Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Herb-Drug Interactions: The effect of herbs, other PLANTS, or PLANT EXTRACTS on the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of drugs.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Pharmacokinetics: Dynamic and kinetic mechanisms of exogenous chemical and DRUG LIBERATION; ABSORPTION; BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT; TISSUE DISTRIBUTION; BIOTRANSFORMATION; elimination; and DRUG TOXICITY as a function of dosage, and rate of METABOLISM. LADMER, ADME and ADMET are abbreviations for liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and toxicology.Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A: A cytochrome P-450 suptype that has specificity for a broad variety of lipophilic compounds, including STEROIDS; FATTY ACIDS; and XENOBIOTICS. This enzyme has clinical significance due to its ability to metabolize a diverse array of clinically important drugs such as CYCLOSPORINE; VERAPAMIL; and MIDAZOLAM. This enzyme also catalyzes the N-demethylation of ERYTHROMYCIN.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Drug Monitoring: The process of observing, recording, or detecting the effects of a chemical substance administered to an individual therapeutically or diagnostically.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Food-Drug Interactions: The pharmacological result, either desirable or undesirable, of drugs interacting with components of the diet. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Phenytoin: An anticonvulsant that is used to treat a wide variety of seizures. It is also an anti-arrhythmic and a muscle relaxant. The mechanism of therapeutic action is not clear, although several cellular actions have been described including effects on ion channels, active transport, and general membrane stabilization. The mechanism of its muscle relaxant effect appears to involve a reduction in the sensitivity of muscle spindles to stretch. Phenytoin has been proposed for several other therapeutic uses, but its use has been limited by its many adverse effects and interactions with other drugs.Citrus paradisi: A plant species of the genus CITRUS, family RUTACEAE that produces the familiar grapefruit. There is evidence that grapefruit inhibits CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A4, resulting in delayed metabolism and higher blood levels of a variety of drugs.Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions: Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases: A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.Metabolic Clearance Rate: Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.Ketoconazole: Broad spectrum antifungal agent used for long periods at high doses, especially in immunosuppressed patients.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Oxidoreductases, N-DemethylatingP-Glycoprotein: A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).Polypharmacy: The use of multiple drugs administered to the same patient, most commonly seen in elderly patients. It includes also the administration of excessive medication. Since in the United States most drugs are dispensed as single-agent formulations, polypharmacy, though using many drugs administered to the same patient, must be differentiated from DRUG COMBINATIONS, single preparations containing two or more drugs as a fixed dose, and from DRUG THERAPY, COMBINATION, two or more drugs administered separately for a combined effect. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6: A cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of many drugs and environmental chemicals, such as DEBRISOQUINE; ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS; and TRICYCLIC ANTIDEPRESSANTS. This enzyme is deficient in up to 10 percent of the Caucasian population.Quinidine: An optical isomer of quinine, extracted from the bark of the CHINCHONA tree and similar plant species. This alkaloid dampens the excitability of cardiac and skeletal muscles by blocking sodium and potassium currents across cellular membranes. It prolongs cellular ACTION POTENTIALS, and decreases automaticity. Quinidine also blocks muscarinic and alpha-adrenergic neurotransmission.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Reference Books, Medical: Books in the field of medicine intended primarily for consultation.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Ritonavir: An HIV protease inhibitor that works by interfering with the reproductive cycle of HIV. It also inhibits CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Troleandomycin: A macrolide antibiotic that is similar to ERYTHROMYCIN.Rifampin: A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.HIV Protease Inhibitors: Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.Anticonvulsants: Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Midazolam: A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.Benzoxazines: OXAZINES with a fused BENZENE ring.Itraconazole: A triazole antifungal agent that inhibits cytochrome P-450-dependent enzymes required for ERGOSTEROL synthesis.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).TriazolesDrug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Phenacetin: A phenylacetamide that was formerly used in ANALGESICS but nephropathy and METHEMOGLOBINEMIA led to its withdrawal from the market. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology,1991, p431)Warfarin: An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Drug Antagonism: Phenomena and pharmaceutics of compounds that inhibit the function of agonists (DRUG AGONISM) and inverse agonists (DRUG INVERSE AGONISM) for a specific receptor. On their own, antagonists produce no effect by themselves to a receptor, and are said to have neither intrinsic activity nor efficacy.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Carbamazepine: An anticonvulsant used to control grand mal and psychomotor or focal seizures. Its mode of action is not fully understood, but some of its actions resemble those of PHENYTOIN; although there is little chemical resemblance between the two compounds, their three-dimensional structure is similar.Phenindione: An indandione that has been used as an anticoagulant. Phenindione has actions similar to WARFARIN, but it is now rarely employed because of its higher incidence of severe adverse effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p234)Verapamil: A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems: Systems developed for collecting reports from government agencies, manufacturers, hospitals, physicians, and other sources on adverse drug reactions.Phenylbutazone: A butyl-diphenyl-pyrazolidinedione that has anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic activities. It has been used in ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS; RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS; and REACTIVE ARTHRITIS.Hypericum: Genus of perennial plants in the family CLUSIACEAE (sometimes classified as Hypericaceae). Herbal and homeopathic preparations are used for depression, neuralgias, and a variety of other conditions. Hypericum contains flavonoids; GLYCOSIDES; mucilage, TANNINS; volatile oils (OILS, ESSENTIAL), hypericin and hyperforin.Hydroxytestosterones: 17 beta-Hydroxy-4-androsten-3-ones. Testosterone derivatives formed by the substitution of one or more hydroxyl groups in any position.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Pharmaceutical Preparations, Dental: Drugs intended for DENTISTRY.Theophylline: A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.Digoxin: A cardiotonic glycoside obtained mainly from Digitalis lanata; it consists of three sugars and the aglycone DIGOXIGENIN. Digoxin has positive inotropic and negative chronotropic activity. It is used to control ventricular rate in ATRIAL FIBRILLATION and in the management of congestive heart failure with atrial fibrillation. Its use in congestive heart failure and sinus rhythm is less certain. The margin between toxic and therapeutic doses is small. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p666)Phenprocoumon: Coumarin derivative that acts as a long acting oral anticoagulant.Investigational New Drug Application: An application that must be submitted to a regulatory agency (the FDA in the United States) before a drug can be studied in humans. This application includes results of previous experiments; how, where, and by whom the new studies will be conducted; the chemical structure of the compound; how it is thought to work in the body; any toxic effects found in animal studies; and how the compound is manufactured. (From the "New Medicines in Development" Series produced by the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association and published irregularly.)HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Bupropion: A unicyclic, aminoketone antidepressant. The mechanism of its therapeutic actions is not well understood, but it does appear to block dopamine uptake. The hydrochloride is available as an aid to smoking cessation treatment.Mixed Function Oxygenases: Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.Buprenorphine: A derivative of the opioid alkaloid THEBAINE that is a more potent and longer lasting analgesic than MORPHINE. It appears to act as a partial agonist at mu and kappa opioid receptors and as an antagonist at delta receptors. The lack of delta-agonist activity has been suggested to account for the observation that buprenorphine tolerance may not develop with chronic use.Theales: A plant order of the subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It includes 18 families, approximately 175 genera, and 3,400 species. Its members are mostly tropical trees and shrubs.Hydroxylation: Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)QuinolinesCytochrome P-450 CYP1A2: A cytochrome P450 enzyme subtype that has specificity for relatively planar heteroaromatic small molecules, such as CAFFEINE and ACETAMINOPHEN.Drug Information Services: Services providing pharmaceutic and therapeutic drug information and consultation.Cimetidine: A histamine congener, it competitively inhibits HISTAMINE binding to HISTAMINE H2 RECEPTORS. Cimetidine has a range of pharmacological actions. It inhibits GASTRIC ACID secretion, as well as PEPSIN and GASTRIN output.Drug Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Kava: Dried rhizome and roots of Piper methysticum, a shrub native to Oceania and known for its anti-anxiety and sedative properties. Heavy usage results in some adverse effects. It contains ALKALOIDS; LACTONES; kawain, methysticin, mucilage, STARCH, and yangonin. Kava is also the name of the pungent beverage prepared from the plant's roots.Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.Herbal Medicine: The study of medicines derived from botanical sources.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Paroxetine: A serotonin uptake inhibitor that is effective in the treatment of depression.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Anticoagulants: Agents that prevent clotting.PyrimidinonesPyrimidines: A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.Sulfoxides: Organic compounds that have the general formula R-SO-R. They are obtained by oxidation of mercaptans (analogous to the ketones). (From Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 4th ed)Nelfinavir: A potent HIV protease inhibitor. It is used in combination with other antiviral drugs in the treatment of HIV in both adults and children.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Indinavir: A potent and specific HIV protease inhibitor that appears to have good oral bioavailability.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Fluoroquinolones: A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Sulfonamides: A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Ciprofloxacin: A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Barbiturates: A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.Fluconazole: Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.Organophosphonates: Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.Cefonicid: A second-generation cephalosporin administered intravenously or intramuscularly. Its bactericidal action results from inhibition of cell wall synthesis. It is used for urinary tract infections, lower respiratory tract infections, and soft tissue and bone infections.Plant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.Carbamates: Derivatives of carbamic acid, H2NC(=O)OH. Included under this heading are N-substituted and O-substituted carbamic acids. In general carbamate esters are referred to as urethanes, and polymers that include repeating units of carbamate are referred to as POLYURETHANES. Note however that polyurethanes are derived from the polymerization of ISOCYANATES and the singular term URETHANE refers to the ethyl ester of carbamic acid.Amsacrine: An aminoacridine derivative that intercalates into DNA and is used as an antineoplastic agent.Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Organic Anion Transporters: Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors: Compounds that specifically inhibit the reuptake of serotonin in the brain.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.Cyclosporine: A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).Drug Evaluation: Any process by which toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, preferred route of administration, safe dosage range, etc., for a drug or group of drugs is determined through clinical assessment in humans or veterinary animals.Anti-Retroviral Agents: Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Proton Pump Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE. They are used as ANTI-ULCER AGENTS and sometimes in place of HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS for GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX.Quinolones: A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.Pyridines: Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.Beekeeping: The management and maintenance of colonies of honeybees.Amphotericin B: Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.Milk Thistle: The plant Silybum marianum in the family ASTERACEAE containing the bioflavonoid complex SILYMARIN. For centuries this has been used traditionally to treat liver disease. Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. = Carduus marianus L.Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Drug Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.Fentanyl: A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)Rhabdomyolysis: Necrosis or disintegration of skeletal muscle often followed by myoglobinuria.Probenecid: The prototypical uricosuric agent. It inhibits the renal excretion of organic anions and reduces tubular reabsorption of urate. Probenecid has also been used to treat patients with renal impairment, and, because it reduces the renal tubular excretion of other drugs, has been used as an adjunct to antibacterial therapy.Zidovudine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.Nonprescription Drugs: Medicines that can be sold legally without a DRUG PRESCRIPTION.Antimalarials: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)Tacrolimus: A macrolide isolated from the culture broth of a strain of Streptomyces tsukubaensis that has strong immunosuppressive activity in vivo and prevents the activation of T-lymphocytes in response to antigenic or mitogenic stimulation in vitro.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Dealkylation: The removing of alkyl groups from a compound. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.ThiophenesValproic Acid: A fatty acid with anticonvulsant properties used in the treatment of epilepsy. The mechanisms of its therapeutic actions are not well understood. It may act by increasing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in the brain or by altering the properties of voltage dependent sodium channels.Legislation, Drug: Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Lopinavir: An HIV protease inhibitor used in a fixed-dose combination with RITONAVIR. It is also an inhibitor of CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.Artemisinins: A group of SESQUITERPENES and their analogs that contain a peroxide group (PEROXIDES) within an oxepin ring (OXEPINS).Imipramine: The prototypical tricyclic antidepressant. It has been used in major depression, dysthymia, bipolar depression, attention-deficit disorders, agoraphobia, and panic disorders. It has less sedative effect than some other members of this therapeutic group.International Normalized Ratio: System established by the World Health Organization and the International Committee on Thrombosis and Hemostasis for monitoring and reporting blood coagulation tests. Under this system, results are standardized using the International Sensitivity Index for the particular test reagent/instrument combination used.Serum Bactericidal Test: Method of measuring the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy. It is used to monitor the therapy in BACTERIAL ENDOCARDITIS; OSTEOMYELITIS and other serious bacterial infections. As commonly performed, the test is a variation of the broth dilution test. This test needs to be distinguished from testing of the naturally occurring BLOOD BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY.Drug Incompatibility: The quality of not being miscible with another given substance without a chemical change. One drug is not of suitable composition to be combined or mixed with another agent or substance. The incompatibility usually results in an undesirable reaction, including chemical alteration or destruction. (Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)Prodrugs: A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.Medication Errors: Errors in prescribing, dispensing, or administering medication with the result that the patient fails to receive the correct drug or the indicated proper drug dosage.Opipramol: A tricyclic antidepressant with actions similar to AMITRIPTYLINE.Pharmacogenetics: A branch of genetics which deals with the genetic variability in individual responses to drugs and drug metabolism (BIOTRANSFORMATION).Glucuronosyltransferase: A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 220.127.116.11.Plasma: The residual portion of BLOOD that is left after removal of BLOOD CELLS by CENTRIFUGATION without prior BLOOD COAGULATION.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Pharmacopoeias as Topic: Authoritative treatises on drugs and preparations, their description, formulation, analytic composition, physical constants, main chemical properties used in identification, standards for strength, purity, and dosage, chemical tests for determining identity and purity, etc. They are usually published under governmental jurisdiction (e.g., USP, the United States Pharmacopoeia; BP, British Pharmacopoeia; P. Helv., the Swiss Pharmacopoeia). They differ from FORMULARIES in that they are far more complete: formularies tend to be mere listings of formulas and prescriptions.Narcotics: Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.Nogalamycin: An anthrocycline from a Streptomyces nogalater variant. It is a cytolytic antineoplastic that inhibits DNA-dependent RNA synthesis by binding to DNA.Drug Administration Routes: The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Calcium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.Ofloxacin: A synthetic fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent that inhibits the supercoiling activity of bacterial DNA GYRASE, halting DNA REPLICATION.Drug Therapy: The use of DRUGS to treat a DISEASE or its symptoms. One example is the use of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to treat CANCER.Self Medication: The self administration of medication not prescribed by a physician or in a manner not directed by a physician.Miocamycin: A macrolide antibiotic that has a wide antimicrobial spectrum and is particularly effective in respiratory and genital infections.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Antibiotics, Antineoplastic: Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.Metabolic Detoxication, Drug: Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Dialysis: A process of selective diffusion through a membrane. It is usually used to separate low-molecular-weight solutes which diffuse through the membrane from the colloidal and high-molecular-weight solutes which do not. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Substance Abuse Detection: Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Prenylamine: A drug formerly used in the treatment of angina pectoris but superseded by less hazardous drugs. Prenylamine depletes myocardial catecholamine stores and has some calcium channel blocking activity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1406)Intercalating Agents: Agents that are capable of inserting themselves between the successive bases in DNA, thus kinking, uncoiling or otherwise deforming it and therefore preventing its proper functioning. They are used in the study of DNA.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic: Substances that contain a fused three-ring moiety and are used in the treatment of depression. These drugs block the uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin into axon terminals and may block some subtypes of serotonin, adrenergic, and histamine receptors. However the mechanism of their antidepressant effects is not clear because the therapeutic effects usually take weeks to develop and may reflect compensatory changes in the central nervous system.Ginkgo biloba: The only specie of the genus Ginkgo, family Ginkgoacea. It is the source of extracts of medicinal interest, especially Egb 761. Ginkgo may refer to the genus or species.Cyclosporins: A group of closely related cyclic undecapeptides from the fungi Trichoderma polysporum and Cylindocarpon lucidum. They have some antineoplastic and antifungal action and significant immunosuppressive effects. Cyclosporins have been proposed as adjuvants in tissue and organ transplantation to suppress graft rejection.Alfentanil: A short-acting opioid anesthetic and analgesic derivative of FENTANYL. It produces an early peak analgesic effect and fast recovery of consciousness. Alfentanil is effective as an anesthetic during surgery, for supplementation of analgesia during surgical procedures, and as an analgesic for critically ill patients.Promazine: A phenothiazine with actions similar to CHLORPROMAZINE but with less antipsychotic activity. It is primarily used in short-term treatment of disturbed behavior and as an antiemetic.Myalgia: Painful sensation in the muscles.Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors: A chemically heterogeneous group of drugs that have in common the ability to block oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. (From Gilman, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p414)Gentamicins: A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.Gemfibrozil: A lipid-regulating agent that lowers elevated serum lipids primarily by decreasing serum triglycerides with a variable reduction in total cholesterol.Cephalosporins: A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.
... concentration monitoring is unnecessary in most cases. Circumstances in which therapeutic drug monitoring is warranted include ... Interactions with other nephrotoxins. Another area of controversy and uncertainty concerns the question of whether, and ... Therapeutic drug monitoring. Plasma level monitoring of vancomycin is necessary due to the drug's biexponential ... antimicrobial activity depends on the duration that the serum drug concentration exceeds the minimum inhibitory concentration ...
Neuvonen PJ, Niemi M, Backman JT (December 2006). "Drug interactions with lipid-lowering drugs: mechanisms and clinical ... Gender: Plasma concentrations are generally higher in women than in men, but there is no clinically significant difference in ... Atorvastatin and its active metabolites may be monitored in potentially susceptible patients using specific chromatographic ... resulting in a minor drug-drug interaction. The American Heart Association states that the combination of digoxin and ...
Students primarily attribute consumption of these drugs for increased concentration, improved alertness, or to "get high". ... drugs try to increase oxytocin and decrease cortisol levels helping people better their communication and social interaction ... Modafinil may impair one's self-monitoring ability. A common trend found in research studies indicated that participants rated ... Neuroenhancements drugs are well tolerated by healthy humans. These drugs are already in mainstream use to treat patients with ...
Interactions. Interactions with other drugs acting on the serotonin system or impairing the metabolism of serotonin may ... Plasma, serum, or blood concentrations of paroxetine may be measured to monitor therapeutic administration, confirm a diagnosis ... "Drugs.com. Retrieved 3 March 2019.. *^ Food and Drug Administration (2011). Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence ... "Top 200 generic drugs by units in 2006. Top 200 brand-name drugs by units". Drug Topics, Mar 5, 2007. Retrieved 2007-04-08.. ...
Drug interactionsEdit. Penicillins may decrease the elimination of methotrexate, so increase the risk of toxicity. While ... Routine monitoring of the complete blood count, liver function tests, and creatinine are recommended. Measurements of ... inhibitors such as omeprazole and the anticonvulsant valproate have been found to increase the plasma concentrations of ... "Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference. Pharmaceutical Press. Retrieved 12 April 2014.. *^ a b c d Rajagopalan, P. T. Ravi; ...
Neuvonen PJ, Niemi M, Backman JT (December 2006). "Drug interactions with lipid-lowering drugs: mechanisms and clinical ... Gender: Plasma concentrations are generally higher in women than in men, but there is no clinically significant difference in ... leading to alterations in effect or a requirement for clinical monitoring. The increase in digoxin levels due to ... November 2016). "Recommendations for Management of Clinically Significant Drug-Drug Interactions With Statins and Select Agents ...
No clinical drug interaction studies were conducted. Cleviprex does not have the potential for blocking or inducing any CYP ... Titrate drug depending on the response of the individual patient to achieve the desired blood pressure reduction. Monitor blood ... Cleviprex is available in ready-to-use 50- and 100-mL glass vials at a concentration of 0.5 mg/mL of clevidipine butyrate. ... It was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration on August 1, 2008. Clevidipine is a dihydropyridine L-type ...
InteractionsEdit. Interactions with other drugs acting on the serotonin system or impairing the metabolism of serotonin may ... Plasma, serum, or blood concentrations of paroxetine may be measured to monitor therapeutic administration, confirm a diagnosis ... "Top 200 generic drugs by units in 2006. Top 200 brand-name drugs by units". Drug Topics, Mar 5, 2007. Retrieved 2007-04-08.. ... "Top 200 brand drugs by units in 2007". Drug Topics, Feb 18, 2008. Archived from the original on 2009-06-29. Retrieved 2008-10- ...
Drug interactions. Venlafaxine should be taken with caution when using St John's wort. Venlafaxine may lower the seizure ... Administration of activated charcoal can prevent absorption of the drug. Monitoring of cardiac rhythm and vital signs is ... Side effects, however, are reported to be more severe in CYP2D6 poor metabolisers. Steady-state concentrations of ... Food and Drug Administration: Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. 16 November 2006. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 ...
Drug-Drug Interaction with Acetaminophen Involving Phase I and Phase II Metabolites". Chemical Research in Toxicology. 20 (10 ... Lower dosages of the drug appear to have a reduced but still significant risk. Liver function should be monitored regularly ... However, at high concentrations, unlike flutamide, hydroxyflutamide is able to weakly activate the AR. Flutamide has far lower ... indicating a potential drug interaction. Flutamide has also been associated with interstitial pneumonitis (which can progress ...
Brouwers, Jacobus R.B.J. (1992). "Drug Interactions with Quinolone Antibacterials". Drug Safety. 7 (4): 268-81. doi:10.2165/ ... Ciprofloxacin may be quantified in plasma or serum to monitor for drug accumulation in patients with hepatic dysfunction or to ... as peak serum concentration and the area under the serum concentration-time curve can be reduced up to 40%. However, ... which leads to the potential for clinically important drug interactions with drugs metabolized by that enzyme.[medical citation ...
Relation to drug plasma concentrations". Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 6 (4): 227-238. doi:10.1097/00004850-199100640-00004. PMID ... Ruffalo RL, Thompson JF, Segal J (September 1981). "Cimetidine-benzodiazepine drug interaction". Am J Hosp Pharm. 38 (9): 1365- ... "Quantitative analysis of prazepam and its metabolites by electron capture gas chromatography and selected ion monitoring. ... Excessive drowsiness and with longer-term use, drug dependence, are the most common side effects of prazepam. Side effects such ...
This monocompartmental model presupposes that blood plasma concentrations of the drug are a true reflection of the drug's ... Clinical monitoring is usually carried out by determination of plasma concentrations as this data is usually the easiest to ... Each of the phases is subject to physico-chemical interactions between a drug and an organism, which can be expressed ... excretion of the drugs. The resulting decrease of the drug's plasma concentration follows a biphasic pattern (see figure). ...
Minor drug interactions do not usually require a change in treatment. Your doctor may monitor specific events, such as bleeding ... determined that in mice, the ideal pharmacodynamic target of fT>MIC=33%, where MIC is the minimum inhibitory concentration, was ... "Cefoxitin Drug Interactions - Drugs.com". Drugs.com. Retrieved 2017-05-29. "Camrese and cefoxitin Drug Interactions - Drugs.com ... "Cefoxitin Drug Interactions - Drugs.com". Drugs.com. Retrieved 2017-05-29. "Cefoxitin Vial Interactions with Other Medication ...
... has fewer drug interactions than many anticonvulsant drugs, although pharmacokinetic interactions with ... At high concentrations, it had no effect on spontaneous or potassium evoked amino acid release. These studies suggested that ... Dose adjustments should be made on clinical response, but monitoring may be of benefit in assessing compliance. The capacity of ... Anderson, GD (May 1998). "A mechanistic approach to antiepileptic drug interactions". Pharmacother. 32 (5): 554-63. doi:10.1345 ...
A related type of theoretical interactions is with drugs that increase catecholamine concentrations, such as monoamine oxidase ... issued a black box warning for tolcapone and label revisions that aimed to regulate the monitoring of those prescribed ... In studies, a slight interaction with benzerazide was seen, but not with carbidopa. Other interactions with this group of drugs ... interactions with drugs being metabolised by this enzyme are also possible, but unlikely. No interaction with tolbutamide, a ...
Cooper, M. A. Drug Discovery World, 2006, 68-82 Higher-throughput, label-free, real-time molecular interaction analysis. Rich, ... providing the ability to monitor binding specificity, rates of association and dissociation, or concentration, with precision ... Bio-layer interferometry (BLI) is a label-free technology for measuring biomolecular interactions. It is an optical analytical ... Journal of Molecular Biology, 2010, 398 (2), 214-231 Determining Kinetics and Affinities of Protein Interactions Using a ...
... carries a black box warning for drug-induced agranulocytosis. Without monitoring, agranulocytosis occurs in about 1% ... A direct interaction of clozapine with the GABAB receptor has also been shown. GABAB receptor-deficient mice exhibit increased ... The time to peak concentration after oral dosing is about 2.5 hours, and food does not appear to affect the bioavailability of ... Monitoring bowel function and the preemptive use of laxatives for all clozapine-treated people has been shown to improve ...
Glossary of diabetes
... an activity which requires energy if done against a concentration gradient. A Ca+ channel blocker is a drug which interferes ... Home blood glucose monitoring A way a person can test how much glucose (sugar) is in the blood. Also called self-monitoring of ... It is a complex interaction of enzymes, substrates, itnermediate products, etc. diabetes mellitus is a derangement of ... Metformin A drug treatment for type 2 diabetes; belongs to a class of drugs called biguanides. First-line pharmacotherapy for ...
Among those, around 7% is excreted as unchanged drug. The reminder of the drug is excreted in feces (about 19%). Like other ... The plasma concentration of this metabolite is only less than 10% of ibutilide. After administration of ibutilide, it is ... You will have continuously ECG monitoring during the infusion and 4 hours after your infusion. Some of the minor side effects ... Although potassium current seems to play a role, their interactions are complex and not well understood. Ibutilide's unique ...
... of the aripiprazole concentration. The parenteral drug is excreted only in traces, and its metabolites, active or not, are ... There are interactions with fluoxetine and paroxetine and lesser interactions with sertraline, escitalopram, citalopram and ... Withdrawal of antipsychotic drugs after long-term therapy should always be gradual and closely monitored to avoid the risk of ... "Abilify (Intramuscular)". Drugs.com. "Abilify". Drugs.com. Roth, BL; Driscol, J. "PDSP Ki Database". Psychoactive Drug ...
... surface charge and concentration simultaneously and on a particle-by-particle basis, allowing interaction dynamics and yields ... It provides rapid and accurate determination of: Bacteria count Virus count Amount of drug Drug delivery dosage Amount of viral ... amount of added reagents and temperature Real time monitoring of binding interaction events, particle-by-particle, by combining ... Applications include: Particle-based drug delivery systems (e.g. liposomes, nano- and micro- bubbles, polymers, "Smart" drug ...
The drug has been shown to increase the serum concentration or effects of theophylline, propranolol, and warfarin, although ... Zileuton is a weak inhibitor of CYP1A2 and thus has three clinically important drug interactions, which include increasing ... It is advised that the doses of each medication be monitored and/or reduced accordingly. The avoidance of alcohol is ... Zyflo Drug Information Zileuton monograph. Lexi-Comp Online, Lexi-Drugs Online, Lexi-Comp Inc. Hudson, OH. Available at: " ...
Notable drug-drug interactions with the pharmacokinetics of zolpidem include chlorpromazine, fluconazole, imipramine, ... Blood or plasma zolpidem concentrations are usually in a range of 30-300 μg/l in persons receiving the drug therapeutically, ... Therapeutic drug monitoring. 29 (2): 248-60. doi:10.1097/FTD.0b013e31803d3c04. PMID 17417081. CS1 maint: Multiple names: ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Wang JS, DeVane CL; Devane (2003). "Pharmacokinetics and drug interactions of ...
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring. 25 (4): 457-62. doi:10.1097/00007691-200308000-00007. PMID 12883229. Ben-Menachem E. (2011). " ... there is no range of target concentrations because researchers found no difference between the serum concentration levels of ... Rimmer EM, Richens A (1989). "Interaction between vigabatrin and phenytoin". British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 27 ( ... Food and Drug Administration had granted two New Drug Application approvals for vigabatrin. The drug is indicated as ...
Peak plasma concentrations of M2 are about 40% those of the parent drug, while plasma concentrations of M1 are, in general, ... Moxifloxacin is not believed to be associated with clinically significant drug interactions due to inhibition or stimulation of ... Karande SC, Kshirsagar NA (February 1992). "Adverse drug reaction monitoring of ciprofloxacin in pediatric practice". Indian ... Moxifloxacin has a potential for a serious drug interaction with NSAIDs. The combination of corticosteroids and moxifloxacin ...
... as antifungal and immunomodulatory drug". Fungi and Their Interactions. 3: 286. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2012.00286. ... Reactivity with the membrane is also sterol concentration dependent. Bacteria are not affected as their cell membranes do not ... and monitor pulmonary function Amphotericin B binds with ergosterol, a component of fungal cell membranes, forming pores that ... It has been a highly effective drug for over fifty years in large part because it has a low incidence of drug resistance in the ...
As such, these drug interactions involving the fluoroquinolones appear to be drug specific rather than a class effect. The ... may result in increased substrate drug concentrations when given in usual doses. Patients taking any of these drugs ... Therefore, cyclosporine serum levels should be monitored and appropriate cyclosporine dosage adjustments made when these drugs ... Brouwers JR, JR (July 1992). "Drug interactions with quinolone antibacterials". Drug Saf. 7 (4): 268-81. doi:10.2165/00002018- ...
Most Popular Articles : Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Reduced Valproic Acid Serum Concentrations Due to Drug Interactions With Carbapenem Antibiotics: Overview of 6 Cases. Park, Min ... Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Gentamicin Peak Concentrations in Critically Ill Patients. Hodiamont, Caspar J.; Janssen, Julie ... Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Antiepileptic Drugs in Epilepsy: A 2018 Update. Patsalos, Philip N.; Spencer, Edgar P.; Berry, ... Serum Concentrations of Antidepressant Drugs in a Naturalistic Setting: Compilation Based on a Large Therapeutic Drug ...
October 2012 - Volume 34 - Issue 5 : Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Reduced Valproic Acid Serum Concentrations Due to Drug Interactions With Carbapenem Antibiotics: Overview of 6 Cases. Park, Min ... Prophylactic Drug Monitoring of Itraconazole in an Oncohematological Pediatric Patient Population. Baietto, Lorena; G. De Rosa ... Valproic Acid Significantly Lowers Serum Concentrations of Olanzapine-An Interaction Effect Comparable With Smoking. Haslemo, ... Impact of Interferences Including Metabolite Crossreactivity on Therapeutic Drug Monitoring Results. Dasgupta, Amitava ...
Hyoscyamine/methenamine/methylene blue/sodium biphosphate Disease Interactions - Drugs.com
Comprehensive disease interaction information for hyoscyamine/methenamine/methylene blue/sodium biphosphate. Includes ... Clinical monitoring of electrolyte concentrations is recommended.. References. *"Product Information. Fleet Enema (sodium ... Hyoscyamine / methenamine / methylene blue / sodium biphosphate drug interactions. There are 1178 drug interactions with ... Drugs.com Mobile Apps. The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own ...
Standards of laboratory practice: analgesic drug monitoring. - Free Online Library
Analgesics Health aspects Antipyretics Antirheumatic agents Drugs Drug therapy Overdose Enzymes Nonprescription drugs ... analgesic drug monitoring.(NACB Symposium) by Clinical Chemistry; ... Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs Pain Care and treatment Pain management Sensory ... 3. To monitor selected patient groups at greater risk for analgesic drug toxicity or drug-drug interaction, i.e., geriatric or ...
Prevpac (Lansoprazole, Amoxicillin and Clarithromycin): Side Effects, Interactions, Warning, Dosage & Uses
... drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related medications. ... Monitor digoxin concentrations. Dose adjustment of digoxin may be needed to maintain therapeutic drug concentrations. See ... DRUG INTERACTIONS. No drug interaction studies have been conducted specifically with PREVPAC. The following drug interactions ... Drug Interaction Studies. Effect of Lansoprazole on Other Drugs. Cytochrome P450 Interactions. Lansoprazole is metabolized ...
DailyMed - CEPHALEXIN capsule
DRUG INTERACTIONS *Metformin: increased metformin concentrations. Monitor for hypoglycemia. (7.1). *Probenecid- The renal ... 5.6 Development of Drug-Resistant Bacteria 6 ADVERSE REACTIONS 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience 7 DRUG INTERACTIONS 7.1 Metformin ... Renal Impairment: Monitor patients longer for toxicity and drug interactions due to delayed clearance. (8.6) ... Monitor patients longer for toxicity and drug interactions due to delayed clearance. ...
DailyMed - CEPHALEXIN capsule
DRUG INTERACTIONS *Metformin: increased metformin concentrations. Monitor for hypoglycemia. (7.1). *Probenecid - The renal ... 7. DRUG INTERACTIONS 7.1 Metformin 7.2 Probenecid 7.3 Interaction with Laboratory or Diagnostic Testing 8. USE IN SPECIFIC ... Drug Interactions:. In healthy subjects given single 500 mg doses of cephalexin and metformin, plasma metformin mean Cmax and ... This drug is substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with ...
Zorcaine Disease Interactions - Drugs.com
Comprehensive disease interaction information for Zorcaine. Includes Sympathomimetics - Cardiovascular Disease. ... Closer monitoring of blood glucose concentrations may be appropriate.. References. *"Product Information. Sudafed ( ... Zorcaine (articaine / epinephrine) drug Interactions. There are 341 drug interactions with Zorcaine (articaine / epinephrine) ... Drugs.com Mobile Apps. The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own ...
Drug Safety-related Labeling Changes (SrLC)
Monitoring of phenytoin serum levels is recommended when a drug interaction is suspected. ... Table 1: Drugs That Affect Phenytoin Concentrations (New table added; refer to label) ... Effects of Alcohol Use and Other Drugs and Over-the-Counter Drug Interactions ... Drug Interactions (in pre-PLR format, this may be a subheading under precautions). ...
Naltrexone (Professional Patient Advice) - Drugs.com
Includes: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, contraindications, interactions, adverse reactions and more. ... Drug Interactions. Lofexidine: May decrease the serum concentration of Naltrexone. Monitor therapy ... See full drug interaction monograph for detailed recommendations. Consider therapy modification. Test Interactions. May cause ... Drugs.com Mobile Apps. The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own ...
NRTI Drug Interactions | Drug-Drug Interactions | Adult and Adolescent ARV | AIDSinfo
Serum concentrations of ganciclovir and/or TFV may increase. Monitor for dose-related toxicities.. ... Drug-Drug Interactions. Drug Interactions between Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors and Other Drugs (Including ... Concomitant Drug Class/Name. NRTI. Effect on NRTI and/or Concomitant Drug Concentrations. Dosage Recommendations and Clinical ... Drug Interactions Between Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors and Other Drugs (Including Antiretroviral Agents). ...
Brief | NRTI Drug Interactions | Drug-Drug Interactions | Adult and Adolescent ARV | AIDSinfo
Serum concentrations of ganciclovir and/or TFV may increase. Monitor for dose-related toxicities. ... Drug-Drug Interactions. Drug Interactions between Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors and Other Drugs (Including ... Drug Interactions Between Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors and Other Drugs. Concomitant Drug. NRTI. Effect on NRTI ... Recommendations for managing a particular drug interaction may differ depending on whether a new ARV drug is being initiated in ...
Dilantin (Phenytoin): Side Effects, Interactions, Warning, Dosage & Uses
... drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related medications. ... Serum concentrations should be monitored and care should be taken when switching a patient from the sodium salt to the free ... Individual drug package inserts should be consulted.. Drugs That Affect Phenytoin Concentrations. *Drugs that may increase ... Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions. Phenytoin may decrease serum concentrations of T4. It may also produce lower than normal ...
ACADIA Pharmaceuticals Initiates Phase II Trial of Pimavanserin for Adjunctive Treatment in Patients With Negative Symptoms of...
Drug Interactions: Strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (eg, ketoconazole) increase NUPLAZID concentrations. Reduce the NUPLAZID dose by ... Strong CYP3A4 inducers may reduce NUPLAZID exposure, monitor for reduced efficacy. Increase in NUPLAZID dosage may be needed. ... There is currently no drug approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of these negative symptoms. As a ... Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at an increased risk of death. NUPLAZID ...
ACADIA Pharmaceuticals Reports Financial Results for the Fourth Quarter and Year Ended December 31, 2016 | Business Wire
Drug Interactions: Strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (eg, ketoconazole) increase NUPLAZID concentrations. Reduce the NUPLAZID dose by ... Strong CYP3A4 inducers may reduce NUPLAZID exposure, monitor for reduced efficacy. Increase in NUPLAZID dosage may be needed. ... Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at an increased risk of death. NUPLAZID ... The use of NUPLAZID should be avoided in patients with known QT prolongation or in combination with other drugs known to ...
Treatment Regimens: Adult | Tables |Managing Drug Interactions in the Treatment of HIV-Related Tuberculosis| Guidelines| TB |...
Little effect of rifabutin on PI concentrations, but marked increases in rifabutin concentrations. Low rates of discontinuation ... Viral load monitoring is recommended.. ... Managing Drug Interactions in the Treatment of HIV-Related ... Modest decrease in concentrations. Hepatitis. Early favorable experience of super-boosting among young children and double-dose ... Moderate decrease in concentrations. Concern about hepatotoxicity when used with isoniazid, rifampin and pyrazinamide. ...
Targeted Tuberculin Testing and Treatment of Latent Tuberculosis Infection
The interaction of isoniazid and phenytoin increases the serum concentration of both drugs. When these drugs are given ... Routine monitoring of serum liver enzyme concentrations is not necessary but should be considered in children at risk for ... symptoms of adverse drug effects and drug interactions, and plans to continue treatment. As with the baseline evaluation, a ... The drug penetrates well into all body fluids and cavities, producing concentrations similar to those found in serum. Hepatitis ...
J Clin Psychiatry/A Systematic Review of Aripiprazole-Dose, Plasma Concentration, Receptor Occupancy, and Response:...
Therapeutic drug monitoring has limited value in the clinical use of aripiprazole, but it may be useful in assuring adherence ... Those reports solely investigating drug interactions were not included.. Data Synthesis: A strong correlation exists between ... Data Extraction: All data concerning plasma or serum concentrations of aripiprazole were included if concentrations were ... and therapeutic drug monitoring.. Study Selection: Twenty-one reports were retrieved. Eight studies investigating the ...
Acadia Initiates Phase II Trial Of Pimavanserin For Adjunctive Treatment In Patients With Major Depressive Disorder | BioSpace
Drug Interactions: Strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (eg, ketoconazole) increase NUPLAZID concentrations. Reduce the NUPLAZID dose by ... Strong CYP3A4 inducers may reduce NUPLAZID exposure, monitor for reduced efficacy. Increase in NUPLAZID dosage may be needed. ... Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at an increased risk of death. NUPLAZID ... The use of NUPLAZID should be avoided in patients with known QT prolongation or in combination with other drugs known to ...
TYROSINE KINASE INHIBITORS
GEFITINIB• Drug Interactions• CYP 3A4 inducers and inhibitors• Warfarin: reports of elevations in INR values and/or bleeding ... events - Monitor INR regularly• H2-blockers and proton pump inhibitors: may ↓ plasma concentrations - May potentially reduce ... Drug Discov January 2009 , Volume 9: 28-39. * 56. Drug InteractionsStrong CYP3A4 Inhibitorsketoconazole, itraconazole, ... ERLOTINIB ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS• Pulmonary (not life-threatening) - Dyspnea - cough (33%)• Rash (75%) - Median time to onset 8 ...
Depomed Announces New CAMBIA® Formulation
DRUG INTERACTIONS. Drugs That Interfere with Hemostasis (e.g. warfarin, aspirin, SSRIs/SNRIs):. Monitor patients for bleeding ... Concomitant use with CAMBIA can increase serum concentration and prolong half-life of digoxin. Monitor serum digoxin levels. ... Monitor these patients and any patient who may be adversely affected by alterations in platelet function for signs of bleeding. ... Monitor renal function in patients with renal or hepatic impairment, heart failure, dehydration, or hypovolemia. Avoid use of ...
Captopril (Professional Patient Advice) - Drugs.com
Includes: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, contraindications, interactions, adverse reactions and more. ... Drug Interactions. Abiraterone Acetate: May increase the serum concentration of CYP2D6 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). ... additional monitoring, and/or selection of alternative therapy. Consult drug interactions database for more detailed ... Concurrent drug therapy issues:. • Drug-drug interactions: Potentially significant interactions may exist, requiring dose or ...
Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis: rationale and clinical guidelines for diagnosis and management | European Respiratory Society
... dosing and administering information to help phsyicans more efficiently and accurately prescribe in their practice PDRs drug ... PDR Drug Summaries are concise point-of-care prescribing, ... Serum digoxin concentrations should be monitored and used for ... or 3 hours after sevelamer doses and monitor digoxin drug concentrations to minimize the potential for a drug interaction. ... Monitor serum digoxin concentrations for dosage titration. (Moderate) Caution and therapeutic drug concentrations monitoring, ...
Afinitor, Zortress (everolimus) dosing, indications, interactions, adverse effects, and more
... comprehensive interactions, contraindications, pregnancy & lactation schedules, and cost information. ... Therapeutic drug monitoring and dose titration. *Titrate dose to attain trough concentrations of 5-15 ng/mL ... Therapeutic drug monitoring and dose titration. *Titrate dose to attain trough concentrations of 5-15 ng/mL ... Routine everolimus and tacrolimus therapeutic drug concentration monitoring is recommended. Storage. Zortress: Store at 25°C ( ...
ANTIZOL (Fomepizole) dosage, indication, interactions, side effects | EMPR - ONA
... drug information & product resources from MPR including dosage information, educational materials, & patient assistance. ... Monitor serum and urine ethylene glycol concentrations and presence of urinary oxalate crystals; or serum methanol ... Regimen and Drug Listings. GET FULL LISTINGS OF TREATMENT Regimens and Drug INFORMATION ... Interactions:. Potentiates or potentiated by ethanol. May affect or be affected by CYP450 inducers/inhibitors (eg, phenytoin, ...
Abacavir: Indication, Dosage, Side Effect, Precaution | MIMS Myanmar
Monitor blood lipids and glucose reference. Drug Interactions Decreased serum concentrations of methadone. Slightly decreased ... Bioavailability: Approx 80%. Time to peak plasma concentration: 0.7-1.7 hr.. Distribution: Distributed into CSF. Crosses the ... Wolters Kluwer Clinical Drug Information, Inc. https://online.lexi.com. Accessed 15/02/2016. Buckingham R (ed). Abacavir. ... AHFS Drug Information (AHFS DI) [online]. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP). https://www.medicinescomplete. ...
Challenges in Pain Management at the End of Life - American Family Physician
Nociceptive pain can usually be controlled with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs or corticosteroids, whereas neuropathic ... no monitoring of plasma concentration is required. Baclofen (Lioresal) can be used as a first-line drug in the treatment of ... Gabapentin (Neurontin) has advantages over other anticonvulsants because of its safety profile and lack of drug interactions.15 ... Analgesic drug prescription and use in cognitively impaired nursing home residents. Nurs Res. 1998;47:235-42. ...
Gilead Sciences and Merck Establish Agreement for Distribution of ATRIPLA(TM) in Developing Countries | Gilead
No drug interaction studies have been conducted using Truvada. Drug interactions have been observed when didanosine, atazanavir ... The increased concentrations following administration of efavirenz with food may lead to an increase in frequency of adverse ... Liver enzymes should be monitored in patients with known or suspected hepatitis B or C and when ATRIPLA is administered with ... See full prescribing information for complete list of drug-drug interactions.. In a large controlled clinical trial (Study 934 ...
ToxicityDosageTherapeutic Drug MonitPatientsCyclosporineDosePhenytoinConcomitantADVERSE REACTIONSMethadoneInhibitory concentrationsInhibitorPlasma concentrationPRECAUTIONSAtorvastatinTheophyllineVariabilityCYP450RegimensPharmacotherapyClosely monitoredIntravenousCardiacDecreaseCarefully monitoredNSAIDsCommonlyPatientMedicationTherapiesRegimenAntidepressantPharmacodynamic interactionsAdditiveRenally eliminatedBenzodiazepinesAssessToxicitiesSymptomsDiltiazemTerfenadineHypoglycemiaAntibacterialRifampinAdultsWarningsStatin
- Other areas briefly presented include emerging concepts with regard to cytochrome (CYP) P450 metabolism and other phase I and II metabolic pathways, the contribution of both active and inactive metabolites to drug toxicity and drug-drug interactions, chirality, and confounding issues surrounding workplace drug testing for certain opioids (9-12). (thefreelibrary.com)
- Although definitive indications for therapeutic monitoring of the analgesics are as yet not well defined, the need for drug concentration determination becomes critical in situations where overdose, abuse, or toxicity is suspected. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Renal Impairment: Monitor patients longer for toxicity and drug interactions due to delayed clearance. (nih.gov)
- If TDF is used in these patients, monitor for TDF toxicity. (nih.gov)
- Doxazosin and terazosin should be started at the lowest dose and titrated while monitoring for clinical response/toxicity. (medscape.com)
- The research was focused on drug repurposing for the much lower risk of toxicity and the ability of FDA-approved treatments to be delivered on a shortened timescale, which is critical for patients afflicted with lung disease resulting from COVID-19. (prnewswire.com)
- Genotype assessment at initiation of therapy followed by drug monitoring would help optimizing therapeutic efficacy and minimizing toxicity. (springer.com)
- A PD interaction is due to the additive or synergistic effect of two agents with similar molecular targets, resulting in excessive clinical response or toxicity. (medpagetoday.com)
- An adverse drug interaction is defined as an interaction between one or more coadministered medications that results in the alteration of the effectiveness or toxicity of any of the coadministered medications. (diabetesjournals.org)
- During transition, therapeutic effectiveness and potential new or worsening toxicity should be carefully monitored. (empr.com)
- In 1 small study of men with NYHA class II or III heart failure who were in normal sinus rhythm, left ventricular function improved significantly on a dose of 0.125 mg/day that produced mean serum concentrations of 0.8 ng/mL but doses of 0.25 mg/day and corresponding higher concentrations of 1.5 ng/mL did not produce further improvement over the lower dosage. (pdr.net)
- Prior to implementation of the EFV dosage increase, a 2nd test result returned an EFV concentration of 0.58 µg/mL. (phrmafoundation.org)
Therapeutic Drug Monit7
- Therapeutic Drug Monitoring. (lww.com)
- Thought you might appreciate this item(s) I saw at Therapeutic Drug Monitoring. (lww.com)
- Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of NSAIDs was previously reviewed (6). (thefreelibrary.com)
- Clinicians already routinely use drug level monitoring, also known as therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), in treating diseases such as epilepsy and asthma. (thebody.com)
- Pasqualotto A, Xavier M, Andreolla H, Linden R. Voriconazole therapeutic drug monitoring: focus on safety. (springer.com)
- Pascual A, Calandra T, Bolay S, Buclin T, Bille J, Marchetti O. Voriconazole therapeutic drug monitoring in patients with invasive mycoses improves efficacy and safety outcomes. (springer.com)
- The role of therapeutic drug monitoring in the detection and management of antiretroviral drug interactions is also briefly discussed. (mdpi.com)
- Patients with known hypersensitivity to cephalexin or other members of the cephalosporin class of antibacterial drugs. (nih.gov)
- This material does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients, or recommend therapy. (drugs.com)
- The guides address issues that are specific to particular drugs and drug classes, and they contain FDA-approved information that can help patients avoid serious adverse events. (fda.gov)
- In pediatric patients, administer the drug at a rate not exceeding 1 to 3 mg/kg/min or 50 mg per minute, whichever is slower. (fda.gov)
- In pediatric patients, the drug should be administered at a rate not exceeding 1- 3 mg/kg/min or 50 mg per minute, whichever is slower. (rxlist.com)
- We are pleased with the strong progress of the launch and our execution in bringing this drug to Parkinson's patients. (businesswire.com)
- ATRIPLA, Truvada, Viread and Emtriva are not indicated for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and the safety and efficacy of these drugs have not been established in patients co-infected with HBV and HIV. (gilead.com)
- Astemizole: The use of fluconazole in patients concurrently taking astemizole may be associated with elevations in serum levels of these drugs. (pediatriconcall.com)
- Potential for drug interactions should be considered when selecting antiretroviral therapy (ART) for patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. (medscape.com)
- ATRIPLA was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in July 2006 and has since become the most-prescribed treatment regimen for patients starting HIV therapy in the United States. (bio-medicine.org)
- We continue to monitor safety and efficacy in trial patients to gain further data and information. (benzinga.com)
- When using simvastatin and moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors together, the dose of simvastatin should not exceed 20 mg per day ( Table 1 ) and patients should be monitored for adverse effects. (bpac.org.nz)
- Monitor for symptoms of opioid withdrawal in such patients. (globenewswire.com)
- Monitor plasma methionine concentrations in patients with CBS deficiency. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
- Adults taking Victoza with insulin or other drugs that increase the amount of insulin the body makes may have increased risk of hypoglycemia, while pediatric patients have a higher risk of hypoglycemia regardless of whether they are on other therapies for diabetes. (everydayhealth.com)
- Continuously administered oral chemotherapy agents are being used more commonly in cancer patients, increasing the potential for drug-drug interactions (DDIs). (uspharmacist.com)
- Pharmacists have the opportunity to improve patient care by detecting the possibility of DDIs in cancer patients and by recommending dosing modifications, increased monitoring, or alternative treatments. (uspharmacist.com)
- Treatment with these newer agents and traditional chemotherapy drugs has allowed many cancer patients to obtain a response or disease stabilization. (uspharmacist.com)
- Similarly, patients with pre-existing cardiac diseases are often prescribed a number of medications, such as anticoagulants and antiarrhythmics, that have potential and real interactions with a variety of chemotherapies. (medpagetoday.com)
- Because the therapeutic window for most chemotherapies is narrow, special attention should be given to these drug-drug interactions that may increase or decrease chemotherapeutic efficacy or predispose patients to serious unintended side effects. (medpagetoday.com)
- one study determined that 16% of patients receiving oral anticancer drugs had at least one major drug-drug interaction that could cause harmful adverse effects. (medpagetoday.com)
- As cardiologists evaluate potential drug-drug interactions, they should be vigilant in their role as "chemo-facilitators," using alternative cardiac therapies when possible and/or increasing monitoring of patients if necessary. (medpagetoday.com)
- REVLIMID is an oral immunomodulatory drug that was first approved by the CFDA in China in 2013 for the treatment of MM in combination with dexamethasone, in adult patients who have received at least one prior therapy. (corporate-ir.net)
- Once treated, the potassium must be monitored closely, especially in patients with acute renal insufficiency, cardiac disease, and other comorbidities. (medscape.com)
- These patients are almost always hospitalized and are monitored in an acute care setting with constant electrocardiographic monitoring. (medscape.com)
- Precise guidelines for monitoring serum potassium in patients with chronic hyperkalemia are less clear. (medscape.com)
- In these patients, renal function and serum potassium concentrations are assessed regularly and are individualized based on a patient's comorbidities, changing renal function, potential drug interactions, and other indicators. (medscape.com)
- Renal disease has no influence on plasma concentrations of atorvastatin and dosing need not be adjusted in these patients. (wikipedia.org)
- Patients should be monitored closely for appearance of these symptoms. (bioportfolio.com)
- So many medications can be overwhelming, and it is imperative that patients are thoroughly educated about their drug regimen. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Significantly, 58% of patients worry that they will be given medications that have drug interactions that will adversely affect their health. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The true incidence of drug interactions is unknown because many are not reported, do not result in significant harm to patients, or do not require admission to a hospital. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Health care providers should take responsibility for the safe prescribing of medications, but we often discuss potential adverse drug reactions-not drug interactions-with patients. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Pharmacodynamic drug interactions can be either beneficial or detrimental to patients. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Methods: The pharmacokinetics and hemodynamic effects of vardenafil were examined during right heart catheterization (RHC) in 16 PH patients and plasma concentrations were measured for up to nine hours after oral administration. (diva-portal.org)
- Additionally, plasma ADMA, symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), L-arginine, L-citrulline and L-ornithine levels before and after PAH drug treatment were monitored in 21 PAH patients and compared to values measured in 14 LVHF patients and 27 healthy subjects. (diva-portal.org)
- Patients co-medicated with bosentan had reduced vardenafil concentration. (diva-portal.org)
- Careful attention should be paid to measures designed to foster adherence and to ensure that patients take the drugs as prescribed. (cdc.gov)
- If used in patients who are vomiting, parasitemia should be closely monitored and the use of an antiemetic considered. (gsksource.com)
- Since substitution or dose reductions of zidovudine should be considered in patients whose haemoglobin concentrations or neutrophil counts fall to clinically significant levels, it is recommended that separate preparations of lamivudine and (if appropriate) zidovudine be administered (see section 4.4). (who.int)
- Monitor patients for the development of diarrhea and manage using supportive care measures early after the onset of symptoms. (mckesson.com)
- Can be used by all disciplines involved in the care of older patients (primary care, specialists, pharmacists) to assess appropriateness of drug treatment, minimise the risk of ADRs and related morbidity. (prezi.com)
- Variability in drug response: therapeutic problems in neonates and children, elderly, patients with renal or hepatic insufficiency. (univr.it)
- LAS VEGAS -Methadone is not an appropriate pain treatment option for all patients and its complicated pharmacokinetics, metabolism and drug interactions necessitate careful patient selection and conversion. (empr.com)
- Patients with very limited prognosis - anticipated survival time of less than 1 week - a history of syncope or heart arrhythmias, a history of nonadherence to therapy plans, or numerous drug interactions with methadone, are inappropriate candidates for methadone pain therapy. (empr.com)
- What is monitored and patients with repeated as well as lopinavir/ritonavir where infection 339. (musicaenlamochila.net)
- Dr Hill is understood to have told patients melanotan injections for sale during consultations that he personally used HGH and the only side effect was the cost of the drug. (tipjoy.com)
- Here we describe how biological mass spectrometry and proteome analysis interact with other major patient care and research initiatives and present vignettes illustrating efforts in discovery of diagnostic biomarkers for ovarian cancer, development of treatment strategies in lung cancer, and monitoring prognosis and relapse in multiple myeloma patients. (mcponline.org)
- With a relatively high burden of comorbid conditions and diseases of aging, older HIV-infected patients are at particularly high risk of polypharmacy and drug-drug interactions. (cmaj.ca)
- 7 Relative to HIV-infected patients under 50 years of age, older HIV patients are substantially more likely to be receiving additional medications, including cardiovascular drugs, antacids or acid-suppressing agents, lipid-lowering agents, antiplatelet agents or anticoagulants, oral hypoglycemic agents and erectile dysfunction drugs. (cmaj.ca)
- Patients who receive prolonged Cleviprex infusions and are not transitioned to other antihypertensive therapies should be monitored for the possibility of rebound hypertension for at least 8 hours after the infusion is stopped. (wikipedia.org)
- Careful monitoring of cyclosporine concentrations and serum creatinine is recommended. (pediatriconcall.com)
- Use with moderate (e.g., fluconazole) and strong (e.g., itraconazole) CYP3A inhibitors and P-glycoprotein inhibitors (e.g., cyclosporine) may increase Symproic concentrations. (globenewswire.com)
- The limiting factor to naltrexone use in the management of cholestatic pruritus is the possibility of an opioid withdrawal-like reaction, which may be avoided by starting the drug at a lower dose and titrating upward. (drugs.com)
- Monitor for dose-related toxicities. (nih.gov)
- Eight studies investigating the relationship between blood concentrations of aripiprazole and dose, dopamine D 2 /D 3 occupancy, and/or outcome and adverse effects were then selected. (psychiatrist.com)
- A strong correlation exists between aripiprazole dose and plasma concentration. (psychiatrist.com)
- Positron emission tomography analyses suggest that there are significant relationships between dopamine receptor occupancy and both aripiprazole dose and blood concentration. (psychiatrist.com)
- Sustiva, Emtriva and Viread were administered as individual agents in this trial, but a fixed-dose combination of these drugs is now available, offering more convenient dosing. (gilead.com)
- [ 1 , 2 ] Protease inhibitors in combination with other drugs may require dose adjustments or should be avoided because of potential drug interactions. (medscape.com)
- Give lowest dose of trazodone , and monitor for central nervous system and cardiovascular adverse effects when trazodone is used in combination with ATV +/- RTV, DRV/RTV, FPV +/- RTV, LPV/ RTV, or TPV/ RTV. (medscape.com)
- Titrate dose by constant ECG changes monitoring during administration. (mims.com)
- The fact that the minimum drug concentration needed to suppress viremia (virus in the blood) is uncomfortably close to the maximum tolerated dose also suggests a critical need to optimize, or individualize, drug doses. (thebody.com)
- Researchers must settle on a 'standard dose' for a particular antiretroviral drug that reflects merely an average positive response to the drug that was seen among study subjects. (thebody.com)
- If these medicines are used in combination with simvastatin and atorvastatin, lipid profiles should be monitored and the statin dose increased if necessary. (bpac.org.nz)
- Your dose of vancomycin will depend on the strength of the medicine, the number of doses you take daily, and the amount of time you will use the drug. (everydayhealth.com)
- Substances such as the following the other drugs is a dose is used in the pharmacodynamic interaction. (musicaenlamochila.net)
- Vital signs (seated blood pressure and pulse) will be measured prior to dosing and at approximately 1, 2, 3 and 5 hours post-dose on Days 1, 22 and 31 to coincide with peak plasma concentrations of both efavirenz and fenofibric acid. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Monitor for respiratory depression, especially during initiation of BUTRANS or following a dose increase. (purduepharma.com)
- Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of cilostazol if diltiazem is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (nextbio.com)
- Monitor for changes in Tretinoin effectiveness and adverse/toxic effects if Rabeprazole is initiated, discontinued to dose changed. (pediatriconcall.com)
- Slightly decreased plasma concentration w/ potent enzymatic inducers (e.g. rifampicin, phenobarbital, phenytoin). (mims.com)
- Phenytoin: Increases the plasma concentrations of phenytoin. (pediatriconcall.com)
- A plan was made to monitor both phenytoin and EFV plasma concentrations to ensure adequate safety and therapeutic efficacy. (phrmafoundation.org)
- There was concern that phenytoin was the cause of the lower-than-expected EFV concentrations. (phrmafoundation.org)
- Recommendations for managing a particular drug interaction may differ depending on whether a new ARV drug is being initiated in a patient on a stable concomitant medication or whether a new concomitant medication is being initiated in a patient on a stable ARV regimen. (nih.gov)
- Please refer to FDA product labels for information regarding interactions between ddI or d4T and other concomitant drugs. (nih.gov)
- As a preliminary step to predict a possibility of drug interaction during concomitant use of vinpocetine and conventional drugs, this study was carried out to evaluate the effects of vinpocetine on three main regulators of pharmacokinetic drug interactions namely, cytochromes P450 (CYPs), P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and Pregnane X receptor (PXR). (mdpi.com)
- Monitor patient closely for adverse reactions, especially such GI reactions as constipation and signs or symptoms of ischemic colitis. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Monitor for potential adverse reactions. (globenewswire.com)
- As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs mentioned above. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Subjects will be monitored throughout participation in the study for adverse reactions to the study drug and/or procedures. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Decreased serum concentrations of methadone. (mims.com)
- Steady-state methadone concentrations are achieved in about five days. (empr.com)
- Methadone has multiple drug interactions, and this should be reconciled for each individual patient. (empr.com)
- Certain CYP450 3A4 inhibitors and inducers can significantly increase or decrease methadone concentrations by up to 50%," Dr. Fudin said. (empr.com)
- 2 For example, one study which investigated the effect of erythromycin (a potent CYP3A4 inhibitor) on serum simvastatin concentrations found that combined use resulted in a 6.2-fold increase in simvastatin exposure. (bpac.org.nz)
- A drug-drug interaction occurs when an orally administered CYP3A substrate is given concomitantly with an inhibitor or inducer of intestinal CYP activity. (medpagetoday.com)
- For example, atorvastatin is metabolized through CYP3A4, and when co-administered with ceritinib (CYP3A4 inhibitor), elimination of atorvastatin decreases, resulting in increased plasma concentrations and pharmacologic effect. (medpagetoday.com)
- Co-administration of a drug that is a P-gp inhibitor will increase the bioavailability of a P-gp substrate drug, and an inducer will reduce the bioavailability of a substrate drug. (medpagetoday.com)
- SPRYCEL, an oral BCR-ABL inhibitor, is currently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of adults for all phases of CML (chronic, accelerated, or myeloid or lymphoid blast phase) with resistance or intolerance to prior therapy including Gleevec. (fiercebiotech.com)
- Time to peak plasma concentration: 0.7-1.7 hr. (mims.com)
- Alprazolam is rapidly absorbed after oral administration with a peak plasma concentration at 1 to 2 hours. (nih.gov)
- Medicines that inhibit or induce this enzyme ( Table 1 ) are likely to affect the plasma concentration of these statins, resulting in either an increased risk of adverse effects (e.g. myopathy and rhabdomyolyis) or a reduction in the effectiveness of treatment. (bpac.org.nz)
- These reduce the plasma concentration of simvastatin and atorvastatin and may reduce their effectiveness. (bpac.org.nz)
- Results: Vardenafil concentrations increased rapidly to maximum plasma concentration (tmax 1h) and elimination half-life was 3.4 h. (diva-portal.org)
- On 30 September, the first measurement of EFV plasma concentration was obtained, with a result of 0.34 µg/mL. (phrmafoundation.org)
- Plasma voriconazole levels exhibit wide inter-individual variability due to several factors like age, weight, food or drug interactions or CYP2C19 polymorphisms. (springer.com)
- There was a high inter-individual variability of vardenafil pharmacokinetics and co-medication with bosentan caused a pharmacokinetic drug interaction. (diva-portal.org)
- The population PK/PD model was successfully developed to describe simultaneously the time course and variability of propofol and fentanyl concentrations and BIS. (ovid.com)
- Careful cardiac monitoring is needed during and after administering intravenous Dilantin. (rxlist.com)
- Because adverse cardiovascular reactions have occurred during and after infusions, careful cardiac monitoring is needed during and after the administration of intravenous Dilantin. (rxlist.com)
- Carnexiv received orphan drug designation for this indication and will be the first available intravenous (IV) formulation of the antiepileptic drug (AED) carbamazepine. (ligand.com)
- Carnexiv is an intravenous antiepileptic drug developed in the United States by Lundbeck and approved for use in the United States. (ligand.com)
- Deficiencies in the concentrations decline in those with intravenous sodium reabsorp- tion with 50% of an improved survival. (musicaenlamochila.net)
- The drugs Questran ( cholestyramine ) and Colestid ( colestipol ) can decrease vancomycin's effects when given at the same time. (everydayhealth.com)
- it should include at least 4 of the following 8 symptoms: Change in appetite, change in sleep, psychomotor agitation or retardation, loss of interest in usual activities or decrease in sexual drive, increased fatigue, feelings of guilt or worthlessness, slowed thinking or impaired concentration, and a suicide attempt or suicidal ideation. (rxlist.com)
- Cefditoren: Proton pump inhibitors such as rabeprazole may decrease the serum concentration of cefditoren. (pediatriconcall.com)
- Clopidogrel: Rabeprazole may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of clopidogrel. (pediatriconcall.com)
- With the recently expanded sales and marketing of over-thecounter ibuprofen and naproxen, additional increases in the already widespread use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is likely. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cause an increased risk of serious cardiovascular thrombotic events, including myocardial infarction, and stroke, which can be fatal. (cnbc.com)
- Skin or musculoskeletal pain usually responds to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). (aafp.org)
- It is commonly used for drugs such as tobramycin (Tobrex or TOBI, a broad-spectrum antibiotic) and digoxin (Lanoxin, used in the management of congestive heart failure and some dysrhythmias, or abnormal heart rhythms). (thebody.com)
- Doctors commonly prescribe these drugs to treat people with high blood pressure . (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The hormone gets converted out of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) within tissues, most commonly in women, but only a minute fraction of the testosterone your body produces locally affects circulating concentrations of the hormone. (tipjoy.com)
- This section describes some of the more commonly encountered drug interactions. (cdc.gov)
- As primary care physicians and other specialists become increasingly involved in the care of HIV-infected individuals, it is essential for them to recognize, prevent and manage clinically important interactions between commonly prescribed drugs and antiretroviral therapy. (cmaj.ca)
- Patient Counseling Information (PLR format only) - summarizes the information that a health care provider should convey to a patient (or caregiver when applicable) when a counseling discussion is taking place (e.g., a physician prescribing a drug during an office visit, a nurse providing discharge instructions at a hospital, or a pharmacist conveying information at a pharmacy). (fda.gov)
- Before administering, know that drug is approved with the following marketing restrictions: Ensure that patient understands that drug has serious risks, patient reads and signs patient-physician agreement, and patient follows directions in accompanying medication guide. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Don't administer drug if patient is constipated. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Make sure patient knows about drug's marketing restrictions, which stipulate that she understands drug has serious risks, that she reads and signs patient-physician agreement, and that she follows directions in accompanying medication guide. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Victoza is not approved for people with type 1 diabetes or diabetic ketoacidosis (a dangerous condition that can develop if high blood sugar goes untreated), though the drug may be used off label in this patient population. (everydayhealth.com)
- Be aware that using drug in absence of proven or strongly suspected C. difficile infection is unlikely to provide benefit to patient and increases risk of development of drug-resistant bacteria. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Tell patient to take drug with or without food. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Inform patient that drug only treats C. difficile -associated diarrhea and shouldn't be used to treat other infections. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Inform patient that although it's common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the drug should be taken exactly as directed. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Based on the potassium concentration and the condition of the patient, acute hyperkalemia should be considered a medical emergency and must be dealt with accordingly. (medscape.com)
- The major determinant of the outcome of treatment is patient adherence to the drug regimen. (cdc.gov)
- The use of fixed drug combinations may enhance patient adherence and may reduce the risk of inappropriate monotherapy, and it may prevent the development of secondary drug resistance. (cdc.gov)
- Concepts of pharmacology are essential to the development of the nurse's own skills in management and control of drug therapies, as well in patient education. (univr.it)
- Nevertheless, the physician who elects to use PAXIL for extended periods should periodically re-evaluate the long-term usefulness of the drug for the individual patient. (rxlist.com)
- Titrate drug depending on the response of the individual patient to achieve the desired blood pressure reduction. (wikipedia.org)
- In addition, as the effects and potentially the side effects, of HIV medication may change with age, this study will also investigate the association between age and differing effects of antiretroviral therapies such as treatment outcomes, side effects and the levels of drugs in blood. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Lithium is the main medication used for bipolar disorder and is usually the first drug prescribed. (limamemorial.org)
- Any time a new medication is prescribed, clinicians should check for any interactions and inform the traveler of the potential risk. (cdc.gov)
- Currently, more than 20 approved antiretroviral drugs are available in Canada, belonging to six medication classes ( Box 1 ). (cmaj.ca)
- Insufficient drug exposure may be caused by problems with adherence, or following a prescribed treatment regimen, which is discussed below . (thebody.com)
- Examples of pharmacodynamic interactions in cancer treatment are enhanced binding of fluorouracil (FU) to thymidylate synthetase with the addition of leucovorin and the potential reduction in aldesleukin activity if corticosteroids are used as antiemetics with this regimen. (uspharmacist.com)
- This four-drug, 6-mo regimen is effective even when the infecting organism is resistant to INH. (cdc.gov)
- A 4-mo regimen of isoniazid and rifampin is acceptable therapy for adults who have active tuberculosis and who are sputum-smear and culture negative, if there is little possibility of drug resistance (see Section 1 above). (cdc.gov)
- Consider alternative HCV or ARV drugs to avoid increased TFV toxicities. (nih.gov)
- Avoid coadministration if possible, or closely monitor HIV virologic response and possible hematologic toxicities. (nih.gov)
- If coadministered, closely monitor for hematologic toxicities. (nih.gov)
- If coadministered, closely monitor HIV virologic response and monitor for possible hematologic toxicities. (nih.gov)
- Careful monitoring of azole serum concentrations, drug interactions and possible toxicities is recommended. (ersjournals.com)
- With the growing awareness of the toxicities and low tolerability of currently available anti-HIV drugs, a method for optimizing their use has become increasingly attractive. (thebody.com)
- To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of PREVPAC and other antibacterial drugs, PREVPAC should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. (rxlist.com)
- Prior to use, inquire regarding history of hypersensitivity to beta-lactam antibacterial drugs. (nih.gov)
- For more than 20 years she has been working in antibacterial drug discovery in the academic as well as in the pharmaceutical industry setting. (uni-tuebingen.de)