure of Bacterial Genetics: A Tribute to John Roth. Washington, DC: ASM Press. p. 362. ISBN 978-1-55581-538-7. ... Roth, J.R.; Benson, N.; Galitski, T.; Haack, K.; Lawrence, J.; Miesel, L. (1996). "Rearrangements of the bacterial chromosome: ...
"Genetic engineering in vivo using translocatable drug-resistance elements. New methods in bacterial genetics". J. Mol. Biol. ... Beckwith, J.; Silhavy, T.J. (1992). The Power of Bacterial Genetics: A Literature Based Course. NY: Cold Spring Harbor ... Alternatively insertional inactivation could be used to suppress genes that express antibiotic-resistance in bacteria., While ... Transposon-based Insertional inactivation is considered for medical research from suppression of antibiotic resistance in ...
Her work on ABC transporters includes investigating their role in resistance to chemotherapy drugs; antigen presentation in ... adaptive immunity and viral infection; cystic fibrosis; and bacterial nutrition. In 2019, she was elected to the National ...
"Phylogenetic relationships of drug-resistance factors and other transmissible bacterial plasmids". Bacteriological Reviews. 32 ... Anderson, E S (1968-10-01). "The Ecology of Transferable Drug Resistance in the Enterobacteria". Annual Review of Microbiology ... "Bacterial Cytochromes C and Molecular Evolution". ResearchGate. Retrieved 2017-09-07. Arnold, Michael L.; Fogarty, Nicole D. ( ... Jones, D.; Sneath, P. H. (1970-03-01). "Genetic transfer and bacterial taxonomy". Bacteriological Reviews. 34 (1): 40-81. ISSN ...
Schuster FL, Visvesvara GS (February 2004). "Opportunistic amoebae: challenges in prophylaxis and treatment". Drug Resistance ... contain diverse bacterial endosymbionts that are similar to human pathogens, so they are considered to be potential emerging ... A paper published in 2013 has shown substantial effects of some FDA-approved drugs with an in vitro kill rate above 90%. These ... Baig AM, Iqbal J, Khan NA (August 2013). "In vitro efficacies of clinically available drugs against growth and viability of an ...
Antibiotic resistance Drug resistance Multiple drug resistance Cerceo, Elizabeth; Deitelzweig, Steven B.; Sherman, Bradley M.; ... Vergidis, Paschalis I.; Falagas, Matthew E. (2008-02-01). "Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections: the emerging ... This drug shows promise in infections from multi-drug resistant K. pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae carbapenemase [KPC]- and ESBL- ... The lack of newly emerging antimicobrial drugs have resulted in the revisit of old antibiotic drugs such as colistin and ...
This would also increase resistance of the bacterial cell membranes to environmental challenge. A third mechanism is by causing ... Ishiwa, Hiromi; Iwata, Shin (1980). "Drug resistance plasmids in Lactobacillus fermentum". The Journal of General and Applied ... So far no observed L. fermentum strains have been observed to have transferable resistance or acquired resistance genes. ... Different strains of L. fermentum demonstrated uniform resistance patterns demonstrating resistance to glycopeptide and to ...
She has also looked at how microbes evolve in drug gradients; finding that drug resistance is accelerated by the presence of a ... Bacterial colonies self-assemble on soft gel surfaces, and Allen has modelled how they compete for space. Allen uses algorithms ... Her research into antimicrobial resistance considers how antibiotic drugs interact with the physiology of a cell. ... "Mutational Pathway Determines Whether Drug Gradients Accelerate Evolution of Drug-Resistant Cells". Physical Review Letters. ...
Mitomycin Resistance in Streptomyces lavendulae Includes a Novel Drug-Binding-Protein-Dependent Export System. Journal of ... Type strain of Streptomyces lavendulae at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase. ... Characterization of a Mitomycin-Binding Drug Resistance Mechanism from the Producing Organism, Streptomyces lavendulae. Journal ... Many studies show the presence of multiple pathways for resistance toward a single antibiotic with the resistance genes located ...
His research focuses on bacterial pathogen drug resistance, including to antibiotics. His Birmingham research group combines ...
Grynberg M, Erlandsen H, Godzik A (May 2003). "HEPN: a common domain in bacterial drug resistance and human neurodegenerative ... which includes several classes of enzymes that are responsible for some types of bacterial resistance to aminoglycosides. These ... and in many bacterial and archaea proteins. There are three classes of proteins with HEPN domains: Single-domain HEPN proteins ... enzymes deactivate various antibiotics by transferring a nucleotidyl group to the drug. A multidomain sacsin protein in genomes ...
plant extracts, bacterial fermentation broths) and drug candidates for antibacterial activity. When bioprospecting, the assay ... Microbial Drug Resistance. 26 (4): 311-318. doi:10.1089/mdr.2019.0260. PMID 31596673. Kshirsagar MM, Dodamani AS, Vishwakarma P ... In drug discovery labs, the disk diffusion test is performed slightly differently than in diagnostic labs. In this setting, it ... A pure bacterial culture is suspended in saline, its turbidity is standardized, and it is swabbed uniformly across an agar ...
Drug resistance Food preservation Food Irradiation Irradiation of Microbes from Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Pool Environments ... Bacterial cell surfaces may be damaged by the acceleration forces attained in centrifuges. Laboratory centrifuges routinely ... Pulses of low intensity may result in the increased production of secondary metabolites and a build-up of resistance. PEF ... Peterson, Brandon W.; Sharma, Prashant K.; Van Der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J. (2012). "Bacterial Cell Surface Damage Due ...
However, resistance has developed against some drugs, as a result of mutational changes in DHFR itself.[31] ... Trimethoprim has shown to have activity against a variety of Gram-positive bacterial pathogens.[37] However, resistance to ... Methotrexate, a competitive inhibitor of DHFR, is one such anticancer drug that inhibits DHFR.[34] Other drugs include ... Resistance can arise from DHFR gene amplification, mutations in DHFR, decrease in the uptake of the drugs, among others. ...
Unlike multiple drug resistance, and antimicrobial resistance, antimicrobial tolerance is transient, and not inherited. ... 2016). "Enhanced Efflux Activity Facilitates Drug Tolerance in Dormant Bacterial Cells". Mol Cell. 62 (2): 284-294. doi:10.1016 ... and cancer persister cells that show tolerance for cancer drugs. Recognition of bacterial persister cells dates back to 1944 ... Resistance is caused by newly acquired genetic traits (by mutation or horizontal gene transfer) that are heritable and confer ...
Drugs based on 2-nitromidazoles include benznidazole. Nitroimidazole antibiotics have been used to combat anaerobic bacterial ... 4-Nitroimidazole at Sigma-Aldrich Edwards, David I. (1993). "Nitroimidazole drugs-action and resistance mechanisms I. Mechanism ... Drugs of the 5-nitro variety include metronidazole, tinidazole, nimorazole, dimetridazole, pretomanid, ornidazole, megazol, and ... Structures with names 4- and 5-nitroimidazole are equivalent from the perspective of drugs since these tautomers readily ...
Microbial Drug Resistance. 8, 281-289 (2002). Ruiz J. Mechanisms of resistance to quinolones: target alterations, decreased ... E. ludwigii, named after Wolfgang Ludwig, a microbiologist working in bacterial systematics[51] and who developed the ARB ... Microbial Drug Resistance. 14 (1), 45-47 (2008). Falcone M, Mezzatesta ML, Perilli MG et al. Infections with VIM-1 metallo-beta ... Microbial Drug Resistance. 13 (1), 1-6 (2007). Daurel C, Fiant AL, Brémont S, Courvalin P, Leclercq R. Emergence of an ...
Drug Resistance Updates. 44: 100640. doi:10.1016/j.drup.2019.07.002. ISSN 1368-7646. PMID 31492517. Walsh, Fergus (23 April ... She researches the evolution of bacterial interactions and the significance of bacterial traits, also known as virulence ... Joint author) "Do Bacterial "Virulence Factors" Always Increase Virulence? A Meta-analysis of Pyoverdine Production in ... doi:10.1038/s41396-018-0231-9. (Joint author) "The Evolution and Ecology of Bacterial Warfare". Current Biology. Vol. 29, Issue ...
Results showed efficacy against TB, albeit with minor toxicity and acquired bacterial resistance to the drug. Because ... It may be useful in cases where resistance to other drugs is identified.[medical citation needed] Plague (Yersinia pestis): Has ... Streptomycin controls bacterial diseases of certain fruit, vegetables, seed, and ornamental crops. A major use is in the ... They managed to do an animal study in a few guinea pigs with just 10 grams of the scarce drug, demonstrating survival. This was ...
... strain showing resistance to 12 antibiotics. AbsR25 sRNA could play a role in the efflux pump regulation and drug resistance. A ... Bacterial small RNAs are noncoding RNAs that regulate various cellular processes. Three sRNAs, AbsR11, AbsR25, and AbsR28, have ... AbaR-type resistance islands are typical of drug-resistant A. baumannii, and different variations may be present in a given ... Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance can be categorized into three groups. First, resistance can be achieved by reducing ...
Prescribing fosfomycin together with at least another active drug reduces the risk of developing bacterial resistance. ... Development of bacterial resistance under therapy is a frequent occurrence and makes fosfomycin unsuitable for sustained ... FosC uses ATP and adds a phosphate group to fosfomycin, thus altering its properties and making the drug ineffective. The drug ... because the drug is not affected by cross-resistance issues. Existing clinical data support use in uncomplicated UTIs, caused ...
His main research focus areas are HIV drug resistance and structure and function of bacterial cells. Goodsell has developed a ... protein-protein interactions and for computer-aided drug design. In particular he is a developer of AutoDock, the most widely- ...
Influenza viruses can show resistance to anti-viral drugs. Like the development of bacterial antibiotic resistance, this can ... Wu J, Yan P, Archibald C (2007). "Modelling the evolution of drug resistance in the presence of antiviral drugs". BMC Public ... However, virus strains have emerged that show drug resistance to some classes of drug. The United States authority on disease ... and over-use of these drugs has probably contributed to the spread of resistance. In particular, this high-level of resistance ...
In many cases, this leads to bacterial cell death. Streptogramin resistance is mediated through enzymatic drug inactivation, ... A stable drug-ribosome complex is created when the two drugs are used together. This complex inhibits protein synthesis through ... "Synercid (Quinupristin/Dalfopristin) I.V." Drug Approval Package. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Allington DR, Rivey MP ( ... Constitutive ribosome modification has been seen in staphylococci with resistance seen in quinupristin only. While resistance ...
2011). „An analogy between the evolution of drug resistance in bacterial communities and malignant tissues. Nat Rev Cancer 11: ... 2015). „Ancient hot and cold genes and chemotherapy resistance emergence. PNAS 112:10467-10472. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1512396112". ...
Antibiotic resistance to this drug has been increasing, especially in southern China. Recently the gene mcr-1, which confers ... but no longer kills the bacterial cell. However, it still detectably increases the permeability of the bacterial cell wall to ... the antibiotic resistance, has been isolated from bacterial plasmids in Enterobacteriaceae. Polymyxins are a group of cyclic ... Polymyxins B and E (also known as colistin) are used in the treatment of Gram-negative bacterial infections. They work mostly ...
Microbial Drug Resistance. 18 (3): 280-5. doi:10.1089/mdr.2012.0002. PMC 3412580. PMID 22432705. Dabrowski AN, Shrivastav A, ... The mechanism of bacterial killing by PGLYRP4 is based on induction of lethal envelope stress, which eventually leads to the ... PGLYRP4-induced bacterial killing does not involve cell membrane permeabilization, which is typical for defensins and other ... Laman JD, 't Hart BA, Power C, Dziarski R (July 2020). "Bacterial Peptidoglycan as a Driver of Chronic Brain Inflammation". ...
... of action of systemic antibiotics used in periodontal treatment and mechanisms of bacterial resistance to these drugs". Journal ... Using any of these, bacteria commonly develop resistance to different antibiotics, a phenomenon called multi-drug resistance. ... They are still widely used today for different bacterial infections, though many types of bacteria have developed resistance ... Rice, Louis B. (2012). "Mechanisms of resistance and clinical relevance of resistance to β-lactams, glycopeptides, and ...
Ochiai, K.; Yamanaka, T.; Kimura, K.; Sawada, O. (1959). "Inheritance of drug resistance (and its transfer) between Shigella ... Ochman, Howard; Lawrence, Jeffrey G.; Groisman, Eduardo A. (May 18, 2000). "Lateral gene transfer and the nature of bacterial ... Furthermore, Parker, after reviewing numerous genetic studies on plant disease resistance, failed to find a single example ... the increased genetic diversity caused by sexual reproduction would help maintain resistance against rapidly evolving parasites ...
... and extent of drug resistance. ... Natural bacterial transformation involves the transfer of DNA ... Resistance[edit]. Main article: Pneumococcal infection § Treatment. Resistant Pneumococci strains are called penicillin- ... "Critical decline in pneumococcal disease and antibiotic resistance in South Africa". NICD. Retrieved 20 July 2015.. ... van de Beek, Diederik; de Gans, Jan; Tunkel, Allan R.; Wijdicks, Eelco F.M. (5 January 2006). "Community-Acquired Bacterial ...
... drug occupancy at a purported site of action can be inferred indirectly by competition studies between unlabeled drug and ... Three different PET contrast agents have been developed to image bacterial infections in vivo: [18F]maltose,[19] [18F] ... The advantage is a better noise profile and resistance to the streak artifacts common with FBP, but the disadvantage is higher ... Pharmacokinetics: In pre-clinical trials, it is possible to radiolabel a new drug and inject it into animals. Such scans are ...
"U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).. *Ebola: What You Need to Know - Scientific American articles related to Ebola; note ... balance as well as treating any bacterial infections that may develop.[33] Dialysis may be needed for kidney failure, and ... with more than 1,000 cases and insecurity continuing to being the major resistance to providing an adequate response.[215][216] ... "U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Press release). 14 October 2020. Retrieved 14 October 2020.. This article incorporates ...
... such as bacterial resistance.[194] Oral and topical probiotics are under evaluation as treatments for acne.[195] Probiotics may ... "Drug Trials Snapshots: Aklief". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 11 October 2019. Archived from the original on 19 ... Aslam I, Fleischer A, Feldman S (March 2015). "Emerging drugs for the treatment of acne". Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs. 20 ... Aslam I, Fleischer A, Feldman S (March 2015). "Emerging drugs for the treatment of acne". Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs ( ...
Drug resistance is increasingly more common and presents a serious problem in persons who are immunocompromised. Prophylactic ... "Medically important bacterial-fungal interactions." Nature Reviews Microbiology 8.5 (2010): 340-349. Kourkoumpetis, ... Oral candidiasis can be treated with topical anti-fungal drugs, such as nystatin, miconazole, Gentian violet or amphotericin B ... In recurrent oral candidiasis, the use of azole antifungals risks selection and enrichment of drug-resistant strains of candida ...
"Infection and Drug Resistance. 8: 119-128. doi:10.2147/IDR.S66739. PMC 4440423. PMID 26028977.. ... In the US, the National Institutes of Health has supported research into bacterial persistence.[282] ... A hexavalent (OspA) protein subunit-based vaccine candidate VLA15 was granted fast track designation by the U.S. Food and Drug ... The resistance of a genospecies of Lyme disease spirochetes to the bacteriolytic activities of the alternative complement ...
"Antifungal Resistance , Fungal Diseases , CDC". www.cdc.gov. 25 January 2019. Retrieved 10 April 2019.. ... Decolonization, also bacterial decolonization, is a medical intervention that attempts to rid a patient of an antimicrobial ... Antiviral drug. ReferencesEdit. *^ a b Septimus, Edward J.; Schweizer, Marin L. (27 January 2016). "Decolonization in ... Common sites of bacterial colonization include the nasal passage, groin, oral cavity and skin.[1] ...
Anevlavis S; Bouros D (2010). "Community acquired bacterial pneumonia". Expert Opin Pharmacother. 11 (3): 361-74. doi:10.1517/ ... "Community-Acquired Pneumonia: From Common Pathogens To Emerging Resistance". Emergency Medicine Practice. 7 (12).. Unknown ... "Use of acid-suppressive drugs and risk of pneumonia: a systematic review and meta-analysis". CMAJ : Canadian Medical ... "A systematic review on the diagnosis of pediatric bacterial pneumonia: when gold is bronze". PLoS ONE. 5 (8): e11989. doi ...
response to drug. • DNA unwinding involved in DNA replication. • cellular response to hydroxyurea. • replication-born double- ... RAD51 family members are homologous to the bacterial RecA, Archaeal RadA and yeast Rad51.[5][6] The protein is highly conserved ... The Rad51-induced oocyte resistance to apoptosis is likely due to Rad51's central role in homologous recombinational repair of ... "Specific activation of microRNA-127 with downregulation of the proto-oncogene BCL6 by chromatin-modifying drugs in human cancer ...
"Journal of Food and Drug Analysis. 26 (2): S61-S71. doi:10.1016/j.jfda.2018.01.009. ISSN 1021-9498. PMID 29703387.. [permanent ... Hybrids with kumquats (× Citrofortunella) have good cold resistance. A citrus tree in a container may have to be repotted every ... The real danger lies that the psyllid can carry a deadly, bacterial tree disease called Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as ... "Journal of Food and Drug Analysis. 25 (1): 71-83. doi:10.1016/j.jfda.2016.11.008. ISSN 1021-9498. PMID 28911545.. [permanent ...
"Fluoroquinolone Antibacterial Drugs: Drug Safety Communication - FDA Advises Restricting Use for Certain Uncomplicated ... COPD develops as a significant and chronic inflammatory response to inhaled irritants.[9] Chronic bacterial infections may also ... Concerns include the potential for antibiotic resistance and side effects including hearing loss, tinnitus, and changes to the ... Seeking the Prometheus effect". Current Drug Targets. 14 (2): 246-52. doi:10.2174/1389450111314020009. PMID 23256721.. ...
Drugs that reduce the inflammatory response, promote healing of tissues, and prevent the onset of pulmonary edema or secondary ... 2004) Systemic inflammation-associated glucocorticoid resistance and outcome of ARDS. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1024:24-53. Morrison RJ ... Those with significant lower airway involvement may develop bacterial infection. Importantly, victims suffering body surface ... Several drugs that have been approved by the FDA for other indications hold promise for treating chemically induced pulmonary ...
... malaria and pneumonia continue to plague India due to increased resistance to drugs. In 2011, India developed a 'totally drug- ... Open air defecation leads to the spread of disease and malnutrition through parasitic and bacterial infections. Several million ... Totally drug-resistant' tuberculosis reported in India; 12 patients have not responded to TB medication." New York Daily News ... Effective regulation in medical practice, public health, food and drugs is essential to safeguard people against risks and ...
... intended to mitigate bacterial resistance.[5] Multidrug therapy (MDT) combining all three drugs was first recommended by the ... Ravina, E.; Kubinyi, H. (2011). The Evolution of Drug Discovery: From Traditional Medicines to Modern Drugs. John Wiley \& Sons ... intended to mitigate bacterial resistance.[5] The first trials of combined treatment were carried out in Malta in the 1970s. ... The search for more effective anti-leprosy drugs led to the use of clofazimine and rifampicin in the 1960s and 1970s.[4] Later ...
... resistance to fluoroquinolones among the bacteria that cause urinary infections has been increasing.[42] The Food and Drug ... Urine culture is deemed positive if it shows a bacterial colony count of greater than or equal to 103 colony-forming units per ... "Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 8 March 2018. Archived from the original on 18 July 2019. Retrieved 17 July 2019.. ... Aronson, edited by Jeffrey K. (2008). Meyler's side effects of analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs. Amsterdam: Elsevier ...
Adams J (April 2003). "Potential for proteasome inhibition in the treatment of cancer". Drug Discovery Today. 8 (7): 307-15. ... Some prokaryotes, including many archaea and the bacterial order Actinomycetales, also share homologs of the 20S proteasome, ... cells expressing these proteasomes show enhanced resistance to toxicity induced by metallic ions such as cadmium.[23][25] ... United States Food and Drug Administration press release Archived 19 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine 13 May 2003. Access ...
Fisher JF, Meroueh SO, Mobashery S (February 2005). "Bacterial resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics: compelling opportunism, ... Skett P, Gibson GG (2001). 》Chapter 3: Induction and Inhibition of Drug Metabolism》. 》Introduction to Drug Metabolism》 3판. ... Wlodawer A, Vondrasek J (1998). "Inhibitors of HIV-1 protease: a major success of structure-assisted drug design". 》Annual ... with implications for the design of drugs and pesticides". 》FEBS Letters》 203 (1): 3-6. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(86)81424-7. PMID ...
Rapid weight loss increases risk of gallstones.[22] The weight loss drug orlistat is known to increase the risk of gallstones.[ ... This can be caused by high resistance to the flow of bile out of the gallbladder due to the complicated internal geometry of ... Other complications include ascending cholangitis if there is a bacterial infection which can cause purulent inflammation in ... once the drug is stopped. Obstruction of the common bile duct with gallstones can sometimes be relieved by endoscopic ...
... that they reduce development of drug resistance since a pathogen or tumor is less likely to have resistance to multiple drugs ... Bacterial infectionsEdit. Combination therapy with two or more antibiotics are often used in an effort to treat multi-drug ... "Drug Combinations to Overcome Treatment Resistance". National Cancer Institute. 2016-12-21. Retrieved 2017-10-03.. ... Various systems biology methods must be used to discover combination therapies to overcome drug resistance in select cancer ...
Victor FC, Gottlieb AB (2002). "TNF-alpha and apoptosis: implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of psoriasis". J Drugs ... It also induces insulin resistance by promoting serine-phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), which impairs ... other bacterial products, and Interleukin-1 (IL-1). In the skin, mast cells appear to be the predominant source of pre-formed ... On other tissues: increasing insulin resistance. TNF phosphorylates insulin receptor serine residues, blocking signal ...
This bacterium has developed multi-drug antibiotic resistance and uses colonization and secreted factors in virulence (enzymes ... Type strain of Enterococcus faecium at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase ... "In Gilmore MS, Clewell DB, Ike Y. Enterococci: From Commensals to Leading Causes of Drug Resistant Infection. PMID 24649504.. ... Enterococci: From Commensals to Leading Causes of Drug Resistant Infection. Boston: Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary. PMID ...
As of 2009, none have been both found effective and licensed for use.[46] There are ongoing trials of the antiviral drug ... The use of antibiotic prescriptions has implications for antibiotic resistance.[63] An estimated 22 million to 189 million ... Secondary bacterial infections may occur resulting in sinusitis, pharyngitis, or an ear infection.[55] It is estimated that ... Expert opinion on drug safety 9 (2): 233-42. doi:10.1517/14740330903496410. PMID 20001764. ...
An agar plate - an example of a bacterial growth medium*: Specifically, it is a streak plate; the orange lines and dots are ... which do not possess the resistance, from growing. Media lacking an amino acid such as proline in conjunction with E. coli ... US Food and Drug Administration scientist tests for Salmonella. The most common growth media for microorganisms are nutrient ... Certain bacterial inhibitors are used for gonococci, and buffered glycerol saline for enteric bacilli. ...
Whilst drug resistance typically involves microbes chemically inactivating an antimicrobial drug or a cell mechanically ... but more serious infections are treated with antimicrobial drugs. Bacterial infections are treated with antibacterials (often ... In addition to drugs being specific to a certain kind of organism (bacteria, fungi, etc.), some drugs are specific to a certain ... stopping the uptake of a drug, another form of drug resistance can arise from the formation of biofilms. Some bacteria are able ...
Hurt AC, Ho HT, Barr I (October 2006). "Resistance to anti-influenza drugs: adamantanes and neuraminidase inhibitors". Expert ... Bleeding from the ears and petechial hemorrhages in the skin also occurred."[193] The majority of deaths were from bacterial ... The CDC recommended against using M2 inhibitors during the 2005-06 influenza season due to high levels of drug resistance.[150] ... which lack the M2 drug target.[145] Measured resistance to amantadine and rimantadine in American isolates of H3N2 has ...
Drugs targeting the IgE pathway[edit]. Currently, allergic diseases and asthma are usually treated with one or more of the ... Rihet P, Demeure CE, Bourgois A, Prata A, Dessein AJ (1991). "Evidence for an association between human resistance to ... but may be also effective in bacterial infections. Epidemiological research shows that IgE level is increased when infected by ... In the first approach, the anti-IgE antibody drug omalizumab (trade name Xolair) recognises IgE not bound to its receptors and ...
Bacterial vaginosis[edit]. Probiotic treatment of bacterial vaginosis is the application or ingestion of bacterial species ... Determination of antibiotic resistance patterns. *Assessment of certain metabolic activities (e.g. D-lactate production, bile ... In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Federal Trade Commission (FTC) have issued warning letters and ... In the following decades, intestinal lactic-acid bacterial species with alleged health beneficial properties were introduced as ...
The bacterial growth becomes visible after incubation and a symmetrical inhibition ellipse centered along the strip is seen. ... In September 1991, Etest was launched globally as a MIC product after receiving the USA Food and Drug Administration (FDA) ... In addition, specific Etest products are available for the detection of specific resistance mechanisms [e.g. ESBL (Extended ... and mycobacteria as well as detecting various mechanisms of resistance and MIC testing of key antibiotics with critical ...
Romero A, Potter MF, Potter DA, Haynes KF (2007). "Insecticide Resistance in the Bed Bug: A Factor in the Pest's Sudden ... Bacterial skin infection may occur due to skin break down from scratching.[5][11] Systemic poisoning may occur if the bites are ... and be a source of pharmacologically active molecules as a resource for the discovery of new drugs.[75] ... Bed bugs may choose to aggregate because of predation, resistance to desiccation, and more opportunities to find a mate. ...
... including a common mutation that confers drug resistance (with William Pao[18]); and generation of numerous mouse models of ... he researched the regulation of bacterial gene expression by cyclic AMP. In 1970, he began postdoctoral research in Bishop's ... Director, Office of National Drug Control Policy. Gil Kerlikowske. 2009-14. Angella Reid. 2011-17. Michael Botticelli. 2014-17 ...
SoxRS-Mediated Lipopolysaccharide Modification Enhances Resistance against Multiple Drugs in Escherichia coli Joon-Hee Lee, ... The dlt Operon of Bacillus cereus Is Required for Resistance to Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides and for Virulence in Insects Z ... Identification and Characterization of a Novel Multidrug Resistance Operon, mdtRP (yusOP), of Bacillus subtilis Ji-Yun Kim, ... Comparative Genomics of the IncA/C Multidrug Resistance Plasmid Family W. Florian Fricke, Timothy J. Welch, Patrick F. ...
... and which will fail due to drug resistance. The software is currently being trialled in three UK hospitals to see whether it ... could help speed up diagnosis of drug-resistant infections and enable doctors to better target the prescription of antibiotics. ... Scientists have developed an easy-to-use computer program that can quickly analyse bacterial DNA from a patients infection and ... New laptop program can identify drug resistance from bacterial genomes. HealthResearchGeneticsInnovation ...
Antibiotic Capture by Bacterial Lipocalins Uncovers an Extracellular Mechanism of Intrinsic Antibiotic Resistance Omar M. El- ... A Bioengineered Three-Dimensional Cell Culture Platform Integrated with Microfluidics To Address Antimicrobial Resistance in ...
The Current State of Macrolide Resistance in Campylobacter spp.: Trends and Impacts of Resistance Mechanisms Hannah Bolinger, ... Novel Cadmium Resistance Determinant in Listeria monocytogenes Cameron Parsons, Sangmi Lee, Victor Jayeola, Sophia Kathariou ... Strain MR-S7 Mediates Antibiotic Resistance Hiroyuki Kusada, Hideyuki Tamaki, Yoichi Kamagata, Satoshi Hanada, Nobutada Kimura ... Indole-Induced Reversion of Intrinsic Multiantibiotic Resistance in Lysobacter enzymogenes Yong Han, Yan Wang, Yameng Yu, ...
This simple method appears robust in the assessment of fitness cost associated with drug resistance and warrants further ... The proposed mathematical model was found to be reasonable in characterizing bacterial growth and predicting the fitness cost ... Predicting bacterial fitness cost associated with drug resistance J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012 Apr;67(4):928-32. doi: 10.1093/ ... This simple method appears robust in the assessment of fitness cost associated with drug resistance and warrants further ...
"Origin and Proliferation of Multiple-Drug Resistance in Bacterial Pathogens." Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 79 (1) (February 4): ... and it is unclear whether each bacterial taxon has its own mechanism(s) for multidrug resistance or whether there are common ... SUMMARY: Many studies report the high prevalence of multiply drug-resistant (MDR) strains. Because MDR infections are often ...
Trade-offs with stability modulate innate and mutationally acquired drug resistance in bacterial dihydrofolate reductase ... Trade-offs with stability modulate innate and mutationally acquired drug resistance in bacterial dihydrofolate reductase ... Trade-offs with stability modulate innate and mutationally acquired drug resistance in bacterial dihydrofolate reductase ... Trade-offs with stability modulate innate and mutationally acquired drug resistance in bacterial dihydrofolate reductase ...
Global Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment Market Portraiture. 2.1.1. Global Multiple Drug Resistance ... 2.1.2. Global Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment Market, by Drug Class, 2016. 2.1.3. Global Multiple Drug ... Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment Market, by Geography, 2016. Chapter 3. Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection ... The global multiple drug resistance bacterial infection treatment market was valued at US$ 26,169.09 Mn in 2016, and is ...
... if questions and evaluate the impact of specific interventions such as hands hygiene on the spread of bacterial drug resistance ... Antibiotic resistance is one of todays major global health problems. Mathematical models help us answer what ... Growing failure of anti malaria drug treatment linked to parasite mutations * Drug resistance triggers war to wipe out malaria ... TRACII anti-malarial drug resistance study begins to recruit patients * Not treating pregnant women with malaria not an option ...
Dynamic Drug Combination Methods For Suppressing Bacterial Antibiotics Resistance Adaptation.pdf. PhD Theses. 15.23 MB. Adobe ... Bhone, M. K. (2014). Dynamic drug combination methods for suppressing bacterial antibiotics resistance adaptation. Doctoral ... This is particularly important because developing new drugs for the prevention of resistance adaptation of multi-drug resistant ... Due to multi-drug resistance problems in clinical settings and the need for newer compounds, there is great interest in ...
Gonococcal antimicrobial resistance in the Western Pacific Region [fact sheet]  World Health Organization. Regional Office for ... "Drug Resistance, Bacterial". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W. X. Y. Z. * 0-9 ...
"Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial" by people in this website by year, and whether "Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial" was ... "Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial". ...
... ... These bacterial and fungal drug-resistant infections, found in the observed COVID-19 patients, came from pathogens called out ... The vast majority of deaths during viral disease outbreaks are from secondary drug-resistant bacterial infections. This was the ... this might mean deescalating the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics to prevent the development of drug-resistance. In others, ...
Bacterial drug resistance, gene cassettes and integrons. By Colin Ward February 21st, 2011 ... Bacterial antibiotic resistance an ongoing problem. Antibiotic resistance is an ongoing and increasing problem that is ... They all belong to class 1 (hence intI1 and attI1) but carry different antibiotic resistance genes. The resistances conferred ... As the incidence of resistance continues to rise in disease-causing bacteria, so does multiple resistance leaving few options ...
... and tests can fail to identify that resistance, which could help accelerate their spread, a new study finds. ... Some strains of the new H7N9 bird flu virus that appeared in China this year are resistant to antiviral drugs, ... Bacterial Infections 101: Types, Symptoms, and Treatments. Get more information on bacterial skin infections, which bacteria ... home/infectious disease center/ infectious disease a-z list/ chinas bird flus drug resistance worries expert article ...
... by Florian Rosado December 6, 2018. ... The study also provides a mechanism for how some bacterial infections can interfere with specific cancer drugs," ... Finding only a small amount of bacterial DNA in the cancer cells suggested that the infection did not have to persist to ... Our work provides an explanation for how a bacterial infection can trigger a series of events that lead to cancer. Of ...
Antibiotic resistance may be lessened through the use of antisense oligomers that interfere with the translation of proteins ... About a year ago, his research team identified a mutation in E. coli that increased drug sensitivity by blocking the AcrAB-TolC ... "Sequence-Specific Targeting of Bacterial Resistance Genes Increases Antibiotic Efficacy." This article explained that the PPMO ... When a bacterial machine called the efflux pump is in working order, it expels antibiotics, contributing to antibiotic ...
Learn how our physicians at the University of Miami Health System treat types of bacterial infections these infections. ... In most cases, if you have a bacterial infection, your doctor will prescribe an antibiotic medication to treat and cure the ... We create personalized treatment plans based on the cause of your infection and your health to prevent and fight bacterial, ... Multi-Drug Resistance Bacterial Infections. ... More deaths caused by bacterial infections. *More doctor visits ...
Phage therapy was used to treat a critical patient infected with multi-drug resistant strain of Acinetobacter baumannii, ... Drug Resistance - Antibiotic Resistance. Drug resistance is often a problem in malaria, tuberculosis, HIV, sexually transmitted ... Antibiotic Combination Therapy Can Help Overcome Drug-Resistant Bacterial Infections. Combining two antibiotics together can ... Drug-Resistant Nightmare Bacteria is Spreading More Widely. A family of highly drug-resistant and potentially deadly bacteria ...
Drug Resistance Forecasts May Inform Drug Design. UC San Diego Gets $5M for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Research.... ... Newly Isolated Bacterial Protein Opens Door to Novel Treatments for Tick-Borne Diseases. April 3, 2018. 0 ... Home News Newly Isolated Bacterial Protein Opens Door to Novel Treatments for Tick-Borne Diseases ... "Most people dont realize that they actually are walking around with more bacterial cells in their bodies than their own cells ...
Antibiotics and the Emergence of Bacterial Drug Resistance, from the edited h2g2, the Unconventional Guide to Life, the ... The Growth of Bacterial Drug Resistance. Why Do they Become Resistant?. Bacteria, like all other life forms, are subject to the ... and should the bleb contain a plasmid bearing a drug-resistance gene, then drug resistance has been passed from one bacterium ... Consequently, drug resistance in bacterial colonies can develop very quickly.. In addition, bacteria possess the ability to ...
Balancing bacterial growth with drug resistance. Within some bacterial populations, a subset of cells grows more slowly than ... Enhanced efflux activity facilitates drug tolerance in dormant bacterial cells. Mol. Cell 62, 284-294 (2016).. ... Bacterial strains and plasmids. E. coli strains and plasmids used in this study are listed in table S1. Because of its high ... The HipA7 mutant kinase has been used as a model for studying persistence (1, 2, 21) because bacterial populations carrying the ...
A Ludwig Cancer Research study has discovered a novel means by which bacterial colonies in the small intestine support the ... Improving cancer therapies by exploiting drug resistance in cancer. Professor David Thomas ... Bacterial metabolism of bile acids boosts generation of immune cells, study shows. *Download PDF Copy ... Bacterial consortia that produce isoDCA and other metabolites that promote anti-inflammatory activity in colon-resident immune ...
Improving cancer therapies by exploiting drug resistance in cancer. Professor David Thomas ... Drugs that increase gut motility have also been known to improve rosacea symptoms, lending weight to the hypothesis that ... Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth. The medical condition that presents with an abnormally high concentration of bacteria in ... This is called into doubt by the high effectiveness of drugs such as Rifaximin in rosacea, despite its mostly local action ...
... ... Immunological Profile and Bacterial Drug Resistance in Pregnant Women: A Cross Sectional Study. ... Bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents during pregnancy is an increasing health concern [5]. Pregnancy causes numerous ... Exploring bacterial resistance in Northern Oman, a foundation for implementing evidence-based antimicrobial stewardship program ...
Europe Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment Market Growth 2019-2024. EMEA Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial ... Global Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment Market Growth 2019-2024. China Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial ... Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment Market Size, Share, Development by 2024. Uncategorized. Multiple Drug ... LP INFORMATION offers a latest published report on Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment Market Analysis and ...
Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment Market Research is expecting to accrue strong growth in forecasts frame ... 1.3.1 Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment Market - By Type. 1.3.2 Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial ... U.A.E Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment Market. U.A.E Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial ... MULTIPLE DRUG RESISTANCE BACTERIAL INFECTION TREATMENT - GLOBAL MARKET OVERVIEW. 6.2. MULTIPLE DRUG RESISTANCE BACTERIAL ...
Ineffectual usage of antibiotics has raised multidrug resistance to most of the commonly administered drugs against bacterial ... Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing for Drug Resistance. The resistance pattern to various conventionally used antibiotics ... One of the alternative approaches to overcome multidrug resistance is tantamount to pursue drugs that do not impose survival ... Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing for Drug Resistance. Staphylococcus aureus isolates were cultured to early exponential phase ...
1) (5, 6). Many of the genes contained in these regions are associated with virulence or drug resistance. A summary of the ... Bacterial Strains. Hospital-acquired, epidemic strain MRSA252. MRSA252 was isolated in 1997 from a 64-year-old female who ... Distinct from the characterized drug-resistance determinants associated with mobile genetic elements in MRSA252, there are ... An integrated plasmid confers resistance to the heavy metals arsenic and cadmium (Table 1). MSSA476 also carries resistance to ...
  • However, for different pathogens, different underlying mechanisms are traditionally used to explain these observations, and it is unclear whether each bacterial taxon has its own mechanism(s) for multidrug resistance or whether there are common mechanisms between distantly related pathogens. (harvard.edu)
  • The software is currently being trialled in three UK hospitals to see whether it could help speed up diagnosis of drug-resistant infections and enable doctors to better target the prescription of antibiotics. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A study on more than 4,500 retrospective patient samples, published today in Nature Communications, shows that Mykrobe Predictor accurately detects antibiotic resistance in two life-threatening bacterial infections: Staphylococcus aureus (one form of which causes MRSA) and tuberculosis (TB). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Drug-resistant infections pose a major threat to global health and could in future mean that serious and life-threatening infections become impossible to treat. (ox.ac.uk)
  • For TB, where the genetic basis for drug resistance is less well understood, Mykrobe Predictor still matched the performance of current DNA tests (which look at snippets of DNA, but not the whole sequence), detecting 82.6% of resistant infections around 5-16 weeks faster than traditional drug susceptibility testing. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A further advantage of Mykrobe is that it can identify infections where a patient's body contains a mixture of both drug-resistant and drug-susceptible bacteria. (ox.ac.uk)
  • This is important for diagnosing infections such as 'extensively drug-resistant TB' (XDR-TB), which is resistant to at least four of the core TB drugs and is considered a global threat to public health by the World Health Organisation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The risk is that resistance will continue to spread more and more and that we'll see more commonly infections which we don't have antibiotics to treat them with. (tropmedres.ac)
  • What impact would that have on how the bacterial infections spread? (tropmedres.ac)
  • We recently published a paper that analysed data from all the highest quality hands hygiene intervention studies and found good evidence that this intervention can significantly improve hands hygiene, and that appears to be associated with reductions in infections with certain drug-resistant bacteria. (tropmedres.ac)
  • It is resistant to many drugs and the glycopeptide vancomycin is the only available antibiotic that is active against MRSA infections. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • The vast majority of deaths during viral disease outbreaks are from secondary drug-resistant bacterial infections. (healthitoutcomes.com)
  • It's unfortunately common for patients to develop bacterial infections, such as pneumonia and sepsis, while hospitalized for other indications. (healthitoutcomes.com)
  • Without rapid and reliable diagnostic tools such as highly multiplexed molecular syndromic panels that deliver results on a broad range of bacterial pathogens and antimicrobial resistance genes, detection of important bacterial infections may go unnoticed or diagnosis may be delayed, thus resulting in delayed treatment and a cascade of unintended and detrimental clinical and economic consequences. (healthitoutcomes.com)
  • Healthcare workers are moving at a rapid pace to care for a high volume of COVID-19 patients but, in doing so, considering the possibility of bacterial co-infections and related risks should also be evaluated in the context of the patients' clinical status. (healthitoutcomes.com)
  • These bacterial and fungal drug-resistant infections, found in the observed COVID-19 patients, came from pathogens called out on the CDC's 2019 list of antibiotic resistance threats . (healthitoutcomes.com)
  • However, without a complete understanding of the patient's condition, this practice can lead to the development or exacerbation of drug-resistant infections, which can spread rapidly to other vulnerable patients in the same facility. (healthitoutcomes.com)
  • From the mid 1980s, CSIRO researchers at North Ryde led by Ruth Hall, were involved in an effort to understand how antibiotic resistance genes get into and move about in bacterial populations rendering antibiotics ineffective for the treatment of bacterial diseases and hospital-acquired infections. (csiropedia.csiro.au)
  • Researchers analyzed viruses taken from the first person known to have H7N9 infection and found that 35 percent of them were resistant to Tamiflu ( oseltamivir ) and Relenza ( zanamivir ), which are antiviral drugs used to treat H7N9 infections. (medicinenet.com)
  • Get more information on bacterial skin infections, which bacteria cause food poisoning, sexually transmitted bacteria, and more. (medicinenet.com)
  • Explore the most common bacterial infections. (medicinenet.com)
  • We create personalized treatment plans based on the cause of your infection and your health to prevent and fight bacterial, fungal, and viral infections. (umiamihealth.org)
  • Multi-drug resistant bacteria are a major cause of concern among healthcare facilities as they contribute to an increase in morbidity and mortality, compared to the infections by the bacteria that can be treated relatively easily with antibiotics. (medindia.net)
  • Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria which have potential benefit in treating drug resistant bacterial infections. (medindia.net)
  • All are caused by bacterial infections and the patients could expect to die, often very quickly, from such infections - many at an early age. (h2g2.com)
  • This year saw the effective treatment of bacterial infections begin. (h2g2.com)
  • However, in 1940, a group of chemists in Oxford demonstrated the unprecedented potency of penicillin against bacterial infections. (h2g2.com)
  • In pregnant women, bacterial infections can alter the implantation of the fertilized ovum during consignment and peripartum periods, or affect the fetus as well as the new-born [ 3 ]. (ophrp.org)
  • The 2013 report of United States Centers for Disease Control and prevention declared that at least 2 million people in the USA acquired infections with resistant bacterial phenotypes, with at least 23,000 people dying yearly because of these infections [ 8 ]. (ophrp.org)
  • Hence, considering the combined use of antiquorum compounds and conventional antibiotics would be more rationale to address bacterial infections in a superior way. (frontiersin.org)
  • We evolved resistance in Escherichia coli toward 23 drugs used clinically for treating bacterial infections and mapped the resulting collateral sensitivity and resistance profiles, revealing a complex collateral sensitivity network. (sciencemag.org)
  • The evolution and spread of resistance reduces or entirely eliminates the utility of most drugs used for the treatment of bacterial, fungal, parasitic, and viral infections ( 3 - 6 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • In particular, treatment failure is rapidly increasing as a result of the alarming development of multidrug resistance in Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella , which contribute to most of the deaths caused by hospital-acquired infections ( 7 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Dr Blaskovich said the old drug, vancomycin, was still widely used to treat extremely dangerous bacterial infections, but bacteria were becoming increasingly resistant to it. (outbreaknewstoday.com)
  • Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem around the world, causing common infections such as pneumonia to become harder to treat. (ngaiire.com.au)
  • For example, for urinary tract infections, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and fluoroquinolones are treatments of choice ( 6 ), whereas for Shiga toxin-producing E. coli infections, antimicrobial drug therapy is not recommended ( 7 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The antibiotic, first identified by Nosopharm, is unique and promising on two fronts: its unconventional source and its distinct way of killing bacteria, both of which suggest the compound may be effective at treating drug-resistant or hard-to-treat bacterial infections. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriacae, or CRE, are a family of germs that have high levels of resistance to antibiotics - one study suggests that CRE, which are the common culprits in bloodstream and surgical site infections, contribute to death in up to 50 percent of patients who become infected. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Antibiotic sensitivities of common bacterial pathogens in urinary tract infections at Gondar Hospital , Ethiopia. (ivyunion.org)
  • Prevalence and antibiotic resistance pattern of urinary tract bacterial infections in Dessie area. (ivyunion.org)
  • In recent years, bacterial infections caused by resistant strains have been increased dramatically [ 8 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Both PCV7 and PCV13 prevented many infections due to drug-resistant pneumococcal strains. (cdc.gov)
  • 2018. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Report, Emerging Infections Program Network, Streptococcus pneumoniae, 2018 . (cdc.gov)
  • Moreover, the ketolides are associated with a low potential for inducing resistance, making them promising first-line agents for respiratory tract infections. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Due to these low rates of resistance and to its high activity against the gram-negative anaerobic bacterial species, metronidazole is a promising drug for treating periodontal infections . (bvsalud.org)
  • Researchers at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center have shown - for the first time - that special bandages using weak electric fields to disrupt bacterial biofilm infection can prevent infections, combat antibiotic resistance and enable healing in infected burn wounds. (eurekalert.org)
  • Drug resistance in bacteria is a major threat, and antibiotic-resistant biofilm infections are estimated to account for at least 75 percent of bacterial infections in the United States," said Dr. Chandan Sen, director of Ohio State's Center for Regenerative Medicine & Cell Based Therapies, who led the study with colleagues at the Medical Center's Comprehensive Wound Center and Center for Microbial Interface Technology. (eurekalert.org)
  • Though largely replaced by antibiotics, sulfa drugs are still commonly used against urinary tract infections, Hanson disease ( leprosy ), malaria , and for burn treatment. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In fact, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), virtually all significant bacterial infections in the world are becoming resistant to the antibiotic treatment of choice. (fda.gov)
  • These "staph" infections range from urinary tract infections to bacterial pneumonia. (fda.gov)
  • Methicillin, one of the strongest in the arsenal of drugs to treat staph infections, is no longer effective against some strains of S. aureus. (fda.gov)
  • Although the prescribing of antibiotics has dropped by half in UK hospitals in the past 10 years, there hasn't been the expected rise of bacterial infections. (healthy.net)
  • Have people found better ways of countering bacterial infections? (healthy.net)
  • Although there is currently a shortage of new drugs in the antimicrobial realm, there are a few antibiotics currently being studied and tested for the treatment of serious Gram-negative bacterial infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, there has been interest in the drug Tigecycline, which is from the class of antibiotics called called glycylcyclines, for treating MDRGN infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • This drug shows promise in infections from multi-drug resistant K. pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae carbapenemase [KPC]- and ESBL-producing strains) and Enterobacteriaceae with various mechanisms of resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of these changes make them resistant to certain drugs, meaning they are more likely to survive and pass on their resistant traits to other bacteria. (ox.ac.uk)
  • But to find out which particular strain of bacteria is causing a patient's infection and which drugs it is resistant to, doctors must carry out drug susceptibility testing, where different antibiotics are applied to the bacteria in a petri dish to see whether they kill it. (ox.ac.uk)
  • It has been proposed that antimicrobial resistance could be associated with a fitness cost in bacteria, which is often determined by competition experiments between isogenic strains (wild-type and mutant). (nih.gov)
  • An alternative method was developed to assess the fitness cost in drug-resistant bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • In 2016, Beta Lactam held the largest market in the drug class segment due to factors such as rising prevalence of multiple drug resistance cases and development of drugs such as Ceftazidime-avibactam and Doripenem which exhibit broad spectrum activity to counteract drug resistance by bacteria. (abnewswire.com)
  • Drug resistance in bacteria is one of the major global health problems that we're facing now. (tropmedres.ac)
  • The research into antibiotic resistance bacteria matters because antibiotics are incredibly useful. (tropmedres.ac)
  • In a particular treatment option, the stability of the compounds (drugs or phytochemicals) is important as it selects resistance development in bacteria. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. (childrensmercy.org)
  • The good news is that rapid, FDA-cleared molecular diagnostic panels are readily available that detect a broad range of bacteria and resistance genes with only two minutes of hands-on time. (healthitoutcomes.com)
  • Antibiotic resistance is an ongoing and increasing problem that is reducing the efficacy of the relatively small collection of antibiotics that are available for treatment of infectious diseases caused by bacteria. (csiropedia.csiro.au)
  • As the incidence of resistance continues to rise in disease-causing bacteria, so does multiple resistance leaving few options for treatment. (csiropedia.csiro.au)
  • This process, called horizontal gene transfer, is the way that resistance genes are shared amongst different types of bacteria. (csiropedia.csiro.au)
  • Movement of an antibiotic resistance gene (shown in orange) from the chromosome of a bacterium to a plasmid can facilitate its spread because plasmids can transfer into other bacteria making them resistant as well. (csiropedia.csiro.au)
  • Mobile elements provide another way for bacteria to take up new genes and also explain how resistance genes could have got onto the plasmids that are moving them into new bacteria. (csiropedia.csiro.au)
  • The bacteria that infected Dr. Patterson developed resistance to the strain of phage that was used initially but the scientists altered the phage strains, some of them isolated from sewers, to improve treatment. (medindia.net)
  • Most people don't realize that they actually are walking around with more bacterial cells in their bodies than their own cells, so we are really bags of bacteria," explains Dr. Pal. (genengnews.com)
  • Bacteria have a very different type of cell to higher organisms 6 and so often antibiotic drugs are lethal to the bacterium but have no effect on us at all. (h2g2.com)
  • Any drug that interferes with the biosynthesis of this structure will be lethal to bacteria and is unlikely to cause any damage to the patient. (h2g2.com)
  • The medical condition that presents with an abnormally high concentration of bacteria in the jejunal aspirate on culture is known as small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). (news-medical.net)
  • Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter aerogenes showed 100% resistance in non-pregnant women, however all isolated bacteria were shown to be multidrug resistant in pregnant women. (ophrp.org)
  • Multidrug-resistant bacteria can be difficult to treat and facilitates spread of antibiotic resistance. (theinsightpartners.com)
  • All extract showed the degree of effectiveness against all bacterial strains but the Methanol extract showed the maximum growth inhibition 85.71% against Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteria at 100µl/ml extract concentration. (ijcmas.com)
  • It has also been demonstrated in bacteria that antagonistic drug combinations, in which the constituent drugs counteract each other's effects, can be used to select against resistance that results from suppressive drug interactions ( 16 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Given the alarming rise of multi-drug resistant bacteria and the length of time it takes to develop a new antibiotic, we need to look at any solution that could fix the antibiotic drug discovery pipeline now," Professor Cooper said. (outbreaknewstoday.com)
  • Based in Switzerland, the biotech Combioxin is developing a drug that can enhance current antibiotics to make them effective against antibiotic resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae , a bacteria that causes pneumonia. (ngaiire.com.au)
  • Combioxin's drug doesn't cause the bacteria to become resistant to the drug. (ngaiire.com.au)
  • Airport Door Handles: Are They Helping to Spread Drug-Resistant Bacteria around the World? (labmanager.com)
  • It seems plausible that drug-resistant bacteria from an individual traveler could be transferred to inanimate surfaces and th. (labmanager.com)
  • As the threat of antibiotic resistance grows, scientists are turning to the human body and the trillion or so bacteria that h. (labmanager.com)
  • Drug-resistant bacteria annually sicken 2 million Americans and kill at least 23,000. (labmanager.com)
  • However, selective pressure exerted by antimicrobial drug use also has been the major driving force behind the emergence and spread of drug-resistance traits among pathogenic and commensal bacteria ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • E. coli is sometimes used as a sentinel for monitoring antimicrobial drug resistance in fecal bacteria because it is found more frequently in a wide range of hosts, acquires resistance easily ( 8 ), and is a reliable indicator of resistance in salmonellae ( 9 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The past 2 decades have witnessed major increases in emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria and increasing resistance to newer compounds, such as fluoroquinolones and certain cephalosporins ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • This review summarizes findings derived from genomic analysis of IncP-1 resistance plasmids isolated from WWTP bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • Comparative genomics of accessory modules located on plasmids from WWTP and corresponding modules previously identified in other bacterial genomes revealed that animal, human and plant pathogens and other bacteria isolated from different habitats share a common pool of resistance determinants. (nih.gov)
  • When genetically mobile, rapidly reproducing creatures such as bacteria collide with frequently used drugs, they inevitably develop resistance. (psmag.com)
  • Here's a key mechanism for resistance: Proteins on cell membranes called efflux pumps shuttle harmful substances like triclosan and antibiotics out of bacteria, leaving bacterial cells functioning just fine. (psmag.com)
  • Other processes can confer resistance as well, but efflux pumps are particularly powerful: Their genes are encoded on snippets of DNA that bacteria share freely with one another. (psmag.com)
  • While many antibiotics can slow bacterial growth, Mankin says antibiotics that actually kill bacteria, called bactericidal antibiotics, are rare. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Hence, current information on antimicrobial resistance and the prevalence of the pathogenic bacteria need to be available at national and local levels to guide the rational use of the existing antimicrobials. (ivyunion.org)
  • Objective To investigate the distribution and drug resistance of clinical common isolated bacteria from our hospital in 2013. (bvsalud.org)
  • The synergistic interactions indicated that the bactericidal potentials of the antibacterial agents were improved and combining natural products with antibiotic could be potential sources for resistance-modifying agents useful against infectious multi-drug resistant bacteria. (mdpi.com)
  • Bacteria become resistant to tetracyclines or macrolides by limiting their access to the cell , by altering the ribosome in order to prevent effective binding of the drug, or by producing tetracycline /macrolide-inactivating enzymes . (bvsalud.org)
  • This bacteria acquired resistance to oxacillin, analogue to methicillin in the United States, justifying the acronym MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) used to identify them. (scielo.br)
  • Chapters on resistance mechanisms describe the latest findings on what makes different groups of bacteria susceptible or resistant to antibiotics. (routledge.com)
  • They reveal the staggering diversity of bacteria and the need for a foundational understanding that will stimulate development of antibiotics capable of avoiding resistance mechanisms. (routledge.com)
  • Examining the success and limitations of complementary approaches, such as combining ß-lactam antibiotics with ß-lactamase inhibitors, the book brings together information on resistance mechanisms in different groups of bacteria to help future efforts to more effectively develop and deploy antimicrobial therapies. (routledge.com)
  • The first drug to treat widespread bacteria was developed in the mid-1930s by the German physician-chemist Gerhard Domagk. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Ever since antibiotics became widely available about 50 years ago, they have been hailed as miracle drugs--magic bullets able to destroy disease-causing bacteria. (fda.gov)
  • But some bacteria resist the effects of drugs and multiply and spread. (fda.gov)
  • Some bacteria have developed resistance to antibiotics naturally, long before the development of commercial antibiotics. (fda.gov)
  • After testing bacteria found in an arctic glacier and estimated to be over 2,000 years old, scientists found several of them to be resistant against some antibiotics, most likely indicating naturally occurring resistance. (fda.gov)
  • If they are not naturally resistant, bacteria can become resistant to drugs in a number of ways. (fda.gov)
  • This means that resistance can spread from one species of bacteria to other species, enabling them to develop multiple resistance to different classes of antibiotics. (fda.gov)
  • 2 In addition to C trachomatis , azithromycin has antibacterial activity against many bacterial species including pathogenic bacteria that are routinely found in the conjunctiva. (bmj.com)
  • While Chlamydia has remained sensitive to macrolides and azalides including azithromycin, other bacteria may develop resistance, and there is some concern that large scale trachoma programmes may interfere with bacterial flora. (bmj.com)
  • Deep in the bowels of a pristine New Mexico cave , microbiologists have discovered nearly a hundred types of bacteria that can fight off modern antibiotic drugs. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • While not infectious to humans , the cave bacteria can resist multiple classes of antibiotics, including new synthetic drugs. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Barton scraped off and bagged samples of biofilms-thick mats of bacteria-growing on the cave walls and delivered them to Wright's laboratory, where his team spent three years probing the samples for any signs of antibiotic resistance. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Many microbiologists therefore suspect that nonpathogenic bacteria are acting as a vast pool of ancient resistance genes waiting to be transferred to pathogenic bacteria. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDRGN bacteria) are a type of Gram-negative bacteria with resistance to multiple antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • As instructors of the summer Advanced Bacterial Genetics course at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, John Roth, David Botstein, and Ron Davis taught many scientists how to use transposons and other modern molecular genetic tools for analysis of bacteria, leading to important advances in our understanding of the genetics and physiology of bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists have developed an easy-to-use computer program that can quickly analyse bacterial DNA from a patient's infection and predict which antibiotics will work, and which will fail due to drug resistance. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In this study, the software was able to detect resistance to the five first-line antibiotics in over 99% of Staphylococcus aureus cases, matching the performance of traditional drug sensitivity testing. (ox.ac.uk)
  • PBPs are a group of proteins that catalyze the last steps of bacterial cell wall formation, and are the targets of the β-lactam antibiotics. (usf.edu)
  • High segment will be the fastest growing segment for the vectors market throughout the forecast period 2017-2025 majorly due to factors such as increasing number of patients suffering with Helicobacter pylori (clarithromycin-resistant), and Staphylococcus aureus, (vancomycin-resistant) infection and public-private partnership in the diagnosis and antibiotics development to treat antimicrobial drug resistance. (abnewswire.com)
  • Oxazolidinone and Glycolipopeptides will be the fastest growing market in the drug class segment throughout the forecast period 2017-2025 majorly due to factors such as large development gap in the antibiotic development and emergence of effective antibiotics such as Linezolid and Dalbavancin exhibiting improved pharmacodynamic activity and technological advancement in the rapid diagnostics testing kits. (abnewswire.com)
  • As we get better and more reliable mathematical models - so we need to fit these models to data - we can increasingly ask what would be the impact of changing the way we use antibiotics on how much resistance we see. (tropmedres.ac)
  • Combinations of synergistic phytochemicals and antibiotics are assumed to be a new option to solve the drug resistance problem. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • It was found that conventional antibiotics under study were less stable than phytochemicals and combination of synergistic phytochemicals together with antibiotics could delay resistance formation in MRSA. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Combination therapies using two or more synergistic antibiotics have been used before and their effectiveness in resistance prevention is still questionable because of the stability and the dosing pattern of the compounds used. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • In this study, with the consideration of the effectiveness of phytochemicals in combination with synergistic antibiotics in resistance prevention or delaying effects on partner synergistic antibiotic, a new noble dynamic drugs dosing combination hypothesis was introduced and tested with 4 MRSA strains for a duration of 10 days and 30 days to understand short-term and long-term effects. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • In some patients, this might mean deescalating the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics to prevent the development of drug-resistance. (healthitoutcomes.com)
  • The aim was to try to work out why probes they had made to enable them to screen for a gentamicin resistance gene causing problems at the hospital were lighting up strains that were resistant to quite different antibiotics. (csiropedia.csiro.au)
  • When a bacterial machine called the efflux pump is in working order, it expels antibiotics, contributing to antibiotic resistance. (genengnews.com)
  • Keeping these parts out of stock, then, is a promising strategy in preserving the effectiveness of antibiotics that qualify as "last line of defense" drugs. (genengnews.com)
  • The bacterial isolate that had infected Dr. Patterson was found to be resistant to all these antibiotics. (medindia.net)
  • This makes some antibiotics very safe drugs for us to use indeed. (h2g2.com)
  • Within some bacterial populations, a subset of cells grows more slowly than the rest, which decreases the competitive fitness of these cells under favorable growth conditions but enables them to survive exposure to antibiotics. (sciencemag.org)
  • Rosacea patients have a higher prevalence of SIBO than the general population, and when the bacterial overgrowth is eradicated with antibiotics, the resolution of skin lesions is almost 100% and persists for 9 months or more in about 8 out of every 10 patients. (news-medical.net)
  • Individuals with rosacea who are treated with antibiotics such as tetracycline or macrolide drugs, metronidazole, or chloramphenicol, show a good response to symptoms, even though the drugs have diverse mechanisms and spectrum of action. (news-medical.net)
  • Drugs that increase gut motility have also been known to improve rosacea symptoms, lending weight to the hypothesis that bacterial products are responsible for the development of the skin lesions, and this might also explain the improvement seen with antibiotics. (news-medical.net)
  • There is a decrease in bacterial susceptibility to almost all available antibiotics [ 7 ]. (ophrp.org)
  • However, the high cost of R&D and lack of effective antibiotics are expected to hamper the market multidrug resistance antibiotics market during the forecast period. (theinsightpartners.com)
  • The number of effective antibiotics has been reduced by the emergence of resistance to penicillin, methicillin, and, more recently, vancomycin ( 1 , 2 ), a problem that has been compounded by the recent emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) carriage and disease in the community ( 3 , 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • It is also resistance for some antibiotics such as Lincomycin and Oleandomycin. (ijcmas.com)
  • We identified hundreds of such drug sets and demonstrated that the antibiotics gentamicin and cefuroxime can be deployed cyclically such that the treatment regimen selected against resistance to either drug. (sciencemag.org)
  • Drug resistance is a common phenomenon of pathogens, creating a serious problem of inactivation of drugs and antibiotics resulting in occurrence of diseases. (nih.gov)
  • In its first human trial , Combioxin tested the drug against a placebo in 19 pneumonia patients in intensive care being treated with standard antibiotics. (ngaiire.com.au)
  • Campaigns for more judicious use of antibiotics and expanded use of vaccines may slow or reverse emerging drug resistance. (cdc.gov)
  • The prevalence of MRSA has placed additional urgency to understand the mechanisms of resistance to methicillin as well as second line antibiotics. (jcvi.org)
  • This implies that the acquisition of an additional resistance plasmid or of a resistance mutation often increases the fitness of a bacterial strain already resistant to antibiotics. (prolekare.cz)
  • Therefore, the aim of this manuscript was to review the mechanisms of action of the antibiotics most commonly used in the periodontal treatment (i.e. penicillin , tetracycline , macrolide and metronidazole ) and the main mechanisms of bacterial resistance to these drugs . (bvsalud.org)
  • Although the eradication of H. pylori using antibiotics often improves gastroduodenal diseases, resistance to the antibiotics is emerging. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The book begins with a history of antimicrobial agents and bacterial resistance, and outlines the forces that contributed to the abuse of antibiotics and precipitated the current crisis. (routledge.com)
  • Resistance to ß-Lactam Antibiotics Mediated by ß-Lactamases. (routledge.com)
  • The sulfonamide drugs developed in the 1930s, penicillin and other antibiotics of the 1940s, hormones in the 1950s, and more recent drugs that interfere with cancer cell metabolism and reproduction have all been part of the chemotherapeutic arsenal. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It has already happened to antibiotics, and now the same thing is being seen with the antiviral drugs. (healthy.net)
  • Mykrobe Predictor streamlines this process by automating genome analysis, cross-checking the bacterium's DNA sequence with previous strains to look for resistance-causing mutations and presenting information about the bug in an easy-to-understand format. (ox.ac.uk)
  • SUMMARY: Many studies report the high prevalence of multiply drug-resistant (MDR) strains. (harvard.edu)
  • Two compounds were designed which conjugated a ferrocene or ruthenocene group to 6-aminopenicillinic acid, and their antibiotic properties were tested against a range of bacterial strains. (usf.edu)
  • The duration it took to get phenotypic mutant strains for a particular drug/phytochemical concentration was compared individually or in combination. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • It was found that giving sub-MIC concentrations of tannic acid, quercetin and gallic acid ethyl ester together with fusidic or rifampicin could overcome or delay the occurrence of adaptive resistance in MRSA strains. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • TUESDAY, July 16 (HealthDay News) -- Some strains of the new H7N9 bird flu virus that appeared in China this year are resistant to antiviral drugs , and tests can fail to identify that resistance, which could help accelerate their spread, a new study finds. (medicinenet.com)
  • However, lab testing of the viruses failed to detect the strains that were resistant, so using lab tests to monitor the development of resistance in H7N9 would be useless, according to the authors of the study, published July 16 in the online journal mBio . (medicinenet.com)
  • Its genetic plasticity has facilitated the evolution of many virulent and drug-resistant strains, presenting a major and constantly changing clinical challenge. (pnas.org)
  • MSSA476 is methicillin-susceptible, but it contains a novel Staphylococcal chromosomal cassette (SCC) mec -like element (designated SCC 476 ), which is integrated at the same site on the chromosome as SCC mec elements in MRSA strains but encodes a putative fusidic acid resistance protein. (pnas.org)
  • the differential distribution of large mobile elements carrying virulence and drug-resistance determinants may be responsible for the clinically important phenotypic differences in these strains. (pnas.org)
  • More complete genomes are now available for S. aureus than for any other bacterial species, thus providing a detailed insight into the evolutionary processes leading to strains of differing virulence and drug-resistance potential. (pnas.org)
  • Malaria in 2012 has become a resurgent threat in South East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, and drug-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum are posing massive problems for health authorities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibacterial activities of peel extract were studied against some bacterial strains as- Pseudomonas fluorescens Pseudomonas aeruginosa Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, and Bacillus subtilis (all are gram negative and also pathogenic to the human). (ijcmas.com)
  • The present study depict that he Punica granatum fruit peel extract (which is waste in industry) showed good Antibacterial activity against given pathogenic and some drug resistance bacterial strains. (ijcmas.com)
  • NEW YORK (GenomeWeb) - Two independent research teams have cultured and characterized thousands of bacterial strains from fecal samples of healthy humans, generating reference genomes for hundreds of organisms not sequenced in the past. (genomeweb.com)
  • We removed plasmid DNA for comparing drug sensitivity between plasmid containing and plasmid cured bacterial strains by isolated compound. (japer.in)
  • Plasmid containing two bacterial strains of Escherichia coli (ATCC 25938) and Bacillus cereus (IMAUB1022) were cultured in nutrient broth media & drug resistance was studied using Chloramphenicol (reference drug) 1 μg/ml for Bacillus cereus (IMAUB1022) & 5μg/ml for Escherichia coli (ATCC 25938). (japer.in)
  • In this study, we report a first assessment of genetic diversity of a convenience sample of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains received from twelve Caribbean territories by spoligotyping and describe their drug-resistance patterns. (hindawi.com)
  • Here we study the interaction between antibiotic-resistance chromosomal mutations and conjugative (i.e., self-transmissible) plasmids and find many cases of sign epistasis (40%)-including one of reciprocal sign epistasis where the strain carrying both resistance determinants is fitter than the two strains carrying only one of the determinants. (prolekare.cz)
  • Indeed, rates of S. pneumoniae resistance to penicillin now exceed 40% in many regions, and a high proportion of these strains are also resistant to macrolides. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • That the use of any antibacterial agent or class of agents over time will result either in the development of resistance to these agents or in the emergence of new pathogenic strains that are intrinsically resistant is now widely accepted. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The emergence of drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a challenge to global tuberculosis (TB) control. (nih.gov)
  • It's been reckoned that a fifth of all strains are now untreatable because of their resistance to existing drugs, and there are early signs that influenza is also not reacting to drugs. (healthy.net)
  • There is a parallel resistance among EMB- and INH-resistant strains in the tested clinical isolates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A total of 1,729 E. coli isolates (983 from humans, 323 from cattle, 138 from chickens, and 285 from pigs) were tested for susceptibility to 15 antimicrobial drugs. (cdc.gov)
  • For example, a study of the susceptibility of E. coli isolates recovered from hospitals during a 12-year period (1971-1982) showed no major change in resistance to any of the antimicrobial drugs tested ( 11 ). (cdc.gov)
  • This study was aimed to assess bacterial profile, antimicrobial susceptibility and associated factors among urinary stone patients at the University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bacterial identification of uropathogens and drug susceptibility testing were done following standard microbiological techniques. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Conventional drug susceptibility testing (DST) can take 1-2 weeks once a positive culture has been obtained. (bmj.com)
  • Dead bugs don't mutate: susceptibility issues in the emergence of bacterial resistance. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Gonococci isolates from 65 patients in São Paulo were submitted to susceptibility testing, and a decreased susceptibility or resistance to ciprofloxacin was observed in 8.7% of these patients, indicating that Neisseria gonorrhoeae fluoroquinolone resistance is emerging in Brazil. (scielo.br)
  • Although culture-based methods have been regarded as the gold standard for drug susceptibility testing (DST), molecular methods provide rapid information on mutations in the M. tuberculosis genome associated with resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs. (nih.gov)
  • Manual for the Laboratory Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Bacterial Pathogens of Public Health Importance in the Developing World. (who.int)
  • It has become increasingly important to monitor patterns of resistance as the antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial pathogens which contribute significantly to the burden of respiratory, febrile, reproductive tract, and diarrheal illness has declined. (who.int)
  • Methods for the isolation and identification of each of these bacterial agents from clinical specimens are presented, and standardized antimicrobial susceptibility testing techniques and criteria for interpretation are described. (who.int)
  • Pavia, M., Nobile, C. and Salpietro, L. (2000) Vancomycin resistance and antibiotic susceptibility of enterococci in raw meat. (scirp.org)
  • Aurangzeb, B. and Hameed, A. (2003) Neonatal sepsis in hospital- born babies: bacterial isolates and antibiotic susceptibility patterns. (scirp.org)
  • Distribution of Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence Genes in Enterococcus spp. (asm.org)
  • This system involves small mobile elements, now called gene cassettes, that contain one (or occasionally two) gene(s), often antibiotic resistance genes, and a backbone element which was named an integron. (csiropedia.csiro.au)
  • Gene cassettes are now accepted to be an important source of new antibiotic resistance genes and, as multiple cassettes can reside together in an integron, providing resistance to more than one antibiotic. (csiropedia.csiro.au)
  • International research done in the 1960s and 1970s had revealed two important things about how antibiotic resistance genes are spread. (csiropedia.csiro.au)
  • First, it was found that there were small chromosomes called plasmids that replicate separately from the bacterial chromosome and can transfer or be transferred, often carrying antibiotic resistance genes with them, from the bacterium they were in to another one they encountered. (csiropedia.csiro.au)
  • A lot of different transposons that carried genes conferring resistance to several different types of antibiotic were subsequently discovered. (csiropedia.csiro.au)
  • Details of the work appeared September 15 in the journal PLoS Biology, in an article entitled, "Sequence-Specific Targeting of Bacterial Resistance Genes Increases Antibiotic Efficacy. (genengnews.com)
  • A rapid process of sharing resistance exists among single-celled organisms, and is termed horizontal gene transfer in which there is a direct exchange of genes, particularly in the biofilm state. (wikipedia.org)
  • DbMDR: a relational database for multidrug resistance genes as potential drug targets. (nih.gov)
  • DbMDR is non-redundant reference database of multidrug resistance (MDR) genes and their orthologs acting as potential drug targets. (nih.gov)
  • Apart from other factors, the MDR genes present in pathogens are shown to be responsible for multidrug resistance. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, consolidation of such knowledge about MDR genes into one database will make the drug discovery research more efficient. (nih.gov)
  • The DbMDR database ( is a comprehensive resource for comparative study focused on MDR genes and metabolic pathway efflux pumps and intended to provide a platform for researchers for further research in drug resistance. (nih.gov)
  • The genes responsible for resistance to Chloramphenicol and Polyprenol C-60 are present on plasmid DNA of both Bacillus cereus (IMAUB1022) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25938). (japer.in)
  • From this we learned that although the majority of resistance genes in the gut microbiome remained unchanged following travel, several clinically important resistance genes increased, most prominently genes encoding resistance to sulphonamide, trimethoprim, and beta-lactams. (diva-portal.org)
  • Thus, resistance genes can quickly spread among bacterial communities. (prolekare.cz)
  • Antimicrobial resistance can be acquired in a short time frame, both by genetic mutation and by direct transfer of resistance genes across genus and species boundaries. (routledge.com)
  • Ecology of Antibiotic Resistance Genes. (routledge.com)
  • Genetic Methods for Detecting Bacterial Resistance Genes. (routledge.com)
  • There are so many of them with so many resistance genes that could move horizontally through populations,' either via sexual reproduction, transfer through viruses, or absorption of genetic scraps. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • MMC resistance is caused by the presence of any of four distinct E. coli genes ( mdfA, gyrl, rob , and sdiA ) on high-copy-number vectors. (asm.org)
  • Targets of inhibitor action were verified by using these methods ( 31 ), while the ability to define both target-specifying and unexpected resistance genes was uncovered ( 17 ). (asm.org)
  • The sequencing of insert-vector junctions defines genes that confer inhibitor resistance when present in high copy. (asm.org)
  • We conducted a retrospective study of Escherichia coli isolates recovered from human and food animal samples during 1950-2002 to assess historical changes in antimicrobial drug resistance. (cdc.gov)
  • These data describe the evolution of resistance after introduction of new antimicrobial agents into clinical medicine and help explain the range of resistance in modern E. coli isolates. (cdc.gov)
  • Although studies of farms have shown an association of multidrug-resistant E. coli with chronic antimicrobial drug exposure ( 14 , 15 ), there are few data on temporal trends of antimicrobial drug resistance in food animal E. coli isolates, particularly those recovered before 1980. (cdc.gov)
  • This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of UTIs, risk factors and antimicrobial resistance pattern of the bacterial isolates from diabetic patients in Nekemte Referral Hospital (NRH). (ivyunion.org)
  • Thirty-three bacterial uropathogens, total, were isolated with S. aureus (24.2%) and CN Staphylococcus spp (24.2%), E. coli (12.1%) and K. pneumonia (12.1%) being the most common isolates. (ivyunion.org)
  • A high level of resistance was observed to ampicillin, penicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole while majority of isolates were most sensitive to nitrofurantoin and ciprofloxacin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Multi-drug resistant isolates were 16/49 (32.7%), 75% of them being Enterobacteriaceae isolates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Most of the bacterial isolates from urinary stone patients were resistant to ampicillin, penicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Of the 480 isolates, 40 (8.3%) isolates showed resistance to at least one anti-TB drug. (hindawi.com)
  • The rapid identification of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) (ie, tuberculosis (TB) isolates resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampicin) reduces the time for the instigation of appropriate treatment, helps to reduce the spread of drug-resistant TB and may improve survival. (bmj.com)
  • We screened 200 MTB clinical isolates using drug sensitivity test to look for those who have turned resistant to the drugs most probably due to efflux mechanisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Then we tested if treatment with tetrandrine or verapamil could reverse drug resistance to INH and/or EMB in IEDR isolates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This suggests an involvement of efflux mechanisms which can lead to dual drug resistance in IEDR clinical isolates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study shows the effectiveness of TET in the reversal of drug resistance in a group of IEDR MTB clinical isolates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The global multiple drug resistance bacterial infection treatment market was valued at US$ 26,169.09 Mn in 2016, and is expected to reach US$ 44,060.77 Mn by 2025 expanding at a CAGR of 6.01 % from 2017 to 2025. (abnewswire.com)
  • It's estimated that one in seven COVID-19 patients will develop a secondary bacterial infection while hospitalized. (healthitoutcomes.com)
  • Both scenarios enhance antibiotic stewardship, with the ultimate goal of lowering the risk of drug-resistant infection and preserving crucial antibiotic resources for when they're needed most. (healthitoutcomes.com)
  • Our work provides an explanation for how a bacterial infection can trigger a series of events that lead to cancer. (reliawire.com)
  • The researchers found that mycoplasma infection caused the mice to develop lymphoma earlier in life than non-infected immune-compromised mice and that some, but not all, of the cancer cells had bacterial DNA. (reliawire.com)
  • Finding only a small amount of bacterial DNA in the cancer cells suggested that the infection did not have to persist to trigger cancer. (reliawire.com)
  • In most cases, if you have a bacterial infection, your doctor will prescribe an antibiotic medication to treat and cure the infection. (umiamihealth.org)
  • A research team from the University of California San Diego School of Medicine along with the U.S. Navy Medical Research Center has developed a novel method of treating a critical patient from a multi-drug resistant bacterial infection . (medindia.net)
  • LP INFORMATION offers a latest published report on Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment Market Analysis and Forecast 2019-2025 delivering key insights and providing a competitive advantage to clients through a detailed report. (ourcryptojournal.com)
  • According to this study, over the next five years the Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment market will register a xx% CAGR in terms of revenue, the global market size will reach US$ xx million by 2024, from US$ xx million in 2019. (ourcryptojournal.com)
  • In particular, this report presents the global market share (sales and revenue) of key companies in Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment business, shared in Chapter 3. (ourcryptojournal.com)
  • This report presents a comprehensive overview, market shares, and growth opportunities of Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment market by product type, application, key manufacturers and key regions and countries. (ourcryptojournal.com)
  • The multiple drug resistance bacterial infection treatment market is anticipated to grow owing to an increase in demand for rapid diagnostic testing kits and rising prevalence of antimicrobial drugs. (theinsightpartners.com)
  • The "Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment Market Analysis to 2027" is a specialized and in-depth study of the pharmaceutical industry with a special focus on the global market trend analysis. (theinsightpartners.com)
  • The report aims to provide an overview of in multiple drug resistance bacterial infection treatment market with detailed market segmentation by type, application and geography. (theinsightpartners.com)
  • The multiple drug resistance bacterial infection treatment market is expected to witness high growth during the forecast period. (theinsightpartners.com)
  • The report provides key statistics on the market status of the leading in multiple drug resistance bacterial infection treatment market players and offers key trends and opportunities in the market. (theinsightpartners.com)
  • The multiple drug resistance bacterial infection treatment market is segmented on the basis of type and application. (theinsightpartners.com)
  • It provides overview and forecast of the in multiple drug resistance bacterial infection treatment market based on various segments. (theinsightpartners.com)
  • The multiple drug resistance bacterial infection treatment market by each region is later sub-segmented by respective countries and segments. (theinsightpartners.com)
  • The report analyzes factors affecting multiple drug resistance bacterial infection treatment market from both demand and supply side and further evaluates market dynamics affecting the market during forecast period i.e., drivers, restraints, opportunities, and future trend. (theinsightpartners.com)
  • North America, Europe, APAC, MEA and South & Central America after evaluating political, economic, social and technological factors effecting the multiple drug resistance bacterial infection treatment market in these regions. (theinsightpartners.com)
  • The report covers key developments in the in multiple drug resistance bacterial infection treatment market as organic and inorganic growth strategies. (theinsightpartners.com)
  • The market players from in multiple drug resistance bacterial infection treatment market are anticipated to have lucrative growth opportunities in the future with the rising demand for in multiple drug resistance bacterial infection treatment market in the global market. (theinsightpartners.com)
  • Klebsiella pneumoniae is pathogenic and cause disease Pneumonia and can progression in to serve bacterial infection to bloodstream infection, wound infection, urinary tract infection and meningitis. (ijcmas.com)
  • On the basis of these data, we propose a new treatment framework-collateral sensitivity cycling-in which drugs with compatible collateral sensitivity profiles are used sequentially to treat infection and select against drug resistance development. (sciencemag.org)
  • The ability of drug combinations to improve treatment outcomes has been demonstrated in a variety of disease areas, including HIV infection ( 4 , 12 - 15 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Yismaw G, Asrat D, Woldeamanuel Y, Chandrashekhar G. Urinary Tract Infection : Bacterial etiologies, drug resistance profile and associated risk factors in diabetic patients attending Gondar University. (ivyunion.org)
  • Being female, history of urinary tract infection and history of drug use were the independent risk factors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sex, history of urinary tract infection and previous drug use were found to be risk factors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • New Market Research Reports Title "Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment Market Is Expected To Reach US$ 44,060.77 Mn By 2025 - Credence Research" Has Been Added to Credenceresearch.com Report Database. (dovernewsnow.com)
  • Multidrug resistance is a major hurdle for modern medicine, putting at risk commonplace medical practices [1] and the treatment of infection by bacterial pathogens [2] . (prolekare.cz)
  • Eghbalian, F. and Yousefi, R. (2005) Determining the frequency of the bacterial agents in urinary tract infection in hospitalized patients under 18 years old. (scirp.org)
  • Both Polyprenol (C-60) and Chloramphenicol exhibited resistance to Bacillus cereus (IMAUB1022) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25938) before plasmid curing & exhibited sensitivity to both after plasmid curing confirmed that the resistance is plasmid mediated. (japer.in)
  • Yet, recently, it has been found that, in Escherichia coli bacterial cells, a mutation conferring resistance to an antibiotic can be advantageous to the bacterial cell if another antibiotic-resistance mutation is already present, a phenomenon called sign epistasis. (prolekare.cz)
  • However, in the UK, a 98% decrease in the consumption of sulfonamides was accompanied by an increase of 6.2% in the frequency of sulfonamide resistance in Escherichia coli [8] . (prolekare.cz)
  • It is hard for us to imagine now how the emergence of antibiotic drugs such as penicillin have changed our lives over the last 50-60 years. (h2g2.com)
  • Penicillin , tetracycline and erythromycin are broad-spectrum drugs , effective against gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. (bvsalud.org)
  • Despite the desperate need for new infectious disease therapies, limited progress has been made in the discovery of first-in-class antibacterial drugs to balance the relentless resistance development ( 10 , 11 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • But a U.S. Food and Drug Administration advisory panel concluded in 2005 that antibacterial soap is no more effective than plain old soap and water at removing germs. (psmag.com)
  • The global emergence of antibacterial resistance among common and atypical respiratory pathogens in the last decade necessitates the strategic application of antibacterial agents. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Ironically, these same miraculous drugs now jeopardize the miracle, as evidenced by the widespread emergence of antibacterial resistance in the last decade (3-7). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Antibacterial Drug Discovery in the 21st Century. (routledge.com)
  • It should be noted that both pneumonia and meningitis have viral forms that remain fairly untreatable by drug therapy - in the case of meningitis the bacterial form meningococcal meningitis is much the most serious form, however. (h2g2.com)
  • Patients will have blood drawn at certain visits to test for LPV level, viral load, CD4 count, fasting lipids and glucose, and drug resistance. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • World Health Organization in 2016 had started a joint initiative between Global Antibiotic Research and Development Partnership (GARDP) and the Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiatives (DNDi) to develop new antibiotic treatment for antimicrobial resistance ensuring its optimal use. (abnewswire.com)
  • A comparative-genomics approach was used to explore the mechanisms of evolution of clinically important S. aureus genomes and to identify regions affecting virulence and drug resistance. (pnas.org)
  • Understanding mechanisms of resistance is crucial to the future of antimicrobial therapy. (routledge.com)
  • Mechanisms of Aminoglycoside Antibiotic Resistance. (routledge.com)
  • Since it relies on electrical principles, it's not subject to the mechanisms that may promote drug resistance. (eurekalert.org)
  • Steven, M.O. (2000) Mechanisms of bacterial antibiotic resistance. (scirp.org)
  • The aim of the study is to examine whether tetrandrine could potentiate anti-tubercular drugs to which Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) has turned resistant via efflux mechanisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mutational and computational analyses in EcDHFR and in DHFR enzymes from Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis demonstrate that natural variation at this site and its interacting hydrophobic residues modulates TMP resistance in other bacterial DHFRs as well, and may explain the different susceptibilities of bacterial pathogens to TMP. (biochemj.org)
  • Anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in the world : third global report / the WHO/IUATLD Global Project on Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance Surveillance, 1999-2002. (who.int)
  • Title on cover: Anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in the world : report no. 3. (who.int)
  • Towards universal access to diagnosis and treatment of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis by 2015 : WHO progress report 2011. (who.int)
  • Drug resistance is often a problem in malaria, tuberculosis, HIV, sexually transmitted diseases and hospital acquired diseases. (medindia.net)
  • Key factors in the control of tuberculosis (TB) are rapid detection, adequate therapy, and contact tracing to arrest further transmission, as well as active drug-resistance surveillance to avoid emergence of multidrug and extensively drug-resistant TB [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Considering that such studies might help provide evidence-based data crucial for the development of policies and strategies for effective TB prevention and control, the main objective of this study was therefore to make a first assessment of M. tuberculosis genetic diversity using spoligotyping and to determine drug-resistance patterns in twelve Caribbean territories. (hindawi.com)
  • Background Fast and reliable detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and drug resistance is crucial in establishing effective treatment and enforcing timely public health measures. (bmj.com)
  • Among new cases, PTB-DM patients had a lower prevalence of resistance to any anti-tuberculosis drug (6.4% vs. 16.0%, P = 0.007) and achieved higher sputum conversion rates at the end of 3 months of treatment (98.9% vs. 94.7%, P = 0.013). (biomedsearch.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: PTB-DM patients have a higher pre-treatment bacillary load, a lower prevalence of anti-tuberculosis drug resistance and achieve slightly higher sputum conversion by the end of 3 months of treatment compared to non-diabetic patients. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Mechanism of Drug Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (routledge.com)
  • Clinical implications of molecular drug resistance testing for Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a TBNET/RESIST-TB consensus statement. (nih.gov)
  • The panel identified single nucleotide mutations in genomic regions of M. tuberculosis coding for katG, inhA, rpoB, embB, rrs, rpsL and gyrA that are likely related to drug resistance in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • Due to multi-drug resistance problems in clinical settings and the need for newer compounds, there is great interest in phytochemical research because of their hypothesized and proven antimicrobial activities. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Antimicrobial resistance and antineoplastic resistance challenge clinical care and drive research. (wikipedia.org)
  • The drug also showed signs of improving clinical outcomes. (ngaiire.com.au)
  • By day 8, the drug improved a clinical score of the disease severity by 65% compared with baseline. (ngaiire.com.au)
  • Combioxin now plans to continue testing the efficacy of the drug in larger clinical trials. (ngaiire.com.au)
  • This calls for attention of health professionals to consider the resistance pattern in their clinical practice. (ivyunion.org)
  • Bacterial pathogens in the non-clinical environment. (frontiersin.org)
  • The ensuing clinical success was so dramatic that these agents were hailed as miracle drugs. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • However, false-positive and false-negative results in detecting resistance-associated mutations in drugs for which there is poor or unproven correlation between phenotypic and clinical drug resistance complicate the interpretation. (nih.gov)
  • Similar to a synthesized efflux pump inhibitor verapamil, tetrandrine treatment together with INH or EMB brought down the MICs from the clinical level of drug resistance to the sensitive range of both drugs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recent Patents on Anti-Infective Drug Discovery publishes review and research articles, drug clinical trial studies and guest edited thematic issues on recent patents in the field of anti-infective drug discovery e.g. on novel bioactive compounds, analogs & targets. (benthamscience.com)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a leading cause of bacterial pneumonia and meningitis in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • Antimicrobial drugs have played an indispensable role in decreasing illness and death associated with infectious diseases in animals and humans. (cdc.gov)
  • The dramatic spread of antibiotic resistance is a crisis in the treatment of infectious diseases that affect humans. (nih.gov)
  • Scientists believe they could obtain the same information much faster by looking directly at the DNA sequence of the bacterium for mutations that are known to cause resistance. (ox.ac.uk)
  • However unlike standard 'snippet-based' DNA tests, Mykrobe Predictor can be rapidly updated with a simple software upgrade that allows researchers to detect new resistance mutations as they evolve. (ox.ac.uk)
  • During the evolution of antibiotic resistance, mutations that confer drug resistance often have pleiotropic effects on the structure and function of antibiotic-target proteins, usually essential metabolic enzymes. (biochemj.org)
  • In recent years, the use of assays for the genetic detection of mutations that confer resistance have been developed and evaluated. (bmj.com)
  • Sometimes, compensatory mutations even increase the level of resistance itself [14] , [15] . (prolekare.cz)
  • Reports of molecular DST results should therefore include specific information on the mutations identified and provide guidance for clinicians on interpretation and on the choice of the appropriate initial drug regimen. (nih.gov)
  • Drug resistance in MTB rises mostly from chromosomal mutations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In 2016, critical segment held the largest revenue share for the vector segment due to factors such as rising prevalence of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Carbapenem resistance cases, rising public awareness leading to early disease diagnosis and treatment, and regulatory agencies such as WHO, CDC taking initiatives to promote public health and welfare. (abnewswire.com)
  • In this study the effect of a single dose of azithromcyin on the prevalence, species distribution, and resistance of conjunctival bacterial flora was determined. (bmj.com)
  • RESULTS Although the prevalence of bacterial pathogens decreased significantly with azithromycin treatment, a significant change in the distribution of specific bacterial pathogens could not be demonstrated. (bmj.com)
  • No change in the prevalence, distribution, or resistance pattern was found in the untreated control group. (bmj.com)
  • In short, the lack of concerted effort by governments and the pharmaceutical industry, together with the innate capacity of microbes to develop resistance at a rate that outpaces development of new drugs, suggests that existing strategies for developing viable, long-term anti-microbial therapies are ultimately doomed to failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • This can be seen in cancerous tumors where some cells may develop resistance to the drugs used in chemotherapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chemicals contained in these preparations, besides harming beneficial organisms, may intentionally or inadvertently target organisms that have the potential to develop resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • In France, the Nosopharm researchers tested the ODL compounds against bacterial pathogens, including many known to develop resistance. (scitechdaily.com)
  • They may develop resistance to certain drugs spontaneously through mutation. (fda.gov)
  • In these environments, intense evolutionary pressure pushes microbes to quickly develop resistance to multiple drugs. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • The work herein describes the use of structure based drug design to target several different proteins involved in bacterial antibiotic resistance, and a protein that has been implicated in the development of Alzheimer's disease. (usf.edu)
  • The development of antibiotic resistance in particular stems from the drugs targeting only specific bacterial molecules (almost always proteins). (wikipedia.org)
  • They found that ODLs act on the ribosome - the molecular machine of individual cells that makes the proteins it needs to function - of bacterial cells. (scitechdaily.com)
  • When ODLs are introduced to the bacterial cells, they impact the reading ability of the ribosome and cause the ribosome to make mistakes when it creates new proteins," said Mankin, director of the Center for Biomolecular Sciences in the UIC College of Pharmacy. (scitechdaily.com)
  • This miscoding corrupts the cell with flawed proteins and causes the bacterial cell to die. (scitechdaily.com)
  • One approach is to develop a new class of drugs made from defined consortia of microbes that would limit inflammation and promote colonic health, reducing the risk of colon cancer in people. (news-medical.net)
  • Microbes growing onto solid surfaces form complex 3-D biofilm structures characterized by the production of extracellular polymeric compounds and an increased resistance to drugs. (mdpi.com)
  • There is a world within each of us, a living, evolving ecological system of 500 to 1,000 species of microbes, a ''bacterial nation'' in the words of Dr. Jeffrey I. Gordon, a microbiologist at Washington University in St. Louis. (nytimes.com)
  • The threat of antibiotic resistance risks putting us back into the pre-antibiotic era. (tropmedres.ac)
  • The researchers say this study is a testament to the growing trend of international and cross-disciplinary collaboration, which is needed to combat the growing and global threat of antibiotic resistance. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Multidrug and extensively drug-resistant TB (M/XDR-TB) : 2010 global report on surveillance and response. (who.int)
  • Surveillance data show that resistance in E. coli is consistently highest for antimicrobial agents that have been in use the longest time in human and veterinary medicine ( 10 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Active Bacterial Core surveillance, 1996-2018. (cdc.gov)
  • 2001) Pathogen frequency and resistance patterns in Brazilian hospitals: Summary of results from three years of the SENTRY antimicrobial surveillance program. (scirp.org)
  • The use of bactericidal rather than bacteriostatic agents as first-line therapy is recommended because the eradication of microorganisms serves to curtail, although not avoid, the development of bacterial resistance. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The most severe criticisms to the indiscriminate use of these drugs are their side effects and, especially, the development of bacterial resistance. (bvsalud.org)
  • While chlamydia, the causative agent of trachoma, remains universally sensitive to azithromycin, there is concern that large scale programmes may alter the bacterial flora and induce resistance in streptococcal species. (bmj.com)
  • Does a single dose of azithromycin alter the distribution of bacterial species found in the conjunctival flora? (bmj.com)
  • Without alternative strategies, the acquisition of drug resistance by pathogenic microorganisms looms as possibly one of the most significant public health threats facing humanity in the 21st century. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drug resistance is an example of evolution in microorganisms. (phys.org)
  • Drug resistance was high in these microorganisms. (scirp.org)
  • Drug resistance was high in the isolated microorganisms. (scirp.org)
  • Klugman, K.P. and Mahdi, S.A. (1999) Emergence of drug resistance. (scirp.org)
  • Due to the emergence of drug-resistance, many anti-tubercular drugs end up not useful anymore [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Dr. Pal and his colleagues published their study (" Plasticity in Early Immune Evasion Strategies of a Bacterial Pathogen ") in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ( PNAS ). (genengnews.com)
  • When the drug is not intended to kill or inhibit a pathogen, then the term is equivalent to dosage failure or drug tolerance . (phys.org)
  • In this study, the ability to distinguish between these bacterial 'sub-populations' gave Mykrobe an advantage over conventional testing in detecting resistance to second-line TB drugs. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Combination therapies have been deployed clinically both to prevent the rise of resistance and to improve treatment efficacy. (sciencemag.org)
  • These elements carry determinants conferring resistance to nearly all clinically relevant antimicrobial drug classes, to heavy metals, and quaternary ammonium compounds used as disinfectants. (nih.gov)
  • Olarte L. Vancomycin Should Be Part of Empiric Therapy for Suspected Bacterial Meningitis. (childrensmercy.org)
  • Los Alamos and partners test ionic liquids to break bacterial biofilm layer and save lives. (labmanager.com)
  • Resistance of biofilm towards drug interventions calls for alternative strategies. (eurekalert.org)
  • Both from bacterial biofilm structure as well as host response perspectives, WED was consistently effective. (eurekalert.org)
  • We did this by modifying vancomycin's membrane-binding properties to selectively bind to bacterial membranes rather than those of human cells, creating a series of supercharged vancomycin derivatives called vancapticins. (outbreaknewstoday.com)
  • Methods The authors analysed the performance of a national UK molecular diagnostic service over a decade, based on the use of a line probe assay (Innolipa, LiPA) compared with conventional liquid and solid cultures with rapid molecular identification and culture-based drug resistance testing. (bmj.com)
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The antimicrobial effect of essential oils and the development of resistance to the essential oils were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. (biomedsearch.com)
  • METHODS Baseline and 14 day follow up bacterial cultures were taken from the conjunctivae of 121 children who reside in a trachoma endemic area of Nepal. (bmj.com)
  • Drug, toxin, or chemical resistance is a consequence of evolution and is a response to pressures imposed on any living organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer cells rapidly evolve drug resistance through somatic evolution and, in order to continue growth in the metastatic phase, violate the organism-wide consensus of regulated growth and beneficial communal interactions. (princeton.edu)
  • We suggest that there is a fundamental mechanistic connection between the rapid evolution of resistance to chemotherapy in cellular communities within malignant tissues and the rapid evolution of antibiotic resistance in bacterial communities. (princeton.edu)
  • We propose that this evolution is the result of a programmed and collective stress response performed by interacting cells, and that, given this fundamental connection, studying bacterial communities can provide deeper insights into the dynamics of adaptation and the evolution of cells within tumours. (princeton.edu)
  • This type of process has been dubbed as "short sighted evolution" ( Levin and Bull, 1994 ) and is fundamental for understanding the in host adaptation processes of bacterial opportunistic pathogens. (frontiersin.org)
  • This fact sheet is part of CDC's 2019 Antibiotic Resistance Threats Report. (cdc.gov)
  • Their combination can increase the efficacy and the killing rate and the chance of resistance development can be delayed. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • The study also demonstrates that by reducing p53, DnaK can also reduce the efficacy of anti-cancer drugs . (reliawire.com)
  • Combinational application of tetrandrine with INH or EMB increased drug efficacy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When an organism is resistant to more than one drug, it is said to be multidrug-resistant. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example of the development of resistance is the mutation of S. pneumoniae to produce a multidrug-resistant strain (11). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The lack of newly emerging antimicobrial drugs have resulted in the revisit of old antibiotic drugs such as colistin and fosfomycin (Polymyxins), which are traditionally considered to be toxic but have gained a principal role in the treament of the most problematic MDR Gram-negative pathogens including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Today's antiviral drugs are being used to inhibit the reproductive cycle of both DNA and RNA viruses. (encyclopedia.com)
  • These samples were tested for the presence of antibiotic resistance, both by selective culturing for ESBL-PE (Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing Enterobacteriaceae ) as well as by metagenomic sequencing. (diva-portal.org)
  • Microbial Drug Resistance: A Historical Perspective. (routledge.com)
  • Microbial Drug Resistance (Larchmont, N.Y.). 22 (5): 412-431. (wikipedia.org)
  • About a year ago, his research team identified a mutation in E. coli that increased drug sensitivity by blocking the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump complex. (genengnews.com)
  • Individual organisms vary in their sensitivity to the drug used and some with greater fitness may be capable of surviving drug treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study we determined bacterial path- ogens and drug sensitivity in the neonatal ward and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in Ekbatan hospital in Hamedan. (scirp.org)
  • Plasmid-encoded resistance is generally the result of the activity of efflux pumps, agent-modifying enzymes [3] , or protection of the antibiotic target [21] . (prolekare.cz)
  • Tetrandrine is a natural chemical product purified from fourstamen stephania root which recently has been shown to act similarly as synthesized drug efflux pump inhibitor verapamil. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus it is easy to see why efflux pumps may mediate simultaneous drug resistance to drugs of various structures. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Strikingly, bacterial efflux pump LmrA was able to functionally complement human efflux pump P-glycoprotein in human lung fibroblast cells [ 15 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Based on this amount of information, we can come to a hypothesis that TET may be able to reverse efflux mechanism-mediated drug resistance in MTB. (biomedcentral.com)
  • mdfA encodes a membrane efflux pump whose overexpression results in broad-spectrum chemical resistance. (asm.org)
  • Typically, these resistant determinants are costly to the bacterial cell. (prolekare.cz)
  • 4 , 5 ] How common drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (DRSP) is varies throughout the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • Kim L, McGee L, Tomczyk S, Beall B. Biological and epidemiological features of antibiotic-resistance Streptococcus pneumoniae in pre- and post-conjugate vaccine eras: A United States perspective external icon . (cdc.gov)
  • This laboratory manual focuses on seven bacterial pathogens of public health importance in the developing world: Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Salmonella serotype Typhi, Shigella, and Vibrio cholerae. (who.int)
  • The scope of work in this project takes a multi-pronged approach to enabling improved understanding of S. aureus drug resistance. (jcvi.org)
  • Target Modification as a Mechanism of Antimicrobial Resistance. (routledge.com)
  • In contrast, a retrospective analysis of E. coli from urine specimens collected from patients during 1997-2007 showed an increasing resistance trend for ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid ( 12 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Surprisingly, though crucial for the stability of EcDHFR, significant sequence variation is found at this site among bacterial dihydrofolate reductases (DHFRs). (biochemj.org)
  • The discovery of the first antibiotic drug is attributed to Ehrlich. (h2g2.com)
  • This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS). (childrensmercy.org)
  • Because the drug is so specific, any mutation in these molecules will interfere with or negate its destructive effect, resulting in antibiotic resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ethambutol resistance testing by mutation detection. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The burden of resistance is also evident with cancer therapy, in which drug resistance remains a major cause of treatment failure and death among cancer patients ( 8 , 9 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Another promising approach for addressing drug resistance is through rational treatment (deployment) strategies. (sciencemag.org)
  • Antimicrobial stewardship programs aim to decrease drug resistance by avoiding unnecessary use and choosing an adequate dose with the shortest effective duration of treatment ( 17 , 18 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Several studies suggest that wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) are reservoirs for diverse mobile antibiotic resistance elements. (nih.gov)
  • This study is designed to evaluate drug monitoring and dose adjustment of protease inhibitors (PIs) in heavily treatment-experienced patients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Individuals that are not susceptible to the drug effects are capable of surviving drug treatment, and therefore have greater fitness than susceptible individuals. (phys.org)
  • Resistance can lead to treatment failures. (cdc.gov)
  • An OB regimen is chosen by the physician and patient based on the patient's prior treatment history, prior and current laboratory abnormalities, the screening GT/PT antiretroviral resistance testing, and any prior GT/PT antiretroviral resistance (if available). (bioportfolio.com)
  • Continued monitoring of antimicrobial resistance patterns is essential in order for Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) treatment to be effective. (scielo.br)
  • Because it was much less expensive to produce, sulfonamide soon became the basis for several widely used "sulfa drugs" that revolutionized the treatment of formerly fatal diseases. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In 1946, the American scientist Cornelius Rhoads developed the first drug especially for cancer treatment. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Streptococcal resistance to azithromycin was found significantly more frequently after treatment. (bmj.com)
  • CONCLUSION Repeated mass treatment of trachoma endemic areas with oral azithromycin will have an effect on bacterial flora. (bmj.com)