Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutation.
A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.
Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)
Enzyme of the human immunodeficiency virus that is required for post-translational cleavage of gag and gag-pol precursor polyproteins into functional products needed for viral assembly. HIV protease is an aspartic protease encoded by the amino terminus of the pol gene.
A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Genes for MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that confer resistance to toxic compounds. Several superfamilies of these multidrug export proteins are known and found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TETRACYCLINE which inhibits aminoacyl-tRNA binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit during protein synthesis.
The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutations.
Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.
An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.
Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.
Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.
Antibacterial agent used primarily as a tuberculostatic. It remains the treatment of choice for tuberculosis.
The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Diseases of plants.
Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)
A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
One of the FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS that is used as an antimalarial or with a sulfonamide to treat toxoplasmosis.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.
Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.
A type of strength-building exercise program that requires the body muscle to exert a force against some form of resistance, such as weight, stretch bands, water, or immovable objects. Resistance exercise is a combination of static and dynamic contractions involving shortening and lengthening of skeletal muscles.
A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of CHLORAMPHENICOL, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis in the 50S ribosomal subunit where amino acids are added to nascent bacterial polypeptides.
Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.
A long acting sulfonamide that is used, usually in combination with other drugs, for respiratory, urinary tract, and malarial infections.
Nonsusceptibility of a microbe to the action of ampicillin, a penicillin derivative that interferes with cell wall synthesis.
Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction 7,8-dihyrofolate and NADPH to yield 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate and NADPH+, producing reduced folate for amino acid metabolism, purine ring synthesis, and the formation of deoxythymidine monophosphate. Methotrexate and other folic acid antagonists used as chemotherapeutic drugs act by inhibiting this enzyme. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 1.5.1.3.
Proteins encoded by the POL GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.
An antitubercular agent that inhibits the transfer of mycolic acids into the cell wall of the tubercle bacillus. It may also inhibit the synthesis of spermidine in mycobacteria. The action is usually bactericidal, and the drug can penetrate human cell membranes to exert its lethal effect. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p863)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
A subfamily of transmembrane proteins from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that are closely related in sequence to P-GLYCOPROTEIN. When overexpressed, they function as ATP-dependent efflux pumps able to extrude lipophilic drugs, especially ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, from cells causing multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although P-Glycoproteins share functional similarities to MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS they are two distinct subclasses of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS, and have little sequence homology.
Five membered rings containing a NITROGEN atom.
Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of dihydropteroate from p-aminobenzoic acid and dihydropteridine-hydroxymethyl-pyrophosphate. EC 2.5.1.15.
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.
A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.
A group of SESQUITERPENES and their analogs that contain a peroxide group (PEROXIDES) within an oxepin ring (OXEPINS).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Large cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein particles that have an eight-fold symmetry with a central pore and petal-like structure giving the appearance of an octagonal dome. (The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 2nd ed.)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of VANCOMYCIN, an inhibitor of cell wall synthesis.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
A bacterial DNA topoisomerase II that catalyzes ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. Gyrase binds to DNA as a heterotetramer consisting of two A and two B subunits. In the presence of ATP, gyrase is able to convert the relaxed circular DNA duplex into a superhelix. In the absence of ATP, supercoiled DNA is relaxed by DNA gyrase.
A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
Non-susceptibility of an organism to the action of the cephalosporins.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.
A very toxic anthracycline aminoglycoside antineoplastic isolated from Streptomyces peucetius and others, used in treatment of LEUKEMIA and other NEOPLASMS.
Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
A potent, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in combination with nucleoside analogues for treatment of HIV INFECTIONS and AIDS.
Tuberculosis resistant to ISONIAZID and RIFAMPIN and at least three of the six main classes of second-line drugs (AMINOGLYCOSIDES; polypeptide agents; FLUOROQUINOLONES; THIOAMIDES; CYCLOSERINE; and PARA-AMINOSALICYLIC ACID) as defined by the CDC.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the antibiotic KANAMYCIN, which can bind to their 70S ribosomes and cause misreading of messenger RNA.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Diminished or failed response of PLANTS to HERBICIDES.
Substances that are destructive to protozoans.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
Inhibitors of the enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase (TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE), which converts dihydrofolate (FH2) to tetrahydrofolate (FH4). They are frequently used in cancer chemotherapy. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)
Substances obtained from various species of microorganisms that are, alone or in combination with other agents, of use in treating various forms of tuberculosis; most of these agents are merely bacteriostatic, induce resistance in the organisms, and may be toxic.
A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.
A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
An anthracenedione-derived antineoplastic agent.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.
Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.
Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.
DNA TOPOISOMERASES that catalyze ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. These enzymes bring about relaxation of the supercoiled DNA and resolution of a knotted circular DNA duplex.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for retroviral enzymes including reverse transcriptase, protease, and endonuclease/integrase. "pol" is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.
An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.
A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.
A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
A phospholipid-interacting antimalarial drug (ANTIMALARIALS). It is very effective against PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM with very few side effects.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
DNA elements that include the component genes and insertion site for a site-specific recombination system that enables them to capture mobile gene cassettes.
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.
A hydroxynaphthoquinone that has antimicrobial activity and is being used in antimalarial protocols.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.
This line KB is now known to be a subline of the ubiquitous KERATIN-forming tumor cell line HeLa. It was originally thought to be derived from an epidermal carcinoma of the mouth, but was subsequently found, based on isoenzyme analysis, HeLa marker chromosomes, and DNA fingerprinting, to have been established via contamination by HELA CELLS. The cells are positive for keratin by immunoperoxidase staining. KB cells have been reported to contain human papillomavirus18 (HPV-18) sequences.
A fluorescent probe with low toxicity which is a potent substrate for P-glycoprotein and the bacterial multidrug efflux transporter. It is used to assess mitochondrial bioenergetics in living cells and to measure the efflux activity of P-glycoprotein in both normal and malignant cells. (Leukemia 1997;11(7):1124-30)
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
3,6-Diamino-10-methylacridinium chloride mixt. with 3,6-acridinediamine. Fluorescent dye used as a local antiseptic and also as a biological stain. It intercalates into nucleic acids thereby inhibiting bacterial and viral replication.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Glucose in blood.

Nonbehavioral selection for pawns, mutants of Paramecium aurelia with decreased excitability. (1/8454)

The reversal response in Paramecium aurelia is mediated by calcium which carries the inward current during excitation. Electrophysiological studies indicate that strontium and barium can also carry the inward current. Exposure to high concentrations of barium rapidly paralyzes and later kills wild-type paramecia. Following mutagenesis with nitrosoguanidine, seven mutants which continued to swim in the ;high-barium' solution were selected. All of the mutants show decreased reversal behavior, with phenotypes ranging from extremely non-reversing (;extreme' pawns) to nearly wild-type reversal behavior (;partial' pawns). The mutations fall into three complementation groups, identical to the pwA, pwB, and pwC genes of Kunget al. (1975). All of the pwA and pwB mutants withstand longer exposure to barium, the pwB mutants surviving longer than the pwA mutants. Among mutants of each gene, survival is correlated with loss of reversal behavior. Double mutants (A-B, A-C, B-C), identified in the exautogamous progeny of crosses between ;partial' mutants, exhibited a more extreme non-reversing phenotype than either of their single-mutant (;partial' pawn) parents.---Inability to reverse could be expected from an alteration in the calcium-activated reversal mechanism or in excitation. A normal calcium-activated structure was demonstrated in all pawns by chlorpromazine treatment. In a separate report (Schein, Bennett and Katz 1976) the results of electrophysiological investigations directly demonstrate decreased excitability in all of the mutants, a decrease due to an altered calcium activation. The studies of the genetics, the survival in barium and the electro-physiology of the pawns demonstrate that the pwA and pwB genes have different effects on calcium activation.  (+info)

JNK2 is required for efficient T-cell activation and apoptosis but not for normal lymphocyte development. (2/8454)

BACKGROUND: The Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway has been implicated in cell proliferation and apoptosis, but its function seems to depend on the cell type and inducing signal. In T cells, JNK has been implicated in both antigen-induced activation and apoptosis. RESULTS: We generated mice lacking the JNK2 isozymes. The mutant mice were healthy and fertile but defective in peripheral T-cell activation induced by antibody to the CD3 component of the T-cell receptor (TCR) complex - proliferation and production of interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) were reduced. The proliferation defect was restored by exogenous IL-2. B-cell activation was normal in the absence of JNK2. Activation-induced peripheral T-cell apoptosis was comparable between mutant and wild-type mice, but immature (CD4(+) CD8(+)) thymocytes lacking JNK2 were resistant to apoptosis induced by administration of anti-CD3 antibody in vivo. The lack of JNK2 also resulted in partial resistance of thymocytes to anti-CD3 antibody in vitro, but had little or no effect on apoptosis induced by anti-Fas antibody, dexamethasone or ultraviolet-C (UVC) radiation. CONCLUSIONS: JNK2 is essential for efficient activation of peripheral T cells but not B cells. Peripheral T-cell activation is probably required indirectly for induction of thymocyte apoptosis resulting from administration of anti-CD3 antibody in vivo. JNK2 functions in a cell-type-specific and stimulus-dependent manner, being required for apoptosis of immature thymocytes induced by anti-CD3 antibody but not for apoptosis induced by anti-Fas antibody, UVC or dexamethasone. JNK2 is not required for activation-induced cell death of mature T cells.  (+info)

Myths, models and mitigation of resistance to pesticides. (3/8454)

Resistance to pesticides in arthropod pests is a significant economic, ecological and public health problem. Although extensive research has been conducted on diverse aspects of pesticide resistance and we have learned a great deal during the past 50 years, to some degree the discussion about 'resistance management' has been based on 'myths'. One myth involves the belief that we can manage resistance. I will maintain that we can only attempt to mitigate resistance because resistance is a natural evolutionary response to environmental stresses. As such, resistance will remain an ongoing dilemma in pest management and we can only delay the onset of resistance to pesticides. 'Resistance management' models and tactics have been much discussed but have been tested and deployed in practical pest management programmes with only limited success. Yet the myth persists that better models will provide a 'solution' to the problem. The reality is that success in using mitigation models is limited because these models are applied to inappropriate situations in which the critical genetic, ecological, biological or logistic assumptions cannot be met. It is difficult to predict in advance which model is appropriate to a particular situation; if the model assumptions cannot be met, applying the model sometimes can increase the rate of resistance development rather than slow it down. Are there any solutions? I believe we already have one. Unfortunately, it is not a simple or easy one to deploy. It involves employing effective agronomic practices to develop and maintain a healthy crop, monitoring pest densities, evaluating economic injury levels so that pesticides are applied only when necessary, deploying and conserving biological control agents, using host-plant resistance, cultural controls of the pest, biorational pest controls, and genetic control methods. As a part of a truly multi-tactic strategy, it is crucial to evaluate the effect of pesticides on natural enemies in order to preserve them in the cropping system. Sometimes, pesticide-resistant natural enemies are effective components of this resistance mitigation programme. Another name for this resistance mitigation model is integrated pest management (IPM). This complex model was outlined in some detail nearly 40 years ago by V. M. Stern and colleagues. To deploy the IPM resistance mitigation model, we must admit that pest management and resistance mitigation programmes are not sustainable if based on a single-tactic strategy. Delaying resistance, whether to traditional pesticides or to transgenic plants containing toxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis, will require that we develop multi-tactic pest management programmes that incorporate all appropriate pest management approaches. Because pesticides are limited resources, and their loss can result in significant social and economic costs, they should be reserved for situations where they are truly needed--as tools to subdue an unexpected pest population outbreak. Effective multi-tactic IPM programmes delay resistance (= mitigation) because the number and rates of pesticide applications will be reduced.  (+info)

Transformation of intestinal epithelial cells by chronic TGF-beta1 treatment results in downregulation of the type II TGF-beta receptor and induction of cyclooxygenase-2. (4/8454)

The precise role of TGF-beta in colorectal carcinogenesis is not clear. The purpose of this study was to determine the phenotypic alterations caused by chronic exposure to TGF-beta in non-transformed intestinal epithelial (RIE-1) cells. Growth of RIE-1 cells was inhibited by >75% following TGF-beta1 treatment for 7 days, after which the cells resumed a normal growth despite the presence of TGF-beta1. These 'TGF-beta-resistant' cells (RIE-Tr) were continuously exposed to TGF-beta for >50 days. Unlike the parental RIE cells, RIE-Tr cells lost contact inhibition, formed foci in culture, grew in soft agarose. RIE-Tr cells demonstrated TGF-beta-dependent invasive potential in an in vitro assay and were resistant to Matrigel and Na-butyrate-induced apoptosis. The RIE-Tr cells were also tumorigenic in nude mice. The transformed phenotype of RIE-Tr cells was associated with a 95% decrease in the level of the type II TGF-beta receptor (TbetaRII) protein, a 40-fold increase in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein, and 5.9-fold increase in the production of prostacyclin. Most RIE-Tr subclones that expressed low levels of TbetaRII and high levels of COX-2 were tumorigenic. Those subclones that express abundant TbetaRII and low levels of COX-2 were not tumorigenic in nude mice. A selective COX-2 inhibitor inhibited RIE-Tr cell growth in culture and tumor growth in nude mice. The reduced expression of TbetaRII, increased expression of COX-2, and the ability to form colonies in Matrigel were all reversible upon withdrawal of exogenous TGF-beta1 for the RIE-Tr cells.  (+info)

Isolation and characterization of two mouse L cell lines resistant to the toxic lectin ricin. (5/8454)

Two variant mouse L cell lines (termed CL 3 and CL 6) have been selected for resistant to ricin, a galactose-binding lectin with potent cytotoxic activity. The resistant lines exhibit a 50 to 70% decrease in ricin binding and a 300- to 500-fold increase in resistance to the toxic effects of ricin. Crude membrane preparations of CL 3 cells have increased sialic acid content (200% of control), while the galactose, mannose, and hexosamine content is within normal limits. Both the glycoproteins and glycolipids of CL 3 cells have increased sialic acid, with the GM3:lactosylceramide ratios for parent L and CL 3 cells being 0.29 and 1.5, respectively. In contrast, the membranes of CL 6 cells have a decrease in sialic acid, galactose, and hexosamine content with mannose being normal. Both cell lines have specific alterations in glycosyltransferase activities which can account for the observed membrane sugar changes. CL 3 cells have increased CMP-sialic acid:glycoprotein sialyltransferase and GM3 synthetase activities, while CL 6 cells have decrease UDP-GlcNAc:glycoproteinN-acetylglucosaminyltransferase and DPU-galactose:glycoprotein galactosyltransferase activities. The increased sialic acid content of CL 3 cells serves to mask ricin binding sites, since neuraminidase treatment of this cell line restores ricin binding to essentially normal levels. However, the fact that neuraminidase-treated CL 3 cells are still 45-fold resistant to ricin indicates that either a special class of productive ricin binding sites is not being exposed or that the cell line has a second mechanism for ricin resistance.  (+info)

[3H]gemcitabine uptake by nucleoside transporters in a human head and neck squamous carcinoma cell line. (6/8454)

Cellular uptake of many chemotherapeutic nucleoside analogs is dependent on the activity of a family of nucleoside transport proteins located in the cell plasma membrane. In the present study, we examined the role of these transporters in the accumulation of gemcitabine by a human head and neck squamous carcinoma cell line. The uptake of [3H]gemcitibine was compared with that of [3H]uridine and [3H]formycin B in the parent cell line (HN-5a) and in a gemcitabine-resistant variant (GEM-8e). The HN-5a and GEM-8e cells were similar in their transport characteristics and expressed predominantly the es (equilibrative, inhibitor-sensitive) transporter subtype; less than 10% of the influx of [3H]formycin B or [3H]uridine was mediated by the ei (equilibrative inhibitor-resistant) system, and there was no evidence for Na+-dependent nucleoside transporters. [3H]Gemcitabine (10 microM) entered these cells via both the es and ei transporters with an initial rate of uptake similar to that seen with the use of [3H]formycin B or [3H]uridine. In addition, ATP-replete cells accumulated significantly less [3H]gemcitabine than did ATP-depleted cells, which is indicative of an active efflux mechanism for gemcitabine. These results show that gemcitabine is a substrate for both the es and ei nucleoside transporters of HN-5a and GEM-8e cells and that gemcitabine resistance of the GEM-8e cells cannot be attributed to changes in transporter activity. Further studies to define the characteristics of the putative efflux mechanism are clearly warranted because this system has the potential to significantly affect the clinical efficacy of gemcitabine.  (+info)

Resistance of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria cells to the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-binding toxin aerolysin. (7/8454)

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a clonal stem cell disorder caused by a somatic mutation of the PIGA gene. The product of this gene is required for the biosynthesis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors; therefore, the phenotypic hallmark of PNH cells is an absence or marked deficiency of all GPI-anchored proteins. Aerolysin is a toxin secreted by the bacterial pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila and is capable of killing target cells by forming channels in their membranes after binding to GPI-anchored receptors. We found that PNH blood cells (erythrocytes, lymphocytes, and granulocytes), but not blood cells from normals or other hematologic disorders, are resistant to the cytotoxic effects of aerolysin. The percentage of lysis of PNH cells after aerolysin exposure paralleled the percentage of CD59(+) cells in the samples measured by flow cytometry. The kinetics of red blood cell lysis correlated with the type of PNH erythrocytes. PNH type III cells were completely resistant to aerolysin, whereas PNH type II cells displayed intermediate sensitivity. Importantly, the use of aerolysin allowed us to detect PNH populations that could not be detected by standard flow cytometry. Resistance of PNH cells to aerolysin allows for a simple, inexpensive assay for PNH that is sensitive and specific. Aerolysin should also be useful in studying PNH biology.  (+info)

Electrophysiological evidence for tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channels in slowly conducting dural sensory fibers. (8/8454)

A tetrodotoxin (TTX)-resistant sodium channel was recently identified that is expressed only in small diameter neurons of peripheral sensory ganglia. The peripheral axons of sensory neurons appear to lack this channel, but its presence has not been investigated in peripheral nerve endings, the site of sensory transduction in vivo. We investigated the effect of TTX on mechanoresponsiveness in nerve endings of sensory neurons that innervate the intracranial dura. Because the degree of TTX resistance of axonal branches could potentially be affected by factors other than channel subtype, the neurons were also tested for sensitivity to lidocaine, which blocks both TTX-sensitive and TTX-resistant sodium channels. Single-unit activity was recorded from dural afferent neurons in the trigeminal ganglion of urethan-anesthetized rats. Response thresholds to mechanical stimulation of the dura were determined with von Frey monofilaments while exposing the dura to progressively increasing concentrations of TTX or lidocaine. Neurons with slowly conducting axons were relatively resistant to TTX. Application of 1 microM TTX produced complete suppression of mechanoresponsiveness in all (11/11) fast A-delta units [conduction velocity (c.v.) 5-18 m/s] but only 50% (5/10) of slow A-delta units (1.5 +info)

Glucocorticoids are the mainstay of asthma management and effectively treat acute exacerbations of asthma. However, a small subset of asthmatics, usually with severe asthma, respond poorly even to systemic administration of high-dose glucocorticoids and this condition is termed steroid-resistant asthma. This cohort, although small, accounts for ~50% of total health care cost for asthma. New investigations into the mechanisms of glucocorticoid action have broadened and deepened our understanding of glucocorticoid resistance. Here we review the importance and characteristics of steroid resistant asthma, the mechanisms that mediate the function of glucocorticoids and that lead to the development of this disease and potential therapies to reverse resistance to treatment. Cellular and molecular factors, receptors and complex signalling pathways have all been implicated. Indeed, based on molecular biological studies, excessive activation of intracellular transcription factors, impaired histone ...
Forward and backward stepwise selection is not guaranteed to give us the best model containing a particular subset of the p predictors but thats the price to pay in order to avoid overfitting. Even if p is less than 40, looking at all possible models may not be the best thing to do. The point is that is not always best to do a full search, even when you can do it because we will pay a price in variance (and thus in test error). Just because best subset has a better model on the training data doesnt mean that its really going to be a better model overall in the context of test data, which is what we really care about. ...
early_indicators_of_the_malaria_parasite_in_africa_developing_resistance_to_the_most_effective_drug_available_have_been_confirmed_according_to_new_research_published_in_antimicrobial_agents_and_chemotherapy_
The test uses unique PCR chemistries as well as a streamlined sample prep method to detect resistance mutations without DNA extraction.
The lab was able to show in patient samples that elevated levels of phosphorylated MSK1 and/or phosphorylated TAK-1 correlates with resistance to corticosteroid treatment. They also showed in an in-vitro model that treatment with a TAK-1 inhibitor was able to reverse the steroid resistance.
I would just like to comment that the malaria drug resistance scenario outlined by Livingston Monford is completely retarded. And I say this in the nicest way possible... The scenario as set forth does not coincide with any real world scenario that would arise. Speaking on observed human use of anti-biotics and anti-viral drugs, it is rare that a treatment group adheres 100% to any treatment regiment. Meaning that one person in the group not taking both medications, as outlined, would be infected with Malaria resistant to one of the drugs in question. The survivors of this group of Malaria would grow and replicate with the new resistance protein for the first drug and then be exposed to the second drug. This second drug would kill all the bacteria with the drug resistance to Drug 1, but would not kill any bacteria with any mutations offering resistance to Drug 2. Thus, these last stragglers would have the protein for Drug 1 resistance and now Drug 2 resistance. This group would grow and ...
I would just like to comment that the malaria drug resistance scenario outlined by Livingston Monford is completely retarded. And I say this in the nicest way possible... The scenario as set forth does not coincide with any real world scenario that would arise. Speaking on observed human use of anti-biotics and anti-viral drugs, it is rare that a treatment group adheres 100% to any treatment regiment. Meaning that one person in the group not taking both medications, as outlined, would be infected with Malaria resistant to one of the drugs in question. The survivors of this group of Malaria would grow and replicate with the new resistance protein for the first drug and then be exposed to the second drug. This second drug would kill all the bacteria with the drug resistance to Drug 1, but would not kill any bacteria with any mutations offering resistance to Drug 2. Thus, these last stragglers would have the protein for Drug 1 resistance and now Drug 2 resistance. This group would grow and ...
This poisoning occurs especially in dogs that are genetically hypersensitive to ivermectin, an anti-parasite medication most commonly used for heartworm prevention.
The drug resistant cell line MOR/0.2R has been derived from the parent line, MOR, by continuous exposure to increasing concentrations of doxorubicin (also known as adriamycin). MOR/0.2R accumulate lower levels of doxorubicin than the parent line and have been shown to overexpress multi drug resistance associated protein (MRP). Expression of a 190kDa membrane protein associated with the degree of drug-resistance has been indicated. Cells grow as easily detaching aggregates ...
Multiple drug resistance among bacteria has become a global issue with a considerable impact on the mortality associated with infectious diseases. This book is a detailed compilation of available knowledge on the surveillance and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in various countries throughout the world. Readers will be updated on current information on the understanding of mechanisms involved in drug resistance and the geographical distribution of resistance determinant markers. This volume should be a useful guide for microbiologists and clinicians interested in designing antimicrobial therapies tailored for patients in specific geographical regions ...
BOSTON â An infectious-disease nightmare is unfolding: Bacteria that have been made resistant to nearly all antibiotics by an alarming new gene have...
Although molecularly targeted anticancer drugs can achieve complete clinical response, such responses are typically short-lived and patients relapse quickly (2, 47, 48). It is therefore critical to identify mechanism(s) of acquired resistance and to develop strategies to combat such resistance. In the present study, we elucidated the mechanisms of acquired resistance of two classes of apoptosis-inducing agents, the Bcl-2 inhibitors ABT-737/ABT-263, and the MDM2 inhibitor SAR405838 in two acute leukemia models in vitro and in vivo.. ABT-737 and ABT-263 effectively induce apoptosis in the RS4;11 cell line in vitro and achieve complete regression of RS4;11 xenograft tumors in mice. Both in vitro and in vivo treatments, however, lead to the development of sublines that possess profound acquired resistance to this class of drugs. BAX, but not BAK, is consistently downregulated in each of these resistant sublines obtained from in vitro and in vivo treatments with the Bcl-2 inhibitors (Fig. 1D; ...
Although resistance toward small-molecule chemotherapeutics has been well studied, the potential of tumor cells to avoid destruction by membrane-lytic compounds remains unexplored. Anticancer peptides (ACPs) are a class of such agents that disrupt tumor cell membranes through rapid and non-stereospecific mechanisms, encouraging the perception that cellular resistance toward ACPs is unlikely to occur. We demonstrate that eukaryotic cells can, indeed, develop resistance to the model oncolytic peptide SVS-1, which preferentially disrupts the membranes of cancer cells. Utilizing fission yeast as a model organism, we show that ACP resistance is largely controlled through the loss of cell-surface anionic saccharides. A similar mechanism was discovered in mammalian cancer cells where removal of negatively charged sialic acid residues directly transformed SVS-1-sensitive cell lines into resistant phenotypes. These results demonstrate that changes in cell-surface glycosylation play a major role in tumor cell
The underpinning research described above has provided the key evidence base to inform national and international strategy on the treatment of HIV. Our work provided an initial understanding of the molecular basis of drug resistance, and was pivotal to the development and implementation of sequence-based resistance testing across the NHS, along with the establishment of a national surveillance scheme. With more appropriate first-line therapy, based on individual resistance patterns, the subsequent risk of drug failure due to resistance has been reduced, leading to an overall reduction in resistance. Transmitted drug resistance in the UK has fallen from over 15% of new infections in 2000-2, to fewer than 10% in 2007 and onwards [a] representing a reduction of 300 new infections with such resistance per year.. Our work is referenced widely in treatment guidelines around the world. The British HIV Association recommend, based on our evidence of significant levels of transmitted resistance, that ...
Summary: What if we do not know which type of model to use? We can select a model based on its predictive accuracy, which we can estimate with AIC, BIC, Adjusted-R2, or Mallows Cp. Or we can directly measure the predictive accuracy with cross-validation. We can also use stepwise selection, but I wouldnt recommend it.. ...
The growing threat of drug resistance, which will increasingly leave more and more people vulnerable to diseases that were once easier to treat, like malaria, HIV and tuberculosis (TB)...
The US Dollar broke a significant level of resistance against the Japanese Yen. Namely, the resistance of a medium descending pattern that captured the week long sideways trading below the 110.00 level was broken. The event signals the end of sideways trading.. As the pair continues to surge upwards, it will face the weekly R1 at 110.14. After breaking the weekly R1, the pair is set to reach for the next resistance level at the 110.50 mark.. On the other hand, at any moment the pair might begin to consolidate its gains by trading sideways and waiting for the support of the 55 and 100-hour simple moving averages to approach the rate and initiate a continuation of the surge. ...
|p||strong|Bonpard Resistance|br /||/strong|Bonpard Resistance Supplement has been developed for horses with a compromised immune system. This often manifests itself as vague health issues leading to suboptimal performance.  The specific composition
How a gene was inadvertently delivered to a cancer cell, camouflaging it from the therapy and allowing the cancer to develop resistance to treatment. The patient ultimately died.
The present application extends a successful multifaceted investigation of host resistance to viral infection. The strengths of our approach include: 1) an unbi...
Krishna V. Komanduri, MD; Stephen J. Schuster, MD; David Maloney, MD, PhD; and Michael Pulsipher, MD, describe the mechanisms of resistance after CAR T-cell infusion, including how their persistence relates to duration of response and whether patients can receive multiple infusions.
Over the past few months, weve gotten a few good looks at Resistance 3, and what weve seen so far has been awfully promising. Easily the
Just because the market moves in one direction doesnt mean that all of the stocks are moving with it. Here are five stocks that are bumping up against overhead resistance.
إذا أردت ان تعرف ما هو resistance؟؟ ابحث في Sesli Sözlük والذي يعتبر مصدر للحصول على المعرفة اللغوية للعديد من الكلمات في لغات العالم المختلفة.
Что значит resistance? Узнай это здесь вместе с Сесли Сёзлюк - твой источник знаний для изучения множества языков по всему миру
Traduction de resistance dans le dictionnaire Anglais-Allemand gratuit de LANGENSCHEIDT avec des exemples, des synonymes et la prononciation.
Assuming somebody does nothing it might take a few years to establish resistance to HPV. If someone takes the authors guidance, it requires just a few...
Incubation of adriamycin resistant Chinese hamster lung cells with low levels of N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) results in a major increase in the cellular accumulation of drug. When resistant cells are prelabeled with [32Pi] and thereafter treated with NEM there also occurs a selective superphosphorylation of an 180K plasma membrane glycoprotein (P-180). This phosphorylation reaction occurs at both serine and threonine residues. In similar experiments with drug sensitive cells only minor levels of this protein can be detected. Detailed studies have established that in cells which have reverted to drug sensitivity there is a parallel loss in the presence of phosphorylated P-180. Also in cells which have undergone partial reversion to drug sensitivity there is a correlation between levels of superphosphorylated P-180 and adriamycin resistance. These results provide evidence that adriamycin resistance is dependent on the presence of P-180. The results also suggest that the biological activity of this protein is
Mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT) have been shown to be central to the molecular mechanism of quinoline antimalarial drug resistance. However, additional facets to resistance ...
Clinical resistance to chemotherapeutic agents is one of the major hindrances in the treatment of human cancers. Erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog 1 (ETS1) is involved in the drug resistance of various cancer cells, and is overexpressed in drug-resistant human breast cancer cell lines. In this study, we investigated the effects of ETS1 on adriamycin resistance in MCF-7/ADR cells. siRNAs against ETS1 or negative control siRNAs was transfected to MCF-7/ADR breast cancer cells. Reverse transcription-PCR and Western blotting were used to determine the mRNA and protein expression of ETS1 and MDR1. The cytotoxicity of adriamycin was assessed using the MTT assay. Drug efflux was investigated by flow cytometry using the Rhodamine 123 intracellular accumulation assay. ETS1 mRNA and protein was significantly overexpressed in MCF-7/ADR cells, compared to MCF-7 cells. ETS1 siRNA successfully silenced ETS1 mRNA and protein expression. Silencing of ETS1 also significantly reduced the mRNA and protein
LP INFORMATION offers a latest published report on Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment Market Analysis and Forecast 2019-2025 delivering key insights and providing a competitive advantage to clients through a detailed report.. According to this study, over the next five years the Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment market will register a xx% CAGR in terms of revenue, the global market size will reach US$ xx million by 2024, from US$ xx million in 2019. In particular, this report presents the global market share (sales and revenue) of key companies in Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment business, shared in Chapter 3.. Click to view the full report TOC, figure and tables:. https://www.lpinformationdata.com/reports/214783/global-multiple-drug-resistance-bacterial-infection. This report presents a comprehensive overview, market shares, and growth opportunities of Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment market by product type, ...
Looking for multiple drug resistance? Find out information about multiple drug resistance. in biology: see immunity immunity, ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying foreign substances or organisms. Although all... Explanation of multiple drug resistance
Angira, C.H., Otieno, O.A., Muga, R.O. and Abongo, B.O. (2010) Factors Contributing to Antimalarial Drug Resistance in Rachonyo District, Kenya. East African Journal of Public Health, 7, 11-15.
The latest market report published by Credence Research, Inc. Global Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment Market - Market Growth, Future Prospects, Competitive Analysis, 2017 - 2025, the global multiple drug resistance bacterial infection treatment market was valued at US$ 26,169.09 Mn in 2016, and is expected to reach US$ 44,060.77 Mn by 2025 expanding at a CAGR of 6.01 % from 2017 to 2025.. Browse the full report Global Multiple Drug Resistance Bacterial Infection Treatment Market - Market Growth, Future Prospects, Competitive Analysis, 2017 - 2025 at http://www.credenceresearch.com/report/multiple-drug-resistance-bacterial-infection-treatment-market. Market Insights. World Health Organization in 2016 had started a joint initiative between Global Antibiotic Research and Development Partnership (GARDP) and the Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiatives (DNDi) to develop new antibiotic treatment for antimicrobial resistance ensuring its optimal use. In 2016, critical segment ...
On 25th of April, the annual World Malaria Day, many health organisations will highlight important gains in fighting this deadly disease that claims more than one million lives every year. But despite notable progress in terms of innovation and investment, Médecins Sans Frontières/ Doctors Without Borders (MSF) continues to see continuously high rates of malaria in several African countries.
Despite the tremendous efforts for improving therapeutics of lung cancer patients, its prognosis remains disappointing. This can be largely attributed to the lack of comprehensive understanding of drug resistance leading to insufficient development of effective therapeutics in clinic. Based on the current progresses of lung cancer research, we classify drug resistance mechanisms into three different levels: molecular, cellular and pathological level. All these three levels have significantly contributed to the acquisition and evolution of drug resistance in clinic. Our understanding on drug resistance mechanisms has begun to change the way of clinical practice and improve patient prognosis. In this review, we focus on discussing the pathological changes linking to drug resistance as this has been largely overlooked in the past decades.
Augmentation of the therapeutic effectiveness of 3′,5′-dichloroamethopterin (DCM) against the M46R resistant variant of leukemia L1210 was demonstrated in mice preinoculated with the sensitive line of leukemia L1210. The increases in survival time were almost as extensive as those observed on treatment of the sensitive leukemia L1210 alone.. The augmentation of therapy for the M46R resistant variant in L1210-pretreated mice appeared to be dependent upon a schedule of continuous therapy.. In experiments in which the sensitive leukemia and the M46R resistant variant were inoculated concomitantly, no augmentation of therapy was obtained.. The employment of resistant sublines of tumor as tools in the study of the interrelationships of host-tumor factors in chemotherapy is discussed.. ...
Looking for infectious drug resistance? Find out information about infectious drug resistance. A type of drug resistance that is transmissible from one bacterium to another by infectivelike agents referred to as resistance factors Explanation of infectious drug resistance
Severe, steroid-resistant asthma is clinically and economically important since affected individuals do not respond to mainstay corticosteroid treatments for asthma. Patients with this disease experience more frequent exacerbations of asthma, are more likely to be hospitalized, and have a poorer qua …
Malaria is currently considered the most devastating parasitic disease in the world, with more than 500 million people infected worldwide, 1-3 millions death annually, and 40% of the world population at risk of infection. The emergence and rapid spread of multidrug resistant Plasmodia parasites coupled to the lack of an effective vaccine has resulted in the re-emergence of the disease. Efficient and cost effective drug alternatives are not yet available Contributing to the magnitud of the problem is the lack of a full understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the development of parasite drug resistance. Great efforts have been made to understand the mechanisms of Plasmodia drug resistance and several genes have been implicated. It is now well recognized that drug resistance in malaria is multifactorial and that multiple genes/factors play a critical role. The long term goal of our research is to elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying Plasmodia drug resistance. We are focusing our ...
Experimental models of AA: although there are several models of AA in use, very few models recapitulate the important clinical problem of severe and steroid-resistant asthma. We present two models to address this problem. One is a model of relapsing remitting allergic asthma developed by MUW. The lungs of animals recovered from one episode of allergic asthma maintain inflammatory infiltrates which respond to aerosol challenge with antigen at any time during their lifetime. Moreover, treatment with steroids, either inhaled or systemic, only reduces inflammation and additional disease parameters by half. We consider this a model of severe steroid-resistant allergic asthma. The second model is derived by transferring PBMCs from humans with severe steroid-resistant allergic asthma into SCID mice. These chimeric mice will develop disease that recapitulates the patients ...
OR resistance/height2[All Fields] OR resistance/high[All Fields] OR resistance/homeostasis[All Fields] OR resistance/hyperglycemia[All Fields] OR resistance/hyperinsulinaemia[All Fields] OR resistance/hyperinsulinemia[All Fields] OR resistance/hyperinsulinemia/hyperglycemia[All Fields] OR resistance/hyperinsulinemic[All Fields] OR resistance/hyperinsulinism[All Fields] OR resistance/hyperlipidaemia[All Fields] OR resistance/hypersensitivity[All Fields] OR resistance/hypersusceptibility[All Fields] OR resistance/hypertension[All Fields] OR resistance/hypertriglyceridemia[All Fields] OR resistance/immunity[All Fields] OR resistance/impact[All Fields] OR resistance/impaired[All Fields] OR resistance/impedance[All Fields] OR resistance/inflammation[All Fields] OR resistance/inhibition[All Fields] OR resistance/innate[All Fields] OR resistance/insensitivity[All Fields] OR resistance/inspiratory[All Fields] OR resistance/insulinemia[All Fields] OR resistance/intermediate[All Fields] OR ...
An infectious-disease nightmare is unfolding: Bacteria that have been made resistant to nearly all antibiotics by an alarming new gene have sickened people in three states and are popping up all over the world, health officials reported Monday.. The U.S. cases and two others in Canada all involve people who had recently received medical care in India, where the problem is widespread. A British medical journal revealed the risk last month in an article describing dozens of cases in Britain in people who had gone to India for medical procedures.. How many deaths the gene may have caused is unknown; there is no central tracking of such cases. So far, the gene has mostly been found in bacteria that cause gut or urinary infections.. Scientists have long feared this - a very adaptable gene that hitches onto many types of common germs and confers broad drug resistance, creating dangerous superbugs.. Its a great concern, because drug resistance has been rising and few new antibiotics are in ...
In cases where drug resistance can lead to treatment failure, new research shows that therapies tailored to contain an infection or a tumor at tolerable levels can, in some cases, extend the effective life of the treatment and improve patient outcomes. In other cases, aggressive treatments aimed at eliminating as much of the infection or tumor as possible - the traditional approach - might be best. But how can we know which stands the better chance of working?
article{c94b2ddf-edd4-4046-a8cd-161d5151674b, abstract = {A review on the subject of aspirin resistance and its role in vascular diseases is presented. Although the clinical diagnosis of aspirin resistance is frequently made, little is known about its biochemical background. Only a few follow-up studies, with varying design, have dealt with the possible association between an aspirin resistant phenotype and clinical outcome in patients with atherothrombosis. However, it was recently shown that ibuprofen acts as a competitive inhibitor in the blockage of COX-1. This pharmacodynamic interaction results in secondary aspirin resistance, which may have clinical significance in patients taking both medicines. With the complex nature of vascular diseases in mind, it is not surprising that aspirin used as a single preventive strategy fails in many cases. At present, there is no clear evidence that treatment failure is associated with a particular aspirin resistant phenotype.}, author = {Hillarp, ...
WWARN is continually updating a library of standardised procedures that offer guidance in the execution of various activities in the fields of clinical, in vitro, pharmacology, data collection and molecular analysis for antimalarial drug resistance researchers. For resources that relate to other infectious and emerging diseases, visit iddo.org.. ...
SCLC remains one of the most aggressive and lethal malignancies, with a minimal role for curative surgery, no targetable driver mutations, and an mOS for metastatic disease generally less than 1 year. Nonetheless, SCLC is initially highly sensitive to DNA damage, and combinations that pair DNA-damaging agents with inhibitors of DNA-damage checkpoints and DNA repair, such as inhibitors of PARP, WEE1, CHK1, and ATR, have recently emerged as promising new strategies to treat relapsed SCLC (13-15, 18, 36-39). Two challenges unify these approaches: (i) development of biomarkers to identify sensitive cases, and (ii) determination of the common features of tumors that are cross-resistant to EP and subsequent DDR inhibitors. Recent progress has been made on both fronts, with the identification of SLFN11 as a marker of sensitivity for both PARP inhibition and EP (12, 13, 40), although unbiased screens for clinically relevant biomarkers have not been achieved. Here we describe a single-arm phase I/II ...
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients treated with imatinib develop frequent resistance generally due to a point mutation. Recently, large rearrangements of abl sequence have also been described. In this study, we focused on the complete deletion of exon 7. We screened for bcr-abldelexon7 in 63 resistant patients by high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis and direct sequencing. Moreover, we analyzed expression of abldelexon7 and bcr-abldelexon7 in 17 CML patients at diagnosis, 32 patients at resistance, and 20 negative controls by quantitative PCR or fragment length analysis. bcr-abldelexon7 was detected on 34 (54%) among 63 resistant patients by HRM, showing an increase in the sensitivity of screening, because only 3.2% could be detected by direct sequencing. This deletion was not associated with a point mutation (P = 0.3362). In addition, abldelexon7 was found in all tested samples with the same pattern of expression, suggesting an alternative splicing mechanism. In the bcr-abl component, ...
A PET study led by a Stony Brook University Professor indicates that overeating and weight gain contributing to onset of diabetes could be related to a deficit in reward circuits in the brain.
Anthracycline-formaldehyde conjugates: Cellular uptake, localization, toxicity, and circumvention of multidrug resistance. Journal Article ...
New drug-resistant strains of the parasite that causes malaria have been identified, is the worrying news being reported on the BBC News website. Covering the same piece of research, The Guardian outlines the ongoing scientific detective hunt in…
The resistance of an electrical conductor is the opposition to the passage of an electric current through that conductor. Resistance shares some conceptual parallels with the mechanical notion of friction. The SI unit of electrical resistance is the ohm (Ω).. An object of uniform cross section has a resistance proportional to its resistivity and length and inversely proportional to its cross-sectional area. All materials, aside from super conductors, show some resistance. The resistance of an object can be defined as. R = V/I Or. G = I/V. Where. R is the resistance. V is the voltage across. I is the current through. G is the conductance. For most materials and conditions, V and I are directly proportional to each other, and therefore R and G are constant. This proportionality is called Ohms law.. There are some cases where V and I are not directly proportional, such as a diode or battery. The I-V curve is not a straight line through the origin and Ohms law does not hold. In this instances, ...
This is a bit of a personal post because mostly it is a very public reminder to myself that drug resistance is not just a medical term. Drug resistance translates directly into increased impact on those who become very ill with influenza. This directly translates into more lives lost. So searching my heart I ask…
It depends on the level of drug resistance, which can be minor, major or somewhere in between. In general though, acquiring drug resistance means that the response to the drug or drugs to which...
Free Online Library: WHOsounds alarm on drug resistance. by Mail Today (New Delhi, India); News, opinion and commentary General interest Drug resistance Infection
Looking at the 4-hours chart, the pair traded above the 1.1020 resistance level plus the 50% Fib retracement level of the downward move from the 1.1163 high to 1.0925 low.. However, the upward move was capped by the 1.1080 and 1.1090 resistance levels. Moreover, the pair is also facing hurdles near the 100 simple moving average (red, 4-hours) and the 61.8% Fib retracement level of the downward move from the 1.1163 high to 1.0925 low.. There is also a crucial bearish trend line forming with resistance near 1.1100 on the same chart. Therefore, the pair needs to climb above the 1.1080 and 1.1100 resistance levels to continue higher.. Conversely, if EUR/USD fails to break the 1.1080 and 1.1100 resistance levels, it could start a fresh decline. An immediate support is near the 1.0980 level, below which the pair could test the 1.0950 support area.. Fundamentally, the US nonfarm payrolls report for August 2019 was released by the US Department of Labor this past Friday. The market was looking for an ...
Drug resistance may emerge de novo when beneficial peptides are expressed by bacteria using completely random, noncoding DNA sequences
Malaria could be developing resistance to the most effective type of drug, according to the initial results of studies of patients in western Cambodia
Noting that the [r]oll-out of antiretroviral treatment for HIV in sub-Saharan Africa has been accompanied by rising rates of drug resistance, Raph ...
A tumors developing drug resistance is driven in large part by its genome, which has mechanisms to protect cancer cells from chemical attacks and
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Allele \ Drug Resistance pLICO_EF1a_MCS_IRES_PuroR \ Product-In-Demand for more molecular products just contact us
Three years ago, Dr. Arjun Srinivasan, associate director of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), told PBS FRONTLINE: For a long time,
putative drug resistance transporter [putative monensin resistance protein] ATGTCTGCTGATCTGGGTGCGCGGCGGTGGTGGGCCGTCGGTGCTCTCGTACTCGCCTCG ATGGTCGTGGGCTTCGATGTGACGATCCTGAGCCTGGCGTTGCCCGCCATGGCCGACGAC CTCGGCGCGAACAACGTCGAGCTGCAGTGGTTCGTGACGTCGTACACGCTGGTGTTCGCG GCCGGCATGATCCCGGCCGGCATGCTCGGTGACCGGTTCGGACGCAAGAAGGTCCTGCTC ACCGCCCTGGTGATCTTCGGTATCGCCTCGCTGGCCTGTGCCTACGCGACGTCCTCCGGC ACCTTCATCGGCGCGCGTGCGGTGCTCGGTCTGGGCGCCGCGCTGATCATGCCGACGACG CTGTCGCTGCTGCCGGTCATGTTCTCCGACGAGGAGCGGCCGAAGGCCATCGGAGCGGTG GCCGGTGCGGCGATGCTCGCCTATCCGCTCGGCCCGATCCTCGGCGGCTACCTGCTCAAC CACTTCTGGTGGGGCTCCGTCTTCCTGATCAACGTGCCGGTGGTGATCCTCGCCTTCCTC GCGGTCTCCGCCTGGCTGCCCGAGTCCAAGGCCAAGGAGGCCAAGCCGTTCGACATCGGC GGCCTGGTGTTCTCCAGCGTCGGTCTCGCCGCGCTGACCTACGGCGTGATCCAGGGCGGC GAGAAGGGCTGGACGGACGTCACCACGCTGGTGCCGTGCATCGGCGGTCTGCTCGCCCTC GTGCTGTTCGTGATGTGGGAGAAGCGGGTGGCGGACCCGCTGGTCGACCTCTCGCTGTTC CGCTCGGCCCGGTTCACCTCCGGCACCATGCTCGGCACCGTCATCAACTTCACGATGTTC GGCGTGCTCTTCACGATGCCGCAGTACTACCAGGCGGTCCTCGGCACCGACGCGATGGGC ...
It has taken 60 years for bacteria to become resistant to vancomycin; modified drug now works in three ways, making it harder for bugs to develop resistance
Scientists at the University of East Anglia are getting closer to solving the problem of antibiotic resistance. New research published today in the journal Nature reveals the mechanism by wh... Read more ...
গত ২৯ এপ্রিল ২০১৭ তারিখে Antimicrobial Resistance: From Awareness to Action প্রতিপাদ্যকে সামনে রেখে পালিত হল বিশ্ব ভেটেরিনারি দিবস ২০১৭। শুধুমাত্র প্রাণিসম্পদ নয়, সমগ্র মানব গোষ্ঠির স্বাস্থ্যের কথা বিবেচনা করলে, প্রতিপাদ্যটি সময়ের একটি চরম দাবি। সরকারি অধিদপ্তরসহ স্বাস্থ্য ও চিকিৎসা ব্যবস্থার সাথে জড়িত সকল স্বায়ত্ত্বশাসিত, সরকারি-বেসরকারি প্রতিষ্ঠান, ব্যক্তি, উদ্যোক্তাসহ সকলেরই উচিত এর যথাযথ ...
If V volts are measured across a resistance of R ohms in a circuit carrying a current of I amperes, V=IR. At a certain instant, the voltage is 250 and is increasing at a rate of 4 volts/min, while the current is 0.5 AMP and is increasing at a rate of 0.01 amp/min. Find the rate of change of the resistance at that moment. ...
Chemical resistance testing evaluates the chemical resistance of a base material closely to approximate the in service conditions of a given material. Read more.
Resistance to pest-killing cotton crops is spreading among one species of caterpillar, but techniques to prevent the spread of resistance appear to be working for five other species.
Good news. $10,000,000 can make a real difference when its focused like this. I cant think of a more important area to research. ...
Information on this website is provided by treatment advocates and offered as a guide only. Decisions about your treatment should always be taken in consultation with your doctor.. This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information.. ...
Forex bank umea opening hours #### SUPPORT RESISTANCE FOREX FACTORY Advanced options strategies pdf #### The binary options market
Cara trade dengan support and resistance. Option strategies are the simultaneous, and often mixed, buying or selling of one or more
Scientists have found a way to create an HIV-resistant cell population that can quickly replace infected cells, a breakthrough that may potentially help cure
Adaptogens make up a pharmacological group of preparations (substances, compounds or herbs) which increase nonspecific body resistance to a wide range of harmfu
Generic cialis onlineCost of cialisImproved, than sexual that in to resistance go of rash activity comparable therapeutics and. Where consists distributed if
amika Fluxus Touchable Hairspray is a residue-free formula provides superior humidity resistance and delivers a strong, yet flexible hold.
"Drug Resistance". cdc.gov. 2019-02-13. Retrieved 17 February 2019. Avery OT, Macleod CM, McCarty M (1944). "Studies on the ... resistance has been described. Susceptibility testing should be routine with empiric antibiotic treatment guided by resistance ... Tleyjeh IM, Tlaygeh HM, Hejal R, Montori VM, Baddour LM (2006). "The impact of penicillin resistance on short-term mortality in ... Other risk factors include smoking, injection drug use, Hepatitis C, and COPD. S. pneumoniae expresses different virulence ...
Microbial Drug Resistance. 8, 281-289 (2002). Ruiz J. Mechanisms of resistance to quinolones: target alterations, decreased ... Microbial Drug Resistance. 14 (1), 45-47 (2008). Falcone M, Mezzatesta ML, Perilli MG et al. Infections with VIM-1 metallo-beta ... Microbial Drug Resistance. 13 (1), 1-6 (2007). Daurel C, Fiant AL, Brémont S, Courvalin P, Leclercq R. Emergence of an ... Microbial Drug Resistance. 12 (4), 223-230 (2006). Yan JJ, Ko WC, Chuang CL, Wu JJ. Metallo-beta-lactamase-producing ...
Schuster FL, Visvesvara GS (February 2004). "Opportunistic amoebae: challenges in prophylaxis and treatment". Drug Resistance ... A paper published in 2013 has shown substantial effects of some FDA-approved drugs with an in vitro kill rate above 90%. These ... Baig AM, Iqbal J, Khan NA (August 2013). "In vitro efficacies of clinically available drugs against growth and viability of an ... Acanthamoeba keratitis cases in the past have resolved from a therapy consisting of atropine and some other drugs with no ...
They are resistant because they produce an enzyme called a carbapenemase that disables the drug molecule. The resistance can ... No new drugs for the bacteria are in development and the bacteria's rapid adaptation to new drugs makes investment in their ... In a Thailand-based study of CRE in hospital settings, carbapenem resistance was defined as any strain that shows resistance to ... Active transport of carbapenem drugs out of the cell, augmented drug efflux, has been observed in some resistant species.[ ...
... frameshift mutations in herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase and drug-resistance". Drug Resistance Updates. 14 (6): 251-9. doi ... An often cited example of this process is the transfer of antibiotic resistance utilizing plasmid DNA. Another mechanism of ... Ruiz J, Pons MJ, Gomes C (September 2012). "Transferable mechanisms of quinolone resistance". International Journal of ...
... also known as the multi-drug resistance 1 transporter (MDR1). GluCer is implicated in post-Golgi trafficking and drug ... Inhibition of ceramide synthesis in mice via drug treatments or gene-knockout techniques prevented insulin resistance induced ... For instance, a study demonstrated a correlation between cellular drug resistance and modifications in GluCer metabolism. In ... 26, 183-211 Gouaze-Andersson, V.; Cabot, M. C. (2006). "Glycosphingolipids and drug resistance". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1758 ( ...
Infection and Drug Resistance. 12: 553-570. doi:10.2147/IDR.S151031. PMC 6411314. PMID 30881061. "Tafenoquine Approved for ... "Krintafel Orphan Drug Designation and Approval". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Archived from the original on 23 ... "Drug Approval Package: Arakoda". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 13 February 2019. Archived from the original on 23 ... "Drug Trials Snapshots: Krintafel". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 6 August 2018. Archived from the original on 23 ...
In addition to an assessment of drug use pattern of patients[citation needed] several drug resistance studies on different ... Infection and Drug Resistance. 13: 1517-1526. doi:10.2147/IDR.S239092. PMC 7250175. PMID 32547121.. ... Drug for Neglected Diseases initiative), Addis Ababa University, the Ministry of Health and Arabaminch hospital to establish ...
Infection and Drug Resistance. 7: 183-197. doi:10.2147/IDR.S39601. PMC 4094581. PMID 25045274. Barnard, D.; Davies, J.; Figdor ... Infection and Drug Resistance. 7: 183-197. doi:10.2147/IDR.S39601. PMC 4094581. PMID 25045274. Russo, Thomas A. (2014), Kasper ...
Kummerfeldt CE (2014). "Raxibacumab: potential role in the treatment of inhalational anthrax". Infection and Drug Resistance. 7 ... At the 2 November 2012 meeting of the Anti-Infective Drugs Advisory Committee to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) ... "UPDATE 2-FDA denies approval for Human Genome's anthrax drug". Reuters Market News. 16 November 2009. v t e. ... "Approval Letter" (PDF). U.S. Food and Drug Administration. ... anthracis in combination with appropriate antibacterial drugs, ...
Infection and Drug Resistance. 11: 2335-2344. doi:10.2147/idr.s179390. PMC 6254542. PMID 30538503. Johansson, Cecilia; Rautelin ...
Drugs and Drug Resistance. 4 (3): 220-5. doi:10.1016/j.ijpddr.2014.09.002. PMC 4266808. PMID 25516832. "WIPO Re:Search". ... although drug resistance is a potential problem. According to Fenwick, Pfizer donated 70 million doses of drugs in 2011 to ... especially with respect to rapidly evolving drug resistance. Combining vector control and mass drug administration deemphasizes ... Some pharmaceutical companies have committed to donating all the drug therapies required, and mass drug administration (for ...
Infection and Drug Resistance. 7: 15-24. doi:10.2147/IDR.S39637. PMC 3894142. PMID 24453496. Altemeier, William A (2000-10-01 ... people started realizing that using antibiotics too much can cause bacteria to gain resistance. Increasing resistance makes ... Leung AK, Wong AH (2017). "Acute Otitis Media in Children". Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery. 11 (1): 32 ...
In human lung cancer samples, V-ATPase expression was correlated with drug resistance. A large number of V-ATPase subunit ... Some cationic drugs, such as chloroquine and sertraline, are known as lysosomotropic drugs. These drugs are weak bases that ... Mayers D (2008). Antimicrobial drug resistance handbook. Volume 2, Clinical and epidemiological aspects. Totowa, N.J.: Humana. ... When one of these drugs is co-applied to cells with bafilomycin A1, the action of bafilomycin A1 prevents the acidification of ...
is a strain of Staphylococcus aureus that gives resistance to vancomycin at a frequency of 10−6 colonies or even higher. Drug ... High-level vancomycin resistance in S. aureus has been rarely reported. In vitro and in vivo experiments reported in 1992 ... The isolate contained the mecA gene for methicillin resistance. Vancomycin MICs of the VRSA isolate were consistent with the ... Courvalin P (January 2006). "Vancomycin resistance in gram-positive cocci". Clin. Infect. Dis. 42 Suppl 1: S25-34. doi:10.1086/ ...
Stanford University Drug Resistance Database. Koziel MJ, Peters MG (2007). "Viral hepatitis in HIV infection". N Engl J Med. ... Other resistance mutations are L80V/I, V173L and L180M. Minor side effects may include nausea, fatigue, headaches, diarrhea, ... The drug can trigger an inflammatory response to opportunistic infections (e.g., Mycobacterium avium complex [MAC], M. ... In HIV, high level resistance is associated with the M184V/I mutation in the reverse transcriptase gene as reported by Raymond ...
Robbins, Nicole; Caplan, Tavia; Cowen, Leah E. (September 8, 2017). "Molecular Evolution of Antifungal Drug Resistance". Annual ... Rimocidin Filipin Candicin Hamycin Perimycin Dermostatin "Antifungal Agents". Polyene Antifungal Drugs. NCBI Bookshelf. The ...
Responsible for Therapeutic Resistance and Relapse?". Breast Cancer Metastasis and Drug Resistance. pp. 385-398. doi:10.1007/ ... His studies also involve the identification of signaling networks conferring resistance to current anti-cancer therapies. His ... Wadhwa, Bhumika; Makhdoomi, Ubaid; Vishwakarma, Ram; Malik, Fayaz (July 2017). "Protein kinase B". Anti-Cancer Drugs. 28 (6): ... "Traditional Knowledge Base For Drug Discovery" (PDF). www.euindiacoop.org. 14 May 2018. Retrieved 2018-05-14. "Semi-synthetic ...
Around year 2000 there were reports that parasites which cause kala-azar had developed drug resistance to pentavalent ... Sundar, Shyam (November 2001). "Drug resistance in Indian visceral leishmaniasis". Tropical Medicine and International Health. ... "Drug resistance and treatment failure in leishmaniasis: A 21st century challenge". PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 11 (12): ... Physicians use a drug to treat kala-azar both before and after the patient seems cured, but take care to use a safe amount. The ...
Johnston, Nicole; Mukhtar, Tariq; Wright, Gerard (1 August 2002). "Streptogramin Antibiotics: Mode of Action and Resistance". ... Current Drug Targets. 3 (4): 335-344. doi:10.2174/1389450023347678. Champney, W. Scott; Tober, Craig L. (21 August 2000). " ...
Singh, A; Settleman, J (2010). "EMT, cancer stem cells and drug resistance". Oncogene. 29: 4741-4751. doi:10.1038/onc.2010.215 ... Therapy resistance of BCSCs is mediated by a host of mechanisms, which include ATP-binding cassette transporters, ALDH activity ... This has spurred the search for new drug delivery platforms that can target BCSCs and the niche in which these cells reside. A ... Furthermore, some early work has shown that activation of these pathways can also be correlated to the resistance of BCSCs to ...
Heinemann, J. A., Ankenbauer, R. G., & Amábile-Cuevas, C. F. (2000). Do antibiotics maintain antibiotic resistance?. Drug ...
Mulder, L. C. F.; Harari, A.; Simon, V. (2008-04-07). "Cytidine deamination induced HIV-1 drug resistance". Proceedings of the ...
Drugs and Drug Resistance. 2: 178-186. doi:10.1016/j.ijpddr.2012.06.001. PMC 3596085. PMID 23504044. Lepesheva, GI; Park, HW; ... Although widespread searches for other new drugs that target T. cruzi are surely being pursued, there are millions of patients ... VNI is an experimental drug for treating Chagas disease currently being studied at Vanderbilt University. The molecule acts by ... further validating CYP51 as a viable drug targeting T. cruzi, and it opens a new opportunity for therapeutic cure of patients. ...
... to counteract the actions of the drug. Another form is cell adhesion- mediated drug resistance. This involves the tight ... In some cases, the characteristics of CAF provide therapeutic resistance. Soluble factor resistance occurs when CAF either ... Cancer cells are usually also drug resistant, which is contributed by CAFs. As such, this interaction is being studied for ... which reduce the efficacy of therapeutic drugs. For instance, this can either be done by an increased secretion of ...
Gunjan Arora; Andaleeb Sajid; Vipin Chandra Kalia (21 March 2017). Drug Resistance in Bacteria, Fungi, Malaria, and Cancer. ... Gunjan Arora; Andaleeb Sajid; Vipin Chandra Kalia (21 March 2017). Drug Resistance in Bacteria, Fungi, Malaria, and Cancer. ...
Expert on West Nile virus and drug resistance. Booth Memorial Hospital, a separate former Salvation Army hospital in Cleveland ...
"Malaria drug may hit antibiotics". BBC. Juncosa, Barbara (21 July 2008). "Antibiotic Resistance: Blame It on Lifesaving Malaria ... Prior to his research, it was commonly thought that when injection drug users suffered from heart valve infections (an ... "Surgery, counselling improve outcome for IV drug users with heart valve infection: study". CTV News London. CTV News. Retrieved ... When this occurs, it can set off a cascade of inflammation, contributing to insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease and ...
HIV Drug Resistance Program webmaster (May 12, 2009). "HIV Drug Resistance Program, National Cancer Institute - John M. Coffin ... electrical engineer; 1933 AIEE Lamme Medal, 1935 IEEE Edison Medal; IEEE's Electrical Engineering Hall of Fame Michael Tibbetts ... Commissioner of Foods and Drugs (2017-2019), Food and Drug Administration, United States Department of Health and Human ... electrical engineer Henry I. Harriman (B.A. 1898) - inventor, patents for many automatic looms; builder, hydroelectric dams ...
Drugs and Drug Resistance. Includes articles from two meetings: "Anthelmintics: From Discovery to Resistance", pp. 218--315, ... Harvey, Alan L. (2008-10-01). "Natural products in drug discovery". Drug Discovery Today. 13 (19-20): 894-901. doi:10.1016/j. ... Carey, J. S.; Laffan, D.; Thomson, C.; Williams, M. T. (2006). "Analysis of the Reactions Used for the Preparation of Drug ... It includes synthetic and computational aspects of the study of existing drugs and agents in development in relation to their ...
... is due to insufficient insulin production from beta cells in the setting of insulin resistance.[13] Insulin ... Izzedine H, Launay-Vacher V, Deybach C, Bourry E, Barrou B, Deray G (November 2005). "Drug-induced diabetes mellitus". Expert ... However, in the setting of insulin resistance, the liver inappropriately releases glucose into the blood.[10] The proportion of ... In the early stages of insulin resistance, the mass of beta cells expands, increasing the output of insulin to compensate for ...
Viral resistance to the drug leads to the drug becoming useless since the virus evolves to have cells that are able to resist ... Currently, it is being replaced by newer drugs that are more convenient to take, less likely to promote virus resistance, and ... This fear of viral resistance caused a lot of users to be wary of the drug.[5] ... After 38 weeks, 6% of the people in the three-drug group died while 11% of the people died in the two-drug group. There were ...
Sihanouk desired independence from French rule, but after France refused his requests he called for public resistance to its ... "Pol Pot 'killed himself with drugs'". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 August 2014 ... as the most promising resistance group. He believed the Khmer Việt Minh's relationship to the Việt Minh and thus the ...
One important rehabilitation tool for muscle atrophy includes the use of functional electrical stimulation to stimulate the ... A novel class of drugs, called SARM (selective androgen receptor modulators) are being investigated with promising results. ... D.Zhang et al., Functional Electrical Stimulation in Rehabilitation Engineering: A survey, Nenyang technological University, ... regular resistance exercise, and consumption of a high-protein diet. Based upon a meta-analysis of seven randomized controlled ...
Zaki Chehab, Inside the resistance: the Iraqi insurgency and the future of the Middle East, Published by Nation Books, 2005, ... "Iran's festive drink and drugs binge". BBC World News. March 27, 2009.. ...
... and extent of drug resistance. ... Koiuszko, S; Bialucha, A; Gospodarek, E (2007). "[The drug ... Resistance[edit]. Main article: Pneumococcal infection § Treatment. Resistant Pneumococci strains are called penicillin- ... "Critical decline in pneumococcal disease and antibiotic resistance in South Africa". NICD. Retrieved 20 July 2015.. ... Pikis, Andreas; Campos, Joseph M.; Rodriguez, William J.; Keith, Jerry M. (2001). "Optochin Resistance in Streptococcus ...
... drug occupancy at a purported site of action can be inferred indirectly by competition studies between unlabeled drug and ... The advantage is a better noise profile and resistance to the streak artifacts common with FBP, but the disadvantage is higher ... Pharmacokinetics: In pre-clinical trials, it is possible to radiolabel a new drug and inject it into animals. Such scans are ... The uptake of the drug, the tissues in which it concentrates, and its eventual elimination, can be monitored far more quickly ...
To bridge control surface gaps on sailplanes (gliders), reducing profile drag. ScienceEdit. *Amateur and professional visual ... Due to its excellent heat resistance, it can remain on the package during microwave or oven heating. ... which provides sealability and improves puncture resistance. The polyethylene side of such a laminate appears dull and the ...
... allowing a degree of repositioning to minimize drag and damage, as opposed to resistance. Leaf movement like this may also ... Strong wind forces may result in diminished leaf number and surface area, which while reducing drag, involves a trade off of ... Divided and compound leaves reduce wind resistance and promote cooling.. *Hairs on the leaf surface trap humidity in dry ...
"U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).. *Ebola: What You Need to Know - Scientific American articles related to Ebola; note ... with more than 1,000 cases and insecurity continuing to being the major resistance to providing an adequate response.[215][216] ... "U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Press release). 14 October 2020. Retrieved 14 October 2020.. This article incorporates ... "U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Press release). 20 December 2019. Retrieved 22 December 2019.. ...
"Drug Trials Snapshots: Aklief". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 11 October 2019. Archived from the original on 19 ... Andriessen A, Lynde CW (November 2014). "Antibiotic resistance: shifting the paradigm in topical acne treatment". Journal of ... Aslam I, Fleischer A, Feldman S (March 2015). "Emerging drugs for the treatment of acne". Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs. 20 ... Aslam I, Fleischer A, Feldman S (March 2015). "Emerging drugs for the treatment of acne". Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs ( ...
Drug resistance is increasingly more common and presents a serious problem in persons who are immunocompromised. Prophylactic ... Oral candidiasis can be treated with topical anti-fungal drugs, such as nystatin, miconazole, Gentian violet or amphotericin B ... In recurrent oral candidiasis, the use of azole antifungals risks selection and enrichment of drug-resistant strains of candida ...
Drug risks[edit]. Filgrastim is typically dosed in the 10 microgram/kg level for 4-5 days during the harvesting of stem cells. ... This genetic trait confers resistance to HIV infection by blocking attachment of HIV to the cell. Roughly one in 1000 people of ... Immunosuppressive drugs are given for a minimum of 6-months after a transplantation, or much longer if required for the ... G-CSF drugs include filgrastim (Neupogen, Neulasta), and lenograstim (Graslopin). ...
An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains the recreational drug ethanol, a type of alcohol produced ... "Ethanol Causes Acute Inhibition of Carbohydrate, Fat, and Protein Oxidation and Insulin Resistance". J. Clin. Invest. 81 (4): ... Alcohol is one of the most widely used recreational drugs in the world, with about 33% of people being current drinkers.[4] As ... Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 60 (2): 199-206. doi:10.1016/s0376-8716(99)00149-0. PMID 10940547.. ...
"Drug resistance is not directly affected by mating type locus zygosity in Candida albicans". Antimicrobial Agents and ...
One year's worth of drugs normally costs about US $20,000 for a small child and over $50,000 for a teenager.[5] These drugs are ... Valenstein, Elliot S. (2002). Blaming the Brain : The Truth About Drugs and Mental Health. New York: Free Press. pp. 173-174. ... Parents and schools were not told that the charities were being paid by the drug companies to do this.[8][9] ... treatment with certain drugs, chromosomal deletions. Human growth hormone (HGH) deficiency may occur at any time during infancy ...
Illegal - various gaseous, vaporised or aerosolized recreational drugs Medical use[edit]. Diagnostic[edit]. Various specialized ... Gases and other drugs used in anaesthesia include oxygen, nitrous oxide, helium, xenon, volatile anaesthetic agents. Medication ...
"Antifungal Resistance , Fungal Diseases , CDC". www.cdc.gov. 25 January 2019. Retrieved 10 April 2019.. ... Antiviral drug. ReferencesEdit. *^ a b Septimus, Edward J.; Schweizer, Marin L. (27 January 2016). "Decolonization in ...
People would tie a rope around the necks and drag them over to a ditch."[249] Corpses were stacked along the streets of ... Chatterjee, Partha (1986). "The Colonial State and Peasant Resistance in Bengal 1920-1947". Past & Present. 110: 169-204. doi: ... The bodies were picked over by vultures and dragged away by jackals. Sometimes this happened while the victim was still living. ... and reduced resistance to disease led to death by opportunistic infections.[233] Second, the social disruption and dismal ...
Tablets or capsules of activated carbon are used in many countries as an over-the-counter drug to treat diarrhea, indigestion, ... It is a measure of the activated carbon's resistance to attrition. It is an important indicator of activated carbon to maintain ... Such materials combine high hydrophobicity and chemical stability with electrical and thermal conductivity and can be used as ...
Robert A. Copeland (2013). Evaluation of Enzyme Inhibitors in Drug Discovery: A Guide for Medicinal Chemists and ... "Structural basis of HIV-1 resistance to AZT by excision.". Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 17 (10): 1202-9. PMC 2987654. PMID 20852643 ... http://books.google.com/books/about/Evaluation_of_Enzyme_Inhibitors_in_Drug.html?id=l2rMy8QNUk0C. ...
He detailed blood doping[5] as well as the performance-enhancing drugs he used while on the team.[6] The investigation and the ... The cells would be re-injected shortly before competition, boosting resistance to fatigue. If haematocrit levels (volume of red ... Fuentes stated that he supplied athletes in other sports with drugs and said: "I could identify all the samples [of blood]. If ... An investigation began into the practices of Fuentes in early 2006 by the anti-drug trafficking arm of the Spanish Guardia ...
... as the mutation to Hb-S provides the fitness benefit of malaria resistance to heterozygotes, while homozygotes have ... For drug pleiotropy, see Pleiotropy (drugs).. Simple genotype-phenotype map that only shows additive pleiotropy effects. G1, G2 ...
SiC has the best oxidation resistance. Extreme heat treatment leads to greater oxidation resistance as well as improved ... Vehicles with "sharp" leading edges have significantly higher lift to drag ratios, enhancing the fuel efficiency of sustained ... "Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology. 5 (2): 342-351. doi:10.5370/jeet.2010.5.2.342.. ... Spark plasma sintering also uses a pulsed current to generate an electrical discharge that cleans surface oxides off of the ...
... by the Assembly included ones concerning strengthening of national drug management systems to address antimicrobial resistance ... antimicrobial resistance, immunization gaps, malnutrition, air pollution, and epilepsy. Annual health awards were given by the ... economic and environmental root causes of antimicrobial resistance and other human health problems, to continue expanding ...
The first group, wanton addicts, have no second-order desire not to take the drug. The second group, "unwilling addicts", have ... a hindrance or obstacle in the form of resistance within her will which must be overcome by effort."[26] According to Robert ... The members of the second group freely desire not to take the drug, but their will is overcome by the addiction. Finally, the ... All three groups may have the conflicting first-order desires to want to take the drug they are addicted to and to not want to ...
At the Federal level, consistent with Section 341 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act,[67] the Food and Drug ... Other possible gluten-free pasta ingredients may include hydrocolloids to improve cooking pasta with high heat resistance, ... "Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, Title 21, Chapter 9, S. IV, Sec. 341" (PDF). Retrieved 7 July 2012.. ... "State of Connecticut General Provisions, Chapter 417, Sections 21a-28 (Pure Foods and Drugs)". Archived from the original on 11 ...
Dinesh C. Sharma with a motto "to use pleasant sounds in a specific manner like drug in due course of time as green medicine".[ ... and to engage in therapy with less resistance.[19] Music therapy conducted in groups allows adolescent individuals to feel a ... Music therapy is used in some medical hospitals, cancer centers, schools, alcohol and drug recovery programs, psychiatric ...
... resistance group. In 1943, after the group disbanded, Sartre joined a writers' Resistance group,[101] in which he remained an ... Psychedelic drug advocates. *Scholars of antisemitism. *World War II prisoners of war held by Germany ... Socialisme et liberté soon dissolved and Sartre decided to write instead of being involved in active resistance. He then wrote ... Sartre tended to glorify the Resistance after the war as the uncompromising expression of morality in action, and recalled that ...
Leptin resistance is described as a condition in which overweight individuals are unable to respond to the hormone's signals ... Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and muscle relaxants. In contrast, Dr Holtorf advocates a controversial six step ... Holtorf treats leptin resistance in patients with a class of medications that are typically reserved for controlling blood ... citing causes for the inability to lose weight as leptin resistance, undiagnosed hypothyroidism, environmental toxins, ...
... drug_available_have_been_confirmed_according_to_new_research_published_in_antimicrobial_agents_and_chemotherapy_ ... but if further drug resistance were to develop against our most valuable malaria drug, artemisinin, we would be facing a grave ... We hope our findings will help understand resistance of malaria to drugs, and potentially be an important tool for monitoring ... Early indicators of the malaria parasite in Africa developing resistance to the most effective drug available have been ...
Multi Drug Resistance: A Global Concern. Multiple drug resistance among bacteria has become a global issue with a considerable ... Readers will be updated on current information on the understanding of mechanisms involved in drug resistance and the ... This book is a detailed compilation of available knowledge on the surveillance and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in ... geographical distribution of resistance determinant markers. This volume should be a useful guide for microbiologists and ...
This second drug would kill all the bacteria with the drug resistance to Drug 1, but would not kill any bacteria with any ... mutations offering resistance to Drug 2. Thus, these last stragglers would have the protein for Drug 1 resistance and now Drug ... Not per se, since the odds of evolving resistance to a specific drug depend on the drug deployed. I am merely saying that the ... Not per se, since the odds of evolving resistance to a specific drug depend on the drug deployed.. Um, right, which is ...
Antibiotic resistance is the rule these days .... the critters are not stupid. This makes the news because it is a superbug ... the point of the article is that the same super drug resistant gene is found in several different bacteria. in other words ... New drug-resistant superbugs found in 3 states. Discussion in Chit Chat started by Banjo, Sep 13, 2010. ... Antibiotic resistance is the rule these days .... the critters are not stupid. This makes the news because it is a superbug ...
How antibiotic resistance happens and a history of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance. ... On CDCs website, antibiotic resistance is also referred to as antimicrobial resistance or drug resistance. ... homeAntibiotic / Antimicrobial Resistance (AR / AMR). *About Antibiotic Resistanceplus icon *How Antibiotic Resistance Happens ... Antibiotic resistance happens when germs like bacteria and fungi develop the ability to defeat the drugs designed to kill them ...
Pancreatic cancer remains a significant health burden associated with limited patient survival and poses a major therapeutic challenge. Among cancer cells, Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are instrumental in inducing chemoresistance and metastasis in pancreatic cancer. CD133 has been identified as a CSC surface marker in several malignancies including pancreatic cancer. However, the functional role of CD133 in CSCs still not clear. The present study investigates the role of caveolar lipid raft integrity in functional properties of CD133+ CSCs. Current study showed first time that CD133 localizes to caveolar lipid rafts in pancreatic cancer cells, and associates with Caveolin1 (Cav-1) and cholesterol to form an integral signaling complex which drives the downstream processes of chemoresistance and metastasis. Further analysis showed that the integrity of the lipid-raft is crucial for maintenance of the functional properties of pancreatic CSCs, and its disruption leads to increased chemo-sensitivity to ...
... with the highest tolerable dose of anti-microbe medications may not be best for preventing the evolution of drug resistance in ... Day and Read showed that the optimal approach to combatting the evolution of drug resistance will be either to use the highest ... "Killing all of the infecting microbes obviously stops any further evolution of drug resistance, but we cant do this in every ... If a small number of microbes are already resistant to treatment, or if drug resistance arises by chance, high doses of ...
Tolerance and Resistance Cosmetics Database HCMV drug resistance mutations tool Combating Drug Resistance - An informative ... "Drug resistance develops naturally, but careless practices in drug supply and use are hastening it unnecessarily." - Center for ... The chances of drug resistance can sometimes be minimized by using multiple drugs simultaneously. This works because individual ... Antibiotic resistance Fecal bacteriotherapy Mass drug administration Multidrug resistance Pharmacoepidemiology Small multidrug ...
"What we found is that there is another form of resistance. Its not due to mutations in genes; its an epigenetic mode of drug ... Reporter colon cancer colorectal cancer Department of Cell and Developmental Biology Department of Medicine drug resistance ... Coffey and his colleagues are using the 3-D culture system to explore mechanisms of drug resistance in other colon cancer cell ... Researchers find novel mechanism of resistance to anti-cancer drugs. by Leigh MacMillan , Oct. 17, 2017, 1:33 PM. ...
Multiple drug resistance (MDR), multidrug resistance or multiresistance is antimicrobial resistance shown by a species of ... Drug resistance MDRGN bacteria Xenobiotic metabolism NDM1 enzymatic resistance Herbicide resistance P-glycoprotein A.-P. ... Li XZ, Nikaido H (August 2009). "Efflux-mediated drug resistance in bacteria: an update". Drugs. 69 (12): 1555-623. doi:10.2165 ... Drug+Resistance,+Multiple at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Boucher, HW, Talbot GH, ...
Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.) is an education program that seeks to prevent use of controlled drugs, membership in ... "The Social Construction of Evidence-Based Drug Prevention Programs: A Reanalysis of Data from the Drug Abuse Resistance ... Hecht, Michael; Graham, John; Elek, Elvira (2006). "The drug resistance strategies intervention: Program effects on substance ... D. stated that none of Californias drug education programs worked, including D.A.R.E. "Californias drug education programs, D ...
Resistance to antimalarial medicines is a threat to global efforts to control and eliminate malaria. Protecting the efficacy of ... Preventing and containing antimalarial drug resistance. Several factors influence the emergence and spread of drug resistant ... The Greater Mekong Subregion has long been the epicentre of antimalarial drug resistance. P. falciparum resistance to ... Countries where resistance to artemisinins or to ACT partner drugs is reported need to intensify malaria control in order to ...
The international peer-reviewed journal covering the global spread and threat of multi-drug resistant clones of major pathogens ... Microbial Drug Resistance (MDR) is an international, peer-reviewed journal that covers the global spread and threat of multi- ... Microbial Drug Resistance is under the editorial leadership of Editor Alexander Tomasz, PhD, The Rockefeller University, ... The Journal addresses the serious challenges of trying to decipher the molecular mechanisms of drug resistance. MDR provides a ...
The international peer-reviewed journal covering the global spread and threat of multi-drug resistant clones of major pathogens ...
Hypoxia can result in drug resistance indirectly if under this condition cells more effectively detoxify the drug molecules. ... Hypoxia can be a direct cause of therapeutic resistance because some drugs and radiation require oxygen to be maximally ... Finally, the use of hypoxic cell selective cytotoxic agents as a means of addressing hypoxic drug resistance is discussed. ... is evidence that hypoxia can enhance genetic instability in tumor cells thus allowing more rapid development of drug resistance ...
Pediatric Infection: Otitis Media Therapy and Drug Resistance Part 2: Current Concepts and New Directions ... At present, we must consider the tremendous increase in the resistance to antibiotics of the main pathogens that cause AOM ( ... The concern for increased antibiotic resistance has led various investigators to examine the role of oligosaccharides and ... as well as the potential of prolonged antibiotic administration to considerably increase the resistance of these organisms. As ...
HIV drug resistance has the potential to become a serious emerging threat to the roll-out of antiretroviral treatment ... What drives HIV drug resistance?. HIV drug resistance can arise from a range of different factors, which can be split up into ... What is HIV drug resistance?. HIV drug resistance occurs when the virus starts to make changes (mutations) to its genetic make- ... 61. WHO (2017) HIV drug resistance report 2017. *62. Phillips, A. et al. (2017) Impact of HIV Drug Resistance on HIV/AIDS- ...
Resistance has emerged to all classes of antimalarial drugs except the artemisinins and is responsible for a recent increase in ... The de novo emergence of resistance can be prevented by the use of antimalarial drug combinations. Artemisinin-derivative ...
... gene amplification in drug resistance, the molecular determinants of multidrug resistance, and resistance to taxanes and ... angiogenesis cancer cytotoxicity drug drug resistance hormones imaging immunotherapy leukemia melanoma oncogenes pharmacology ... The authors review physiological resistance based tumor architecture, cellular resistance based on drug transport, epigenetic ... In Cancer Drug Resistance, leading scientists from the best academic institutions and industrial laboratories summarize and ...
... 2 March 2021 19:00-20:00, United Kingdom ... Professor Eyers will deliver an insightful lecture on our understanding of drug-resistance in human cancer cells. ...
... or primary resistance. As transmitted drug resistance increases the risk... ... Infection with an HIV strain harboring drug resistance-related mutations is referred to as transmitted drug resistance (TDR) ... Resistance Mutation Virological Failure Replicative Capacity Drug Resistance Mutation Acquire Drug Resistance These keywords ... Infection with an HIV strain harboring drug resistance-related mutations is referred to as transmitted drug resistance (TDR) or ...
A new drug that blocks a molecule that cancer cells rely on for transcribing genetic information shows promise in tackling ... In addition, some people might be resistant to one drug and sensitive to others, while others may have multi-drug resistance. ... An experimental new drug may tackle treatment resistance in cancer.. In the study paper, now published in the journal Molecular ... Cancer and drug resistance. Cancer is a group of diseases that have one thing in common: they arise because abnormal cells in ...
"Different Paths To Drug Resistance In Leishmania." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 31 Oct. 2011. Web.. 20 May. 2019. , ... These studies increase our understanding of the process of drug resistance in Leishmania. Leishmaniasis is a disfiguring and ... "We must maintain continuous surveillance to monitor the threat from the on-going emergence of drug resistance. These studies ... "This basic biological difference in the way that drug resistance emerges in Leishmania is essential for tracking strains and ...
Studies on mechanisms of cancer drug resistance have yielded important information about how to circumvent this resistance to ... but other mechanisms of resistance including insensitivity to drug-induced apoptosis and induction of drug-detoxifying ... Mechanisms of cancer drug resistance.. Gottesman MM1.. Author information. 1. Laboratory of Cell Biology, National Cancer ... Resistance to treatment with anticancer drugs results from a variety of factors including individual variations in patients and ...
... antivirals and drug resistance research in the Immunology and Microbiology Program, a Ph.D. program in the Baylor College of... ... and Drug Resistance research area: seeks to answer fundamental questions about the evolution and mechanisms of drug resistance ... With the high rate of use of antimicrobial drugs throughout the world, the emergence and spread of drug-resistant pathogens is ... the Center for Drug Discovery, the Alkek Center for Molecular Discovery (including their Metabolomics Core), the Center for ...
Jude finds cancer drug resistance genes and possibly how to limit their effects Article Link ... Jude finds cancer drug resistance genes and possibly how to limit their effects Article Link ... Title: Scientists Develop New Models to Accelerate Progress in Preventing Drug Resistance in Lung and Pancreas Cancers Article ... Title: Scientists Develop New Models to Accelerate Progress in Preventing Drug Resistance in Lung and Pancreas Cancers Article ...
There is enough similarity between drug-resistance genes in E. coli carried by chickens and E. coli infecting humans that the ... Is Drug Resistance in Humans Coming From Chickens?. Theres a new paper out in the CDCs journal Emerging Infectious Diseases ... The similarity of E. coli strains and predominant drug resistance genes in meat and humans provides circumstantial evidence for ... There is enough similarity between drug-resistance genes in E. coli carried by chickens and E. coli infecting humans that the ...
... and tests can fail to identify that resistance, which could help accelerate their spread, a new study finds. ... Some strains of the new H7N9 bird flu virus that appeared in China this year are resistant to antiviral drugs, ... home/infectious disease center/ infectious disease a-z list/ chinas bird flus drug resistance worries expert article ... Some strains of the new H7N9 bird flu virus that appeared in China this year are resistant to antiviral drugs, and tests can ...
... of bacteria evolving drug resistance right before your eyes. ... believe bacteria can evolve a resistance to drugs, but only ... and at some point one or more of the baby bacteria just happened to get a resistance to the drug. It was able to pass that ... Mind you, bacteria all over the place on the table were probably evolving some sort of resistance, but only the ones near the ...
... used to determine whether the HIV strain infecting an individual is resistant or has developed resistance to one or more drugs ... HIV antiretroviral drug resistance testing is used to help select a drug regimen that will likely be effective in treating a ... 1995-2012). Test ID: GHIVR HIV-1 Genotypic Drug Resistance Mutation Analysis, with Reflex to Phenotypic Drug Resistance ... is a better indicator of the level of HIV drug resistance.. HIV genotypic resistance testing cannot detect unknown resistance ...
... especially resistance to antibiotics - is a growing threat to human health, food ... the World Health Organisation reported that drug resistance - ... Drug resistance threatens the effective treatment of a growing ... In 2014, the World Health Organisation reported that drug resistance - especially resistance to antibiotics - is a growing ... The first ethical hurdle is to reach a consensus on how to characterise drug resistance. Many ethicists see it as a "collective ...
for TB, resistance in the UK to first-line drug treatments is seen in less than 8% of cases and resistance to multiple drugs is ... What is antimicrobial resistance?. Antimicrobial resistance occurs when a drug is no longer effective against an infection. ... to improve surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (resistance of all types of infections to drugs) and to measure the health ... to develop standard ways to record antibiotic resistance (resistance of bacteria to drugs) in humans and food-producing animals ...
... according to the largest meta-analysis to date on HIV drug resistance, led by researchers at UCL and the World Health ... HIV drug resistance is approaching and exceeding 10 percent in people living with HIV who are about to initiate or reinitiate ... In July 2017, WHO published a new HIV drug resistance report, based on drug resistance national surveys conducted in 11 ... "Many people develop drug resistance after being treated by antiretroviral drugs if they stop taking their medication - often ...