Drug Overdose: Accidental or deliberate use of a medication or street drug in excess of normal dosage.Poisoning: A condition or physical state produced by the ingestion, injection, inhalation of or exposure to a deleterious agent.Ipecac: A syrup made from the dried rhizomes of two different species, CEPHAELIS ipecacuanha and C. acuminata. They contain EMETINE, cephaeline, psychotrine and other ISOQUINOLINES. Ipecac syrup is used widely as an emetic acting both locally on the gastric mucosa and centrally on the chemoreceptor trigger zone.Prescription Drug Misuse: Improper use of drugs or medications outside the intended purpose, scope, or guidelines for use. This is in contrast to MEDICATION ADHERENCE, and distinguished from DRUG ABUSE, which is a deliberate or willful action.Charcoal: An amorphous form of carbon prepared from the incomplete combustion of animal or vegetable matter, e.g., wood. The activated form of charcoal is used in the treatment of poisoning. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Acetaminophen: Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.Gastric Lavage: Medical procedure involving the emptying of contents in the stomach through the use of a tube inserted through the nose or mouth. It is performed to remove poisons or relieve pressure due to intestinal blockages or during surgery.Alprazolam: A triazolobenzodiazepine compound with antianxiety and sedative-hypnotic actions, that is efficacious in the treatment of PANIC DISORDERS, with or without AGORAPHOBIA, and in generalized ANXIETY DISORDERS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p238)Oxycodone: A semisynthetic derivative of CODEINE.Suicide, Attempted: The unsuccessful attempt to kill oneself.Analgesics, Non-Narcotic: A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.Street Drugs: Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.Prescription Drugs: Drugs that cannot be sold legally without a prescription.Safety-Based Drug Withdrawals: Removal of a drug from the market due to the identification of an intrinsic property of the drug that results in a serious risk to public health.Glutethimide: A hypnotic and sedative. Its use has been largely superseded by other drugs.United States Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE established in 1990 to "provide indexing, abstracting, translating, publishing, and other services leading to a more effective and timely dissemination of information on research, demonstration projects, and evaluations with respect to health care to public and private entities and individuals engaged in the improvement of health care delivery..." It supersedes the National Center for Health Services Research. The United States Agency for Health Care Policy and Research was renamed Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) under the Healthcare Research and Quality Act of 1999.Narcotics: Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.Suicide: The act of killing oneself.Opioid-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from abuse or mis-use of opioids.New York CityAnalgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Substance Abuse, Intravenous: Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions: Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.Tertiary Care Centers: A medical facility which provides a high degree of subspecialty expertise for patients from centers where they received SECONDARY CARE.Heroin Dependence: Strong dependence, both physiological and emotional, upon heroin.Antidotes: Agents counteracting or neutralizing the action of POISONS.Heroin: A narcotic analgesic that may be habit-forming. It is a controlled substance (opium derivative) listed in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Parts 329.1, 1308.11 (1987). Sale is forbidden in the United States by Federal statute. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Posters as Topic: Single or multi-sheet notices made to attract attention to events, activities, causes, goods, or services. They are for display, usually in a public place and are chiefly pictorial.Honey: A sweet viscous liquid food, produced in the honey sacs of various bees from nectar collected from flowers. The nectar is ripened into honey by inversion of its sucrose sugar into fructose and glucose. It is somewhat acidic and has mild antiseptic properties, being sometimes used in the treatment of burns and lacerations.Halfway Houses: Specialized residences for persons who do not require full hospitalization, and are not well enough to function completely within the community without professional supervision, protection and support.Boredom: A psychological state resulting from any activity that lacks motivation, or from enforced continuance in an uninteresting situation.Emergency Responders: Personnel trained to provide the initial services, care, and support in EMERGENCIES or DISASTERS.Frozen FoodsNaloxone: A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.Chronology as Topic: The temporal sequence of events that have occurred.Narcotic Antagonists: Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.Pharmacies: Facilities for the preparation and dispensing of drugs.Pharmacy: The practice of compounding and dispensing medicinal preparations.Education, Pharmacy: Formal instruction, learning, or training in the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of drugs in the field of medicine.Schools, Pharmacy: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of pharmacy.Harm Reduction: The application of methods designed to reduce the risk of harm associated with certain behaviors without reduction in frequency of those behaviors. The risk-associated behaviors include ongoing and active addictive behaviors.Bibliography as Topic: Discussion of lists of works, documents or other publications, usually with some relationship between them, e.g., by a given author, on a given subject, or published in a given place, and differing from a catalog in that its contents are restricted to holdings of a single collection, library, or group of libraries. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Bibliography of Medicine: A list of works, documents, and other publications on medical subjects and topics of interest to the field of medicine.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Therapeutic Touch: Placing of the hands of the healer upon the person to be cured with the intent of spiritual energetic healing.North DakotaHallucinogens: Drugs capable of inducing illusions, hallucinations, delusions, paranoid ideations, and other alterations of mood and thinking. Despite the name, the feature that distinguishes these agents from other classes of drugs is their capacity to induce states of altered perception, thought, and feeling that are not experienced otherwise.South DakotaIndophenolLysergic Acid Diethylamide: Semisynthetic derivative of ergot (Claviceps purpurea). It has complex effects on serotonergic systems including antagonism at some peripheral serotonin receptors, both agonist and antagonist actions at central nervous system serotonin receptors, and possibly effects on serotonin turnover. It is a potent hallucinogen, but the mechanisms of that effect are not well understood.Drug Users: People who take drugs for a non-therapeutic or non-medical effect. The drugs may be legal or illegal, but their use often results in adverse medical, legal, or social consequences for the users.

Does the availability of prescribed drugs affect rates of self poisoning? (1/778)

The trends in self-poisoning rates and in rates of prescribing of the major drug groups were compared. Over the period 1981-91, barbiturate prescribing and self poisoning both fell by 80%; for antidepressants, prescribing increased by over 40% and self poisoning by 30%; for antipsychotics, both rose by 30%; for benzodiazepines, poisoning fell by 30% and prescribing by 20%. Even for analgesic drugs, which are also available over the counter, there was a correspondence between changes in self poisoning and prescribing. The availability of prescribed drugs is directly related to their use for self poisoning. Restricting the availability of these drugs is a possible preventative strategy, although further research on this is needed.  (+info)

Effects of a drug overdose in a television drama on presentations to hospital for self poisoning: time series and questionnaire study. (2/778)

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether a serious paracetamol overdose in the medical television drama Casualty altered the incidence and nature of general hospital presentations for deliberate self poisoning. DESIGN: Interrupted time series analysis of presentations for self poisoning at accident and emergency departments during three week periods before and after the broadcast. Questionnaire responses collected from self poisoning patients during the same periods. SETTING: 49 accident and emergency departments and psychiatric services in United Kingdom collected incidence data; 25 services collected questionnaire data. SUBJECTS: 4403 self poisoning patients; questionnaires completed for 1047. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Change in presentation rates for self poisoning in the three weeks after the broadcast compared with the three weeks before, use of paracetamol and other drugs for self poisoning, and the nature of overdoses in viewers of the broadcast compared with non-viewers. RESULTS: Presentations for self poisoning increased by 17% (95% confidence interval 7% to 28%) in the week after the broadcast and by 9% (0 to 19%) in the second week. Increases in paracetamol overdoses were more marked than increases in non-paracetamol overdoses. Thirty two patients who presented in the week after the broadcast and were interviewed had seen the episode-20% said that it had influenced their decision to take an overdose, and 17% said it had influenced their choice of drug. The use of paracetamol for overdose doubled among viewers of Casualty after the episode (rise of 106%; 28% to 232%). CONCLUSIONS: Broadcast of popular television dramas depicting self poisoning may have a short term influence in terms of increases in hospital presentation for overdose and changes in the choice of drug taken. This raises serious questions about the advisability of the media portraying suicidal behaviour.  (+info)

Serotonin syndrome caused by overdose with paroxetine and moclobemide. (3/778)

Well known clinical syndromes can be produced by overdose with more commonly ingested substances such as opiates or tricyclic antidepressants. A case of a much more unusual syndrome presenting to the accident and emergency department resulting from overdose with a combination of tablets is reported. The clinical presentation of serotonin syndrome and its management are described. This resulted from acute ingestion of paroxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, and moclobemide, a monoamine oxidase inhibitor.  (+info)

Toxicological analysis of sulpiride in a lethal poisoning case. (4/778)

A fatality following ingestion of sulpiride is presented. The drug was identified and quantitated in postmortem blood by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection. The concentration was 38 microg/mL, which was in excess of 34 times the therapeutic concentration of sulpiride. For other associated drugs, their concentrations were in their therapeutic ranges.  (+info)

Therapeutic drug monitoring in drug overdose. (5/778)

The treatment of poisoned patients is still largely defined by history, clinical assessment and interpretation of ancillary investigations. Measurement of drug concentrations is clinically important for relatively few compounds. Most measurements form an adjunct to and should not be considered a substitute for clinical assessment. Drug concentrations are particularly important for those compounds where the concentration is predictive of serious toxicity in an otherwise asymptomatic patient.  (+info)

Effectiveness of delayed activated charcoal administration in simulated paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose. (6/778)

AIMS: Oral activated charcoal is used to treat drug overdose and is effective at reducing drug absorption when administered within 1 h of drug ingestion. There are fewer data on efficacy when the delay is longer, as is the case in most drug overdoses. This study investigated the efficacy of activated charcoal at preventing paracetamol (acetaminophen) absorption after simulated overdose when administration was delayed between 1 and 4 h. METHODS: An open randomized-order four-way crossover study was performed in healthy volunteers comparing the effect of activated charcoal 50 g on the absorption of 3 g paracetamol tablets when administered after an interval of 1, 2 or 4 h or not at all. Plasma paracetamol concentrations were measured over 9 h after paracetamol ingestion using h.p.l.c. and areas under the curve between 4 and 9 h (AUC(4,9 h)) calculated as a measure of paracetamol absorption. RESULTS: Activated charcoal significantly reduced paracetamol AUC(4,9 h) when administered after 1 h (mean reduction 56%; 95% Confidence intervals 34, 78; P<0.002) or 2 h (22%; 6, 39; P<0.03) but not after 4 h (8%; -8, 24). When administered after 1 h activated charcoal reduced individual plasma paracetamol concentrations significantly at all times between 4 and 9 h after paracetamol administration. Administration at 2 or 4 h had no significant effect. CONCLUSIONS: These results in healthy volunteers cannot be extrapolated directly to poisoned patients. However, they provide no evidence of efficacy for activated charcoal when administered after an interval of more than 2 h.  (+info)

High-dose intravenous glucagon in severe tricyclic poisoning. (7/778)

A case of dothiepin poisoning complicated by cardiogenic shock is described. Hypotension was resistant to conventional inotropes but responded rapidly to high-dose intravenous glucagon. Glucagon should be considered as a useful therapeutic positive inotrope and a potentially antiarrhythmic agent in severe tricyclic antidepressant overdose.  (+info)

Unusual consequences of heroin overdose: rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure, paraplegia and hypercalcaemia. (8/778)

A 29-yr-old man, known to be a heroin addict, was found at home totally unrousable, bent on his hips in the lotus position. On admission, he required frequent ventricular defibrillation, external pacing and infusion of calcium. A diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis caused by heroin and cocaine overdose was made. He developed paraplegia below T12, acute renal failure, acute compartment syndrome in one leg and a coagulation defect. Despite a fasciotomy, a through-knee amputation of the leg was required. Haemodialysis was required for 26 days, and this period was complicated by increased serum calcium concentrations, which was treated with disodium pamindrate. Calcium deposits were palpable in the muscles and could be seen in vessels on limb x-rays. After 34 days, he was eventually discharged to a general surgical ward and subsequently into the community.  (+info)

  • The five-year study, which begins June 1, will examine the effectiveness of San Diego Sheriff's deputies administering the nasal spray drug, naloxone, to overdose victims prior to the arrival of paramedics. (ucsd.edu)
  • This is the first research project to investigate if having law enforcement officers equipped with naloxone and trained to refer victims to drug rehabilitation will encourage more people to call 911 and receive treatment," said Peter Davidson, PhD, lead study author and assistant professor in the Department of Medicine at UC San Diego School of Medicine. (ucsd.edu)
  • Naloxone is used to treat opiate overdoses, such as heroin, morphine and oxycodone. (ucsd.edu)
  • The new study is an extension of a 2014 San Diego County Sheriff's Department pilot project in which deputies in Santee were trained to use naloxone and refer revived victims to the McAlister Institute, a county-wide drug treatment provider. (ucsd.edu)
  • During that six-month pilot, 83 deputies were trained and naloxone was used 12 times, with deputies referring nine victims to drug treatment. (ucsd.edu)
  • The use of naloxone to prevent opiate overdoses has saved many lives already. (ucsd.edu)
  • It is a convenient naloxone administration device that can be quickly and easily given to heroin & opiate overdose victims. (adsyes.org)
  • We are seeing people die with a naloxone kit open beside then, and they haven't had time to use it," said Lisa Lapointe, B.C.'s Chief Coroner, referring to the overdose treatment that has been made widely available. (oakbaynews.com)
  • Health Minister Terry Lake said kits containing an overdose treatment called naloxone have been made available to paramedics, firefighters and police, but the alarming rise in cases means more action is needed. (interior-news.com)
  • More than 250 naloxone kits that can reverse overdoses have been distributed in Surrey since the recent spike in overdoses. (agassizharrisonobserver.com)
  • Successfully trained individuals will receive a certificate allowing them to obtain a prescription for naloxone (Narcan®), a life-saving medication that can quickly restore the breathing of a person who has overdosed on heroin or prescription opioid pain medication like oxycodone, hydrocodone, morphine, fentanyl or methadone. (medstarstmarys.org)
  • Participants in the training will learn how to recognize the signs and symptoms of opioid overdose, the importance of calling 9-1-1 in medical emergencies, as well as how to administer naloxone and care for someone until emergency help arrives. (medstarstmarys.org)
  • However, the opioid-blocking drug naloxone has saved the lives of thousands. (koffellaw.com)
  • What types of drugs does naloxone block? (koffellaw.com)
  • Within a year, naloxone had been administered 69 times and saved the lives of 63 drug overdose patients. (koffellaw.com)
  • Naloxone gives people who overdose on drugs a second chance where before they would have had none. (koffellaw.com)
  • In fact, there is a specific and reliable antidote to opioid overdoses, in the form of the opioid antagonist naloxone (Narcan)- when injected intravenously or even simply subcutaneously, naloxone rapidly reverses the stupor and apnea characteristic of overdose. (conradseitz.com)
  • Autoinjectors containing naloxone are a lifesaving treatment for opioid overdoses that can be successfully administered by untrained persons, and have been distributed to many big-city paramedic ambulances as well as to fire department personnel. (conradseitz.com)
  • Physician General Rachel Levine signed two standing orders that made naloxone, a medication that safely reverses the effects of an opioid overdose, available initially to all first responders and later to all Pennsylvanians . (gantdaily.com)
  • Since police began carrying naloxone late last year, they have reversed more than 550 overdoses across the state. (gantdaily.com)
  • The High Point, NC community has been on red alert for a number of months in response to the series of heroin overdoses which have occurred in Guilford county throughout 2014. (adsyes.org)
  • Kendall said there is too much emphasis on treatment beds, when what is needed is a "continuum of services" to keep drug addicts from relapsing and move them to alternatives such as methadone. (oakbaynews.com)
  • There is little reason not to distribute autoinjectors to people who may be at risk of accidental overdoses other than closed-minded conservative attitudes that have simultaneously prevented clean needle distributions and street medics who offer AIDS tests and additional medical assistance. (conradseitz.com)
  • Many doctors prescribe them due to fear of patient dissatisfaction and litigation if they don't, says Jason Jerry, MD, staff physician in the Alcohol & Drug Recovery Center at Cleveland Clinic. (everydayhealth.com)
  • If you are using drugs, we strongly advise you not to mix multiple substances, including alcohol. (agassizharrisonobserver.com)
  • The Department of Drug and Alcohol Programs is working hard with its partners in the Departments of Health, Human Services and other agencies to execute a plan to stem the rising tide of overdose deaths. (gantdaily.com)
  • Wolf's decision to expand Medicaid eligibility in Pennsylvania under the Affordable Care Act has expanded access to drug and alcohol treatment services for hundreds of thousands of Pennsylvanians. (gantdaily.com)
Arthritis drug overdose death won't go to full inquest - ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)
Arthritis drug overdose death won't go to full inquest - ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation) (abc.net.au)
Mass drug overdose in California kills 1 person and sends 14 more to hospitals - CNN
Mass drug overdose in California kills 1 person and sends 14 more to hospitals - CNN (cnn.com)
Heroin trafficker argues overdose victim's drug history should be evidence
Heroin trafficker argues overdose victim's drug history should be evidence (pnj.com)
Drug Shortages: Pfizer Recalls Opioid Overdose Drug Naloxone | Fortune
Drug Shortages: Pfizer Recalls Opioid Overdose Drug Naloxone | Fortune (fortune.com)
Drug overdose - Wikipedia
Drug overdose - Wikipedia (en.wikipedia.org)
CDC - 2013 Prevention Status Reports (PSR) - Prescription Drug Overdose - STLT Gateway
CDC - 2013 Prevention Status Reports (PSR) - Prescription Drug Overdose - STLT Gateway (cdc.gov)
Prescription Drug Overdose Prevention | NIOSH | CDC
Prescription Drug Overdose Prevention | NIOSH | CDC (cdc.gov)
Drug Overdose in Rural America | CSELS | OPHSS | CDC
Drug Overdose in Rural America | CSELS | OPHSS | CDC (cdc.gov)
Thumb Twitching: Causes, Treatment, and Prevention
Thumb Twitching: Causes, Treatment, and Prevention (healthline.com)
The Injured Brain - How Brain Death Works | HowStuffWorks
The Injured Brain - How Brain Death Works | HowStuffWorks (science.howstuffworks.com)
CDC Washington Testimony March 23, 2016
CDC Washington Testimony March 23, 2016 (cdc.gov)
Drug Overdose Deaths --- Florida, 2003--2009
Drug Overdose Deaths --- Florida, 2003--2009 (cdc.gov)
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About NCHS - NCHS Fact Sheets - NCHS Data on Drug-poisoning Deaths (cdc.gov)
Wyoming Opioid Summary | National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
Wyoming Opioid Summary | National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) (drugabuse.gov)
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The Fight for the Overdose Drug - The Atlantic
The Fight for the Overdose Drug - The Atlantic (theatlantic.com)
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A 12-Step Rest Stop for Heroin Addicts | Psychology Today (psychologytoday.com)
Virginia: Opioid-Involved Deaths and Related Harms | National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
Virginia: Opioid-Involved Deaths and Related Harms | National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) (drugabuse.gov)
Texas: Opioid-Involved Deaths and Related Harms | National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
Texas: Opioid-Involved Deaths and Related Harms | National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) (drugabuse.gov)
Pennsylvania: Opioid-Involved Deaths and Related Harms | National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
Pennsylvania: Opioid-Involved Deaths and Related Harms | National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) (drugabuse.gov)
Ohio: Opioid-Involved Deaths and Related Harms | National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
Ohio: Opioid-Involved Deaths and Related Harms | National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) (drugabuse.gov)
Iowa: Opioid-Involved Deaths and Related Harms | National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
Iowa: Opioid-Involved Deaths and Related Harms | National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) (drugabuse.gov)
Idaho: Opioid-Involved Deaths and Related Harms | National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
Idaho: Opioid-Involved Deaths and Related Harms | National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) (drugabuse.gov)
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