Ancylostomatoidea: A superfamily of nematode parasitic hookworms consisting of four genera: ANCYLOSTOMA; NECATOR; Bunostomum; and Uncinaria. ANCYLOSTOMA and NECATOR occur in humans and other mammals. Bunostomum is common in ruminants and Uncinaria in wolves, foxes, and dogs.Antiplatyhelmintic Agents: Agents used to treat cestode, trematode, or other flatworm infestations in man or animals.Trichuris: A genus of nematode worms comprising the whipworms.Papio hamadryas: A species of baboon in the family CERCOPITHECIDAE, which has a well-studied trilevel social structure consisting of troops, bands, and clans.Anthelmintics: Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.Antimalarials: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)Pharmacogenetics: A branch of genetics which deals with the genetic variability in individual responses to drugs and drug metabolism (BIOTRANSFORMATION).Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Ascaris lumbricoides: A species of parasitic nematode that is the largest found in the human intestine. Its distribution is worldwide, but it is more prevalent in areas of poor sanitation. Human infection with A. lumbricoides is acquired by swallowing fully embryonated eggs from contaminated soil.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Chloroquine: The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Sulfadoxine: A long acting sulfonamide that is used, usually in combination with other drugs, for respiratory, urinary tract, and malarial infections.Parasitology: The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.Parasitic Sensitivity Tests: Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.Pyrimethamine: One of the FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS that is used as an antimalarial or with a sulfonamide to treat toxoplasmosis.Drug Monitoring: The process of observing, recording, or detecting the effects of a chemical substance administered to an individual therapeutically or diagnostically.Trichuriasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus TRICHURIS, formerly called Trichocephalus.Parasite Egg Count: Determination of parasite eggs in feces.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Helminths: Commonly known as parasitic worms, this group includes the ACANTHOCEPHALA; NEMATODA; and PLATYHELMINTHS. Some authors consider certain species of LEECHES that can become temporarily parasitic as helminths.Praziquantel: An anthelmintic used in most schistosome and many cestode infestations.Helminthiasis: Infestation with parasitic worms of the helminth class.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Biomarkers, Pharmacological: Measurable biological parameters that serve for drug development, safety and dosing (DRUG MONITORING).Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Artemisinins: A group of SESQUITERPENES and their analogs that contain a peroxide group (PEROXIDES) within an oxepin ring (OXEPINS).Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Trypanocidal Agents: Agents destructive to the protozoal organisms belonging to the suborder TRYPANOSOMATINA.Fluorenes: A family of diphenylenemethane derivatives.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Parasitemia: The presence of parasites (especially malarial parasites) in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)Amodiaquine: A 4-aminoquinoline compound with anti-inflammatory properties.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.DNA, Protozoan: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.Drug Discovery: The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions: Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Antiprotozoal Agents: Substances that are destructive to protozoans.Drug Therapy: The use of DRUGS to treat a DISEASE or its symptoms. One example is the use of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to treat CANCER.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Anti-Arrhythmia Agents: Agents used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. They may affect the polarization-repolarization phase of the action potential, its excitability or refractoriness, or impulse conduction or membrane responsiveness within cardiac fibers. Anti-arrhythmia agents are often classed into four main groups according to their mechanism of action: sodium channel blockade, beta-adrenergic blockade, repolarization prolongation, or calcium channel blockade.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Mice, Inbred BALB CPolymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Mice, Inbred C57BLApoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Self Efficacy: Cognitive mechanism based on expectations or beliefs about one's ability to perform actions necessary to produce a given effect. It is also a theoretical component of behavior change in various therapeutic treatments. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.TriazolesInjections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Paclitaxel: A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.DeoxycytidineCross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Antirheumatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Pyrimidines: A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.Anti-Infective Agents, Local: Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Prodrugs: A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.Ointments: Semisolid preparations used topically for protective emollient effects or as a vehicle for local administration of medications. Ointment bases are various mixtures of fats, waxes, animal and plant oils and solid and liquid hydrocarbons.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Nausea: An unpleasant sensation in the stomach usually accompanied by the urge to vomit. Common causes are early pregnancy, sea and motion sickness, emotional stress, intense pain, food poisoning, and various enteroviruses.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.PiperazinesVomiting: The forcible expulsion of the contents of the STOMACH through the MOUTH.Sulfonamides: A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.ThiophenesAnalysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)QuinolinesIvermectin: A mixture of mostly avermectin H2B1a (RN 71827-03-7) with some avermectin H2B1b (RN 70209-81-3), which are macrolides from STREPTOMYCES avermitilis. It binds glutamate-gated chloride channel to cause increased permeability and hyperpolarization of nerve and muscle cells. It also interacts with other CHLORIDE CHANNELS. It is a broad spectrum antiparasitic that is active against microfilariae of ONCHOCERCA VOLVULUS but not the adult form.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Methotrexate: An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Pyridines: Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Ethanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.Isoxazoles: Azoles with an OXYGEN and a NITROGEN next to each other at the 1,2 positions, in contrast to OXAZOLES that have nitrogens at the 1,3 positions.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Angiogenesis Inhibitors: Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Anticonvulsants: Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.Taxoids: A group of diterpenoid CYCLODECANES named for the taxanes that were discovered in the TAXUS tree. The action on MICROTUBULES has made some of them useful as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.Flea Infestations: Parasitic attack by members of the order SIPHONAPTERA.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Drug Evaluation: Any process by which toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, preferred route of administration, safe dosage range, etc., for a drug or group of drugs is determined through clinical assessment in humans or veterinary animals.Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic: Works about comparative studies to verify the effectiveness of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques determined in phase II studies. During these trials, patients are monitored closely by physicians to identify any adverse reactions from long-term use. These studies are performed on groups of patients large enough to identify clinically significant responses and usually last about three years. This concept includes phase III studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Antiemetics: Drugs used to prevent NAUSEA or VOMITING.Pyrroles: Azoles of one NITROGEN and two double bonds that have aromatic chemical properties.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Oncolytic Virotherapy: Use of attenuated VIRUSES as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to selectively kill CANCER cells.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic: Works about studies that are usually controlled to assess the effectiveness and dosage (if appropriate) of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques. These studies are performed on several hundred volunteers, including a limited number of patients with the target disease or disorder, and last about two years. This concept includes phase II studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Pyrazoles: Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antiparasitic Agents: Drugs used to treat or prevent parasitic infections.Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic: Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Camptothecin: An alkaloid isolated from the stem wood of the Chinese tree, Camptotheca acuminata. This compound selectively inhibits the nuclear enzyme DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE I. Several semisynthetic analogs of camptothecin have demonstrated antitumor activity.Remission Induction: Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.Photochemotherapy: Therapy using oral or topical photosensitizing agents with subsequent exposure to light.ThiazolesGastrointestinal Agents: Drugs used for their effects on the gastrointestinal system, as to control gastric acidity, regulate gastrointestinal motility and water flow, and improve digestion.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Drug Tolerance: Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.Clinical Protocols: Precise and detailed plans for the study of a medical or biomedical problem and/or plans for a regimen of therapy.Dermatologic Agents: Drugs used to treat or prevent skin disorders or for the routine care of skin.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Drug[edit]. Muscarinic agonists are used as drugs in treating glaucoma, postoperative ileus, congenital megacolon, urinary ... Efficacy[edit]. As muscarine works on the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, the best comparison can be made with acetylcholine ... Pappano Achilles J, "Chapter 7. Cholinoceptor-Activating & Cholinesterase-Inhibiting Drugs" (Chapter). Katzung BG: Basic & ...
" Retrieved 3 April 2011.. *^ a b c McCrindle BW, Ose L, Marais AD (July 2003). "Efficacy and safety of atorvastatin ... Neuvonen PJ, Niemi M, Backman JT (December 2006). "Drug interactions with lipid-lowering drugs: mechanisms and clinical ... resulting in a minor drug-drug interaction. The American Heart Association states that the combination of digoxin and ... "Recommendations for Management of Clinically Significant Drug-Drug Interactions With Statins and Select Agents Used in Patients ...
A review of its pharmacological properties and clinical efficacy in epilepsy". Drugs. 46 (1): 152-76. doi:10.2165/00003495- ... "Lamotrigine Use During Pregnancy ,". Retrieved 9 December 2017.. ... a b *^ a b c "Drug Label Information". Dailymed. National Institute of Health. ... "Efficacy and tolerability of the new antiepileptic drugs II: treatment of refractory epilepsy: report of the Therapeutics and ...
A reappraisal of its pharmacology and therapeutic efficacy". Drugs. 28 (4): 292-323. doi:10.2165/00003495-199448060-00007. PMID ... Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (usually abbreviated to NSAIDs), are a drug class that groups together drugs that decrease ... Other drugs[edit]. Main article: analgesic adjuvant. Drugs that have been introduced for uses other than analgesics are also ... "Drugs Used In The Treatment Of Interstitial Cystitis". Drug Treatment in Urology. John Wiley & Sons, 2008. p. 65.. ...
U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved October 10, 2019.. *^ Medical management of abortion. WHO. 2018. p. 24. ISBN ... Raymond, EG; Harrison, MS; Weaver, MA (January 2019). "Efficacy of Misoprostol Alone for First-Trimester Medical Abortion: A ... Appendix table 6. Drug-induced abortions in Nordic countries 1993-2015, % *^ . (September 20, 2016). "Relatório dos Registos ... the drugs will become more accessible due to a dramatic reduction in retail price-the cost would be reduced from between AU$300 ...
Drugs for human use; drug efficacy study; amended notice". Fed Regist. 40 (39): 8242. ; 39 FR 8242 Hatcher RA, Stewart GK, ... Drugs for human use; drug efficacy study implementation". Fed Regist. 36 (217): 21537-8. ; 36 FR 21537 FDA (1975). "Certain ... in girls and women who had been exposed to this drug in utero. The United States Food and Drug Administration subsequently ... Later in the same year, the FDA sent an FDA Drug Bulletin to all U.S. physicians advising against the use of DES in pregnant ...
Drugs for human use; drug efficacy study implementation; follow-up notice". Fed Regist. 40 (25): 5384. FDA (March-April 1978 ... Drugs for human use; drug efficacy study; amended notice". Fed Regist. 40 (39): 8242. FDA (September 26, 1973). "Certain ... A few different drugs were studied, with a focus on high-dose estrogens, and it was originally hoped that postcoital ... FDA Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (August 22, 2006). "Plan B Rx to OTC switch Medical Reviews" (PDF). Beltsville, Md ...
"Generic migraine drug could relieve your pain and save you money". Best Buy Drugs. Consumer Reports. Archived from the original ... Nestoriuc, Yvonne; Martin, Alexandra (2007). "Efficacy of biofeedback for migraine: A meta-analysis". Pain. 128 (1-2): 111-27. ... Fritsche, Guenther; Diener, Hans-Christoph (2002). "Medication overuse headaches - what is new?". Expert Opinion on Drug Safety ... Johnston MM, Rapoport AM (August 2010). "Triptans for the management of migraine". Drugs. 70 (12): 1505-18. doi:10.2165/ ...
... revealed that data for 21 studies he had authored for the efficacy of the drug (along with others such as celecoxib) had been ... It is only with the recent development of drugs like Vioxx that drug companies have carried out the kind of well executed ... Rofecoxib /ˌrɒfɪˈkɒksɪb/ is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that has now been withdrawn over safety concerns. It ... Drug manufacturer Merck had no comment on the disclosure.[10][11] Side effects[edit]. See also: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory ...
page 17094-99 Food and Drug Administration Notice. Docket No 80N-0276; Drugs for Human Use; Drug Efficacy Study Implementation ... 1966-1969 Food and Drug Administration Notice. "DESI 7630. Certain Anabolic Steroids. Drugs for Human Use: Drug Efficacy Study ... Winstrol Tablets; Drugs for Human Use; Drug Efficacy Study Implementation, Revocation of Exemption; Followup Notice and ... The FDA implemented its Drug Efficacy Study Implementation (DESI) program to study and regulate drugs, including stanozolol, ...
AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. Pentagon to Resume Anthrax Inoculations."[permanent dead link] ... 1980N-0208 Biological Products; Bacterial Vaccines and Toxoids; Implementation of Efficacy Review; Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed; ... Thereafter it ran into Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and judicial obstacles (mainly concerning the methods and viability ...
Adverse Effects and Clinical Efficacy in Asthma". Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 5 (3): ... The drug, alone or in co-administration with theophylline, doesn't show cardiotoxic effect. The U.S. Food and Drug ... The drug was withdrawn from the market by Élan Pharmaceuticals in 2001. Nathan RA, Bodman SF, Storms WW, Mingo TS (June 1986 ... A preliminary review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic efficacy in reversible obstructive airways disease". ...
Owen, R. T. (2007). "Pregabalin: Its efficacy, safety and tolerability profile in generalized anxiety". Drugs of Today. 43 (9 ... Other psychiatric drugs[edit]. *5-HT1A receptor partial agonists, such as buspirone and tandospirone. ... Additionally, these drugs may impair driving and they are often associated with falls in the elderly, resulting in hip ... D. John Reynolds; Jamie Coleman; Jeffrey Aronson (10 November 2011). Oxford Handbook of Practical Drug Therapy. Oxford ...
Efficacy of liquid paraffin is suggested by 2016 Cochrane review.[1] It might interfere with the absorption of fat-soluble ... This drug article relating to the gastrointestinal system is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Retrieved from "" ...
... a review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic efficacy". Drugs. 19 (4): 249-67. doi:10.2165/00003495-198019040- ... "Psychoactive Drug Screening Program (PDSP). University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and the United States National ... Sneader W (23 June 2005). Drug Discovery: A History. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 405-. ISBN 978-0-471-89979-2. .. ... Kubinyi H, Müller G (6 March 2006). Chemogenomics in Drug Discovery: A Medicinal Chemistry Perspective. John Wiley & Sons. pp. ...
A review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic efficacy in acne and other skin disorders". Drugs. 28 (1): 6-37. doi ... "Drug Trials Snapshots: Aklief". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 11 October 2019. Archived from the original on 19 ... Aslam I, Fleischer A, Feldman S (March 2015). "Emerging drugs for the treatment of acne". Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs. 20 ... Aslam I, Fleischer A, Feldman S (March 2015). "Emerging drugs for the treatment of acne". Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs ( ...
An update on drug interactions". Drug Saf. 14 (4): 219-27. doi:10.2165/00002018-199614040-00002. PMID 8713690.. ... Use in children is not recommended as there is insufficient data to assess their safety and efficacy in these patients.[10][11] ... Less than 1 percent of the drug is excreted unchanged; 92 percent of the metabolised drug is excreted within the first 12 hours ... Prog Drug Res. 38. pp. 171-297. doi:10.1007/978-3-0348-7141-9_3. ISBN 978-3-0348-7143-3. PMID 1609114.. ...
Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 22 (4): 321-38. doi:10.1007/s10557-008-6113-z. PMC 2493531 . PMID 18553127. "Lipid-lowering efficacy of ... "FDA Drug Safety Communication: Important safety label changes to cholesterol-lowering statin drugs". "Annual Report and Form 20 ... "Page 45 of FDA Drug Approval Package, Clinical Pharmacology Biopharmaceutics Review(s) (PDF)". U.S. Food and Drug ... "AstraZeneca's tactics in marketing its cholesterol-lowering drug, rosuvastatin, raise disturbing questions about how drugs ...
"Ginkgo Uses, Benefits & Dosage - Herbal Database".. *^ Dugoua, JJ; Mills, E; Perri, D; Koren, G (2006). "Safety and ... Efficacy and Adverse Effects of Ginkgo Biloba for Cognitive Impairment and Dementia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis'. 1 ... controlled studies do not support the extract's efficacy for most of the indicated conditions.[41] ... efficacy of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) during pregnancy and lactation". The Canadian Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 13 (3): e277 ...
Drugs for human use; drug efficacy study; amended notice". Fed Regist. 40 (39): 8242.. ; 39 FR 8242 ... Drugs for human use; drug efficacy study implementation". Fed Regist. 36 (217): 21537-8.. ; 36 FR 21537 ... Ravina E (11 January 2011). T he Evolution of Drug Discovery: From Traditional Medicines to Modern Drugs. John Wiley & Sons. pp ... Chambers P, Günzel P (12 March 2013). Mechanism of Toxic Action on Some Target Organs: Drugs and Other Substances. Springer ...
In March 2008, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) included lenalidomide on a list of 20 prescription drugs under ... The results of this study demonstrate the efficacy of Revlimid for the treatment of subjects with Low- or Intermediate-1-risk ... The drug was, for example, recently approved by the FDA for treatment of complications from leprosy; it has also been ... The drug is being investigated for possibly increasing the risk of developing Stevens-Johnson syndrome, a life-threatening ...
"Psychoactive Drug Screening Program (PDSP). University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and the United States National ... Clinical efficacy[edit]. In clinical trials, desvenlafaxine demonstrated a significant superiority to placebo both in changes ... The FDA approved the drug for antidepressant use in February 2008, and was to be available in US pharmacies in May 2008.[9] ... Final approval to sell the drug was contingent on a number of things, including:. *A satisfactory FDA inspection of Wyeth's ...
It also covers drug drug interaction studies.. References classified by therapeutic area[edit]. Chronic obstructive pulmonary ... EMA/199678/2016 Reflection paper on extrapolation of efficacy and safety in paediatric medicine development (PDF), European ... of drugs and therapeutic biologics regulated within the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research at the Food and Drug ... Rare diseases: Common issues in drug development. Guidance for industry. (PDF), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; ...
Ongoing trials are assessing its efficacy, if any, for managing other cancers. Clolar was Food and Drug Administration (FDA) ... pregnancy or planned pregnancy breast-feeding liver problems kidney problems nephrotoxic drugs hepatotoxic drugs By intravenous ... nat Rev Drug Discov. 5 (10): 855-63. doi:10.1038/nrd2055. PMID 17016426. Shelton J, Lu X, Hollenbaugh JA, Cho JH, Amblard F, ...
The ECA stack is a drug combination used in weight loss and as a stimulant. ECA is an initialism for ephedrine, caffeine, and ... Rhodes, MFA; Lara Jungvig, BA; James Gagné, MD "Efficacy and Safety of Ephedra and Ephedrine for Weight Loss and Athletic ... In 2004, ephedra, a botanical source of ephedrine alkaloids, was banned by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration due to serious ... Daly PA, Krieger DR, Dulloo AG, Young JB, Landsberg L (1993). "Ephedrine, caffeine and aspirin: safety and efficacy for ...
Izzedine H, Launay-Vacher V, Deybach C, Bourry E, Barrou B, Deray G (November 2005). "Drug-induced diabetes mellitus". Expert ... "Reappraisal of metformin efficacy in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials". PLOS ... Krentz AJ, Bailey CJ (February 2005). "Oral antidiabetic agents: current role in type 2 diabetes mellitus". Drugs. 65 (3): 385- ... Opinion on Drug Safety. 4 (6): 1097-109. doi:10.1517/14740338.4.6.1097. PMID 16255667.. ...
The drug is available as an ointment as well. Infamous teen buy chloroquine online india bride courtney stodden was quick to ... The most urgent form of action to be undertaken regards these unwarranted expectations that society holds about the efficacy of ... Flurbiprofen is known as a nonsteroidal chloroquine 100 mg kopen anti-inflammatory drug or nsaid. Prosta caps buy chloroquine ...
Ethical review boards must focus on clinical promise as well as safety to hold the first tests of drugs in humans to a higher ... How have other drugs addressing the same disease process fared?. Assume the drug works in humans. What is the likelihood of ... What is the likelihood that the drug will prove clinically useful?. • How have other drugs in the same class or against the ... Efficacy not considered. More-thorough assessments of clinical potential before trials begin could lower failure rates and drug ...
... has identified some genetic markers in people that indicate they will benefit most from cholesterol-lowering drugs, but wont ... said it has identified some genetic markers in people that indicate they will benefit most from cholesterol-lowering drugs. ... planning instead to sell the information to pharmaceuticals companies or use it to develop its own drugs. ...
To test the effectiveness of their drug targeting system against cancer, they encapsulated the drug lonidamine, which works by ... of the drugs by more than 100 times when compared to the drugs alone and by five times when compared to the delivery of drugs ... researchers at the University of Georgia have refined the drug delivery process further by using nanoparticles to deliver drugs ... FDA-approved polymer to fabricate their nanoparticles and then used the particles to encapsulate and test drugs that treat a ...
... annual meeting of the American College of Rheumatology in November will confirm that oral tofacitinib met all primary efficacy ... in November will confirm that oral tofacitinib met all primary efficacy endpoints in a phase III study evaluating the drug for ... Similar efficacy outcomes were seen for tofacitinib and adalimumab, although the study was not a direct comparison of the two ... Mortality rates from trials of biologic drugs for rheumatoid arthritis have ranged from zero to 7.41 per 100 patient-years, ...
... regimen increased its efficacy - especially in patients who had failed previous standard therapy, a researcher said here. ... Adding an extra drug to a promising hepatitis C (HCV) ... The new drug is ledipasvir, previously known as GS-5885, which ... ATLANTA - Adding an extra drug to a promising hepatitis C (HCV) regimen increased its efficacy - especially in patients who had ... The addition of the third drug meant that all patients, regardless of previous treatment, were free of the virus 12 weeks after ...
Drug transporters in drug efficacy and toxicity.. DeGorter MK1, Xia CQ, Yang JJ, Kim RB. ... There is also a greater appreciation that altered drug transporter function, whether due to genetic polymorphisms, drug-drug ... strategies for optimal drug design and tissue targeting as well as reduce the risk for drug-drug interactions and adverse drug ... Drug transporters are now widely acknowledged as important determinants governing drug absorption, excretion, and, in many ...
American Society for Microbiology (ASM). "Reducing drug dosage, and hearing loss in TB patients without reducing efficacy." ... Reducing drug dosage, and hearing loss in TB patients without reducing efficacy. ... Reducing drug dosage, and hearing loss in TB patients without reducing efficacy ... They monitored the concentration of the drug in patients blood, modulating the dose if the concentration was too high or too ...
Triboluminescence Used to Test for Drug Efficacy. Photonics Handbook An instrument has been developed that uses ... and they are also exploring what fraction of drug molecules and compounds could be responsive to TL analysis. "New drugs that ... Simpson said a TL instrument also could be used to determine whether changes in the way a drug is produced could cause ... "This technique would be more like a prescreen off an assembly line in a factory where theyre making these drugs," said ...
A similar efficacy with acceptable toxicity has been documented with antibody radionuclide conjugates which need to be injected ... Antibody drug conjugates have shown a clearly documented efficacy and acceptable toxicity and can be easily implemented in ... Antibody drug conjugates have shown clinical efficacy with acceptable toxicity This research article by Dr. Jean-François ... Antibody Drug Conjugates (ADCs) have shown a clearly documented efficacy and acceptable toxicity and can be easily implemented ...
Animal models are vital instruments of the drug discovery process. In addition to assessing the efficacy of candidate molecules ... Source: Inflammation & Allergy-Drug Targets (Formerly Current Drug Targets - Inflammation & Allergy), Volume 12, Number 2, ... Home / Inflammation & Allergy-Drug Targets (Formerly Current Drug Targets - Inflammation & Allergy), Volume 12, Number 2 ... characterization and validation of novel human drug targets for anti-inflammation and allergy drug discovery continues to grow ...
... seeking evidence for efficacy for the cognitive dysfunction experienced by more than half of affected individuals. ... Tags: Amantadine, Amphetamine, Brain, Disability, Donepezil, Drugs, Efficacy, Erythropoietin, Estrogen, Fingolimod, ... Insufficient evidence for cognitive efficacy of drug treatments in multiple sclerosis. *Download PDF Copy ... Given the impact of cognitive dysfunction on individuals with MS, it is prudent to explore the potential for cognitive efficacy ...
Chemoembolization of hepatocellular carcinoma with drug eluting beads: efficacy and doxorubicin pharmacokinetics.. Varela M1, ... This study assesses the safety, pharmacokinetics and efficacy of transarterial chemoembolization using drug eluting beads (DEB ...
"These drugs should be flagged saying the efficacy of the drug may be altered during pregnancy because you have this transporter ... he is using the drug-handling capacity of this transporter to study the impact of pregnancy on drug efficacy. Hell be looking ... also can metabolize many drugs so they no longer function as drugs or it can transport drugs directly to the fetus. "Normally ... But studies on the impact on drug efficacy for the mothers-to-be have not been pursued, Dr. Ganapathy said, and dosages ...
Bladder cancer model could pave the way for better drug efficacy studies. UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center ... Bladder cancer model could pave the way for better drug efficacy studies ... we didnt have the tools to understand biology or look at the therapeutic efficacy of drugs in luminal preclinical models," ... But studies have shown that less than a quarter of patients will respond to these drugs. ...
... Zahra Zamani,1 Alireza Sadeghi Tafreshi,2 Hossein Nahrevanian ... The search for new drugs and drug targets is a consistent demand in this disease. Eosin B, a common laboratory dye, is reported ... Plasmodium efficacy in vitro. They are being used in combination with traditional antimalarials drugs such as mefloquine [2], ... Eosin B has an LD50 of 2000 mg/kg much higher than the two drugs tested. CQ has an LD50 330 mg/kg for op and ip 190 mg/kg. LD50 ...
... 04.09.2007 ... Combining radiation therapy with a drug that helps destroy blood vessels nourishing malignant tumors has been shown in mice to ... They cause fewer side effects than conventional cancer drugs that kill rapidly dividing normal cells along with the cancer ... this monoclonal anitbody improves the efficacy of radiation therapy without the toxicity seen in other chemotherapeutic drugs ...
... for volunteers to take part in a study to compare the long-term benefits and risks of four widely used type 2 diabetes drugs. ... NIH begins recruitment for long-term study of diabetes drug efficacy. The National Institutes of Health is looking for ... But while short-term studies have shown the efficacy of different drugs when used with metformin, there have been no long-term ... If metformin is not enough to help manage type 2 diabetes, a persons doctor may add one of several other drugs to lower ...
... *Download PDF Copy ... Tags: Acute Coronary Syndrome, Cardiology, Chromium, Coronary Artery Disease, Drug-Eluting Stent, Efficacy, Heart, ... A head-to-head comparison with the Orsiro stent was of interest, as the Orsiro has shown excellent efficacy and safety outcomes ... Improving cancer therapies by exploiting drug resistance in cancer. Professor David Thomas ...
We used Epredict values to cluster drugs according to efficacy; and found that high-efficacy drugs tended to target ... The in vivo and in vitro datasets were used to compute a single efficacy predictor (Epredict). Results We used in vivo data ... Methods High-content analysis (HCA) was performed with 49 drugs on hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) LX-2 stained with 10 fibrotic ... A systematic literature search on the in vivo effects of all 49 drugs on hepatofibrotic rats yields 28 papers with histological ...
... nivolumab combined with ipilimumab shows clinically meaningful efficacy, according to a study publish ... Mobile Apps. The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own ... provides accurate and independent information on more than 24,000 prescription drugs, over-the-counter medicines and ... Subscribe to newsletters for the latest medication news, alerts, new drug approvals and more. ... Mobile Apps. The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own ... provides accurate and independent information on more than 24,000 prescription drugs, over-the-counter medicines and ... Cytokine Announces Oral Efficacy of Anti-Cytokine Semapimod. Print this page KING OF PRUSSIA, Pa., October 29, 2007 /PRNewswire ... Home › News › Clinical Trials › Cytokine Announces Oral Efficacy of Anti-Cytokine Semapimod ...
Integrating Efficacy and Toxicity in Preclinical Anticancer Drug Development: Methods and Applications. Haglund, Caroline ... Drug sensitivity was similar in both assays and method validation was performed using 24 drugs with known myelotoxic profile ( ... RESULTS: In general, in vitro drug activity in tumor cells from patients reflected known clinical activity of the drugs ... In vitro activity of the drugs was compared with indications approved by the Food and Drug Administration and established ...
In the present study, the in silico efficacy of different drugs was tested against the swine flu virus. 3D structures of ... In silico genome analysis and drug efficacy test of influenza A virus (H1N1) 2009. ... The RMSD value of before and after docking are found to be same at 0.04A° for both the drugs. The force field energy of NA ... Neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors (Oseltamivir and Zanamivir) are presently used as an anti-flu drugs. ...
  • Drug transporters in drug efficacy and toxicity. (
  • There is also a greater appreciation that altered drug transporter function, whether due to genetic polymorphisms, drug-drug interactions, or environmental factors such as dietary constituents, can result in unexpected toxicity. (
  • Antibody Drug Conjugates (ADCs) have shown a clearly documented efficacy and acceptable toxicity and can be easily implemented in oncology departments where chemotherapy administration is a routine practice. (
  • A similar efficacy with acceptable toxicity has been documented with Antibody Radionuclide Conjugates (ARCs) which need to be injected with the help of a nuclear medicine department which can be a limitation for referral from an oncologist. (
  • This study assesses the safety, pharmacokinetics and efficacy of transarterial chemoembolization using drug eluting beads (DEB), an embolizing device that slowly releases chemotherapy to decrease systemic toxicity. (
  • About 30 percent of all lung-cancer patients receive radiation and, in this animal model of lung cancer, we found that this monoclonal anitbody improves the efficacy of radiation therapy without the toxicity seen in other chemotherapeutic drugs," said Dr. Thorpe. (
  • Preclinical studies have repeatedly demonstrated semapimod's efficacy in animal models of inflammatory and proliferative diseases, including endotoxic shock and toxicity, pancreatitis, ischemia and stroke, necrotizing enterocolitis, and neointimal formation. (
  • In paper IV, the efficacy and toxicity models were applied for experimental follow-up of a novel inhibitor of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, CB3 (Phosphoric acid, 2,3-dihydro-1,1-dioxido-3-thienyl diphenyl ester). (
  • We are now in the process of selecting the most promising drug candidates and are planning toxicity -and efficacy testing in mouse models. (
  • But it's not just the increase in clinical efficacy and outcomes that are exciting, it's also the improvement in targeting and reduction in toxicity, which is just icing on the cake. (
  • It is based on delivering a continuous infusion of drugs via intracranial catheters, enabling convective distribution of high drug concentrations over large volumes of the target tissue while avoiding systemic toxicity. (
  • Zebrafish were proposed as an alternative to mammalian models to assess the efficacy and toxicity of antileukemic drugs. (
  • Drugs for serious fungal and microbial infections currently require intravenous administration at doses that are associated with significant toxicity. (
  • While the drugs amphotericin B (AmB) and azole antifungals have provided effective therapy, the high incidence of infusion-related toxicity and nephrotoxicity with amphotericin B and the emergence of fluconazole-resistant strains of candida have prompted the search for therapeutic alternatives. (
  • Because the drug is sequestered in the solid cochleate particle or in the target cells, the rest of the body is protected from the toxicity of the desired medication. (
  • To promote chemotherapeutic efficacy, a dynamic drug delivery system was prepared, which remained stealthy and stable in blood vessels, improved drug penetration and retention in response to extracellular stimuli, enhanced membrane permeability through unique functional groups, and then achieved rapid drug release to improve toxicity to tumor cells in response to intracellular stimuli. (
  • Designed in accordance with guidelines from agencies like the FDA, EMA and ITC, the assays help customers predict outcomes by determining levels of permeability, transport, metabolism and toxicity in a drug product. (
  • Formulating drugs as liquid salts may provide a safe and efficient strategy for topical delivery of drugs that cause skin toxicity. (
  • Skin toxicity remains a major challenge in the design and use of new topical drug formulations. (
  • In addition, many drugs such as propranolol itself show dose-dependent skin toxicity. (
  • Formulating drugs as liquid salt mitigates both sources of toxicity. (
  • In addition, counter ions used to form the liquid salts shield the drug charge, which further reduces drug-induced toxicity. (
  • We think that using it as a novel drug delivery system could help reduce dosing, cost and risk of toxicity to the kidneys and could eventually be used in lubricants prophylactically to help prevent new HSV genital infection," Shukla said. (
  • This book focuses on efficacy, toxicity, drug interactions, and abnormal clinical laboratory tests resulting from the use of herbal remedies. (
  • Data to be presented at the annual meeting of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) in November will confirm that oral tofacitinib met all primary efficacy endpoints in a phase III study evaluating the drug for rheumatoid arthritis, according to a statement from Pfizer. (
  • Both doses of tofacitinib "demonstrated significant and clinically meaningful improvements and met all primary efficacy endpoints," the Pfizer news release stated. (
  • The improvement in symptoms of depression was assessed on the basis of the internationally established Hamilton Depression Scale 21 (primary efficacy criterion). (
  • After six months, the primary efficacy responder rate was 26.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.6 to 35.9) and 14.6% (95% CI, 7.0 to 22.3), respectively, for the 900ug and 600ug groups. (
  • The primary efficacy end point was ≥20% improvement in the ACR core criteria (ACR20 response). (
  • Similar efficacy outcomes were seen for tofacitinib and adalimumab, although the study was not a direct comparison of the two drugs, the statement said. (
  • Although most of the studies of symptomatic therapies were randomized controlled trials with primary cognitive outcomes (i.e., higher quality evidence), there were contradictory findings, resulting in inconclusive evidence for the cognitive efficacy of symptomatic therapies. (
  • A head-to-head comparison with the Orsiro stent was of interest, as the Orsiro has shown excellent efficacy and safety outcomes in multiple randomized clinical trials, including three large-scale trials in all-comers. (
  • The rationale here is that 'surrogate' imaging outcomes can be powered using far less subjects than clinical outcomes in drug trials, as each participant will contribute an imaging endpoint regardless of whether they then go on to develop a clinical event. (
  • In addition, drug efficacy can be more rapidly tested using imaging markers as there is no need to wait long periods of time for clinical outcomes to occur. (
  • Consequently, applying targeted antiatherosclerotic drugs on top of standard therapies broadly in unselected patient populations is likely to produce at most a modest impact on clinical outcomes. (
  • The ideal imaging endpoint for use in any cardiovascular drug trial should be easily measurable and highly reproducible, with sound biological rationale and strong prognostic link to important clinical outcomes. (
  • Primary outcomes Safety (death, myocardial infarction, definite or probable stent thrombosis) and efficacy (target lesion and target vessel revascularisation) assessed at up to one year and beyond. (
  • Cholesterol-lowering drugs used alongside chemotherapy have no effect on treatment outcomes for lung cancer patients, according to a new study. (
  • The primary outcomes were efficacy (quantified as the change in the total score on the Hamilton Anxiety Scale from baseline) and acceptability (quantified as treatment discontinuations due to any cause). (
  • In spite of the variety of animal methods for preclinical screening for drug safety, 20-50% of all advanced candidates have to be abandoned due to adverse outcomes, even late in the drug development process. (
  • We propose that it may be necessary to integrate patients' beliefs and expectations into drug treatment regimes alongside traditional considerations in order to optimize treatment outcomes. (
  • NEW YORK, NY AND ATLANTA, GA MARCH 13, 2010 The announcement of a new clinical trial, EXCEL (Evaluation of Xience Prime versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for Effectiveness of Left Main Revascularization), that will compare drug-eluting stents to coronary artery bypass graft surgery in patients with left main coronary artery disease, was made today at "Optimizing PCI Outcomes: Evolving Paradigms," a symposium presented by the Cardiovascular Research Foundation. (
  • And adaptive designs like this Phase I/II, which help blur the lines between different stages of development, allow biotechs to go after efficacy endpoints while establishing the safety of a new therapy. (
  • Given the higher likelihood of observer bias with subjective global scoring, why even weight sleep diaries as efficacy endpoints? (
  • First, they do provide important information about a respective drug's efficacy from the patient's point of view, and secondly, the FDA requires that subjective endpoints be measured and reported as approval criteria for a sedative hypnotic. (
  • Understand which markers of atherosclerotic disease severity are most useful as imaging endpoints in drug intervention studies. (
  • The BLOOM trial, having met all of its primary endpoints and the FDA categorical efficacy benchmark as stated in their guidance, suggests lorcaserin has the potential to become the first in a new class of effective and very well tolerated weight management therapeutics that selectively target the serotonin 2C receptor," said William R. Shanahan, M.D., Arena's Vice President and Chief Medical Officer. (
  • Over recent years, several molecules that have shown efficacy in preclinical models of respiratory diseases have failed to translate into new medicines for chronic respiratory conditions such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. (
  • Not all bladder cancers are the same, and until now, we didn't have the tools to understand biology or look at the therapeutic efficacy of drugs in luminal preclinical models," said Kim, who is an associate professor in the UNC School of Medicine Departments of Genetics, Pharmacology, and Urology. (
  • There exists an enormous gap between early mechanistic studies demonstrating proof-of-principle drug efficacy in preclinical models and successful translation of these therapies into everyday clinical practice. (
  • Such effects are in part due to the interplay between various uptake and efflux transporters with overlapping functional capabilities that can manifest as marked interindividual variability in drug disposition in vivo. (
  • In addition to assessing the efficacy of candidate molecules, in vivo disease models also help validate the therapeutic potential of molecular targets. (
  • POEAd- g -F-DOX exhibits greatly enhanced chemotherapeutic efficacy because of its tunable dynamic changes and fluorination, resulting in improved cellular uptake and greater toxic effects on tumor cells than free DOX, stronger penetration and unprecedentedly rapid complete destruction of 3-D tumor spheroids in vitro , and significant tumor accumulation and inhibition with decreasing side effects in normal organs in vivo . (
  • The study, led by researchers from Capital Medical University in Beijing, looked at the effects of using a decoction of Herba Epimedii and Fructus Ligustri Lucidi with the asthma drug budesonide can improve the condition using in vivo tests. (
  • We demonstrate that this improved zebrafish drug-screening platform can complement conventional models of in vivo Mycobacterium tuberculosis -infected rodent assays. (
  • In studies conducted at the Massachusetts General Hospital and at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, ACY-1215, when administered either as a single agent or in synergistic combination with the first-in-class proteasome inhibitor drug bortezomib (Velcade ® , Takeda Millennium Pharmaceuticals), demonstrated effectiveness in two in vivo disease models of multiple myeloma as well as against drug-resistant multiple myeloma patient cells. (
  • Even when Mtb cells are used, it is often performed using broth grown cultures, which do not accurately predict drug efficacy in vivo 8 , 9 . (
  • Indeed, even for the first-line TB drug rifampicin, sub-optimal dosing has been questioned due to inadequate in vivo tissue and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) penetration 13 , 14 , 15 as well as decreased efficacy against intracellular Mtb 8 , 9 . (
  • In this study, we measured in vivo CRF 1 receptor occupancy of DMP696 by using ex vivo ligand binding and quantitative autoradiography and explored the relationship of receptor occupancy with plasma and brain exposure and behavioral efficacy. (
  • In conclusion, doses of DMP696 occupying over 50% brain CRF 1 receptors are consistent with doses producing anxiolytic efficacy in the defense withdrawal test of anxiety, and the IC 50 value estimated in vivo based on plasma-free drug concentrations is consistent with the in vitro IC 50 value. (
  • Ethical review boards must focus on clinical promise as well as safety to hold the first tests of drugs in humans to a higher standard, say Jonathan Kimmelman and Carole Federico. (
  • In the wake of the tragedies, the French medicines safety agency (ANSM) ordered an examination of the information that the drug developer, Bial, based in Trofa, Portugal, had supplied to ethics committees and potential researchers before the trial (see ). (
  • Regulators in Europe and North America evaluate safety before human trials can proceed, but they do not currently demand evidence for potential efficacy. (
  • In an exclusive Q&A session with BNET Pharma, Somaxon chief executive Rich Pascoe responded to questions surrounding the FDA decision, from uncertainty of the drug's efficacy to safety concerns with continued dosing. (
  • Even if therapies are derived from traditional practice are natural, establishing their efficacy and safety through rigorous clinical trials is critical," the statement said. (
  • Safety and efficacy. (
  • Objectives To investigate the safety and efficacy of durable polymer drug eluting stents (DES) and biodegradable polymer biolimus eluting stents (biolimus-ES). (
  • In this mini-review, we summarize the current knowledge regarding the impact of PPIs on the efficacy and safety of cancer chemotherapeutics via inhibition of targets other than the H + /K + -ATPase. (
  • Therefore, the effect of PPIs on the efficacy and safety of anticancer agents needs to be investigated thoroughly. (
  • America's Health Insurance Plans, a national association representing nearly 1,300 health insurance companies, has proposed a plan to establish a new entity to compare the safety and efficacy of new drugs. (
  • The absence of objective, patient- and physician-friendly information related to the value of medical services has come under scrutiny recently as safety and efficacy concerns have arisen related to treatments such as Cox-2 inhibitors, the group said. (
  • To demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the SurVeil Drug-Coated Balloon (DCB) for treatment of subjects with symptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD) due to stenosis of the femoral and/or popliteal arteries. (
  • UX003-CL201 is an open-label Phase 1/2 study to assess the safety, efficacy, and dose of UX003 in MPS 7 patients via intravenous (IV) administration every other week (QOW) for 36 weeks with up to an additional 36 weeks from the optional continuation period. (
  • The study is being done to test the safety of a cancer drug called larotrectinib in children. (
  • Each cell line is tested for functionality, which means that customers in discovery phases can more easily isolate any compounds that may affect product development before it can affect the safety or efficacy of a possible drug product. (
  • Over at Marginal Revolution, Alex calls for moving the FDA to a "safety-only" system , which means eliminating efficacy testing in Phases II and III as a condition of marketing approval. (
  • The primary danger to public health will be the safety risk with widespread use of drugs before Phase III trials are completed. (
  • The main aim is to accelerate the uptake of human-based in silico methodologies for evaluation of cardiac drug safety and efficacy in industry, regulatory and clinical settings. (
  • BOSTON--( BUSINESS WIRE )-- Acetylon Pharmaceuticals today announced the publication of favorable results of preclinical safety and efficacy testing of its oral selective HDAC6 inhibitor drug candidate, ACY-1215, in multiple myeloma. (
  • These preclinical efficacy and safety results provide the rationale for the initiation of human clinical trials of ACY-1215 in multiple myeloma," stated Noopur Raje, M.D., Associate Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School and Director of the Center for Multiple Myeloma at the Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center. (
  • The trial is part of a large-scale global clinical development program to assess the efficacy and safety of SOM230 in a range of pituitary and neuroendocrine tumors(6). (
  • The study evaluated the efficacy and safety of SOM230 in patients with persistent or recurrent Cushing's disease, as well as in patients with newly diagnosed Cushing's disease who are not candidates for surgery(1),(10). (
  • EXCEL trial will determine safety and efficacy of drug-eluting stents vs. bypa. (
  • for Overweight and Obesity Management), the first of two pivotal trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of lorcaserin for weight management. (
  • We used qualitative methods to characterize the safety and efficacy reasons why applications for novel therapeutics approved by the FDA between 2001 and 2011 required multiple review cycles prior to approval. (
  • Among ninety-six applications approved between 2001 and 2011 that required multiple review cycles, safety concerns contributed to seventy-four (77.1 percent) and efficacy concerns to forty-three (44.8 percent). (
  • The ILLUMENATE EU RCT, which is part of a series of five trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of Stellarex for superficial femoral artery and popliteal disease, includes 328 PAD patients from 18 centers across Germany and Austria and compares the Stellarex DCB to an uncoated angioplasty balloon. (
  • To evaluate the efficacy and safety of monotherapy with adalimumab in patients with RA for whom previous DMARD treatment has failed. (
  • More-thorough assessments of clinical potential before trials begin could lower failure rates and drug-development costs. (
  • Currently, more than half of drugs that reach later-stage (phase II and III trials) human testing fail because they do not demonstrate efficacy. (
  • If so, low standards for launching clinical trials in the United States could result in ineffective drugs being approved, while also decreasing incentives. (
  • Mortality rates from trials of biologic drugs for rheumatoid arthritis have ranged from zero to 7.41 per 100 patient-years, according to the Pfizer statement. (
  • Several clinical trials are in progress, trying to find a suitable drug combination. (
  • Learn how imaging can be applied to gain early insights into drug efficacy and inform the design of phase III clinical outcome trials in cardiovascular disease. (
  • Many cardiovascular drugs in the pipeline will fail to demonstrate a clear clinical benefit when evaluated in large-scale clinical outcome trials, which are costly, require lengthy follow-up and can potentially expose patients to unforeseen risks. (
  • To help overcome this challenge, cardiovascular imaging techniques can be applied to quantify early changes in disease severity owing to drug intervention, or lack thereof, with the aim of informing subsequent clinical outcome trials. (
  • Study selection Randomised, placebo controlled, double blind trials with a follow-up of at least three years that evaluated lipid lowering drug treatment in patients with and without diabetes mellitus. (
  • And while we don t foresee any significant health risks beyond those posed by whatever drugs are being delivered, one reason we do animal and clinical trials is to identify any unforeseen risks. (
  • Previous convection-based clinical trials showed significant diversity in the extent of convection among patients and drugs. (
  • Evaluation of new therapeutic regimen efficacy in acute and chronic leukemia is a long and complex process that usually requires validation in animal models before clinical trials. (
  • If Phase II and III trials were no longer required, many more drugs would reach the market. (
  • A mixed-treatment meta-analysis performed in 2011 included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted before February 2009 when evaluating the efficacy of nine drugs. (
  • Methods: The entire MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PsycINFO, SCI (Science Citation Index),, Current Controlled Trials, World Health Organization IRIS (Institutional Repository for Information Sharing), and ISRCTN Registry databases were searched for placebo-controlled and head-to-head trials of 21 drugs used for the acute treatment of adults with GAD from 1980 up to July 3, 2017. (
  • Clinical trials have shown drugs targeting IL-5 or its receptor alpha subunit (IL-5Ra) to be a promising therapeutic approach to severe asthma, whose characteristics render standard therapy of little use: systemic corticosteroids only partially control the disease and have well-known adverse effects, and omalizumab is used for allergic subtypes. (
  • ATLANTA - Adding an extra drug to a promising hepatitis C (HCV) regimen increased its efficacy - especially in patients who had failed previous standard therapy, a researcher said here. (
  • We ought to know more about the placenta, what it does in terms of drugs, before we give the same dosage, the same regimen to pregnant women that we give to non-pregnant women," Dr. Ganapathy said. (
  • Patients are more likely to stop their medication regimen if drug colors are changed, such as switching to a generic medication with a different color or shape. (
  • As a result, we present an improved zebrafish larva drug-screening platform which offers new insights into drug efficacy and identifies potential false negatives and drugs that are effective in zebrafish and rodents. (
  • This article will discuss the potential scope of imaging to improve drug efficacy testing of current and emerging disease-modifying therapies in atherosclerosis. (
  • The limited effectiveness of current therapies and the practical difficulties with administering a full course of treatment have spurred the development of new antiviral drugs for HCV. (
  • However, the effectiveness of these programs in treating substance abuse and drug addiction has not been conclusively proven - or often studied - and in many cases such "therapies" significantly increase the cost of addiction treatment programs while providing little value to the addict. (
  • Understanding the efficacy of non-traditional addiction treatment methods is difficult because so many of these therapies are new, and most are rather subjective. (
  • In addition, since the SYNTAX trial, advances have been made drug-eluting stent technology, PCI procedural guidance, in bypass surgery techniques and optimal medical therapies. (
  • Both conjugates have shown some clinical efficacy in terms of survival (progression free survival or overall survival) depending on the tumor type, radiosensitive or not. (
  • The good results of both conjugates could be significantly improved in the future.Targeting Cancer Stem Cells (CSC) using both cytotoxic payloads (drugs or radionuclides) could delay tumor relapse. (
  • Efficacy of ARCs could be improved with the use of alpha-emitting radionuclides which deliver a high fraction of their energy inside the targeted tumor cell leading to highly efficient killing especially for isolated tumor cells or clusters of malignant cells in the body. (
  • Hello, I was concerned about the location of injection of tumor cells in mice being used in a drug efficacy study. (
  • Hello, I've done many drug efficacy studies in human tumor xenograft models, mostly using PC-3 cells, but also various breast, liver, ovarian and lung cancer cell lines. (
  • CNS Pharma says berubicin is the first anthracycline drug to cross the blood-brain barrier and could transform treatment of the highly invasive brain tumor. (
  • By surrounding molecules of paclitaxel with self-assembling spheres composed of amino acids, the Duke team doubled tumor exposure to the drug while simultaneously reducing its effects on healthy tissue. (
  • This delivers the drug directly to the tumor and helps prevent it from randomly absorbing into healthy tissue, reducing side effects. (
  • For example, the anti-cancer drug TRAIL attacks a cancer cell s cell membrane, while another drug, cilengitide, inhibits the growth of blood vessels around a tumor, starving it of nutrients. (
  • To improve the effectiveness of these drugs, scientists want to both prevent them from being absorbed into the cancer cells and prevent them from being washed away from the tumor site by the circulatory system. (
  • This releases the TG enzymes, which help to connect the HSA proteins studding the surface of other nanocarriers, creating a cross-linked drug depot inside the tumor. (
  • This ensures a gradual, sustained release of the TRAIL and cilengitide into the tumor environment, maximizing the effectiveness of the drugs, Gu says. (
  • Predicting drug effectiveness through potential target is typically via a bottom-up conceptualization of tumor function. (
  • Several studies have revealed that PPIs inhibit not only the H + /K + -ATPase in gastric parietal cells, but also the vacuolar H + -ATPase (V-ATPase) overexpressed in tumor cells, as well as the renal basolateral organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) associated with pharmacokinetics and/or renal accumulation of various drugs, including anticancer agents. (
  • These peptides can spread into tumor tissue, and can target drug delivery where it is needed. (
  • In 1971, DES was shown to cause clear cell carcinoma, a rare vaginal tumor, in girls and women who had been exposed to this drug in utero. (
  • Inflammation & Allergy - Drug Targets aims to cover all the latest and outstanding developments on the medicinal chemistry, pharmacology, molecular biology, genomics and biochemistry of contemporary molecular targets involved in inflammation and allergy e.g. disease specific proteins, receptors, enzymes, genes. (
  • These findings have high clinical significance because CAR (peptide CARSKNKDC) enables the down-dosing of not only vasodilators, but any PAH drug to reduce its systemic side effects without decreasing its pulmonary efficacy," says Masahiko Oka, MD, PhD, of the Department of Pharmacology and Internal Medicine and Center for Lung Biology at the University of South Alabama. (
  • It identified only two studies presented as evidence for efficacy, both problematic. (
  • Researchers at Kessler Foundation conducted a comprehensive review of pharmacologic agents used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis, seeking evidence for efficacy for the cognitive dysfunction experienced by more than half of affected individuals. (
  • Part 2: To determine the efficacy of GZ/SAR402671 administered orally daily, as compared to placebo in patients with early-stage Parkinson's disease carrying a GBA mutation or other pre-specified variants. (
  • Further studies are needed to determine the efficacy of paraspinal anesthetic block with different lidocaine doses for the treatment of visceral pain of other causes. (
  • The aim of this thesis was to establish and evaluate preclinical in vitro methods useful in the development of new anticancer drugs. (
  • This is important, because despite the many applications of assessing drug efficacy in zebrafish research, the current methods for measuring uptake using mass spectrometry do not take into account the possible adherence of drugs to the larval surface. (
  • METHODS AND RESULTS Patients with ventricular tachyarrhythmias were randomly assigned to undergo serial testing of up to six antiarrhythmic drugs by either EPS (EPS limb) or HM and exercise testing (HM limb). (
  • Researchers are working on a flow cell that will enable similar crystallinity testing in slurries, and they are also exploring what fraction of drug molecules and compounds could be responsive to TL analysis. (
  • Cochleates have a multilayer crystalline, spiral structure with no internal aqueous space that forms when a series of solid lipid sheets roll up and capture drug molecules in between the sheet, a process referred to as encochleation. (
  • This work highlights the importance of carefully choosing the interaction between drug molecules and the nanoparticle surface. (
  • We think that the charcoal releases particles of acyclovir slowly over time because the herpes virus, as well as other organic molecules and particles, are more attracted to the charcoal than the drug, and as these particles interact with the charcoal they displace and release the drug," said Tejabhiram Yadavalli, a postdoctoral fellow studying herpes viruses at UIC and a co-inventor of the technology. (
  • The two doses of fingolimod tested, 0.5mg and 1.25mg once daily, exhibited comparable efficacy. (
  • Animal studies examining a drug's impact on a developing fetus are routinely done as part of drug development and Dr. Ganapathy will be doing that as part of his study, too. (
  • But studies on the impact on drug efficacy for the mothers-to-be have not been pursued, Dr. Ganapathy said, and dosages typically are not altered for those women. (
  • Related studies at the University of Washington will use non-therapeutic doses of common, non-toxic drugs to see if blood levels vary in pregnant versus non-pregnant women and primates. (
  • But studies have shown that less than a quarter of patients will respond to these drugs. (
  • But while short-term studies have shown the efficacy of different drugs when used with metformin, there have been no long-term studies of which combination works best and has fewer side effects. (
  • What differentiates GRADE from previous studies is that it will perform a head-to-head comprehensive comparison of the most commonly used drugs over a long period of time," said David M. Nathan, M.D., of Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. (
  • Despite early signals of efficacy, the Phase II studies CPSI conducted in Crohn's disease were dose-limited by local reactions (i.e., phlebitis) to the semapimod-HCl formulation. (
  • Rare diseases offer developers a chance to mount small studies that can deliver solid efficacy results with just a handful of patients. (
  • The weaknesses include conflicts of interest (bias in company-funded studies) and the government's role in setting the height of the efficacy hurdle and the minimum acceptable methodology for clinical studies. (
  • But drug companies will not invest hundreds of millions of dollars in studies that might force their drug off the market. (
  • Direct funding of pediatric studies by the NIH would make more sense, and we'd get studies on drugs that kids really need instead of drugs that happen to sell well to adults. (
  • They suggest mandatory generic pricing at market approval, followed by market pricing once the companies provide efficacy studies that meet FDA standards. (
  • Companies will certainly conduct efficacy studies under these conditions, at a price no worse than the existing system. (
  • Studies have indicated that color-effect associations by patients can impact the efficacy of a drug, with a bright yellow pill with the name imprinted on the surface possibly having greater reported efficacy in patients than a dull yellow one without a name. (
  • Athough preclinical studies have argued that colorectal cancer drugs, such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and oxaliplatin, exert such effects, their combination as employed in the oncology clinic has not been evaluated. (
  • Taken together, this EMT model of human HCC allows the identification of molecular mechanisms and the assessment of therapeutic drug efficacy during liver cancer progression in preclinical studies. (
  • Although there are no retrospective or prospective studies, use of the drug would seem to make sense based on human and experimental animal studies. (
  • Nanoparticles have shown great promise in the targeted delivery of drugs to cells, but researchers at the University of Georgia have refined the drug delivery process further by using nanoparticles to deliver drugs to a specific organelle within cells. (
  • Finally, the researchers encapsulated the obesity drug 2,4-DNP-which works by making energy production in the mitochondria less efficient-in their nanoparticles and found that it reduced the production of fat by cultured cells known as preadipocytes by 67 percent compared to cells treated with the drug alone and by 61 percent of cells treated with nanoparticles that target the outside of cells. (
  • The researchers said this model may help them to determine which patients may respond to checkpoint inhibitors, a class of immunotherapy drugs that "remove the brakes" that can keep the immune system from attacking cancer cells. (
  • Researchers have packaged a widely used cancer drug into nanoparticles, more than doubling its effectiveness at destroying tumors. (
  • Nanowerk News ) Biomedical engineering researchers have developed a technique for creating microscopic depots for trapping drugs inside cancer tumors. (
  • The researchers begin by creating a drug cocktail of TRAIL and cilengitide, then wrap the cocktail in a nanocarrier that is 100 nanometers (nm) in diameter. (
  • In their work, the researchers found that the statin simvastatin enhanced the efficacy of venetoclax in fighting chronic lymphocytic leukemia in mouse models. (
  • A study led by researchers from the University of Illinois at Chicago has found that combining acyclovir - a commonly prescribed topical herpes medication - with particles of activated carbon improves efficacy of the drug. (
  • Duloxetine, pregabalin, and gabapentin offer similar efficacy for patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain, according to a new report. (
  • They are betting they'll find that to maintain efficacy, pregnant women will need higher doses and that the placenta, a 2-pound temporary organ of pregnancy, is why. (
  • This mode of administration may also be applicable to other types of drugs that may be toxic at therapeutic doses. (
  • Additionally, they found that the drug seemed to be working much more efficiently when combined with activated carbon, and they could achieve the same reductions in viral load and inflammation using far fewer doses than with acyclovir alone. (
  • PCI with drug-eluting stent (DES) is increasingly being performed because of its lower TLR rate. (
  • Duloxetine, pregabalin, and gabapentin were all superior to placebo for all efficacy parameters, the authors report. (
  • In terms of efficacy, all of the drugs except fluoxetine, tiagabine, and tiagabine were more effective than placebo, with the weighted mean difference ranging between -6·6 (95% credible interval [CrI] = -8·3 to -4·9) for agomelatine and -1·8 (95% CrI = -3·2 to -0·43) for vilazodone. (
  • Daily online exclusives cover late breaking oncology news, safe handling and administration of chemotherapy drugs, side effect management, and new developments in specific cancers. (
  • In their paper published in the journal Science Translational Medicine , the group describes their study of statins used with the chemotherapy drug venetoclax and what they found. (
  • At a workshop of the US National Academy of Sciences in September, Robert Temple, a veteran at the FDA's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, said that the agency largely left it to drug sponsors to evaluate their rationale that an experimental drug was likely to work. (
  • The investigators propose to conduct a prospective randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of integrated drug and HIV counseling among injecting drug users. (
  • The specific aims of this four year study are to evaluate the impact of Behavioral Drug and Risk Counseling (BDRC)-a low intensity, cognitive behavioral approach that integrates drug counseling and risk reduction intervention. (
  • To evaluate the drug response in a high-throughput manner, a green fluorescent protein reporter-based technology has been developed. (
  • Here, we describe a quick, inexpensive, and BSL-2 compatible assay to evaluate drug efficacy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis that can be easily adapted for high-throughput screening. (
  • This distinction made it easier to evaluate the disease in terms of its pathogenic mechanisms and of the drugs administered at different levels of the inflammatory cascade. (
  • An international team of investigators seeking to surmount these problems and increase drug efficacy have determined that a vascular homing peptide can selectively target hypertensive pulmonary arteries to boost the pulmonary but not systemic effects of vasodilators. (
  • The investigators then looked at the effects of CAR on vasodilating drugs. (
  • Learn about the emerging role for molecular imaging of inflammation and disease activity in cardiovascular drug development. (
  • The company is presently using this platform to develop its own pipeline of repositioned drugs in areas such as CNS, cardiovascular disease, oncology and auto-immune diseases and is expecting to make further announcements in Q3 '09. (
  • The company also is testing the drug in other autoimmune conditions such as psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease, although a phase II study found no benefit for Crohn's disease. (
  • and 2) Innovative physiological techniques that will improve our ability to discover drugs that can restore the functional capacity of lungs damaged during the course of the disease. (
  • The search for new drugs and drug targets is a consistent demand in this disease. (
  • Eosin B seems to be a promising drug exhibiting good antimalarial effects in the murine model of the disease. (
  • It's really important to understand the biochemical effects these drugs have on the brain so we don't mistake an effect of the drug as a marker for the disease. (
  • SOM230 has orphan drug designation for Cushing's disease in the US and Europe(7),(8). (
  • AEX: PHIA), a global leader in health technology, announced the two-year results from the ILLUMENATE European randomized clinical trial (EU RCT) demonstrating the efficacy of Philips Spectranetics' Stellarex .035" drug-coated balloon (DCB) for peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in comparison to uncoated balloon angioplasty. (
  • 1 Traditional disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), among which methotrexate (MTX) is the most frequently used, have been shown to improve signs and symptoms of RA, in addition to reducing or preventing joint destruction. (
  • Several lead candidates have also demonstrated efficacy in reducing retinal thickening and retinal leakage, two hallmarks of the disease, when administered orally. (
  • These agents have proven efficacy in treating gastric ulcer disease in companion animals. (
  • The European Medicines Agency (EMA) - Europe's drug regulator - is similarly silent about the evaluation of clinical promise, even in proposed revisions to guidelines prompted by the Bial affair. (
  • At evaluation of OMPs, however, regulatory authorities are often confronted with difficulties that are inherent to the rarity of the diseases for which the drugs are developed. (
  • To learn more about drug efficacy evaluation in bone metastasis models, including breast cancer models with MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, and BT-474 cells, prostate cancer moseld with PC-3 and LNCaP cells, and tumour detection parameters. (
  • This molecule with its oil-soluble (e.g., artemether and arteether), water-soluble (e.g., artesunate), and semisynthetic derivatives has shown excellent anti- Plasmodium efficacy in vitro . (
  • They note also that they found stronger results than if either drug were administered alone. (
  • Biovista Inc. Announces Positive Efficacy Results in a Pre-Clinical Trial of its BVA-101 Repositioned Drug for Multiple. (
  • CHARLOTTESVILLE, Virginia, April 2 /PRNewswire/ -- Biovista Inc. today announced that BVA-101, its drug targeting Multiple Sclerosis (MS), has shown significant positive results in the MOG-induced Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis (EAE) murine model of MS. BVA-101, an existing drug that Biovista repositioned in MS and is aimed at neuroprotection, was shown to have both efficacy in reducing symptoms and no toxic effects in this well established model of MS. (
  • Results from a well-established efficacy model, the retinal vascular permeability model, show that VE‑3539 successfully reduces retinal leakage and restores mean circulation times. (
  • An instrument has been developed that uses triboluminescence (TL) to enable selective detection of trace crystallinity within amorphous solid dispersions, used in the preparation of pharmaceutical formulations to make the drug more efficacious. (
  • Orally administered, encochleated formulations of broad-spectrum fungicidal and anti-microbial medications may provide delivery of anti-infective drugs at therapeutic levels while minimizing drug-associated side effects. (
  • Such formulations can increase the spectrum of drugs that can be safely delivered via a transdermal patch. (
  • In April we hired independent third party statisticians to perform statistical analyses of Silenor's clinical data relating to the sustained durability of subjective sleep-maintenance efficacy in adults. (
  • With an overall response rate of 73%, SAGE-547 was generally well tolerated and no drug-related serious adverse events' were reported. (