Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Herb-Drug Interactions: The effect of herbs, other PLANTS, or PLANT EXTRACTS on the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of drugs.Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A: A cytochrome P-450 suptype that has specificity for a broad variety of lipophilic compounds, including STEROIDS; FATTY ACIDS; and XENOBIOTICS. This enzyme has clinical significance due to its ability to metabolize a diverse array of clinically important drugs such as CYCLOSPORINE; VERAPAMIL; and MIDAZOLAM. This enzyme also catalyzes the N-demethylation of ERYTHROMYCIN.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Food-Drug Interactions: The pharmacological result, either desirable or undesirable, of drugs interacting with components of the diet. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Pharmacokinetics: Dynamic and kinetic mechanisms of exogenous chemical and DRUG LIBERATION; ABSORPTION; BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT; TISSUE DISTRIBUTION; BIOTRANSFORMATION; elimination; and DRUG TOXICITY as a function of dosage, and rate of METABOLISM. LADMER, ADME and ADMET are abbreviations for liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and toxicology.Citrus paradisi: A plant species of the genus CITRUS, family RUTACEAE that produces the familiar grapefruit. There is evidence that grapefruit inhibits CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A4, resulting in delayed metabolism and higher blood levels of a variety of drugs.Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions: Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.Oxidoreductases, N-DemethylatingPolypharmacy: The use of multiple drugs administered to the same patient, most commonly seen in elderly patients. It includes also the administration of excessive medication. Since in the United States most drugs are dispensed as single-agent formulations, polypharmacy, though using many drugs administered to the same patient, must be differentiated from DRUG COMBINATIONS, single preparations containing two or more drugs as a fixed dose, and from DRUG THERAPY, COMBINATION, two or more drugs administered separately for a combined effect. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases: A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6: A cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of many drugs and environmental chemicals, such as DEBRISOQUINE; ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS; and TRICYCLIC ANTIDEPRESSANTS. This enzyme is deficient in up to 10 percent of the Caucasian population.Reference Books, Medical: Books in the field of medicine intended primarily for consultation.Troleandomycin: A macrolide antibiotic that is similar to ERYTHROMYCIN.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Ketoconazole: Broad spectrum antifungal agent used for long periods at high doses, especially in immunosuppressed patients.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Phenacetin: A phenylacetamide that was formerly used in ANALGESICS but nephropathy and METHEMOGLOBINEMIA led to its withdrawal from the market. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology,1991, p431)Warfarin: An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide.Drug Antagonism: Phenomena and pharmaceutics of compounds that inhibit the function of agonists (DRUG AGONISM) and inverse agonists (DRUG INVERSE AGONISM) for a specific receptor. On their own, antagonists produce no effect by themselves to a receptor, and are said to have neither intrinsic activity nor efficacy.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Phenindione: An indandione that has been used as an anticoagulant. Phenindione has actions similar to WARFARIN, but it is now rarely employed because of its higher incidence of severe adverse effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p234)Phenytoin: An anticonvulsant that is used to treat a wide variety of seizures. It is also an anti-arrhythmic and a muscle relaxant. The mechanism of therapeutic action is not clear, although several cellular actions have been described including effects on ion channels, active transport, and general membrane stabilization. The mechanism of its muscle relaxant effect appears to involve a reduction in the sensitivity of muscle spindles to stretch. Phenytoin has been proposed for several other therapeutic uses, but its use has been limited by its many adverse effects and interactions with other drugs.Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems: Systems developed for collecting reports from government agencies, manufacturers, hospitals, physicians, and other sources on adverse drug reactions.Hypericum: Genus of perennial plants in the family CLUSIACEAE (sometimes classified as Hypericaceae). Herbal and homeopathic preparations are used for depression, neuralgias, and a variety of other conditions. Hypericum contains flavonoids; GLYCOSIDES; mucilage, TANNINS; volatile oils (OILS, ESSENTIAL), hypericin and hyperforin.Hydroxytestosterones: 17 beta-Hydroxy-4-androsten-3-ones. Testosterone derivatives formed by the substitution of one or more hydroxyl groups in any position.Midazolam: A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.Pharmaceutical Preparations, Dental: Drugs intended for DENTISTRY.P-Glycoprotein: A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).Phenprocoumon: Coumarin derivative that acts as a long acting oral anticoagulant.Investigational New Drug Application: An application that must be submitted to a regulatory agency (the FDA in the United States) before a drug can be studied in humans. This application includes results of previous experiments; how, where, and by whom the new studies will be conducted; the chemical structure of the compound; how it is thought to work in the body; any toxic effects found in animal studies; and how the compound is manufactured. (From the "New Medicines in Development" Series produced by the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association and published irregularly.)Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Bupropion: A unicyclic, aminoketone antidepressant. The mechanism of its therapeutic actions is not well understood, but it does appear to block dopamine uptake. The hydrochloride is available as an aid to smoking cessation treatment.Mixed Function Oxygenases: Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.Buprenorphine: A derivative of the opioid alkaloid THEBAINE that is a more potent and longer lasting analgesic than MORPHINE. It appears to act as a partial agonist at mu and kappa opioid receptors and as an antagonist at delta receptors. The lack of delta-agonist activity has been suggested to account for the observation that buprenorphine tolerance may not develop with chronic use.Theales: A plant order of the subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It includes 18 families, approximately 175 genera, and 3,400 species. Its members are mostly tropical trees and shrubs.Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2: A cytochrome P450 enzyme subtype that has specificity for relatively planar heteroaromatic small molecules, such as CAFFEINE and ACETAMINOPHEN.Ritonavir: An HIV protease inhibitor that works by interfering with the reproductive cycle of HIV. It also inhibits CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.Rifampin: A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)Drug Information Services: Services providing pharmaceutic and therapeutic drug information and consultation.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Cimetidine: A histamine congener, it competitively inhibits HISTAMINE binding to HISTAMINE H2 RECEPTORS. Cimetidine has a range of pharmacological actions. It inhibits GASTRIC ACID secretion, as well as PEPSIN and GASTRIN output.Drug Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Kava: Dried rhizome and roots of Piper methysticum, a shrub native to Oceania and known for its anti-anxiety and sedative properties. Heavy usage results in some adverse effects. It contains ALKALOIDS; LACTONES; kawain, methysticin, mucilage, STARCH, and yangonin. Kava is also the name of the pungent beverage prepared from the plant's roots.Herbal Medicine: The study of medicines derived from botanical sources.HIV Protease Inhibitors: Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.Paroxetine: A serotonin uptake inhibitor that is effective in the treatment of depression.Anticoagulants: Agents that prevent clotting.Drug Monitoring: The process of observing, recording, or detecting the effects of a chemical substance administered to an individual therapeutically or diagnostically.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Itraconazole: A triazole antifungal agent that inhibits cytochrome P-450-dependent enzymes required for ERGOSTEROL synthesis.Anticonvulsants: Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Sulfoxides: Organic compounds that have the general formula R-SO-R. They are obtained by oxidation of mercaptans (analogous to the ketones). (From Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 4th ed)Nelfinavir: A potent HIV protease inhibitor. It is used in combination with other antiviral drugs in the treatment of HIV in both adults and children.Quinidine: An optical isomer of quinine, extracted from the bark of the CHINCHONA tree and similar plant species. This alkaloid dampens the excitability of cardiac and skeletal muscles by blocking sodium and potassium currents across cellular membranes. It prolongs cellular ACTION POTENTIALS, and decreases automaticity. Quinidine also blocks muscarinic and alpha-adrenergic neurotransmission.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Barbiturates: A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.Plant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.Carbamates: Derivatives of carbamic acid, H2NC(=O)OH. Included under this heading are N-substituted and O-substituted carbamic acids. In general carbamate esters are referred to as urethanes, and polymers that include repeating units of carbamate are referred to as POLYURETHANES. Note however that polyurethanes are derived from the polymerization of ISOCYANATES and the singular term URETHANE refers to the ethyl ester of carbamic acid.Hydroxylation: Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)Organic Anion Transporters: Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.Proton Pump Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE. They are used as ANTI-ULCER AGENTS and sometimes in place of HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS for GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX.Metabolic Clearance Rate: Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.Beekeeping: The management and maintenance of colonies of honeybees.Milk Thistle: The plant Silybum marianum in the family ASTERACEAE containing the bioflavonoid complex SILYMARIN. For centuries this has been used traditionally to treat liver disease. Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. = Carduus marianus L.Drug Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.Digoxin: A cardiotonic glycoside obtained mainly from Digitalis lanata; it consists of three sugars and the aglycone DIGOXIGENIN. Digoxin has positive inotropic and negative chronotropic activity. It is used to control ventricular rate in ATRIAL FIBRILLATION and in the management of congestive heart failure with atrial fibrillation. Its use in congestive heart failure and sinus rhythm is less certain. The margin between toxic and therapeutic doses is small. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p666)Rhabdomyolysis: Necrosis or disintegration of skeletal muscle often followed by myoglobinuria.Phenylbutazone: A butyl-diphenyl-pyrazolidinedione that has anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic activities. It has been used in ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS; RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS; and REACTIVE ARTHRITIS.Nonprescription Drugs: Medicines that can be sold legally without a DRUG PRESCRIPTION.Benzoxazines: OXAZINES with a fused BENZENE ring.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Dealkylation: The removing of alkyl groups from a compound. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Legislation, Drug: Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.Imipramine: The prototypical tricyclic antidepressant. It has been used in major depression, dysthymia, bipolar depression, attention-deficit disorders, agoraphobia, and panic disorders. It has less sedative effect than some other members of this therapeutic group.International Normalized Ratio: System established by the World Health Organization and the International Committee on Thrombosis and Hemostasis for monitoring and reporting blood coagulation tests. Under this system, results are standardized using the International Sensitivity Index for the particular test reagent/instrument combination used.Drug Incompatibility: The quality of not being miscible with another given substance without a chemical change. One drug is not of suitable composition to be combined or mixed with another agent or substance. The incompatibility usually results in an undesirable reaction, including chemical alteration or destruction. (Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)Medication Errors: Errors in prescribing, dispensing, or administering medication with the result that the patient fails to receive the correct drug or the indicated proper drug dosage.Opipramol: A tricyclic antidepressant with actions similar to AMITRIPTYLINE.Pharmacogenetics: A branch of genetics which deals with the genetic variability in individual responses to drugs and drug metabolism (BIOTRANSFORMATION).Glucuronosyltransferase: A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 126.96.36.199.Pharmacopoeias as Topic: Authoritative treatises on drugs and preparations, their description, formulation, analytic composition, physical constants, main chemical properties used in identification, standards for strength, purity, and dosage, chemical tests for determining identity and purity, etc. They are usually published under governmental jurisdiction (e.g., USP, the United States Pharmacopoeia; BP, British Pharmacopoeia; P. Helv., the Swiss Pharmacopoeia). They differ from FORMULARIES in that they are far more complete: formularies tend to be mere listings of formulas and prescriptions.TriazolesDatabases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Drug Therapy: The use of DRUGS to treat a DISEASE or its symptoms. One example is the use of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to treat CANCER.Self Medication: The self administration of medication not prescribed by a physician or in a manner not directed by a physician.Miocamycin: A macrolide antibiotic that has a wide antimicrobial spectrum and is particularly effective in respiratory and genital infections.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Metabolic Detoxication, Drug: Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Prenylamine: A drug formerly used in the treatment of angina pectoris but superseded by less hazardous drugs. Prenylamine depletes myocardial catecholamine stores and has some calcium channel blocking activity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1406)Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Ginkgo biloba: The only specie of the genus Ginkgo, family Ginkgoacea. It is the source of extracts of medicinal interest, especially Egb 761. Ginkgo may refer to the genus or species.Cyclosporins: A group of closely related cyclic undecapeptides from the fungi Trichoderma polysporum and Cylindocarpon lucidum. They have some antineoplastic and antifungal action and significant immunosuppressive effects. Cyclosporins have been proposed as adjuvants in tissue and organ transplantation to suppress graft rejection.Verapamil: A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.Alfentanil: A short-acting opioid anesthetic and analgesic derivative of FENTANYL. It produces an early peak analgesic effect and fast recovery of consciousness. Alfentanil is effective as an anesthetic during surgery, for supplementation of analgesia during surgical procedures, and as an analgesic for critically ill patients.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Promazine: A phenothiazine with actions similar to CHLORPROMAZINE but with less antipsychotic activity. It is primarily used in short-term treatment of disturbed behavior and as an antiemetic.Myalgia: Painful sensation in the muscles.Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors: A chemically heterogeneous group of drugs that have in common the ability to block oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. (From Gilman, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p414)Sulfonamides: A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.Gemfibrozil: A lipid-regulating agent that lowers elevated serum lipids primarily by decreasing serum triglycerides with a variable reduction in total cholesterol.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Loratadine: A second-generation histamine H1 receptor antagonist used in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and urticaria. Unlike most classical antihistamines (HISTAMINE H1 ANTAGONISTS) it lacks central nervous system depressing effects such as drowsiness.Ticlopidine: An effective inhibitor of platelet aggregation commonly used in the placement of STENTS in CORONARY ARTERIES.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Carbamazepine: An anticonvulsant used to control grand mal and psychomotor or focal seizures. Its mode of action is not fully understood, but some of its actions resemble those of PHENYTOIN; although there is little chemical resemblance between the two compounds, their three-dimensional structure is similar.HIV Integrase Inhibitors: Inhibitors of HIV INTEGRASE, an enzyme required for integration of viral DNA into cellular DNA.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Chlorpromazine: The prototypical phenothiazine antipsychotic drug. Like the other drugs in this class chlorpromazine's antipsychotic actions are thought to be due to long-term adaptation by the brain to blocking DOPAMINE RECEPTORS. Chlorpromazine has several other actions and therapeutic uses, including as an antiemetic and in the treatment of intractable hiccup.Acenocoumarol: A coumarin that is used as an anticoagulant. Its actions and uses are similar to those of WARFARIN. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p233)Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors: Compounds that specifically inhibit the reuptake of serotonin in the brain.Medicine, Kampo: System of herbal medicine practiced in Japan by both herbalists and practitioners of modern medicine. Kampo originated in China and is based on Chinese herbal medicine (MEDICINE, CHINESE TRADITIONAL).HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Antidepressive Agents: Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.Pyrimidines: A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.Pharmacoepidemiology: The science concerned with the benefit and risk of drugs used in populations and the analysis of the outcomes of drug therapies. Pharmacoepidemiologic data come from both clinical trials and epidemiological studies with emphasis on methods for the detection and evaluation of drug-related adverse effects, assessment of risk vs benefit ratios in drug therapy, patterns of drug utilization, the cost-effectiveness of specific drugs, methodology of postmarketing surveillance, and the relation between pharmacoepidemiology and the formulation and interpretation of regulatory guidelines. (Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 1992;1(1); J Pharmacoepidemiol 1990;1(1))Receptors, Biogenic Amine: Cell surface proteins that bind biogenic amines with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells. Biogenic amine is a chemically imprecise term which, by convention, includes the catecholamines epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine, the indoleamine serotonin, the imidazolamine histamine, and compounds closely related to each of these.Trimetrexate: A nonclassical folic acid inhibitor through its inhibition of the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase. It is being tested for efficacy as an antineoplastic agent and as an antiparasitic agent against PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS patients. Myelosuppression is its dose-limiting toxic effect.Anti-Retroviral Agents: Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Drug Therapy, Computer-Assisted: Adjunctive computer programs in providing drug treatment to patients.Rifabutin: A broad-spectrum antibiotic that is being used as prophylaxis against disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection in HIV-positive patients.Methadone: A synthetic opioid that is used as the hydrochloride. It is an opioid analgesic that is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. It has actions and uses similar to those of MORPHINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1082-3)FluorobenzenesAntibiotics, Antitubercular: Substances obtained from various species of microorganisms that are, alone or in combination with other agents, of use in treating various forms of tuberculosis; most of these agents are merely bacteriostatic, induce resistance in the organisms, and may be toxic.Theophylline: A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.Education, Pharmacy, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform graduate pharmacists of recent advances in their particular field.Oxazines: Six-membered heterocycles containing an oxygen and a nitrogen.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cyclosporine: A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Omeprazole: A 4-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyridyl, 5-methoxybenzimidazole derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits an H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Serotonin Syndrome: An adverse drug interaction characterized by altered mental status, autonomic dysfunction, and neuromuscular abnormalities. It is most frequently caused by use of both serotonin reuptake inhibitors and monoamine oxidase inhibitors, leading to excess serotonin availability in the CNS at the serotonin 1A receptor.Education, Pharmacy, Graduate: Educational programs for pharmacists who have a bachelor's degree or a Doctor of Pharmacy degree entering a specific field of pharmacy. They may lead to an advanced degree.Calcium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.Organic Anion Transporters, Sodium-Independent: A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS that do not rely directly or indirectly upon sodium ion gradients for the transport of organic ions.Oxycodone: A semisynthetic derivative of CODEINE.Simvastatin: A derivative of LOVASTATIN and potent competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It may also interfere with steroid hormone production. Due to the induction of hepatic LDL RECEPTORS, it increases breakdown of LDL CHOLESTEROL.Steroid 16-alpha-Hydroxylase: A liver microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 16-alpha-hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme is encoded by a number of genes from several CYP2 subfamilies.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Probenecid: The prototypical uricosuric agent. It inhibits the renal excretion of organic anions and reduces tubular reabsorption of urate. Probenecid has also been used to treat patients with renal impairment, and, because it reduces the renal tubular excretion of other drugs, has been used as an adjunct to antibacterial therapy.Benzimidazoles: Compounds with a BENZENE fused to IMIDAZOLES.2-Pyridinylmethylsulfinylbenzimidazoles: Compounds that contain benzimidazole joined to a 2-methylpyridine via a sulfoxide linkage. Several of the compounds in this class are ANTI-ULCER AGENTS that act by inhibiting the POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE found in the PROTON PUMP of GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.Lovastatin: A fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Aspergillus terreus. The compound is a potent anticholesteremic agent. It inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It also stimulates the production of low-density lipoprotein receptors in the liver.Amiodarone: An antianginal and class III antiarrhythmic drug. It increases the duration of ventricular and atrial muscle action by inhibiting POTASSIUM CHANNELS and VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS. There is a resulting decrease in heart rate and in vascular resistance.Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.SulfonesPyrroles: Azoles of one NITROGEN and two double bonds that have aromatic chemical properties.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Prescription Drugs: Drugs that cannot be sold legally without a prescription.ThiophenesOrganic Anion Transport Protein 1: A polyspecific transporter for organic cations found primarily in the kidney. It mediates the coupled exchange of alpha-ketoglutarate with organic ions such as P-AMINOHIPPURIC ACID.Cyclohexanes: Six-carbon alicyclic hydrocarbons.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Fentanyl: A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)Pyridines: Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.Drug Evaluation: Any process by which toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, preferred route of administration, safe dosage range, etc., for a drug or group of drugs is determined through clinical assessment in humans or veterinary animals.Valproic Acid: A fatty acid with anticonvulsant properties used in the treatment of epilepsy. The mechanisms of its therapeutic actions are not well understood. It may act by increasing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in the brain or by altering the properties of voltage dependent sodium channels.Glucuronides: Glycosides of GLUCURONIC ACID formed by the reaction of URIDINE DIPHOSPHATE GLUCURONIC ACID with certain endogenous and exogenous substances. Their formation is important for the detoxification of drugs, steroid excretion and BILIRUBIN metabolism to a more water-soluble compound that can be eliminated in the URINE and BILE.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Healthy Volunteers: Persons with no known significant health problems who are recruited to participate in research to test a new drug, device, or intervention as controls for a patient group. (from http://clinicalcenter.nih.gov/recruit/volunteers.html, accessed 2/14/2013)Computers, Handheld: A type of MICROCOMPUTER, sometimes called a personal digital assistant, that is very small and portable and fitting in a hand. They are convenient to use in clinical and other field situations for quick data management. They usually require docking with MICROCOMPUTERS for updates.Tacrolimus: A macrolide isolated from the culture broth of a strain of Streptomyces tsukubaensis that has strong immunosuppressive activity in vivo and prevents the activation of T-lymphocytes in response to antigenic or mitogenic stimulation in vitro.Heptanoic Acids: 7-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.PiperazinesAntiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Fluconazole: Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.Amsacrine: An aminoacridine derivative that intercalates into DNA and is used as an antineoplastic agent.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Drug Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.Pyrones: Keto-pyrans.Indinavir: A potent and specific HIV protease inhibitor that appears to have good oral bioavailability.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.QuinolinesFluvoxamine: A selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor that is used in the treatment of DEPRESSION and a variety of ANXIETY DISORDERS.Pharmacy Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the receiving, storing, and distribution of pharmaceutical supplies.Dextromethorphan: Methyl analog of DEXTRORPHAN that shows high affinity binding to several regions of the brain, including the medullary cough center. This compound is an NMDA receptor antagonist (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and acts as a non-competitive channel blocker. It is one of the widely used ANTITUSSIVES, and is also used to study the involvement of glutamate receptors in neurotoxicity.Caco-2 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Organophosphonates: Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Drug Discovery: The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.
Inhibitory innervation of cat sphincter of Oddi. (1/10578)1 Electrical stimulation with trains of 0.1-0.2 ms pulses of the cat isolated sphincter of Oddi inhibited the spontaneous contractile activity and lowered base-line tension considerably. A contraction usually followed the period of stimulation. 2 These inhibitory effects were prevented by tetrodotoxin 0.1-0.5 mug/ml but were not reduced by hexamethonilm, morphine, or blockade of alpha- or beta-adrenoreceptors of cholinoceptors with phenoxy-benzamine propranolol or atropine, respectively. 3 Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine-5'-diphosphate (ADP) inhibited the spontaneous sphincter activity and caused relaxation thus mimicking the effects of the C-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin (C8-CCK), isoprenaline and prostaglandin E1 and E2. 4 ATP alone (greater than 100 mug/ml) or ATP (greater than 10 mug/ml) plus dipyridamole (1 mug/ml), relaxed the sphincter to the same degrees as did the field stimulation. 5 In sphincter maximally contracted by acetylcholine, the effect of stimulation was more marked than that recorded in uncontracted preparations. 6 The present findings suggest that the sphincter of Oddi receives inhibitory nerves that are neither cholinergic nor adrenergic. (+info)
Effect of morphine and naloxone on priming-induced audiogenic seizures in BALB/c mice. (2/10578)1 Morphine (1-200 mg/kg s.c.) reduced the incidence and prolonged the latency of priming-induced audiogenic siezures in a dose-dependent manner. 2 This effect was reversed by naloxone (1 and 2 mg/kg) although naloxone was itself inactive. 3 This priming-induces seizure model may be useful in the study of tolerance and physical dependence. (+info)
Carcinogenicity of triethanolamine in mice and its mutagenicity after reaction with sodium nitrite in bacteria. (3/10578)Mice fed a diet containing 0.3 or 0.03% triethanolamine developed malignant tumors. Females showed a high incidence of tumors in lymphoid tissues, while this type was absent in males. Tumors in other tissues were produced at a considerable rate in both sexes, but no hepatoma was found. Triethanolamine was not mutagenic to Bacillus subtilis by itself, but it became mutagenic after reacting with sodium nitrite under acidic conditions or when the mixture was heated. Although N-nitrosodiethanolamine, a known carcinogen and mutagen, was detected in the reaction mixture by thin-layer chromatography, it may not be the main mutagenic product, because the product was a stable and direct mutagen and its mutagenic activity was destroyed by liver enzymes, unlike N-nitrosodiethanolamine. The lethal and mutagenic DNA damages produced by this unidentified product were susceptible to some extent to the repair functions of the bacteria. (+info)
Determination of pyrolysis products of smoked methamphetamine mixed with tobacco by tandem mass spectrometry. (4/10578)This study examines the pyrolysis products of smoked methamphetamine mixed with tobacco that was trapped with a C8 adsorbent cartridge and then detected by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. According to the results, the mainstream smoke contains 2-methylpropyl-benzene, 2-chloropropyl-benzene, 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one, 3-ethyl-phenol, methamphetamine, dimethylamphetamine, hydroquinone, 3-methyl-5-(1-methylethyl)-methylcarbamate phenol, N-methyl-N-(2-phenylethyl)-acetamide, 4-(3-hydroxy-1-butenyl)-3,5,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexene-1-one, propanoic acid, N-acetylmethamphetamine, phenyl ester, and furfurylmethylamphetamine. In addition, the compounds in sidestream smoke are 2-propenyl benzene, phenylacetone, methamphetamine, dimethylamphetamine, benzyl methyl ketoxime, 3,4-dihydro-2-naphthalenone, N-folmyamphetamine, N-acetylamphetamine, bibenzyl, N-folmylmethamphetamine, N-acetylmethamphetamine, N-propionymethamphetamine, and furfurylmethylamphetamine. Moreover, the presence of methamphetamine promotes the oxidation of the tobacco components. (+info)
Distinct and combined vascular effects of ACE blockade and HMG-CoA reductase inhibition in hypertensive subjects. (5/10578)Hypercholesterolemia and hypertension are frequently associated with elevated sympathetic activity. Both are independent cardiovascular risk factors and both affect endothelium-mediated vasodilation. To identify the effects of cholesterol-lowering and antihypertensive treatments on vascular reactivity and vasodilative capacity, we studied 30 hypercholesterolemic hypertensive subjects. They received placebo for 4 weeks, either enalapril or simvastatin for 14 weeks, and, finally, both medications for an additional 14 weeks. Postischemic forearm blood flow (MFBF) and minimal vascular resistance (mFVR) were used as indices of vasodilative capacity and structural vascular damage, respectively. Total (resting-stress-recovery phases) cardiovascular (blood pressure [BP] and heart rate [HR]) and regional hemodynamic (FBF and FVR) reactivity to stressful stimuli were calculated as area-under-the-curve (auc) (valuextime). Compared with baseline levels, simvastatin reduced total (TOT-C) and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) (1.27 mmol/L, P<0.001 and 1.33 mmol/L, P<0.001, respectively). Enalapril also reduced TOT-C and LDL-C (0.6 mmol/L, P<0.001 and 0.58 mmol/L, P<0.05, respectively). MFBF was increased substantially by both treatments (P<0.001). Enalapril had a greater effect (-1.7 arbitrary units (AU), P<0.001) than simvastatin (-0.6 AU, P<0.05) on mFVR. During stress, FBF increased more with enalapril (4.4 FBFxminutes, P<0.001) than with simvastatin (1.8 FBFxminutes, P<0.01). Conversely, FVR stress response was reduced more with enalapril (9.1 FVRxminutes, P<0.001) than with simvastatin (2.9 FVRxminutes, P<0.01). During combination treatment, a significant (0.001>P<0.05) additive effect on hypercholesterolemia, structural vascular damage, BP, and FVR was shown. The findings suggest that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition induces a larger reduction than HMG-CoA reductase blockade in vascular reactivity and structural damage in hypercholesterolemic hypertensive subjects. (+info)
Ergoline derivative LEK-8829-induced turning behavior in rats with unilateral striatal ibotenic acid lesions: interaction with bromocriptine. (6/10578)LEK-8829 [9,10-didehydro-N-methyl-(2-propynyl)-6-methyl-8- aminomethylergoline bimaleinate] is an antagonist of dopamine D2 receptors and serotonin (5-HT)2 and 5-HT1A receptors in intact animals and a D1 receptor agonist in dopamine-depleted animals. In the present study, we used rats with unilateral striatal lesions with ibotenic acid (IA) to investigate the dopamine receptor activities of LEK-8829 in a model with innervated dopamine receptors. The IA-lesioned rats circled ipsilaterally when challenged with apomorphine, the mixed agonist on D1/D2 receptors. LEK-8829 induced a dose-dependent contralateral turning that was blocked by D1 receptor antagonist SCH-23390. The treatment with D1 receptor agonist SKF-82958 induced ipsilateral turning, whereas the treatment with D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol induced contralateral posture. The combined treatment with SKF-82958 and haloperidol resulted in a weak contralateral turning, indicating the possible receptor mechanism of contralateral turning induced by LEK-8829. Bromocriptine induced a weak ipsilateral turning that was blocked by haloperidol. The ipsilateral turning induced by bromocriptine was significantly potentiated by the coadministration of a low dose but not by a high dose of LEK-8829. The potentiation of turning was blocked either by SCH-23390 or by haloperidol. The potentiation of ipsilateral turning suggests the costimulation of D2 and D1 receptors by bromocriptine and LEK-8829, respectively, whereas the lack of potentiation by the highest dose of LEK-8829 may be explained by the opposing activity of LEK-8829 and bromocriptine at D2 receptors. We propose that the D2 and 5HT2 receptor-blocking and D1 receptor-stimulating profile of LEK-8829 is promising for the treatment of negative symptoms of schizophrenia. (+info)
Discriminative stimulus effects of naltrexone after a single dose of morphine in the rat. (7/10578)The discriminative stimulus effects of an acute morphine (MOR) --> naltrexone (NTX) combination were characterized and compared with the stimulus effects of NTX-precipitated and spontaneous withdrawal from chronic MOR administration. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6-8) were trained to discriminate between two drug treatments in a discrete-trial avoidance/escape procedure: MOR (10 mg./kg, s.c., 4 h) --> NTX (0.3 mg/kg, s.c., 0.25 h) versus saline (SAL, 1 ml/kg, s. c., 4 h) --> NTX (0.3 mg/kg, s.c., 0.25 h). Subjects responded only on the SAL --> NTX-appropriate lever when SAL was given 3.75 h after MOR or 3.75 h before any dose of NTX (0.3-100 mg/kg). Responding was dose dependent and MOR --> NTX-appropriate when NTX (0.01-0.1 mg/kg) followed MOR. Full MOR --> NTX-appropriate responding was dependent on the pretreatment dose and time of MOR, with full effects observed only when MOR (10 mg/kg) was given 3 to 4 h before NTX. While subjects were maintained on either 20- or 40 mg/kg/day of MOR via osmotic pump, NTX produced full dose-dependent, MOR --> NTX-appropriate responding. When the MOR-filled pumps were removed, partial MOR --> NTX-appropriate responding occurred, peaking at 6 to 12 h. The physical withdrawal signs produced by NTX after acute or during chronic MOR exposure were of smaller magnitude compared with the ones that occurred during abrupt withdrawal from chronic MOR. A qualitatively unique "withdrawal" stimulus that is dose- and time-dependent appears to be the basis of this MOR --> NTX discrimination. (+info)
Issues in the treatment of active tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. (8/10578)Most HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis can be treated satisfactorily with standard regimens with expectations of good results. Treatment of tuberculosis in these patients has been complicated by the introduction of HAART, which relies on drugs that interfere with the most potent class of antituberculous medications. Rifampin-free regimens or regimens that employ rifabutin may be acceptable strategies for patients who are receiving protease inhibitors, although these regimens have not been rigorously evaluated in patients with AIDS. At present, there is good reason to believe that a 6-month course of a rifabutin-containing regimen or a 9-12-month course of a regimen of streptomycin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide should be adequate therapy for most patients with drug-susceptible disease. As the treatment of HIV infection with antiretroviral agents evolves, the treatment of tuberculosis in patients with AIDS is likely to evolve as well. This will require careful coordination of antituberculosis and antiretroviral therapies. (+info)
Medicines | Free Full-Text | Studies on Pharmacokinetic Drug Interaction Potential of Vinpocetine
Background: Vinpocetine, a semi-synthetic derivative of vincamine, is a popular dietary supplement used for the treatment of several central nervous system related disorders. Despite its wide use, no pharmacokinetic drug interaction studies are reported in the literature. Due to increasing use of dietary supplements in combination with conventional drugs, the risk of adverse effects is on the rise. As a preliminary step to predict a possibility of drug interaction during concomitant use of vinpocetine and conventional drugs, this study was carried out to evaluate the effects of vinpocetine on three main regulators of pharmacokinetic drug interactions namely, cytochromes P450 (CYPs), P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and Pregnane X receptor (PXR). Methods: Inhibition of CYPs was evaluated by employing recombinant enzymes. The inhibition of P-gp was determined by calcein-AM uptake method in transfected and wild type MDCKII cells. Modulation of PXR activity was monitored through a reporter gene assay in HepG2
The Prevalence of the Potential Drug-Drug Interactions Involving Anticancer Drugs in China: A Retrospective Study |...
Background: To survey the prevalence of potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between anticancer drugs and non-anticancer drugs and evaluate the risk factors associated with these drug-drug interactions in China. Methods: All discharged patients in the Department of Oncology were collected from Jun to Dec in 2016 with the Hospital Information System of the Chinese peoples Liberation Army General Hospital. Drugs were screened for interactions by Micromedex solutions database. Descriptive statistics were generated and logistic regression was used to identify the associated factors. Results: Among 6578 eligible patients, 1979 potential drug interactions were found in 1830 patients (27.82%). The most common drug-drug interaction was cisplatin and furosemide. Erlotinib was most likely to interact with various non-anticancer drugs. Most interactions were classified as pharmacodynamics (71.60%), major severity (97.02%) and were supported by fair documentation evidence (86.21%). In multivariate ...
Clinically Relevant Pharmacokinetic Drug Interactions With Second-Generation Antidepressants: An Update - PubMed
Surveillance of the potential drug-drug interactions in the medicine department of a tertiary care hospital<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Surveillance of the potential drug-drug interactions in the medicine department of a tertiary care hospital. AU - Soherwardi, S.. AU - Chogtu, B.. AU - Faizal, P.. N1 - Cited By :4 Export Date: 28 November 2017 Correspondence Address: Chogtu, B.; Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal, India; email: [email protected] Chemicals/CAS: acetylsalicylic acid, 493-53-8, 50-78-2, 53663-74-4, 53664-49-6, 63781-77-1; atorvastatin, 134523-00-5, 134523-03-8; ciprofloxacin, 85721-33-1; clopidogrel, 113665-84-2, 120202-66-6, 90055-48-4, 94188-84-8; cotrimoxazole, 8064-90-2; digoxin, 20830-75-5, 57285-89-9; furosemide, 54-31-9; gentamicin, 1392-48-9, 1403-66-3, 1405-41-0; insulin, 9004-10-8; iron, 14093-02-8, 53858-86-9, 7439-89-6; lamivudine, 134678-17-4, 134680-32-3; nicotinic acid, 54-86-4, 59-67-6; pantoprazole, 102625-70-7; ramipril, 87333-19-5; spironolactone, 52-01-7; terbutaline, 23031-25-6; theophylline, 58-55-9, 5967-84-0, 8055-07-0, ...
drugsdrugs: Propranolol decrease in blood pressure
Drug Interaction Comments Antipsychotic agents Potential pharmacodynamic interaction (additive (e.g., phenothiazines) hypotensive effect), especially with large doses of phenothiazines [a] Chlorpromazine Potential pharmacokinetic interaction (decreased propranolol clearance) [a] Thioridazine Potential pharmacokinetic interaction (decreased Concomitant use contraindicated  thioridazine metabolism).  Possible increased risk of serious, potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmias (e.g., torsades de pointes)  Haloperidol Potential pharmacodynamic interactions (hypotension and cardiac arrest) [a] Fluoxetine Potential pharmacokinetic interaction (decreased Caution recommended with concomitant propranolol metabolism); [272,273] complete heart use and in those with impaired block reported [272,273] cardiac conduction  Sympathomimetics Potential pharmacodynamic interaction (antagonism of Administer epinephrine with caution; β-adrenergic stimulating effects). [a] Very large decreased pulse ...
Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update: FDA Warns of Newly Discovered Potential Drug Interaction That May Reduce Effectiveness of a...
Pharmacokinetic Drug Interaction Study of Dapagliflozin and Valsartan or Simvastatin in Healthy Subjects - No Study Results...
SciELO - Public Health - Potential and clinical relevant drug-drug interactions among elderly from nursing homes: a multicentre...
8. Secoli SR, Figueras A, Lebrao ML, Lima FD, Santos JL. Risk of potential drug-drug interactions among Brazilian elderly: a population-based, cross-sectional study. Drugs Aging 2010; 27(9):759-770.-99. Liao HL, Chen JT, Ma TC, Chang YS. Analysis of drug-drug interactions (DDIs) in nursing homes in Central Taiwan. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2008; 47(1):99-107.,1818. Iniesta-Navalón C, Urbieta-Sanz E, Gascón-Cánovas JJ. Analysis of the drug interactions associated to domiciliary drug therapy in elderly hospitalized patients. Rev Clin Esp 2011; 211(7):344-351.. In our study, the presence of pDDIs is significantly associated with multiple disorders, a finding that correlates with the data in the literature11. Galindo-Ocaña J, Gil-Navarro MV, García-Morillo JS, Bernabeu-Wittel M, Ollero-Baturone M, Ortiz-Camuñez MA. Drug-drug interactions in multicentre polypathological polymedicated patients. Rev Clin Esp 2010; 210(6):270-278.,88. Secoli SR, Figueras A, Lebrao ML, Lima FD, Santos JL. Risk of ...
International Journal of Risk & Safety in Medicine - Volume 29, issue 1-2 - Journals - IOS Press
Authors: Priyanka, Poka Siva Sai Lakshmi , Varma, Danturulu Muralidhar , Immadisetti, Kavyasri , Rajesh, Radhakrishnan , Vidyasagar, Sudha , Guddattu, Vasudeva Article Type: Research Article Abstract: BACKGROUND: Greatest challenges for clinician is to recognize risk factors for clinically significant drug interactions (CSDIs). There is a lack of awareness about CSDIs among healthcare professionals in India. OBJECTIVE: To recognize all possible risk factors for drug-drug interactions (DDIs) and to identify clinically significant drug interactions (CSDIs), the prevalence, pattern of occurrence of DDIs in People Living with HIV (PLW-HIV) receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and concomitant medications. METHODS: A retrospective medical record review was carried out by clinical pharmacist with ethics committee approval. Case files of HIV patients receiving HAART with concomitant medications …were analyzed for CSDIs using University of Liverpool drug interaction database and CSDIs ...
Pharmacokinetic Drug Interaction between Carvedilol and Ticlopidine in Rats
This study was designed to investigate the effects of ticlopidine on the pharmacokinetics of carvedilol after oral or intravenous administration of carvedilol in rats. Carvedilol was administered orally (3 mg/kg) or intravenously (1 mg/kg) without or with oral administration of ticlopidine (4, 12 mg...
Download Clinical Pharmacokinetic And Pharmacodynamic Drug Interactions Associated With Antimalarials
This had despite Third download clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interactions associated with antimalarials during the time to expose the everyone. There may make furnished a download clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic of groups that were to the favor does we was in problematical Event Participants, searching our address to not address the trading and language of the programs and to only color that they should qualify managed to the Completion insights. For nonlinear download clinical pharmacokinetic and, the tune to offer long-term general lectures may give created to the further exchanges that tens targeted when missing Malia changes that was the notice &, definitely with volume to complex pages.
VX-950-TiDP24-C124: A Phase I Trial to Investigate the Potential Pharmacokinetic Interactions Between Telaprevir and Darunavir...
This is a Phase I, open-label, randomized (patients are assigned different treatments based on chance), 2-way crossover trial in 2 panels of healthy subjects to investigate the effect of steady-state darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/rtv) 600/100 mg b.i.d. (twice a day) or fosamprenavir/ritonavir (fAPV/rtv) 700/100 mg b.i.d. on the steady state pharmacokinetics (study of the bodily absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs) of telaprevir 750 mg q 8h and 1125 mg q12h, and vice versa.Telaprevir is being investigated for the treatment of HCV infection.The trial will enroll 40 subjects, divided over 2 panels of 20 subjects each. Subjects in Panel 1 will receive Treatments A and B, and subjects in Panel 2 will receive Treatments C and D, in a randomized order. In both panels, treatments will be separated by a washout period of at least 13 days. In Panel 1, Treatment A, subjects will receive telaprevir 750 mg q8h on Days 1 to 10, and telaprevir 1125 mg q12h on Days 11 to 13 with a morning ...
Adverse Drug Interactions: A Handbook for Prescribers, Second Edition 2nd Edition - SkuDra.Net
Adverse Drug Interactions: A Handbook for Prescribers assists clinicians by providing key information on potential adverse effects that can result from prescribing two or more drugs for simultaneous use.. Interactions that are likely to give rise to life-threatening conditions, and which must therefore be completely avoided, are clearly highlighted. Less threatening but nonetheless important interactions necessitating practical measures, such as frequent monitoring and advice to patients, are also discussed.. Presented in a user-friendly format, the book is organised by drug class and provides a brief summary of the mechanism underlying a particular interaction, alternative drugs lacking the same reactions that may be considered, and instructions for monitoring patients when adverse effects occur.. All interactions listed in the previous edition have been reviewed and updated using the latest information available. The clinical reality of the widespread use of potent medicines, whether ...
Hospitalized Adults: Respiratory Tract Infections: Tuberculosis | Infectious Diseases Management Program at UCSF
ID consultation is recommended.. Notify the SF Department of Public Health Tuberculosis Control at 415-206-8524 within one working day.. Guidelines for hospital discharge and follow-up and other resources at: http://www.sftbc.org/. Rifampin has numerous clinically significant drug interactions. Medication lists should be reviewed for potential drug-drug interactions with rifampin.. ...
Information needs for making clinical recommendations about potential drug-drug interactions: a synthesis of literature review...
Our review of 92 papers and interviews with ten domain experts provides a preliminary catalog of the types of information that are needed to interpret the importance of a PDDI. Although basic information on the drugs involved and the nature of the potential interaction are obvious starting points, more detail is needed to interpret the clinical importance of a PDDI. Contextual information, such as patient-specific risk factors and the likelihood of occurrence of a serious adverse event, is critical to guide useful recommendations. The quality, strength, relevance, and source of the evidence about an interaction matter as well: evidence from large clinical trials involving patients may be given more credence than in vitro experiments or data from animal studies.. Although many similar themes were identified both in the reviewed literature and in our interviews, the latter provided valuable insight into the process of interpreting evidence for PDDIs (Fig. 2). Experts described personalized and ...
Antiretroviral prescriptions with potential drug-drug interactions from general practitioners and specialists
IVPhD Pharmacology. Department of Pharmacology, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban To the Editor: It has been estimated that globally about 38.6 million people were infected with HIV by 2005,1 with about 5 million of them living in South Africa (SA). The World Health Organization estimated that 4.7 million people living in sub-Saharan Africa urgently needed antiretroviral therapy (ART). In that year SA implemented prescribed minimum benefits (PMBs) for HIV/AIDS in the private health care sector.2 Despite the increased availability and affordability of ART in SA, only 60 000 people were receiving ART through medical aid schemes by mid-2005.3 Antiretrovirals (ARVs) have transformed HIV/AIDS into a chronic disorder that can be managed effectively. The right of all HIVinfected adults and children to receive standard care is endorsed by the SA HIV Clinicians Society (SAHIVCS),4 with ART guidelines recommending different combinations. The rapid approval of new drugs resulted in an increased risk of ...
Higher Risk of Potential Drug-Drug Interactions in Toronto HIV Patients Over 60
The 60-and-over group took certain types of drugs significantly more often than younger people: drugs for gastrointestinal problems (63% versus 38%, P < 0.01), drugs for cardiovascular disease (55% versus 24%, P < 0.0001), anticoagulants or antiplatelets (18% versus 7%, P = 0.01), systemic hormonal agents (16% versus 5%, P = 0.01), musculoskeletal agents (24% versus 9%, P < 0.01), and narcotics or analgesics (39% versus 17%, P < 0.001). Anticonvulsant therapy was more frequent in the older group (16% versus 7%, P = 0.06), but older people took psychotropic agents at virtually the same rate as younger people (34% versus 30 ...
Drug Interaction Checker | Stony Brook Medicine
Drug interactions can result in unwanted side effects, reduce the effectiveness of your medicine or possibly increase the action of a particular medicine. Our Drug Interactions Report can help you determine if the drugs you are taking have any adverse interactions with each other, with over the counter drugs or with your favorite herbals and vitamins.. Search medications for potential drug interaction by entering either the Generic or Brand Name; example Acetaminophen or Tylenol®. ...
Drug Interaction Checker
Drug interactions can result in unwanted side effects, reduce the effectiveness of your medicine or possibly increase the action of a particular medicine. Our Drug Interactions Report can help you determine if the drugs you are taking have any adverse interactions with each other, with over the counter drugs or with your favorite herbals and vitamins.. Search medications for potential drug interaction by entering either the Generic or Brand Name; example Acetaminophen or Tylenol®. ...
Drug Interaction Checker
Drug interactions can result in unwanted side effects, reduce the effectiveness of your medicine or possibly increase the action of a particular medicine. Our Drug Interactions Report can help you determine if the drugs you are taking have any adverse interactions with each other, with over the counter drugs or with your favorite herbals and vitamins.. Search medications for potential drug interaction by entering either the Generic or Brand Name; example Acetaminophen or Tylenol®.. ...
TramadolBuy - Gravatar Profile
In opioid-tolerant patients, with ultram. Analgesia in humans, since exceeding these recommendations can result in significant drug interactions get a grip on rheumatoid arthritis slideshow take the ra quiz joint-friendly drug test tramadol exercises slideshow indications ultram er. -the er products should not be used in analgesia, ultram administration, the weight of tramadol decreased 28% and 16%, respectively, following a dose increase of 30% in order to achieve the same concentration at which it blocked the reuptake or tramadol a induce these enzymes will likely interact! Both tramadol and m1 (b) plasma concentrations of tramadol rx tramadol immediate-release (ir) products, including seizure tramadol food and all tramadol pills serotonin in vitro drug interaction studies in human liver microsomes indicate that tramadol was not teratogenic at these dose tramadol similar to levels up tramadol uses in humans to 150 mg/day n =59 13-days to 150 tramadol overdose buy cheap tramadol mg/kg/day ...
OPUS at UTS: Analysis of drug interactions at the end of life. - Open Publications of UTS Scholars
As death approaches, patients are at their most frail, but an increasing symptom burden often necessitates an increase in medications, putting them at higher risk for drug-drug interactions.To assess the potential for drug-drug interactions in routine prescribing at the end of life.An Australian retrospective multicentre case-note review of 266 consecutive adult patients who were referred to specialist palliative care, with data available on 166. Medications used in the last 2 weeks of life were screened for potential interactions using the Stockleys Drug Interactions software.The mean number of medications prescribed was 10.8, median 9 (IQR 6-14); all patients received at least one medication. In this study, 72% of patients were at risk of 1 or more potential drug-drug interaction. The mean number of potential interactions was 4.4, with a median of 2.5 (IQR 0-7) per patient. There were only 4/166 (2.4%) prescribed medications with an associated clinical record of an adverse drug ...
Possible drug interactions for Methadone - Addiction: Substance Abuse - MedHelp
Drug Interactions of Medications Commonly Used in Diabetes | Diabetes Spectrum
Short-acting secretagogues. Nateglinide, which is metabolized by CYP2C9 (70%) and CYP3A4 (30%), could be affected by strong inhibitors/inducers of CYP2C9, but significant drug-drug interactions have not been reported. Repaglinide is metabolized by the CYP3A4 and CYP2C8 isozyme systems and then extensively glucuronidated. A serious drug-drug interaction may occur with gemfibrozil, which is used for triglyceride lowering. This is likely caused by gemfibrozils inhibition of CYP2C8 and glucuronidation. In vivo, gemfibrozil increases the total exposure of repaglinide eightfold.21 Several reports of severe, prolonged hypoglycemia have been documented with the combination.22 Strong inhibitors of CYP3A4, such as azole antifungal agents and erythromycin derivatives, may also enhance the hypoglycemic effect of repaglinide. Drugs that are inducers of CYP2C8/3A4 may reduce the efficacy of repaglinide, and a higher dose of repaglinide may be necessary23 (Table 2).. The main drug-disease interaction of ...
5-HTP Possible Drug Interactions
Prevacid.. possible drug interaction? Or...
NNRTI Drug Interactions | Drug-Drug Interactions | Adult and Adolescent ARV | AIDSinfo
Table 18b. Drug Interactions Between Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors and Other Drugs. This table provides information relating to PK interactions between NNRTIs and non-ARV drugs. For interactions between ARV agents and for dosing recommendations, refer to Tables 18c, 19a, and 19b. Recommendations for managing a particular drug interaction may differ depending on whether a new ARV drug is being initiated in a patient on a stable concomitant medication or if a new concomitant medication is being initiated in a patient on a stable ARV regimen. The magnitude and significance of drug interactions are difficult to predict when several drugs with competing metabolic pathways are prescribed concomitantly. Note: Delavirdine (DLV) is not included in this table. Please refer to the DLV Food and Drug Administration package insert for information regarding drug interactions. ...
Guide on Drug interactions of Xenical pill
Relypsa Announces Publication of Results of Veltassa Drug-Drug Interaction Studies in Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology...
REDWOOD CITY, Calif., Feb. 13, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Relypsa, Inc., a Vifor Pharma company, today announced that results of drug-drug interaction studies of Veltassa® (patiromer) for oral suspension were published online by the Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics. Results from 12 individual Phase 1 studies in healthy volunteers of 12 oral medications showed there were no clinically meaningful or statistically significant interactions between Veltassa and the 12 oral medications when taken at least three hours apart. Relypsa previously announced these findings in January 2016. "These Phase 1 studies in healthy volunteers were rigorously designed to maximize the probability of identifying drug-drug interactions with Veltassa if they were to occur," said Lawrence J. Lesko, Ph.D., lead author of the publication, and Professor and Director of the Center for Pharmacometrics and Systems Pharmacology at the University of Florida College of Pharmacy in Orlando, Fla. "We believe ...
Insights into Drug-Related Interactions in Older Adults - The Rheumatologist
Outcome factors were potential drug-disease and drug-drug interactions identified by using particular criteria from various sources, as well as self-reported non-prescription and prescription drug use. Explicit criteria for 70 potential drug-drug interactions developed by geriatric experts and reactions found to be a cause for drug-related hospitalizations were used.. The findings showed that 34% of patients (34.1%) had at least one interaction, while 25.1% had at least one drug-drug interaction. Also, 10.7% of patients who had a drug-drug interaction involved a non-prescription drug. Sixteen percent of patients had a potential drug-disease interaction, with at least 37% of those reactions involving a non-prescription drug.. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and anti-hypertensive agents were the most common drug-drug interaction. Aspirin/NSAID use in patients with a history of peptic ulcer disease without the use of gastro-protection (4.3%) was the most common drug-disease ...
Trileptal 300 zamiennik
Investigation of terbinafine as a CYP2D6 inhibitor in vivo. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2007;63(2):159-63. Prolonged pharmacokinetic drug interaction between terbinafine and amitriptyline. Desipramine pharmacokinetics when coadministered with paroxetine or sertraline in extensive metabolizers. Decreased plasma levels of amitriptyline and its metabolites on comedication with an extract from St. Am J Med Sci 2004; 327: 109-11. Ther Drug Monit 2005;27:680-2 DosetilpasningAnslagsvis 50-70% reduksjon av amitriptylin mens terbinafinbehandlingen pågår. Skjelbo EF, Brøsen K. Johns wort. Bivirkninger. trileptal 300 zamiennik Drug trileptal 300 zamiennik Metab Dispos 1999;27:770-5 Castberg I, et al. No Klinisk konsekvensØkt serumkonsentrasjon av trisykliske antidepressiva (inntil trileptal 300 zamiennik 2-4 ganger i interaksjonsstudier med tertiære aminer som klokmipramin og amitriptylin, trolig langt mindre økning for sekundære aminer som nortriptylin), økt risiko tamiflu zamiennik for bivirkninger. ...
A study evaluating drug drug interactions between cobicistat-boosted elvitegravir and darunavir in HIV-infected patients. -...
The effect of comedication with conventional synthetic disease modifying antirheumatic drugs on TNF inhibitor drug survival in...
While there has been some indication that csDMARDs comedication with TNFi is of no additional value in AS,16 ,18-21 this is not a question that has been extensively studied. Keeping in mind that the effect of comedication is of unequivocal importance in RA and that there also is some evidence supporting a benefit in PsA,5 ,7 we set out to study this question in AS and uSpA. When adjusting for potential confounders we found a statistically significant beneficial effect of csDMARD comedication on TNFi drug survival both in AS and in uSpA. The effect was more pronounced in AS (HR 0.71) compared with uSpA (HR 0.82), and present both for MTX and other csDMARDs in AS, while in the uSpA group we could only find an effect for MTX. Due to missing data we chose to adjust for measures of disease activity in separate models (table 3), in which the association with csDMARD comedication remained stable or tended to be strengthened.. Although the available data are limited, the efficacy of csDMARDs in axial ...
Metabolism is the enzymatic modification of drugs and other xenobiotics, usually to increase clearance. It is a determinant of oral bioavailability, clearance, and half-life in vivo. Metabolism occurs predominantly in the liver and may also occur in the intestine or other organs.. Evaluation of an NMEs drug-drug interaction potential is an integral part of drug development and regulatory review prior to market approval. Many metabolic routes of elimination, including most of those occurring through the cytochrome P450 family of enzymes, can be inhibited or induced by concomitant drug treatment. An NME must be characterized both in terms of the enzymatic pathway(s) by which it is metabolized and in terms of the effects it may have on the metabolism of other drugs. If positive, the latter is an example of a pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction.. Observed changes arising from metabolic drug-drug interactions can be substantial - an order of magnitude or more decrease or increase in the blood or ...
Simulation of Clinical Drug-drug Interactions from Hepatocyte CYP3A4 Induction Data and Its Potential Utility in Trial Designs ...
Rifampin and carbamazepine have been recommended in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration draft drug interaction guidance as CYP3A4 inducers for clinical drug-drug interaction (DDI) studies. To optimize the dose regimens of these inducers for use in DDI studies, their effect at various doses and dosing durations on the
This study describes the results of 99mTc-sestamibi imaging studies in patients enrolled in a Phase I trial of XR9576, a potent and specific Pgp antagonist currently undergoing evaluation as a modulator of multidrug resistance (4 , 5) . A single 150-mg dose of XR9576 inhibited efflux of 99mTc-sestamibi from the normal liver and from tumors at various sites in patients with drug resistant cancers. The observation that accumulation of 99mTc-sestamibi in tumors could be enhanced by XR9576 provides strong evidence of the expression of the Pgp drug efflux pump in patients tumors. Previous Pgp antagonists have been hampered by either a lack of potency, the occurrence of dose-limiting side effects, or the need to reduce the dose of chemotherapy because of pharmacokinetic drug interactions (10, 11, 12, 13) . Because XR9576 and other third generation Pgp blockers appear to be more potent and selective Pgp inhibitors, it should now be possible to properly test the value of blocking Pgp clinically. We ...
USA RX: Cialis au canada reliable pills!
Let him or her input into the nature of the brain, anticipate slowed bowel motility are the same conditions that support the client. Consult your doctor, if your symptoms persist. Trusting relationship decreases need for anticipatory guidance. If, despite taking these measures, people with a mild rash to severe depression are characteristic, existing data with the client, family, and school. A number of clinically significant drug interactions with others and include nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea 3. Ulcerative colitis have you recently given birth. The definitive clinical diagnosis of antipsychotic overdose that seems to be barriers to action is less than this amount by altering hormonal levels (estrogen and progesterone) in late pregnancy. Recognizing and/or acknowledging feelings may be due to illness support services, foster grandparents, volunteers, child protective services will best provide for possible secondary surgical revision or repair. 118) may also indicate an underlying cause. ...
Researchers Say 30% of Patients Taking Opioids Experience Adverse Drug Interactions | NEWS-Line for Mental Health...
The concern we have is that patients may not get the proper amount of pain relief due to an undetected interaction with some other medication theyre taking," says Kevin Bain, MPH, PharmD, co-founder and medical director at Biophilia Partners and lead author on this article. "That can lead to them taking higher doses of their prescribed opioid and more frequently, which over time can lead to a substance use disorder or even an overdose ...
PI Drug Interactions | Adult and Adolescent ARV | AIDSinfo
Table 18a. Drug Interactions Between Protease Inhibitors and Other Drugs. This table provides known or predicted information regarding PK interactions between PIs and non-ARV drugs. When information is available, interactions for specific PK-boosted (with either RTV or COBI) and unboosted ATV are listed separately. The term "All PIs" refers to both unboosted ATV and PIs boosted with either RTV or COBI, except the PIs noted below. For interactions between ARV agents and for dosing recommendations, refer to Tables 18c, 19a, and 19b. Recommendations for managing a particular drug interaction may differ depending on whether a new ARV drug is being initiated in a patient on a stable concomitant medication or if a new concomitant medication is being initiated in a patient on a stable ARV regimen. The magnitude and significance of drug interactions are difficult to predict when several drugs with competing metabolic pathways are prescribed concomitantly. Note: Fosamprenavir (FPV), indinavir (IDV), ...
GLECAPREVIR AND PIBRENTASVIR INTERACTIONS WITH COMBINATION ANTIRETROVIRAL REGIMENS | CROI Conference
The direct acting antiviral combination of glecaprevir (GLE; formerly ABT-493), a NS3/4 protease inhibitor discovered by AbbVie and Enanta, and pibrentasvir (PIB; formerly ABT-530), a NS5A inhibitor, is being developed to treat chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 to 6 infection. Current guidelines recommend that HCV/HIV co-infected patients be treated the same as HCV mono-infected patients, with considerations for potential drug-drug interactions (DDI) with antiretrovirals. Elvitegravir (ELV)/cobicistat (COBI)/ emtricitabine (FTC)/tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) or abacavir (ABC)/dolutegravir (DTG)/ lamivudine (3TC) are recommended combination antiretroviral regimens . A Phase 1 DDI study was conducted to evaluate pharmacokinetics, tolerability, and safety of GLE + PIB coadministered with ELV/COBI/FTC/TAF or DTG/ABC/3TC.. An open label, multiple-dose study was conducted in healthy adult subjects receiving GLE 300 mg QD + PIB 120 mg QD with ELV/COBI/FTC/ TAF 150/150/200/10 mg QD (n=24, Arm 1) ...
Drug Interaction Facts 2014 The Authority on Drug Interactions : Teensexmovs baffy teenmegaworld
Includes information about clinical trials, latest news, drug interactions, and a pill identifier.. Very quick and dirty reference with ample literature to back up their recommendations.Reviewed by a panel of physicians, pharmacologists, and clinical pharmacists,.I had a hard time understanding it, gave it to a nurse friend.Drug Interaction Facts 2014 The Authority On Drug Interactions Document about Drug Interaction Facts 2014 The Authority On Drug Interactions is available on print and digital edition.Drug Interaction Facts 2013: The Authority on Drug Interactions by David S. Tatro. our price 5,124, Save Rs. 1,543. Buy Drug Interaction Facts 2013: The Authority on.. August 19, 2014 Page 3of 18 Signatory Authority Review Template. be achieved with significant drug-drug interactions.Learn about Palladone (Hydromorphone Hydrochloride Extended-release Capsules) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling.Drug Interaction Facts 2011the Authority On Drug ...
Analysis of drug use and drug-drug interactions in a total population sample of adults with intellectual disability -...
Introduction: Prescribing drugs is the most common intervention in healthcare. People with intellectual disabilities are likely to be prescribed more drugs than other individuals as they experience greater levels of ill‐health. Most available evidence focuses on psychotropic drug prescribing, with an absence of population‐level research on complete prescribing occurrences and potential drug-drug interactions in persons with intellectual disabilities. Methods: A total population sampling approach identified all individuals with intellectual disabilities known to services in Jersey ‐ 217 individuals participated. Prescribed drug data were categorised according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system and potential drug-drug interactions were graded according to severity using Stockleys Drug Interaction Checker. Results: As our analysis is ongoing, we cannot outline firm conclusions at this stage. Nevertheless, our results will; (1) outline the pattern and ...
Mathematical and physical systems biology: application to pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions and tumour growth -...
The first part of this research provides a realistic mathematical physiological model of the liver to predict drug drug interactions (DDIs). The model describes the geometry of a lobule (liver unit) and integrates the exchange processes, diffusion and active transport, between the hepatocytes and the blood and possible drug-drug interactions such as; reversible inhibition, mechanistic based inhibition (MBI) and enzyme induction. The liver model is subsequently integrated into a PBPK model with 7 compartments (artery blood, venous blood, gut, liver, kidney, lung, rest of the body). To assess the efficiency of the model to predict DDIs, 77 clinical DDI studies were compared to the model. These 77 clinical studies represent 5 victim drugs (midazolam, simvastatin, triazolam, cerivastatin and nifedipine) and 30 perpetrator drugs. The reversible inhibition, MBI and induction parameters for the majority of the perpetrators were estimated with in vitro experiments and adjusted for the human liver size. ...
Frontiers | A Novel Selective JAK2 Inhibitor Identified Using Pharmacological Interactions | Pharmacology
The JAK2/STAT signaling pathway mediates cytokine receptor signals that are involved in cell growth, survival and homeostasis. JAK2 is a member of the Janus kinase (JAK) family and aberrant JAK2/STAT is involved with various diseases, making the pathway a therapeutic target. The similarity between the ATP binding site of protein kinases has made development of specific inhibitors difficult. Current JAK2 inhibitors are not selective and produce unwanted side effects. It is thought that increasing selectivity of kinase inhibitors may reduce the side effects seen with current treatment options. Thus, there is a great need for a selective JAK inhibitor. In this study, we identified a JAK2 specific inhibitor. We first identified key pharmacological interactions in the JAK2 binding site by analyzing known JAK2 inhibitors. Then, we performed structure-based virtual screening and filtered compounds based on their pharmacological interactions and identified compound NSC13626 as a potential JAK2 inhibitor.
Evaluating the disposition of a mixed aldehyde oxidase/cytochrome P450 substrate in rats with attenuated P450 activity<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evaluating the disposition of a mixed aldehyde oxidase/cytochrome P450 substrate in rats with attenuated P450 activity. AU - Crouch, Rachel D.. AU - Morrison, Ryan D.. AU - Byers, Frank W.. AU - Lindsley, Craig W.. AU - Emmitte, Kyle Allen. AU - Daniels, J. Scott. PY - 2016/8/1. Y1 - 2016/8/1. N2 - Marketed drugs cleared by aldehyde oxidase (AO) are few, with no known clinically relevant pharmacokinetic drug interactions associated with AO inhibition, whereas cytochrome P450 (P450) inhibition or induction mediates a number of clinical drug interactions. Little attention has been given to the consequences of coadministering a P450 inhibitor with a compound metabolized by both AO and P450. Upon discovering that VU0409106 (1) was metabolized by AO (to M1) and P450 enzymes (to M4-M6), we sought to evaluate the in vivo disposition of 1 and its metabolites in rats with attenuated P450 activity. Male rats were orally pretreated with the pan-P450 inactivator, 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT), ...
Potential for Drug-Drug Interactions between Antiretrovirals and HCV Direct Acting Antivirals in a Large Cohort of HIV/HCV...
Objectives Development of direct acting antivirals (DAA) offers new benefits for patients with chronic hepatitis C. The combination of these drugs with antiretroviral treatment (cART) is a real challenge in HIV/HCV coinfected patients. The aim of this study was to describe potential drug-drug interactions between DAAs and antiretroviral drugs in a cohort of HIV/HCV coinfected patients. Methods Cross-sectional study of all HIV/HCV coinfected patients attending at least one visit in 2012 in the multicenter French DatAIDS cohort. A simulation of drug-drug interactions between antiretroviral treatment and DAAs available in 2015 was performed. Results Of 16,634 HIV-infected patients, 2,511 had detectable anti-HCV antibodies, of whom 1,196 had a detectable HCV-RNA and were not receiving HCV treatment at the time of analysis. 97.1% of these patients were receiving cART and 81.2% had a plasma HIV RNA |50 copies/mL. cART included combinations of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors with a boosted
FRI0450 Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitor Treatment in Psoriatic Arthritis: Need for Co-Medication? | Annals of the Rheumatic...
Results Among 371 PsA patients being treated with TNFi, 145 received csDMARD co-medication; 58/118 with etanercept, 48/106 with adalimumab, 21/47 with certolizumab and 18/47 with golimumab, respectively. Mean (SD) age was 54.0 (11.5) years, disease duration 13.1 (9.1) years, years of education 12.9 (3.4), body mass index (BMI) 27.1 (4.3) kg/m2, baseline DAS28 4.1 (1.4), 45.7% were female. Baseline characteristics were similar for patients with and without co-medication, except for a higher percentage of first time TNFi users (67.6%) compared to previous TNFi users (32.4%) in the co-medication group, p=0.001. Drug survival of TNFi was similar for patients receiving versus not receiving concomitant csDMARDs (log rank test p=0,181, figure). In the Cox regression analysis identified predictors for TNFi discontinuation were previous use of TNFi (HR 1.68, 95% CI 1.25-2.26, p,0.001) and TNFi type (p,0.001). Separate analyses for first time TNFi users did not change the primary outcome. Separate ...
Dangerous Drug Interactions Are a Public Health Crisis | Steinberg, Goodman & Kalish
Levaquin / Cipro / Avelox: Small But Significant Increased Risk Of Acute Kidney Injury Among Men According To Recent Study -...
In Addition, A Significant Drug-Drug Interaction Between The Concomitant Use Of Fluoroquinolones And Renin-Angiotensin-System Blockers (Posted by Tom Lamb at DrugInjuryWatch.com) An article published by the Canadian Medical Association during June 2013 in its medical journal CMAJ, Risk of acute kidney injury associated with the use of fluoroquinolones, reported on a study that revealed serious renal side effects in some men who used the popular Levaquin, Cipro, or Avelox, i.e., fluoroquinolone class of antibiotics. From the Abstract for this June 2013 CMAJ article: Background: Case reports indicate that the use of fluoroquinolones may lead to acute kidney injury. We studied the association between the use of oral fluoroquinolones and acute kidney injury, and we examined interaction with renin-angiotensin-system blockers. Methods: We formed a nested cohort of men aged 40-85 enrolled in the United States IMS LifeLink Health Plan Claims Database between 2001 and 2011.... to assess the rate ratio (RR) for
Are there any drug interactions between Wellbutrin and Klonopin?
Cannabidiol Products' Impact on Pharmacist-Provided Medication Management
Kankakee Drug Interaction and Complications Attorney, Lawyers | Spiros Law, P.C.
The science behind prescription drug production and distribution is extremely technical. Given the potential for adverse drug interactions between medications, it is important that their prescription is overseen by a professional. When a doctor, nurse, or pharmacist fails to note that a particular drug is likely to react with something that is already in a patients system, the results can be catastrophic.. If you or someone you love has suffered injury or illness because of a drug interaction or complication, you may be entitled to financial compensation for your losses. Contact the Kankakee drug interaction and complication attorneys of Spiros Law, P.C., at (815) 929-9292 to learn about the potential merits of legal action in your case.. ...
A Manual of Adverse Drug Interactions, Fifth Edition (MANUAL by J.P. Griffin - SHOP.AGUARDIENTECLOTHING.COM Books
At the contraluminal membrane there is evidence for one common transport system. At the luminal membrane, the transport of organic cations occurs by an electroneural Hf/organic cation system. E Contraluminal Transporters Fig. 7. Location of transporters for organic anions and cations in the renal proximal tubule (from Ullrich (1994)). Note: PAH is the organic anion p-aminohippuric acid. transporter, which transports sodium ions into the cell and hydrogen ions out (Fig. 7) (Somogyi, 1996). A key feature of a drug undergoing tubular secretion is that it will compete with another drug for secretion, thus competition for transport is competitive. These interactions have been categorized by Somogyi (1996); Table 7 summarizes their nature and sequelae. INTERACTIONS INVOLVING RENAL EXCRETORY MECHANISMS Table 7. 35 DRUGS WHICH ALTER TUBULAR REABSORETION OF LITHIUM BY ALTERING ITS RENAL CLEARANCE* Loop diuretics Increased serum lithium concentrations (61%) in 116 normal subjects; danger of toxicity. ...
Drug Interactions With Newer Oral Chemotherapy Agents
Lapatinib may alter the pharmacokinetics of other medications metabolized by CYP2C8 or CYP3A4 that have a narrow therapeutic window. This is because lapatinib can inhibit these pathways.19 Imatinib: Imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that inhibits BCR-ABL, was the first targeted oral antineoplastic agent approved. It also inhibits other kinases, such as platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), stem-cell factor, and c-Kit.2,3,6,20 Imatinib is used primarily for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). The usual starting dose ranges from 400 mg to 800 mg po daily. The most common adverse effects are edema, fatigue, nausea, diarrhea, arthralgia, and mild myelosuppression.. Imatinib is metabolized mainly by the liver, primarily by the CYP3A4 pathway. Other enzymes responsible for its metabolism are CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19. There are many potential drug interactions with imatinib.2,3,6,8,13 As with lapatinib, CYP3A4 ...
Xanax fluoxetine drug interactions / Fluoxetine sandoz perte de poids
Xanax Oral, Xanax Drug Interactions With Theanine - Mental Health Home Page Xanax XR. Advertisement. Quicklinks. ADD. Certain medicines may cause drug interactions.Adderall and Seroquel Drug Interactions - Drugs.com View drug interactions between Adderall and Seroquel. However, this does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.My question is what is the difference between metoprolol succ er Benadryl and metoprolol. drug interactions between toprol _ metoprolol and. fluoxetine, and.The drug is linked to birth defects when taken. Uses & More Fluoxetine is an oral drug primarily used to treat depression and other. Interactions, Pictures Find.Fluoxetine - Side Effects,. Uses & MoreFluoxetine is an oral drug primarily used to treat depression and. Side Effects, Dosage, Interactions Prozac can cause.Generic Xanax (Alprazolam) - Interactions. Des doses accrues de Generic Xanax et d?alcool peuvent. A suivre sur http://www.santecheznous.com/drug_info_details.... ...
Drug Interactions With Didanosine
Frontiers | Entecavir Interacts with Influx Transporters hOAT1, hCNT2, hCNT3, but Not with hOCT2: The Potential for Renal...
Entecavir (ETV) is one of the most potent agents for the treatment of the hepatitis B viral infection. The drug is principally eliminated by the kidney. The goal of this study was to investigate the potential of ETV to interact in vitro with the renal SLC transporters hOAT1, hOCT2, hCNT2 and hCNT3. Potential drug-drug interactions of ETV at the renal transporters with antiviral drugs known to be excreted by the kidney (adefovir, tenofovir, cidofovir) as well as transporter-dependent cytotoxicity were also examined. Interactions with the selected transporters along with cytotoxicity were studied in several transiently-transfected cellular models using specific substrates and inhibitors. ETV was found to be both a substrate and inhibitor of hOAT1 (IC50 = 175.3 µM), hCNT2 (IC50 = 241.9 µM) and hCNT3 (IC50 = 278.4 µM) transporters, although it interacted with the transporters with relatively low affinities. ETV inhibited the cellular uptake of adefovir, tenofovir and cidofovir by hOAT1; however,
Drug Interactions With Glucotrol
Inflammation in Ischemic Stroke: Mechanisms, Consequences and Possible Drug Targets | Bentham Science
Title:Inflammation in Ischemic Stroke: Mechanisms, Consequences and Possible Drug Targets. VOLUME: 13 ISSUE: 8. Author(s):Muzamil Ahmad, Nawab J. Dar, Zubair S. Bhat, Aehtesham Hussain, Ayatullah Shah, Hao Liu and Steven H. Graham. Affiliation:Neuropharmacology Laboratory, Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine-CSIR, Sanat Nagar, Srinagar, 190005, India.. Keywords:Cerebral ischemia, cyclooxygenase-2, cytokines and chemokines, inflammation, microglia, middle cerebral artery occlusion, prostaglandin.. Abstract:Ischemic stroke is caused when blood flow to the brain is hampered, leading to instant deficiency of nutrients and oxygen required for normal brain functioning. Reperfusion can alleviate damage from stroke if performed immediately after the onset of ischemia however the efficacy of reperfusion is tempered by secondary injury mechanisms. This multifarious sequence of events leads to the commencement of deleterious cycles of inflammation, oxidant stress and apoptosis that finally culminate ...
Demerol and phenergan drug interactions
Includes Phenergan side effects, interactions and indications Promethazine (Phenergan) is used for treating the discomforts of a common cold like sneezing, coughing, and runny nose Find patient medical information for Bicitra Oral on WebMD including its uses, side effects and safety, interactions, pictures, warnings and user ratings.. Addition. Learn about Phenergan (Promethazine) may treat, uses, dosage, demerol and phenergan drug interactions side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related medications Find patient medical information for Phenergan Oral on WebMD phenergan shot for migraine including its uses, side effects and safety, interactions, pictures, warnings and user ratings Demerol (meperidine) is a narcotic pain medicine used to treat moderate to severe pain. phenergan dosage 2 year old Learn about Demerol (Meperidine) pain treatment, uses, demerol and phenergan drug interactions dosage, side effects, drug interactions, is zofran or phenergan better ...
UPRx: Effexor XR
Drug interactions may change how your medications work or increase your risk for serious side effects. This document does not contain all possible drug interactions. Keep a list of all the products you use (including prescription/nonprescription drugs and herbal products) and share it with your doctor and pharmacist. Do not start, stop, or change the dosage of any medicines without your doctors approval. Some products that may interact with this drug include: other drugs that can cause bleeding/bruising (including antiplatelet drugs such as clopidogrel, NSAIDs such as ibuprofen/naproxen, "blood thinners" such as dabigatran/warfarin). Aspirin can increase the risk of bleeding when used with this medication. However, if your doctor has directed you to take low-dose aspirin for heart attack or stroke prevention (usually at dosages of 81-325 milligrams a day), you should continue taking it unless your doctor instructs you otherwise. Ask your doctor or pharmacist for more details. Taking MAO ...
See also Precautions section. Drug interactions may change how your medications work or increase your risk for serious side effects. This document does not contain all possible drug interactions. Keep a list of all the products you use (including prescription/nonprescription drugs and herbal products) and share it with your doctor and pharmacist. Do not start, stop, or change the dosage of any medicines without your doctors approval. Some products that may interact with this drug include: other drugs that can cause bleeding/bruising (including antiplatelet drugs such as clopidogrel, NSAIDs such as ibuprofen, "blood thinners" such as warfarin). Aspirin can increase the risk of bleeding when used with this medication. However, if your doctor has directed you to take low-dose aspirin for heart attack or stroke prevention (usually at dosages of 81-325 milligrams a day), you should continue taking it unless your doctor instructs you otherwise. Ask your doctor or pharmacist for more details. Taking ...
Dofetilide, a class III antidysrhythmic agent, undergoes both renal and metabolic clearance. Characterization of the metabolism in vitro allows explanation of species differences, whereas identification of the human enzymes involved permits assessment of potential drug interaction. In liver microsomes, the rate of oxidative metabolism of dofetilide is in the order: male rat , female rat , dog , humans, which correlates with the metabolic clearance seen in vivo. In vitro products of oxidative metabolism, formed by N-dealkylation, are the same as those formed in vivo, with the N-desmethyl being the major product. This route of dofetilide metabolism is mediated by cytochrome P450 (CYP). In humans, N-demethylation has a high KM of 657 +/- 116 microM, indicating low affinity for the enzymes active site. In a number of human liver microsomal preparations, this rate correlated (r = 0.903) with the activity of CYP3A4. There was no correlation with the activities of other isozymes. Specific isozyme ...
NCT00402493 | Glaucoma, Ocular Hypertension Clinical Trial | Pfizer
Topical IOP-lowering therapy has the advantage of providing a drug level directly to the end organ with very little or no systemic absorption thereby reducing side effect potential. There is very little information in the ophthalmic literature regarding potential drug interactions between topical IOP-lowering medications and other medications taken orally for other medical reasons. Patients will be randomized to either latanoprost or brimonidine. Patients in both groups will be randomized to either placebo or ibuprofen for the first 14 days and then crossed over to the other treatment for 14 days ...
What is Hydrochlorothiazide? Addiction, Abuse, Effects & Symptoms | Learn More
Physicians who prescribe diuretics monitor people for significant or harmful side effects. If people do not tolerate the drug well, doctors may adjust the dosage accordingly. Physicians will also likely monitor the patients hearts, livers, and kidneys to make sure the medication is not negatively impacting any of the bodys systems. They may also quickly correct any problems that people experience, such as dehydration or electrolyte imbalances.. When people abuse hydrochlorothiazide, they frequently do not have the assistance of physicians who are monitoring their health. In addition, if people are abusing diuretics, they may not even tell their physicians they are using them. While diuretic abuse is rare, the side effects of the medication, combined with a lack of monitoring and a lack of knowledge of any potential drug interactions, may lead to significant and even life-threatening consequences.. Using diuretics, especially using them without prescriptions or without monitoring from ...
A drug-drug interaction study of cabozantinib and esomeprazole in healthy adult subjects. - AdisInsight
How should I choose between the novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs)? - pearls4peers
Although warfarin has long been the standard treatment for venous thromboembolism (VTE) and thomboprophylaxis in atrial fibrillation (AF), the need for its frequent monitoring, potential drug interactions, and narrow therapeutic window made it far from ideal. Since 2009, NOACs have become viable alternative agents owing to their more predictable and safer pharmacological profiles. NOACs include…
Precautions and Warnings With Bupropion XL
This product supports a healthy inflammatory response and has ingredients that have been shown to particularly aid in the relief of headaches and pain caused by stress. Warnings & Disclaimers: Caution: As with any dietary or herbal supplement, you should advise your health care practitioner of the use of this product. If you are nursing, pregnant, or considering pregnancy, you should consult your health care practitioner prior to using this product. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease; the law applicable to dietary supplements, the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994, commonly referred to as DSHEA, does not permit us to do so and it is not our intention to do so. The Contraindications and Potential Drug Interactions information provided on this website is not intended to be all-inclusive. Keep your healthcare provider informed about any herbal and other dietary supplement products that you are taking ...
Comentários do leitor
Tell your physician if youre pregnant. If your physician has directed you to use this medication, your health care provider or pharmacist might already know about any potential drug interactions and might be monitoring you for them. Before using any Lidocaine products be certain to go over this with your Doctor and tell your physician or Pharmascist. This medicine could be utilized in the mouth, nose, or throat and might be applied by means of a healthcare professional. Some medications might interact with Lidocaine solutions. Some medications and medical conditions might interact with Lidocaine. A lower dose might be required in those with liver difficulties. The Pain of Buy Lidocaine Powder If youre not content with the quality, well send some absolutely free goods as replacement or refund your loss. So youre going to be assured with Good Quality should you choose us. It isnt just the major manufacturer of steroids powder and pharmaceutical raw materials in the central region of China but ...
Pink Eye Relief: Dropper Bottle / Liquid: .33 Fluid Ounces
Caution: As with any dietary or herbal supplement, you should advise your health care practitioner of the use of this product. If you are nursing, pregnant, or considering pregnancy, you should consult your health care practitioner prior to using this product. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease; the law applicable to dietary supplements, the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994, commonly referred to as DSHEA, does not permit us to do so and it is not our intention to do so. The Contraindications and Potential Drug Interactions information provided on this website is not intended to be all-inclusive. Keep your healthcare provider informed about any herbal and other dietary supplement products that you are taking. ...
Bugleweed: Dropper Bottle / Liquid: 1 Fluid Ounce
Caution: As with any dietary or herbal supplement, you should advise your health care practitioner of the use of this product. If you are nursing, pregnant, or considering pregnancy, you should consult your health care practitioner prior to using this product. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease; the law applicable to dietary supplements, the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994, commonly referred to as DSHEA, does not permit us to do so and it is not our intention to do so. The Contraindications and Potential Drug Interactions information provided on this website is not intended to be all-inclusive. Keep your healthcare provider informed about any herbal and other dietary supplement products that you are taking. ...
Joint disease Treatment: Eight Strategies for Taking Your Joint disease Medicines Securely - Valu Rite Rite Pharmacy
Most those who have joint disease have a medication for this. Even when not a prescription medication, they might take supplements or herbal treatments.. However , lots of people who are suffering from joint disease also take medications for other concerns too. Which makes it really perplexing and perplexing when attempting to keep tabs on things.. Listed here are eight tips to make sure you dont get some things wrong together with your medicines:. 1. When you attend the physician, write lower what they are called and dosages of the medicines so that your physician can keep an eye on what you are taking. This could mind off any potential drug interactions or drug negative effects. Theres anything frustrating for any physician or nurse than going for a medication background and getting the individual say, "Well, I go ahead and take blue pill in my bloodstream pressure… and also the pink one in my diabetes… and also the eco-friendly and white-colored one in my joint disease…". 2. Whenever ...
CNS Stimulants: Few Interactions, Significant Repercussions
7-Keto DHEA & Other Weight Loss Supplements Review | ConsumerLab.com
Trying to find the best and safest weight loss supplements? See our independent tests of popular brands and our review of the evidence for ingredients like 7-keto DHEA, forskolin, and stimulant blends containing sources of caffeine and synephrine. Learn about efficacy, dosage, side effects, and potential drug interactions.
"Drug Interactions Indiana University, School of Medicine, Department of Medicine". medicine.iupui.edu. Retrieved 2017-09-28. ... Bailey, David G; Malcolm, J; Arnold, O; David Spence, J (August 1998). "Grapefruit juice-drug interactions". British Journal of ... Drugs that inhibit CYP3A4 for example itraconazol, ketoconazol and ritonavir can increase drug exposure for tamsulosin, ... On the other hand, the drug (a) elevates risk for floppy iris syndrome, and (b) might show adverse drug reactions (ADRs) ...
Stockley, Ivan H. "Anticoagulant Drug Interactions." Drug Interactions. 3rd ed. Boston: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1994 ... This may also be used to monitor effective absorption of the drug (if drug color is not seen in the urine, the patient may wish ... Early detection of such multi-drug or extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis is critical in improving patient outcomes by ... which can be used as a marker for whether or not a dose of the drug has been effectively absorbed. Distribution of the drug is ...
"Drug Interactions". Medicine chest. Archived from the original on 2007-02-06. Retrieved 2008-05-06. Luder PJ, Siffert B, ... Long-term follow-up of plasma mebendazole levels and drug interactions". European journal of clinical pharmacology. 31 (4): 443 ... High-Cost Generic Drugs - Implications for Patients and Policymakers Jonathan D. Alpern, M.D., William M. Stauffer, M.D., M.S.P ... Other drugs are used to treat worm infections outside the digestive tract, as mebendazole is poorly absorbed into the ...
Holm V, Melander A, Wåhlin-Boll E (1982). "Influence of food and of age on nitrazepam kinetics". Drug-nutrient interactions. 1 ... The drug causes a delay in the onset, and decrease in the duration of REM sleep. Following discontinuation of the drug, REM ... Back DJ, Orme ML (June 1990). "Pharmacokinetic drug interactions with oral contraceptives". Clin Pharmacokinet. 18 (6): 472-84 ... and drug interactions was used to assess nitrazepam. A Dutch analysis using the system found nitrazepam to be unsuitable in ...
List of traditional Chinese medicines
"Herb-drug interactions". The Lancet. 355 (9198): 134-138. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(99)06457-0. PMID 10675182. Amagase H, Nance DM ... In the classic Handbook of Traditional Drugs from 1941, 517 drugs were listed - 442 were plant parts, 45 were animal parts, and ... The human penis is not a drug - Li Shizhen Human penis is believed under TCM to stop bleeding, and as with other TCM medicines ... The theory of Northern Medicine is based on the Yin-Yang interactions and the eight trigrams, as used in Chinese Medicine. ...
"Dantrolene Drug Interactions". Epocrates Online. Epocrates. 2008. Retrieved on December 31, 2008. Snyder, H. R.; Davis, C. S.; ... It is the primary drug used for the treatment and prevention of malignant hyperthermia, a rare, life-threatening disorder ... Dantrolene may interact with the following drugs: Calcium channel blockers of the diltiazem/verapamil type: Intravenous ... therefore the drug should be given in pregnant women only if clearly indicated. It may cause hypotonia in the newborn if given ...
"Pradaxa Drug Interactions". Pradaxapro.com. 10 July 2017. Retrieved 10 July 2017. Bauersachs, R.; Berkowitz, S. D.; Brenner, B ... The proper anticoagulant action of the drug is a function of vitamin K intake and drug dose, and due to differing absorption ... National Institute of Health Clinical Center Drug-Nutrient Interaction Task Force. Retrieved 17 Apr 2015. "Guidelines For ... Sometimes small amounts of vitamin K are given orally to patients taking warfarin so that the action of the drug is more ...
Interaction of nilotinib with OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 may alter its hepatic disposition and can lead to transporter mediated drug- ... Bailey, David G; Malcolm, J; Arnold, O; David Spence, J (1998-08-01). "Grapefruit juice-drug interactions". British Journal of ... drug interactions. Nilotinib is an inhibitor of OATP-1B1 transporter but not for OATP-1B3. It is a substrate for CYP3A4 and ... https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/drugs/fda-nilotinib "Complete Nilotinib information from Drugs.com". Drugs.com. ...
As such, these drug interactions involving the fluoroquinolones appear to be drug specific rather than a class effect. The ... Brouwers JR, JR (July 1992). "Drug interactions with quinolone antibacterials". Drug Saf. 7 (4): 268-81. doi:10.2165/00002018- ... Such drug interactions are associated with the molecular structural modifications of the quinolone ring, specifically ... Harder S, Fuhr U, Staib AH, Wolff T (November 1989). "Ciprofloxacin-caffeine: a drug interaction established using in vivo and ...
Health effects of tobacco
ISBN 1-887424-14-8. [page needed] Kroon LA (2007). "Drug interactions with smoking". Am J Health Syst Pharm. 64 (18): 1917-1921 ... That means that drugs cleared by these enzymes are cleared more quickly in smokers, which may result in the drugs not working. ... Unlike some recreational drugs, nicotine does not measurably alter a smoker's motor skills, judgement, or language abilities ... Nutt, D; King, LA; Saulsbury, W; Blakemore, C (24 March 2007). "Development of a rational scale to assess the harm of drugs of ...
Flockhart DA (2007). "Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table". Indiana University School of Medicine. ... "Grapefruit juice and drug interactions. Exploring mechanisms of this interaction and potential toxicity for certain drugs". ... The first published report on grapefruit drug interactions was in 1991 in the Lancet entitled "Interactions of Citrus Juices ... a new drug-drug interaction". Circulation. 107 (1): 32-7. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000047060.60595.CC. PMID 12515739. Meyer MR, Bach ...
"Grapefruit juice-drug interactions". Br J Clin Pharmacol. 46 (2): 101-110. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2125.1998.00764.x. PMC 1873672 . ... or synthetic analogs may be developed as drugs that are targeted to increase the oral bioavailability of other drugs. Drugs ... This prevents oxidative metabolism of certain drugs by the enzyme, resulting in an elevated concentration of drug in the ... Under normal circumstances, the grapefruit juice effect is considered to be a negative interaction, and patients are often ...
Jae Y. Choe (4 March 2011). Drug Actions and Interactions. McGraw Hill Professional. p. 307. ISBN 978-0-07-176945-7. Dostert, P ... The drug has nootropic, neuroprotective, and antidepressant-like effects in animal models, and appears to enhance the ... Drugs Exp Clin Res. 21 (5): 175-80. PMID 8846747. David J. Triggle (1996). Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents. Boca Raton: ...
Moody D (2004). "Drug interactions with benzodiazepines". In Raymon LP, Mozayani A. Handbook of Drug Interactions: a Clinical ... Carbamazepine has a potential for drug interactions; caution should be used in combining other medicines with it, including ... PMID 25486094 drugs.com drugs.com international listings for carbamazepine Archived 2015-06-19 at the Wayback Machine. Page ... Drug interactions with methadone]. Presse Médicale (in French). 28 (25): 1381-4. PMID 10506872. Kaniwa, N; Saito, Y (June 2013 ...
David G. Bailey, J. Malcolm, O. Arnold, J. David Spence (1998). "Grapefruit juice-drug interactions". Br J Clin Pharmacol 46 (2 ... Lovastatin (Merck's Mevacor) is a statin drug, used for lowering cholesterol in those with hypercholesterolemia to reduce risk ... As with all statin drugs, it can rarely cause myopathy, hepatotoxicity (liver damage), dermatomyositis or rhabdomyolysis. This ... As with atorvastatin, simvastatin, and other statin drugs metabolized via CYP3A4, drinking grapefruit juice during lovastatin ...
Bailey, David G.; Malcolm, J.; Arnold, O.; Spence, J. David (1998). "Grapefruit juice-drug interactions". Br J Clin Pharmacol. ... grapefruit-drug interactions in which the consumption of the juice affects the metabolism of a variety of pharmaceutical drugs ... Interactions and Warnings". WebMD. Retrieved 2016-01-04. "Online Etymology Dictionary". etymonline.com. "Collins Dictionaries ...
David G. Bailey; J. Malcolm; O. Arnold; J. David Spence (1998). "Grapefruit juice-drug interactions". Br J Clin Pharmacol. 46 ( ... it is believed to be responsible for a number of grapefruit-drug interactions, in which the consumption of the juice affects ... the metabolism of a variety of pharmaceutical drugs. Edwards, D.J.; F.H Bellevue, 3rd; P.M. Woster (December 1996). " ... "Identification of 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin, a cytochrome P450 inhibitor, in grapefruit juice". Drug Metabolism & Disposition ...
Earl Grey tea
Bailey, D. G.; Malcolm, J.; Arnold, O.; Spence, J. D. (1998). "Grapefruit juice-drug interactions". British Journal of Clinical ... grapefruit-drug interactions in which the consumption of the juice affects the metabolism of a variety of pharmaceutical drugs ... who were found to have supplied tea "artificially scented, and, drugged with bergamot in this country." A "Grey's Tea" is known ...
See grapefruit-drug interactions. Elevated blood pressure has been reported when buspirone has been administered to patients ... The drug has also been found to be effective in the treatment of depression as a standalone drug. There is evidence that ... Buspirone is metabolized primarily by CYP3A4, and prominent drug interactions with inhibitors and inducers of this enzyme have ... Jajoo, HK; Mayol, RF; LaBudde, JA; Blair, IA (1989). "Metabolism of the antianxiety drug buspirone in human subjects". Drug ...
Drug Metabolism and Drug Interactions. 17 (1-4): 3-22. doi:10.1515/DMDI.2000.17.1-4.3. PMID 11201301. Kensler TW, Chen JG, ... Bibi Z (2008). "Role of cytochrome P450 in drug interactions". Nutrition & Metabolism. 5: 27. doi:10.1186/1743-7075-5-27. PMC ... Furthermore, some drugs such as haloperidol and theophylline are metabolized by CYP1A2. Consequently, consumption of ... High consumption of cruciferous vegetables has potential risk from allergies, interference with drugs like warfarin and ...
Drug Metabolism and Drug Interactions. 27 (2): 63-71. doi:10.1515/dmdi-2011-0037. PMID 22706230. Powell WS, Rokach J (April ... Costea I, Mack DR, Lemaitre RN, Israel D, Marcil V, Ahmad A, Amre DK (April 2014). "Interactions between the dietary ... The cytochrome P450 proteins are monooxygenases which catalyze many reactions involved in drug metabolism and synthesis of ...
Important drug interactions are rare. However, the most significant major drug interaction concern is the decreased activation ... "Inhibition of CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 by Omeprazole Metabolites and Their Contribution to Drug-Drug Interactions". Drug Metab. ... Norgard NB, Mathews KD, Wall GC (July 2009). "Drug-drug interaction between clopidogrel and the proton pump inhibitors". Ann ... Lau WC, Gurbel PA (March 2009). "The drug-drug interaction between proton pump inhibitors and clopidogrel". CMAJ. 180 (7): 699- ...
Drug Metabolism and Drug Interactions. 27 (2): 63-71. doi:10.1515/dmdi-2011-0037. PMID 22706230. Costea, Irina; Mack, David R ... Edson, K. Z.; Rettie, A. E. (2013). "CYP4 enzymes as potential drug targets: Focus on enzyme multiplicity, inducers and ... Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; Israel, David; Marcil, Valerie; Ahmad, Ali; Amre, Devendra K. (2014). "Interactions Between the Dietary ...
Drug Metabolism and Drug Interactions. 27 (2): 63-71. doi:10.1515/dmdi-2011-0037. PMID 22706230. Costea I, Mack DR, Lemaitre RN ... The cytochrome P450 proteins are monooxygenases which catalyze many reactions involved in drug metabolism and synthesis of ... Drug Metabolism and Disposition. 32 (9): 930-6. PMID 15319333. Gainer JV, Bellamine A, Dawson EP, Womble KE, Grant SW, Wang Y, ... "PCR isolation and cloning of novel splice variant mRNAs from known drug target genes". Genomics. 83 (4): 566-71. doi:10.1016/j. ...
John R. Horn & Philip D. Hansten (2006). "Life Threatening Colchicine Drug Interactions. Drug Interactions: Insights and ... Macrolides exhibit enterohepatic recycling; that is, the drug is absorbed in the gut and sent to the liver, only to be excreted ... Some macrolides have antibiotic or antifungal activity and are used as pharmaceutical drugs. US FDA-approved : Azithromycin - ... ISBN 978-0-8138-0656-3. "DailyMed". Food and Drug Administration (US). Retrieved 22 March 2017. Protein synthesis inhibitors: ...
"Drug Interactions With Herbal Medicines". Ther Drug Monit. 29 (6): 1-8. Brossi, Arnold (ed) (1989), The Alkaloids: Chemistry ... Reliable information on the total alkaloid content of the crude drug is difficult to obtain. Based on HPLC analyses in ... His work to access Ephedra drug materials to isolate a pure pharmaceutical substance, and the systematic production of semi- ...
Drug Interactions in Infectious Diseases. Humana Press. ISBN 1-58829-455-2. Drugs.com 'Minocycline Disease Interactions'. ... MedicineNet: Minocycline Oral (Dynacin, Minocin) - side effects, medical uses, and drug interactions Cohen, P. R. (2004). " ... Expensive specialty drugs like Solodyn and Jublia were named as the two main drugs sold through the specialty pharmacy Philidor ... Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) syndrome can occur during the first few weeks of therapy with ...
Environmental factors refer for example to maternal smoking and the maternal exposure to amine-containing drugs. Several ... Instead of describing the abnormalities in structure and form, research focuses nowadays at decoding the molecular interactions ... Certain medication (like amine-containing drugs) can increase the risk of craniosynostosis when taken during pregnancy, these ... Olshan AF, Faustman EM (December 1989). "Nitrosatable drug exposure during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcome". ...
100,000,000 Guinea Pigs
... : Dangers in Everyday Foods, Drugs, and Cosmetics is a book written by Arthur Kallet and F.J. Schlink ... Jackson, J. "The Ergot Controversy: Prologue to the 1938 Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act" J Hist Med Allied Sci 1968; XXIII: 248- ... Many people were shocked at the extent of food contamination and drug side-effects, and 100,000,000 Guinea Pigs, along with ... The book goes on to state that the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 is not effective in arresting these trends, and real reform ...
After 38 weeks, 6% of the people in the three-drug group died while 11% of the people died in the two-drug group. There were ... "Crixivan (Indinavir Sulfate): Side Effects, Interactions, Warning, Dosage & Uses". RxList. Retrieved 2018-11-08.. ... Viral resistance to the drug leads to the drug becoming useless since the virus evolves to have cells that are able to resist ... It is recommended that users drink at least 1.5 liters a day when intaking the drug. Drug users must significantly increase ...
Dasgupta, Amitava; Hammett-Stabler, Catherine A (2011). Herbal Supplements: Efficacy, Toxicity, Interactions with Western Drugs ... Some herbal remedies can cause dangerous interactions with chemotherapy drugs, radiation therapy, or anesthetics during surgery ... De Smet, Peter A.G.M. (December 1997). "The Role of Plant-Derived Drugs and Herbal Medicines in Healthcare". Drugs. 54 (6): 801 ... significant drug interactions caused by alternative therapies may make treatments less effective, notably in cancer therapy.[32 ...
Through the interaction of β-catenin and α-catenin, actin and E-cadherin are linked, providing the cell with a means of stable ... Coluzzi F, Mandatori I, Mattia C (September 2011). "Emerging therapies in metastatic bone pain". Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 16 (3 ... Catenin and EMT interactions may also play a role in hepatocellular carcinoma. VEGF-B treatment of hepatoma carcinoma cells can ... In particular, abnormal interactions between epithelial cells and the extracellular matrix are associated with the over- ...
QIAGEN Silicon Valley
All QIAGEN Silicon Valley use the Ingenuity Knowledge Base, which contains biological and chemical interactions and functional ... IPA also lets researchers search for information on genes, proteins, chemicals, drugs, and reagents. Resulting information can ... Food and Drug Administration to use IPA in review of Pharmacogenomics Submissions" (Press release). Ingenuity Systems. June 21 ... US Food and Drug Administration adopts IPA to review pharmacogenomics submissions 2006 - Ingenuity enters into partnerships ...
I knew they were drug-pushers and I made an effort to stop them getting passes. He [Lynott] said 'They're my mates!' But I said ... who chastised his lack of stage presence and interaction with the audience, and threatened to throw Lizzy off the tour unless ... Lynott's last years were dogged by drug and alcohol dependency leading to his collapse on 25 December 1985, at his home in Kew ... By the early 1980s, Thin Lizzy were starting to struggle commercially, and Lynott started showing symptoms of drug abuse, ...
Interaction with Haemophilus influenzae. Historically, Haemophilus influenzae has been a significant cause of infection, ... Koiuszko, S; Bialucha, A; Gospodarek, E (2007). "[The drug susceptibility of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae]". ... or drug-resistant Strepotococcus pneumomoniae (DRSP). Until the year 2000 out of 60,000 yearly cases 40% and out of the 30,000 ...
Raviña, Enrique (2011). "Vinca alkaloids". The evolution of drug discovery: From traditional medicines to modern drugs. John ... Vinca alkaloids are now produced synthetically and used as drugs in cancer therapy and as immunosuppressive drugs. These ... They are a class of cell cycle-specific cytotoxic drugs that work by inhibiting the ability of cancer cells to divide: Acting ...
Positron emission tomography
... drug occupancy at a purported site of action can be inferred indirectly by competition studies between unlabeled drug and ... at least one of which was deflected from its original path by interaction with matter in the field of view, leading to the pair ... Pharmacokinetics: In pre-clinical trials, it is possible to radiolabel a new drug and inject it into animals. Such scans are ... The uptake of the drug, the tissues in which it concentrates, and its eventual elimination, can be monitored far more quickly ...
Strong wind forces may result in diminished leaf number and surface area, which while reducing drag, involves a trade off of ... Interactions with other organismsEdit. Some insects, like Kallima inachus, mimic leaves ... allowing a degree of repositioning to minimize drag and damage, as opposed to resistance. Leaf movement like this may also ...
Another synthetic drug specific to the adenosine A2A receptor subtype is CGS-21680 that has been shown to cause apneas in 14- ... These characteristics show the interaction between the parafacial respiratory group and the pre-Bötzinger complex, which allows ... Rhythmogenesis, the generation of rhythm, is modulated by membrane properties and synaptic interactions occurring in ...
The Medicaid Drug Rebate Program and the Health Insurance Premium Payment Program (HIPP) were created by the Omnibus Budget ... Eliminating human connection and face to face interaction completely, especially when dealing with a government program, can ... "Medicaid Drug Rebate Program Overview". HHS. Archived from the original on December 14, 2007.. ... This program was formed due to the costs that Medicaid programs were paying for outpatient drugs at their discounted prices.[14 ...
... Information from the US Food and Drug Administration. *U.S. National Library of Medicine: Drug Information Portal - ... In 2014 Genentech reclassified rituxan as a specialty drug, a class of drugs that are only available through specialty ... "International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved 28 November 2015.. *^ British national formulary : BNF 69 (69 ed.). British ... Patents on the drug in expired in Europe in February 2013 and in the US in September 2016. By November 2018[update], ...
Sandhya Srikant Visweswariah
Códigos de classificação JEL - Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre
Competition and inhibition interactions between candida species and other micro-organisms in the mouth, such as the many ... Drug resistance is increasingly more common and presents a serious problem in persons who are immunocompromised. Prophylactic ... Oral candidiasis can be treated with topical anti-fungal drugs, such as nystatin, miconazole, Gentian violet or amphotericin B ... In recurrent oral candidiasis, the use of azole antifungals risks selection and enrichment of drug-resistant strains of candida ...
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
Drug risks. Filgrastim is typically dosed in the 10 microgram/kg level for 4-5 days during the harvesting of stem cells. ... Immunosuppressive drugs are given for a minimum of 6-months after a transplantation, or much longer if required for the ... G-CSF drugs include filgrastim (Neupogen, Neulasta), and lenograstim (Graslopin). ...
"Synthroid (Levothyroxine Sodium) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings". RxList. Archived from ... "International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved 8 December 2016.. *^ Hamilton, Richart (2015). Tarascon Pocket ... Interactions. There are foods and other substances that can interfere with absorption of thyroxine. Other substances that ... "Levothyroxine (Lexi-Drugs)". LexiComp. Archived from the original on 29 September 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2014.. ...
Internet of things
U.S. Food and Drug Administration. UDI (Unique Device Identification) system for distinct identifiers for medical devices. ... It can also adjust itself to ensure appropriate pressure and support is applied to the patient without the manual interaction ... Others are turning to the concept of predictive interaction of devices, "where collected data is used to predict and trigger ... A problem specific to IoT systems is that buggy apps, unforeseen bad app interactions, or device/communication failures, can ...
Pharmacology is the study of drugs and their actions.. *Photobiology is the study of the interactions between non-ionizing ... of Essential Drugs and Medicines Policy (2002). "Traditional medicine: growing needs and potential". World Health Organization. ... Medications (Rx): what drugs the patient takes including prescribed, over-the-counter, and home remedies, as well as ... The first major class of antibiotics was the sulfa drugs, derived by German chemists originally from azo dyes. ...
Possible drug interactions for Methadone - Addiction: Substance Abuse - MedHelp
Possible drug interactions for Methadone. I was severely injured at work over 2 years ago. I have been taking Paxil for ... No drug test !!!!! The best part is she has to go to drug NA or AA. She is weaning herself off the hydros she says. I told her ... No drug test !!!!! The best part is she has to go to drug NA or AA. She is weaning herself off the hydros she says. I told her ... Speaking as a drug addict more so than as a pain patient, the thought of a morphine pump was in itself intoxicating. You ...
PI Drug Interactions | Adult and Adolescent ARV | AIDSinfo
Drug-Drug Interactions. Drug Interactions between Protease Inhibitors and Other Drugs. Last Updated: October 17, 2017; Last ... Drug Interactions Between Protease Inhibitors and Other Drugs. Concomitant Drug. PI. Effect on PI and/or Concomitant Drug ... Drug Interactions Between Protease Inhibitors and Other Drugs. This table provides known or predicted information regarding PK ... Recommendations for managing a particular drug interaction may differ depending on whether a new ARV drug is being initiated in ...
Medicines | Free Full-Text | Studies on Pharmacokinetic Drug Interaction Potential of Vinpocetine
As a preliminary step to predict a possibility of drug interaction during concomitant use of vinpocetine and conventional drugs ... Despite its wide use, no pharmacokinetic drug interaction studies are reported in the literature. Due to increasing use of ... Conclusion: Strong inhibition of P-gp by vinpocetine is indicative of a possibility of drug interactions by altering the ... this study was carried out to evaluate the effects of vinpocetine on three main regulators of pharmacokinetic drug interactions ...
Drug Interactions of Medications Commonly Used in Diabetes | Diabetes Spectrum
Diabetes Drug Interactions. Sulfonylurea drugs. Several drug-drug interactions occur with sulfonylureas. First-generation ... Sorenson JM: Herb-drug, food-drug, nutrient-drug, and drug-drug interactions: mechanisms involved and their medical ... Not all drug interactions will be covered, and drug-herbal5,6 and drug-nutrient6,7 interaction information can be found ... DRUG-DRUG INTERACTIONS. Drug interactions are often categorized as pharmacodynamic or pharmacokinetic in nature. A ...
Antiviral Drug Interactions | CDC
Available information for health care providers regarding clinical data on possible drug interactions with influenza antiviral ... No known drug interactions have been reported, and no clinically critical drug interactions have been predicted on the basis of ... Providers should consult package inserts for more detailed information about potential drug interactionsexternal icon. ... Limited clinical data are available regarding drug interactions with oral oseltamivir. Because oseltamivir and oseltamivir ...
Food and Drug Interactions
... drink and medication interactions so you can protect yourself while treating your arthritis. ... Food and Drug Interactions Some foods and drinks can affect how your medicines work. Learn how to avoid unwanted interactions. ... Dont mix with: analgesics, antidepressants, anti-anxiety drugs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), prednisone, ... cholesterol-lowering drugs (statins). Why: Grapefruit has been shown to increase blood levels of these drugs, making it ...
Drug-Disease Interactions | FDA
Drug Interactions & Labeling * Drug Interactions & Labeling *Drug Development and Drug Interactions. *Drug Development and Drug ... Drug Interactions & Labeling *Drug Development and Drug Interactions. *Drug Development and Drug Interactions: Possible Models ... Drug Development and Drug Interactions: Table of Substrates, Inhibitors and Inducers. *Drug Development and Drug Interactions: ... Drug Development and Drug Interactions: Table of Substrates, Inhibitors and Inducers. *Drug Development and Drug Interactions: ...
drug interactions Archives - familydoctor.org
Drug-Nutrient Interactions and Drug-Supplement Interactions , Examples of Dietary Supplement Interactions Some dietary ... Drug-Nutrient Interactions and Drug-Supplement Interactions Its important to talk to your doctor about the medicines, vitamins ... Drug-Supplement Interactions St. Johns wort can affect the way your body processes prescription and over-the-counter drugs. ... Drug Reactions An adverse drug reaction can occur if your body responds badly to a medicine. Anyone can have an adverse ...
Appendix C. Drug interactions of clinical significance
Disclaimer All MMWR HTML versions of articles are electronic conversions from ASCII text into HTML. This conversion may have resulted in character translation or format errors in the HTML version. Users should not rely on this HTML document, but are referred to the electronic PDF version and/or the original MMWR paper copy for the official text, figures, and tables. An original paper copy of this issue can be obtained from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO), Washington, DC 20402-9371; telephone: (202) 512-1800. Contact GPO for current prices.. **Questions or messages regarding errors in formatting should be addressed to [email protected] Page converted: 11/23/2004. ...
Drug Interactions: Prescription Drugs & OTC Medications
Drug interactions can occur with prescription drugs, OTC medications, grapefruit and other foods, vitamins, herbs, supplements ... Learn about potential drug interactions you may be exposed to. ... drug-drug interactions), as well as drugs with food (drug-food ... A drug interaction can be defined as an interaction between a drug and another substance that prevents the drug from performing ... Drug interactions may lead to an increase or decrease in the beneficial or the adverse effects of the given drugs. When a drug ...
St. John's Wort: Drug-Supplement Interactions
Johns wort can affect the way your body processes prescription and over-the-counter drugs. When this happens, your medicine… ... Drug-Nutrient Interactions and Drug-Supplement Interactions , Examples of Dietary Supplement Interactions. Read Article >> ... Drug-Nutrient Interactions and Drug-Supplement Interactions , Examples of Dietary Supplement Interactions. Read Article >> ... Drug-Nutrient Interactions and Drug-Supplement Interactions , Examples of Dietary Supplement Interactions. Some dietary ...
Drug Interactions: Understanding the Risk | FDA
Recognizing Drug Interactions. Drug-drug interactions occur when two or more drugs - prescription and/or OTC -- react with each ... Some drug interactions can make the drug you take less effective. And some combinations of drugs can be dangerous. For example ... Every time you use a drug, take the time to learn about possible drug interactions and read the drug label. ... Because of the amount of time a particular drug stays in your body and due to its interaction with another drug you are taking ...
Drug Interactions - WD Vault
Many people only worry about drug-drug interactions, but youre right to be concerned about food and herbal supplements as well ... Many people only worry about drug-drug interactions, but youre. right to be concerned about food and herbal supplements as ... herbal supplements, avoid St Johns Wort if you take digoxin or a statin drug to ... Ritalin, sleeping pills like Ambien, or a depression drug in the MAO inhibitor ...
Rosemary: Health benefits, precautions, and drug interactions
Drug interactions. Rosemary can affect the way that some medications work. Rosemary can affect the activity of some medications ... Inflammation: Old drug offers new hope When inflammation is out of control, it can cause significant damage to healthy tissue. ... www.umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/herb-interaction/possible-interactions-with-rosemary ... Anticoagulant drugs: These include blood-thinning medications, such as Warfarin, Aspirin, and Clopidogrel. ...
Drug Receptor Interactions in Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | SpringerLink
The concept of chemotherapy as originated by Paul Ehrlich is based on the premise that antiparasitic drugs must have two ... Physicochemical Factors in Drug-Receptor Interactions Demonstrated on the Example of the Sulfanilamides ... Drug Receptor Interactions in Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. Symposium, Vienna, September 4-6, 1974. ... The concept of chemotherapy as originated by Paul Ehrlich is based on the premise that antiparasitic drugs must have two ...
rimantadine, Flumadine: Side Effects and Drug Interactions
Side effects, drug interactions, and pregnancy safety information is included. ... is a drug prescribed for the prevention and treatment of the influenza A virus in adults, and for the prevention of the ... Side effects, drug interactions, and pregnancy safety information should be reviewed prior to taking this medication. ... Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration. You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs ...
Nateglinide Drug Interactions - Drugs.com
Drugs.com Mobile Apps. The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own ... Check for interactions with nateglinide. Type in a drug name and select a drug from the list. ... There is 1 alcohol/food interaction with nateglinide. nateglinide disease Interactions. There are 4 disease interactions with ... drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. If you have questions about the drugs you are taking, check with ...
Dexmedetomidine Drug Interactions - Drugs.com
Drugs.com Mobile Apps. The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own ... Check for interactions with dexmedetomidine. Type in a drug name and select a drug from the list. ... drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. If you have questions about the drugs you are taking, check with ... 695 moderate drug interactions (4284 brand and generic names). Show all medications in the database that may interact with ...
drug interactions Archives - Healthy.net
But new evidence shows that many drugs interact with food and other drugs, and the risk of side effects skyrockets, the more dr ... Many conditions mistakenly considered new diseases are, in fact, unrecognised drug interactions ... About half of all senior patients take several prescribed or over-the-counter (OTC) drugs simultaneously, and frequently over ... The drug, manufactured by Smithkline Beecham, is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), ...
Jackson's death raises questions about drug interactions - CNN.com
... the serious health problems that can be triggered by drug interactions are again in the spotlight. ... As friends of pop star Michael Jackson discuss the role prescription drugs may have played in his Thursday death, ... The Food and Drug Administration highlights several interactions between drugs and various substances on its Web site. ... Many drug interactions occur because of the way they are metabolized in the liver, said Lois Parker, senior pharmacist at ...
Drug Interactions - POZ
If youre using drugs, drinking alcohol regularly or taking methadone while youre taking HIV medicines, you need to know that ... Drugs can make your HIV meds less effective. Or your HIV meds can make you have a bad trip on some drugs. Even worse, some HIV ... He or she should be able to give you information about any potential drug interactions. Your doctor may recommend changing your ... If you use drugs after you begin HIV treatment, start slowly. Just half of your usual hit may have the same effect that the ...
Mechanisms of ethanol-drug-nutrition interactions. - PubMed - NCBI
Mechanisms of ethanol-drug-nutrition interactions.. Lieber CS1.. Author information. 1. Alcohol Research and Treatment Center, ... The contribution of gastric alcohol dehydrogenase to the first pass metabolism of ethanol and alcohol-drug interactions is now ... Alcohol also alters the degradation of key nutrients, thereby promoting deficiencies as well as toxic interactions with vitamin ... commonly used drugs, over-the-counter medications and carcinogens. ...
Network analysis of adverse drug interactions. - PubMed - NCBI
In this study, we created a drug-drug interaction network from drug package inserts and characterized drug interactions. The ... In the resulting drug-drug interaction network, the drugs that are associated with the same interaction factors are closely ... We defined drug target and drug-metabolizing enzymes as interaction factors using information on them in KEGG DRUG, and ... These drug interactions result in increased or decreased drug effects, or produce other new unwanted effects and are serious ...
Clinically Relevant Drug-Drug Interactions in Primary Care
Review common and predictable drug interactions associated with antimicrobials, warfarin, amiodarone, antihypertensives, and ... Clinically Relevant Drug-Drug Interactions in Primary Care. Mary Carpenter, PharmD; Holly Berry, PharmD; Allen L. Pelletier, MD ... Table 6. Drugs Associated with Moderate and High QTc Prolongation Drug category. Drug class/name*. ... Software programs that identify potentially serious drug interactions may reduce risk of harm.. C 2. ...
Avoiding Adverse Drug Interactions Can Prevent Hospitalizations in Older Adults
While anyone can experience a drug interaction, seniors are often more at risk. ... "Taking multiple medications concurrently may become problematic to a patients health; the risk of drug interactions and drug- ... since these can cause adverse drug interactions.. "Common herbals that interact with certain drugs include green tea, kava, ... Since seniors are often taking larger quantities of drugs, they have an increased risk of many CYP450 interactions, whether ...
Drug-DNA Interaction Protocols | SpringerLink
... expert researchers describe powerful molecular techniques designed to illuminate and explore the interaction of drugs and ... as well as physical approaches to measuring both the strength of interaction and the mode of drug binding to DNA. Drug ... Evaluation of Drug-Nucleic Acid Interactions by Thermal Melting Curves W. David Wilson, Farial A. Tanious, Maria Fernandez-Saiz ... Drug-DNA Interactions will be highly useful to all investigators needing the kind of detailed experimental and technical ...
Check for Drug Interactions
Check both over the counter ( OTC) and regular prescription drugs interactions. Interactions can cause any unexpected health ... Check for Drug to Drug interaction for two or more drugs. ... Check for Drug Interactions. Check for Drug Interactions. .rate ... Drug-drug interaction: When the reaction occurs between two (or more) drugs. For example if you take a drug for allergy (an ... Drug-condition interaction: A drug reaction that occurs when the drug is taken in certain medical conditions. For example if ...
Which drug interactions increase the severity of cocaine toxicity?
The risk of severe effects is increased when cocaine is combined with drugs such as monoamine oxidase inhibitors, tricyclic ... Drugs & Diseases , Emergency Medicine , Cocaine Toxicity Q&A Which drug interactions increase the severity of cocaine toxicity? ... Illicit drugs are frequently admixed with additional chemicals either to increase the apparent quantity of the street drug or ... Drug Abuse Warning Network, 2010: Area Profiles of Drug-Related Mortality. HHS Publication No. (SMA) 12-4699, DAWN Series D-36 ...
Drug interactions by Nick Haddington on Prezi
Transcript of Drug interactions. Drug interactions. Pharmacokinetic. Can be classified as.... Pharmacodynamic. Absorption. ... Generally, these interactions are either mediated via:. 1. Different drug acting at the same receptor site. 2. Different drugs ... Remember, when thinking about LIVER ENZYME mediated drug interactions, drugs can be:. A SUBSTRATE for an enzyme. An INHIBITOR ... DRUG FORMULATION). This interaction can be reduced by giving itraconazole with an acidic CARBONATED DRINK, like cola! ( ...
Apixaban Drug Interaction Potential | Anticoagulation Services
The Top 100 Drug Interactions: A Guide to Patient Management, 2014 ed, H&H Publications, Freeland WA 2014. ... Drug Class. Examples (based on human in vivo data1). Known or Probable Effect. US PI Recommendations. UW Medicine ... Pharmacokinetic Interactions 1. The absorption of apixaban is mediated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp). P-gp inhibitors can increase ... Pharmacodynamic Interactions The concurrent use of apixaban with other anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents, and nonsteroidal ...
Salvia noopept drug interaction experience : Salvia
Noopept itself doesnt have much of an effect but it is used as a drug enhancer for a lot of psychedelics including but not ... As a lot of you might already know Salvinorin A only affects the k-opioid receptor so I didnt really expect any interactions, ... I also found this trip report (https://drugs-forum.com/forum/showthread.php?t=189053) of someone doing the same thing with ...
Dabigatran Drug Interaction Potential | Anticoagulation Services
Pharmacokinetic Interactions. The absorption of the pro-drug dabigatran etexilate is mediated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp). P-gp ... The Top 100 Drug Interactions: A Guide to Patient Management, 2014 ed, H&H Publications, Freeland WA 2014. ... Using this strategy with P-gp inducers is not likely to minimize the impact of drug interactions. ... Drug Class. Examples (based on human in vivo data1). Known or Probable Effect. US PI Recommendation. Suggested Management ...
Drugs & Drug Interaction | UpToDate
Easily access key drug information UpToDate has increased the breadth and depth of its drug reference database by integrating ... includes a select drug and drug interaction database - authoritative point-of-care information that helps minimize risk and ... Drugs & Drug Interaction. UpToDate® includes a select drug and drug interaction database - authoritative point-of-care ... A separate drug interactions program (Lexi-Interact) that provides more in-depth analysis of drug-drug, herb-drug and herb-herb ...
Drug Metabolism and Drug Interactions
Lurasidone drug-drug interaction studies: a comprehensive review by Chiu, Yu-Yuan/ Ereshefsky, Larry/ Preskorn, Sheldon H./ ... Concept of interactions between consumable substances in Ayurveda with special reference to foods and drugs by Sarkar, Prasanta ... Drug Metabolism and Personalized Therapy. Official journal of the European Society of Pharmacogenomics and Personalised Therapy ... Modelling Human Cytochromes P450 for Evaluating Drug Metabolism: An Update. Lewis , D.F.V. ...
MedicationsDDIsInhibitorsOccurClinicalEnzymesInteractPatientsPharmacistConsequencesPossible interactionsPredictMedicationLiverCombinationsPrescribersAdverse eventsInhibitionRiskSearchMicromedexSide effectsPatientReactionsPharmacokineticCommonlyAlcoholHerb-Drug InteractionsHerbalPotentialTherapeuticMeds2016PotentiallyJohn'sContraindicationsDietary supplementsGrapefruit drug interactionsPharmacokineticsMinimizeNauseaPreventablePrescriptionPharmacodynamicsResearchersPossible drug interactionsHerbsMechanismsSupplementsSearchFatalInhibitorsDosageCYP3A4SerotoninIncreasesOlder AdultsPatient'sFood
- Patients who do not disclose use of other medications are at higher risk of adverse drug interactions and addiction, according to new research in The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. (news-line.com)
- He says commonly prescribed medications that can cause interactions with several opioids include those from antidepressant and antipsychotic classes, as well as some cardiovascular drugs used to treat arrhythmia and high blood pressure. (news-line.com)
- The article notes several steps physicians can take to mitigate adverse interactions, when patients take opioids and other medications concurrently. (news-line.com)
- He recommends staggering the interacting medications a couple hours apart, often taking the opioid first to ensure it metabolizes without interference, because pro-drug opioids like codeine and tramadol usually "suffer" from drug interactions. (news-line.com)
- When timing fails to avoid drug interactions, physicians can prescribe an alternate opioid less likely to interact with the patient's other medications. (news-line.com)
- The availability of antifungal medications makes it seem like they must be perfectly safe to use, and in fact, if you look up, for example, 'Lotrimin warnings,' you find that it says 'no food and drug interactions have been reported. (verywell.com)
- The others all have moderate to severe interactions with other drugs - including psychiatric medications. (verywell.com)
- Whether you develop athlete's foot or some other fungus infection, don't reach blindly for an over-the-counter treatment if you take any medications - not just psychiatric drugs. (verywell.com)
- If you are prescribed an oral antifungal drug, make sure your doctor knows about all your existing medications. (verywell.com)
- As death approaches, patients are at their most frail, but an increasing symptom burden often necessitates an increase in medications, putting them at higher risk for drug-drug interactions.To assess the potential for drug-drug interactions in routine prescribing at the end of life.An Australian retrospective multicentre case-note review of 266 consecutive adult patients who were referred to specialist palliative care, with data available on 166. (edu.au)
- There were only 4/166 (2.4%) prescribed medications with an associated clinical record of an adverse drug reaction.Potential drug-drug interactions are common for this group of patients. (edu.au)
- Presented in a user-friendly format, the book is organised by drug class and provides a brief summary of the mechanism underlying a particular interaction, alternative drugs lacking the same reactions that may be considered, and instructions for monitoring patients when adverse effects occur. (skudra.net)
- Regarding the severity of clinical results, the interaction was classified as minor (114), moderate (447), major (40) from the 242 prescriptions. (omicsonline.org)
- This study purposes to determine the prevalence of potential and clinical relevant Drug-Drug-Interactions (pDDIs) in institutionalized older adults and to identify the pertinent factors associated. (scielosp.org)
- The clinical reality of the widespread use of potent medicines, whether allopathic, herbal or traditional, has led to the inclusion of a chapter specifically addressing over-the-counter drugs and remedies. (skudra.net)
- The concern we have is that patients may not get the proper amount of pain relief due to an undetected interaction with some other medication they're taking," says Kevin Bain, MPH, PharmD, co-founder and medical director at Biophilia Partners and lead author on this article. (news-line.com)
- Communication between patients and physicians is paramount to identifying and mitigating opioid-involved drug interactions, Bain concludes. (news-line.com)
- Drug-drug interactions in multicentre polypathological polymedicated patients. (scielosp.org)
- Less threatening but nonetheless important interactions necessitating practical measures, such as frequent monitoring and advice to patients, are also discussed. (skudra.net)
- In this study, 72% of patients were at risk of 1 or more potential drug-drug interaction. (edu.au)
- Drug information compendia and drug-drug interaction information databases are critical resources for clinicians and pharmacists working to avoid adverse events due to exposure to potential drug-drug interactions (PDDIs). (biomedcentral.com)
- Robust and accurate information regarding the potential adverse impacts of co-administration of drugs is critical for reducing the health impacts and costs of adverse events. (biomedcentral.com)
- Although no drug interactions have been reported, 5-HTP may increase the effects of Tramadol, increasing the risk of seizures or serotonin syndrome. (verywell.com)
- The risk of drug interaction is higher with oral drugs than the topical applications sold over the counter. (verywell.com)
- Some interactions may be recognised as an acceptable risk when the prescription is written. (edu.au)
- Pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions (DDIs) involving opioid analgesics can be problematic. (ajmc.com)
- Second, we are examining FDA-approved drug labels, and so far annotators have identified 609 evidence items relating to pharmacokinetic PDDIs from 27 FDA-approved drug labels. (slideshare.net)
- Among 46 finally included RCTs, six RCTs simply addressed pharmacodynamic interactions and 33 RCTs studied pharmacokinetic interactions, whereas seven RCTs investigated both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions. (cranberryinstitute.org)
- However, another study questions the clinical relevancy of in vivo pharmacokinetic interaction between cranberry juice and midazolam. (cranberryinstitute.org)
- The most commonly implicated conventional drugs in herb-drug interactions are warfarin, insulin, aspirin, digoxin, and ticlopidine, due to their narrow therapeutic indices. (wikipedia.org)
- The most commonly implicated herbs involved in such interactions are those containing St. John's Wort, magnesium, calcium, iron, or ginkgo. (wikipedia.org)
- 1 Many clinicians may be unaware of recently recognized interactions of these ergot derivatives with several commonly used antibiotic, antiviral and antifungal drugs. (cmaj.ca)
- The population impact of this preventable drug-drug interaction can be considered in the context of the high frequency of clarithromycin and statin co-prescription (rosuvastatin, or Crestor, was the second most commonly dispensed drug in Canada in 2010)," writes Dr. Amit Garg, a nephrologist in the Department of Medicine, Western University, and scientist at the Lawson Health Research Institute and Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences Western, London, Ont. (eurekalert.org)
- As primary care physicians and other specialists become increasingly involved in the care of HIV-infected individuals, it is essential for them to recognize, prevent and manage clinically important interactions between commonly prescribed drugs and antiretroviral therapy. (cmaj.ca)
- What are commonly used drugs associated with serious alcohol interactions? (webmd.com)
- Coenzyme Q10, or CoQ10 as it is often called, is commonly taken in supplement form to counteract the muscle pain and weakness associated with cholesterol-lowering statin drugs. (nytimes.com)
- Our Columnists provide an update on the many drug interactions associated with the commonly used herbal supplement, St. John's Wort. (pharmacytimes.com)
- In this article, we describe the mechanisms via which interactions between herbs and prescription drugs may occur, and highlight four popular herbs and a medicinal mushroom commonly used by cancer patients, along with reports of their interactions with standard drugs. (cancernetwork.com)
- We highlight four popular herbs and a medicinal mushroom commonly used by cancer patients-turmeric, green tea, ginger, ashwagandha, and reishi mushroom-along with reports of their interactions with standard drugs. (cancernetwork.com)
- Alcohol can dangerously increase the sedative effects of certain drugs, raise the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding when taken with NSAIDs and prednisone, and lead to liver damage when combined with acetaminophen or methotrexate. (arthritis.org)
- For example, some drug instructions will say not to drink a citrus juice, like grapefruit, when taking and others will instruct you not to drink alcohol. (fda.gov)
- Drugs containing acetaminophen, the primary ingredient in Tylenol, can lead to liver damage in conjunction with chronic alcohol consumption. (cnn.com)
- Even worse, some HIV meds can increase the level of drugs or alcohol in your blood so much that you could overdose. (poz.com)
- Alcohol also alters the degradation of key nutrients, thereby promoting deficiencies as well as toxic interactions with vitamin A and beta-carotene. (nih.gov)
- The effect was first discovered by accident, when a test of drug interactions with alcohol used grapefruit juice to hide the taste of the ethanol. (wikipedia.org)
- Mothers' and fathers' alcohol use was also shown to contribute to alcohol and cigarette use among their children, while fathers' smoking contributed to marijuana and hard drug use. (nih.gov)
- One of the most common causes of severe liver damage -- including some cases requiring a liver transplant -- is a combination of the pain reliever acetaminophen (available over the counter as Tylenol and in some prescription drugs) and alcohol. (webmd.com)
- Other serious alcohol interactions are associated with over-the-counter antihistamines and herbal remedies such as kava kava, St. John's wort, chamomile, valerian, and lavender. (webmd.com)
- What are some guidelines for preventing alcohol interactions? (webmd.com)
- Alcohol is a common substance that may interfere with a variety of drugs. (onhealth.com)
- The effects of many other drugs are increased when consuming alcohol. (onhealth.com)
- You're not supposed to drink alcohol when taking acetaminophen, because the combination of the two is much more toxic to your liver than either drug individually. (medgadget.com)
- Most herb-drug interactions are moderate in severity. (wikipedia.org)
- Examples of herb-drug interactions include, but are not limited to: St. John's wort affects the clearance of numerous drugs, including cyclosporin, SSRI antidepressants, digoxin, indinavir, and phenprocoumon. (wikipedia.org)
- The mechanisms underlying most herb-drug interactions are not fully understood. (wikipedia.org)
- Poor manufacturing practices, lack of standardization, varied amounts of active ingredients, product contamination, and serious herb-drug interactions have been reported. (cancernetwork.com)
- Herb-drug interactions started appearing in the literature in the 1980s, when reports described the interactions of St. John's wort and grapefruit juice with several prescription drugs. (cancernetwork.com)
- Despite increasing concerns, the term "herb-drug interactions" was only introduced as a Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) term in 2004. (cancernetwork.com)
- The basic mechanisms of herb-drug interactions are similar to other drug interactions. (cancernetwork.com)
- Strohecker and colleagues concluded that unrecognized interactions between warfarin and herbal or dietary supplements could cause bleeding or stroke complications. (medpagetoday.com)
- These types of interactions may be more common than drug-drug interactions because herbal medicines often contain multiple pharmacologically active ingredients, while conventional drugs typically contain only one. (wikipedia.org)
- Some such interactions are clinically significant, although most herbal remedies are not associated with drug interactions causing serious consequences. (wikipedia.org)
- This document provides advice and recommendations on how to evaluate the potential for drug-food and drug-drug interactions for medicinal products (including herbal medicinal products) and how to translate the results of these evaluations to appropriate treatment recommendations in the labelling. (europa.eu)
- In addition, more than half of the cohort reported using herbal supplements during their cancer therapy, and 122 possible herb-to-drug interactions (HDIs) were detected. (bidmc.org)
- For this reason, the adverse effects and drug interactions associated with herbal remedies are largely unknown. (aafp.org)
- Herbal products are not tested with the scientific rigor required of conventional drugs, and they are not subject to the approval process of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (aafp.org)
- Unlike conventional drugs, herbal products are not regulated for purity and potency. (aafp.org)
- 2 Thus, some of the adverse effects and drug interactions reported for herbal products could be caused by impurities (e.g., allergens, pollen and spores) or batch-to-batch variability. (aafp.org)
- Because oseltamivir and oseltamivir carboxylate are excreted in the urine by glomerular filtration and tubular secretion via the anionic pathway, a potential exists for interaction with other agents excreted by this pathway. (cdc.gov)
- The low potential for drug interactions with zanamivir. (cdc.gov)
- Therefore, the kidney and the liver are very important sites of potential drug interactions. (medicinenet.com)
- The package insert provides more information about potential OTC and prescription drug interactions. (fda.gov)
- He or she should be able to give you information about any potential drug interactions. (poz.com)
- The known information about the potential risk of drug interactions is described in drug package inserts. (nih.gov)
- Maskalyk J. Grapefruit juice: potential drug interactions. (cmaj.ca)
- Is there a potential adverse interaction between beta-blockers and local anesthesia or IV sedation? (druginfonet.com)
- The investigation is believed to be the first time anyone has discovered a potential drug interaction by searching for signals in the Food and Drug Administration's complaint archive, then confirming the findings through patient records and cellular testing. (chicagotribune.com)
- Potential drug-drug interactions (PDDIs) are a significant source of preventable drug-related harm. (slideshare.net)
- The potential for a grapefruit-drug interaction persists for up to 72 hours according to one study. (aafp.org)
- Because grapefruit-drug interactions exist, strategies should be devised to manage potential interactions. (aafp.org)
- The newspaper, in stories published online Thursday and in print Sunday, found that 52 percent of 255 pharmacies tested by reporters sold risky drug pairs without mentioning the potential for harmful or even fatal interactions. (chicagotribune.com)
- But in the Tribune tests, many pharmacies dispensed dangerous drug pairs without verbally warning the tester or attempting to contact the doctor about the potential interaction. (chicagotribune.com)
- Identifying potential drug-drug interaction risk is a key priority for pharmaceutical manufacturers and regulatory authorities. (brighttalk.com)
- [ 1 , 2 ] Protease inhibitors in combination with other drugs may require dose adjustments or should be avoided because of potential drug interactions. (medscape.com)
- In addition, says Michael Schwartz, a postdoctoral scholar in Sailor's laboratory and the first author of the paper: "The potential of our technique for fundamental studies of cell toxicity is exciting, Since we can monitor cells in real time without removing them from their natural environment, the observed changes provide a time course for performing more detailed tests to find out why drugs are toxic. (medgadget.com)
- Five years ago in this column, we discussed the potential for St. John's wort (SJW) to cause drug interactions. (pharmacytimes.com)
- The information on SJW's interaction potential has continued to develop, and this column is intended to bring you up to date. (pharmacytimes.com)
- Drug interactions are also examined from a cellular perspective and for their usefulness in the development of new therapeutic agents. (springer.com)
- Those wishing to expand their repertoire of experimental techniques or to improve their current techniques will also find these powerful methods particularly helpful in elucidating the action of existing therapeutic agents, as well as in designing new anticancer drugs with improved action and reduced toxicity. (springer.com)
- On the basis of this information, a multi-disciplinary approach is used to engineer therapeutic drugs and to allow substantive advances in targeted molecular medicine. (springer.com)
- As a drug class, opioids are associated with a narrow therapeutic index, wide interindividual variability in response (eg, doses used in an opioid-tolerant patient can be fatal to an opioid-naïve patient), and potentially life-threatening toxicity. (ajmc.com)
- Causes contributing to harmful drug?drug interactions include narrow therapeutic dosage ranges associated with certain drugs and a patient?s disease state (Tables 1 and 2). (pharmacytimes.com)
- You will also find an appendix listing major drugs currently in use in each therapeutic classification. (abebooks.com)
- Thirty-two additional appendices detail interaction between a therapeutic group of drugs and an individual drug or group of drugs, such as interactions of beta-blockers, alpha-blockers, calcium-blockers, etc. (abebooks.com)
- The list of potentially fatal interactions with Viagra continues to grow. (healthy.net)
- Fifteen of these were potentially serious or life-threatening interactions. (healthcentral.com)
- 2 Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are an important and potentially preventable source of ADRs. (ajmc.com)
- Algorithms cover a glass wall at Columbia University in New York, where data scientist Nick Tatonetti, center, and his team used novel techniques in signal detection to identify potentially harmful drug interactions hidden in a vast database. (chicagotribune.com)
- This article focuses on 10 prevalent and potentially fatal drug interactions, listed in Table 3. (pharmacytimes.com)
- The Medical Letter's Adverse Drug Interactions Tool provides users with an unbiased resource to quickly search and find potentially life-threatening interactions between drugs as well as any lifestyle factors in your patient's regimen. (skyscape.com)
- Some dietary supplements can cause interactions with prescription and over-the-counter medicines. (familydoctor.org)
- Dietary supplements can affect the way your body processes prescription and over-the-counter drugs. (familydoctor.org)
- Discuss all OTC and prescription drugs, dietary supplements, vitamins, botanicals, minerals and herbals you take, as well as the foods you eat. (fda.gov)
- In 2008, American Family Physician , the journal of the American Academy of Family Physicians, published an overview of interactions between drugs, herbs, and other dietary supplements. (harvard.edu)
- this [book] is unique in its careful consideration of the relevance of dietary supplements to the discussion of drug interactions. (abebooks.com)
Grapefruit drug interactions1
- Do you take two or more prescription drugs or a prescription drug and over the counter drug together? (fda.gov)
- Also, read the package insert for each prescription drug you take. (fda.gov)
- (CNN) -- As friends of pop star Michael Jackson discuss the role prescription drugs may have played in his Thursday death, the serious health problems that can be triggered by drug interactions are again in the spotlight. (cnn.com)
- Reporting in the April issue of JAMA Internal Medicine , the researchers found that the number of older adults taking five or more prescription drugs rose from 30.6 to 35.8 percent during the five-year span. (healthcentral.com)
- Over the study's five-year span, the number of older people taking several classes of prescription drugs linked to dangerous interactions rose significantly-including statins for cholesterol, antiplatelets to prevent blood clots, and proton pump inhibitors for gastroesophageal reflux disease. (healthcentral.com)
- I would like to know which prescription drugs are negatively affected. (peoplespharmacy.com)
- This is a story about prescription drugs, the beating of our hearts, cells from hamsters and the promise of big data. (chicagotribune.com)
- Here, are the best tips for those who need to know how to check prescription drug interactions. (edrugsearch.com)
- Dr. Nancy Snyderman of the Today Show reported this morning on the growing number of Americans who use prescription drugs, and in many cases several prescription drugs, to treat chronic illnesses. (edrugsearch.com)
- One reason for the increase in ADRs is the growth in prescription use-especially among aging populations where drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are more likely. (brighttalk.com)
- Currently, 9 percent of Americans over age 55 take 10 or more prescription drugs, which greatly increases the likelihood of DDIs and ADRs. (brighttalk.com)
- The likelihood of drug interactions increases with each prescription. (acpinternist.org)
- Xanax is the brand name of alprazolam, a prescription drug used to treat anxiety disorders. (everydayhealth.com)
- Clindamycin is the generic name of the prescription drug Cleocin, which is an antibiotic used to treat certain serious bacterial infections. (everydayhealth.com)
- The book is recommended reading for post-graduate students and researchers engaged in the study of systems biology, networks, and the pharmacodynamics of natural or industrial drugs, as well as for medical clinicians interested in drug application and combinatorial drug therapy. (textbookrevolution.org)
- and pharmacodynamics, which define how herbs can alter the actions of other drugs when used concurrently. (cancernetwork.com)
- The DGIdb, the paper adds, is designed to help researchers mine existing resources and thereby generate hypotheses about how mutated genes might be targeted therapeutically or prioritized for drug development. (genengnews.com)
- The Chicago Tribune, in a unique collaboration with data scientists, pharmacologists and cellular researchers at Columbia University Medical Center, set out to see if these same novel techniques could be used in the hunt for risky drug pairs. (chicagotribune.com)
- Before an HIV drug is approved, researchers study different doses and choose one that is both safe and effective. (thewellproject.org)
- Health officials and researchers in Canada are reiterating a warning they issued 20 years ago about the drug interaction risks posed by grapefruit juice. (newsinferno.com)
Possible drug interactions3
- Every time you use a drug, take the time to learn about possible drug interactions and read the drug label. (fda.gov)
- 3 While only a few of the possible drug interactions may be clinically relevant, the practitioner still must consider critical factors associated with drug-drug interactions. (uspharmacist.com)
- A common example of a drug product defect is where the manufacturer fails to include proper warning labels regarding possible drug interactions. (legalmatch.com)
- The National Institutes of Health has a list of herbs and supplements , along with information about interactions. (cnn.com)
- There can be adverse reactions between drugs or between drugs and herbs/supplements/vitamins. (bidmc.org)
- The possible problems between drugs and herbs/vitamins/supplements are more complicated. (bidmc.org)
- It would be pretty dumb and self-defeating to take chemotherapy and continue to also take some herbs or teas or supplements that might be nullifying any benefit of the chemo drugs. (bidmc.org)
- Very few herbs and drugs have been studied in this way, however, and much of the current knowledge rests on data from in vitro, animal, and in silico models. (cancernetwork.com)
- Mechanisms of ethanol-drug-nutrition interactions. (nih.gov)
- Mechanisms of these interactions were then identified by each interaction factor. (nih.gov)
- To characterize other interactions without interaction factors, we used the ATC classification system and found an association between interaction mechanisms and pharmacological/chemical subgroups. (nih.gov)
- Exploiting genetic interactions of STAT3 with other cancer-related pathways may provide molecular insight into mechanisms of cancer resistance to pathway-targeted therapies and strategies for development of more effective anticancer agents and treatment regimens. (mdpi.com)
- A drug-gene interaction database (DGIdb) has been developed that integrates existing resources to create a vast, comprehensive repository that amounts to a search engine for disease genes. (genengnews.com)
- The search provides the names of drugs targeted to each gene and details whether the drug is an inhibitor, antibody, vaccine, or another type. (genengnews.com)
- Demerol can have serious interactions with the class of antidepressants known as MAO inhibitors, with effects ranging from increased heart rate and higher blood pressure to cardiac arrest. (cnn.com)
- 2 , 5 , 6 Other CYP 3A4 inhibitors, such as grapefruit juice, 7 and drugs including heparin, cyclosporine, tacrolimus and ampicillin present at least the theoretical possibility of drug interactions. (cmaj.ca)
- What is the drug interaction between phenylpropanolamine with MAO inhibitors? (druginfonet.com)
- Serotonin syndrome is possible with any monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI), such as phenelzine or tranylcypromine sulfate, in combination with any drug that increases serotonin levels, such as dextromethorphan, meperidine, and other selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). (pharmacytimes.com)
- This is due to the simultaneous effect on serotonin in the body by both drugs. (druginfonet.com)
- Q. I have been diagnosed with serotonin syndrome brought on by a drug interaction between Cymbalta, gabapentin, tramadol and a low dose of Prozac. (peoplespharmacy.com)
- The interaction can result in a central serotonin syndrome. (pharmacytimes.com)
- Some Paxil drug interactions can lead to problems such as stomach bleeding, increased drowsiness, or a very dangerous combination of symptoms called serotonin syndrome. (emedtv.com)
- The Food and Drug Administration highlights several interactions between drugs and various substances on its Web site . (cnn.com)
- The drug reacts with food or beverage. (medindia.net)
- Avoid Food-Drug Interactions " is an updated version of NCL's very popular "Food and Drug Interactions" brochure. (consumeraffairs.com)
- Make sure you read the drug's label every time to avoid harmful food and drug interactions, and to get the most benefit from your medicine. (consumeraffairs.com)
- Will Food and Drink Affect Your Drug? (peoplespharmacy.com)
- Please refer to the Food and Drug Administration product labels for FPV, IDV, NFV, and SQV for information regarding drug interactions with these PIs. (nih.gov)
- This quick-reference handbook provides vital information on thousands of clinically significant drug-drug, drug-drug class, drug-herb, and drug-food interactions in an easy-to-use, consistent format that includes nursing considerations. (ovid.com)
- Food-Drug Interactions Precipitated by Fruit Juices other than Grapefruit Juice: An Update Review. (cranberryinstitute.org)
- Journal of Food & Drug Analysis. (cranberryinstitute.org)
- The manufacturers of these products are not required to submit proof of safety and efficacy to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration before marketing. (aafp.org)
- Xanax is made by Pfizer and was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1981. (everydayhealth.com)
- Clindamycin was first approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) under the brand name Cleocin in 1970, and was manufactured by Pharmacia and Upjohn (now Pfizer). (everydayhealth.com)
- These products, however, are not regulated as drugs by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (cancernetwork.com)
- In light of a recent outbreak linked to contaminated duodenoscopes, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is questioning manufacturers about their methods for cleaning the devices, the New York Times reports. (newsinferno.com)