Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions
Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6
Area Under Curve
Drug Therapy, Combination
Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems
Investigational New Drug Application
Mixed Function Oxygenases
Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2
Drug Information Services
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
HIV Protease Inhibitors
Organic Anion Transporters
Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors
Proton Pump Inhibitors
Metabolic Clearance Rate
International Normalized Ratio
Pharmacopoeias as Topic
United States Food and Drug Administration
Metabolic Detoxication, Drug
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors
HIV Integrase Inhibitors
Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors
Receptors, Biogenic Amine
Drug Therapy, Computer-Assisted
Drug Evaluation, Preclinical
Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
Education, Pharmacy, Continuing
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
Education, Pharmacy, Graduate
Calcium Channel Blockers
Organic Anion Transporters, Sodium-Independent
Drug Administration Schedule
Inhibitory Concentration 50
Drugs, Chinese Herbal
Organic Anion Transport Protein 1
Clinical Trials as Topic
Pharmacy Service, Hospital
Histamine H2 Antagonists
Inhibitory innervation of cat sphincter of Oddi. (1/10578)1 Electrical stimulation with trains of 0.1-0.2 ms pulses of the cat isolated sphincter of Oddi inhibited the spontaneous contractile activity and lowered base-line tension considerably. A contraction usually followed the period of stimulation. 2 These inhibitory effects were prevented by tetrodotoxin 0.1-0.5 mug/ml but were not reduced by hexamethonilm, morphine, or blockade of alpha- or beta-adrenoreceptors of cholinoceptors with phenoxy-benzamine propranolol or atropine, respectively. 3 Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine-5'-diphosphate (ADP) inhibited the spontaneous sphincter activity and caused relaxation thus mimicking the effects of the C-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin (C8-CCK), isoprenaline and prostaglandin E1 and E2. 4 ATP alone (greater than 100 mug/ml) or ATP (greater than 10 mug/ml) plus dipyridamole (1 mug/ml), relaxed the sphincter to the same degrees as did the field stimulation. 5 In sphincter maximally contracted by acetylcholine, the effect of stimulation was more marked than that recorded in uncontracted preparations. 6 The present findings suggest that the sphincter of Oddi receives inhibitory nerves that are neither cholinergic nor adrenergic. (+info)
Effect of morphine and naloxone on priming-induced audiogenic seizures in BALB/c mice. (2/10578)1 Morphine (1-200 mg/kg s.c.) reduced the incidence and prolonged the latency of priming-induced audiogenic siezures in a dose-dependent manner. 2 This effect was reversed by naloxone (1 and 2 mg/kg) although naloxone was itself inactive. 3 This priming-induces seizure model may be useful in the study of tolerance and physical dependence. (+info)
Carcinogenicity of triethanolamine in mice and its mutagenicity after reaction with sodium nitrite in bacteria. (3/10578)Mice fed a diet containing 0.3 or 0.03% triethanolamine developed malignant tumors. Females showed a high incidence of tumors in lymphoid tissues, while this type was absent in males. Tumors in other tissues were produced at a considerable rate in both sexes, but no hepatoma was found. Triethanolamine was not mutagenic to Bacillus subtilis by itself, but it became mutagenic after reacting with sodium nitrite under acidic conditions or when the mixture was heated. Although N-nitrosodiethanolamine, a known carcinogen and mutagen, was detected in the reaction mixture by thin-layer chromatography, it may not be the main mutagenic product, because the product was a stable and direct mutagen and its mutagenic activity was destroyed by liver enzymes, unlike N-nitrosodiethanolamine. The lethal and mutagenic DNA damages produced by this unidentified product were susceptible to some extent to the repair functions of the bacteria. (+info)
Determination of pyrolysis products of smoked methamphetamine mixed with tobacco by tandem mass spectrometry. (4/10578)This study examines the pyrolysis products of smoked methamphetamine mixed with tobacco that was trapped with a C8 adsorbent cartridge and then detected by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. According to the results, the mainstream smoke contains 2-methylpropyl-benzene, 2-chloropropyl-benzene, 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one, 3-ethyl-phenol, methamphetamine, dimethylamphetamine, hydroquinone, 3-methyl-5-(1-methylethyl)-methylcarbamate phenol, N-methyl-N-(2-phenylethyl)-acetamide, 4-(3-hydroxy-1-butenyl)-3,5,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexene-1-one, propanoic acid, N-acetylmethamphetamine, phenyl ester, and furfurylmethylamphetamine. In addition, the compounds in sidestream smoke are 2-propenyl benzene, phenylacetone, methamphetamine, dimethylamphetamine, benzyl methyl ketoxime, 3,4-dihydro-2-naphthalenone, N-folmyamphetamine, N-acetylamphetamine, bibenzyl, N-folmylmethamphetamine, N-acetylmethamphetamine, N-propionymethamphetamine, and furfurylmethylamphetamine. Moreover, the presence of methamphetamine promotes the oxidation of the tobacco components. (+info)
Distinct and combined vascular effects of ACE blockade and HMG-CoA reductase inhibition in hypertensive subjects. (5/10578)Hypercholesterolemia and hypertension are frequently associated with elevated sympathetic activity. Both are independent cardiovascular risk factors and both affect endothelium-mediated vasodilation. To identify the effects of cholesterol-lowering and antihypertensive treatments on vascular reactivity and vasodilative capacity, we studied 30 hypercholesterolemic hypertensive subjects. They received placebo for 4 weeks, either enalapril or simvastatin for 14 weeks, and, finally, both medications for an additional 14 weeks. Postischemic forearm blood flow (MFBF) and minimal vascular resistance (mFVR) were used as indices of vasodilative capacity and structural vascular damage, respectively. Total (resting-stress-recovery phases) cardiovascular (blood pressure [BP] and heart rate [HR]) and regional hemodynamic (FBF and FVR) reactivity to stressful stimuli were calculated as area-under-the-curve (auc) (valuextime). Compared with baseline levels, simvastatin reduced total (TOT-C) and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) (1.27 mmol/L, P<0.001 and 1.33 mmol/L, P<0.001, respectively). Enalapril also reduced TOT-C and LDL-C (0.6 mmol/L, P<0.001 and 0.58 mmol/L, P<0.05, respectively). MFBF was increased substantially by both treatments (P<0.001). Enalapril had a greater effect (-1.7 arbitrary units (AU), P<0.001) than simvastatin (-0.6 AU, P<0.05) on mFVR. During stress, FBF increased more with enalapril (4.4 FBFxminutes, P<0.001) than with simvastatin (1.8 FBFxminutes, P<0.01). Conversely, FVR stress response was reduced more with enalapril (9.1 FVRxminutes, P<0.001) than with simvastatin (2.9 FVRxminutes, P<0.01). During combination treatment, a significant (0.001>P<0.05) additive effect on hypercholesterolemia, structural vascular damage, BP, and FVR was shown. The findings suggest that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition induces a larger reduction than HMG-CoA reductase blockade in vascular reactivity and structural damage in hypercholesterolemic hypertensive subjects. (+info)
Ergoline derivative LEK-8829-induced turning behavior in rats with unilateral striatal ibotenic acid lesions: interaction with bromocriptine. (6/10578)LEK-8829 [9,10-didehydro-N-methyl-(2-propynyl)-6-methyl-8- aminomethylergoline bimaleinate] is an antagonist of dopamine D2 receptors and serotonin (5-HT)2 and 5-HT1A receptors in intact animals and a D1 receptor agonist in dopamine-depleted animals. In the present study, we used rats with unilateral striatal lesions with ibotenic acid (IA) to investigate the dopamine receptor activities of LEK-8829 in a model with innervated dopamine receptors. The IA-lesioned rats circled ipsilaterally when challenged with apomorphine, the mixed agonist on D1/D2 receptors. LEK-8829 induced a dose-dependent contralateral turning that was blocked by D1 receptor antagonist SCH-23390. The treatment with D1 receptor agonist SKF-82958 induced ipsilateral turning, whereas the treatment with D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol induced contralateral posture. The combined treatment with SKF-82958 and haloperidol resulted in a weak contralateral turning, indicating the possible receptor mechanism of contralateral turning induced by LEK-8829. Bromocriptine induced a weak ipsilateral turning that was blocked by haloperidol. The ipsilateral turning induced by bromocriptine was significantly potentiated by the coadministration of a low dose but not by a high dose of LEK-8829. The potentiation of turning was blocked either by SCH-23390 or by haloperidol. The potentiation of ipsilateral turning suggests the costimulation of D2 and D1 receptors by bromocriptine and LEK-8829, respectively, whereas the lack of potentiation by the highest dose of LEK-8829 may be explained by the opposing activity of LEK-8829 and bromocriptine at D2 receptors. We propose that the D2 and 5HT2 receptor-blocking and D1 receptor-stimulating profile of LEK-8829 is promising for the treatment of negative symptoms of schizophrenia. (+info)
Discriminative stimulus effects of naltrexone after a single dose of morphine in the rat. (7/10578)The discriminative stimulus effects of an acute morphine (MOR) --> naltrexone (NTX) combination were characterized and compared with the stimulus effects of NTX-precipitated and spontaneous withdrawal from chronic MOR administration. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6-8) were trained to discriminate between two drug treatments in a discrete-trial avoidance/escape procedure: MOR (10 mg./kg, s.c., 4 h) --> NTX (0.3 mg/kg, s.c., 0.25 h) versus saline (SAL, 1 ml/kg, s. c., 4 h) --> NTX (0.3 mg/kg, s.c., 0.25 h). Subjects responded only on the SAL --> NTX-appropriate lever when SAL was given 3.75 h after MOR or 3.75 h before any dose of NTX (0.3-100 mg/kg). Responding was dose dependent and MOR --> NTX-appropriate when NTX (0.01-0.1 mg/kg) followed MOR. Full MOR --> NTX-appropriate responding was dependent on the pretreatment dose and time of MOR, with full effects observed only when MOR (10 mg/kg) was given 3 to 4 h before NTX. While subjects were maintained on either 20- or 40 mg/kg/day of MOR via osmotic pump, NTX produced full dose-dependent, MOR --> NTX-appropriate responding. When the MOR-filled pumps were removed, partial MOR --> NTX-appropriate responding occurred, peaking at 6 to 12 h. The physical withdrawal signs produced by NTX after acute or during chronic MOR exposure were of smaller magnitude compared with the ones that occurred during abrupt withdrawal from chronic MOR. A qualitatively unique "withdrawal" stimulus that is dose- and time-dependent appears to be the basis of this MOR --> NTX discrimination. (+info)
Issues in the treatment of active tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. (8/10578)Most HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis can be treated satisfactorily with standard regimens with expectations of good results. Treatment of tuberculosis in these patients has been complicated by the introduction of HAART, which relies on drugs that interfere with the most potent class of antituberculous medications. Rifampin-free regimens or regimens that employ rifabutin may be acceptable strategies for patients who are receiving protease inhibitors, although these regimens have not been rigorously evaluated in patients with AIDS. At present, there is good reason to believe that a 6-month course of a rifabutin-containing regimen or a 9-12-month course of a regimen of streptomycin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide should be adequate therapy for most patients with drug-susceptible disease. As the treatment of HIV infection with antiretroviral agents evolves, the treatment of tuberculosis in patients with AIDS is likely to evolve as well. This will require careful coordination of antituberculosis and antiretroviral therapies. (+info)
There are several types of drug-related side effects and adverse reactions, including:
1. Common side effects: These are side effects that are commonly experienced by patients taking a particular medication. Examples include nausea, dizziness, and fatigue.
2. Serious side effects: These are side effects that can be severe or life-threatening. Examples include allergic reactions, liver damage, and bone marrow suppression.
3. Adverse events: These are any unwanted or harmful effects that occur during the use of a medication, including side effects and other clinical events such as infections or injuries.
4. Drug interactions: These are interactions between two or more drugs that can cause harmful side effects or reduce the effectiveness of one or both drugs.
5. Side effects caused by drug abuse: These are side effects that occur when a medication is taken in larger-than-recommended doses or in a manner other than as directed. Examples include hallucinations, seizures, and overdose.
It's important to note that not all side effects and adverse reactions are caused by the drug itself. Some may be due to other factors, such as underlying medical conditions, other medications being taken, or environmental factors.
To identify and manage drug-related side effects and adverse reactions, healthcare providers will typically ask patients about any symptoms they are experiencing, perform physical exams, and review the patient's medical history and medication list. In some cases, additional tests may be ordered to help diagnose and manage the problem.
Overall, it's important for patients taking medications to be aware of the potential for side effects and adverse reactions, and to report any symptoms or concerns to their healthcare provider promptly. This can help ensure that any issues are identified and addressed early, minimizing the risk of harm and ensuring that the patient receives the best possible care.
Rhabdomyolysis can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
1. Physical trauma or injury to the muscles
2. Overuse or strain of muscles
3. Poor physical conditioning or training
4. Infections such as viral or bacterial infections that affect the muscles
5. Certain medications or drugs, such as statins and antibiotics
6. Alcohol or drug poisoning
7. Heat stroke or other forms of extreme heat exposure
8. Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid)
9. Genetic disorders that affect muscle function.
Symptoms of rhabdomyolysis can include:
1. Muscle weakness or paralysis
2. Muscle pain or cramping
3. Confusion or disorientation
4. Dark urine or decreased urine output
5. Fever, nausea, and vomiting
6. Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
7. Abnormal heart rhythms or cardiac arrest.
If you suspect that someone has rhabdomyolysis, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as fluids and electrolyte replacement, as well as addressing any underlying causes of the condition. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat complications such as kidney failure or cardiac problems.
Myalgia refers to muscle pain or soreness, which can be caused by a variety of factors such as injury, overuse, infection, or inflammation. It is a common symptom of many medical conditions and can range from mild to severe. Myalgia can affect any part of the body, but it is most commonly experienced in the back, neck, arms, and legs.
The symptoms of myalgia can vary depending on the underlying cause, but they typically include:
* Muscle aches and pains
* Tenderness or sensitivity to touch
* Stiffness or limited range of motion
* Fatigue or weakness
* Swelling or redness in the affected area
Myalgia can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
* Overuse or strain: This is one of the most common causes of myalgia, particularly in athletes or individuals who engage in strenuous physical activity.
* Injury or trauma: Myalgia can occur as a result of a direct blow to the muscle or a sudden twisting or bending motion that causes muscle strain.
* Infection: Certain infections, such as flu or cold, can cause myalgia as a symptom.
* Inflammatory conditions: Conditions such as arthritis, fibromyalgia, and polymyositis can cause myalgia.
* Medication side effects: Certain medications, such as statins and corticosteroids, can cause myalgia as a side effect.
Myalgia is typically diagnosed through a physical examination and medical history. Imaging tests such as X-rays or MRI may be ordered to rule out other conditions and determine the extent of the injury or inflammation. Treatment for myalgia depends on the underlying cause, but it can include rest, physical therapy, medication, and in some cases, surgery.
In conclusion, myalgia is a common symptom of many medical conditions that can cause muscle pain and stiffness. It is important to seek medical attention if the symptoms persist or worsen over time, as early diagnosis and treatment can help alleviate the discomfort and prevent further complications.
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection is a condition in which the body is infected with HIV, a type of retrovirus that attacks the body's immune system. HIV infection can lead to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), a condition in which the immune system is severely damaged and the body is unable to fight off infections and diseases.
There are several ways that HIV can be transmitted, including:
1. Sexual contact with an infected person
2. Sharing of needles or other drug paraphernalia with an infected person
3. Mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Blood transfusions ( although this is rare in developed countries due to screening processes)
5. Organ transplantation (again, rare)
The symptoms of HIV infection can be mild at first and may not appear until several years after infection. These symptoms can include:
3. Swollen glands in the neck, armpits, and groin
5. Muscle aches and joint pain
6. Night sweats
8. Weight loss
If left untreated, HIV infection can progress to AIDS, which is a life-threatening condition that can cause a wide range of symptoms, including:
1. Opportunistic infections (such as pneumocystis pneumonia)
2. Cancer (such as Kaposi's sarcoma)
3. Wasting syndrome
4. Neurological problems (such as dementia and seizures)
HIV infection is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests and physical examination. Treatment typically involves antiretroviral therapy (ART), which is a combination of medications that work together to suppress the virus and slow the progression of the disease.
Prevention methods for HIV infection include:
1. Safe sex practices, such as using condoms and dental dams
2. Avoiding sharing needles or other drug-injecting equipment
3. Avoiding mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), which is a short-term treatment that can prevent infection after potential exposure to the virus
5. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which is a daily medication that can prevent infection in people who are at high risk of being exposed to the virus.
It's important to note that HIV infection is manageable with proper treatment and care, and that people living with HIV can lead long and healthy lives. However, it's important to be aware of the risks and take steps to prevent transmission.
The symptoms of serotonin syndrome can vary in severity and may include:
* Changes in blood pressure and heart rate
Serotonin syndrome is typically diagnosed based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and medical history. Laboratory tests may include measurements of serotonin levels and other neurotransmitters in the body. Imaging studies, such as CT scans or MRI, may also be used to rule out other potential causes of symptoms.
Treatment of serotonin syndrome typically involves stopping any medications that may be contributing to the condition and providing supportive care to manage symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the condition. Medications that may be used to treat serotonin syndrome include:
* Cyproheptadine (a serotonin antagonist)
* Dantrolene (a muscle relaxant)
* Benzodiazepines (such as diazepam or lorazepam)
* Antipsychotic medications (such as haloperidol or risperidone)
Preventing serotonin syndrome involves being aware of the potential for interactions between medications and other substances that can increase serotonin levels. It is important to inform healthcare providers about all medications and supplements being taken, as well as any history of previous adverse reactions or medical conditions.
In conclusion, serotonin syndrome is a potentially life-threatening condition that can occur when excessive levels of serotonin are present in the body. It is important to be aware of the potential for interactions between medications and other substances that can increase serotonin levels, and to seek medical attention immediately if symptoms of serotonin syndrome develop. With prompt recognition and treatment, most cases of serotonin syndrome can be successfully managed and treated.
Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.
Types of Neoplasms
There are many different types of neoplasms, including:
1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.
Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms
The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:
1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.
Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms
The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:
1. Unusual lumps or swelling
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms
The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.
The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:
1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
Prevention of Neoplasms
While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:
1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.
It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.
There are many different types of epilepsy, each with its own unique set of symptoms and characteristics. Some common forms of epilepsy include:
1. Generalized Epilepsy: This type of epilepsy affects both sides of the brain and can cause a range of seizure types, including absence seizures, tonic-clonic seizures, and atypical absence seizures.
2. Focal Epilepsy: This type of epilepsy affects only one part of the brain and can cause seizures that are localized to that area. There are several subtypes of focal epilepsy, including partial seizures with complex symptoms and simple partial seizures.
3. Tonic-Clonic Epilepsy: This type of epilepsy is also known as grand mal seizures and can cause a loss of consciousness, convulsions, and muscle stiffness.
4. Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome: This is a rare and severe form of epilepsy that typically develops in early childhood and can cause multiple types of seizures, including tonic, atonic, and myoclonic seizures.
5. Dravet Syndrome: This is a rare genetic form of epilepsy that typically develops in infancy and can cause severe, frequent seizures.
6. Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome: This is a rare genetic disorder that can cause intellectual disability, developmental delays, and various types of seizures.
7. Other forms of epilepsy include Absence Epilepsy, Myoclonic Epilepsy, and Atonic Epilepsy.
The symptoms of epilepsy can vary widely depending on the type of seizure disorder and the individual affected. Some common symptoms of epilepsy include:
1. Seizures: This is the most obvious symptom of epilepsy and can range from mild to severe.
2. Loss of consciousness: Some people with epilepsy may experience a loss of consciousness during a seizure, while others may remain aware of their surroundings.
3. Confusion and disorientation: After a seizure, some people with epilepsy may feel confused and disoriented.
4. Memory loss: Seizures can cause short-term or long-term memory loss.
5. Fatigue: Epilepsy can cause extreme fatigue, both during and after a seizure.
6. Emotional changes: Some people with epilepsy may experience emotional changes, such as anxiety, depression, or mood swings.
7. Cognitive changes: Epilepsy can affect cognitive function, including attention, memory, and learning.
8. Sleep disturbances: Some people with epilepsy may experience sleep disturbances, such as insomnia or sleepiness.
9. Physical symptoms: Depending on the type of seizure, people with epilepsy may experience physical symptoms such as muscle weakness, numbness or tingling, and sensory changes.
10. Social isolation: Epilepsy can cause social isolation due to fear of having a seizure in public or stigma associated with the condition.
It's important to note that not everyone with epilepsy will experience all of these symptoms, and some people may have different symptoms depending on the type of seizure they experience. Additionally, some people with epilepsy may experience additional symptoms not listed here.
Some common examples of opioid-related disorders include:
1. Opioid dependence: This is a condition in which an individual becomes physically dependent on opioids and experiences withdrawal symptoms when they stop using the medication.
2. Opioid abuse: This is a condition in which an individual uses opioids for non-medical reasons, such as to get high or to cope with emotional issues.
3. Opioid addiction: This is a chronic condition characterized by compulsive drug-seeking behavior despite negative consequences.
4. Opioid overdose: This occurs when an individual takes too much of an opioid medication and experiences life-threatening symptoms, such as slowed breathing or heart rate.
5. Opioid withdrawal syndrome: This is a group of symptoms that can occur when an individual stops using opioids after a period of heavy use. Symptoms can include anxiety, depression, muscle aches, and insomnia.
6. Opioid-induced hyperalgesia: This is a condition in which the use of opioids leads to increased sensitivity to pain.
7. Opioid-induced constipation: This is a common side effect of opioid use that can lead to a range of other health problems, such as hemorrhoids and urinary tract infections.
8. Opioid-related cognitive impairment: This is a condition in which the use of opioids leads to difficulty with concentration, memory, and decision-making.
9. Opioid-related depression: This is a condition in which the use of opioids leads to feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and a lack of interest in activities that were once enjoyed.
10. Opioid-related anxiety: This is a condition in which the use of opioids leads to feelings of anxiety, nervousness, and fear.
It is important to note that not everyone who uses opioids will experience these side effects, and the severity of the side effects can vary depending on the individual and the specific opioid being used. Additionally, there are many strategies that healthcare providers can use to help manage these side effects, such as adjusting the dose of the medication or switching to a different medication.
It is also important to note that the risks associated with opioids do not outweigh the benefits for everyone. For some individuals, the benefits of using opioids to manage pain and improve quality of life can far outweigh the risks. However, it is important to carefully weigh the potential risks and benefits before starting opioid therapy, and to closely monitor the individual's health and well-being while they are taking these medications.
In summary, opioids can have a range of side effects, both short-term and long-term, that can impact an individual's physical and mental health. It is important to carefully consider the potential risks and benefits before starting opioid therapy, and to closely monitor the individual's health and well-being while they are taking these medications.
Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale
List of traditional Chinese medicines
Adverse drug reaction
Health effects of tobacco
Uridine monophosphate synthase
Riverview Hospital (Coquitlam)
Babylon (The X-Files)
Legal status of striptease
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2
El Monte Thai Garment Slavery Case
Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src
Robot research initiative
Coronavirus nucleocapsid protein
Veterans benefits for post-traumatic stress disorder in the United States
Maximum potential intensity
Psychology of religion
2015 in aviation
Abortion in Afghanistan
Appendix C. Drug interactions of clinical significance
trimipramine and erythromycin ethylsuccinate Drug Interactions - RxList
Ampicillin/sulbactam Disease Interactions - Drugs.com
CLONIDINE - TRANSDERMAL (Catapres-TTS) side effects, medical uses, and drug interactions.
Medicines | Free Full-Text | Medicinal Cannabis-Potential Drug Interactions
Consortium of binding interactions | Drug Discovery News
Interactions Between Travel Vaccines & Drugs | CDC Yellow Book 2024
Musol Drug Interactions | MIMS Myanmar
Prescription & OTC Drug Info | Side Effects, Interactions & Dosages
Drug Interactions - Clinical Pharmacology - Merck Manuals Professional Edition
Eszopiclone ( Lunesta ): pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, indications, clinical efficacy, adverse effects, drug interactions,...
METABOLISM-BASED DRUG-DRUG INTERACTIONS: WHAT DETERMINES INDIVIDUAL VARIABILITY IN CYTOCHROME P450 INDUCTION? | Drug Metabolism...
Secobarbital - Mechanism, Indication, Contraindications, Dosing, Adverse Effect, Interaction, Hepatic Dose | Drug Index |...
Cyclophosphamide and Robitussin drug interactions, a phase IV clinical study of FDA data - eHealthMe
Acetaminophen drug interactions with different drugs explained
Herb, Nutrient, and Drug Interactions: Clinical Implications and Therapeutic ... - Mitchell Bebel Stargrove, Jonathan Treasure,...
No Drug-Drug Interaction between Dorzagliatin and Metformin in Type 2 Diabetes Patients | Diabetes | American Diabetes...
WHO EMRO | Relationship of pharmacist interaction with patient knowledge of dispensed drugs and patient satisfaction | Volume...
Rapid interaction profiling to aid drug discovery - EIT Health
HIV Drug Interactions
Flomax viagra drug interactions
Bystolic drug interactions lexapro
GACS: GACS Core: drug interactions
Azelaic Acid (Topical Route) Before Using - Mayo Clinic
Drug interactions between prednisone and ibuprofen
Download Drug Interactions In Infectious Diseases
Protein-protein Interfaces Integrated into Interaction Networks: Implications on Drug Design | Bentham Science
Buspirone - Uses, Side Effects, Dosage & Interactions - Drug Genius
Lozol (Indapamide) - Drug Interactions, Contraindications, Other Rx Info
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- Any time a new medication is prescribed, including antimalarial drugs, check for known or possible drug interactions (see Table 2-05 ) and inform the traveler of potential risks. (cdc.gov)
- Treatment regimens should take into account the most recent official treatment guidelines (e.g. those of the WHO) and local information on the prevalence of resistance to antimalarial drugs. (who.int)
- BERLIN-A major problem in developingnew medicines is predicting whether or not a potential drug will beeffective in humans. (drugdiscoverynews.com)
- The consortium,which is financially supported with $26 million by Europe's Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI), is "an excellent example ofa project in which public-private partnerships enable a collaborativeresearch approach to tackle specific drug discovery problems of todayand to come up with novel concepts in modern drug discovery,"according to Dr. Anke Müller-Fahrnow, vice president and head oflead discovery at Bayer HealthCare Global Drug Discovery, andcoordinator of the K4DD consortium. (drugdiscoverynews.com)
- The interaction between pharmacist and patient increases patients' knowledge about dispensed medicines and their satisfaction with the pharmacist's activities. (who.int)
- Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur. (mayoclinic.org)
- Certain medicines should not be used at or around the time of eating food or eating certain types of food since interactions may occur. (mayoclinic.org)
- Using alcohol or tobacco with certain medicines may also cause interactions to occur. (mayoclinic.org)
- But medicines can also cause unwanted reactions, such as drug interactions, side effects, and allergies. (medlineplus.gov)
- In pharmacodynamic interactions, one drug alters the sensitivity or responsiveness of tissues to another drug by having the same (agonistic) or a blocking (antagonistic) effect. (merckmanuals.com)
- Defining interactions among individual drug PK/pharmacodynamic, clinical outcomes and safety events will identify optimal approaches for safe and effective TB treatment. (cdc.gov)
- Rarely, clinicians can use predictable drug-drug interactions to produce a desired therapeutic effect. (merckmanuals.com)
- In therapeutic duplication, 2 drugs with similar properties are taken at the same time and have additive effects. (merckmanuals.com)
- The ototoxicity of therapeutic drugs has been a concern in the field of audiology for many years. (cdc.gov)
- The onset, site, mechanism and extent of ototoxic damage caused by these toxins vary according to risk factors that include type of chemical, interactions, exposure level and duration of exposure as is the case with therapeutic drugs. (cdc.gov)
- Therapeutic drug monitoring to overcome this limitation is not always feasible, especially in low resource settings. (cdc.gov)
- In other therapeutic areas, host genetics have been estimated to explain ~20% to 95% of interindividual variability in drug exposure and response. (cdc.gov)
- Therefore, for an investigational drug intended to be used in women with reproductive potential, evaluating its effects on the pharmacokinetics of COCs is important to determine if additional labeling is necessary for managing drug-drug interactions between the concomitant product and the COCs. (aspetjournals.org)
- A total of 2,516 participants at 34 clinical sites in 13 countries participated in the trial, which demonstrated that a four-month daily treatment regimen with high-dose rifapentine and moxifloxacin is as effective as (noninferior to) the standard daily six-month regimen in curing drug-susceptible TB disease. (cdc.gov)
- During pretravel consultations, travel health providers must consider potential interactions between vaccines and medications, including those already taken by the traveler. (cdc.gov)
- Hitherto, few data have been provided to the healthcare practitioners about the drug-drug interactions of cannabinoids with other prescription medications. (mdpi.com)
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- More than half of the patients (51.5%) answered that they took multivitamin pills with medications and 61.7% responded they consulted healthcare professionals for drug-food interactions ' information before taking new medications. (bvsalud.org)
- Consortium partners are "key playersin their fields" who "have been involved in the structureelucidation of drug targets, are at the forefront of bioanalyticaltechniques, are world leaders in pharmacology and bring the best ofcomputational resources for heavy computer calculations," accordingto Müller-Fahrnow. (drugdiscoverynews.com)
Increase or decrease1
- A drug-drug interaction may increase or decrease the effects of one or both drugs. (merckmanuals.com)
- If dosage adjustment is ineffective, the drug should be replaced by one that does not interact with other drugs being taken. (merckmanuals.com)
- Cannabidiol, a compound of cannabis that is being investigated as a potential treatment for epilepsy, may negatively interact with commonly used antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), new research suggests. (medscape.com)
- Sometimes a drug can interact with a disease that you have and cause a side effect. (medlineplus.gov)
- Many patients could not identify food items that can potentially interact with their drugs . (bvsalud.org)
- Use this drug for a condition that is listed in this section only if it has been so prescribed by your health care professional.This drug may also be used for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ( ADHD ), for hot flashes that occur with menopause , for withdrawal symptoms from narcotic drugs, and to help people quit smoking . (medicinenet.com)
- If you are using any narcotic drug, it is always better to know about its drug interactions with other products. (musclerelaxant.org)
- A rapid rise in blood pressure may also occur if the drug is suddenly stopped. (medicinenet.com)
- When unexpected clinical responses occur, prescribers should determine serum concentrations of selected drugs being taken, consult the literature or an expert in drug interactions, and adjust the dosage until the desired effect is produced. (merckmanuals.com)
- If the concurrently used drug induces enzymes responsible for the metabolism of progestins and/or estrogens, unintended pregnancy or irregular bleeding may occur. (aspetjournals.org)
- Antitubercular event may occur with other drugs within the irrespective of the types of tyrosine kinase inhibitors agents antitubercular agents. (who.int)
- However, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics interactions could be perceived in drug combinations, so in this short review we tried to shed light on the potential drug interactions of medicinal cannabis. (mdpi.com)
- This project aims to evaluate the contribution of pharmacogenetics to patient efficacy and safety outcomes by incorporating PG data into population pharmacokinetics (PK) models for six major TB drugs and risk algorithms for unfavorable treatment outcomes and to develop and evaluate PG-based dosing algorithms for novel high-dose rifapentine-based regimens. (cdc.gov)
- If the concurrent drug inhibits the metabolism of these exogenous hormones, there may be an increased safety risk such as thrombosis. (aspetjournals.org)
- Thank you for sharing this Drug Metabolism & Disposition article. (aspetjournals.org)
- Message Body (Your Name) thought you would be interested in this article in Drug Metabolism & Disposition. (aspetjournals.org)
- It is challenging to determine when this clinical drug interaction study is needed, whether an observed exposure change of progestin/estrogen is clinically meaningful, and if the results of a clinical drug interaction study with one COC can predict exposure changes of unstudied COCs to inform labeling. (aspetjournals.org)
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- The interactions between DNA methylation machinery and long non-coding RNAs in tumor progression and drug resistance. (bvsalud.org)
- Considering the importance of combining the current treatment methods , especially chemotherapies , with DNA methylation inhibitors in improving patients ' outcomes, this review aimed to summarize the recent findings about the interaction between DNA methylation machinery and LncRNAs in regulating genes involved in tumorigenesis and drug resistance . (bvsalud.org)
- The professional needs to conduct a proper interview and assess potential interactions. (bvsalud.org)
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- K4DD has been launched to explore anovel concept in modern drug discovery, according to Müller-Fahrnow,who explains, "there is a clear understanding today that compoundbinding characteristics to its molecular target (binding kinetics)are of high importance for eventual clinical drug efficacy.Therefore, drug discovery has also focused on the optimization ofthese drug-target interactions, mostly with respect to affinity andselectivity. (drugdiscoverynews.com)
- It also discusses recent advances, knowledge gaps, and future perspectives and provides insights on potential mechanisms for unexpected results of clinical drug interaction studies of COCs. (aspetjournals.org)
- There have also been rare reports of severe, possibly fatal reactions (such as stroke ) from stopping this drug too quickly. (medicinenet.com)
- To prevent any reactions while you are stopping treatment with this drug, your doctor may reduce your dose gradually. (medicinenet.com)
- Drug-food interactions can lead to adverse drug reactions and therapy failure which can potentially impact patient safety and therapy outcome. (bvsalud.org)
- The Bureau also maintains a drug reporting system for recording adverse reactions and complaints. (cdc.gov)
- and the client must be stated that South Africa is catching up with the rest of informed of possible adverse reactions and drug/drug the world in the CAHC field (Plusfile, 2000:1). (who.int)
- Patients on warfarin might need to reduce their anticoagulant dose or monitor their prothrombin time more closely while taking atovaquone-proguanil, although coadministration of these drugs is not contraindicated. (cdc.gov)
- The use of novel oral anticoagulants, including dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban, is not expected to cause significant interactions, and their use has been suggested as an alternative for patients in need of anticoagulation. (cdc.gov)
- Clinicians should know all of their patients' current drugs, including drugs prescribed by other clinicians and all over-the-counter drugs, herbal products, and nutritional supplements. (merckmanuals.com)
- There was a close correlation between patients' knowledge of dispensed drugs and pharmacist interaction (r = 0.95). (who.int)
- Drug-drug interaction (DDI) potential between dorzagliatin and Metformin was investigated in an open-label clinical study in Chinese T2D patients. (diabetesjournals.org)
- PK/PD analysis suggested that co-administration of dorzagliatin and Metformin compared to each drug alone can further improve glycemic control in T2D patients. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Also, if Epidiolex goes for US Food and Drug Administration approval, "this is something that clinicians will need to know about when counseling their patients," said Dr Gaston. (medscape.com)
- This study assessed patients ' knowledge , attitudes and practices regarding drug-food interactions . (bvsalud.org)
- however, only 30-50% of the patients could identify potential drug-food interactions of their drugs . (bvsalud.org)
- Few patients (15.2%) had experienced drug-food interactions . (bvsalud.org)
- Overall, patients had gaps in their knowledge and practices, and positive attitudes towards drug-food interactions . (bvsalud.org)
- patients taking any drug which is metabolized by the cytochrome enzyme CYP2D6 (e.g.flecainide, metoprolol, imipramine, amitriptyline, clomipramine. (who.int)
- Accounting for PG can reduce unexplained variability in PK, eliminating the need to measure individual drug levels to predict outcomes, improving the ability of current algorithms to identify patients at high risk of unfavorable outcomes and safety events. (cdc.gov)
- Micromedex) provide searchable databases of drug interactions. (cdc.gov)
- TRANSDERMAL (Catapres-TTS) side effects, medical uses, and drug interactions. (medicinenet.com)
- Side Effects & Drug Interactions. (codiz.net)
- Interactions could cause a drug to be more or less effective, cause side effects, or change the way one or both drugs work. (medlineplus.gov)
- While rifapentine-containing regimens for the treatment of both TB disease and latent TB infection are effective, there are frequent drug exposure-dependent side effects. (cdc.gov)
- Currently, researchers and healthcare providers cannot determine more precise dosing for various patient groups and cannot precisely predict increased risk of drug exposure-related side effects and/or TB relapse. (cdc.gov)
- On days 4-7, subjects were treated with Metformin (500 mg BID) and dorzagliatin (50 mg BID), and day 8 morning a single dose of each drug was given before PK samplings. (diabetesjournals.org)
- unspecified interaction mechanism. (medscape.com)
- Foods can enhance, delay, or decrease drug absorption. (merckmanuals.com)
- Significance Statement This minireview provides an overview of the metabolic pathways of ethinyl estradiol (EE) and progestins contained in commonly used COCs and significant drug interactions of these COCs as victims. (aspetjournals.org)
- This project provides an unprecedented opportunity to develop a tailored approach, by leveraging existing information collected in the international phase 3 clinical trial , to identify specific dosage recommendations of TB drugs for populations, which can improve TB treatment across all patient groups. (cdc.gov)
- Drugs that decrease renal function could decrease clearance. (cdc.gov)
- Through a funding opportunity from CDC's Office of Genomics and Precision Public Health in collaboration with the CDC Office of Advanced Molecular Detection , CDC's Division of Tuberculosis Elimination will conduct a 2-year project to assess relationships between pharmacogenetics (PG), TB drug exposure, relevant treatment outcomes, and safety. (cdc.gov)
- PG-based dosing algorithms may ultimately be developed to optimize drug exposure and treatment outcomes. (cdc.gov)
- Genes relevant to first-line TB drugs have been associated with PK, treatment response and toxicity. (cdc.gov)
- Phase IV trials are used to detect adverse drug outcomes and monitor drug effectiveness in the real world. (ehealthme.com)
- There are 5 disease interactions with ampicillin / sulbactam. (drugs.com)
- It is unavoidable that a woman using COCs may need to take another drug to treat a disease. (aspetjournals.org)
- The Bureau of Veterinary Medicine is responsible for regulating the use of animal drugs and of feed additives by livestock producers to ensure their safe and effective use in treating, preventing, and controlling disease in food producing animals, pet animals, and birds. (cdc.gov)
Food and Drug Admin1
- Dr. Troy is a Senior Medical Advisor in the Division of Antivirals at the Food and Drug Administration, FDA. (cdc.gov)
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Range from mild1
- Clostridioides difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD), formerly pseudomembranous colitis, has been reported with almost all antibacterial drugs and may range from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. (drugs.com)
- To improve drug design by understanding howpotential drugs bind with their targets and by developing methods andtools to help researchers to study drug-target interactions, BayerHealthCare and Leiden University of the Netherlands are coordinatinga newly founded international consortium called " K4DD ," orKinetics for Drug Discovery. (drugdiscoverynews.com)
- Drug allergies are another type of reaction. (medlineplus.gov)
- Consult your doctor before using or discontinuing any drug or starting any treatment. (musclerelaxant.org)
- Serious - Use Alternative Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. (rxlist.com)
- It is in Phase 3 clinical development for a new oral antidiabetic drug. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Brand Name Drugs from EU-PHARMACY. (codiz.net)
- And it includes frequent monitoring of serum AED levels in case of any drug-drug interactions. (medscape.com)