The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
The effect of herbs, other PLANTS, or PLANT EXTRACTS on the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of drugs.
A cytochrome P-450 suptype that has specificity for a broad variety of lipophilic compounds, including STEROIDS; FATTY ACIDS; and XENOBIOTICS. This enzyme has clinical significance due to its ability to metabolize a diverse array of clinically important drugs such as CYCLOSPORINE; VERAPAMIL; and MIDAZOLAM. This enzyme also catalyzes the N-demethylation of ERYTHROMYCIN.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
The pharmacological result, either desirable or undesirable, of drugs interacting with components of the diet. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Dynamic and kinetic mechanisms of exogenous chemical and DRUG LIBERATION; ABSORPTION; BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT; TISSUE DISTRIBUTION; BIOTRANSFORMATION; elimination; and DRUG TOXICITY as a function of dosage, and rate of METABOLISM. LADMER, ADME and ADMET are abbreviations for liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and toxicology.
A plant species of the genus CITRUS, family RUTACEAE that produces the familiar grapefruit. There is evidence that grapefruit inhibits CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A4, resulting in delayed metabolism and higher blood levels of a variety of drugs.
Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.
The use of multiple drugs administered to the same patient, most commonly seen in elderly patients. It includes also the administration of excessive medication. Since in the United States most drugs are dispensed as single-agent formulations, polypharmacy, though using many drugs administered to the same patient, must be differentiated from DRUG COMBINATIONS, single preparations containing two or more drugs as a fixed dose, and from DRUG THERAPY, COMBINATION, two or more drugs administered separately for a combined effect. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.
A cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of many drugs and environmental chemicals, such as DEBRISOQUINE; ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS; and TRICYCLIC ANTIDEPRESSANTS. This enzyme is deficient in up to 10 percent of the Caucasian population.
Books in the field of medicine intended primarily for consultation.
A macrolide antibiotic that is similar to ERYTHROMYCIN.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
Broad spectrum antifungal agent used for long periods at high doses, especially in immunosuppressed patients.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
A phenylacetamide that was formerly used in ANALGESICS but nephropathy and METHEMOGLOBINEMIA led to its withdrawal from the market. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology,1991, p431)
An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide.
Phenomena and pharmaceutics of compounds that inhibit the function of agonists (DRUG AGONISM) and inverse agonists (DRUG INVERSE AGONISM) for a specific receptor. On their own, antagonists produce no effect by themselves to a receptor, and are said to have neither intrinsic activity nor efficacy.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
An indandione that has been used as an anticoagulant. Phenindione has actions similar to WARFARIN, but it is now rarely employed because of its higher incidence of severe adverse effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p234)
An anticonvulsant that is used to treat a wide variety of seizures. It is also an anti-arrhythmic and a muscle relaxant. The mechanism of therapeutic action is not clear, although several cellular actions have been described including effects on ion channels, active transport, and general membrane stabilization. The mechanism of its muscle relaxant effect appears to involve a reduction in the sensitivity of muscle spindles to stretch. Phenytoin has been proposed for several other therapeutic uses, but its use has been limited by its many adverse effects and interactions with other drugs.
Systems developed for collecting reports from government agencies, manufacturers, hospitals, physicians, and other sources on adverse drug reactions.
Genus of perennial plants in the family CLUSIACEAE (sometimes classified as Hypericaceae). Herbal and homeopathic preparations are used for depression, neuralgias, and a variety of other conditions. Hypericum contains flavonoids; GLYCOSIDES; mucilage, TANNINS; volatile oils (OILS, ESSENTIAL), hypericin and hyperforin.
17 beta-Hydroxy-4-androsten-3-ones. Testosterone derivatives formed by the substitution of one or more hydroxyl groups in any position.
A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.
Drugs intended for DENTISTRY.
A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).
Coumarin derivative that acts as a long acting oral anticoagulant.
An application that must be submitted to a regulatory agency (the FDA in the United States) before a drug can be studied in humans. This application includes results of previous experiments; how, where, and by whom the new studies will be conducted; the chemical structure of the compound; how it is thought to work in the body; any toxic effects found in animal studies; and how the compound is manufactured. (From the "New Medicines in Development" Series produced by the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association and published irregularly.)
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A unicyclic, aminoketone antidepressant. The mechanism of its therapeutic actions is not well understood, but it does appear to block dopamine uptake. The hydrochloride is available as an aid to smoking cessation treatment.
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
A derivative of the opioid alkaloid THEBAINE that is a more potent and longer lasting analgesic than MORPHINE. It appears to act as a partial agonist at mu and kappa opioid receptors and as an antagonist at delta receptors. The lack of delta-agonist activity has been suggested to account for the observation that buprenorphine tolerance may not develop with chronic use.
A plant order of the subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It includes 18 families, approximately 175 genera, and 3,400 species. Its members are mostly tropical trees and shrubs.
A cytochrome P450 enzyme subtype that has specificity for relatively planar heteroaromatic small molecules, such as CAFFEINE and ACETAMINOPHEN.
An HIV protease inhibitor that works by interfering with the reproductive cycle of HIV. It also inhibits CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.
A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)
Services providing pharmaceutic and therapeutic drug information and consultation.
Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.
A histamine congener, it competitively inhibits HISTAMINE binding to HISTAMINE H2 RECEPTORS. Cimetidine has a range of pharmacological actions. It inhibits GASTRIC ACID secretion, as well as PEPSIN and GASTRIN output.
Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Dried rhizome and roots of Piper methysticum, a shrub native to Oceania and known for its anti-anxiety and sedative properties. Heavy usage results in some adverse effects. It contains ALKALOIDS; LACTONES; kawain, methysticin, mucilage, STARCH, and yangonin. Kava is also the name of the pungent beverage prepared from the plant's roots.
The study of medicines derived from botanical sources.
Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.
A serotonin uptake inhibitor that is effective in the treatment of depression.
Agents that prevent clotting.
The process of observing, recording, or detecting the effects of a chemical substance administered to an individual therapeutically or diagnostically.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A triazole antifungal agent that inhibits cytochrome P-450-dependent enzymes required for ERGOSTEROL synthesis.
Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Organic compounds that have the general formula R-SO-R. They are obtained by oxidation of mercaptans (analogous to the ketones). (From Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 4th ed)
A potent HIV protease inhibitor. It is used in combination with other antiviral drugs in the treatment of HIV in both adults and children.
An optical isomer of quinine, extracted from the bark of the CHINCHONA tree and similar plant species. This alkaloid dampens the excitability of cardiac and skeletal muscles by blocking sodium and potassium currents across cellular membranes. It prolongs cellular ACTION POTENTIALS, and decreases automaticity. Quinidine also blocks muscarinic and alpha-adrenergic neurotransmission.
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.
Material prepared from plants.
Derivatives of carbamic acid, H2NC(=O)OH. Included under this heading are N-substituted and O-substituted carbamic acids. In general carbamate esters are referred to as urethanes, and polymers that include repeating units of carbamate are referred to as POLYURETHANES. Note however that polyurethanes are derived from the polymerization of ISOCYANATES and the singular term URETHANE refers to the ethyl ester of carbamic acid.
Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.
Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.
Compounds that inhibit H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE. They are used as ANTI-ULCER AGENTS and sometimes in place of HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS for GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX.
Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.
The management and maintenance of colonies of honeybees.
The plant Silybum marianum in the family ASTERACEAE containing the bioflavonoid complex SILYMARIN. For centuries this has been used traditionally to treat liver disease. Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. = Carduus marianus L.
Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.
A cardiotonic glycoside obtained mainly from Digitalis lanata; it consists of three sugars and the aglycone DIGOXIGENIN. Digoxin has positive inotropic and negative chronotropic activity. It is used to control ventricular rate in ATRIAL FIBRILLATION and in the management of congestive heart failure with atrial fibrillation. Its use in congestive heart failure and sinus rhythm is less certain. The margin between toxic and therapeutic doses is small. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p666)
Necrosis or disintegration of skeletal muscle often followed by myoglobinuria.
A butyl-diphenyl-pyrazolidinedione that has anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic activities. It has been used in ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS; RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS; and REACTIVE ARTHRITIS.
Medicines that can be sold legally without a DRUG PRESCRIPTION.
OXAZINES with a fused BENZENE ring.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
The removing of alkyl groups from a compound. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.
The prototypical tricyclic antidepressant. It has been used in major depression, dysthymia, bipolar depression, attention-deficit disorders, agoraphobia, and panic disorders. It has less sedative effect than some other members of this therapeutic group.
System established by the World Health Organization and the International Committee on Thrombosis and Hemostasis for monitoring and reporting blood coagulation tests. Under this system, results are standardized using the International Sensitivity Index for the particular test reagent/instrument combination used.
The quality of not being miscible with another given substance without a chemical change. One drug is not of suitable composition to be combined or mixed with another agent or substance. The incompatibility usually results in an undesirable reaction, including chemical alteration or destruction. (Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
Errors in prescribing, dispensing, or administering medication with the result that the patient fails to receive the correct drug or the indicated proper drug dosage.
A tricyclic antidepressant with actions similar to AMITRIPTYLINE.
A branch of genetics which deals with the genetic variability in individual responses to drugs and drug metabolism (BIOTRANSFORMATION).
A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC
Authoritative treatises on drugs and preparations, their description, formulation, analytic composition, physical constants, main chemical properties used in identification, standards for strength, purity, and dosage, chemical tests for determining identity and purity, etc. They are usually published under governmental jurisdiction (e.g., USP, the United States Pharmacopoeia; BP, British Pharmacopoeia; P. Helv., the Swiss Pharmacopoeia). They differ from FORMULARIES in that they are far more complete: formularies tend to be mere listings of formulas and prescriptions.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
The use of DRUGS to treat a DISEASE or its symptoms. One example is the use of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to treat CANCER.
The self administration of medication not prescribed by a physician or in a manner not directed by a physician.
A macrolide antibiotic that has a wide antimicrobial spectrum and is particularly effective in respiratory and genital infections.
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
A drug formerly used in the treatment of angina pectoris but superseded by less hazardous drugs. Prenylamine depletes myocardial catecholamine stores and has some calcium channel blocking activity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1406)
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
The only specie of the genus Ginkgo, family Ginkgoacea. It is the source of extracts of medicinal interest, especially Egb 761. Ginkgo may refer to the genus or species.
A group of closely related cyclic undecapeptides from the fungi Trichoderma polysporum and Cylindocarpon lucidum. They have some antineoplastic and antifungal action and significant immunosuppressive effects. Cyclosporins have been proposed as adjuvants in tissue and organ transplantation to suppress graft rejection.
A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.
A short-acting opioid anesthetic and analgesic derivative of FENTANYL. It produces an early peak analgesic effect and fast recovery of consciousness. Alfentanil is effective as an anesthetic during surgery, for supplementation of analgesia during surgical procedures, and as an analgesic for critically ill patients.
Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.
A phenothiazine with actions similar to CHLORPROMAZINE but with less antipsychotic activity. It is primarily used in short-term treatment of disturbed behavior and as an antiemetic.
Painful sensation in the muscles.
A chemically heterogeneous group of drugs that have in common the ability to block oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. (From Gilman, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p414)
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
A lipid-regulating agent that lowers elevated serum lipids primarily by decreasing serum triglycerides with a variable reduction in total cholesterol.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
A second-generation histamine H1 receptor antagonist used in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and urticaria. Unlike most classical antihistamines (HISTAMINE H1 ANTAGONISTS) it lacks central nervous system depressing effects such as drowsiness.
An effective inhibitor of platelet aggregation commonly used in the placement of STENTS in CORONARY ARTERIES.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
An anticonvulsant used to control grand mal and psychomotor or focal seizures. Its mode of action is not fully understood, but some of its actions resemble those of PHENYTOIN; although there is little chemical resemblance between the two compounds, their three-dimensional structure is similar.
Inhibitors of HIV INTEGRASE, an enzyme required for integration of viral DNA into cellular DNA.
Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
The prototypical phenothiazine antipsychotic drug. Like the other drugs in this class chlorpromazine's antipsychotic actions are thought to be due to long-term adaptation by the brain to blocking DOPAMINE RECEPTORS. Chlorpromazine has several other actions and therapeutic uses, including as an antiemetic and in the treatment of intractable hiccup.
A coumarin that is used as an anticoagulant. Its actions and uses are similar to those of WARFARIN. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p233)
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
Compounds that specifically inhibit the reuptake of serotonin in the brain.
System of herbal medicine practiced in Japan by both herbalists and practitioners of modern medicine. Kampo originated in China and is based on Chinese herbal medicine (MEDICINE, CHINESE TRADITIONAL).
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.
A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.
The science concerned with the benefit and risk of drugs used in populations and the analysis of the outcomes of drug therapies. Pharmacoepidemiologic data come from both clinical trials and epidemiological studies with emphasis on methods for the detection and evaluation of drug-related adverse effects, assessment of risk vs benefit ratios in drug therapy, patterns of drug utilization, the cost-effectiveness of specific drugs, methodology of postmarketing surveillance, and the relation between pharmacoepidemiology and the formulation and interpretation of regulatory guidelines. (Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 1992;1(1); J Pharmacoepidemiol 1990;1(1))
Cell surface proteins that bind biogenic amines with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells. Biogenic amine is a chemically imprecise term which, by convention, includes the catecholamines epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine, the indoleamine serotonin, the imidazolamine histamine, and compounds closely related to each of these.
A nonclassical folic acid inhibitor through its inhibition of the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase. It is being tested for efficacy as an antineoplastic agent and as an antiparasitic agent against PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS patients. Myelosuppression is its dose-limiting toxic effect.
Adjunctive computer programs in providing drug treatment to patients.
A broad-spectrum antibiotic that is being used as prophylaxis against disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection in HIV-positive patients.
A synthetic opioid that is used as the hydrochloride. It is an opioid analgesic that is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. It has actions and uses similar to those of MORPHINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1082-3)
Substances obtained from various species of microorganisms that are, alone or in combination with other agents, of use in treating various forms of tuberculosis; most of these agents are merely bacteriostatic, induce resistance in the organisms, and may be toxic.
A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.
Educational programs designed to inform graduate pharmacists of recent advances in their particular field.
Six-membered heterocycles containing an oxygen and a nitrogen.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
A 4-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyridyl, 5-methoxybenzimidazole derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits an H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
An adverse drug interaction characterized by altered mental status, autonomic dysfunction, and neuromuscular abnormalities. It is most frequently caused by use of both serotonin reuptake inhibitors and monoamine oxidase inhibitors, leading to excess serotonin availability in the CNS at the serotonin 1A receptor.
Educational programs for pharmacists who have a bachelor's degree or a Doctor of Pharmacy degree entering a specific field of pharmacy. They may lead to an advanced degree.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS that do not rely directly or indirectly upon sodium ion gradients for the transport of organic ions.
A semisynthetic derivative of CODEINE.
A derivative of LOVASTATIN and potent competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It may also interfere with steroid hormone production. Due to the induction of hepatic LDL RECEPTORS, it increases breakdown of LDL CHOLESTEROL.
A liver microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 16-alpha-hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme is encoded by a number of genes from several CYP2 subfamilies.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
The prototypical uricosuric agent. It inhibits the renal excretion of organic anions and reduces tubular reabsorption of urate. Probenecid has also been used to treat patients with renal impairment, and, because it reduces the renal tubular excretion of other drugs, has been used as an adjunct to antibacterial therapy.
Compounds with a BENZENE fused to IMIDAZOLES.
Compounds that contain benzimidazole joined to a 2-methylpyridine via a sulfoxide linkage. Several of the compounds in this class are ANTI-ULCER AGENTS that act by inhibiting the POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE found in the PROTON PUMP of GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.
A fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Aspergillus terreus. The compound is a potent anticholesteremic agent. It inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It also stimulates the production of low-density lipoprotein receptors in the liver.
An antianginal and class III antiarrhythmic drug. It increases the duration of ventricular and atrial muscle action by inhibiting POTASSIUM CHANNELS and VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS. There is a resulting decrease in heart rate and in vascular resistance.
The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.
Azoles of one NITROGEN and two double bonds that have aromatic chemical properties.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Drugs that cannot be sold legally without a prescription.
A polyspecific transporter for organic cations found primarily in the kidney. It mediates the coupled exchange of alpha-ketoglutarate with organic ions such as P-AMINOHIPPURIC ACID.
Six-carbon alicyclic hydrocarbons.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)
Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.
Any process by which toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, preferred route of administration, safe dosage range, etc., for a drug or group of drugs is determined through clinical assessment in humans or veterinary animals.
A fatty acid with anticonvulsant properties used in the treatment of epilepsy. The mechanisms of its therapeutic actions are not well understood. It may act by increasing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in the brain or by altering the properties of voltage dependent sodium channels.
Glycosides of GLUCURONIC ACID formed by the reaction of URIDINE DIPHOSPHATE GLUCURONIC ACID with certain endogenous and exogenous substances. Their formation is important for the detoxification of drugs, steroid excretion and BILIRUBIN metabolism to a more water-soluble compound that can be eliminated in the URINE and BILE.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Persons with no known significant health problems who are recruited to participate in research to test a new drug, device, or intervention as controls for a patient group. (from, accessed 2/14/2013)
A type of MICROCOMPUTER, sometimes called a personal digital assistant, that is very small and portable and fitting in a hand. They are convenient to use in clinical and other field situations for quick data management. They usually require docking with MICROCOMPUTERS for updates.
A macrolide isolated from the culture broth of a strain of Streptomyces tsukubaensis that has strong immunosuppressive activity in vivo and prevents the activation of T-lymphocytes in response to antigenic or mitogenic stimulation in vitro.
7-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.
An aminoacridine derivative that intercalates into DNA and is used as an antineoplastic agent.
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.
A potent and specific HIV protease inhibitor that appears to have good oral bioavailability.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
A selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor that is used in the treatment of DEPRESSION and a variety of ANXIETY DISORDERS.
Hospital department responsible for the receiving, storing, and distribution of pharmaceutical supplies.
Methyl analog of DEXTRORPHAN that shows high affinity binding to several regions of the brain, including the medullary cough center. This compound is an NMDA receptor antagonist (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and acts as a non-competitive channel blocker. It is one of the widely used ANTITUSSIVES, and is also used to study the involvement of glutamate receptors in neurotoxicity.
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.
Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H2 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of histamine. Their clinically most important action is the inhibition of acid secretion in the treatment of gastrointestinal ulcers. Smooth muscle may also be affected. Some drugs in this class have strong effects in the central nervous system, but these actions are not well understood.

Inhibitory innervation of cat sphincter of Oddi. (1/10578)

1 Electrical stimulation with trains of 0.1-0.2 ms pulses of the cat isolated sphincter of Oddi inhibited the spontaneous contractile activity and lowered base-line tension considerably. A contraction usually followed the period of stimulation. 2 These inhibitory effects were prevented by tetrodotoxin 0.1-0.5 mug/ml but were not reduced by hexamethonilm, morphine, or blockade of alpha- or beta-adrenoreceptors of cholinoceptors with phenoxy-benzamine propranolol or atropine, respectively. 3 Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine-5'-diphosphate (ADP) inhibited the spontaneous sphincter activity and caused relaxation thus mimicking the effects of the C-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin (C8-CCK), isoprenaline and prostaglandin E1 and E2. 4 ATP alone (greater than 100 mug/ml) or ATP (greater than 10 mug/ml) plus dipyridamole (1 mug/ml), relaxed the sphincter to the same degrees as did the field stimulation. 5 In sphincter maximally contracted by acetylcholine, the effect of stimulation was more marked than that recorded in uncontracted preparations. 6 The present findings suggest that the sphincter of Oddi receives inhibitory nerves that are neither cholinergic nor adrenergic.  (+info)

Effect of morphine and naloxone on priming-induced audiogenic seizures in BALB/c mice. (2/10578)

1 Morphine (1-200 mg/kg s.c.) reduced the incidence and prolonged the latency of priming-induced audiogenic siezures in a dose-dependent manner. 2 This effect was reversed by naloxone (1 and 2 mg/kg) although naloxone was itself inactive. 3 This priming-induces seizure model may be useful in the study of tolerance and physical dependence.  (+info)

Carcinogenicity of triethanolamine in mice and its mutagenicity after reaction with sodium nitrite in bacteria. (3/10578)

Mice fed a diet containing 0.3 or 0.03% triethanolamine developed malignant tumors. Females showed a high incidence of tumors in lymphoid tissues, while this type was absent in males. Tumors in other tissues were produced at a considerable rate in both sexes, but no hepatoma was found. Triethanolamine was not mutagenic to Bacillus subtilis by itself, but it became mutagenic after reacting with sodium nitrite under acidic conditions or when the mixture was heated. Although N-nitrosodiethanolamine, a known carcinogen and mutagen, was detected in the reaction mixture by thin-layer chromatography, it may not be the main mutagenic product, because the product was a stable and direct mutagen and its mutagenic activity was destroyed by liver enzymes, unlike N-nitrosodiethanolamine. The lethal and mutagenic DNA damages produced by this unidentified product were susceptible to some extent to the repair functions of the bacteria.  (+info)

Determination of pyrolysis products of smoked methamphetamine mixed with tobacco by tandem mass spectrometry. (4/10578)

This study examines the pyrolysis products of smoked methamphetamine mixed with tobacco that was trapped with a C8 adsorbent cartridge and then detected by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. According to the results, the mainstream smoke contains 2-methylpropyl-benzene, 2-chloropropyl-benzene, 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one, 3-ethyl-phenol, methamphetamine, dimethylamphetamine, hydroquinone, 3-methyl-5-(1-methylethyl)-methylcarbamate phenol, N-methyl-N-(2-phenylethyl)-acetamide, 4-(3-hydroxy-1-butenyl)-3,5,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexene-1-one, propanoic acid, N-acetylmethamphetamine, phenyl ester, and furfurylmethylamphetamine. In addition, the compounds in sidestream smoke are 2-propenyl benzene, phenylacetone, methamphetamine, dimethylamphetamine, benzyl methyl ketoxime, 3,4-dihydro-2-naphthalenone, N-folmyamphetamine, N-acetylamphetamine, bibenzyl, N-folmylmethamphetamine, N-acetylmethamphetamine, N-propionymethamphetamine, and furfurylmethylamphetamine. Moreover, the presence of methamphetamine promotes the oxidation of the tobacco components.  (+info)

Distinct and combined vascular effects of ACE blockade and HMG-CoA reductase inhibition in hypertensive subjects. (5/10578)

Hypercholesterolemia and hypertension are frequently associated with elevated sympathetic activity. Both are independent cardiovascular risk factors and both affect endothelium-mediated vasodilation. To identify the effects of cholesterol-lowering and antihypertensive treatments on vascular reactivity and vasodilative capacity, we studied 30 hypercholesterolemic hypertensive subjects. They received placebo for 4 weeks, either enalapril or simvastatin for 14 weeks, and, finally, both medications for an additional 14 weeks. Postischemic forearm blood flow (MFBF) and minimal vascular resistance (mFVR) were used as indices of vasodilative capacity and structural vascular damage, respectively. Total (resting-stress-recovery phases) cardiovascular (blood pressure [BP] and heart rate [HR]) and regional hemodynamic (FBF and FVR) reactivity to stressful stimuli were calculated as area-under-the-curve (auc) (valuextime). Compared with baseline levels, simvastatin reduced total (TOT-C) and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) (1.27 mmol/L, P<0.001 and 1.33 mmol/L, P<0.001, respectively). Enalapril also reduced TOT-C and LDL-C (0.6 mmol/L, P<0.001 and 0.58 mmol/L, P<0.05, respectively). MFBF was increased substantially by both treatments (P<0.001). Enalapril had a greater effect (-1.7 arbitrary units (AU), P<0.001) than simvastatin (-0.6 AU, P<0.05) on mFVR. During stress, FBF increased more with enalapril (4.4 FBFxminutes, P<0.001) than with simvastatin (1.8 FBFxminutes, P<0.01). Conversely, FVR stress response was reduced more with enalapril (9.1 FVRxminutes, P<0.001) than with simvastatin (2.9 FVRxminutes, P<0.01). During combination treatment, a significant (0.001>P<0.05) additive effect on hypercholesterolemia, structural vascular damage, BP, and FVR was shown. The findings suggest that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition induces a larger reduction than HMG-CoA reductase blockade in vascular reactivity and structural damage in hypercholesterolemic hypertensive subjects.  (+info)

Ergoline derivative LEK-8829-induced turning behavior in rats with unilateral striatal ibotenic acid lesions: interaction with bromocriptine. (6/10578)

LEK-8829 [9,10-didehydro-N-methyl-(2-propynyl)-6-methyl-8- aminomethylergoline bimaleinate] is an antagonist of dopamine D2 receptors and serotonin (5-HT)2 and 5-HT1A receptors in intact animals and a D1 receptor agonist in dopamine-depleted animals. In the present study, we used rats with unilateral striatal lesions with ibotenic acid (IA) to investigate the dopamine receptor activities of LEK-8829 in a model with innervated dopamine receptors. The IA-lesioned rats circled ipsilaterally when challenged with apomorphine, the mixed agonist on D1/D2 receptors. LEK-8829 induced a dose-dependent contralateral turning that was blocked by D1 receptor antagonist SCH-23390. The treatment with D1 receptor agonist SKF-82958 induced ipsilateral turning, whereas the treatment with D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol induced contralateral posture. The combined treatment with SKF-82958 and haloperidol resulted in a weak contralateral turning, indicating the possible receptor mechanism of contralateral turning induced by LEK-8829. Bromocriptine induced a weak ipsilateral turning that was blocked by haloperidol. The ipsilateral turning induced by bromocriptine was significantly potentiated by the coadministration of a low dose but not by a high dose of LEK-8829. The potentiation of turning was blocked either by SCH-23390 or by haloperidol. The potentiation of ipsilateral turning suggests the costimulation of D2 and D1 receptors by bromocriptine and LEK-8829, respectively, whereas the lack of potentiation by the highest dose of LEK-8829 may be explained by the opposing activity of LEK-8829 and bromocriptine at D2 receptors. We propose that the D2 and 5HT2 receptor-blocking and D1 receptor-stimulating profile of LEK-8829 is promising for the treatment of negative symptoms of schizophrenia.  (+info)

Discriminative stimulus effects of naltrexone after a single dose of morphine in the rat. (7/10578)

The discriminative stimulus effects of an acute morphine (MOR) --> naltrexone (NTX) combination were characterized and compared with the stimulus effects of NTX-precipitated and spontaneous withdrawal from chronic MOR administration. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6-8) were trained to discriminate between two drug treatments in a discrete-trial avoidance/escape procedure: MOR (10 mg./kg, s.c., 4 h) --> NTX (0.3 mg/kg, s.c., 0.25 h) versus saline (SAL, 1 ml/kg, s. c., 4 h) --> NTX (0.3 mg/kg, s.c., 0.25 h). Subjects responded only on the SAL --> NTX-appropriate lever when SAL was given 3.75 h after MOR or 3.75 h before any dose of NTX (0.3-100 mg/kg). Responding was dose dependent and MOR --> NTX-appropriate when NTX (0.01-0.1 mg/kg) followed MOR. Full MOR --> NTX-appropriate responding was dependent on the pretreatment dose and time of MOR, with full effects observed only when MOR (10 mg/kg) was given 3 to 4 h before NTX. While subjects were maintained on either 20- or 40 mg/kg/day of MOR via osmotic pump, NTX produced full dose-dependent, MOR --> NTX-appropriate responding. When the MOR-filled pumps were removed, partial MOR --> NTX-appropriate responding occurred, peaking at 6 to 12 h. The physical withdrawal signs produced by NTX after acute or during chronic MOR exposure were of smaller magnitude compared with the ones that occurred during abrupt withdrawal from chronic MOR. A qualitatively unique "withdrawal" stimulus that is dose- and time-dependent appears to be the basis of this MOR --> NTX discrimination.  (+info)

Issues in the treatment of active tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. (8/10578)

Most HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis can be treated satisfactorily with standard regimens with expectations of good results. Treatment of tuberculosis in these patients has been complicated by the introduction of HAART, which relies on drugs that interfere with the most potent class of antituberculous medications. Rifampin-free regimens or regimens that employ rifabutin may be acceptable strategies for patients who are receiving protease inhibitors, although these regimens have not been rigorously evaluated in patients with AIDS. At present, there is good reason to believe that a 6-month course of a rifabutin-containing regimen or a 9-12-month course of a regimen of streptomycin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide should be adequate therapy for most patients with drug-susceptible disease. As the treatment of HIV infection with antiretroviral agents evolves, the treatment of tuberculosis in patients with AIDS is likely to evolve as well. This will require careful coordination of antituberculosis and antiretroviral therapies.  (+info)

There are several types of drug-related side effects and adverse reactions, including:

1. Common side effects: These are side effects that are commonly experienced by patients taking a particular medication. Examples include nausea, dizziness, and fatigue.
2. Serious side effects: These are side effects that can be severe or life-threatening. Examples include allergic reactions, liver damage, and bone marrow suppression.
3. Adverse events: These are any unwanted or harmful effects that occur during the use of a medication, including side effects and other clinical events such as infections or injuries.
4. Drug interactions: These are interactions between two or more drugs that can cause harmful side effects or reduce the effectiveness of one or both drugs.
5. Side effects caused by drug abuse: These are side effects that occur when a medication is taken in larger-than-recommended doses or in a manner other than as directed. Examples include hallucinations, seizures, and overdose.

It's important to note that not all side effects and adverse reactions are caused by the drug itself. Some may be due to other factors, such as underlying medical conditions, other medications being taken, or environmental factors.

To identify and manage drug-related side effects and adverse reactions, healthcare providers will typically ask patients about any symptoms they are experiencing, perform physical exams, and review the patient's medical history and medication list. In some cases, additional tests may be ordered to help diagnose and manage the problem.

Overall, it's important for patients taking medications to be aware of the potential for side effects and adverse reactions, and to report any symptoms or concerns to their healthcare provider promptly. This can help ensure that any issues are identified and addressed early, minimizing the risk of harm and ensuring that the patient receives the best possible care.

Rhabdomyolysis can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

1. Physical trauma or injury to the muscles
2. Overuse or strain of muscles
3. Poor physical conditioning or training
4. Infections such as viral or bacterial infections that affect the muscles
5. Certain medications or drugs, such as statins and antibiotics
6. Alcohol or drug poisoning
7. Heat stroke or other forms of extreme heat exposure
8. Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid)
9. Genetic disorders that affect muscle function.

Symptoms of rhabdomyolysis can include:

1. Muscle weakness or paralysis
2. Muscle pain or cramping
3. Confusion or disorientation
4. Dark urine or decreased urine output
5. Fever, nausea, and vomiting
6. Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
7. Abnormal heart rhythms or cardiac arrest.

If you suspect that someone has rhabdomyolysis, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as fluids and electrolyte replacement, as well as addressing any underlying causes of the condition. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat complications such as kidney failure or cardiac problems.

Myalgia refers to muscle pain or soreness, which can be caused by a variety of factors such as injury, overuse, infection, or inflammation. It is a common symptom of many medical conditions and can range from mild to severe. Myalgia can affect any part of the body, but it is most commonly experienced in the back, neck, arms, and legs.

The symptoms of myalgia can vary depending on the underlying cause, but they typically include:

* Muscle aches and pains
* Tenderness or sensitivity to touch
* Stiffness or limited range of motion
* Fatigue or weakness
* Swelling or redness in the affected area

Myalgia can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

* Overuse or strain: This is one of the most common causes of myalgia, particularly in athletes or individuals who engage in strenuous physical activity.
* Injury or trauma: Myalgia can occur as a result of a direct blow to the muscle or a sudden twisting or bending motion that causes muscle strain.
* Infection: Certain infections, such as flu or cold, can cause myalgia as a symptom.
* Inflammatory conditions: Conditions such as arthritis, fibromyalgia, and polymyositis can cause myalgia.
* Medication side effects: Certain medications, such as statins and corticosteroids, can cause myalgia as a side effect.

Myalgia is typically diagnosed through a physical examination and medical history. Imaging tests such as X-rays or MRI may be ordered to rule out other conditions and determine the extent of the injury or inflammation. Treatment for myalgia depends on the underlying cause, but it can include rest, physical therapy, medication, and in some cases, surgery.

In conclusion, myalgia is a common symptom of many medical conditions that can cause muscle pain and stiffness. It is important to seek medical attention if the symptoms persist or worsen over time, as early diagnosis and treatment can help alleviate the discomfort and prevent further complications.

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection is a condition in which the body is infected with HIV, a type of retrovirus that attacks the body's immune system. HIV infection can lead to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), a condition in which the immune system is severely damaged and the body is unable to fight off infections and diseases.

There are several ways that HIV can be transmitted, including:

1. Sexual contact with an infected person
2. Sharing of needles or other drug paraphernalia with an infected person
3. Mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Blood transfusions ( although this is rare in developed countries due to screening processes)
5. Organ transplantation (again, rare)

The symptoms of HIV infection can be mild at first and may not appear until several years after infection. These symptoms can include:

1. Fever
2. Fatigue
3. Swollen glands in the neck, armpits, and groin
4. Rash
5. Muscle aches and joint pain
6. Night sweats
7. Diarrhea
8. Weight loss

If left untreated, HIV infection can progress to AIDS, which is a life-threatening condition that can cause a wide range of symptoms, including:

1. Opportunistic infections (such as pneumocystis pneumonia)
2. Cancer (such as Kaposi's sarcoma)
3. Wasting syndrome
4. Neurological problems (such as dementia and seizures)

HIV infection is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests and physical examination. Treatment typically involves antiretroviral therapy (ART), which is a combination of medications that work together to suppress the virus and slow the progression of the disease.

Prevention methods for HIV infection include:

1. Safe sex practices, such as using condoms and dental dams
2. Avoiding sharing needles or other drug-injecting equipment
3. Avoiding mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), which is a short-term treatment that can prevent infection after potential exposure to the virus
5. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which is a daily medication that can prevent infection in people who are at high risk of being exposed to the virus.

It's important to note that HIV infection is manageable with proper treatment and care, and that people living with HIV can lead long and healthy lives. However, it's important to be aware of the risks and take steps to prevent transmission.

The symptoms of serotonin syndrome can vary in severity and may include:

* Agitation
* Confusion
* Restlessness
* Tremors
* Sweating
* Changes in blood pressure and heart rate
* Seizures
* Coma

Serotonin syndrome is typically diagnosed based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and medical history. Laboratory tests may include measurements of serotonin levels and other neurotransmitters in the body. Imaging studies, such as CT scans or MRI, may also be used to rule out other potential causes of symptoms.

Treatment of serotonin syndrome typically involves stopping any medications that may be contributing to the condition and providing supportive care to manage symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the condition. Medications that may be used to treat serotonin syndrome include:

* Cyproheptadine (a serotonin antagonist)
* Dantrolene (a muscle relaxant)
* Benzodiazepines (such as diazepam or lorazepam)
* Antipsychotic medications (such as haloperidol or risperidone)

Preventing serotonin syndrome involves being aware of the potential for interactions between medications and other substances that can increase serotonin levels. It is important to inform healthcare providers about all medications and supplements being taken, as well as any history of previous adverse reactions or medical conditions.

In conclusion, serotonin syndrome is a potentially life-threatening condition that can occur when excessive levels of serotonin are present in the body. It is important to be aware of the potential for interactions between medications and other substances that can increase serotonin levels, and to seek medical attention immediately if symptoms of serotonin syndrome develop. With prompt recognition and treatment, most cases of serotonin syndrome can be successfully managed and treated.

Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.

Types of Neoplasms

There are many different types of neoplasms, including:

1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.

Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms

The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:

1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms

The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:

1. Unusual lumps or swelling
2. Pain
3. Fatigue
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms

The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:

1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.

Prevention of Neoplasms

While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:

1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.

It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.

There are many different types of epilepsy, each with its own unique set of symptoms and characteristics. Some common forms of epilepsy include:

1. Generalized Epilepsy: This type of epilepsy affects both sides of the brain and can cause a range of seizure types, including absence seizures, tonic-clonic seizures, and atypical absence seizures.
2. Focal Epilepsy: This type of epilepsy affects only one part of the brain and can cause seizures that are localized to that area. There are several subtypes of focal epilepsy, including partial seizures with complex symptoms and simple partial seizures.
3. Tonic-Clonic Epilepsy: This type of epilepsy is also known as grand mal seizures and can cause a loss of consciousness, convulsions, and muscle stiffness.
4. Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome: This is a rare and severe form of epilepsy that typically develops in early childhood and can cause multiple types of seizures, including tonic, atonic, and myoclonic seizures.
5. Dravet Syndrome: This is a rare genetic form of epilepsy that typically develops in infancy and can cause severe, frequent seizures.
6. Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome: This is a rare genetic disorder that can cause intellectual disability, developmental delays, and various types of seizures.
7. Other forms of epilepsy include Absence Epilepsy, Myoclonic Epilepsy, and Atonic Epilepsy.

The symptoms of epilepsy can vary widely depending on the type of seizure disorder and the individual affected. Some common symptoms of epilepsy include:

1. Seizures: This is the most obvious symptom of epilepsy and can range from mild to severe.
2. Loss of consciousness: Some people with epilepsy may experience a loss of consciousness during a seizure, while others may remain aware of their surroundings.
3. Confusion and disorientation: After a seizure, some people with epilepsy may feel confused and disoriented.
4. Memory loss: Seizures can cause short-term or long-term memory loss.
5. Fatigue: Epilepsy can cause extreme fatigue, both during and after a seizure.
6. Emotional changes: Some people with epilepsy may experience emotional changes, such as anxiety, depression, or mood swings.
7. Cognitive changes: Epilepsy can affect cognitive function, including attention, memory, and learning.
8. Sleep disturbances: Some people with epilepsy may experience sleep disturbances, such as insomnia or sleepiness.
9. Physical symptoms: Depending on the type of seizure, people with epilepsy may experience physical symptoms such as muscle weakness, numbness or tingling, and sensory changes.
10. Social isolation: Epilepsy can cause social isolation due to fear of having a seizure in public or stigma associated with the condition.

It's important to note that not everyone with epilepsy will experience all of these symptoms, and some people may have different symptoms depending on the type of seizure they experience. Additionally, some people with epilepsy may experience additional symptoms not listed here.

Some common examples of opioid-related disorders include:

1. Opioid dependence: This is a condition in which an individual becomes physically dependent on opioids and experiences withdrawal symptoms when they stop using the medication.
2. Opioid abuse: This is a condition in which an individual uses opioids for non-medical reasons, such as to get high or to cope with emotional issues.
3. Opioid addiction: This is a chronic condition characterized by compulsive drug-seeking behavior despite negative consequences.
4. Opioid overdose: This occurs when an individual takes too much of an opioid medication and experiences life-threatening symptoms, such as slowed breathing or heart rate.
5. Opioid withdrawal syndrome: This is a group of symptoms that can occur when an individual stops using opioids after a period of heavy use. Symptoms can include anxiety, depression, muscle aches, and insomnia.
6. Opioid-induced hyperalgesia: This is a condition in which the use of opioids leads to increased sensitivity to pain.
7. Opioid-induced constipation: This is a common side effect of opioid use that can lead to a range of other health problems, such as hemorrhoids and urinary tract infections.
8. Opioid-related cognitive impairment: This is a condition in which the use of opioids leads to difficulty with concentration, memory, and decision-making.
9. Opioid-related depression: This is a condition in which the use of opioids leads to feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and a lack of interest in activities that were once enjoyed.
10. Opioid-related anxiety: This is a condition in which the use of opioids leads to feelings of anxiety, nervousness, and fear.

It is important to note that not everyone who uses opioids will experience these side effects, and the severity of the side effects can vary depending on the individual and the specific opioid being used. Additionally, there are many strategies that healthcare providers can use to help manage these side effects, such as adjusting the dose of the medication or switching to a different medication.

It is also important to note that the risks associated with opioids do not outweigh the benefits for everyone. For some individuals, the benefits of using opioids to manage pain and improve quality of life can far outweigh the risks. However, it is important to carefully weigh the potential risks and benefits before starting opioid therapy, and to closely monitor the individual's health and well-being while they are taking these medications.

In summary, opioids can have a range of side effects, both short-term and long-term, that can impact an individual's physical and mental health. It is important to carefully consider the potential risks and benefits before starting opioid therapy, and to closely monitor the individual's health and well-being while they are taking these medications.

The interaction between citrus and medication depends on the individual drug, and not the class of the drug. Drugs that ... "Grapefruit juice and drug interactions. Exploring mechanisms of this interaction and potential toxicity for certain drugs". ... The interaction is greatest when the juice is ingested with the drug or up to 4 hours before the drug.[better source needed][ ... Drugs metabolized by these enzymes may have interactions with citrus chemicals. When drugs are taken orally, they enter the gut ...
... which can also lead to interactions with other drugs. Herb-drug interactions are drug interactions that occur between herbal ... Most herb-drug interactions are moderate in severity. The most commonly implicated conventional drugs in herb-drug interactions ... Multi-Drug Interaction Checker by Medscape [5] Drug Interactions Checker by [6] The term effective dose is generally ... are at risk of a significant drug-drug interaction. Drug interactions can be additive (the result is what you expect when you ...
"Drug Interactions Indiana University, School of Medicine, Department of Medicine". Retrieved September 28, ... Bailey, David G; Malcolm, J; Arnold, O; David Spence, J (August 1998). "Grapefruit juice-drug interactions". British Journal of ... Drugs that inhibit CYP3A4 (for example, itraconazole, ketoconazole, and ritonavir) can increase drug exposure for tamsulosin, ... On the other hand, the drug (a) elevates risk for floppy iris syndrome, and (b) might show adverse drug reactions (ADRs) ...
"Drug Interactions". Medicine chest. Archived from the original on 2007-02-06. Retrieved 2008-05-06. Luder PJ, Siffert B, ... Long-term follow-up of plasma mebendazole levels and drug interactions". European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 31 (4): 443 ... Other drugs are used to treat worm infections outside the digestive tract, as mebendazole is poorly absorbed into the ... "Mebendazole". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Portal: Medicine (Articles with short description, ...
"Herb-Drug Interactions". NCCIH. 10 September 2015. Retrieved 26 June 2019. Kuhn MA (April 2002). "Herbal remedies: drug-herb ... Izzo AA (2012). "Interactions between herbs and conventional drugs: overview of the clinical data". Medical Principles and ... There is also concern with respect to the numerous well-established interactions of herbs and drugs. In consultation with a ... Nekvindová J, Anzenbacher P (July 2007). "Interactions of food and dietary supplements with drug metabolising cytochrome P450 ...
"Home - Drug Interactions". Retrieved 2019-05-08. The University of Sydney (2019). "Oxycodone ... Although these drugs are suitable for treatment, in long term patients or a misuse of these drugs can increase the risk of ... These drugs or a combination of these drugs are generally sold under the following brand names; - Targin - Palexia - Endone - ... There are 3 factors that need to be taken into consideration whilst treating the patient with this multi-use drug; Induction ...
Drugs Interactions 2017 •Essentials of Pharmacology for Dentistry, Arabic-English Bilingual Edition - 2016 •Prevention and ...
Stockley, Ivan (2009). Stockley's Drug Interactions. The Pharmaceutical Press. ISBN 978-0-85369-424-3. De Schryver EL, Algra A ... Symptomatic treatment is recommended, possibly including a vasopressor drug. Gastric lavage should be considered. Since ... Antiplatelet drugs, Phosphodiesterase inhibitors, Piperidines, Pyrimidopyrimidines, Stroke). ...
Holm V, Melander A, Wåhlin-Boll E (1982). "Influence of food and of age on nitrazepam kinetics". Drug-nutrient Interactions. 1 ... The drug causes a delay in the onset, and decrease in the duration of REM sleep. Following discontinuation of the drug, REM ... Back DJ, Orme ML (June 1990). "Pharmacokinetic drug interactions with oral contraceptives". Clin Pharmacokinet. 18 (6): 472-84 ... and drug interactions was used to assess nitrazepam. A Dutch analysis using the system found nitrazepam to be unsuitable in ...
Bailey, David G.; Malcolm, J; Arnold, O; David Spence, J (4 January 2002). "Grapefruit juice-drug interactions". British ... This alters drug levels in the blood which may cause side effects or make the drug less effective. Binder, Renée L.; McNiel, ... Bushra, Rabia; Aslam, Nousheen; Khan, Arshad Yar (2011). "Food-Drug Interactions". Oman Medical Journal. 26 (2): 77-83. doi: ... Otles, S; Senturk, A (2014). "Food and drug interactions: a general review". Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Technologia Alimentaria ...
Fugh-Berman, Adriane (2000). "Herb-drug interactions". The Lancet. 355 (9198): 134-138. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(99)06457-0. PMID ... In the classic Handbook of Traditional Drugs from 1941, 517 drugs were listed - 442 were plant parts, 45 were animal parts, and ... The human penis is not a drug. - Li Shizhen Human penis was previously believed under TCM to stop bleeding, and as with other ... The theory of Northern Medicine is based on the Yin-Yang interactions and the eight trigrams, as used in Chinese Medicine. ...
"Chromium § Drug interactions". Micronutrient Information Center. Oregon State University. 22 April 2014. Retrieved 2018-04-15. ... Baselt R (2008). Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man (8th ed.). Foster City: Biomedical Publications. pp. 305-7. ... In rats, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin and indometacin can increase chromium absorption. Ordinarily, ...
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Tables are available to check for drug interactions due to P450 interactions. An example of synergism is two drugs that both ... The risk of drug interactions is increased with polypharmacy. These interactions are usually transient and mild until a new ... Inheriting abnormal alleles of cytochrome P450 can alter drug metabolism. Tables are available to check for drug interactions ... The principal plasma proteins for drug binding are: albumin α1-acid glycoprotein lipoproteins Some drug interactions with ...
"Dantrolene Drug Interactions". Epocrates Online. Epocrates. 2008. Retrieved on December 31, 2008. Sudo RT, Carmo PL, Trachez MM ... "Dantrolene". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine. "Dantrolene sodium". Drug Information Portal. U.S. ... It is the primary drug used for the treatment and prevention of malignant hyperthermia, a rare, life-threatening disorder ... "Dantrolene Use During Pregnancy". 9 December 2019. Retrieved 6 July 2020. "Dantrium 25mg Capsules - Summary of ...
Stockley, Ivan H. "Anticoagulant Drug Interactions." Drug Interactions. 3rd ed. Boston: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1994 ... This may also be used to monitor effective absorption of the drug (if drug color is not seen in the urine, the patient may wish ... The treatment-related adverse effects include hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, hemolysis, and interactions with other drugs. For ... "Rifampicin". International. "Rifampicin". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Portal: ...
He has been praised for highlighting the issue of drug interactions with grapefruit consumption, and encouraging awareness of ... Spence, J. D. (15 October 2002). "Drug interactions with grapefruit". Canadian Medical Association Journal. 167 (8): 848. PMC ...
Interaction of nilotinib with OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 may alter its hepatic disposition and can lead to transporter mediated drug- ... Bailey, David G; Malcolm, J; Arnold, O; David Spence, J (1998-08-01). "Grapefruit juice-drug interactions". British Journal of ... "Nilotinib". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Portal: Medicine (CS1: long volume value, Drugs with ... drug interactions. Nilotinib is an inhibitor of OATP-1B1 transporter but not for OATP-1B3. It is a substrate for CYP3A4 and ...
"Rauwolfia serpentina (drug interactions)". 1 November 2018. Retrieved 25 November 2018. (Articles with 'species' ... They concluded it may be as effective at reducing SBP as other front-line hypertensive drugs. Rabbits fed a high-cholesterol ... serpentina may cause adverse effects by interacting with various prescription drugs or via interference with mechanisms of ...
Kroon LA (September 2007). "Drug interactions with smoking". American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy. 64 (18): 1917-21. doi: ... That means that drugs cleared by these enzymes are cleared more quickly in smokers, which may result in the drugs not working. ... Unlike some recreational drugs, nicotine does not measurably alter a smoker's motor skills, judgement, or language abilities ... "DNA interaction with Benzopyrene". DNA. Archived from the original on December 23, 2004. Retrieved March 5, 2005. Kataoka H, ...
Delaney JA, Opatrny L, Brophy JM, Suissa S (August 2007). "Drug drug interactions between antithrombotic medications and the ... Food and Drug Administration. 21 July 2017. Retrieved 15 October 2020. "Aspirin information from". ... Baxter K, Preston CL (eds.). "Aspirin and Spironolactone". MedicinesComplete: Stockley's Drug Interactions. Royal ... In October 2020, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) required the drug label to be updated for all nonsteroidal anti- ...
Neuvonen PJ, Niemi M, Backman JT (December 2006). "Drug interactions with lipid-lowering drugs: mechanisms and clinical ... November 2016). "Recommendations for Management of Clinically Significant Drug-Drug Interactions With Statins and Select Agents ... resulting in a minor drug-drug interaction. The American Heart Association states that the combination of digoxin and ... Schwartz JB (February 2009). "Effects of vitamin D supplementation in atorvastatin-treated patients: a new drug interaction ...
"Is Kratom Safe? , Kratom Overdose & Drug Interactions". American Addiction Centers. Retrieved 2020-05-15. White CM (March 2018 ... This reiterated the conclusion of an earlier report by the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA): As ... raising the possibility of adverse drug interactions. During phase II metabolism, phase I metabolites undergo glucuronidation ... Infobox drug articles with non-default infobox title, Chemical pages without DrugBank identifier, Drugs missing an ATC code, ...
Choe JY (4 March 2011). Drug Actions and Interactions. McGraw Hill Professional. p. 307. ISBN 978-0-07-176945-7. Dostert P ( ... The drug has nootropic, neuroprotective, and antidepressant-like effects in animal models, and appears to enhance the ... Drugs with no legal status, Drugboxes which contain changes to verified fields, Amines, Antidepressants, Monoamine oxidase ... Drugs Under Experimental and Clinical Research. 21 (5): 175-80. PMID 8846747. Triggle DJ (1996). Dictionary of Pharmacological ...
Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 20 September 2018. "Stivarga (regorafenib) dosing, indications, interactions, adverse ... Retrieved 30 September 2018. "Sutent Approval History". Retrieved 30 September 2018. ( ... In vitro protein binding is 99,5% for both drugs. The drugs are mainly metabolized in the liver by oxidative metabolism of ... Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 20 September 2018. "CAPRELSA" (PDF). FDA. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 20 ...
"Drug interactions with benzodiazepines". In Raymon LP, Mozayani A (eds.). Handbook of Drug Interactions: a Clinical and ... Drug interactions with methadone]" [Drug interactions with methadone]. Presse Médicale (in French). 28 (25): 1381-4. PMID ... Carbamazepine has a potential for drug interactions. Drugs that decrease breaking down of carbamazepine or otherwise increase ... The drug is also claimed to be effective for ADHD. As of 2014, a controlled release formulation was available for which there ...
Such drug interactions are especially important to consider when using drugs of vital importance to the patient, drugs with ... Hence, these drug interactions may necessitate dosage adjustments or choosing drugs that do not interact with the CYP system. ... "Carbamazepine: Watch for Many Potential Drug Interactions". Pharmacy Times. Bailey DG, Dresser GK (2004). "Interactions between ... For example, if one drug inhibits the CYP-mediated metabolism of another drug, the second drug may accumulate within the body ...
Bailey DG, Malcolm J, Arnold O, Spence JD (1998). "Grapefruit juice-drug interactions". Br J Clin Pharmacol. 46 (2): 101-110. ... "Lovastatin - Drug Usage Statistics". ClinCalc. Retrieved 7 October 2022. "Lovastatin". The American Society of Health-System ... doi:10.1111/j.1399-3054.2005.00556.x. Media related to Lovastatin at Wikimedia Commons "Lovastatin". Drug Information Portal. U ... As with all statin drugs, it can rarely cause myopathy, hepatotoxicity (liver damage), dermatomyositis or rhabdomyolysis. This ...
Bailey, David G.; Malcolm, J.; Arnold, O.; Spence, J. David (1998). "Grapefruit juice-drug interactions". Br J Clin Pharmacol. ... it is believed to be responsible for a number of grapefruit-drug interactions, in which the consumption of citrus containing ... one or both of these compounds (especially grapefruit) affects the metabolism of a variety of pharmaceutical drugs. Dugrand- ...
Rolan, Paul E. (2012-09-25). "Drug Interactions with Triptans". CNS Drugs. Springer Science and Business Media LLC. 26 (11): ... Shapiro, Robert E.; Tepper, Stewart J. (2007). "The Serotonin Syndrome, Triptans, and the Potential for Drug-Drug Interactions ... US Food and Drug Administration (2006-07-19). "Information for Healthcare Professionals". Food and Drug Administration. ... The drugs of this class act as agonists for serotonin 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors at blood vessels and nerve endings in the ...
... and yields new paradigms in the genotype-environment interactions that promote cancer progression and drug resistance. ... progression and drug resistance. These studies, focused primarily on the highly lethal brain cancer, glioblastoma, resulted in ... metabolic reprogramming and drug resistance". Cancer Biology & Medicine. 11 (4): 255-263. doi:10.7497/j.issn.2095-3941.2014. ... showed that it potently drives tumor evolution and drug resistance, and identified specific signaling, biochemical and ...
C6 carbanion formation would create dipole interactions with a cationic Lys from the active site. This does not explain the ... monophosphate decarboxylase support a covalent mechanism and provide a framework for drug design". Structure. 16 (1): 82-92. ... "A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell ...
The reason the Premier gave was that re-institutionalization is not the solution to homelessness or drug addiction. Instead ... The program focuses on social interaction and fast movement into the community and social situations. The vacant structures ... In 1992 about 8,000 of the yearly emergency admissions to Vancouver's mental health facilities were people with both drug ...
70% of sufferers saw a 50% or more reduction in their migraines following combined neurotherapy and drug treatment, as opposed ... while PIR had greater efficacy in the realms of emotional regulation and social interactions. With many symptoms reminiscent of ... allowing the patient to greatly reduce the drug therapy necessary for him to function successfully in school and offering a ... to 50% undergoing only traditional drug therapy. The term autism encompasses a wide range of syndromes, such as Rett disorder, ...
... characterize small molecules-protein interactions and map protein-protein interactions. Users can use three dimensional ... Lawrence S (April 2007). "Billion dollar babies--biotech drugs as blockbusters". Nat. Biotechnol. 25 (4): 380-2. doi:10.1038/ ... Explanation of "Protein interaction mapping" from The Wellcome Trust Lunder M, Bratkovic T, Doljak B, Kreft S, Urleb U, ... Like the two-hybrid system, phage display is used for the high-throughput screening of protein interactions. In the case of M13 ...
An example of a source of this uncertainty would be the drag in an experiment designed to measure the acceleration of gravity ... Combined occurrence and interaction of aleatoric and epistemic uncertainty Aleatoric and epistemic uncertainty can also occur ...
The consensus reads: "The sloppy 'Babylon' represents an unfortunate stumble, but Mulder and Scully's interactions still offer ... "Wanting to believe is maybe the most powerful drug there is, and it can work chaos or miracles, or something in between. At its ...
Kolbrún Halldórsdóttir, the politician behind the bill, was concerned about alleged links with drugs and prostitution. She was ... but is indicative of the level of scrutiny prevailing in some regions on dancer-customer interaction. In July 2009, it was ... but is indicative of the level of scrutiny prevailing in some jurisdictions on dancer-customer interaction. Other rules forbid ...
Liou JY, Deng WG, Gilroy DW, Shyue SK, Wu KK (September 2001). "Colocalization and interaction of cyclooxygenase-2 with ... Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit prostaglandin production by PTGS1 (COX-1) and PTGS2 (COX-2). NSAIDs ... drug-candidates that selectively inhibit PTGS2 (COX-2) were suspected to show fewer side-effects but proved to substantially ... selective for inhibition of PTGS2 (COX-2) are less likely than traditional drugs to cause gastrointestinal adverse effects, but ...
After three years, there were major documented reductions in crime, drug dealing, teenage pregnancy, child abuse, child neglect ... feelings are not determined by one's partner and that the great majority of issues that previously snarled their interactions ... County of Santa Clara Department of Alcohol & Drug Services Health Realization Services Division, 2007. Retrieved Oct. 19, 2007 ... drugs, or other compulsive behaviors in the attempt to quell their stressful feelings and regain some momentary sense of ...
His clever use of the S visas, colloquially known as "snitch" visas used for drug snitchers in drug trafficking cases, not only ... They were not allowed breaks even when sick or any social interactions with each other. They were under 24/7 surveillance by ...
The dimerization of c-Src is mediated by the interaction of the myristoylated N-terminal region of one partner and the kinase ... Other tyrosine kinase inhibitor drugs that are in clinical trials include bosutinib, bafetinib, AZD-0530, XLl-999, KX01 and ... Both the N-terminally attached myristic acid and the peptide sequences of the unique region are involved in the interaction. ... "Characterization of human epidermal growth factor receptor and c-Src interactions in human breast tumor cells". Mol. Carcinog. ...
Surgeon-robot interaction method including an interactive mode and a remote mode will be developed and integrated into the ... Intravascular therapeutic Microbot Lab - Microrobot moving controlled through blood vessel for drug delivery and treatment of ... An articulated robotic arm to carry a human & respiration synchronization method) Surgeon-Robot Interaction for Bone-Fracture ...
Pugeat MM, Dunn JF, Nisula BC (1981). "Transport of steroid hormones: interaction of 70 drugs with testosterone-binding ... Drugs missing an ATC code, Drugs with no legal status, Articles containing unverified chemical infoboxes, ... The drug has also been assessed at steroid hormone-associated carrier proteins, and shows very low binding to sex hormone- ... 395-. ISBN 978-1-4832-7299-3. J. Elks (14 November 2014). The Dictionary of Drugs: Chemical Data: Chemical Data, Structures and ...
In addition to its interactions with RNA, N forms protein-protein interactions with the coronavirus membrane protein (M) during ... Drug Discovery Today. 21 (4): 562-572. doi:10.1016/j.drudis.2015.11.015. PMC 7108309. PMID 26691874. Dinesh, Dhurvas ... Type I PRMT inhibitor (MS023) or substitution of R95 or R177 with lysine inhibited interaction of N protein with the 5'-UTR of ... Encapsidation of the genome occurs through interactions between N and M. N is essential for viral assembly. N also serves as a ...
... "was a result of his or her abuse of alcohol or drugs". In order for a veteran to receive disability benefits for PTSD, the ... VBA and VHA Interactions: Ordering and Conducting Medical Examinations: U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Veterans ...
Powell, M.D.; Vickery, P.J.; Reinhold, T.A. (2003). "Reduced drag coefficient for high wind speeds in tropical cyclones". ... Tropical cyclones portal Physics portal Atmospheric thermodynamics Lifted index Emanuel, K A. (1986). "An Air-Sea Interaction ... observations suggest that the drag coefficient C d {\displaystyle C_{d}} varies with wind speed and may decrease at high wind ...
One such analog, known as Ixabepilone is a U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved chemotherapy agent for the treatment of ... "A three-dimensional model of myxobacterial aggregation by contact-mediated interactions". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102 (32 ...
In some cases, a review of Facebook may reveal undesirable behaviors such as drunkenness or drug use. Despite the relevance of ... Because of the dynamic nature of the interview, the interaction between the behaviors and thoughts of both parties is a ... doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.1992.tb00949.x. Ferris, Gerald R.; Witt, L. A.; Hochwarter, Wayne A. (2001). "Interaction of social ... In this way, interviewers typically have an impression even before the actual face-to-face interview interaction. Nowadays with ...
Ash: Shen wanted a strong opponent... And Oswald wanted money and information about the drug... /.../ Ash: You see, the drug ... While SNK looked forward to his interactions to his previous enemies Chizuru and Iori, they were also glad that he managed to ... after disclosing that Oswald's price for joining him was finding a drug he can only obtain after defeating their pharmacist's ...
Our view of God is important because it embodies our goals and directs our social interactions. Compared to science, another ... William James was also interested in mystical experiences from a drug-induced perspective, leading him to make some experiments ... Shamans all over the world and in different cultures have traditionally used drugs, especially psychedelics, for their ... In these communities the absorption of drugs leads to dreams (visions) through sensory distortion. The psychedelic experience ...
2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode: ... drugs chlorpromazine and clozapine stabilise clathrin coated vesicles and this may be one reason why antipsychotic drugs are ...
Aiden confronts Ravi and accidentally kills him but makes it look as though a homeless junkie killed him in a bad drug deal. A ... which he believed made the character's interactions with Lung's character more explainable. Furlong was not initially ...
UAVs are emerging as a new way for drug cartels to smuggle illegal drugs into the United States from Mexico. 21 January ... signed an aviation safety agreement to keep their aircraft operating over Syria far enough apart to avoid hostile interactions ... Suspected drug traffickers open fire on a patrolling Mexican Navy helicopter as it approaches a group of their vehicles near ... After several hours, in comes to earth in a ravine in Columbia County, Pennsylvania, but not before dragging its 6,000-foot ( ...
Using these techniques, a model of human metabolism has now been produced, which will guide future drug discovery and ... of the metabolic networks in cells that contain thousands of different enzymes is given by the figure showing the interactions ... Xenobiotics such as synthetic drugs, natural poisons and antibiotics are detoxified by a set of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes ... Testa B, Krämer SD (October 2006). "The biochemistry of drug metabolism--an introduction: part 1. Principles and overview". ...
Some reasons that lead women to pursue abortions to avoid being ostracized include drug and/or alcohol addicted husbands, ... Many interpretations of Sharia dictate strict policies on gender interactions, such as the requirement women use a female ...
In addition, it has prominent drug interactions due to moderate to strong induction of multiple cytochrome P450 enzymes. ... Limited availability and lack of an oral formulation for systemic use make it a very little-known drug. Apalutamide (Erleada): ... Hormonal antineoplastic drugs, Progonadotropins, Prostate cancer, Sex hormones). ...
The interaction of S4 with S5 and S12". Journal of Molecular Biology. 165 (2): 357-74. doi:10.1016/S0022-2836(83)80261-7. PMID ... Adams, J (1 April 2003). "Potential for proteasome inhibition in the treatment of cancer". Drug Discovery Today. 8 (7): 307-15 ... The data also reveals the details of the Rpn11 active site and the mode of interaction with other subunits. As the degradation ... Goldberg, AL; Stein, R; Adams, J (August 1995). "New insights into proteasome function: from archaebacteria to drug development ...
After 38 weeks, 6% of the people in the three-drug group died while 11% of the people died in the two-drug group. There were ... "Crixivan (Indinavir Sulfate): Side Effects, Interactions, Warning, Dosage & Uses". RxList. Retrieved 2018-11-08. Cohen J (June ... Viral resistance to the drug leads to the drug becoming useless since the virus evolves to have cells that are able to resist ... The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved indinavir on March, 1996, making it the eighth antiretroviral drug approved. It ...
Active management is the administration of a uterotonic drug within one minute of fetal delivery, controlled traction of the ... Scatliffe, N.; Casavant, S.; Vittner, D.; Cong, X. (2019). "Oxytocin and early parent-infant interactions: A systematic review ... Anaesthetists or anesthesiologists are medical doctors who specialise in pain relief and the use of drugs to facilitate surgery ... Inductions are most often performed either with prostaglandin drug treatment alone, or with a combination of prostaglandin and ...
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... interactions between trimipramine and erythromycin ethylsuccinate and use the RxList drug interaction checker to check drug ... Drugs A-Z Generic Drugs A-Z Drugs by Classification Drugs Comparison (Drug Vs. Drug) Vitamins & Supplements Drug Interaction ... Drug interactions with trimipramine and erythromycin ethylsuccinate. home drug interactions checker , trimipramine and ... Drug Interaction Categories. Contraindicated. Never use this combination of drugs because of high risk for dangerous ...
Comprehensive disease interaction information for ampicillin/sulbactam systemic. Includes Antibiotics - colitis. ... Drug Interaction Classification. These classifications are only a guideline. The relevance of a particular drug interaction to ... Ampicillin/sulbactam drug interactions. There are 50 drug interactions with ampicillin / sulbactam. ... Mobile Apps The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own ...
Read more about the prescription drug CLONIDINE - TRANSDERMAL. ... DRUG INTERACTIONS: Drug interactions may change how your ... drug interactions or adverse effects, nor should it be construed to indicate that use of particular drug is safe, appropriate ... Medication Uses , How To Use , Side Effects , Precautions , Drug Interactions , Overdose , Notes , Missed Dose , Storage ... This document does not contain all possible drug interactions. Keep a list of all the products you use (including prescription/ ...
Hitherto, few data have been provided to the healthcare practitioners about the drug-drug interactions of cannabinoids with ... pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics interactions could be perceived in drug combinations, so in this short review we tried to ... shed light on the potential drug interactions of medicinal cannabis. ... Caution should be undertaken to closely monitor the responses of cannabis users with certain drugs to guard their safety, ...
K4DD helps researchers to analyze kinetics to determine drug safety and efficacy early in the development process ... drug discovery has also focused on the optimization ofthese drug-target interactions, mostly with respect to affinity ... Consortium of binding interactions. K4DD helps researchers to analyze kinetics to determine drug safety and efficacy early in ... Last year, IMI issued a call to address thekinetics of the drug-target interaction. Laura Heitman and AdIjzerman, professor of ...
identified potential drug-drug interactions with travel-related medications in 45% of travelers taking medications for chronic ... Any time a new medication is prescribed, including antimalarial drugs, check for known or possible drug interactions (see Table ... By contrast, entry and integrase inhibitors are not a common cause of drug-drug interactions with commonly administered travel- ... Table 2-07 Drugs & drug classes that can interact with selected altitude illness drugs. ...
Drug Interactions Do not take concomitantly with any other drug intended to reduce bronchial secretion and strong antitussive ... Drug Interactions Storage MIMS Class ATC Classification Regulatory Classification Presentation/Packing Brand Resources ...
... drug news and e-prescribing service for healthcare professionals. We provides drug dosing, interactions, recalls and more for ... Search for a drug monograph: GO Clinical Tools. Drug Look-up Select a category. *Allergic Disorders ...
Drug Interactions and Clinical Pharmacology - Learn about from the Merck Manuals - Medical Professional Version. ... see Some Drugs With Potentially Serious Drug-Drug Interactions Some Drugs With Potentially Serious Drug-Drug Interactions* ). ... Drug interactions are changes in a drugs effects due to recent or concurrent use of another drug or drugs (drug-drug ... drug-nutrient interactions Nutrient-Drug Interactions Nutrition can affect the bodys response to drugs; conversely, drugs can ...
PURPOSE: The pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, indications, clinical efficacy, adverse effects, drug interactions, dosing, and ... The Good Drug Guide. The Responsible Parents Guide To Healthy Mood Boosters For All The Family. ... are needed to further evaluate the use of this drug. Insomnia. Eszopiclone. Benzodiazepines. Zopiclone drivers. Zopiclone: ...
Interaction : Calcium Channel Blockers: Barbiturates may increase the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers. CNS Depressants: ...
See what the interactions are and for which people. ... Drug interactions are found among 34 people who take ... Cyclophosphamide and Robitussin drug interactions - a phase IV clinical study of FDA data Summary:. Drug interactions are ... Browse all interactions between Robitussin and drugs from A to Z:. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z How the ... Browse all interactions between Cyclophosphamide and drugs from A to Z:. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z ...
... FioricetforMigraine September 2, 2016. Acetaminophen 0 Comments ... If you are using any narcotic drug, it is always better to know about its drug interactions with other products. ... Tagged Acetaminophen, Drug Interactions, Isoniazid. Post navigation. Previous Previous post: Understanding the side effects ... What should you know about the interaction?. Let your doctor know that you are using the two medicines together, the dose of ...
... treatment strategies for your patients.More than 60 comprehensive monographs of herb-drug and nutrient-drug interactions cover ... Additionally, drug-induced depletion of nutrients can occur. Comprehensive clinical data, quick-reference features, and the ... Combining pharmaceuticals with herbs or supplements may complement or interfere with a drugs therapeutic action or may ... evidence-based support.Unique icons throughout the text differentiate interactions, evidence, and clinical significance.Up-to- ...
It is in Phase 3 clinical development for a new oral antidiabetic drug. Drug-drug interaction (DDI) potential between ... No Drug-Drug Interaction between Dorzagliatin and Metformin in Type 2 Diabetes Patients LI CHEN; LI CHEN ... LI CHEN, GUIYU ZHAO, SHUANG REN, YI ZHANG, DANIEL DU; No Drug-Drug Interaction between Dorzagliatin and Metformin in Type 2 ... PK/PD analysis suggested that co-administration of dorzagliatin and Metformin compared to each drug alone can further improve ...
... patient knowledge of dispensed drugs and patient satisfaction with the interaction. The pharmacist interaction received a total ... Relationship of pharmacist interaction with patient knowledge of dispensed drugs and patient satisfaction ... There was a close correlation between patients knowledge of dispensed drugs and pharmacist interaction (r = 0.95). Mean total ... The total mean score for patient knowledge of dispensed drugs was 3.18 out of 5. Recalling the name of the drug(s) (mean score ...
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  • This can help you use the drug safely and avoid using the products or medicines that have adverse effects when used with your drug. (
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  • TB treatment drugs such as rifapentine and isoniazid have large pharmacokinetic variability among patients, which is believed to be modulated by host genetics. (
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  • Any time a new medication is prescribed, including antimalarial drugs, check for known or possible drug interactions (see Table 2-05 ) and inform the traveler of potential risks. (
  • Treatment regimens should take into account the most recent official treatment guidelines (e.g. those of the WHO) and local information on the prevalence of resistance to antimalarial drugs. (
  • BERLIN-A major problem in developingnew medicines is predicting whether or not a potential drug will beeffective in humans. (
  • The consortium,which is financially supported with $26 million by Europe's Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI), is "an excellent example ofa project in which public-private partnerships enable a collaborativeresearch approach to tackle specific drug discovery problems of todayand to come up with novel concepts in modern drug discovery,"according to Dr. Anke Müller-Fahrnow, vice president and head oflead discovery at Bayer HealthCare Global Drug Discovery, andcoordinator of the K4DD consortium. (
  • The interaction between pharmacist and patient increases patients' knowledge about dispensed medicines and their satisfaction with the pharmacist's activities. (
  • Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur. (
  • Certain medicines should not be used at or around the time of eating food or eating certain types of food since interactions may occur. (
  • Using alcohol or tobacco with certain medicines may also cause interactions to occur. (
  • But medicines can also cause unwanted reactions, such as drug interactions, side effects, and allergies. (
  • In pharmacodynamic interactions, one drug alters the sensitivity or responsiveness of tissues to another drug by having the same (agonistic) or a blocking (antagonistic) effect. (
  • Defining interactions among individual drug PK/pharmacodynamic, clinical outcomes and safety events will identify optimal approaches for safe and effective TB treatment. (
  • Rarely, clinicians can use predictable drug-drug interactions to produce a desired therapeutic effect. (
  • In therapeutic duplication, 2 drugs with similar properties are taken at the same time and have additive effects. (
  • The ototoxicity of therapeutic drugs has been a concern in the field of audiology for many years. (
  • The onset, site, mechanism and extent of ototoxic damage caused by these toxins vary according to risk factors that include type of chemical, interactions, exposure level and duration of exposure as is the case with therapeutic drugs. (
  • Therapeutic drug monitoring to overcome this limitation is not always feasible, especially in low resource settings. (
  • In other therapeutic areas, host genetics have been estimated to explain ~20% to 95% of interindividual variability in drug exposure and response. (
  • Therefore, for an investigational drug intended to be used in women with reproductive potential, evaluating its effects on the pharmacokinetics of COCs is important to determine if additional labeling is necessary for managing drug-drug interactions between the concomitant product and the COCs. (
  • A total of 2,516 participants at 34 clinical sites in 13 countries participated in the trial, which demonstrated that a four-month daily treatment regimen with high-dose rifapentine and moxifloxacin is as effective as (noninferior to) the standard daily six-month regimen in curing drug-susceptible TB disease. (
  • During pretravel consultations, travel health providers must consider potential interactions between vaccines and medications, including those already taken by the traveler. (
  • Hitherto, few data have been provided to the healthcare practitioners about the drug-drug interactions of cannabinoids with other prescription medications. (
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  • More than half of the patients (51.5%) answered that they took multivitamin pills with medications and 61.7% responded they consulted healthcare professionals for drug-food interactions ' information before taking new medications. (
  • Consortium partners are "key playersin their fields" who "have been involved in the structureelucidation of drug targets, are at the forefront of bioanalyticaltechniques, are world leaders in pharmacology and bring the best ofcomputational resources for heavy computer calculations," accordingto Müller-Fahrnow. (
  • A drug-drug interaction may increase or decrease the effects of one or both drugs. (
  • If dosage adjustment is ineffective, the drug should be replaced by one that does not interact with other drugs being taken. (
  • Cannabidiol, a compound of cannabis that is being investigated as a potential treatment for epilepsy, may negatively interact with commonly used antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), new research suggests. (
  • Sometimes a drug can interact with a disease that you have and cause a side effect. (
  • Many patients could not identify food items that can potentially interact with their drugs . (
  • Use this drug for a condition that is listed in this section only if it has been so prescribed by your health care professional.This drug may also be used for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ( ADHD ), for hot flashes that occur with menopause , for withdrawal symptoms from narcotic drugs, and to help people quit smoking . (
  • If you are using any narcotic drug, it is always better to know about its drug interactions with other products. (
  • A rapid rise in blood pressure may also occur if the drug is suddenly stopped. (
  • When unexpected clinical responses occur, prescribers should determine serum concentrations of selected drugs being taken, consult the literature or an expert in drug interactions, and adjust the dosage until the desired effect is produced. (
  • If the concurrently used drug induces enzymes responsible for the metabolism of progestins and/or estrogens, unintended pregnancy or irregular bleeding may occur. (
  • Antitubercular event may occur with other drugs within the irrespective of the types of tyrosine kinase inhibitors agents antitubercular agents. (
  • However, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics interactions could be perceived in drug combinations, so in this short review we tried to shed light on the potential drug interactions of medicinal cannabis. (
  • This project aims to evaluate the contribution of pharmacogenetics to patient efficacy and safety outcomes by incorporating PG data into population pharmacokinetics (PK) models for six major TB drugs and risk algorithms for unfavorable treatment outcomes and to develop and evaluate PG-based dosing algorithms for novel high-dose rifapentine-based regimens. (
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  • this leads to the appearance of malignant features, including rapid proliferation, metastasis , stemness, and drug resistance . (
  • You can discuss the study with your doctor, to ensure that all drug risks and benefits are fully discussed and understood. (
  • These drugs can results in some risks when consumed together. (
  • These drugs can lead to some risks when used together. (
  • If the concurrent drug inhibits the metabolism of these exogenous hormones, there may be an increased safety risk such as thrombosis. (
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  • It is challenging to determine when this clinical drug interaction study is needed, whether an observed exposure change of progestin/estrogen is clinically meaningful, and if the results of a clinical drug interaction study with one COC can predict exposure changes of unstudied COCs to inform labeling. (
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  • The interactions between DNA methylation machinery and long non-coding RNAs in tumor progression and drug resistance. (
  • Considering the importance of combining the current treatment methods , especially chemotherapies , with DNA methylation inhibitors in improving patients ' outcomes, this review aimed to summarize the recent findings about the interaction between DNA methylation machinery and LncRNAs in regulating genes involved in tumorigenesis and drug resistance . (
  • The professional needs to conduct a proper interview and assess potential interactions. (
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  • K4DD has been launched to explore anovel concept in modern drug discovery, according to Müller-Fahrnow,who explains, "there is a clear understanding today that compoundbinding characteristics to its molecular target (binding kinetics)are of high importance for eventual clinical drug efficacy.Therefore, drug discovery has also focused on the optimization ofthese drug-target interactions, mostly with respect to affinity andselectivity. (
  • It also discusses recent advances, knowledge gaps, and future perspectives and provides insights on potential mechanisms for unexpected results of clinical drug interaction studies of COCs. (
  • There have also been rare reports of severe, possibly fatal reactions (such as stroke ) from stopping this drug too quickly. (
  • To prevent any reactions while you are stopping treatment with this drug, your doctor may reduce your dose gradually. (
  • Drug-food interactions can lead to adverse drug reactions and therapy failure which can potentially impact patient safety and therapy outcome. (
  • The Bureau also maintains a drug reporting system for recording adverse reactions and complaints. (
  • and the client must be stated that South Africa is catching up with the rest of informed of possible adverse reactions and drug/drug the world in the CAHC field (Plusfile, 2000:1). (
  • Patients on warfarin might need to reduce their anticoagulant dose or monitor their prothrombin time more closely while taking atovaquone-proguanil, although coadministration of these drugs is not contraindicated. (
  • The use of novel oral anticoagulants, including dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban, is not expected to cause significant interactions, and their use has been suggested as an alternative for patients in need of anticoagulation. (
  • Clinicians should know all of their patients' current drugs, including drugs prescribed by other clinicians and all over-the-counter drugs, herbal products, and nutritional supplements. (
  • There was a close correlation between patients' knowledge of dispensed drugs and pharmacist interaction (r = 0.95). (
  • Drug-drug interaction (DDI) potential between dorzagliatin and Metformin was investigated in an open-label clinical study in Chinese T2D patients. (
  • PK/PD analysis suggested that co-administration of dorzagliatin and Metformin compared to each drug alone can further improve glycemic control in T2D patients. (
  • Also, if Epidiolex goes for US Food and Drug Administration approval, "this is something that clinicians will need to know about when counseling their patients," said Dr Gaston. (
  • This study assessed patients ' knowledge , attitudes and practices regarding drug-food interactions . (
  • however, only 30-50% of the patients could identify potential drug-food interactions of their drugs . (
  • Few patients (15.2%) had experienced drug-food interactions . (
  • Overall, patients had gaps in their knowledge and practices, and positive attitudes towards drug-food interactions . (
  • patients taking any drug which is metabolized by the cytochrome enzyme CYP2D6 (e.g.flecainide, metoprolol, imipramine, amitriptyline, clomipramine. (
  • Accounting for PG can reduce unexplained variability in PK, eliminating the need to measure individual drug levels to predict outcomes, improving the ability of current algorithms to identify patients at high risk of unfavorable outcomes and safety events. (
  • Micromedex) provide searchable databases of drug interactions. (
  • TRANSDERMAL (Catapres-TTS) side effects, medical uses, and drug interactions. (
  • Side Effects & Drug Interactions. (
  • Interactions could cause a drug to be more or less effective, cause side effects, or change the way one or both drugs work. (
  • While rifapentine-containing regimens for the treatment of both TB disease and latent TB infection are effective, there are frequent drug exposure-dependent side effects. (
  • Currently, researchers and healthcare providers cannot determine more precise dosing for various patient groups and cannot precisely predict increased risk of drug exposure-related side effects and/or TB relapse. (
  • On days 4-7, subjects were treated with Metformin (500 mg BID) and dorzagliatin (50 mg BID), and day 8 morning a single dose of each drug was given before PK samplings. (
  • Significance Statement This minireview provides an overview of the metabolic pathways of ethinyl estradiol (EE) and progestins contained in commonly used COCs and significant drug interactions of these COCs as victims. (
  • This project provides an unprecedented opportunity to develop a tailored approach, by leveraging existing information collected in the international phase 3 clinical trial , to identify specific dosage recommendations of TB drugs for populations, which can improve TB treatment across all patient groups. (
  • Drugs that decrease renal function could decrease clearance. (
  • Through a funding opportunity from CDC's Office of Genomics and Precision Public Health in collaboration with the CDC Office of Advanced Molecular Detection , CDC's Division of Tuberculosis Elimination will conduct a 2-year project to assess relationships between pharmacogenetics (PG), TB drug exposure, relevant treatment outcomes, and safety. (
  • PG-based dosing algorithms may ultimately be developed to optimize drug exposure and treatment outcomes. (
  • Genes relevant to first-line TB drugs have been associated with PK, treatment response and toxicity. (
  • Phase IV trials are used to detect adverse drug outcomes and monitor drug effectiveness in the real world. (
  • There are 5 disease interactions with ampicillin / sulbactam. (
  • It is unavoidable that a woman using COCs may need to take another drug to treat a disease. (
  • The Bureau of Veterinary Medicine is responsible for regulating the use of animal drugs and of feed additives by livestock producers to ensure their safe and effective use in treating, preventing, and controlling disease in food producing animals, pet animals, and birds. (
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  • To improve drug design by understanding howpotential drugs bind with their targets and by developing methods andtools to help researchers to study drug-target interactions, BayerHealthCare and Leiden University of the Netherlands are coordinatinga newly founded international consortium called " K4DD ," orKinetics for Drug Discovery. (
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