Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Proguanil: A biguanide compound which metabolizes in the body to form cycloguanil, an anti-malaria agent.Methenamine: An anti-infective agent most commonly used in the treatment of urinary tract infections. Its anti-infective action derives from the slow release of formaldehyde by hydrolysis at acidic pH. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p173)Antimalarials: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)Dapsone: A sulfone active against a wide range of bacteria but mainly employed for its actions against MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE. Its mechanism of action is probably similar to that of the SULFONAMIDES which involves inhibition of folic acid synthesis in susceptible organisms. It is also used with PYRIMETHAMINE in the treatment of malaria. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p157-8)Artemisinins: A group of SESQUITERPENES and their analogs that contain a peroxide group (PEROXIDES) within an oxepin ring (OXEPINS).Drug Therapy: The use of DRUGS to treat a DISEASE or its symptoms. One example is the use of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to treat CANCER.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Atovaquone: A hydroxynaphthoquinone that has antimicrobial activity and is being used in antimalarial protocols.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Methylthioinosine: 6-(Methylthio)-9-beta-D-ribofuranosylpurine. An analog of inosine with a methylthio group replacing the hydroxyl group in the 6-position.Cyclopentolate: A parasympatholytic anticholinergic used solely to obtain mydriasis or cycloplegia.Drug Antagonism: Phenomena and pharmaceutics of compounds that inhibit the function of agonists (DRUG AGONISM) and inverse agonists (DRUG INVERSE AGONISM) for a specific receptor. On their own, antagonists produce no effect by themselves to a receptor, and are said to have neither intrinsic activity nor efficacy.Tropicamide: One of the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS with pharmacologic action similar to ATROPINE and used mainly as an ophthalmic parasympatholytic or mydriatic.Cellophane: A generic name for film produced from wood pulp by the viscose process. It is a thin, transparent sheeting of regenerated cellulose, moisture-proof and sometimes dyed, and used chiefly as food wrapping or as bags for dialysis. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sulfamethoxazole: A bacteriostatic antibacterial agent that interferes with folic acid synthesis in susceptible bacteria. Its broad spectrum of activity has been limited by the development of resistance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p208)Pyrimethamine: One of the FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS that is used as an antimalarial or with a sulfonamide to treat toxoplasmosis.Mefloquine: A phospholipid-interacting antimalarial drug (ANTIMALARIALS). It is very effective against PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM with very few side effects.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Floxuridine: An antineoplastic antimetabolite that is metabolized to fluorouracil when administered by rapid injection; when administered by slow, continuous, intra-arterial infusion, it is converted to floxuridine monophosphate. It has been used to treat hepatic metastases of gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas and for palliation in malignant neoplasms of the liver and gastrointestinal tract.Sulfadoxine: A long acting sulfonamide that is used, usually in combination with other drugs, for respiratory, urinary tract, and malarial infections.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.PyrazinesMolecular Targeted Therapy: Treatments with drugs which interact with or block synthesis of specific cellular components characteristic of the individual's disease in order to stop or interrupt the specific biochemical dysfunction involved in progression of the disease.Rifampin: A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)Nanoconjugates: Tailored macromolecules harboring covalently-bound biologically active modules that target specific tissues and cells. The active modules or functional groups can include drugs, prodrugs, antibodies, and oligonucleotides, which can act synergistically and be multitargeting.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Amodiaquine: A 4-aminoquinoline compound with anti-inflammatory properties.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Amikacin: A broad-spectrum antibiotic derived from KANAMYCIN. It is reno- and oto-toxic like the other aminoglycoside antibiotics.Chloroquine: The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.Phentermine: A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. It has been used most frequently in the treatment of obesity.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.SesquiterpenesBoronic Acids: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain the basic structure RB(OH)2.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Naphthoquinones: Naphthalene rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Fluorenes: A family of diphenylenemethane derivatives.Pyrimidines: A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.DeoxycytidinePiperazinesTreatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions: Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.Niacinamide: An important compound functioning as a component of the coenzyme NAD. Its primary significance is in the prevention and/or cure of blacktongue and PELLAGRA. Most animals cannot manufacture this compound in amounts sufficient to prevent nutritional deficiency and it therefore must be supplemented through dietary intake.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Pharmacology: The study of the origin, nature, properties, and actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Trimethoprim: A pyrimidine inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase, it is an antibacterial related to PYRIMETHAMINE. It is potentiated by SULFONAMIDES and the TRIMETHOPRIM, SULFAMETHOXAZOLE DRUG COMBINATION is the form most often used. It is sometimes used alone as an antimalarial. TRIMETHOPRIM RESISTANCE has been reported.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Systems Biology: Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Amphotericin B: Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Parasitic Sensitivity Tests: Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.Vincristine: An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)Phenylurea Compounds: Compounds that include the amino-N-phenylamide structure.Cytarabine: A pyrimidine nucleoside analog that is used mainly in the treatment of leukemia, especially acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA. Its actions are specific for the S phase of the cell cycle. It also has antiviral and immunosuppressant properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p472)QuinolinesMalaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Medetomidine: An agonist of RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 that is used in veterinary medicine for its analgesic and sedative properties. It is the racemate of DEXMEDETOMIDINE.QuinazolinesDrug Resistance, Multiple: Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.Paclitaxel: A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic: Works about studies performed to evaluate the safety of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques in healthy subjects and to determine the safe dosage range (if appropriate). These tests also are used to determine pharmacologic and pharmacokinetic properties (toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, and preferred route of administration). They involve a small number of persons and usually last about 1 year. This concept includes phase I studies conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.NitroimidazolesAntiprotozoal Agents: Substances that are destructive to protozoans.Drug Discovery: The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Benzenesulfonates: Organic salts and esters of benzenesulfonic acid.Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Pyrazinamide: A pyrazine that is used therapeutically as an antitubercular agent.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Hydroxamic Acids: A class of weak acids with the general formula R-CONHOH.Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic: Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.Itraconazole: A triazole antifungal agent that inhibits cytochrome P-450-dependent enzymes required for ERGOSTEROL synthesis.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Triazines: Heterocyclic rings containing three nitrogen atoms, commonly in 1,2,4 or 1,3,5 or 2,4,6 formats. Some are used as HERBICIDES.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Taxoids: A group of diterpenoid CYCLODECANES named for the taxanes that were discovered in the TAXUS tree. The action on MICROTUBULES has made some of them useful as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.Methotrexate: An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.Etoposide: A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.Sirolimus: A macrolide compound obtained from Streptomyces hygroscopicus that acts by selectively blocking the transcriptional activation of cytokines thereby inhibiting cytokine production. It is bioactive only when bound to IMMUNOPHILINS. Sirolimus is a potent immunosuppressant and possesses both antifungal and antineoplastic properties.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Ethambutol: An antitubercular agent that inhibits the transfer of mycolic acids into the cell wall of the tubercle bacillus. It may also inhibit the synthesis of spermidine in mycobacteria. The action is usually bactericidal, and the drug can penetrate human cell membranes to exert its lethal effect. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p863)Leukemia L1210Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Pyridines: Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Drug Evaluation: Any process by which toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, preferred route of administration, safe dosage range, etc., for a drug or group of drugs is determined through clinical assessment in humans or veterinary animals.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Echinocandins: Cyclic hexapeptides of proline-ornithine-threonine-proline-threonine-serine. The cyclization with a single non-peptide bond can lead them to be incorrectly called DEPSIPEPTIDES, but the echinocandins lack ester links. Antifungal activity is via inhibition of 1,3-beta-glucan synthase production of BETA-GLUCANS.Benzoquinones: Benzene rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.Ketamine: A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating: A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.TriazolesDacarbazine: An antineoplastic agent. It has significant activity against melanomas. (from Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p564)Carboplatin: An organoplatinum compound that possesses antineoplastic activity.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Sulfonamides: A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.ThiazolesTacrolimus: A macrolide isolated from the culture broth of a strain of Streptomyces tsukubaensis that has strong immunosuppressive activity in vivo and prevents the activation of T-lymphocytes in response to antigenic or mitogenic stimulation in vitro.Multiple Myeloma: A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Benzamides: BENZOIC ACID amides.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Ethanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.Benzimidazoles: Compounds with a BENZENE fused to IMIDAZOLES.Pyrroles: Azoles of one NITROGEN and two double bonds that have aromatic chemical properties.Fluconazole: Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.Parasitemia: The presence of parasites (especially malarial parasites) in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HISTONE DEACETYLASES. This class of drugs may influence gene expression by increasing the level of acetylated HISTONES in specific CHROMATIN domains.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Camptothecin: An alkaloid isolated from the stem wood of the Chinese tree, Camptotheca acuminata. This compound selectively inhibits the nuclear enzyme DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE I. Several semisynthetic analogs of camptothecin have demonstrated antitumor activity.GuanineCombined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Zidovudine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases: A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute: Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Vinblastine: Antitumor alkaloid isolated from Vinca rosea. (Merck, 11th ed.)Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Mice, Inbred BALB CGlioblastoma: A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Aspirin: The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Caspases: A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.Receptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Persistent damage to Enterocytozoon bieneusi, with persistent symptomatic relief, after combined furazolidone and albendazole in AIDS patients. (1/7446)AIM: To investigate morphological changes in Enterocytozoon bieneusi and the duration of symptomatic relief after combination treatment with furazolidone and albendazole in AIDS patients. METHODS: Four severely immunocompromised AIDS patients with symptomatic E bieneusi infection of the gut received an 18 day course of combined furazolidone and albendazole (500 + 800 mg daily). All patients were monitored for parasite shedding in stool by light microscopy at the end of treatment and monthly during follow up. At the end of treatment, duodenal biopsy specimens obtained from three patients were studied by transmission electron microscopy by two pathologists blind to the patients' treatment or clinical outcome. Duodenal biopsy specimens obtained from one of the patients two months after completion of treatment were also studied electronmicroscopically. RESULTS: All patients had long lasting symptomatic relief, with a major decrease--or transient absence--of spore shedding in stools from completion of treatment. After treatment, changes in faecal spores were persistently found by light microscopy in all cases, and there was evidence of both a substantial decrease in the parasite load and ultrastructural damage in the parasite in all biopsy specimens. The treatment was well tolerated, and no patient had clinical or parasitological relapse during follow up (up to 15 months). CONCLUSIONS: The long lasting symptomatic relief observed in all four treated patients correlated with the persistent decrease in parasite load both in tissue and in stool, and with the morphological changes observed in the life cycle of the protozoan. These data suggest that combined treatment with furazolidone and albendazole is active against E bieneusi and may result in lasting remission even in severely immunocompromised patients. (+info)
Emergent immunoregulatory properties of combined glucocorticoid and anti-glucocorticoid steroids in a model of tuberculosis. (2/7446)In Balb/c mice with pulmonary tuberculosis, there is a switch from a protective Th1-dominated cytokine profile to a non-protective profile with a Th2 component. This switch occurs while the adrenals are undergoing marked hyperplasia. Treatment with the anti-glucocorticoid hormones dehydroepiandrosterone or 3 beta, 17 beta-androstenediol, during the period of adrenal hyperplasia, maintains Th1 dominance and is protective. We investigated the effects of these hormones as therapeutic agents by administering them from day 60, when the switch to the non-protective cytokine profile was already well established. Given at this time (day 60), doses that were protective when given early (from day 0) were rapidly fatal. A physiological dose of the glucocorticoid corticosterone was also rapidly fatal. However when the corticosterone and the anti-glucocorticoid (AED or DHEA) were co-administered, there was protection, with restoration of a Th1-dominated cytokine profile, enhanced DTH responses, and enhanced expression of IL-1 alpha and TNF alpha. Therefore this combination of steroids has an emergent property that is quite unlike that of either type of steroid given alone. It may be possible to exploit the ant-inflammatory properties of glucocorticoids while preserving a Th1 bias, by combining glucocorticoids with DHEA or suitable metabolites. (+info)
Precocious estrus and reproductive ability induced by PG 600 in prepuberal gilts. (3/7446)A total of 29 SPF Large White prepuberal gilts (mean age 152 days at treatment) were examined for estrous and ovulatory responses after PG 600 treatment. After treatment, 85.2% of the gilts showed standing estrus within 6 days. Whereas the treatment-to-estrus interval and duration were 3.7 and 1.9 days respectively. As ovulation occurred on Day 5 to 6, appropriate timing of artificial insemination would be about 4 days after treatment. Fertility of gilts revealed to be excellent, giving rise to a high percentage of normal embryos, 85.3%. Meanwhile, development and growth of fetuses were mostly normal. Other reproductive performances recorded were: mean litter size 6.8; mean birth weight 1.26 kg; weaning-to-return estrus interval 5 to 8 days. In conclusion, PG 600 was found to be useful in inducing fertile estrus in prepuberal gilts, a result which will be of interest for commercial pig farms. (+info)
Granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-3 correct osteopetrosis in mice with osteopetrosis mutation. (4/7446)Although young mice homozygous for the osteopetrosis (op) mutation usually developed prominent osteopetrosis, its severity was markedly reduced in aged op/op mice. This age-associated reversal of osteopetrosis was accompanied by the expansion of bone marrow cavities and increased numbers of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive cells and of macrophages in the bone marrow. The TRAP-positive cells were mononuclear and developed ruffled borders and numerous vesicles, vacuoles, and granules. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated a significant elevation of serum granulocyte/ macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin (IL)-3 levels in the aged op/op mice. To examine whether GM-CSF and/or IL-3 could correct osteopetrosis in young op/op mice, 5 ng of recombinant murine (rm)GM-CSF and/or 100 ng of rmIL-3 were injected daily into young op/op mice. In these treated young op/op mice, the bone marrow cavities were expanded significantly at 2 weeks after administration, associated with significantly increased numbers of TRAP-positive cells and bone marrow macrophages. TRAP-positive cells increased in number with days after injection. These results suggest that GM-CSF and IL-3 induce the development of osteoclasts to correct osteopetrosis in the op/op mice with aging. (+info)
Transforming growth factor-alpha acting at the epidermal growth factor receptor reduces infarct volume after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. (5/7446)Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) is a ligand for the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR), and is more abundant than EGF in the brain. The authors studied whether administration of exogenous TGF-alpha into the brain can protect neurons against ischemia in a model of permanent middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion in the rat, and whether any effect of TGF-alpha was mediated by EGFR by administering 4,5-dianilinophthalimide (DAPH), a protein-tyrosine kinase inhibitor with high selectivity for EGFR. Rats received either TGF-alpha (10 or 25 ng), DAPH (100 ng), DAPH plus TGF-alpha (25 ng), or vehicle in the ipsilateral first ventricle. Drugs were administered twice: 30 minutes before and 30 minutes after MCA occlusion, and infarct volume was evaluated 24 hours later. Transforming growth factor-alpha at the dose of 25 ng caused a statistically significant reduction of infarct volume (60%) in relation to ischemic rats administered vehicle. This reduction was no longer seen when TGF-alpha was administered in combination with DAPH. The present results show that TGF-alpha can protect neurons from ischemic damage, and that this effect is mediated by EGFR. It is suggested that activation of EGFR-mediated intracellular signalling pathways contributes to the survival of neural cells susceptible to ischemic injury. (+info)
Spinal antinociceptive synergism between morphine and clonidine persists in mice made acutely or chronically tolerant to morphine. (6/7446)Morphine (Mor) tolerance has been attributed to a reduction of opioid-adrenergic antinociceptive synergy at the spinal level. The present experiments tested the interaction of intrathecally (i.t.) administered Mor-clonidine (Clon) combinations in mice made acutely or chronically tolerant to Mor. ICR mice were pretreated with Mor either acutely (40 nmol i.t., 8 h; 100 mg/kg s.c., 4 h) or chronically (3 mg/kg s.c. every 6 h days 1 and 2; 5 mg/kg s.c. every 6 h days 3 and 4). Antinociception was detected via the hot water (52.5 degrees C) tail-flick test. After the tail-flick latencies returned to baseline levels, dose-response curves were generated to Mor, Clon, and Mor-Clon combinations in tolerant and control mice. Development of tolerance was confirmed by significant rightward shifts of the Mor dose-response curves in tolerant mice compared with controls. Isobolographic analysis was conducted; the experimental combined ED50 values were compared statistically against their respective theoretical additive ED50 values. In all Mor-pretreated groups, the combination of Mor and Clon resulted in significant leftward shifts in the dose-response curves compared with those of each agonist administered separately. In all tolerant and control groups, the combination of Mor and Clon produced an ED50 value significantly less than the corresponding theoretical additive ED50 value. Mor and Clon synergized in Mor-tolerant as well as in control mice. Spinally administered adrenergic/opioid synergistic combinations may be effective therapeutic strategies to manage pain in patients apparently tolerant to the analgesic effects of Mor. (+info)
Persistent induction of apoptosis and suppression of mitosis as the basis for curative therapy with S-1, an oral 5-fluorouracil prodrug in a colorectal tumor model. (7/7446)In an effort to improve the therapeutic selectivity of 5-fluorouracil (FUra) against colorectal cancer, S-1, a combination agent including a prodrug of FUra with two modulators, was recently developed by Taiho Pharmaceuticals Co. S-1 is a combination of tegafur (FT), 5-chloro-2,4-hydroxypyridine, and potassium oxonate in the molar ratio of 1.0:0.4:1.0, with the latter two components as inhibitors of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase and phosphoribosylpyrophosphate transferase, respectively. In this study, the therapeutic selectivity and efficacy of S-1 (oral) was compared with FT (oral) and FUra (i.v. infusion) in rats bearing advanced colorectal cancer by using clinically relevant schedules. The maximum tolerated doses (MTDs) of S-1, FT, and FUra were 31.5, 200, and 25 mg/kg/d for 7 days and 22.5, 150, and 12.5 mg/kg/d for 28 days, respectively. The therapeutic index of S-1 was 4- to 5-fold higher than that of either FT or FUra. S-1 achieved 100% complete tumor regression (CR) at its MTD in both 7-day and 28-day schedules. Furthermore, the high incidences of stomatitis, alopecia, and diarrhea observed with FUra and FT, were not observed with S-1. In an attempt to understand the basis for the observed superior therapeutic selectivity with S-1, we studied pharmacokinetic analysis of FUra, drug-induced apoptosis, suppression of mitosis, and inhibition of thymidylate synthase (TS) after S-1, FUra, or FT administration. The peak plasma FUra concentrations derived from FUra or S-1 (FT) at comparable MTDs were similar, but the plasma level of FUra was higher with S-1 than with FUra. Induction of high and sustained apoptosis was achieved with S-1. Although the initial level of apoptosis induced by FUra was comparable to S-1, it was not sustained. The sustained level of apoptosis appears to correlate with tumor growth inhibition. Mitotic figures were more greatly suppressed with S-1 treatment than with FUra. Studies on TS inhibition indicated that, although both S-1 and FUra caused a 4- to 6-fold induction of total TS protein, single oral administration of S-1 was superior to 24-h infusion of FUra in suppressing free TS. The data are consistent with the observation that the therapeutic efficacy of S-1 (100% cure) over FUra is associated with high and sustained levels of drug-induced apoptosis, greater suppression of mitosis, and inhibition of free TS in tumor tissues. (+info)
Growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 infusion synchronizes growth hormone, thyrotrophin and prolactin release in prolonged critical illness. (8/7446)OBJECTIVE: During prolonged critical illness, nocturnal pulsatile secretion of GH, TSH and prolactin (PRL) is uniformly reduced but remains responsive to the continuous infusion of GH secretagogues and TRH. Whether such (pertinent) secretagogues would synchronize pituitary secretion of GH, TSH and/or PRL is not known. DESIGN AND METHODS: We explored temporal coupling among GH, TSH and PRL release by calculating cross-correlation among GH, TSH and PRL serum concentration profiles in 86 time series obtained from prolonged critically ill patients by nocturnal blood sampling every 20 min for 9 h during 21-h infusions of either placebo (n=22), GHRH (1 microg/kg/h; n=10), GH-releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2; 1 microg/kg/h; n=28), TRH (1 microg/kg/h; n=8) or combinations of these agonists (n=8). RESULTS: The normal synchrony among GH, TSH and PRL was absent during placebo delivery. Infusion of GHRP-2, but not GHRH or TRH, markedly synchronized serum profiles of GH, TSH and PRL (all P< or =0.007). After addition of GHRH and TRH to the infusion of GHRP-2, only the synchrony between GH and PRL was maintained (P=0.003 for GHRH + GHRP-2 and P=0.006 for TRH + GHRH + GHRP-2), and was more marked than with GHRP-2 infusion alone (P=0.0006 by ANOVA). CONCLUSIONS: The nocturnal GH, TSH and PRL secretory patterns during prolonged critical illness are herewith further characterized to include loss of synchrony among GH, TSH and PRL release. The synchronizing effect of an exogenous GHRP-2 drive, but not of GHRH or TRH, suggests that the presumed endogenous GHRP-like ligand may participate in the orchestration of coordinated anterior pituitary hormone release. (+info)
A Study on Evaluation of Rationality of Fixed Dose Combinations
ABSTRACT. In India. Fixed Dose Combinations(FDCs) have drawn the attention of health service providers and the service recipients. Therefore, the development of fixed dose combinations (FDCs) is becoming increasingly important from a public health perspective. The objective was to study the prescribing pattern and to assess the rationality of fixed dose combinations using seven point criteria. During the study period a total of 100 patients were enrolled based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. The study population includes an overall 56% male with an average age of 46.15 ± 19.33 years. A total of 538 drugs were prescribed to the patient with a mean of 5.38±5.77.The major therapeutic category of drugs prescribed were antibiotics (30.03%), antihypertensives (12.63%) and others (13.01%).The study population had 130 FDCs in which again antibiotics topped the list, followed by Anti-diabetics. Among these 92 contributed to antibiotic FDCs belonging to 15 different groups. The average interaction ...
A Randomized, Open-label, Oral Dose, Crossover Study to Evaluate the Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Fixed-dose Combination of...
A Randomized, Double-blind, Multi-center, Phase 3 Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of a Fixed Dose Combination of...
Pharmacokinetics, Safety and Efficacy of Sofosbuvir/Velpatasvir/Voxilaprevir (SOF/VEL/VOX) Fixed Dose Combination (FDC) in...
Pharmacokinetic (PK) Parameter: AUCtau of SOF, its Major Metabolite (GS-331007), VEL and VOX. [ Time Frame: Cohorts 1 and 2 (6 to , 18 years of age): predose, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 12 hours postdose at Week 2 or 4; Cohort 3 (3 to , 6 years of age): predose, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, and 12 hours postdose at Week 2 or 4 ...
Fixed-dose combination medications for non-communicable diseases | Heart
Drug Combinations With Loryna to Avoid
Drug Mixing: Drugs Commonly Mixed & Their Risks | The Recovery Village
Bioequivalence of Losartan and Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) Combination Tablet and Coadministration of Its Components (0954A-306)...
Serious Adverse Events are reported by treatment group (Combination/Tablet+Capsule [N=38] or Tablet+Capsule/Combination [N=39]). For Other Adverse Events, the Combination/Tablet+Capsule group includes all subjects who received Combination Tablet (N=76) and the Tablet+Capsule/Combination group includes all subjects who received Tablet+Capsule (N=77 ...
PRIME PubMed | The Bioequivalence and Effect of Food on the Pharmacokinetics of a Fixed-Dose Combination Tablet Containing...
Dr. Reckeweg - Germany Biochemic Combination Tablets BC08 for Diarrhoea - 20gm Tablets, Buy Dr. Reckeweg - Germany Biochemic...
35 Mm (thin Layer) - Culture Dishes - Bd Biocoat Matrigel Matrix Cellware, Bd Biosciences
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Fixed-dose combination drugs have been used for some time in certain therapeutic categories such as antihypertensives, although they were often reserved for second- or third-line therapy. With the revolution in the survival rates of patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection that occurred with the implementation of fixed-drug combination products for this, this delivery technology received a boost of confidence as well as an influx of creative applications to other diseases. For the past several years, a number of fixed-dose combination drugs have been introduced for a variety of diseases, some for the first time in a particular disease category. With this in mind, this STIX Market Research report focuses on the impact of fixed-dose combination drug technology on various therapeutic categories, as well as providing assessments and projections of this technology overall and the impact on the patient compliance and effectiveness.. Specifically the aim of this report is to ...
Fixed-combination glaucoma agent yields positive safety, efficacy data | OphthalmologyTimes
HIV Alert! | MATEC
U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA), April 5, 2016.. On April 4, 2016 FDA approved DESCOVY, a two-drug fixed dose combination tablet containing 2 HIV nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), emtricitabine (FTC) and tenofovir alafenamide (TAF). Each DESCOVY tablet contains 200 mg of FTC and 25 mg of TAF (equivalent to 28 mg of tenofovir alafenamide fumarate).. DESCOVY is not a complete regimen for the treatment of HIV-1 infection and must be combined with other antiretroviral agents to form a complete regimen.. The approval is based on a relative bioavailability trial demonstrating FTC and TAF exposures were similar between DESCOVY and GENVOYA (elvitegravir/cobicistat/FTC/TAF). A clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of DESCOVY was not required because the safety and efficacy of FTC and TAF was established previously in clinical trials with GENVOYA.. TAF 25 mg provides for TAF exposures that match or exceed those observed in patients receiving GENVOYA, ensuring ...
D-M - Diazepam and Methohexital (drug combination) | AcronymFinder
Several Fixed-dose Drug Combinations Sold in India Lack Regulatory Approval
Integrated Computational and Experimental Approaches for Accelerated Drug Combination Discovery and Development : Applications...
Today the norm in modern cancer treatment is to use different forms of drug combinations. Recently anti-cancer treatment using drug combinations has gained increased attention due to the outstanding pharmacotherapeutic opportunities provided by combination therapies. However, the potential of this field is largely unexplored, partly due to the complexities associated with the astronomical number of possible combinations and partly due to the lack of means for quantifying clinically relevant adverse side effects in the early stages of the combination discovery and development process. This has resulted in relatively limited progress in this area. Motivated by this unfortunate state-of-affairs, the research reported in this thesis was aimed at developing and implementing computational and experimental methods to facilitate and accelerate the discovery and development of anti-cancer therapies. In paper I, the largely overlooked concept of therapeutic synergy is re-introduced and demonstrated to be ...
India: The Pharmacy of the World Where 'Crazy Drug Combinations' Go Unregulated
Two-drug combination may boost immunotherapy responses in lung cancer patients
CME Fixed-Dose Combination Therapy With Daclatasvir, Asunaprevir, and Beclabuvir for Noncirrhotic Patients With HCV Genotype 1...
Corning® Matrigel® Matrix: Material Properties, Applications and Proper Usage
BD Matrigel™ Aliquoting
This AbVideo shows you how to create aliquots of BD Matrigel when only small volumes are used at a time. BD Matrigel matrix has been used extensively as a substrate for culturing human embryonic stem (hES) cells with various conditioned or defined media. - BD Matrigel™ Aliquoting - AbVideo™ - Support - Abnova
HCV Research and News: A pre-EASL look at the current landscape of ongoing HCV research
Since Gilead is the most active sponsor, it follows that one of their drugs also tops the list of most commonly evaluated compounds. However, its interesting that the already approved sofosbuvir (SOF) is evaluated in 44 ongoing trials (Figure 3) while Gilead is only involved in 33 (Figure 2). SOF, which is already quite successful as the approved Sovaldi®, continues to undergo evaluation with other compounds from Gilead as well as in combination with drugs from other sponsors. Most SOF trials are Gilead sponsored and evaluate the drug as a fixed dose combination (FDC) with ledipasvir as the already approved combination known as Harvoni® or with the yet unnamed GS-5816. Some examples where SOF is co-administered with drugs from other sponsors include Mercks studies with their FDC of elbasvir + grazoprevir and BMS with their FDC of asunaprevir + daclatasvir + beclabuvir (data not shown).. FDCs continue to be of high interest for various reasons. They minimize the pill burden for patients to ...
Design early phase drug combination trials: methods | HSTalks
Reyataz interactions with other drugs
Using Google To Help Predict Side Effects of Mixing Drugs - Slashdot
sciencehabit writes Pharmaceuticals often have side effects that go unnoticed until theyre already available to the public. Doctors and even the FDA have a hard time predicting what drug combinations will lead to serious problems. But thanks to people scouring the web for the side effects of the d...
Can we halt cellular aging? New drug combo shows promise
Deadly 'abortion pill' takes two more lives
A randomised controlled trial of ibuprofen, paracetamol or a combination tablet of ibuprofen/paracetamol in community-derived...
Most study participants fulfilled ACR criteria for knee osteoarthritis,10 illustrating that this is a common and underdiagnosed condition within the community. The use of two combination tablets of ibuprofen/paracetamol was associated with significant improvements in pain relief, function and patient quality of life compared with paracetamol monotherapy for both short and long-term use. A significantly greater proportion of patients taking two combination tablets were responders at day 10 compared with paracetamol monotherapy, but not at study end. The level of absolute pain reduction achieved with one or two combination tablets was modest but of an order considered clinically relevant.32 33 The dose of ibuprofen used in this study was moderate, reflecting the non-prescription dose, the observed improved efficacy with the combination could therefore be due to paracetamol adding further cyclooxygenase inhibition to that provided by ibuprofen alone.. This combination tablet is designed for ...
Clinical trial: Crossover Study to Evaluate the Comparative Bioavailability of Two Fixed Dose Combination Tablet Formulations...
Efficacy and safety of fixed dose combination of arterolane maleate and piperaquine phosphate dispersible tablets in paediatric...
The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The present study investigated the efficacy and safety of fixed dose combination (FDC) of arterolane maleate 37.5 mg and piperaquine phosphate (PQP) 187.5 mg dispersible tablets in paediatric patients aged 6 months to 12 years. Male and female patients aged 6 months to 12 years who were confirmed cases of P. falciparum mono-infection with fever or documented history of fever in the previous 24 h were included. The patients were administered FDC of arterolane maleate and PQP as single daily doses for three consecutive days based on their age. The primary efficacy outcome was proportion of patients with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-corrected adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR) on day 28. Safety was analysed based on adverse events (AE), laboratory abnormalities and abnormalities on electrocardiograph. A total of 141 eligible paediatric
Glucosamine Combination Tablets - 3 in 1 - Hellenia
Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine Indo Farma - Drugs.com
SPC update for fluticasone/salmeterol combination - Prescribing Advice for GPs
If all three of the above are present a combination product delivering a twice-daily dose of 100 micrograms of fluticasone and 50 micrograms of salmeterol can be used for initial treatment. This is equivalent to two doses twice a day of the pMDI and one dose twice a day of the DPI. If any of the criteria above are not present a standard inhaled corticosteroid, for example beclometasone, should be used for initial treatment.. Once control is attained with the approach outlined above treatment should be reviewed and consideration given to stepping down to an inhaled corticosteroid alone in place of the combination product.. Action: Healthcare professionals should be aware of this change. This combination can be used to rapidly control asthma in suitable patients but treatment should be reviewed and stepped down once control is achieved.. ...
Drug combinations | definition of drug combinations by Medical dictionary
Drug combinations legal definition of drug combinations
European Medicines Agency Validates Gilead's Marketing Application for Fixed-Dose Combination of Emtricitabine and Tenofovir...
respectively. The MAA for F/TAF is supported by data from Phase 3 clinical studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of E/C/F/TAF for the treatment of HIV-1 infection among treatment-naïve adults, in which the F/TAF-based regimen (administered as E/C/F/TAF) resulted in non-inferior efficacy and improved renal and bone laboratory parameters as compared to F/TDF-based therapy (administered as E/C/F/TDF or Stribild®). The MAA is also supported by data from additional Phase 3 studies evaluating the F/TAF-based regimen (administered as E/C/F/TAF) among virologically suppressed adults who switched regimens and adults with mild-to-moderate renal impairment. Lastly, bioequivalence studies demonstrated that the formulation of the fixed-dose combinations of F/TAF achieved the same drug levels in the blood as in E/C/F/TAF. Review of the MAA will be conducted by the EMA under the centralized procedure, which, when finalized, may lead to the grant of marketing authorization by the ...
Randomized evaluation of a novel, fixed-dose combination of perindopril 3.5 mg/amlodipine 2.5 mg as a first-step treatment in...
Amtinex AT Tablet | Price, Usage, Dosage, Composition, and Brand Substitutes - Fixed-Dose Combination (FDC) Drug
Impurity Testing of Fixed-Dose Combination Drugs | Chromatography Online
The Agilent 1290 Infinity II High Dynamic Range Diode Array Detection Impurity Analyzer Solution combines the signals from two diode array detectors with different path length Max-Light cartridge cells to increase the linear dynamic UV-range. This solution can be used to detect and quantify main and trace compounds in a single run without exceeding the linear UV-range.
Truvada Sale - Sams Club Generic Truvada
Amlodipine-Losartan 5mg-50mg Dosage @ $1.21 per Tablet - Order Online & Save $26.40 - technpost.com
FDA issues non-approvable letter for Claritin/Singulair combo - PharmaTimes
Quinine Drug Information
Antibiotics vs. surgery for appendicitis: What one surgeon thinks
5592 Abstract Although a number of methods for assessing drug interactions are available, most methods lack a means of selecting combinations of doses efficiently in planning such experiments. The power-maximized design, derived based on the uniform measures of all possible dose combinations of interest, is able to select the drug combinations (doses of each constituent drug) and to determine the required number of replicates at each combination in order to detect synergy, additivity or antagonism, with pre-specified statistical power for the experiment. An F-test is proposed to detect departures from additivity for combinations of two drugs. To explore the joint effect of the combination, a 3-dimensional combination index surface characterizes the interaction of a two-drug combination estimated using the B-splines. Synergism is manifested as a substantial drop in the combination index which is a 2-dimensional slice of the combination index surface. These methods were applied to evaluate SAHA ...
FDA Panel Recommends Approval of Truvada as Preventive Treatment for HIV - TheBody.com
Hiv meds for patients with kidney problems - Forum on Choosing Your Meds -- TheBody.com
Omacor and Lipids - Heart Disease - MedHelp
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PAD - National Cancer Institute
CHLORAMBUCIL-PREDNISONE - National Cancer Institute
Health Highlights: June 24, 2014 | Healthmonitor
Go to Dangerous Drug Combinations.
Genentech's Fixed-dose Subcutaneous Combination of Perjeta and Herceptin Comparable to Intravenous Formulations in People With...
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor
Combination drugs. Some of the DPP-4 inhibitor drugs have gotten approval from the FDA to be used with metformin ... Oral anti-diabetic drugs, insulins and insulin analogs, and other drugs used in diabetes (A10) ... "Pancreatic Safety of Incretin-Based Drugs - FDA and EMA Assessment - NEJM".. *^ Monami M, Dicembrini I, Mannucci E (January ... FDA has added a new Warning and Precaution about this risk to the labels of all medicines in this drug class, called dipeptidyl ...
Safe Medical Device Amendments of 1990
"Combination Products". Office of Combination Products. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 101st U.S. Congress (August 2, 1989 ... U.S. Food and Drug Administration. September 3, 2010. Retrieved March 20, 2013. Samuel, Jr., Frank E (1991). "Safe Medical ... U.S. Food and Drug Administration. March 12, 2000. Retrieved March 23, 2013. "Premarket Notification (510k)". Device Advice: ... or drug product. The Act of Congress transferred the electronic product radiation control provisions established by the ...
Common adverse drug reactions (ADRs) associated with the use of dicloxacillin include: diarrhoea, nausea, rash, urticaria, pain ... Moellering RC, Jr (29 August 1983). "Rationale for use of antimicrobial combinations". The American Journal of Medicine. 75 (2A ... Adelaide: Australian Medicines Handbook; 2006 "Dicloxacillin: MedlinePlus Drug Information". www.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-11 ... Dicloxacillin has potential interactions with following drugs: Warfarin Methotrexate Tetracyclines Despite dicloxacillin being ...
doi:10.1016/S1074-5521(00)00134-4. Baldwin, CM; Plosker, GL (2009). "Aliskiren/Hydrochlorothiazide Combination". Drugs. 69 (7 ... Many drugs control blood pressure by interfering with angiotensin or aldosterone. However, when these drugs are used ... Therefore, pharmacologists have been looking for a drug to inhibit renin directly. Aliskiren is the first drug to do so. "First ... Drugs.com: Tekturna Cardiorenal end points in a trial of aliskiren for type 2 diabetes, N Engl J MED. 2012;367(23):2204-2213 ...
"Combination Antiretroviral Therapy". Drugs. 49 (Supplement 1): 32-37. doi:10.2165/00003495-199500491-00008. Waldholz, Michael ( ... During the mid-1990s, Lange began advocating for the use of combination therapy in the management of HIV/AIDS. He argued that ... He found that a baby's chance of contracting HIV falls to less than 1% if they receive anti-retroviral drugs while being nursed ... The institute is meant to continue the unique combination of scientific research, pragmatism and action that characterized Joep ...
Ravina, Enrique (2011). The evolution of drug discovery : from traditional medicines to modern drugs (1 ed.). Weinheim: Wiley- ... It is sometimes used in combination with other antibiotics that have different mechanisms of action, like vancomycin, linezolid ... "Ampicillin". International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Archived from the original on 5 March 2017. Retrieved 1 August 2015. ... Its spectrum of activity is enhanced by co-administration of sulbactam, a drug that inhibits beta lactamase, an enzyme produced ...
Effects of cannabis
Combination with other drugs. A confounding factor in cannabis research is the prevalent usage of other recreational ... Public opinion on drugs and drug policy Archived 2014-07-15 at the Wayback Machine.. Transform Drug Policy Foundation: Fact ... Lisbon: European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. doi:10.2810/13807. ISBN 978-92-9168-312-3.. [page needed] ... "Information on Drugs of Abuse". Commonly Abused Drug Chart. nih.gov. 2018-07-02.. ...
Data supports the safety of this combination during pregnancy and is often preferred over other fixed dose combinations during ... The drug is then incorporated to the end of the growing chain of the viral DNA causing the chain to be terminated, where ... Drug formulations: tablets by mouth Combivir: lamivudine 150 mg and zidovudine 300 mg (scored). 60 tablets cost $994. It is ... "Drugs for HIV Infection" (PDF). The Medical Letter, Inc. October 2006. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-03-05. " ...
Benzodiazepine Combination drug "Librax". MedlinePlus: US National library of medicine. Retrieved 31 May 2013. http://www. ... Stopping the drug suddenly can worsen the condition and cause withdrawal symptoms (anxiousness, sleeplessness, and irritability ... Clidinium bromide is a synthetic quaternary ammonium antimuscarinic, a sub-class of a family of drugs known as anticholinergics ... Chlordiazepoxide/clidinium bromide (marketed as Librax) is a drug consisting of chlordiazepoxide (marketed separately under the ...
ATC code J04
J04AM Combinations of drugs for treatment of tuberculosis. J04AM01 Streptomycin and isoniazid. J04AM02 Rifampicin and ... J04B Drugs for treatment of lepra. J04BA Drugs for treatment of lepra. J04BA01 Clofazimine. J04BA02 Dapsone. ... "WHO Collaborating Centre for Drug Statistics Methodology.. *^ "ATCvet Index 2018: code QJ04". WHO Collaborating Centre for Drug ... 2 J04B Drugs for treatment of lepra *2.1 J04BA Drugs for treatment of lepra ...
John Timmer (2008-03-18). "Effective drug combinations found using biased random walks". Ars Technica. Retrieved 2016-08-17. " ... "Drug Free Workplace Solutions: New Oral Fluid Technology for Cancer Detection". Workplacedrugtesting.blogspot.com. 2008-08-12. ... "University of California Los Angeles UCLA Researchers Develop Method To Rapidly ID Optimal Drug Cocktails". Biospace.com. 2008- ... 1][dead link] "Researchers Develop Method to Rapidly ID Optimal Drug Cocktails". Dddmag.com. 2008-03-17. Retrieved 2016-08-17 ...
Halpern, B; Oliveira, ES; Faria, AM; Halpern, A; Melo, ME; Cercato, C; Mancini, MC (27 July 2010). "Combinations of drugs in ... At high doses, or in combination with carbidopa, it has been used off-label to treat obesity (by promoting weight loss). ... Because 5-HTP has not been thoroughly studied in a clinical setting, possible side effects and interactions with other drugs ... Hendricks, EJ (2017). "Off-label drugs for weight management". Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy. ...
On 29 June 2006, lenalidomide received U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) clearance for use in combination with ... In March 2008, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) included lenalidomide on a list of 20 prescription drugs under ... Mechanism-based potential drug combinations". Leukemia & Lymphoma. 49 (7): 1238-45. doi:10.1080/10428190802005191. PMID ... The drug was, for example, recently approved by the FDA for treatment of complications from leprosy; it has also been ...
The combination preparation simvastatin/sitagliptin (marketed as Juvisync) was introduced in 2011 and the use of this drug was ... U.S. Food and Drug Administration. "Drugs to be Discontinued". Retrieved 2013-12-11. Hatori M, Vollmers C, Zarrinpar A, ... This drug could have been used to treat metabolic syndrome but was removed from the market by Merck in 2013 due to business ... Cholesterol drugs may be used to lower LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels, if they are elevated, and to raise HDL levels ...
Sigmamycine was a combination drug of oleandomycin and tetracycline that was supported by a major marketing campaign. It was in ... By the early 1970s, Pfizer's combination drugs were withdrawn from the market. Oleandomycin is a bacteriostatic agent. Like ... Public interest in oleandomycin peaked when Pfizer introduced the combination drug Sigmamycine into the market in 1956. ... Greene, Jeremy; Podolsky, Scott (August 2011). "Combination Drugs- Hype, Harm, Hope". New England Journal of Medicine. NEJM ...
Many of the newest drugs as well as those under development are probably going to be evaluated as therapies for PPMS or SPMS. ... The cause of MS is unknown; however, it is believed to occur as a result of some combination of genetic and environmental ... Synergies, in which one drug improves the effect of another are also possible, but there can also be drawbacks such as the ... During the 2000s and 2010s, there has been approval of several oral drugs that are expected to gain in popularity and frequency ...
Perucca, Emilio; Levy, René H. (2002). "Combination Therapy and Drug Interactions". In Levy, René H.; Mattson, Richard H.; ... Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. "Drug Interactions & Labeling - Drug Development and Drug Interactions: Table of ... Flockhart, DA (2007). "Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table". Indiana University School of Medicine. ... also drugs that treat pain associated with ulcers, such as omeprazole, antiseizure drugs such as mephenytoin, the antimalarial ...
5-HT2C receptor agonist
In 1994, sales of the combination drug Fen-phen (fenfluramine and phentermine) increased dramatically, as this combination ... Greenway, Frank L.; Bray, George A. (2010). "Combination Drugs for Treating Obesity". Current Diabetes Reports. 10 (2): 108-15 ... mCPP is used as a prototype research tool for drug discovery of selective 5-HT2C receptor agonists. The 5-HT2C receptors are G ... In the mid-1990s the US FDA approved dexfenfluramine as a weight loss drug. After several reports of adverse cardiovascular ...
Merck & Co.
Merck also sells a single pill combination drug containing both Januvia and metformin under the trade name Janumet. There has ... "Drugs@FDA: FDA Approved Drug Products". "The Lasker Foundation - Awards". "Merck History". Retrieved 2014-09-22. Kingston W ( ... began a program with UNICEF to donate its new drug Mectizan to "all that need it for as long as needed" in an effort to combat ... It has been popular due in part because unlike many other diabetes drugs, it causes little or no weight gain and is not ...
These combinations are currently regarded as second choice drugs. The daily dose of reserpine in antihypertensive treatment is ... In some countries reserpine is still available as part of combination drugs for the treatment of hypertension, in most cases ... The drug causes hypotension and bradycardia and may worsen asthma. Congested nose and erectile dysfunction are other ... The use of reserpine as an antipsychotic drug had been nearly completely abandoned, but more recently it made a comeback as ...
... (CAZ-AVI) is a fixed-dose combination drug containing an antibiotic-3rd generation cephalosporin ... Anti-infective drugs advisory committee meeting" (PDF). fda.gov. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 27 June 2015. ... "Generic Avycaz Availability - Drugs.com". www.drugs.com. Retrieved 2015-11-16. "Early Avycaz sales could signal bigger payoff ... designation for new drug candidates. Drugs given the QIDP designation must be indicated to treat serious and/or life- ...
Burk, Jeff (July 1988). "Eddie Hill's Four-Second Combination". Drag Racing magazine. Peterson Publishing Company. p. 83. " ... He started racing drag boats after attending a drag boat event in 1974 and he won championships in all of the major boat drag ... He quit water drag racing after he suffered broken bones at a crash in Arizona and returned to land drag racing in 1985. ... Hill decided to come back into drag racing for 1985. He purchased Dan Pastorini's Top Fuel car and salvaged the drag boat ...
Boehringer plans to conduct trials using the mRNA vaccine in combination with afatinib in advanced and/or metastatic epidermal ... ". "Boehringer pairs its lung cancer drug with a vaccine in $600M tie-up with CureVac". "Bill And Melinda Gates Foundation ... ". "CRI, Ludwig to Test Cancer Immunotherapy Combinations with CureVac". "German RNA Vaccines Company Bags €2 Million E.U. ...
Drug related authorities such as European Medicines Agency (EMA), Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and Health Canada hold ... combination therapy and monotherapy; various diseases, etc. on the purpose to verify comparability in pharmacokinetics of the ... which created biological drug approval through the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFD&C Act). The BPCI Act aligns with ... the price drop for biological drugs at risk of patent expiration will not be as great as for other generic drugs; in fact it ...
Multum Consumer Information on calcium and vitamin D combinations. Haberfeld, H, ed. (2015). Austria-Codex (in German). Vienna ... Calcium forms complexes with a number of pharmaceutical drugs, reducing their bioavailability; among them are tetracyclines, ... Calcium/cholecalciferol is a combination of a calcium salt (usually calcium carbonate) and vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol), ...
HIV and pregnancy
... and a component of the combination drug Atripla) is classified as a category D drug by the US Food and Drug Administration ... Antiretroviral drugs may also affect both male and female fertility and some drugs can be toxic to newly developed embryos. ... In the United States, the favored regimen is a three-drug regimen where the first two drugs are NRTIs and the third is either a ... combinations involving these drugs should be avoided in pregnancy. Protease inhibitors (PIs) have been studied extensively in ...
In some cases, antibacterial combinations restore potency to ineffective drugs. Other research has been devoted to finding ... "Antibiotic resistance breakers: can repurposed drugs fill the antibiotic discovery void?". Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. 14 ( ... Compare to the additive effect, where the potency of an antibiotic combination is roughly equal to the combined potencies of ... Today, combination therapy is recognized as providing a broad spectrum of antibiotic coverage, effectively fighting ...
In October 2014, the Drug Enforcement Administration rescheduled hydrocodone combination drugs from schedule III to schedule II ... On August 22, 2014, the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) announced that all hydrocodone combination products (HCPs) will ... Vicodin U.S. DEA Drug Schedule Vicodin U.S. Federal Regulations U.S. National Library of Medicine: Drug Information Portal - ... "Acetaminophen / Hydrocodone Dosage Guide with Precautions - Drugs.com". www.drugs.com. Retrieved 2015-11-04. "Rules - 2014 - ...
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act
Drug, and Cosmetic Act"(FDCA). The applicant must provide scientific data from any combinations of over 100 different tests ... Under Section 408 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), the EPA can also regulate the amount of pesticide ... any nitrogen stabilizer, except that the term "pesticide" shall not include any article that is a "new animal drug" within the ... that has been determined by the Secretary of Health and Human Services not to be a new animal drug by a regulation establishing ...
Staff (29 January 2013) FDA approves new orphan drug Kynamro to treat inherited cholesterol disorder U.S. Food and Drug ... They are used in combination with statins.. ResearchEdit. Investigational classes of hypolipidemic agents: *CETP inhibitors ( ... They are called lipid-lowering drugs. These are drugs which lower the level of lipids and lipoproteins in blood. ... Hypolipidemic agents, cholesterol-lowering drugs or antihyperlipidemic agents, are a diverse group of pharmaceuticals that are ...
Type 2 diabetes
The development of type 2 diabetes is caused by a combination of lifestyle and genetic factors. While some of these ... Izzedine H, Launay-Vacher V, Deybach C, Bourry E, Barrou B, Deray G (November 2005). "Drug-induced diabetes mellitus". Expert ... In those with impaired glucose tolerance, diet and exercise either alone or in combination with metformin or acarbose may ... Krentz AJ, Bailey CJ (February 2005). "Oral antidiabetic agents: current role in type 2 diabetes mellitus". Drugs. 65 (3): 385- ...
It is soluble white powder administered orally in combination with other antiviral drugs. The drug prevents protease from ... It is normally used as one of the three drugs in a triple-combination therapy for the HIV virus. ... After 38 weeks, 6% of the people in the three-drug group died while 11% of the people died in the two-drug group. There were ... Viral resistance to the drug leads to the drug becoming useless since the virus evolves to have cells that are able to resist ...
Positron emission tomography
... drug occupancy at a purported site of action can be inferred indirectly by competition studies between unlabeled drug and ... Combination of PET with CT or MRIEdit. Main articles: PET-CT and PET-MRI ... Pharmacokinetics: In pre-clinical trials, it is possible to radiolabel a new drug and inject it into animals. Such scans are ... The uptake of the drug, the tissues in which it concentrates, and its eventual elimination, can be monitored far more quickly ...
"U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).. *Ebola: What You Need to Know - Scientific American articles related to Ebola; note ... The combination of severe vomiting and diarrhoea often leads to severe dehydration. Next, shortness of breath and chest ... "U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Press release). 14 October 2020. Retrieved 14 October 2020.. This article incorporates ... "U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Press release). 20 December 2019. Retrieved 22 December 2019.. ...
"Drug Trials Snapshots: Aklief". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 11 October 2019. Archived from the original on 19 ... Combination therapy. Combination therapy-using medications of different classes together, each with a different mechanism ... Aslam I, Fleischer A, Feldman S (March 2015). "Emerging drugs for the treatment of acne". Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs. 20 ... Aslam I, Fleischer A, Feldman S (March 2015). "Emerging drugs for the treatment of acne". Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs ( ...
Hepatitis E infection is normally an acute infection, suggesting the drug in combination with lymphoma may have weakened the ... Rituximab Information from the US Food and Drug Administration. *U.S. National Library of Medicine: Drug Information Portal - ... In 2014 Genentech reclassified rituxan as a specialty drug, a class of drugs that are only available through specialty ... "International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved 28 November 2015.. *^ British national formulary : BNF 69 (69 ed.). British ...
Health in Nepal
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
Drug risks. Filgrastim is typically dosed in the 10 microgram/kg level for 4-5 days during the harvesting of stem cells. ... In allogeneic transplants a combination of cyclophosphamide with total body irradiation is conventionally employed. This ... Immunosuppressive drugs are given for a minimum of 6-months after a transplantation, or much longer if required for the ... G-CSF drugs include filgrastim (Neupogen, Neulasta), and lenograstim (Graslopin). ...
Healthcare in Brazil
In 1998, the National Drug Policy was approved, whose purpose is to ensure safety, efficacy, and quality of drugs, as well as ... Pre-hospital emergency medical services use a combination of basic ambulances staffed by technicians and advanced units with ... In 2000, there were 14 industries authorized to produce generic drugs and about 200 registered generic drugs were being ... Brazil is among the greatest consumers markets for drugs, accounting for 3.5% share of the world market. To expand the access ...
"Synthroid (Levothyroxine Sodium) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings". RxList. Archived from ... Combination of levothyroxine with ketamine may cause hypertension and tachycardia; and tricyclic and tetracyclic ... "International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved 8 December 2016.. *^ Hamilton, Richart (2015). Tarascon Pocket ... "Levothyroxine (Lexi-Drugs)". LexiComp. Archived from the original on 29 September 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2014.. ...
... and finding a suitable drug or drug combination that is effective for a particular patient may require trial and error. The use ... using various drugs such as SSRI or tricyclic antidepressants, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), ... Drugs in R&D. 8 (1): 51-7. doi:10.2165/00126839-200708010-00005. PMID 17249849.. ...
Pharmacology is the study of drugs and their actions.. *Photobiology is the study of the interactions between non-ionizing ... In recent centuries, since the advent of modern science, most medicine has become a combination of art and science (both basic ... of Essential Drugs and Medicines Policy (2002). "Traditional medicine: growing needs and potential". World Health Organization. ... Medications (Rx): what drugs the patient takes including prescribed, over-the-counter, and home remedies, as well as ...
That begins when increasing rainfall drags with it an area of quickly descending air known as the rear flank downdraft (RFD). ... Popularly reported sounds include a freight train, rushing rapids or waterfall, a nearby jet engine, or combinations of these. ... and the subjects of the video remained safe due to an unlikely combination of events: the storm in question was a weak tornado ... This downdraft accelerates as it approaches the ground, and drags the supercell's rotating mesocyclone towards the ground with ...
In the Grand Prix jump-off of 16 combinations, Lantinus was early to jump and took the lead, but they were eventually beaten by ... O'Connor won an individual showjumping gold medal with his horse Waterford Crystal but was later stripped of it because of drug ... "Showjumper Lynch withdraws after positive drug test". Irish Independent. 21 August 2008. Retrieved 22 August 2008.. ... In an interview with the Irish Independent Pat Hickey accused the show-jumping industry of dragging Irish sport "through the ...
The authorities also recognize that some devices are provided in combination with drugs, and regulation of these combination ... U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 2010-10-15.. *^ "Title 21-Food and drugs: Chapter i-Food and drug administration: ... U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 2010-10-15.. *^ a b c d e f "General and Special Controls". Medical Devices. U.S. ... United States (Food and Drug Administration)Edit. Section 201(h) of the Federal Food Drug & Cosmetic (FD&C) Act defines a ...
Death of Dale Earnhardt
Treatment may include some combination of surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Anticonvulsant medication may be ... The toxicity and many side effects of the drugs, and the uncertain outcome of chemotherapy in brain tumors puts this treatment ... Although there is no specific or singular clinical symptom or sign for any brain tumors, the presence of a combination of ... They can be treated with surgical resection, chemotherapy, radiotherapy or a combination. For some suspected low-grade (grade ...
Androgen receptor antagonists: drugs that bind directly to and block the AR. These drugs include the steroidal ... Castration may be used alone or in combination with one of the other two treatments. When castration is combined with a ... Drug class. Bicalutamide, a nonsteroidal antiandrogen and the most widely used androgen receptor antagonist in the treatment of ... Smith HJ, Williams H (10 October 2005). Smith and Williams' Introduction to the Principles of Drug Design and Action, Fourth ...
"Consolidated federal laws of canada, Food and Drug Regulations". laws.justice.gc.ca. Retrieved 2018-07-19.. ... alone or in combination with other aromatic herbs), as well as in a wide variety of regional and ethnic confectioneries, ... Anise can be made into a liquid scent and is used for both drag hunting and fishing. It is put on fishing lures to attract fish ...
Bengal famine of 1943
People would tie a rope around the necks and drag them over to a ditch." Corpses were stacked along the streets of ... They gained power over their tenants using a combination of debt bondage[Q] through the transfer of debts and mortgages, and ... The bodies were picked over by vultures and dragged away by jackals. Sometimes this happened while the victim was still living. ... Advanced anti-malarial drugs such as mepacrine (Atabrine) were distributed almost solely to the military and to "priority ...
Carbons with a combination of macropores and mesopores adsorb tannins. The ability of a carbon to adsorb tannins is reported in ... Tablets or capsules of activated carbon are used in many countries as an over-the-counter drug to treat diarrhea, indigestion, ... Activated carbon, in 50% w/w combination with celite, is used as stationary phase in low-pressure chromatographic separation of ...
Occupational health psychology
labeled the combination of high levels of demands, low levels of control, and low levels of coworker support "iso-strain." The ... 2012) found that, controlling for other risk factors, the combination of high levels of demands and low control at baseline ... Meta-analytic research also links job strain (the combination of high demands and low control) to stroke. ... the combination of low levels of work-related decision latitude (i.e., autonomy and control over the job) combined with high ...
Drug Combinations With Loryna to Avoid
This eMedTV segment wraps up this look at drugs that may interfere with Loryna, such as protease inhibitors. However, because ... STD Home , Drug Interactions With Loryna , Drug Combinations With Loryna to Avoid ... It is possible that not all Loryna drug interactions were discussed in this article. Therefore, you should talk with your ...
Targeting leukemia with drug combinations. Cancer researchers have devised a way to rapidly screen combinations of drugs to ... Posts Tagged drug combinations. Zeroing in on drug combos against a formidable form of leukemia. Targeted cancer therapies ... Tags: AML, drug combinations, ex vivo assay, hematologic malignancies, leukemia, targeted therapy ... work by singling out gene mutations that drive tumor growth, then using a drug to block the effects of the mutant gene. But ...
Antibiotic resistance: 8,000 new drug combinations are effective
... a combination of four or more antibiotics can effectively kill bacteria. ... On the flip side, the researchers also found that 2,331 four-drug combinations and 5,199 five-drug combinations were less ... they also found 1,676 four-drug combinations and 6,443 five-drug combinations to be equally effective. ... We shouldnt limit ourselves to just single drugs or two-drug combinations in our medical toolbox. We expect several of these ...
Belladonna Alkaloid Combinations and Phenobarbital: MedlinePlus Drug Information
Belladonna Alkaloid Combinations and Phenobarbital: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on ... you should know that this drug may make you drowsy. Do not drive a car or operate machinery until you know how this drug ... Take belladonna alkaloid combinations and phenobarbital exactly as directed. Do not take more or less of it or take it more ... a yellow dye in some processed foods and drugs), or any drug. ... Belladonna alkaloid combinations and phenobarbital are used to ...
Combination drug - Wikipedia
... "combination drug" or "combination drug product" can be common shorthand for a FDC product (since most combination drug products ... products that combine different types of medical products-such as device/drug combinations as opposed to drug/drug combinations ... A combination drug is a fixed-dose combination (FDC) that includes two or more active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) ... Note that when a combination drug product (whether fixed-dose or not) is a "pill" (i.e., a tablet or capsule), then it is also ...
List of Miscellaneous antihypertensive combinations - Drugs.com
Compare miscellaneous antihypertensive combinations. View important safety information, ratings, user reviews, popularity and ... Having a combination of drugs in one pill may better control hypertension by improving compliance. Classes of antihypertensive ... Drugs.com Mobile Apps. The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own ... Drugs.com provides accurate and independent information on more than 24,000 prescription drugs, over-the-counter medicines and ...
Hydrocodone Combination Products: MedlinePlus Drug Information
Hydrocodone Combination Products: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Hydrocodone combination products may be habit forming. Take your hydrocodone combination product exactly as directed. Do not ... Some hydrocodone combination products are used to relieve moderate-to-severe pain. Other hydrocodone combination products are ... Hydrocodone is available in combination with other ingredients, and different combination products are prescribed for different ...
Vitamin B Complex Combinations Liquid Information - Drugs.com
Easy-to-read patient leaflet for Vitamin B Complex Combinations Liquid. Includes indications, proper use, special instructions ... Vitamin B Complex Combinations Liquid. Generic Name: Vitamin B Complex Combinations Liquid (VYE ta min bee KOM pleks kom bi NAY ... You must check to make sure that it is safe for you to take vitamin B complex combinations liquid with all of your drugs and ... For some drugs it does not matter. Check with your pharmacist about how to take vitamin B complex combinations liquid. ...
The Radiotherapy-Drug Combinations Consortium (RaDCom) was established by CTRad and the Cancer Research UK (CRUK) Centre for ... engage with industry on a strategic level as a key source of expertise for preclinical radiotherapy-drug combination work. ... ensure areas of need are addressed by monitoring the existing radiotherapy-drug combination preclinical and early phase ... Investigators are invited to contact RaDComs steering group to discuss proposals for preclinical radiotherapy-drug combination ...
Vertex chooses two drugs to advance in cystic fibrosis triple combinations
Vertex plans to start phase 3 clinical trials of compounds called VX-659 and VX-445 as part of two different triple combination ... Vertex chooses two drugs to advance in cystic fibrosis triple combinations. Published Wed, Jan 31 20187:36 PM EST. Updated Thu ... Vertex Pharmaceuticals said its chosen two medicines to move into final stage testing in combination with two other drugs for ... said its chosen which two medicines to move into the final stage of testing in combination with two other drugs for cystic ...
Synergistic drug combinations tend to improve therapeutically relevant selectivity. - PubMed - NCBI
In this example, to reach 50% inhibition, only 4 μM of Drug A and 2 μM of Drug B were required in combination, compared to ,41 ... Synergistic drug combinations tend to improve therapeutically relevant selectivity.. Lehár J1, Krueger AS, Avery W, Heilbut AM ... Drug combinations are a promising strategy to overcome the compensatory mechanisms and unwanted off-target effects that limit ... We highlight six combinations whose selective synergy depends on multitarget drug activity. For one anti-inflammatory example, ...
Filed Under: Drug-Device Combinations, Drug-Eluting Stents, Featured, Food & Drug Administration (FDA), Wall Street Beat ... Filed Under: 510(k), Drug Pumps, Drug-Device Combinations, Food & Drug Administration (FDA), Pharmaceuticals, Regulatory/ ... Filed Under: Drug-Device Combinations, Food & Drug Administration (FDA), Legal News Tagged With: Ocular Therapeutix ... Filed Under: Blog, Diabetes, Drug Pumps, Drug-Device Combinations, Featured, News Well, Research & Development Tagged With: ...
Antibiotic combination effective against drug-resistant Pseudomonas
This combination was tried on mice models with Pseudomonas infections and the results showed that the combination was more ... 2019, July 08). Antibiotic combination effective against drug-resistant Pseudomonas. News-Medical. Retrieved on July 02, 2020 ... www.news-medical.net/news/20190708/Antibiotic-combination-effective-against-drug-resistant-Pseudomonas.aspx. (accessed July 02 ... www.news-medical.net/news/20190708/Antibiotic-combination-effective-against-drug-resistant-Pseudomonas.aspx. ...
Drug combination may benefit brain tumour patients
A drug that cuts off the blood supply feeding tumours may boost the survival of patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a ... Publishing their findings in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, they reveal that out of 35 patients given the drug combination, ... Lead investigator Dr James Vredenburgh, a neurooncologist at Duke University, said: We found that this drug combination could ... A drug that cuts off the blood supply feeding tumours may boost the survival of patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a ...
Roche skin cancer drug meets main goal in combination study | Reuters
An experimental drug from Roche helped people with an advanced form of skin cancer live longer without their disease worsening ... when used in combination with another treatment, the Swiss drugmaker said on Monday. ... Pharmaceutical companies are looking to combination therapy to yield better results and drug cocktails are expected to be ... ZURICH (Reuters) - An experimental drug from Roche helped people with an advanced form of skin cancer live longer without their ...
Promising drug combination for advanced prostate cancer | EurekAlert! Science News
A new drug combination may be effective in treating men with metastatic prostate cancer. Preliminary results of this new ... A new drug combination may be effective in treating men with metastatic prostate cancer. Preliminary results of this new ... The Drug Combination Actually Tested to Treat Metastatic Prostate Cancer (IMAGE) view more ... Promising drug combination for advanced prostate cancer. University of Montreal Hospital Research Centre (CRCHUM) ...
Drug combination benefits patients with tophaceous gout | EurekAlert! Science News
The drug lesinurad in combination with febuxostat was better at lowering blood levels of urate than febuxostat alone in a phase ... The drug lesinurad in combination with febuxostat was better at lowering blood levels of urate than febuxostat alone in a phase ... Therefore, lesinurad in combination with a xanthine oxidase inhibitor provides a dual mechanism of action to lower blood levels ... "Combination treatment of lesinurad and febuxostat represents a new therapeutic option for patients with severe gout who cannot ...
Drug-Resistant Bacteria Zapped by Probiotic-Antibiotic Combination
Delivering a combination of antibiotic drugs and probiotics can eradicate two strains of drug-resistant bacteria that often ... Drug-Resistant Bacteria Zapped by Probiotic-Antibiotic Combination. October 18, 2018. 0 ... Scientists at MIT report that by delivering a combination of antibiotic drugs and probiotics, they could eradicate two strains ... When MRSA and Pseudomonas aeruginosa growing in a lab dish were exposed to the combination of encapsulated Bio-K+ and ...
Combination Drug Delivery Approaches in Metastatic Breast Cancer
The journal serves researchers from academia and industry, and will publish articles ranging from basic biology of drug and ... Articles describing drug dosage forms will be considered. ... Journal of Drug Delivery is a peer-reviewed, Open Access ... Figure 2: Combination drug delivery systems based on liposomes. (a) Combination of drugs encapsulated in the hydrophilic core ... Combination Drug Delivery Systems Based on Water-Soluble Polymer Conjugates. Polymer-drug conjugates are drug delivery systems ...
Combinations of Protein-Chemical Complex Structures Reveal New Targets for Established Drugs
We make thousands of confident predictions, including structures for known protein-drug interactions lacking a structure (e.g. ... Author Summary Predicting drug-target interactions is a hot topic, and many efforts have been undertaken to do this, many using ... 2008) DrugBank: a knowledgebase for drugs, drug actions and drug targets. Nucleic Acids Res 36(Database issue): D901-906. * ... Protein-drug selectivity is an important issue, since non-selective drugs can have undesired side-effects. The problem is ...
JCI - Ex vivo analysis identifies effective HIV-1 latency-reversing drug combinations
... and drug y (fay) individually. The experimentally observed fraction affected by a combination of drug x and drug y (faxy, O) ... predicted fraction affected by a combination of drug x and drug y given the experimentally observed fraction affected for drug ... combinations. Utilizing ex vivo assays for intracellular HIV-1 mRNA and virion production, we compared 2-drug combinations of ... then the combined effect of the 2 drugs is less than that predicted by the Bliss model and the drug combination displays ...
NCI ALMANAC Tool for Research on Cancer Drug Combinations - National Cancer Institute
... a new resource that provides data showing how well pairs of FDA-approved cancer drugs performed in killing tumor cells from NCI ... The results from this work were convincing enough that we launched phase I clinical trials of both drug combinations at the NIH ... Based on whats known about how the individual drugs in these combinations work, its highly unlikely that many of these ... Using the NCI ALMANAC, we identified several different drug combinations that have never before been tested together in humans ...
New Memory Drug Works Best in Combination with Older Remedy - Redorbit
Each rat was given at various times SGS742, Aricept Ã ®, a combination of the two drugs or no drugs at all, and was tested on ... New Memory Drug Works Best in Combination with Older Remedy. by Sam Savage ... improved memory to a larger degree than either drug alone, implying a potential for future combination therapy protocols. ... An experimental drug combined with an already-popular memory-enhancing compound may further delay memory loss in patients with ...
Powerful combination of experimental drugs reverses osteoarthritis in rats
... *Download PDF Copy ... From the very first time we tested this drug combination on just a few animals, we saw a huge improvement, says Martinez- ... To test the applicability of the drug combination to humans, the team treated isolated human articular cartilage cells with ... They also will study whether the combination of drugs can prevent the development of osteoarthritis before symptoms develop. ...
Combination Drug "Cures" Hepatitis C in Children and Adolescents
Combination drug demonstrates 100 perfect effectiveness in adolescents with hepatitis C virus (HCV). The study, led by William ... Combination Drug "Cures" Hepatitis C in Children and Adolescents. No Trace of Virus Found in Blood of Patients After Treatment ... The combination drug showed that all patients were "cured," meaning that HCV was not detected in the blood 12 weeks after ... The first pediatric study of a combination drug to treat the hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in children and adolescents ...
Antibiotic combination marketed by Abbott in India on list of banned drugs | Reuters
... pharmaceutical giant Abbott Laboratories is among 344 drug combinations that have been banned by the Indian health authorities. ... A powerful antibiotic combination that is marketed in India by U.S. ... Fixed-dose combination drugs, or FDCs, combine two or more drugs in a single pill. In India, many pharmaceutical companies have ... Besides antibiotic combinations, the list of banned drugs also included analgesic combinations containing nimesulide, and ...
Combination Drug Taken Early Relieves Migraine Symptoms
... 08.07.2008. A combination drug taken within an hour after the start of ... The drug combines sumatriptan, a migraine-specific drug that affects the constriction of blood vessels, with naproxen sodium, a ... Two hours after the dose was given, about 50 percent of those who received the drug were free of any pain, compared to about 16 ... Half of the people were given the sumatriptan/naproxen drug within an hour after migraine pain started and while the pain was ...
New Drug Combination for High-Risk Neuroblastoma
This combination is made of epigenetic inhibitors and B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) inhibitors. BCL-2 inhibitors are already ... Researchers create novel combination as potential therapy for high-risk neuroblastoma. ... approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. ... New Drug Combination for High-Risk Neuroblastoma. by Chrisy ... Drug Toxicity. Drug toxicity is an adverse reaction of the body towards a drug that results as a side effect of a drug, ...
Patent US20010029351 - Drug combinations and delivery devices for the prevention and treatment of ... - Google Patents
The selective coating is utilized to ensure that the specific drugs, agents or compounds come into contact with or are ... The intralumen medical device is selectively coated with the drugs, agents or compounds for local delivery, thereby increasing ... An intralumen medical device comprising anti-proliferative and anti-thrombotic or anti-coagulant drugs, agents or compounds may ... The systemic use of drugs, agents or compounds in combination with the local delivery of the same or different drugs, agents or ...
A Study of Two Anti-HIV Drug Combinations - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Drug Therapy, Combination. Zidovudine. HIV Protease Inhibitors. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. CD4-CD8 Ratio. Lamivudine. Patient ... Lamivudine, zidovudine drug combination. Protease Inhibitors. HIV Protease Inhibitors. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors. ... A Study of Two Anti-HIV Drug Combinations. This study has been completed. ... It is hypothesized that a fixed-dose 3TC/ZDV tablet given bid in combination with a protease inhibitor is clinically equivalent ...
Autopsy: Max Barry died from combination of drugs, including opioids
Drugs found were Xanax, cocaine and two opioids, liquid methodone and hydromorphone, according to an autopsy report released ... Autopsy: Max Barry died from combination of drugs, including opioids. Drugs found were Xanax, cocaine and two opioids, liquid ... Autopsy: Max Barry died from combination of drugs, including opioids Drugs found were Xanax, cocaine and two opioids, liquid ... Autopsy: Max Barry died from combination of drugs, including opioids. Joey Garrison, USA Today Network - Tennessee Published 3: ...
TherapiesResistanceResearchersEfficacyAntibiotic combinationsInhibitorsDifferent drug combinationsRegimensTreatmentsCancerAnalgesicSynergistic combinationsTreatmentFixed-dose combinationsDosesSignificantlyTargetsMedicationsClinicalAntihypertensivePillExperimentalStudyBacteriaEffectiveMechanismsAnticancerSearchFDCsNovel drugFood and Drug Administration's2017PotentiallyMelanomaProteaseAntiretroviralInteractionsOvercomeChemotherapy drugsHypertensionRegimenSynergyResultsAdministerEffectivenessNonsteroidal anti-ToxicityPairsResistantTherapeuticInteractionPharmaceuticalInduceTreatScreeningRisky drugAntibioticsDoctor and pharmacistDeadlyCompoundsHealthcareCentersTherapeuticsCommonly prescribedInfectionEffectivelySingleAntagonism
- Targeted cancer therapies work by singling out gene mutations that drive tumor growth, then using a drug to block the effects of the mutant gene. (ohsu.edu)
- Indeed, combination therapies are viewed as a central way to overcome one of the most vexing issues in cancer therapy: treatment resistance. (cancer.gov)
- H3K27 demethylation inhibition is a promising therapeutic target to treat high-risk neuroblastoma, and H3K27 demethylation can be part of rational combination therapies to induce anti-neuroblastoma activity ," Faber said. (medindia.net)
- New BRAF inhibitor drugs are effective against BRAF-mutant melanoma, but no comparable therapies are currently available against NRAS-mutant melanoma. (mdanderson.org)
- Combination therapies are found to show better efficacy than monotherapies. (prnewswire.co.uk)
- Previous smaller clinical trials of anti-clotting therapies failed to show that these drugs improve AV graft patency or that they could be used safely in dialysis patients. (emaxhealth.com)
- In November 1995, Rational Therapeutics received emergency approval from the FDA to use the platinum-plus-gemcitabine combination to treat a late-stage ovarian cancer patient who had failed all conventional therapies. (cancernetwork.com)
- Combination therapies are emerging as superior treatment options for many diseases, including oncology. (horizondiscovery.com)
- As an exemplar of a disease in which combination therapies demonstrate efficacy in genomic-specific contexts, we investigate malignant melanoma. (nature.com)
- 5 The design of multi-target agents and rationale drug combinations are aimed at increasing overall efficacy, improve initiation for first-line therapies, reduce and/or prevent drug resistance, and reduce drug toxicities. (nature.com)
- However, it is infeasible, with limited resources, to experimentally screen pairwise drug combinations derived from thousands of currently available therapies for synergistic effects across diverse cell lines and human-derived models. (nature.com)
- To facilitate combination therapies, multiple drug pump devices may be assembled into a larger system. (reverso.net)
- Meheus shows that combination therapies (the use of multiple drugs ) is a cost-effective alternative to the current first-line treatments. (reverso.net)
- However, it has become apparent from disappointing results in recent clinical trials that a major challenge to the development of successful targeted therapies for treating complex multifactorial diseases is overcoming heterogeneity in target mechanism among patients and inherent or acquired drug resistance. (frontiersin.org)
- Examples of fixed dose and co-administration drug combination therapies approved across multiple disease indications are described in Table 1 . (frontiersin.org)
- With regards to cancer it is apparent that further exploitation of new targeted therapies including novel combinations of unapproved agents and targeted therapy combined with established chemo- or radio-therapy remain to be fully explored in preclinical and clinical settings. (frontiersin.org)
- In this review article we highlight how new advances in high-content screening and high throughput pathway profiling capabilities advance phenotypic screening approaches toward a more systematic discovery of the next generation of multi-targeted drugs and drug combination therapies. (frontiersin.org)
- Combination therapies, either using single drugs administered together, or FDCs are considered by many to be essential to treating these diseases as well as to limiting the development of drug resistance. (nih.gov)
- Like classical chemotherapy regimens used to treat cancer, targeted therapies will also rely upon polypharmacology, but tools are still lacking to predict which combinations of molecularly targeted drugs may be most efficacious. (aacrjournals.org)
- The advent of targeted therapies for cancer has provided effective treatments for a variety of malignancies, and the study of drug resistance mechanisms has revealed the complexity of tumor biology. (aacrjournals.org)
- We demonstrated the utility of our approach by evaluating the survival benefit of combination therapies that contain up to six drugs targeting platinum resistance mechanisms. (aacrjournals.org)
- Antibiotic , or antimicrobial, resistance occurs when bacteria or viruses - sometimes called superbugs - genetically mutate and become immune to drugs. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- It is this enzyme that leads to the development of multi-drug resistance (MDR) in pseudomonas they wrote. (news-medical.net)
- Doctors and health experts say the spread and misuse of antibiotic combinations may be contributing to antibiotic resistance in India. (reuters.com)
- The research also demonstrated that the drug combination can also aid in preventing tumors from developing drug resistance. (digitaljournal.com)
- If there is no resistance then usually a three drug combination of NRTIs with either a NNRTI or PI would be used. (thebody.com)
- In those with increasing resistance other drugs are often included in the mix. (thebody.com)
- He estimated that the drug combinations fail because of drug resistance in as many as 50 percent of patients in some populations. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The treatment of tuberculosis requires at least two drugs to retard the development of drug resistance. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Moulding T, Dutt AK, Reichman LB. Fixed-dose combinations of antituberculous medications to prevent drug resistance. (unboundmedicine.com)
- The combination of p53 activation and Bcl-2 inhibition reciprocally overcomes apoptosis resistance and leads to synergistic efficacy in acute myeloid leukemia. (sciencemag.org)
- Utilizing drug combinations, clinicians can boost efficacy of lead compounds or overcome drug resistance mechanisms. (horizondiscovery.com)
- However, new therapeutic strategies are required in order to overcome innate and acquired resistance to these drugs and thus expand the array of cancers that could benefit from them. (plos.org)
- Our results show that combination of vorinostat and ABT-888 could potentially prove useful for treatment of cancer with innate resistance to PARPis due to active HRR machinery, while the combination of vorinostat and 6-TG could potentially overcome innate or acquired resistance to PARPis due to secondary or reversal BRCA mutations, to decreased PARP-1 level or to increased expression of multiple drug resistant proteins. (plos.org)
- The combination of multiple drugs enhances clinical efficacy and may delay the development of resistance of parasites. (reverso.net)
- Combining two drugs for breast and lung cancer could potentially strip other tumours of their treatment resistance, a new study suggests. (lancashiretelegraph.co.uk)
- In this study, we sought to understand exactly how resistance occurs to an important family of breast cancer drugs, so that we can stay one step ahead of the cancer. (lancashiretelegraph.co.uk)
- Drug combinations can potentially overcome these hurdles by countering cellular defense mechanisms, by inhibiting redundant or compensatory pathways, and by targeting emerging resistance ( 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Several resistance mechanisms were already active at diagnosis, but combining SOC with a drug that targets the most dominant resistance subpopulation resulted in a significant survival benefit. (aacrjournals.org)
- This work provides a theoretical basis for a cancer treatment paradigm in which maximizing platinum's killing effect on cancer cells requires overcoming resistance mechanisms with targeted drugs. (aacrjournals.org)
- Cancer researchers have devised a way to rapidly screen combinations of drugs to identify pairs of agents most likely to work synergistically against some of the most difficult to treat forms of leukemia. (ohsu.edu)
- In total, the researchers tested 18,278 combinations. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The team of researchers used ceftazidime-avibactam - a combination that is being used against serious bacterial infection and fosfomycin that is used in treatment of urinary tract infections. (news-medical.net)
- The team of researchers used this combination of antibiotics to destroy the enzymes present in the cell walls of the bacteria. (news-medical.net)
- The combination led to reduced " P . Aeruginosa colony-forming units (CFUs)", the researchers added. (news-medical.net)
- In a Phase 1 clinical trial, researchers tested the safety of a preliminary combination treatment of abiraterone acetate and another drug not yet approved for market, JNJ-56021927. (eurekalert.org)
- If shown to be successful in future tests in animals and humans, the probiotic/antibiotic combination could be incorporated into dressings for wounds, where it could help heal infected chronic wounds, the researchers say. (genengnews.com)
- Now, NCI has released a new, easy-to-use resource to help researchers identify potentially promising combinations of cancer drugs. (cancer.gov)
- With this new resource, we've done some heavy lifting for the research community, performing a resource-intensive, robust drug screen to generate data that can provide researchers with new hypotheses to advance to the next stage of investigation. (cancer.gov)
- Based on these data, the NCI researchers conducted more in-depth analyses of this combination, including testing in different triple-negative breast cancer mouse models and performing molecular analyses of tumor samples from treated mice. (cancer.gov)
- The team compared SGS742 with Aricept Ã ® (generic name: donepezil), an approved and frequently used treatment for Alzheimer's disease manufactured by Eisai Inc. Ltd. The Johns Hopkins researchers found in animal studies that a combination of SGS742 and Aricept Ã ® improved memory to a larger degree than either drug alone, implying a potential for future combination therapy protocols. (redorbit.com)
- Now, Salk researchers have discovered that a powerful combination of two experimental drugs reverses the cellular and molecular signs of osteoarthritis in rats as well as in isolated human cartilage cells. (news-medical.net)
- The researchers also observed that two drugs which have since been withdrawn due to side-effects - sibutramine and rimonabant - were also effective at promoting weight loss. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- Many fixed-dose drug combinations widely sold in India to treat some conditions lack the necessary central regulatory approval, say British researchers. (medindia.net)
- Using information from CDSCO on FDC formulations approved between 1961 and 2013, and FDC sales data between 2007 and 2012 from PharmaTrac (a database of drug sales in India), the researchers analyzed approval status and sales volumes of FDCs in four therapeutic areas. (medindia.net)
- With this, MIT researchers propose that combining kinase inhibitors with experimental drugs called ribonucleases can result in improved medical treatments. (digitaljournal.com)
- However, following the successful reactions seen on human cells within the laboratory, the researchers have developed a ribonuclease drug. (digitaljournal.com)
- The drug targets neuroinflammation, and researchers think this could halt further neuronal loss in Parkinson's disease. (digitaljournal.com)
- Furthermore, researchers from the University of Sydney have found that other anti-cancer drugs may also provide the key to treating aggressive diseases and cancers. (asbestos.com)
- These are no longer the only options as researchers continue to develop new drugs. (lymphomainfo.net)
- The researchers, led by Lynda Chin, M.D., chair of the Department of Genomic Medicine and scientific director of the Institute for Applied Cancer Science, at MD Anderson - together with colleagues from the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute at Harvard Medical School and from Boston University - discovered that the two drugs, which inhibit Mek and Cdk4, complement one another by targeting unique cancer features. (mdanderson.org)
- Researchers must first know what an effective treatment actually looks like before they can identify and develop effective drug combinations. (mdanderson.org)
- The researchers speculated that comparing the molecular effects of a drug versus genetically switching off mutant NRAS would reveal what mechanism(s) the drug lacks to be effective. (mdanderson.org)
- The researchers used Mek inhibitors as a starting point because these drugs are already in late stage clinical development in which they have been shown to slow tumor growth without shrinking them. (mdanderson.org)
- Researchers at the University of Sheffield carried out a study to find out whether a combination of the chemotherapy drug doxorubicin and the bone-protecting drug zoledronic acid had a beneficial effect on the growth of breast tumours. (cancerresearchuk.org)
- At the same time, researchers agreed that the record of the past decade-every company running negative, single-drug trials on their own-calls for change. (alzforum.org)
- The value of the third drug is that it helps correct a genetic malfunction by adding a synergistic effect to the dual combinations, the researchers said. (nbcnews.com)
- The researchers added that the tendency of youth to skip medications demonstrates the need for more contact with clinical staff during therapy, and for the development of strategies to ensure that at-risk youth take the drug as prescribed. (scienceblog.com)
- The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved the use of a two-drug combination developed by researchers at Rational Therapeutics Institute (Long Beach, Calif) for the treatment of ovarian cancer. (cancernetwork.com)
- Researchers believe that blocking that interaction sensitized ACC cancer cells to cisplatin--a drug that under normal conditions, wouldn't work. (eurekalert.org)
- The researchers, led by Andrzej J. Jakubowiak, MD, PhD, professor of medicine and director of the multiple myeloma program at the University of Chicago Medical Center, found that combining carfilzomib, a next generation proteasome inhibitor, with two standard drugs -- lenalidomide and low-dose dexamethasone compared favorably to other frontline regimens. (uchospitals.edu)
- The study's methods draw on the researchers' previous findings that combination therapy may be effective even when bacteria become resistant to colistin, which is considered a treatment agent of last resort that can punch holes in the tough outer shell of Gram-negative bacteria. (bidmc.org)
- Researchers at the National Institutes of Health have discoveredthat a combination of protease inhibitors and other anti-HIV drugsused to treat people with AIDS can prevent or delay the progression ofcytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis, a potentially blinding eyecomplication of AIDS. (nih.gov)
- The Chicago Tribune, in a unique collaboration with data scientists, pharmacologists and cellular researchers at Columbia University Medical Center, set out to see if these same novel techniques could be used in the hunt for risky drug pairs. (expressnews.com)
- The team next turned to Columbia cellular researchers, who tested one of the drug combinations on individual cells. (expressnews.com)
- Typically, researchers trying to spot drug interactions analyze the FDA archive and scientific literature for signs that a pair of medications is causing harm. (expressnews.com)
- The researchers could use the side effects to lead them to drug pairs that might be risky. (expressnews.com)
- To counter this, the researchers used the anti-addiction drug naltrexone, which blocks the mu receptor. (healthcanal.com)
- The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index was performed to assess the efficacy of the antibiotics alone and in combination. (news-medical.net)
- They studied commercially available CAV (a duo of ceftazidime and avibactam) and compared its effectiveness to other first-line regimens using a screening tool endorsed by the FDA (called the hollow fiber system model, which allows for a quick examination of drug efficacy based on human lung pharmacokinetics). (eurekalert.org)
- The efficacy and tolerability of Artesunate-Mefloquine fixed-dose combination (ASMQ FDC) was tested in children under 5 years of age with uncomplicated falciparum malaria. (medindia.net)
- Nasdaq: CPXX), a biopharmaceutical company that is transforming the science of combination therapy and developing products to improve patient outcomes in cancer, announced their successful R&D efforts to apply the CombiPlex technology platform to optimize the efficacy of anticancer drug combinations incorporating molecularly targeted agents (MTAs). (thefreedictionary.com)
- an agent patented by the company for its efficacy against cold viruses, and Xylometazoline - a well-known drug that targets inflamed nasal mucous membranes. (prlog.org)
- We have observed excellent efficacy, the best reported to date, and very good tolerability, including limited peripheral neuropathy that has been problematic with other drug combinations. (uchospitals.edu)
- The FDA generally requires only simple bioequivalence tests to ensure that drug dosing is consistent with the individual medicines, and, at most, a small human trial to prove similar efficacy. (nature.com)
- In this study, we used image-based proliferation and apoptosis assays in colorectal cancer cell lines to systematically investigate the efficacy of combinations of two to six drugs that target critical oncogenic pathways. (aacrjournals.org)
- Laboratory experiments and computational analyses reveal over 8,000 antibiotic combinations that can treat resistant bacteria. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Besides antibiotic combinations, the list of banned drugs also included analgesic combinations containing nimesulide, and codeine-based drugs. (reuters.com)
- Kirby and Thea Brennan-Krohn, MD, a post-doctoral research fellow in Kirby's lab, used a modified inkjet printer to test the activity of 20 antibiotic combinations, 18 of which contained colistin, against the Nevada strain. (bidmc.org)
- Classes of antihypertensive combinations include ACE inhibitors with calcium channel blocking agents, ACE inhibitors with thiazides, angiotensin II inhibitors with calcium channel blockers, angiotensin II inhibitors with thiazide, antiadrenergic agents (central) with thiazide, antiadrenergic agents (peripheral) with thiazide, beta blockers with calcium channel blockers, beta blockers with thiazides and potassium sparing diuretics with thiazides. (drugs.com)
- The combination is made of epigenetic inhibitors and B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) inhibitors. (medindia.net)
- BCL-2 inhibitors are already approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (medindia.net)
- The drug combination uses protein kinase inhibitors. (digitaljournal.com)
- This is a pilot study to determine the safety, toxicity, virologic and immunologic effects of combination therapy with hydroxyurea, a cytostatic chemotherapeutic agent, two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor in children with HIV infection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Protease inhibitors are aclass of promising drugs recently introduced that, when taken withother HIV-fighting medications, have shown success in prolonging thelives of people with AIDS. (nih.gov)
Different drug combinations2
- Using the NCI ALMANAC, we identified several different drug combinations that have never before been tested together in humans but that nevertheless had powerful cell-killing effects in a number of the NCI-60 cell lines. (cancer.gov)
- The inkjet technology dispenses uniform bacterial samples into each of the 96 wells in a standard lab testing plate to allow for rapid and consistent testing of different drug combinations. (bidmc.org)
- New agents and combination regimens clearly have the potential to significantly improve clinical outcomes, yet they also create new challenges including limited patient population, tolerability, and compliance issues [ 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
- In fact, there are countless possible treatment regimens because drugs are frequently used in combination. (lymphomainfo.net)
- Combinations simplify treatment, improve patient compliance, reduce prescribing errors and inadequate regimens, and may reduce drug supply management problems and cost. (sciencebasedmedicine.org)
- Currently used combination treatments in metastatic breast cancer will be discussed with their challenges leading to the introduction of novel combination anticancer drug delivery systems that aim to overcome these challenges. (hindawi.com)
- Current treatments for damaged osteoarthritic joint cartilage include the use of disease-modifying drugs and ultimately joint arthroplasty as unavoidable surgical intervention due to the limited ability of articular cartilage to self-regenerate. (springer.com)
- A new combination of treatments that includes a drug used to prevent bone loss may stop breast tumour growth, British scientists have found. (cancerresearchuk.org)
- Dr Joanna Peak, science information officer at Cancer Research UK, said: "Establishing the most effective combinations of drug treatments and the timings in which they are given is an important area of clinical research. (cancerresearchuk.org)
- Scientists have shown that a drug combination slows cancer cell growth in a type of non small cell lung cancer when tested in the lab, offering potential for developing new treatments in the future, according to a Cancer Research UK funded study published in the British Journal of Cancer today. (cancerresearchuk.org)
- At this point, my doctor wanted to continue treatments with the Cytoxan/Rituxan combination for another three treatments. (everydayhealth.com)
- The FDA recently approved Consensi, a combination of treatments for two very different diseases. (sciencebasedmedicine.org)
- Medical and health associations in Ontario issued a warning Saturday as the province - and country - see a surge in the prescription of two drugs that appear to be circulating as treatments for COVID-19 despite both a "serious lack of evidence" that they work and significant potential side-effects. (thespec.com)
- Study co-leader Professor Paul Workman, chief executive of the ICR, said: "Cancer's ability to adapt, evolve and become drug resistant is the biggest challenge we face in creating more effective treatments for the disease. (lancashiretelegraph.co.uk)
- No new drugs for depression have been developed for decades - they all work in a similar way - so there's an urgent need to develop new treatments for this condition that affects around 4 million adults in the UK. (healthcanal.com)
- The Radiotherapy-Drug Combinations Consortium (RaDCom) was established by CTRad and the Cancer Research UK (CRUK) Centre for Drug Development (CDD) in 2013. (ncri.org.uk)
- ZURICH (Reuters) - An experimental drug from Roche helped people with an advanced form of skin cancer live longer without their disease worsening when used in combination with another treatment, the Swiss drugmaker said on Monday. (reuters.com)
- Pharmaceutical companies are looking to combination therapy to yield better results and drug cocktails are expected to be crucial as oncologists seek to block cancer on multiple fronts. (reuters.com)
- Roche is also investigating cobimetinib in combination with other experimental medicines, including an immunotherapy for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer and colorectal cancer. (reuters.com)
- A new drug combination may be effective in treating men with metastatic prostate cancer. (eurekalert.org)
- The approach combines several drugs and attacks the cancer on several fronts," said Dr. Fred Saad, researcher at the University of Montreal Hospital Research Centre (CRCHUM) and principal investigator of the study. (eurekalert.org)
- Dr. Fred Saad is principal investigator of the trial entitled "A Phase 3 Randomized, Placebo-controlled Double-blind Study of JNJ-56021927 in Combination with Abiraterone Acetate and Prednisone Versus Abiraterone Acetate and Prednisone in Subjects with Chemotherapy-naive Metastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer (mCRPC) who did not Receive any Chemotherapy. (eurekalert.org)
- Noncytotoxic biological agents act on specific molecular pathways to target cancer cells while sparing normal tissues, and therefore do not generally cause alopecia, vomiting, and myelosuppression that are characteristic of cytotoxic drugs. (hindawi.com)
- NCI ALMANAC provides data showing how well pairs of FDA-approved cancer drugs kill tumor cells from the NCI-60 Human Tumor Cell Lines. (cancer.gov)
- This resource, called the NCI ALMANAC , provides data showing how well pairs of Food and Drug Administration-approved cancer drugs performed in killing tumor cells from the NCI-60 Human Tumor Cell Lines , a library of cancer cell lines maintained by NCI. (cancer.gov)
- So, when a novel compound is tested against cell lines in the NCI-60, it's possible to determine not just whether it kills the cells, but how it affects the molecular machinery of a cancer cell-information that is critical for understanding how a drug works. (cancer.gov)
- The report from our NCI group in Cancer Research provides an ideal case report of what the NCI ALMANAC results might mean for advancing new drug combinations into human trials. (cancer.gov)
- Data in the NCI ALMANAC showed that the combination of nilotinib and paclitaxel had robust cell-killing effects in blood cancer and triple-negative breast cancer cell lines. (cancer.gov)
- A new study, led by Anthony Faber, Ph.D., member of the Developmental Therapeutics research program at VCU Massey Cancer Center, found that a novel epigenetic drug known as a H3K27me demethylase inhibitor can be used in combination with an existing drug called venetoclax to more effectively kill high-risk neuroblastoma cells. (medindia.net)
- A new drug combination, which is effective against the skin cancer, could save millions of lives each year. (digitaljournal.com)
- We discovered that this ribonuclease drug could be paired favorably with other cancer chemotherapeutic agents, and not only that, the pairing made logical sense in terms of the underlying biochemistry. (digitaljournal.com)
- The study , conducted by professor Des Richardson of the Sydney Medical School, illustrate that drugs can control the spread and growth of cancer cells. (asbestos.com)
- Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. (lymphomainfo.net)
- Many advances have been made (and are still underway) in chemotherapy over the years, and more and more drugs are becoming available to target specific kinds of cancer cells and to minimize side effects. (lymphomainfo.net)
- The scientists agreed to emulate a combination trial model pioneered by the cancer field and use existing infrastructure for an initial trial of two amyloid-lowering agents. (alzforum.org)
- The growth of the Global Drug-device Combination Products Market is driven by rise in incidence of chronic diseases such as diabetes, cancer, and respiratory problems, increase in casualties owing to accidents and trauma, rise in geriatric population, growth in home-based healthcare market, and technological advancements such as development of prefilled syringes. (openpr.com)
- The drug combination delivers a double whammy to the way the KRAS gene makes cancer cells grow. (cancerresearchuk.org)
- Lead author, Dr Udai Banerji, Cancer Research UK Reader at the Institute of Cancer Research, said: "There aren't yet any drugs to treat cancers with the KRAS mutation, so our study has given us a direction to focus future research on. (cancerresearchuk.org)
- The drug AZD2014 is experimental and still in clinical trials to treat solid tumours (all cancer types except leukaemia, lymphoma or myeloma). (cancerresearchuk.org)
- This study will test the safety and effectiveness of hydroxyurea, an anti-cancer drug, given together with the anti-HIV drugs didanosine, stavudine and efavirenz for treating children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The two drugs are frequently used alone to treat breast cancer. (orlandosentinel.com)
- This new approval covers the use of gemcitabine (Gemzar) in combination with carboplatin to treat women who've suffered an ovarian cancer relapse at least 6 months after initial treatment. (cancernetwork.com)
- With our platform, you can profile your compounds as single agents or combinations across hundreds of well-annotated cancer cell lines, and gain actionable insights in a short period of time. (horizondiscovery.com)
- It's our belief that by combining conventional chemotherapy with MI-773, a drug that kills more cancer stem cells, we can have a more effective surgery or ablation. (eurekalert.org)
- Vorinostat also sensitized PARPis insensitive cancer cell lines to 6-thioguanine (6-TG)-a drug that targets PARPis sensitive cells. (plos.org)
- The challenge is to select which of the many drug combination possibilities and administration schedules are most suitable for clinical development across distinct cancer patient populations. (frontiersin.org)
- Progression-free survival, the length of time that a patient doesn't experience any cancer growth, was significantly improved in the women who received the new drug combination compared to those who received a standard treatment. (mskcc.org)
- To minimize the non-specific toxicity of drug combination during cancer therapy, we prepared a new system synthesized from bacteria to deliver the anticancer drugs cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) and daunorubicin (DNR). (mdpi.com)
- Scientists discovered that when breast cancer drug palbociclib was combined with lung cancer drug crizotinib, the two-drug combination was significantly more effective against cancer cells in the laboratory than either drug used on its own. (lancashiretelegraph.co.uk)
- We still need to do more work to understand the full potential of combination treatment to increase the effectiveness of these drugs, but the approach looks highly promising and has the potential to be effective against several cancer types. (lancashiretelegraph.co.uk)
- Our results illustrate how high-order drug combinations are needed to kill drug-resistant cancer cells, and they also show how systematic drug combination screening together with a molecular understanding of drug responses may help define optimal cocktails to overcome aggressive cancers. (aacrjournals.org)
- During the acute and subacute phases of shoulder impingement syndrome, it is appropriate to use a short course of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects as an adjunct to the therapy program and other treatment modalities. (medscape.com)
- NSAIDs are the most widely used drugs in the world, exhibiting anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic activities. (medscape.com)
- The context specificity of synergistic combinations creates many opportunities for therapeutically relevant selectivity and enables improved control of complex biological systems. (nih.gov)
- Identification of novel synergistic combinations of pipeline candidates, emerging targeted agents, and approved drugs. (horizondiscovery.com)
- New research has revealed that, contrary to traditional beliefs in the medical community, four- or five-drug combinations can be effective in treating infection with treatment-resistant bacteria. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- While taking hydrocodone combination products, discuss with your healthcare provider your pain treatment goals, length of treatment, and other ways to manage your pain. (medlineplus.gov)
- Drinking alcohol, taking prescription or nonprescription medications that contain alcohol, or using street drugs during your treatment with a hydrocodone combination product increases the risk that you will experience these serious, life-threatening side effects. (medlineplus.gov)
- Do not drink alcohol, take prescription or nonprescription medications that contain alcohol, or use street drugs during your treatment. (medlineplus.gov)
- The combined drugs are well tolerated and the treatment appears effective," said Dr. Saad. (eurekalert.org)
- They hope this first combination treatment will successfully delay progression of the disease and prolong life. (eurekalert.org)
- A brief summary of drug-resistant tuberculosis and new insight into treatment. (eurekalert.org)
- Pairing the antibiotic ceftazidime with the enzyme inhibitor avibactam may be an effective treatment for drug-resistant tuberculosis, a new study reports. (eurekalert.org)
- While newer antibiotics like bedaquiline and delamanid have improved patient outcomes, they are still associated with a 24-month treatment failure rate of 38% in those with extensively drug-resistant Mtb. (eurekalert.org)
- Although in theory a combination drug therapy has advantages over single-agent therapy, no appreciable survival enhancement is generally reported whereas increased toxicity is frequently seen in combination treatment especially in chemotherapy. (hindawi.com)
- Among those were genes involved in inflammation and immune responses, suggesting some pathways by which the combination treatment works. (news-medical.net)
- In its investigation, Reuters interviewed former and current medical representatives for Abbott who said Zimnic AZ had been promoted and administered as a treatment for a broad array of illnesses, including colds, fevers, urinary tract infections, drug-resistant typhoid and sexually transmitted diseases. (reuters.com)
- A new drug-combination for the treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma has been identified. (medindia.net)
- A new drug-combination for the treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma using an already approved drug has been identified along with a new target for therapy. (medindia.net)
- Pro-differentiation drugs have long been used as part of treatment for high-risk neuroblastoma. (medindia.net)
- An intralumen medical device comprising anti-proliferative and anti-thrombotic or anti-coagulant drugs, agents or compounds may be utilized in the treatment of vascular disease. (google.com)
- With diagnostic testing and treatment moving from the hospital laboratory to the physician's office, ambulance, or even the home, the number of combination products coming to market is on the rise. (upmraflatac.com)
- These have been reported as the most effective class of drugs in the treatment of melanoma. (digitaljournal.com)
- Because of the facial disfigurement that leprosy causes, a treatment that works faster than the standard drug combinations do would be welcome, Gelber says. (thefreedictionary.com)
- These products lead to safer, effective management, and treatment of several disorders, owing to precise drug delivery, local administration, and individualized treatment. (openpr.com)
- To calculate the market size, the report considers revenue generated from the sales of various prescription drugs along with the generic drugs used for the treatment of various infectious diseases caused by the different strains of bacteria. (prnewswire.co.uk)
- The American Society of Hypertension (ASH) and the International Society of Hypertension (ISH) have jointly recommended initiating treatment with two antihypertensive drugs if a patient's untreated blood pressure is at least 20/10 mmHg above the target blood pressure. (lexology.com)
- The DAC trial found that the combination treatment decreased the rate of loss of primary unassisted graft patency - the useful life of a graft before it becomes blocked the first time - by 18 percent and the rate of developing significant stenosis by 28 percent, compared to placebo. (emaxhealth.com)
- Finally, drug combinations represent the current treatment strategy for many cancers. (nature.com)
- increasing in frequency as people with AIDS live longer, with up to40% of all adults with AIDS eventually developing the disease.Standard treatment for CMV retinitis, which can cause blindness ifleft untreated, requires life-long medication with a variety ofanti-CMV drugs that can be cumbersome, costly, and toxic. (nih.gov)
- Combination Therapy or Single Drug for CLL Treatment? (everydayhealth.com)
- The concentration of antiretroviral drugs in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) effluents and surface waters of many countries has increased significantly due to their widespread use for HIV treatment. (bioportfolio.com)
- 8 Typically, a preferred drug is chosen for initial treatment. (aafp.org)
- The clinician is well advised to heed the important advice that Skolnik and colleagues 1 provide about the merits of combination antihypertensive drug treatment. (aafp.org)
- There still need to be further trials of the combination in humans, but the whole process of developing this as a new treatment would be greatly reduced. (healthcanal.com)
- Fixed-dose combinations with two or more antituberculous drugs in one capsule or tablet are available to prevent this. (unboundmedicine.com)
- In the United States in 1993, however, only 15% to 18% of rifampin was sold in the form of fixed-dose combinations. (unboundmedicine.com)
- To correct this deficiency, fixed-dose combinations should be widely promoted and accepted as a primary way to prevent drug-resistant tuberculosis. (unboundmedicine.com)
- First, many fixed-dose combinations, especially those in developing countries, achieve inadequate blood levels of one or more of the component drugs, especially rifampin. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Combination drugs, or fixed dose combinations (FDCs), combine two or more active ingredients in a single dosage form. (sciencebasedmedicine.org)
- Fixed-dose combinations of antiretrovirals are multiple antiretroviral drugs combined into a single pill, which helps reduce pill burden. (wikipedia.org)
- Licensed fixed-dose combinations are shown in the table below. (wikipedia.org)
- A combination drug is a fixed-dose combination (FDC) that includes two or more active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) combined in a single dosage form, which is manufactured and distributed in fixed doses. (wikipedia.org)
- The synergy score S = ln f X ln f Y Σ doses max(0, Z data ) ( Z data − Z model ) sums up the excess inhibition over the HSA model with weights to account for drug dilution factors f X , f Y , and favor synergy at high inhibition levels. (nih.gov)
- And each drug in each pair was tested at different doses, producing nearly 3 million data points. (cancer.gov)
- 2) In a factorial study comparing A+B to A and to B, at the highest doses planned for the fixed combination, showing that each component contributes to the blood pressure effect, provided that other evidence supports dissimilar mechanisms of action and the doses in the combination are reasonably high on their dose-response curves. (lexology.com)
- Upon completing either of the above factorial studies, a sponsor would not need to study combinations of lower approved doses to satisfy the combination rule, because the drugs' independent effects at lower doses can be assumed. (lexology.com)
- Most drugs were effective in combinations when used in standard doses. (bidmc.org)
- Therapy with the low to moderate doses of the two drugs in a combination agent more effectively lowers blood pressure than monotherapy with a higher dosage of either drug alone-and with fewer side effects. (aafp.org)
- The team found that when they used the ceftazidime-avibactam-fosfomycin combination, the progression of the bacteria multiplication was significantly halted. (news-medical.net)
- Lead investigator Dr James Vredenburgh, a neurooncologist at Duke University, said: 'We found that this drug combination could significantly improve outcomes for these people, who are typically given about three to six months to live. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- The big catch: the current drugs already cost around $300,000 a year and adding a third drug would likely boost that cost significantly. (nbcnews.com)
- For the first time, a combination of aspirin and the anti-platelet drug dipyridamole has been shown to significantly reduce blockages and extend the useful life of new artery-vein access grafts used for hemodialysis, according to a study by the Dialysis Access Consortium (DAC). (emaxhealth.com)
- Our trial results show that we now have a drug therapy that significantly prolongs the viability of AV grafts," said Bradley S. Dixon, M.D., of the University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, and lead author of the study. (emaxhealth.com)
- Importantly, these drug combinations did not affect survival of normal fibroblasts and breast cells, and significantly increased the inhibition of xenograft tumor growth relative to each drug alone, without affecting the mice weight or their liver and kidney function. (plos.org)
- In the clinic, combinations of targeted drugs have significantly improved patient survival ( 9, 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- For one anti-inflammatory example, we show how such selectivity is achieved through differential expression of the drugs' targets in cell types associated with therapeutic, but not toxic, effects and validate its therapeutic relevance in a rat model of asthma. (nih.gov)
- Kalinina OV, Wichmann O, Apic G, Russell RB (2011) Combinations of Protein-Chemical Complex Structures Reveal New Targets for Established Drugs. (plos.org)
- The findings in laboratory animals "" both improved memory in our tests and evidence that the drug targets the biology for making memories in the brain "" places this drug on solid footing as a candidate therapeutic agent," said the study's lead author, Michela Gallagher. (redorbit.com)
- Advances in target-based drug discovery strategies have enabled drug discovery groups in academia and industry to become very effective at generating molecules that are potent and selective against single targets. (frontiersin.org)
- This drug combination targets a different pathway in the brain so could offer hope for those for whom the SSRIs don't work. (healthcanal.com)
- Tell your doctor if you or anyone in your family drinks or has ever drunk large amounts of alcohol, uses or has ever used street drugs, or has overused prescription medications, or has had an overdose, or if you have or have ever had depression or another mental illness. (medlineplus.gov)
- Taking certain medications with a hydrocodone combination product may increase the risk of serious or life-threatening breathing problems, sedation, or coma. (medlineplus.gov)
- If you take a hydrocodone combination product with any of these medications and you develop any of the following symptoms, call your doctor immediately or seek emergency medical care: unusual dizziness, lightheadedness, extreme sleepiness, slowed or difficult breathing, or unresponsiveness. (medlineplus.gov)
- Specifically, a report in the journal Hypertension finds that quarter-dose combinations of blood pressure-lowering medications appear to work better. (uspharmacist.com)
- Results indicate that two medications in combination, each at a quarter dose, was just as effective as one blood pressure-lowering medication at a standard dose. (uspharmacist.com)
- The study also determined that four medications in combination, each at a quarter dose, was nearly twice as effective as taking one blood pressure-lowering medication at the standard dose. (uspharmacist.com)
- Data presented at a medical meeting in Philadelphia today showed the Ardea drug was no better at controlling gout than existing medications, including allopurinol, a cheap generic. (xconomy.com)
- Our findings suggest that the combination of proteaseinhibitors and other anti-HIV medications can restore the immunesystem to a point where it can fight the CMV retinitis infection onits own," said Dr. Scott Whitcup, clinical director of NEI andfirst author of the JAMA letter. (nih.gov)
- For decades, scientists have wrestled with the problem that trusted prescription medications can combine in dangerous ways, often placing Americans at risk when they take more than one drug. (expressnews.com)
- The drugs include several widely prescribed medications, none of them linked to the cardiac condition on its own. (expressnews.com)
- The prescriptions in question involve a combination of two medications, hydroxychloroquine sulfate (brand name Plaquenil) and azithromycin (brand name Zithromax). (thespec.com)
- it seeks to work with UK-based investigators to develop and deliver high quality preclinical projects evaluating specific radiotherapy-drug combinations, to provide the necessary evidence base for early phase clinical trials. (ncri.org.uk)
- Given these encouraging results, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and Health Canada authorized the start of a Phase 3 clinical study. (eurekalert.org)
- This antibacterial drug combination - already in clinical use for Gram-negative bacterial infections - could aid in stemming the growing global drug-resistant tuberculosis crisis. (eurekalert.org)
- The results from this work were convincing enough that we launched phase I clinical trials of both drug combinations at the NIH Clinical Center. (cancer.gov)
- The first pediatric study of a combination drug to treat the hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in children and adolescents demonstrated 100 percent effectiveness in adolescents who completed the 12-week, phase II clinical trial. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
- Looking forward, Faber said that he and his research team will continue to collaborate with AbbVie Inc., the pharmaceutical company responsible for manufacturing venetoclax, to transition the combination of venetoclax and epigenetic drugs into clinical trials for neuroblastoma. (medindia.net)
- For clinical trial design, the guidance provides that a single phase 3, double-blind, randomized trial would generally be sufficient to demonstrate effectiveness of a combination of previously approved antihypertensive drugs. (lexology.com)
- Sponsors of products that combine two or more previously marketed drugs or biologics may be able to rely on existing clinical and nonclinical safety data before proceeding with clinical trials of the proposed combination therapy, according to a new FDA guidance. (fdanews.com)
- The experiment began with thousands of patient files, millions of prescription orders, billions of clinical measurements and a single question: Could big data be used to discover deadly drug combinations? (expressnews.com)
- We further describe how the incorporation of high-throughput reverse phase protein microarrays with phenotypic screening can provide rational drug combination hypotheses but also confirm the mechanism-of-action of novel drug combinations, to facilitate future preclinical and clinical development strategies. (frontiersin.org)
- Given the widespread use and strong track record of clinical success of combination therapy across complex diseases, it is surprising that most typical drug discovery strategies only consider drug combinations during late-stage development or as a risk mitigation strategy. (frontiersin.org)
- RIVUR was a two-year clinical trial that randomized 607 children to receive the TMP/SMP drug combination or placebo. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Antihypertensive combinations have agents that control blood pressure. (drugs.com)
- Antihypertensive combinations that do not fall into these classes are classified as miscellaneous antihypertensive combinations. (drugs.com)
- For combination antihypertensive drugs, the guidance recommends selecting previously approved antihypertensive drugs with reasonably distinct mechanisms of action to increase additive blood pressure effects while reducing dose-related adverse effects. (lexology.com)
- Combination antihypertensive drug therapy has long been an infrequently exercised therapeutic option in the difficult battle to achieve target blood pressure levels. (aafp.org)
- Note that when a combination drug product (whether fixed-dose or not) is a "pill" (i.e., a tablet or capsule), then it is also a kind of "polypill" or combopill. (wikipedia.org)
- One pill or dose form contains more than one class of drug, which is indicated to treat hypertension. (drugs.com)
- Having a combination of drugs in one pill may better control hypertension by improving compliance. (drugs.com)
- Fixed-dose combination drugs, or FDCs, combine two or more drugs in a single pill. (reuters.com)
- Drugs may be taken by pill, or administered via injection. (lymphomainfo.net)
- Atripla is a combination pill of viread (tenofovir), FTC ( emtricitabine , emtriva) and the NNRTI sustiva (efavirenz). (thebody.com)
- Truvada is a combination pill of viread and FTC. (thebody.com)
- Truvada, a single pill containing the drugs tenofovir and emtricitabine (TDF/FTC), is currently approved for daily use in adults. (scienceblog.com)
- On 27 October, the California company submitted an application to the US Food and Drug Administration ( FDA ) for its four-in-one HIV pill, which, if approved, would contain more medicines than any pill currently on the US market. (nature.com)
- The so-called 'Quad' pill promises the same virus-controlling ability as the four drugs separately but should be easier to use for people with the infection. (nature.com)
- Now all they need is a single once-daily pill that combines two to four anti-retroviral drugs. (sciencebasedmedicine.org)
- The four anti-tuberculosis drugs isoniazid + rifampin + ethambutol + pyrazinamide are combined in a single pill. (sciencebasedmedicine.org)
- The growth rate of confident predictions is twice that of experimental complexes, meaning that a complete structural drug-protein repertoire will be available at least ten years earlier than by X-ray and NMR techniques alone. (plos.org)
- As potential Alzheimer's disease drugs continue to post disappointing Phase 2 and 3 results, many in the field are considering upping the artillery by testing experimental drugs in combination. (alzforum.org)
- The journal is carrying two reports about two experimental cystic fibrosis drugs, both developed by Vertex Pharmaceuticals. (nbcnews.com)
- In the two trials of the two experimental Vertex drugs, lung function improved by between 11 percent and 13 percent, the two teams reported. (nbcnews.com)
- ANN ARBOR -- An experimental drug combined with the traditional chemotherapy drug cisplatin, when used in mice, destroyed a rare form of salivary gland tumor and prevented a recurrence within 300 days, a University of Michigan study found. (eurekalert.org)
- The team carried out many experiments in the laboratory and designed a mathematical framework - called mathematical analysis for general interactions of components (MAGIC) - that enabled them to study multiple drug combinations and anticipate their results. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Lead author of the study Krisztina M. Papp-Wallace, assistant professor of medicine at the School of Medicine and a research scientist at the Cleveland VA Medical Center explained, "By successfully combining these two drugs against this widespread form of bacteria, we hope to lay a foundation for eventually eradicating the infection. (news-medical.net)
- They also will study whether the combination of drugs can prevent the development of osteoarthritis before symptoms develop. (news-medical.net)
- The new study suggests that combining venetoclax with the new epigenetic drug may be even more effective. (medindia.net)
- The purpose of this study is to compare the safety and effectiveness of taking lamivudine (3TC) plus zidovudine (ZDV) plus a protease inhibitor (PI) with taking the 3TC/ZDV combination tablet (Combivir) plus a PI. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- In a recent study done in six European countries, investigators reviewed the medicines taken by about 1600 people and found that 46% were taking at least one pair of drugs that could interact. (diabetesselfmanagement.com)
- India needs to ban the sale and manufacturing of fixed-dose drug combinations not approved by the CDSCO beginning with those which include drugs banned or unapproved internationally and, therefore, most likely to be harmful," explained Patricia McGettigan who led the study at Queen Mary University of London. (medindia.net)
- Our research wholly supports the need for a complete overhaul of the new Drugs Bill and we urge the government of India to make this a priority," noted professor Allyson Pollock, global health expert and study co-author. (medindia.net)
- This study was conducted to evaluate and compare two drug combinations of TIVA using propofol-ketamine and propofol-fentanyl and to study the induction, maintenance and recovery characteristics following anesthesia with these techniques. (nih.gov)
- The study provides an in-depth analysis of the global drug-device combination products market with the current trends and future estimations from 2017 to 2025 to elucidate the imminent investment pockets. (openpr.com)
- This is reflected in the findings of an in vitro study which will form the basis for developing a single drug that combats viral infections as well as freeing up blocked airways. (prlog.org)
- A National Institutes of Health network study has confirmed that a combination of two drugs taken daily to reduce the chances of HIV infection among high-risk adults also works well and appears safe in males ages 15 to 17 years. (scienceblog.com)
- The study published in JAMA Pediatrics, was funded by NIH's Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), National Institute on Drug Abuse, and National Institute of Mental Health. (scienceblog.com)
- Youth with poor kidney function and a history of bone fractures were excluded from the study because the drug combination may sometimes stress the kidneys and cause bone loss. (scienceblog.com)
- In general, study participants tolerated the drug well, and there were no reports of effects on the kidneys or bones. (scienceblog.com)
- The authors concluded that the lack of significant adverse health events during the study indicates that the drug is safe for males under age 18. (scienceblog.com)
- In this study, we employ a computational approach, SynGeNet (Synergy from Gene expression and Network mining), which integrates transcriptomics-based connectivity mapping and network centrality analysis to analyze disease networks and predict drug combinations. (nature.com)
- We validated synergistic drug combinations predicted by our method across all genomic subtypes using results from a high-throughput drug screening study across. (nature.com)
- One systems-based approach employed in this study is the widely used connectivity mapping method to facilitate systematic comparison of gene expression profiles characterizing responses to drugs and biological states of interest using pattern-matching algorithms. (nature.com)
- an early-stage study is being conducted in 54 healthy volunteers to look at the safety of the drug combination. (xconomy.com)
- The purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of various combinations of anti-HIV drugs in HIV-positive men and women. (bioportfolio.com)
- The purpose of this study is to see if it is safe and effective to give an anti-HIV drug combination of indinavir (IDV) plus stavudine (d4T) plus lamivudine (3TC) to HIV-infected children. (bioportfolio.com)
- This study will also see how a combination of st. (bioportfolio.com)
- In this study, we evaluated the relative activity of three commonly used sulfa drugs, sulfamethoxazole (Smx), dapsone (Dps), sulfachlorpyridazine (Scp), and also trimethoprim (Tmp), and assessed their combinations with the commonly prescribed Lyme antibiotics for activities against B. burgdorferi stationary phase cells. (prohealth.com)
- The addition of etanercept was safe and had no impact on the concentration of the chemotherapy drugs in the body, the study found. (fdanews.com)
- The Columbia scientists cautioned that the study, published earlier this month in the journal Drug Safety, does not prove cause and effect and that the results are preliminary. (expressnews.com)
- Dr Bailey added: "Our study shows that using a combination of naltrexone and buprenorphine gives an antidepressant effect in mice, but without the problems of addiction that could be caused by using buprenorphine alone. (healthcanal.com)
- New research led by scientists at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) reveals that combining four or five antibiotics can prove surprisingly effective in killing off or slowing down the progression of drug-resistant bacteria. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- They expected some of these combinations to perform well against bacteria - but surprisingly, they also found 1,676 four-drug combinations and 6,443 five-drug combinations to be equally effective. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- This combination was tried on mice models with Pseudomonas infections and the results showed that the combination was more effective in killing the bacteria compared to either antibiotic alone. (news-medical.net)
- Scientists at MIT report that by delivering a combination of antibiotic drugs and probiotics, they could eradicate two strains of drug-resistant bacteria that often infect wounds. (genengnews.com)
- When MRSA and Pseudomonas aeruginosa growing in a lab dish were exposed to the combination of encapsulated Bio-K+ and tobramycin, all of the pathogenic bacteria were wiped out. (genengnews.com)
- Because bacteria - especially Gram-negative strains - are becoming increasingly resistant to current antibiotics, investigators are studying the potential of combining two or more drugs to work together to combat resistant bacterial pathogens. (bidmc.org)
- I was blown away by how many effective combinations there are as we increased the number of drugs," says Prof. Savage. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The idea behind the NCI ALMANAC is simple: use the NCI-60 to determine whether specific drugs are more effective when used together in combination than when used alone. (cancer.gov)
- Analysis revealed that the combination of drugs and lifestyle guidance was effective, both at reducing weight and lowering BMI. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- A combination drug taken within an hour after the start of a migraine is effective in relieving symptoms, according to research published in the July 8, 2008, issue of Neurology®, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology. (innovations-report.com)
- to guide us toward effective drug combinations. (mdanderson.org)
- Similarly, the lack of HIV infection among participants who had sufficiently high blood levels of medication is consistent with studies in adults and suggests that the drug can be effective in this population when taken appropriately. (scienceblog.com)
- The rule governing fixed-combination prescription drugs, 21 CFR § 300.50, provides that each component must make a contribution to the claimed effects, and that the dosage of each component be such that the combination is safe and effective for the intended patient population. (lexology.com)
- Studies have shown that these combinations are safe and effective, and there is plenty of evidence that FDCs improve compliance. (sciencebasedmedicine.org)
- Pharmaceutical drugs: Risk of suicide or suicidal thoughts, ignoring the infants stool look like, and how these may cause prolongation of the xenobiotic and would increase the rate of decline is a broader use of therapeutic regimen, effective 75 6. (childbirthsolutions.com)
- Drug combinations are a promising strategy to overcome the compensatory mechanisms and unwanted off-target effects that limit the utility of many potential drugs. (nih.gov)
- These combinations were tested for their antitumor activity in several mouse models of human tumors, and additional experiments were performed to investigate the mechanisms by which these combinations kill tumor cells. (cancer.gov)
- Computational methods are needed to efficiently model complex interactions of drug target pathways and identify mechanisms underlying drug combination synergy. (nature.com)
- Finally, we prospectively validated the drug combination for BRAF -mutant melanoma that was top ranked by our approach, vemurafenib (BRAF inhibitor) + tretinoin (retinoic acid receptor agonist), using both in vitro and in vivo models of BRAF -mutant melanoma and RNA-sequencing analysis of drug-treated melanoma cells to validate the predicted mechanisms. (nature.com)
- Terms like "combination drug" or "combination drug product" can be common shorthand for a FDC product (since most combination drug products are currently FDCs), although the latter is more precise if in fact referring to a mass-produced product having a predetermined combination of drugs and respective dosages (as opposed to customized polypharmacy via compounding). (wikipedia.org)
- Initially, fixed-dose combination drug products were developed to target a single disease (such as with antiretroviral FDCs used against AIDS). (wikipedia.org)
- Since FDCs are reviewed by regulating agencies (such as the Food and Drug Administration in the United States), the active ingredients used in the FDCs are unlikely to exhibit adverse drug interactions with each other. (wikipedia.org)
- However, FDCs may interact with other drugs that a patient is taking, so the usual medical and pharmaceutical precautions against drug-drug interactions or DDIs remain warranted. (wikipedia.org)
- In 2012, the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Health & Family Welfare reported that a very large number of FDCs had been licensed by state drug authorities without approval by the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO). (medindia.net)
- Drug companies create FDCs as a way to extend their proprietary rights, increase prices, and improve marketability. (sciencebasedmedicine.org)
Food and Drug Administration's2
- If you experience a serious side effect, you or your doctor may send a report to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting program online ( http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch ) or by phone (1-800-332-1088). (medlineplus.gov)
- The investigation is believed to be the first time anyone has discovered a potential drug interaction by searching for signals in the Food and Drug Administration's complaint archive, then confirming the findings through patient records and cellular testing. (expressnews.com)
- With his colleague, Dan Malone, RPh, PhD, Dr. Horn advised the Chicago Tribune which drug pairs represented either a serious problem or a potentially deadly combination. (peoplespharmacy.com)
- 3 , 4 Discovering novel uses for existing drugs through drug repurposing or drug repositioning has also been an important goal in efforts to advance understanding of systems-level effects of large repertoires of chemical and pharmacological agents, and in doing so, potentially reduce the financial and labor costs associated with the drug discovery process. (nature.com)
- Two years later, the results are in: The team has identified four drug combinations associated with a heart condition that can lead to a potentially fatal arrhythmia. (expressnews.com)
- To find the potentially risky combinations, the Tribune enlisted the help of scientists at Columbia, who used sophisticated algorithms to analyze a massive government database of drug complaints for signs of the heart condition. (expressnews.com)
- By analyzing a sophisticated, genetically engineered mouse model of NRAS-mutant melanoma with a novel systems biology approach, scientists discovered that combining two different classes of drugs shrinks these tumors. (mdanderson.org)
- Trametinib has been licensed for use in the UK in combination with dabrafenib to treat metastatic melanoma in adults with a BRAF mutation. (cancerresearchuk.org)
- We employed SynGeNet to generate drug combination predictions for each of the four major genomic subtypes of melanoma (BRAF, NRAS, NF1, and triple wild type) using publicly available gene expression and mutation data. (nature.com)
- The present work assesses, in vitro, the effect of combining the antiretroviral drug nelfinavir (NFV - a drug used against HIV but also a strong in vitro inhibitor of the growth of Leishmania promasti. (bioportfolio.com)
- Removal of antiretroviral drugs stavudine and zidovudine in water under UV254 and UV254/H2O2 processes: Quantum yields, kinetics and ecotoxicology assessment. (bioportfolio.com)
- The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own personal medication records. (drugs.com)
- Predicting drug-target interactions is a hot topic, and many efforts have been undertaken to do this, many using large interaction networks. (plos.org)
- We make thousands of confident predictions, including structures for known protein-drug interactions lacking a structure (e.g. topoisomerase-2/radicicol) and many new interactions. (plos.org)
- Large biological networks have been used previously to suggest protein-protein interactions , phosphorylation events and most recently drug-protein interactions. (plos.org)
- The network contains many thousands of protein-protein and protein-chemical interactions, of which several hundred involve drugs. (plos.org)
- Although not all potential drug interactions result in a bad outcome, drug interactions contribute to an increased risk of an adverse event. (diabetesselfmanagement.com)
- On average, a person who enters the hospital is treated with 10 drugs and has about a 20% probability of having a reaction caused by drug interactions. (diabetesselfmanagement.com)
- With all of the drugs on the market today, how many drug interactions are possible? (diabetesselfmanagement.com)
- Fortunately, while there are a lot of potential drug interactions, not all of them result in adverse drug reactions. (diabetesselfmanagement.com)
- He is an expert on dangerous drug interactions. (peoplespharmacy.com)
- You might think that doctors would catch dangerous or deadly drug interactions before they reached the pharmacy. (peoplespharmacy.com)
- 3 of 5 Using a wall he coated with special white-board paint, Columbia University data scientist Nick Tatonetti (center) works through calculations crucial to the algorithms needed to find hidden drug interactions. (expressnews.com)
- The double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled test was designed to determine whether bevacizumab could increase the effectiveness of gemcitabine and cisplatin, two chemotherapy drugs that have been used to treat mesothelioma for years. (asbestos.com)
- Chemotherapy drugs are engineered to attack cells that divide rapidly. (lymphomainfo.net)
- However, enthusiasm for this approach is tempered by concerns that the therapeutic synergy of a combination will be accompanied by synergistic side effects. (nih.gov)
- We highlight six combinations whose selective synergy depends on multitarget drug activity. (nih.gov)
- Interestingly, contrary to other bacterial systems, Tmp did not show synergy in drug combinations with the three sulfa drugs at their clinically relevant serum concentrations against B. burgdorferi. (prohealth.com)
- Hogan says they've had successes with the synergy that happens with combination of two over the counter drugs, both histamine receptor blockers, Cetirizine and Famotidine. (wlbt.com)
- While lifestyle advice alone was associated with weight loss at six and 12 months, the results were less impressive than those achieved with anti-obesity drugs. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- The FDA based its latest approval of the drug on results from a Phase III trial referred to as RAINBOW, which compared Cyramza plus paclitaxel to placebo plus paclitaxel. (biospace.com)
- Dr. Nagourney used the results of the EVA analysis to identify the combination for this patient, resulting in a remission that lasted several years. (cancernetwork.com)
- If results are good, Ardea will test the drug combination in people with gout. (xconomy.com)
- However, until we have those results, the use of these drugs appears to provide more benefit than risk in these children. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Herewith, we demonstrated the preparation, characterization and in vitro antitumor effects of Ara-C and DNR loaded GP-PLGA-modified bacterial magnetosomes (BMs) (ADBMs-P). The results show that this new system is stable and exhibits optimal drug-loading properties. (mdpi.com)
- Nano-scale delivery systems coordinate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of drug combinations after administration so that the optimal ratio of the two drugs is exposed to tumor cells for prolonged times while reducing drug exposure and toxicity to normal tissues. (thefreedictionary.com)
- ATRA-arsenic trioxide was associated with less hematologic toxicity and fewer infections than the chemotherapy combination, but with more hepatic toxi. (everydayhealth.com)
- The NCI ALMANAC includes data on more than 5,000 pairs of FDA-approved drugs that were tested against the NCI-60-a total of 300,000 experiments. (cancer.gov)
- We began by conducting follow-up experiments on a subset of drug pairs identified in the database that exhibited potent cell-killing effects. (cancer.gov)
- In an ideal world, no pharmacy would have dispensed any of these drug pairs, period! (peoplespharmacy.com)
- The team then used 380,000 electronic hospital patient files to confirm which drug pairs were indeed associated with an increased risk. (expressnews.com)
- Drug pairs targeting key signaling pathways resulted in synergies across a broad spectrum of genetic backgrounds but often yielded only cytostatic responses. (aacrjournals.org)
- They found that there were mutations that caused it to be resistant to beta lactam antibiotics like penicillins and cephalosporin group of drugs. (news-medical.net)
- It is not so important how long someone has had HIV as whether they have been treated before and/or have any drug resistant virus. (thebody.com)
- Some studies have found that hydroxyurea may help certain anti-HIV drugs to work better and that the virus does not become resistant to it, as it does other drugs. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- In combination with other anti-malarials, they have been used effectively for several years to treat multiple-drug -resistant malaria. (reverso.net)
- In some cases, where cell lines were resistant to paired and tripled drugs, increased expression of antiapoptotic proteins was observed, requiring a fourth-order combination to induce cytotoxicity. (aacrjournals.org)
- Electronic orange book: approved drug products with therapeutic equivalence evaluations. (emedtv.com)
- Sometimes drugs are combined for reasons other than therapeutic benefit. (sciencebasedmedicine.org)
- The many benefits that will accrue from adoption of this therapeutic strategy include improved blood pressure control, fewer drug-induced side effects (including metabolic effects) and lower drug acquisition costs. (aafp.org)
- Such combined profiles can also include effects caused by interaction between the individual drugs that may be omitted in individual drug profiles. (wikipedia.org)
- This article explains why and how medicines can interact and what a drug interaction may mean for you and your health care. (diabetesselfmanagement.com)
- The most common form of drug interaction occurs when one drug interferes with another drug's elimination from the body. (diabetesselfmanagement.com)
- This newspaper sent investigative reporters to 255 pharmacies in consultation with a renowned drug-interaction expert. (peoplespharmacy.com)
- The medical literature suggests that prescribers frequently override drug interaction alerts that pop up on their smart phones or computers. (peoplespharmacy.com)
- This drug MI-773 prevents that interaction, so p53 can induce cell death," Nör said. (eurekalert.org)
- FDC drug products may be developed by a pharmaceutical company as a way to in effect extend proprietary rights and marketability of a drug product. (wikipedia.org)
- MUMBAI (Reuters) - A powerful antibiotic combination that is marketed in India by U.S. pharmaceutical giant Abbott Laboratories is among 344 drug combinations that have been banned by the Indian health authorities. (reuters.com)
- The combination is not approved for sale in major pharmaceutical markets, including the United States, United Kingdom, Germany, France and Japan. (reuters.com)
- Epigenetic drugs target the epigenome and are currently in high demand by many pharmaceutical companies. (medindia.net)
- Previous research had pinpointed two molecules, alpha-KLOTHO and TGF beta receptor 2 (TGFβR2), as potential drugs to treat osteoarthritis. (news-medical.net)
- There are no drugs that are currently approved to treat MYCN-amplified disease, which represents about one-fourth of all neuroblastomas and has a survival rate below 50 percent. (medindia.net)
- It is estimated that people over 65 take an average of seven drugs at any one time to treat a variety of illnesses. (diabetesselfmanagement.com)
- This category of prescription drugs combines acetaminophen with another ingredient intended to treat pain (most often an opioid), and these products are commonly prescribed to consumers for pain, such as pain from acute injuries, post-operative pain, or pain following dental procedures. (emedicinehealth.com)
- She is understood to have taken Xanax, a drug used to treat anxiety and panic disorders. (dailymail.co.uk)
- FDA approval of the carboplatin-plus-gemcitabine combination affirms the utility of ex vivo drug induced cell death analysis as a tool to guide drug development for other difficult-to-treat cancers. (cancernetwork.com)
- orphan drug one that has limited commercial appeal because of the rarity of the condition it is used to treat. (thefreedictionary.com)
- It contains amlodipine, a common drug used to treat high blood pressure, and celecoxib, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), used to relieve the pain of osteoarthritis. (sciencebasedmedicine.org)
- Our HT combination screening platform operates by using sophisticated bioinformatics tools, which can assess drug or compound combinations over a defined range to look for synergistic or antagonistic effects. (horizondiscovery.com)
- Custom drug combination screening allows you to tailor a project to answer your specific questions and provides more flexibility than a standard offering, such as the OncoSignature screen. (horizondiscovery.com)
- Pairwise screening would assess all of the agents in combination and provide the customer information about how their drug behaves when combined with other drugs used. (horizondiscovery.com)
- In this article, we describe the application of emerging high-content phenotypic profiling and analysis tools to support robust evaluation of drug combination performance following dose-ratio matrix screening. (frontiersin.org)
- Recent advances in automated image-based high-content microscopy provide a new opportunity to perform hypothesis-free phenotypic screening of complex compound libraries and drug combination sets in more sophisticated biological assays ( Bickle, 2010 ). (frontiersin.org)
- The findings go against the prevalent view that such drug combinations are ineffective, or that mixing different antibiotics leads to the drugs' benefits canceling each other out. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- We expect several of these combinations, or more, will work much better than existing antibiotics. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Using these tools, Tekin and colleagues examined how every possible combination of four and five antibiotics affected a strain of Escherichia coli . (medicalnewstoday.com)
- A Reuters investigation revealed in December that a unit of Abbott in India was selling a combination of the antibiotics cefixime and azithromycin without approval from the central government. (reuters.com)
- Investigators at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) have now demonstrated that existing antibiotics, some of which have been in use for decades, may have potent activity against such strains when used in combination. (bidmc.org)
- We found that sulfa drugs combined with other antibiotics were more active than their respective single drugs and that four-drug combinations were more active than three-drug combinations. (prohealth.com)
Doctor and pharmacist2
- tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to belladonna, any barbiturate medicine, tartrazine (a yellow dye in some processed foods and drugs), or any drug. (medlineplus.gov)
- Tell your doctor and pharmacist about all of your drugs (prescription or OTC, natural products, vitamins ) and health problems. (drugs.com)
- WARNING/CAUTION: Even though it may be rare, some people may have very bad and sometimes deadly side effects when taking a drug. (drugs.com)
- Is Your Pharmacist Dispensing Deadly Drug Combinations? (peoplespharmacy.com)
- Deadly drug combinations should never be dispensed. (peoplespharmacy.com)
- What they discovered is shocking: over half of the pharmacies visited dispensed dangerous or even deadly drug combinations. (peoplespharmacy.com)
- The development of combination products leads to better management of chronic disorders, reduces the levels of pain, minimizes hospital stays, and provides better healthcare cost efficiency. (openpr.com)
- If you are taking these drugs together, your healthcare provider may need to adjust your dose of propranolol. (emedtv.com)
- If you are taking these drugs together, your healthcare provider should monitor the level of theophylline in your blood, especially when you are starting or stopping Luvox. (emedtv.com)
- Reuters also found chemists who were selling the drug to prevent post-operative infection and for respiratory problems. (reuters.com)
- The drug works by forming a protective layer on the nasal mucosa to prevent infection by cold viruses. (prlog.org)
- The drug is the cornerstone of pre-exposure prophylaxis ( PrEP ), a strategy in which healthy people at risk for HIV infection take one or more anti-HIV drugs to reduce this risk. (scienceblog.com)
- Levels of the drug sufficient to prevent HIV infection were found in 54 percent of participants by week four, 49 percent by week 12, 28 percent by week 24, and 22 percent by week 48. (scienceblog.com)
- Long-term use of a drug combination reduces the risk of recurrent urinary tract infection by up to 80 percent in children with the urinary condition vesicoureteral reflux compared to placebo, according to research funded by the National Institutes of Health. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- The risk of recurrent infection was cut by 50 percent in children with VUR using the drug combination trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMZ). (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- While each drug alone had only moderately curbed osteoarthritis in animal models of the disease, Izpisua Belmonte and his colleagues wondered if the two drugs would act more effectively in concert. (news-medical.net)
- The experiments revealed that when the two drugs are administered together they can kill cancerous cells more effectively than either drug does on its own. (digitaljournal.com)
- Sydney, Australia- If a single dose of one drug doesn't effectively lower blood pressure or creates intolerable side effects, the solution might be to give less instead of more. (uspharmacist.com)
- We shouldn't limit ourselves to just single drugs or two-drug combinations in our medical toolbox. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Ability to compose combined profiles of for example pharmacokinetics, effects and adverse effects that may be specific for the relative dosages in a given FDC product, providing a simpler overview compared to when looking at the profiles of each single drug individually. (wikipedia.org)
- Using large scale simulations of bacterial metabolism and 94,110 multi-dose experiments relevant to diverse diseases, we provide evidence that synergistic drug combinations are generally more specific to particular cellular contexts than are single agent activities. (nih.gov)
- Single agent (horizontal frames) and fixed dose ratio combination curves (diagonal frames) are extracted from both dose matrices. (nih.gov)
- Lead author Dr Laura Gray, whose findings are published in the journal Obesity Review, said: 'This is the first review to combine all available evidence for anti-obesity drugs in a single analysis. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- That meeting focused in particular on running Phase 2 trials on a continuous, adaptive platform that could test both combinations and single drugs against a shared control group. (alzforum.org)
- Once the effect of each compound as a single agent is removed, an Excess Matrix is generated that provides a simple visual representation of information about combination activity at the multiple concentrations and ratios of the two drugs and where synergies or antagonism can be seen. (horizondiscovery.com)