Poloxamer: A nonionic polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block co-polymer with the general formula HO(C2H4O)a(-C3H6O)b(C2H4O)aH. It is available in different grades which vary from liquids to solids. It is used as an emulsifying agent, solubilizing agent, surfactant, and wetting agent for antibiotics. Poloxamer is also used in ointment and suppository bases and as a tablet binder or coater. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)Poloxalene: A copolymer of polyethylene and polypropylene ether glycol. It is a non-ionic polyol surface-active agent used medically as a fecal softener and in cattle for prevention of bloat.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Dosage Forms: Completed forms of the pharmaceutical preparation in which prescribed doses of medication are included. They are designed to resist action by gastric fluids, prevent vomiting and nausea, reduce or alleviate the undesirable taste and smells associated with oral administration, achieve a high concentration of drug at target site, or produce a delayed or long-acting drug effect.Excipients: Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Sophora: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.Drug Compounding: The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)Nanocapsules: Nanometer-sized, hollow, spherically-shaped objects that can be utilized to encapsulate small amounts of pharmaceuticals, enzymes, or other catalysts (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology, 4th ed).Gels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Corneal Edema: An excessive amount of fluid in the cornea due to damage of the epithelium or endothelium causing decreased visual acuity.Technology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Polysorbates: Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.Benzalkonium Compounds: A mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium compounds. It is a bactericidal quaternary ammonium detergent used topically in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, as a surgical antiseptic, and as a as preservative and emulsifier in drugs and cosmetics.Administration, Rectal: The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Anemia, Sickle Cell: A disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodic painful crises, and pathologic involvement of many organs. It is the clinical expression of homozygosity for hemoglobin S.Acute Chest Syndrome: Respiratory syndrome characterized by the appearance of a new pulmonary infiltrate on chest x-ray, accompanied by symptoms of fever, cough, chest pain, tachypnea, or DYSPNEA, often seen in patients with SICKLE CELL ANEMIA. Multiple factors (e.g., infection, and pulmonary FAT EMBOLISM) may contribute to the development of the syndrome.Kidney Tubules, Distal: The portion of renal tubule that begins from the enlarged segment of the ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. It reenters the KIDNEY CORTEX and forms the convoluted segments of the distal tubule.Contraception: Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.Splenic DiseasesHypersplenism: Condition characterized by splenomegaly, some reduction in the number of circulating blood cells in the presence of a normal or hyperactive bone marrow, and the potential for reversal by splenectomy.Implantable Neurostimulators: Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION of nerve tissue is delivered.Intravitreal Injections: The administration of substances into the VITREOUS BODY of the eye with a hypodermic syringe.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Administration, Cutaneous: The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.Skin Absorption: Uptake of substances through the SKIN.Fluorescein: A phthalic indicator dye that appears yellow-green in normal tear film and bright green in a more alkaline medium such as the aqueous humor.Transdermal Patch: A medicated adhesive patch placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication into the bloodstream.Anti-Infective Agents, Local: Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Equipment Safety: Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.Device Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.Legislation, Drug: Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.Consumer Product SafetyOctreotide: A potent, long-acting synthetic SOMATOSTATIN octapeptide analog that inhibits secretion of GROWTH HORMONE and is used to treat hormone-secreting tumors; DIABETES MELLITUS; HYPOTENSION, ORTHOSTATIC; HYPERINSULINISM; hypergastrinemia; and small bowel fistula.Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome: A symptom complex associated with CARCINOID TUMOR and characterized by attacks of severe flushing of the skin, diarrheal watery stools, bronchoconstriction, sudden drops in blood pressure, edema, and ascites. The carcinoid tumors are usually located in the gastrointestinal tract and metastasize to the liver. Symptoms are caused by tumor secretion of serotonin, prostaglandins, and other biologically active substances. Cardiac manifestations constitute CARCINOID HEART DISEASE. (Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)Dumping Syndrome: Gastrointestinal symptoms resulting from an absent or nonfunctioning pylorus.Somatostatin: A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.Acromegaly: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excessive HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE in adults. It is characterized by bony enlargement of the FACE; lower jaw (PROGNATHISM); hands; FEET; HEAD; and THORAX. The most common etiology is a GROWTH HORMONE-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp79-80)Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Ionic Liquids: Salts that melt below 100 C. Their low VOLATILIZATION can be an advantage over volatile organic solvents.
  • The gelation temperature of the 25 % Poloxamer formulation is 19 o C and the gel dissolves in six hours in vitro. (arvojournals.org)
  • The inorganic salts and PEG 400 commonly included in the formulation of P407 gels can also change the rate at which a drug is released. (ovid.com)
  • Poloxamer is biocompatible and the results support the possibility of using Poloxamer gel as a sustained release injectable formulation. (ovid.com)
  • For any drug to be therapeutically effective, it must enter the systemic circulation and to do so, it should have an optimum aqueous solubility at the site of absorption which is a major hurdle to overcome by a formulation scientist. (springer.com)
  • This guide provides comprehensive and essential reference for the scientists working in the curcumin formulation development from academia and industry, as well as young researchers intrigued by the fascinating field of novel drug delivery systems. (eurobuch.com)
  • 1992. Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems: formulation and bio-pharmaceutical evaluation of an investigational lipophilic compound. (springer.com)
  • The objective of this study was to explore fully the development of a PLGA nanoparticle drug delivery system for alternative preparation of a commercial formulation. (dovepress.com)
  • The marketed poloxamer tablet formulation has highly variable plasma pharmacokinetics. (asm.org)
  • That is, by an intrinsic property of the drug formulation, rather than by special mixing and handling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conventional drugs suffer from major limitations of adverse effects occurring as a result of non specificity of drug action and lack of efficacy due to improper or ineffective dosage formulation (e.g., cancer chemotherapy and antidiabetic agents). (biomedsearch.com)
  • One of the first modifications to conventional forms of ophthalmic drugs was introducing polymers to formulation, which enabled longer contact time of active ingredient and the corneal surface, thus increasing its bioavailability. (hindawi.com)
  • Next possibility to modify the ophthalmic forms active ingredients' bioavailability involved introducing excipients to formulation, which enhanced drugs' penetration into the eyeball. (hindawi.com)
  • He subsequently undertook PhD research in pharmaceutical sciences (drug delivery and formulation) under a Pfizer-sponsored project at the University of Strathclyde, graduating from 2001-05. (gre.ac.uk)
  • He works in an interdisciplinary range of research areas covering pharmaceutics (formulation and drug delivery), pharmaceutical analysis and proteomics. (gre.ac.uk)
  • In vitro and ex vivo studies showed their ability to maintain the stability of the protein based drugs during and after formulation, release of the protein and subsequent permeation through tissue engineered buccal mucosa cells and sheep buccal mucosa. (gre.ac.uk)
  • Pharmaceutical gel preparations such as hydrogels, organogels, and emulgels have been extensively used to deliver both hydrophilic and lipophilic drugs for dermatological and transdermal use. (intechopen.com)
  • A short-term dermal toxicity study of Poloxamer 184 at doses up to 1000 mg/kg produced slight erythema and slight intradermal inflammatory response in histological examination, but no dose-dependent body weight, hematology, blood chemistry, or organ weight changes. (cosmeticsinfo.org)
  • OBJECTIVES: I. Assess the efficacy of poloxamer 188 in reducing the duration of painful vaso-occlusive crisis in patients with sickle cell disease. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of poloxamer, formulated as RheothRx Injection, in 50 patients with SCD. (nih.gov)
  • Three subgroups of patients were considered for efficacy analyses based on the actual duration of the study drug infusion and the completeness of pain score data collection. (nih.gov)
  • Researchers have used Poloxamer 407 to occlude blood vessels in experimental animals for the purpose of evaluating the gel's safety and efficacy in so-called "beating heart surgery," in which certain vessels need to be temporarily blocked to improve visibility for the surgeons performing a coronary artery bypass. (innovations-report.com)
  • The drug has demonstrated solid efficacy with minimal toxicities ( 3 , 8 , 10 , 15 ) and is therefore a preferred component of antiretroviral regimens for both treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced patients ( 16 ). (asm.org)
  • The key factors that determine the efficacy of delivery via this route include the following: delivery to the olfactory area of the nares as opposed to the respiratory region, a longer retention time at the nasal mucosal surface, penetration enhancement of the active through the nasal epithelia, and a reduction in drug metabolism in the nasal cavity. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Designing of drugs with greater degree of cell specificity improves efficacy and minimizes adverse effects. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The major factors influencing the treatment outcome in a patient are the efficacy and safety profile of the drug more so when used for cancer chemotherapy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • P123/N127 (poloxamer) combined micelles for the intravenous delivery of the anticancer drug sorafenib (SRB) or its combination with verteporfin (VP), a photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy that should go with well the cytotoxicity profile of the chemotherapeutic. (researchensemble.com)
  • Furthermore, drug-loaded poloxamer micelles can passively target tumors by the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect after intravenous injection. (researchensemble.com)
  • Short-term intravenous doses up to 4 g/kg of Poloxamer 108 produced no change in body weights, but did result in diffuse hepatocellular vacuolization, renal tubular dilation in kidneys, and dose-dependent vacuolization of epithelial cells in the proximal convoluted tubules. (cosmeticsinfo.org)
  • Many different delivery methods exist to transport these drugs into the body, such as peroral, intranasal, intravenous, and intracranial. (wikipedia.org)
  • A drug substance is considered to be highly permeable when the extent of absorption in humans is determined to be 90% or more of an administered dose based on a mass balance determination or in comparison to an intravenous reference dose. (scribd.com)
  • Chaudhari, P.D. In situ gel forming injectable drug delivery system. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The dispersion of liposomes within thermosensitive Poloxamer in situ gel was able to retard the release of the drug by diffusion providing a controlled prolonged delivery. (bireme.br)
  • poloxamer 188) Injection is a nonionic surfactant with hemorrheologic properties that suggest it may be useful in treating acute painful episodes (vasoocclusive crises) of sickle cell disease (SCD). (nih.gov)
  • Young Wistar rats were anesthetised before parabulbar injection of Poloxamer (25 % in 0.9 % NaCl with or without 0.1 % FITC-Dextran 20). (arvojournals.org)
  • Parabulbar injection of Poloxamer will give a release of compounds like FITC-Dextran for at least 12 hours. (arvojournals.org)
  • Sandostatin LAR Depot is available in a vial containing the sterile drug product, which when mixed with diluent, becomes a suspension that is given as a monthly intragluteal injection. (rxlist.com)
  • The amount of poloxamer 407 in Guardian's product (12%, g/100 mL) is much greater than the maximum amount of poloxamers in FDA-approved ophthalmic products for topical administration (0.1-0.2%, g/100 mL), and the safety profile of drug products intended for intravitreal injection containing poloxamer 407 is unknown. (fda.gov)
  • Currently, most protein based drugs are usually administered by injection, which is inconvenient and leads to non-compliance. (gre.ac.uk)
  • Poloxamer 184 is a polyoxyethylene, polyoxypropylene block polymer. (ewg.org)
  • Increased polymer concentration in the gel increases viscosity and reduces lidocaine release rates and diffusion coefficients via extended gel dissolution time and prolonged drug diffusion through the gel matrix. (ovid.com)
  • For example, the smallest polymer, Poloxamer 101, consists of a block with an average of 2 units of polyoxyethylene, a block with an average of 16 units of polyoxypropylene, followed by a block with an average of 2 units of polyoxyethylene. (cosmeticsinfo.org)
  • Comparative study was carried out using Pluronic as solid dispersion and beta cyclodextrin as inclusion complexation in different drug to polymer ratios through physical mix, kneading, solvent evaporation and spray drying technique. (omicsonline.org)
  • This release protocol has been used to compare the drug release from a polymer stabilized NC of CsA to a solid drug NP of CsA alone. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • All major routes of drug delivery have been covered to provide the reader with a panoramic as well as an in-depth view of the developments in polymer-based drug delivery systems. (chemtec.org)
  • Because of its favorable safety profile and clinical benefits, United States Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA) has approved polymer based in situ systems for prolonged locoregional activity. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Zhou, S. Polymer‐based drug delivery systems for cancer treatment. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Drug-polymer interaction studies were performed using {DSC} and FT-IR. (kingston.ac.uk)
  • With this aim, the effect of different substances such as sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), polyethylene glycol 300 (PEG 300), carbocysteine, N-acetylcysteine, lactic acid, potassium phosphate, Labrasol®and Labrafil®in the microstructure, nail surface and drug permeability has been evaluated. (bath.ac.uk)
  • To obtain a smaller particle, 0.2% polyvinyl alcohol, 0.03% D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS), 2% Poloxamer 188, a five-minute sonication time, 130 W sonication power, evaporation with magnetic stirring, and centrifugation at 8000 rpm were selected. (dovepress.com)
  • The purpose of the present study was to fabricate biodegradable chitosan-poloxamer-based in-situ drug delivery systems and assessment of their physical properties. (jddtonline.info)
  • The present chitosan-poloxamer gel base was formulated using a two-stage method. (jddtonline.info)
  • The final chitosan-poloxamer gel base was prepared by mixing equal amounts of both solutions and evaluated for physical and mechanical properties. (jddtonline.info)
  • The hydroalcoholic lacquer, elaborated with cyclodextrin/poloxamer soluble polypseudorotaxane and sodium lauryl sulfate as an enhancer, allowed the rate of diffusion and penetration of the active ingredient within the nail to be significantly higher than obtained with the reference lacquers when using either ciclopirox olamine or clobetasol propionate as the active ingredient. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Abstract The quercetin loaded Eudragit L-100 nanofiber membrane with high ductility and a desired drug release rate was prepared in this work. (medworm.com)
  • ABSTRACT Drug delivery to treat ocular disorders locally is a challenging endeavor. (bireme.br)
  • Besides the obvious advantage of delivering SRB in poloxamer micelles, our results provide a obvious example that each photochemotherapeutic combination needs detailed research on their particular connection, and no generalization on enhanced cytotoxic effects should become produced a priori. (researchensemble.com)
  • 11. Liu M, Kono K, Frechet J. Water-soluble dendritic unimolecular micelles: their potential as drug delivery agents. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 12. Liu H, Farrell S, Uhrich K. Drug release characteristics of unimolecular polymeric micelles. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Lipid carrier and hydrogel combinations offer transdermal drug delivery of great potential to enhance systemic effects of both hydrophilic and lipophilic drugs. (intechopen.com)
  • Lipophilic drugs are often difficult to transport to their site of action. (dovepress.com)
  • In recent studies, two SFAs, Perfluorohexyloctane (F6H8) and Perfluorobutylpentane (F4H5), were investigated and have demonstrated a solubilizing capacity for selected lipophilic drugs, such as ibuprofen, propofol, cyclosporine A, and tacrolimus. (dovepress.com)
  • SMEDDS are of particular value in increasing the absorption of lipophilic drugs taken by mouth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on its PK/PD ratios, doxycycline hyclate (DOX-h), a time-dependant antibacterial, is ideally expected to achieve both sustained plasma drug concentrations at or slightly above the MIC level for as long as possible between dosing intervals. (ebscohost.com)
  • Poorly water-soluble drugs often require higher dosage in order to reach the therapeutic plasma concentrations after oral administration. (ijpsonline.com)
  • A stabilized bioadhesive composition containing an alkaline labile drug and a method for its preparation are provided. (google.co.uk)
  • In animal studies, a team led by Stanford microsurgeon Geoffrey Gurtner, MD, used a poloxamer gel and bioadhesive rather than a needle and thread to join together blood vessels, a procedure called vascular anastomosis. (innovations-report.com)
  • Drug products containing certain active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for certain uses. (cornell.edu)
  • a) A number of active ingredients have been present in OTC drug products for various uses, as described below. (cornell.edu)
  • The Food and Drug Administration (FDA, we, or the Agency) is issuing this final rule establishing that certain active ingredients used in over-the-counter (OTC) consumer antiseptic products intended for use with water (referred to throughout this document as consumer antiseptic washes) are not generally recognized as safe and effective (GRAS/GRAE) and are misbranded. (federalregister.gov)
  • Results demonstrated that baclofen release from the poloxamer lecithin organogel was significantly higher than its penetration through porcine skin. (ijpc.com)
  • The amount of baclofen released by the poloxamer lecithin organogel was linear up to 12 hours. (ijpc.com)
  • The First Long-Acting Injectable Regimen (FLAIR) study is being conducted to establish if human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infected adult participants whose virus is virologically suppressed on an integrase inhibitor single tablet regimen (INI STR) will remain suppressed after switching to a two-drug intramuscular (IM) long-acting (LA) regimen of cabotegravir (CAB) and rilpivirine (RPV). (nih.gov)
  • This was a huge breakthrough in the nanoparticle drug delivery field, and it helped advance research and development toward clinical trials of nanoparticle delivery systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • This book provides details of the applications of polymeric drug delivery systems that will be of interest to researchers in industries and academia. (chemtec.org)
  • The regulatory and intellectual property aspects, as well as the clinical applicability of polymeric drug delivery systems, are also discussed. (chemtec.org)
  • Development of newer drug delivery systems based on nanotechnology methods is being tried for conditions like cancer, diabetes, fungal infections, viral infections and in gene therapy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • MST-188 (purified poloxamer 188) is a rheologic and membrane stabilizing agent shown to improve LV function in animals with experimental myocardial infarction or with dystrophin deficiency. (ahajournals.org)
  • The system is having donar and receiver compartment for studying permeation of drug across the membrane. (omicsonline.org)
  • FDA prepared in-house samples of Guardian's product and found that autoclaving and sonication caused the poloxamer 407 to degrade. (fda.gov)
  • FDA also prepared and tested in-house samples to assess the impact of autoclaving and sonication, which were used by Guardian during its compounding process, on the stability of the drug product. (fda.gov)
  • A five-minute sonication time, 130 W sonication power, and a 10 mg drug loading amount were selected. (dovepress.com)