Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
Relating to the size of solids.
Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.
Separation of molecules and particles by a simultaneous action of carrier liquid flow and focusing field forces (electrical, sedimentation, or thermal), without a stationary phase.
Nanometer-sized, hollow, spherically-shaped objects that can be utilized to encapsulate small amounts of pharmaceuticals, enzymes, or other catalysts (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology, 4th ed).
The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.
Aconitic Acid is a weak organic acid, naturally found in some fruits and vegetables, that metabolizes to citric acid in the body and has been used in traditional medicine but can be toxic in high concentrations.
The branch of medicine concerned with the application of NANOTECHNOLOGY to the prevention and treatment of disease. It involves the monitoring, repair, construction, and control of human biological systems at the molecular level, using engineered nanodevices and NANOSTRUCTURES. (From Freitas Jr., Nanomedicine, vol 1, 1999).
The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Tree-like, highly branched, polymeric compounds. They grow three-dimensionally by the addition of shells of branched molecules to a central core. The overall globular shape and presence of cavities gives potential as drug carriers and CONTRAST AGENTS.
A cellulose of varied carboxyl content retaining the fibrous structure. It is commonly used as a local hemostatic and as a matrix for normal blood coagulation.
A polyester used for absorbable sutures & surgical mesh, especially in ophthalmic surgery. 2-Hydroxy-propanoic acid polymer with polymerized hydroxyacetic acid, which forms 3,6-dimethyl-1,4-dioxane-dione polymer with 1,4-dioxane-2,5-dione copolymer of molecular weight about 80,000 daltons.
A nonionic polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block co-polymer with the general formula HO(C2H4O)a(-C3H6O)b(C2H4O)aH. It is available in different grades which vary from liquids to solids. It is used as an emulsifying agent, solubilizing agent, surfactant, and wetting agent for antibiotics. Poloxamer is also used in ointment and suppository bases and as a tablet binder or coater. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)
Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.
Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.
Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Colorless, odorless crystals that are used extensively in research laboratories for the preparation of polyacrylamide gels for electrophoresis and in organic synthesis, and polymerization. Some of its polymers are used in sewage and wastewater treatment, permanent press fabrics, and as soil conditioning agents.
Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.
A group of inosine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each inosine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
Method of using a polycrystalline powder and Rietveld refinement (LEAST SQUARES ANALYSIS) of X-RAY DIFFRACTION or NEUTRON DIFFRACTION. It circumvents the difficulties of producing single large crystals.
Consists of a polypeptide chain and 4'-phosphopantetheine linked to a serine residue by a phosphodiester bond. Acyl groups are bound as thiol esters to the pantothenyl group. Acyl carrier protein is involved in every step of fatty acid synthesis by the cytoplasmic system.
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.
Identification of genetic carriers for a given trait.
Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.
Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
The study of MAGNETIC PHENOMENA.
A ubiquitously expressed folic acid transporter that functions via an antiporter mechanism which is coupled to the transport of organic phosphates.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
Small encapsulated gas bubbles (diameters of micrometers) that can be used as CONTRAST MEDIA, and in other diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Upon exposure to sufficiently intense ultrasound, microbubbles will cavitate, rupture, disappear, release gas content. Such characteristics of the microbubbles can be used to enhance diagnostic tests, dissolve blood clots, and deliver drugs or genes for therapy.
Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.
A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human CHROMOSOME 17 at locus 17q21. Mutations of this gene are associated with the formation of HEREDITARY BREAST AND OVARIAN CANCER SYNDROME. It encodes a large nuclear protein that is a component of DNA repair pathways.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.
A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human chromosome 13 at locus 13q12.3. Mutations in this gene predispose humans to breast and ovarian cancer. It encodes a large, nuclear protein that is an essential component of DNA repair pathways, suppressing the formation of gross chromosomal rearrangements. (from Genes Dev 2000;14(11):1400-6)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval of AmBisome (liposomal amphotericin B) for treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. (1/3649)

In August 1997, AmBisome (liposomal amphotericin B, Nexstar, San Dimas, CA) was the first drug approved for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The growing recognition of emerging and reemerging infections warrants that safe and effective agents to treat such infections be readily available in the United States. The following discussion of the data submitted in support of the New Drug Application for AmBisome for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis shows the breadth of data from clinical trials that can be appropriate to support approval for drugs to treat tropical diseases.  (+info)

Systemic candidiasis with candida vasculitis due to Candida kruzei in a patient with acute myeloid leukaemia. (2/3649)

Candida kruzei-related systemic infections are increasing in frequency, particularly in patients receiving prophylaxis with antifungal triazoles. A Caucasian male with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia (AML M1) developed severe and persistent fever associated with a micropustular eruption scattered over the trunk and limbs during induction chemotherapy. Blood cultures grew Candida kruzei, and biopsies of the skin lesions revealed a candida vasculitis. He responded to high doses of liposomal amphotericin B and was discharged well from hospital.  (+info)

In vitro and in vivo activities of NS-718, a new lipid nanosphere incorporating amphotericin B, against Aspergillus fumigatus. (3/3649)

We evaluated the in vitro and in vivo potencies of a new lipid nanosphere that incorporates amphotericin B (AmB), NS-718, against Aspergillus fumigatus. The in vitro activity of NS-718 (the MIC at which 90% of strains are inhibited [MIC90], 0.25 microgram/ml) against 18 isolates of A. fumigatus was similar to that of deoxycholate AmB (D-AmB; Fungizone; MIC90, 0.25 microgram/ml), but NS-718 was more potent than liposomal AmB (L-AmB; AmBi-some; MIC90, 1.0 microgram/ml). The in vivo efficacy of NS-718 in a rat model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis was compared with those of D-AmB and L-AmB. A low dose (1 mg/kg of body weight) of L-AmB was ineffective (survival rate, 0%), although equivalent doses of D-AmB and NS-718 were more effective (survival rate, 17%). However, a higher dose of NS-718 (3 mg/kg) was more effective (survival rate, 100%) than equivalent doses of D-AmB and L-AmB (survival rate, 0%). To explain these differences, pharmacokinetic studies showed higher concentrations of AmB in the plasma of rats treated with NS-718 than in the plasma of those treated with D-AmB. Our results suggest that NS-718, a new preparation of AmB, is a promising antifungal agent with activity against pulmonary aspergillosis.  (+info)

Pharmacokinetics and urinary excretion of amikacin in low-clearance unilamellar liposomes after a single or repeated intravenous administration in the rhesus monkey. (4/3649)

Liposomal aminoglycosides have been shown to have activity against intracellular infections, such as those caused by Mycobacterium avium. Amikacin in small, low-clearance liposomes (MiKasome) also has curative and prophylactic efficacies against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. To develop appropriate dosing regimens for low-clearance liposomal amikacin, we studied the pharmacokinetics of liposomal amikacin in plasma, the level of exposure of plasma to free amikacin, and urinary excretion of amikacin after the administration of single-dose (20 mg/kg of body weight) and repeated-dose (20 mg/kg eight times at 48-h intervals) regimens in rhesus monkeys. The clearance of liposomal amikacin (single-dose regimen, 0.023 +/- 0.003 ml min-1 kg-1; repeated-dose regimen, 0.014 +/- 0.001 ml min-1 kg-1) was over 100-fold lower than the creatinine clearance (an estimate of conventional amikacin clearance). Half-lives in plasma were longer than those reported for other amikacin formulations and declined during the elimination phase following administration of the last dose (from 81.7 +/- 27 to 30.5 +/- 5 h). Peak and trough (48 h) levels after repeated dosing reached 728 +/- 72 and 418 +/- 60 micrograms/ml, respectively. The levels in plasma remained > 180 micrograms/ml for 6 days after the administration of the last dose. The free amikacin concentration in plasma never exceeded 17.4 +/- 1 micrograms/ml and fell rapidly (half-life, 1.47 to 1.85 h) after the administration of each dose of liposomal amikacin. This and the low volume of distribution (45 ml/kg) indicate that the amikacin in plasma largely remained sequestered in long-circulating liposomes. Less than half the amikacin was recovered in the urine, suggesting that the level of renal exposure to filtered free amikacin was reduced, possibly as a result of intracellular uptake or the metabolism of liposomal amikacin. Thus, low-clearance liposomal amikacin could be administered at prolonged (2- to 7-day) intervals to achieve high levels of exposure to liposomal amikacin with minimal exposure to free amikacin.  (+info)

Lactic acid polymers as biodegradable carriers of fluoroquinolones: an in vitro study. (5/3649)

A biodegradable polymer of DL-dilactide that facilitates release of ciprofloxacin or pefloxacin at levels exceeding MICs for the causative microorganisms of chronic osteomyelitis is described. Duration and peak of release were found to depend on the molecular weight of the polymer. Its characteristics make it promising for treating chronic bone infections.  (+info)

Incorporation rates, stabilities, cytotoxicities and release of liposomal tetracycline and doxycycline in human serum. (6/3649)

Tetracycline and doxycycline were encapsulated in cationic, anionic and neutral liposomes. The amounts of antibiotic encapsulated, the stability of each preparation at 4 degrees C for 4 weeks, and the kinetics of the release of entrapped drug into human sera were assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The toxicities of the liposome preparations on human erythrocytes and HeLa 229 cells were evaluated in vitro. The results showed that doxycycline was entrapped more efficiently than tetracycline, and that doxycycline-entrapped liposomes were more stable at 4 degrees C and in human sera, and less cytotoxic than tetracycline-entrapped liposomes.  (+info)

Liposomal amphotericin B for empirical therapy in patients with persistent fever and neutropenia. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group. (7/3649)

BACKGROUND: In patients with persistent fever and neutropenia, amphotericin B is administered empirically for the early treatment and prevention of clinically occult invasive fungal infections. However, breakthrough fungal infections can develop despite treatment, and amphotericin B has substantial toxicity. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial comparing liposomal amphotericin B with conventional amphotericin B as empirical antifungal therapy. RESULTS: The mean duration of therapy was 10.8 days for liposomal amphotericin B (343 patients) and 10.3 days for conventional amphotericin B (344 patients). The composite rates of successful treatment were similar (50 percent for liposomal amphotericin B and 49 percent for conventional amphotericin B) and were independent of the use of antifungal prophylaxis or colony-stimulating factors. The outcomes were similar with liposomal amphotericin B and conventional amphotericin B with respect to survival (93 percent and 90 percent, respectively), resolution of fever (58 percent and 58 percent), and discontinuation of the study drug because of toxic effects or lack of efficacy (14 percent and 19 percent). There were fewer proved breakthrough fungal infections among patients treated with liposomal amphotericin B (11 patients [3.2 percent]) than among those treated with conventional amphotericin B (27 patients [7.8 percent], P=0.009). With the liposomal preparation significantly fewer patients had infusion-related fever (17 percent vs. 44 percent), chills or rigors (18 percent vs. 54 percent), and other reactions, including hypotension, hypertension, and hypoxia. Nephrotoxic effects (defined by a serum creatinine level two times the upper limit of normal) were significantly less frequent among patients treated with liposomal amphotericin B (19 percent) than among those treated with conventional amphotericin B (34 percent, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Liposomal amphotericin B is as effective as conventional amphotericin B for empirical antifungal therapy in patients with fever and neutropenia, and it is associated with fewer breakthrough fungal infections, less infusion-related toxicity, and less nephrotoxicity.  (+info)

Liposomes fuse with sperm cells and induce activation by delivery of impermeant agents. (8/3649)

Sperm cell activation is a critical step in fertilization. To directly investigate the cell signaling events leading to sperm activation it is necessary to deliver membrane impermeant agents into the cytoplasm. In this study, the use of liposomes as possible agent-loading vectors was examined using (1) the octadecylrhodamine B (R18) and NBD phosphatidylethanolamine (NBD DHPE)/rhodamine phosphatidylethanolamine (rhod DHPE) fusion assays in bulk samples, (2) membrane transfer of fluorescence from liposome membranes labeled with R18 and rhodamine-tagged phosphatidylethanolamine (TRITC DHPE), and (3) lumenal transfer of impermeant calcium ions from liposomes to sperm cells, a process that stimulated sperm cell activation. Intermediate-sized unilamellar liposomes (98.17+/-15.34 nm) were prepared by the detergent-removal technique using sodium cholate as the detergent and a phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylethanolamine/cholesterol (2:1:1 mole ratio) lipid composition. In the R18 fusion assays, self-quenching increased logarithmically with increasing concentrations of R18 in the liposome membranes; addition of unlabeled sperm to R18-labeled liposomes lead to a rapid release of self-quenching. In the NBD DHPE/rhod DHPE resonance energy transfer (RET) fusion assay, RET was rapidly reduced under similar conditions. In addition, individual sperm became fluorescent when TRITC DHPE-labeled liposomes were incubated with unlabeled sperm cells. Incubation of sperm cells with empty liposomes did not significantly affect sperm cell activation and did not alter cell morphology. However, incubation with Ca (10 mM)-loaded liposomes resulted in a time-dependent increase in sperm cell activation (7.5-fold over controls after 15 min). We conclude that liposomes can be used for direct loading of membrane-impermeant agents into sea squirt sperm cell cytoplasm, and that delivery occurs via fusion and content intermixing.  (+info)

A drug carrier, also known as a drug delivery system or vector, is a vehicle that transports a pharmaceutical compound to a specific site in the body. The main purpose of using drug carriers is to improve the efficacy and safety of drugs by enhancing their solubility, stability, bioavailability, and targeted delivery, while minimizing unwanted side effects.

Drug carriers can be made up of various materials, including natural or synthetic polymers, lipids, inorganic nanoparticles, or even cells and viruses. They can encapsulate, adsorb, or conjugate drugs through different mechanisms, such as physical entrapment, electrostatic interaction, or covalent bonding.

Some common types of drug carriers include:

1. Liposomes: spherical vesicles composed of one or more lipid bilayers that can encapsulate hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs.
2. Polymeric nanoparticles: tiny particles made of biodegradable polymers that can protect drugs from degradation and enhance their accumulation in target tissues.
3. Dendrimers: highly branched macromolecules with a well-defined structure and size that can carry multiple drug molecules and facilitate their release.
4. Micelles: self-assembled structures formed by amphiphilic block copolymers that can solubilize hydrophobic drugs in water.
5. Inorganic nanoparticles: such as gold, silver, or iron oxide nanoparticles, that can be functionalized with drugs and targeting ligands for diagnostic and therapeutic applications.
6. Cell-based carriers: living cells, such as red blood cells, stem cells, or immune cells, that can be loaded with drugs and used to deliver them to specific sites in the body.
7. Viral vectors: modified viruses that can infect cells and introduce genetic material encoding therapeutic proteins or RNA interference molecules.

The choice of drug carrier depends on various factors, such as the physicochemical properties of the drug, the route of administration, the target site, and the desired pharmacokinetics and biodistribution. Therefore, selecting an appropriate drug carrier is crucial for achieving optimal therapeutic outcomes and minimizing side effects.

Drug delivery systems (DDS) refer to techniques or technologies that are designed to improve the administration of a pharmaceutical compound in terms of its efficiency, safety, and efficacy. A DDS can modify the drug release profile, target the drug to specific cells or tissues, protect the drug from degradation, and reduce side effects.

The goal of a DDS is to optimize the bioavailability of a drug, which is the amount of the drug that reaches the systemic circulation and is available at the site of action. This can be achieved through various approaches, such as encapsulating the drug in a nanoparticle or attaching it to a biomolecule that targets specific cells or tissues.

Some examples of DDS include:

1. Controlled release systems: These systems are designed to release the drug at a controlled rate over an extended period, reducing the frequency of dosing and improving patient compliance.
2. Targeted delivery systems: These systems use biomolecules such as antibodies or ligands to target the drug to specific cells or tissues, increasing its efficacy and reducing side effects.
3. Nanoparticle-based delivery systems: These systems use nanoparticles made of polymers, lipids, or inorganic materials to encapsulate the drug and protect it from degradation, improve its solubility, and target it to specific cells or tissues.
4. Biodegradable implants: These are small devices that can be implanted under the skin or into body cavities to deliver drugs over an extended period. They can be made of biodegradable materials that gradually break down and release the drug.
5. Inhalation delivery systems: These systems use inhalers or nebulizers to deliver drugs directly to the lungs, bypassing the digestive system and improving bioavailability.

Overall, DDS play a critical role in modern pharmaceutical research and development, enabling the creation of new drugs with improved efficacy, safety, and patient compliance.

Nanoparticles are defined in the field of medicine as tiny particles that have at least one dimension between 1 to 100 nanometers (nm). They are increasingly being used in various medical applications such as drug delivery, diagnostics, and therapeutics. Due to their small size, nanoparticles can penetrate cells, tissues, and organs more efficiently than larger particles, making them ideal for targeted drug delivery and imaging.

Nanoparticles can be made from a variety of materials including metals, polymers, lipids, and dendrimers. The physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles, such as size, shape, charge, and surface chemistry, can greatly affect their behavior in biological systems and their potential medical applications.

It is important to note that the use of nanoparticles in medicine is still a relatively new field, and there are ongoing studies to better understand their safety and efficacy.

In the context of medical and health sciences, particle size generally refers to the diameter or dimension of particles, which can be in the form of solid particles, droplets, or aerosols. These particles may include airborne pollutants, pharmaceutical drugs, or medical devices such as nanoparticles used in drug delivery systems.

Particle size is an important factor to consider in various medical applications because it can affect the behavior and interactions of particles with biological systems. For example, smaller particle sizes can lead to greater absorption and distribution throughout the body, while larger particle sizes may be filtered out by the body's natural defense mechanisms. Therefore, understanding particle size and its implications is crucial for optimizing the safety and efficacy of medical treatments and interventions.

Chitosan is a complex carbohydrate that is derived from the exoskeletons of crustaceans, such as shrimp and crabs. It is made up of chains of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine and d-glucosamine units. Chitosan has been studied for its potential medical and health benefits, including its ability to lower cholesterol levels, promote weight loss, and help control blood sugar levels. It is also used in wound care products due to its antibacterial and absorbent properties. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits and establish recommended dosages and safety guidelines.

Liposomes are artificially prepared, small, spherical vesicles composed of one or more lipid bilayers that enclose an aqueous compartment. They can encapsulate both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs, making them useful for drug delivery applications in the medical field. The lipid bilayer structure of liposomes is similar to that of biological membranes, which allows them to merge with and deliver their contents into cells. This property makes liposomes a valuable tool in delivering drugs directly to targeted sites within the body, improving drug efficacy while minimizing side effects.

Pharmaceutical chemistry is a branch of chemistry that deals with the design, synthesis, and development of chemical entities used as medications. It involves the study of drugs' physical, chemical, and biological properties, as well as their interactions with living organisms. This field also encompasses understanding the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of drugs in the body, which are critical factors in drug design and development. Pharmaceutical chemists often work closely with biologists, medical professionals, and engineers to develop new medications and improve existing ones.

Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are a family of synthetic, water-soluble polymers with a wide range of molecular weights. They are commonly used in the medical field as excipients in pharmaceutical formulations due to their ability to improve drug solubility, stability, and bioavailability. PEGs can also be used as laxatives to treat constipation or as bowel cleansing agents prior to colonoscopy examinations. Additionally, some PEG-conjugated drugs have been developed for use in targeted cancer therapies.

In a medical context, PEGs are often referred to by their average molecular weight, such as PEG 300, PEG 400, PEG 1500, and so on. Higher molecular weight PEGs tend to be more viscous and have longer-lasting effects in the body.

It's worth noting that while PEGs are generally considered safe for use in medical applications, some people may experience allergic reactions or hypersensitivity to these compounds. Prolonged exposure to high molecular weight PEGs has also been linked to potential adverse effects, such as decreased fertility and developmental toxicity in animal studies. However, more research is needed to fully understand the long-term safety of PEGs in humans.

A carrier state is a condition in which a person carries and may be able to transmit a genetic disorder or infectious disease, but does not show any symptoms of the disease themselves. This occurs when an individual has a recessive allele for a genetic disorder or is infected with a pathogen, but does not have the necessary combination of genes or other factors required to develop the full-blown disease.

For example, in the case of cystic fibrosis, which is caused by mutations in the CFTR gene, a person who carries one normal allele and one mutated allele for the disease is considered a carrier. They do not have symptoms of cystic fibrosis themselves, but they can pass the mutated allele on to their offspring, who may then develop the disease if they inherit the mutation from both parents.

Similarly, in the case of infectious diseases, a person who is infected with a pathogen but does not show any symptoms may still be able to transmit the infection to others. This is known as being an asymptomatic carrier or a healthy carrier. For example, some people who are infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) may not develop any symptoms of liver disease, but they can still transmit the virus to others through contact with their blood or other bodily fluids.

It's important to note that in some cases, carriers of certain genetic disorders or infectious diseases may have mild or atypical symptoms that do not meet the full criteria for a diagnosis of the disease. In these cases, they may be considered to have a "reduced penetrance" or "incomplete expression" of the disorder or infection.

Field flow fractionation (FFF) is a type of separation technique used in laboratory settings, particularly in the field of biophysics and analytical chemistry. It is not a medical term per se, but it can have applications in medical research and diagnostics. Here's a brief explanation:

Field flow fractionation separates particles or molecules based on their size, shape, charge, or other physical properties by applying a field (like a gravitational, electric, or magnetic field) within a narrow channel. The sample is introduced at one end of the channel and the field causes the particles to move along the channel at different speeds, depending on their properties. Larger or denser particles will move more slowly than smaller or lighter ones, allowing for separation based on size or density.

In the context of medical research, FFF can be used to separate and analyze biological molecules like proteins, DNA, or nanoparticles, which can have important implications in fields such as drug development, diagnostics, and environmental monitoring.

A nanocapsule is a type of nanoparticle that is characterized by its hollow, spherical structure. It is composed of a polymeric membrane that encapsulates an inner core or "cargo" which can be made up of various substances such as drugs, proteins, or imaging agents. The small size of nanocapsules (typically ranging from 10 to 1000 nanometers in diameter) allows them to penetrate cells and tissue more efficiently than larger particles, making them useful for targeted drug delivery and diagnostic applications.

The polymeric membrane can be designed to be biodegradable or non-biodegradable, depending on the desired application. Additionally, the surface of nanocapsules can be functionalized with various moieties such as antibodies, peptides, or small molecules to enhance their targeting capabilities and improve their stability in biological environments.

Overall, nanocapsules have great potential for use in a variety of medical applications, including cancer therapy, gene delivery, and vaccine development.

Medical technology, also known as health technology, refers to the use of medical devices, medicines, vaccines, procedures, and systems for the purpose of preventing, diagnosing, or treating disease and disability. This can include a wide range of products and services, from simple devices like tongue depressors and bandages, to complex technologies like MRI machines and artificial organs.

Pharmaceutical technology, on the other hand, specifically refers to the application of engineering and scientific principles to the development, production, and control of pharmaceutical drugs and medical devices. This can include the design and construction of manufacturing facilities, the development of new drug delivery systems, and the implementation of quality control measures to ensure the safety and efficacy of pharmaceutical products.

Both medical technology and pharmaceutical technology play crucial roles in modern healthcare, helping to improve patient outcomes, reduce healthcare costs, and enhance the overall quality of life for individuals around the world.

Aconitic acid is a type of organic acid that is found naturally in some plants, including Aconitum napellus (monkshood or wolf's bane). It is a white crystalline powder with a sour taste and is soluble in water. In the human body, aconitic acid is produced as a byproduct of energy metabolism and can be found in small amounts in various tissues.

Aconitic acid has three carboxylic acid groups, making it a triprotic acid, which means that it can donate three protons (hydrogen ions) in solution. It is a strong acid and is often used as a laboratory reagent for various chemical reactions. In the food industry, aconitic acid may be used as a food additive or preservative.

It's important to note that some species of Aconitum plants contain highly toxic compounds called aconitines, which can cause serious harm or even death if ingested. Therefore, these plants should not be consumed or handled without proper knowledge and precautions.

Nanomedicine is a branch of medicine that utilizes nanotechnology, which deals with materials, devices, or systems at the nanometer scale (typically between 1-100 nm), to prevent and treat diseases. It involves the development of novel therapeutics, diagnostics, and medical devices that can interact with biological systems at the molecular level for improved detection, monitoring, and targeted treatment of various diseases and conditions.

Nanomedicine encompasses several areas, including:

1. Drug delivery: Nanocarriers such as liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, dendrimers, and inorganic nanoparticles can be used to encapsulate drugs, enhancing their solubility, stability, and targeted delivery to specific cells or tissues, thereby reducing side effects.
2. Diagnostics: Nanoscale biosensors and imaging agents can provide early detection and monitoring of diseases with high sensitivity and specificity, enabling personalized medicine and improved patient outcomes.
3. Regenerative medicine: Nanomaterials can be used to create scaffolds and matrices for tissue engineering, promoting cell growth, differentiation, and vascularization in damaged or diseased tissues.
4. Gene therapy: Nanoparticles can be employed to deliver genetic material such as DNA, RNA, or gene-editing tools (e.g., CRISPR-Cas9) for the targeted correction of genetic disorders or cancer treatment.
5. Medical devices: Nanotechnology can improve the performance and functionality of medical devices by enhancing their biocompatibility, strength, and electrical conductivity, as well as incorporating sensing and drug delivery capabilities.

Overall, nanomedicine holds great promise for addressing unmet medical needs, improving diagnostic accuracy, and developing more effective therapies with reduced side effects. However, it also presents unique challenges related to safety, regulation, and scalability that must be addressed before widespread clinical adoption.

Drug compounding is the process of combining, mixing, or altering ingredients to create a customized medication to meet the specific needs of an individual patient. This can be done for a variety of reasons, such as when a patient has an allergy to a certain ingredient in a mass-produced medication, or when a patient requires a different dosage or formulation than what is available commercially.

Compounding requires specialized training and equipment, and compounding pharmacists must follow strict guidelines to ensure the safety and efficacy of the medications they produce. Compounded medications are not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), but the FDA does regulate the ingredients used in compounding and has oversight over the practices of compounding pharmacies.

It's important to note that while compounding can provide benefits for some patients, it also carries risks, such as the potential for contamination or incorrect dosing. Patients should only receive compounded medications from reputable pharmacies that follow proper compounding standards and procedures.

In the context of medical definitions, polymers are large molecules composed of repeating subunits called monomers. These long chains of monomers can have various structures and properties, depending on the type of monomer units and how they are linked together. In medicine, polymers are used in a wide range of applications, including drug delivery systems, medical devices, and tissue engineering scaffolds. Some examples of polymers used in medicine include polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and biodegradable polymers such as polylactic acid (PLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL).

Dendrimers are a type of synthetic, nanoscale polymer structures with a well-defined, highly branched, and regularly repeating architecture. They consist of a central core, an inner layer of repetitive branches, and an outer surface that can be functionalized with various groups. Dendrimers have unique properties such as monodispersity, a high degree of symmetry, and the ability to encapsulate or conjugate drugs, genes, and imaging agents, making them useful in drug delivery, gene therapy, diagnostics, and other biomedical applications.

Oxidized cellulose is a type of modified cellulose that has undergone oxidation, resulting in the introduction of functional groups such as carboxylic acid or aldehyde groups along the cellulose chain. This process can alter the physical and chemical properties of cellulose, making it more soluble in water and capable of forming gels or films.

Oxidized cellulose is used in a variety of applications, including as a wound dressing material, where it can help to promote healing by providing a moist environment that supports tissue regeneration. It can also be used as a thickening or stabilizing agent in food and cosmetic products, or as a component in the manufacture of specialized papers and textiles.

Polyglactin 910 is a type of synthetic absorbable suture made from copolymers of lactide and glycolide. It is designed to gradually break down and be absorbed by the body over time, typically within 56 to 70 days after being used in surgical wounds. This property makes it an ideal choice for soft tissue approximation and laceration repairs.

Polyglactin 910 sutures are often used in various surgical procedures, including orthopedic, ophthalmic, cardiovascular, and general surgery. They come in different sizes and forms, such as plain, reverse cutting, and braided, to suit various surgical needs.

The gradual absorption of Polyglactin 910 sutures helps minimize scarring and reduces the need for suture removal procedures. However, it is essential to note that inflammation may occur during the degradation process, which could potentially lead to adverse reactions in some individuals. Proper wound care and follow-up with healthcare professionals are crucial to ensure optimal healing and manage any potential complications.

Poloxamers are a type of triblock copolymer made up of a central hydrophobic chain of polyoxypropylene (poly(propylene oxide)) flanked by two hydrophilic chains of polyoxyethylene (poly(ethylene oxide)). They are amphiphilic molecules, meaning they have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts.

Poloxamers are often used in the pharmaceutical industry as drug delivery agents, emulsifiers, solubilizers, and stabilizers. They can form micelles in aqueous solutions above their critical micelle concentration (CMC), with the hydrophobic chains oriented toward the interior of the micelle and the hydrophilic chains on the exterior, interacting with the water molecules. This unique property allows poloxamers to solubilize drugs that are otherwise poorly soluble in water, improving their bioavailability.

Poloxamers have been studied for various medical applications, including as drug carriers for chemotherapy, diagnostic agents, and mucoadhesive materials. Some specific poloxamer compounds have been approved by the FDA for use in pharmaceutical formulations, such as Poloxamer 188 and Poloxamer 407.

In a medical context, poloxamers are not typically used as standalone treatments but rather as components of drug delivery systems or formulations.

An emulsion is a type of stable mixture of two immiscible liquids, such as oil and water, which are normally unable to mix together uniformly. In an emulsion, one liquid (the dispersed phase) is broken down into small droplets and distributed throughout the other liquid (the continuous phase), creating a stable, cloudy mixture.

In medical terms, emulsions can be used in various pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. For example, certain medications may be formulated as oil-in-water or water-in-oil emulsions to improve their absorption, stability, or palatability. Similarly, some skincare products and makeup removers contain emulsifiers that help create stable mixtures of water and oils, allowing for effective cleansing and moisturizing.

Emulsions can also occur naturally in the body, such as in the digestion of fats. The bile salts produced by the liver help to form small droplets of dietary lipids (oil) within the watery environment of the small intestine, allowing for efficient absorption and metabolism of these nutrients.

I couldn't find a medical definition specifically for "delayed-action preparations." However, in the context of pharmacology, it may refer to medications or treatments that have a delayed onset of action. These are designed to release the active drug slowly over an extended period, which can help to maintain a consistent level of the medication in the body and reduce the frequency of dosing.

Examples of delayed-action preparations include:

1. Extended-release (ER) or controlled-release (CR) formulations: These are designed to release the drug slowly over several hours, reducing the need for frequent dosing. Examples include extended-release tablets and capsules.
2. Transdermal patches: These deliver medication through the skin and can provide a steady rate of drug delivery over several days. Examples include nicotine patches for smoking cessation or fentanyl patches for pain management.
3. Injectable depots: These are long-acting injectable formulations that slowly release the drug into the body over weeks to months. An example is the use of long-acting antipsychotic injections for the treatment of schizophrenia.
4. Implantable devices: These are small, biocompatible devices placed under the skin or within a body cavity that release a steady dose of medication over an extended period. Examples include hormonal implants for birth control or drug-eluting stents used in cardiovascular procedures.

Delayed-action preparations can improve patient compliance and quality of life by reducing dosing frequency, minimizing side effects, and maintaining consistent therapeutic levels.

Micelles are structures formed in a solution when certain substances, such as surfactants, reach a critical concentration called the critical micelle concentration (CMC). At this concentration, these molecules, which have both hydrophilic (water-attracting) and hydrophobic (water-repelling) components, arrange themselves in a spherical shape with the hydrophilic parts facing outward and the hydrophobic parts clustered inside. This formation allows the hydrophobic components to avoid contact with water while the hydrophilic components interact with it. Micelles are important in various biological and industrial processes, such as drug delivery, soil remediation, and the formation of emulsions.

Nanotechnology is not a medical term per se, but it is a field of study with potential applications in medicine. According to the National Nanotechnology Initiative, nanotechnology is defined as "the understanding and control of matter at the nanoscale, at dimensions between approximately 1 and 100 nanometers, where unique phenomena enable novel applications."

In the context of medicine, nanotechnology has the potential to revolutionize the way we diagnose, treat, and prevent diseases. Nanomedicine involves the use of nanoscale materials, devices, or systems for medical applications. These can include drug delivery systems that target specific cells or tissues, diagnostic tools that detect biomarkers at the molecular level, and tissue engineering strategies that promote regeneration and repair.

While nanotechnology holds great promise for medicine, it is still a relatively new field with many challenges to overcome, including issues related to safety, regulation, and scalability.

Tissue distribution, in the context of pharmacology and toxicology, refers to the way that a drug or xenobiotic (a chemical substance found within an organism that is not naturally produced by or expected to be present within that organism) is distributed throughout the body's tissues after administration. It describes how much of the drug or xenobiotic can be found in various tissues and organs, and is influenced by factors such as blood flow, lipid solubility, protein binding, and the permeability of cell membranes. Understanding tissue distribution is important for predicting the potential effects of a drug or toxin on different parts of the body, and for designing drugs with improved safety and efficacy profiles.

Nanostructures, in the context of medical and biomedical research, refer to materials or devices with structural features that have at least one dimension ranging between 1-100 nanometers (nm). At this size scale, the properties of these structures can differ significantly from bulk materials, exhibiting unique phenomena that are often influenced by quantum effects.

Nanostructures have attracted considerable interest in biomedicine due to their potential applications in various areas such as drug delivery, diagnostics, regenerative medicine, and tissue engineering. They can be fabricated from a wide range of materials including metals, polymers, ceramics, and carbon-based materials.

Some examples of nanostructures used in biomedicine include:

1. Nanoparticles: These are tiny particles with at least one dimension in the nanoscale range. They can be made from various materials like metals, polymers, or lipids and have applications in drug delivery, imaging, and diagnostics.
2. Quantum dots: These are semiconductor nanocrystals that exhibit unique optical properties due to quantum confinement effects. They are used as fluorescent labels for bioimaging and biosensing applications.
3. Carbon nanotubes: These are hollow, cylindrical structures made of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice. They have exceptional mechanical strength, electrical conductivity, and thermal stability, making them suitable for various biomedical applications such as drug delivery, tissue engineering, and biosensors.
4. Nanofibers: These are elongated nanostructures with high aspect ratios (length much greater than width). They can be fabricated from various materials like polymers, ceramics, or composites and have applications in tissue engineering, wound healing, and drug delivery.
5. Dendrimers: These are highly branched, nanoscale polymers with a well-defined structure and narrow size distribution. They can be used as drug carriers, gene delivery vehicles, and diagnostic agents.
6. Nanoshells: These are hollow, spherical nanoparticles consisting of a dielectric core covered by a thin metallic shell. They exhibit unique optical properties that make them suitable for applications such as photothermal therapy, biosensing, and imaging.

Solubility is a fundamental concept in pharmaceutical sciences and medicine, which refers to the maximum amount of a substance (solute) that can be dissolved in a given quantity of solvent (usually water) at a specific temperature and pressure. Solubility is typically expressed as mass of solute per volume or mass of solvent (e.g., grams per liter, milligrams per milliliter). The process of dissolving a solute in a solvent results in a homogeneous solution where the solute particles are dispersed uniformly throughout the solvent.

Understanding the solubility of drugs is crucial for their formulation, administration, and therapeutic effectiveness. Drugs with low solubility may not dissolve sufficiently to produce the desired pharmacological effect, while those with high solubility might lead to rapid absorption and short duration of action. Therefore, optimizing drug solubility through various techniques like particle size reduction, salt formation, or solubilization is an essential aspect of drug development and delivery.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Polyesters" is not a medical term. It is a term used in materials science and textile industry to describe a type of synthetic fiber made from polymers characterized by the presence of ester groups in their main chain. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I'd be happy to help with those instead!

Doxorubicin is a type of chemotherapy medication known as an anthracycline. It works by interfering with the DNA in cancer cells, which prevents them from growing and multiplying. Doxorubicin is used to treat a wide variety of cancers, including leukemia, lymphoma, breast cancer, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, and many others. It may be given alone or in combination with other chemotherapy drugs.

Doxorubicin is usually administered through a vein (intravenously) and can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, mouth sores, and increased risk of infection. It can also cause damage to the heart muscle, which can lead to heart failure in some cases. For this reason, doctors may monitor patients' heart function closely while they are receiving doxorubicin treatment.

It is important for patients to discuss the potential risks and benefits of doxorubicin therapy with their healthcare provider before starting treatment.

A capsule is a type of solid pharmaceutical dosage form in which the drug is enclosed in a small shell or container, usually composed of gelatin or other suitable material. The shell serves to protect the drug from degradation, improve its stability and shelf life, and facilitate swallowing by making it easier to consume. Capsules come in various sizes and colors and can contain one or more drugs in powder, liquid, or solid form. They are typically administered orally but can also be used for other routes of administration, such as rectal or vaginal.

Carrier proteins, also known as transport proteins, are a type of protein that facilitates the movement of molecules across cell membranes. They are responsible for the selective and active transport of ions, sugars, amino acids, and other molecules from one side of the membrane to the other, against their concentration gradient. This process requires energy, usually in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).

Carrier proteins have a specific binding site for the molecule they transport, and undergo conformational changes upon binding, which allows them to move the molecule across the membrane. Once the molecule has been transported, the carrier protein returns to its original conformation, ready to bind and transport another molecule.

Carrier proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the balance of ions and other molecules inside and outside of cells, and are essential for many physiological processes, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and nutrient uptake.

Acrylamides are a type of chemical that can form in some foods during high-temperature cooking processes, such as frying, roasting, and baking. They are created when certain amino acids (asparagine) and sugars in the food react together at temperatures above 120°C (248°F). This reaction is known as the Maillard reaction.

Acrylamides have been classified as a probable human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), based on studies in animals. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential health risks associated with acrylamide exposure from food.

Public health organizations recommend limiting acrylamide intake by following some cooking practices such as:

* Avoiding overcooking or burning foods
* Soaking potatoes (which are high in asparagine) in water before frying to reduce the formation of acrylamides
* Choosing raw, unprocessed, or minimally processed foods when possible.

Microspheres are tiny, spherical particles that range in size from 1 to 1000 micrometers in diameter. They are made of biocompatible and biodegradable materials such as polymers, glass, or ceramics. In medical terms, microspheres have various applications, including drug delivery systems, medical imaging, and tissue engineering.

In drug delivery, microspheres can be used to encapsulate drugs and release them slowly over time, improving the efficacy of the treatment while reducing side effects. They can also be used for targeted drug delivery, where the microspheres are designed to accumulate in specific tissues or organs.

In medical imaging, microspheres can be labeled with radioactive isotopes or magnetic materials and used as contrast agents to enhance the visibility of tissues or organs during imaging procedures such as X-ray, CT, MRI, or PET scans.

In tissue engineering, microspheres can serve as a scaffold for cell growth and differentiation, promoting the regeneration of damaged tissues or organs. Overall, microspheres have great potential in various medical applications due to their unique properties and versatility.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Poly I" is not a recognized medical term or abbreviation in the context of human diseases or conditions. It's possible that there might be a typo or misunderstanding in your query. If you intended to ask about a specific medical condition, medication, or concept, please provide the full and correct term so I can give you an accurate and helpful response.

Powder diffraction is not a medical term, but rather a technique used in the field of materials science and physics. It refers to the analysis of the diffraction pattern produced when a beam of X-rays, neutrons, or electrons is shone onto a powdered sample of a material. The diffraction pattern provides information about the crystal structure and composition of the material, making it a valuable tool in the study of materials used in medical devices, pharmaceuticals, and other healthcare applications.

Acyl Carrier Protein (ACP) is a small, acidic protein that plays a crucial role in the fatty acid synthesis process. It functions as a cofactor by carrying acyl groups during the elongation cycles of fatty acid chains. The ACP molecule has a characteristic prosthetic group known as 4'-phosphopantetheine, to which the acyl groups get attached covalently. This protein is highly conserved across different species and is essential for the production of fatty acids in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms.

Surfactants, also known as surface-active agents, are amphiphilic compounds that reduce the surface tension between two liquids or between a liquid and a solid. They contain both hydrophilic (water-soluble) and hydrophobic (water-insoluble) components in their molecular structure. This unique property allows them to interact with and stabilize interfaces, making them useful in various medical and healthcare applications.

In the medical field, surfactants are commonly used in pulmonary medicine, particularly for treating respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in premature infants. The lungs of premature infants often lack sufficient amounts of natural lung surfactant, which can lead to RDS and other complications. Exogenous surfactants, derived from animal sources or synthetically produced, are administered to replace the missing or dysfunctional lung surfactant, improving lung compliance and gas exchange.

Surfactants also have applications in topical formulations for dermatology, as they can enhance drug penetration into the skin, reduce irritation, and improve the spreadability of creams and ointments. Additionally, they are used in diagnostic imaging to enhance contrast between tissues and improve visualization during procedures such as ultrasound and X-ray examinations.

Polyglycolic acid (PGA) is a synthetic polymer of glycolic acid, which is commonly used in surgical sutures. It is a biodegradable material that degrades in the body through hydrolysis into glycolic acid, which can be metabolized and eliminated from the body. PGA sutures are often used for approximating tissue during surgical procedures due to their strength, handling properties, and predictable rate of absorption. The degradation time of PGA sutures is typically around 60-90 days, depending on factors such as the size and location of the suture.

Heterozygote detection is a method used in genetics to identify individuals who carry one normal and one mutated copy of a gene. These individuals are known as heterozygotes and they do not typically show symptoms of the genetic disorder associated with the mutation, but they can pass the mutated gene on to their offspring, who may then be affected.

Heterozygote detection is often used in genetic counseling and screening programs for recessive disorders such as cystic fibrosis or sickle cell anemia. By identifying heterozygotes, individuals can be informed of their carrier status and the potential risks to their offspring. This information can help them make informed decisions about family planning and reproductive options.

Various methods can be used for heterozygote detection, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based tests, DNA sequencing, and genetic linkage analysis. The choice of method depends on the specific gene or mutation being tested, as well as the availability and cost of the testing technology.

Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a thermoanalytical technique used to measure the difference in the amount of heat required to increase the temperature of a sample and a reference as a function of temperature. It is commonly used to study phase transitions, such as melting, crystallization, and glass transition, as well as chemical reactions, in a wide range of materials, including polymers, pharmaceuticals, and biological samples.

In DSC, the sample and reference are placed in separate pans and heated at a constant rate. The heat flow required to maintain this heating rate is continuously measured for both the sample and the reference. As the temperature of the sample changes during a phase transition or chemical reaction, the heat flow required to maintain the same heating rate will change relative to the reference. This allows for the measurement of the enthalpy change (ΔH) associated with the transition or reaction.

Differential scanning calorimetry is a powerful tool in materials science and research as it can provide information about the thermal behavior, stability, and composition of materials. It can also be used to study the kinetics of reactions and phase transitions, making it useful for optimizing processing conditions and developing new materials.

In the context of medical terminology, "powders" do not have a specific technical definition. However, in a general sense, powders refer to dry, finely ground or pulverized solid substances that can be dispersed in air or liquid mediums. In medicine, powders may include various forms of medications, such as crushed tablets or capsules, which are intended to be taken orally, mixed with liquids, or applied topically. Additionally, certain medical treatments and therapies may involve the use of medicated powders for various purposes, such as drying agents, abrasives, or delivery systems for active ingredients.

Surface properties in the context of medical science refer to the characteristics and features of the outermost layer or surface of a biological material or structure, such as cells, tissues, organs, or medical devices. These properties can include physical attributes like roughness, smoothness, hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity, and electrical conductivity, as well as chemical properties like charge, reactivity, and composition.

In the field of biomaterials science, understanding surface properties is crucial for designing medical implants, devices, and drug delivery systems that can interact safely and effectively with biological tissues and fluids. Surface modifications, such as coatings or chemical treatments, can be used to alter surface properties and enhance biocompatibility, improve lubricity, reduce fouling, or promote specific cellular responses like adhesion, proliferation, or differentiation.

Similarly, in the field of cell biology, understanding surface properties is essential for studying cell-cell interactions, cell signaling, and cell behavior. Cells can sense and respond to changes in their environment, including variations in surface properties, which can influence cell shape, motility, and function. Therefore, characterizing and manipulating surface properties can provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of cellular processes and offer new strategies for developing therapies and treatments for various diseases.

Excipients are inactive substances that serve as vehicles or mediums for the active ingredients in medications. They make up the bulk of a pharmaceutical formulation and help to stabilize, preserve, and enhance the delivery of the active drug compound. Common examples of excipients include binders, fillers, coatings, disintegrants, flavors, sweeteners, and colors. While excipients are generally considered safe and inert, they can sometimes cause allergic reactions or other adverse effects in certain individuals.

A heterozygote is an individual who has inherited two different alleles (versions) of a particular gene, one from each parent. This means that the individual's genotype for that gene contains both a dominant and a recessive allele. The dominant allele will be expressed phenotypically (outwardly visible), while the recessive allele may or may not have any effect on the individual's observable traits, depending on the specific gene and its function. Heterozygotes are often represented as 'Aa', where 'A' is the dominant allele and 'a' is the recessive allele.

Antibiotics are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth.

Antineoplastics, also known as chemotherapeutic agents, are a class of drugs used to treat cancer. These medications target and destroy rapidly dividing cells, such as cancer cells, although they can also affect other quickly dividing cells in the body, such as those in the hair follicles or digestive tract, which can lead to side effects.

Antibiotics and antineoplastics are two different classes of drugs with distinct mechanisms of action and uses. It is important to use them appropriately and under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Biocompatible materials are non-toxic and non-reacting substances that can be used in medical devices, tissue engineering, and drug delivery systems without causing harm or adverse reactions to living tissues or organs. These materials are designed to mimic the properties of natural tissues and are able to integrate with biological systems without being rejected by the body's immune system.

Biocompatible materials can be made from a variety of substances, including metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites. The specific properties of these materials, such as their mechanical strength, flexibility, and biodegradability, are carefully selected to meet the requirements of their intended medical application.

Examples of biocompatible materials include titanium used in dental implants and joint replacements, polyethylene used in artificial hips, and hydrogels used in contact lenses and drug delivery systems. The use of biocompatible materials has revolutionized modern medicine by enabling the development of advanced medical technologies that can improve patient outcomes and quality of life.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "magnetics" is not a term that is commonly used in medical definitions. It is a term more frequently used in physics and engineering to refer to things related to magnets or magnetic fields. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to try to help with those!

The Reduced Folate Carrier Protein (RFC) is also known as the Folate Receptor Alpha (FR-α). It is a transmembrane protein responsible for the cellular influx of reduced folates, which are essential cofactors in various metabolic processes, particularly DNA synthesis and methylation. These processes are vital for cell growth, division, and development.

Reduced Folate Carrier Protein is widely expressed in many tissues, including the kidneys, liver, intestines, and choroid plexus. It plays a crucial role in maintaining intracellular folate homeostasis by facilitating the uptake of reduced folates from circulation into cells.

Dysfunctions or mutations in the RFC gene can lead to impaired folate transport, which may result in various clinical manifestations, such as megaloblastic anemia and neurological disorders. Proper folate status is essential for overall health, particularly during pregnancy and fetal development, as it helps prevent neural tube defects in newborns.

Drug stability refers to the ability of a pharmaceutical drug product to maintain its physical, chemical, and biological properties during storage and use, under specified conditions. A stable drug product retains its desired quality, purity, strength, and performance throughout its shelf life. Factors that can affect drug stability include temperature, humidity, light exposure, and container compatibility. Maintaining drug stability is crucial to ensure the safety and efficacy of medications for patients.

Microbubbles are tiny gas-filled microspheres, typically made up of a gas core (such as air or perfluorocarbon) encapsulated by a stabilizing shell (often a phospholipid or protein). They range in size from 1 to 10 micrometers in diameter and are used in various medical applications.

In diagnostic imaging, microbubbles serve as contrast agents for ultrasound examinations. When injected into the bloodstream, they enhance the echogenicity of blood, improving visualization of vasculature, tissue perfusion, and detection of abnormalities such as tumors or lesions.

In therapeutic applications, microbubbles can be utilized in targeted drug delivery systems, where they are loaded with drugs or genes and then mechanically destroyed using ultrasound to release their cargo locally at the target site. This approach allows for more precise and controlled drug administration while minimizing systemic side effects.

Medical definitions generally refer to terms and concepts within the medical field. The term "metal nanoparticles" is more commonly used in materials science, chemistry, and physics. However, I can provide a general scientific definition that could be relevant to medical applications:

Metal nanoparticles are tiny particles with at least one dimension ranging from 1 to 100 nanometers (nm), composed of metals or metal compounds. They have unique optical, electronic, and chemical properties due to their small size and high surface-to-volume ratio, making them useful in various fields, including medical research. In medicine, metal nanoparticles can be used in drug delivery systems, diagnostics, and therapeutic applications such as photothermal therapy and radiation therapy. Examples of metals used for nanoparticle synthesis include gold, silver, and iron.

Serum albumin is the most abundant protein in human blood plasma, synthesized by the liver. It plays a crucial role in maintaining the oncotic pressure or colloid osmotic pressure of blood, which helps to regulate the fluid balance between the intravascular and extravascular spaces.

Serum albumin has a molecular weight of around 66 kDa and is composed of a single polypeptide chain. It contains several binding sites for various endogenous and exogenous substances, such as bilirubin, fatty acids, hormones, and drugs, facilitating their transport throughout the body. Additionally, albumin possesses antioxidant properties, protecting against oxidative damage.

Albumin levels in the blood are often used as a clinical indicator of liver function, nutritional status, and overall health. Low serum albumin levels may suggest liver disease, malnutrition, inflammation, or kidney dysfunction.

Biological availability is a term used in pharmacology and toxicology that refers to the degree and rate at which a drug or other substance is absorbed into the bloodstream and becomes available at the site of action in the body. It is a measure of the amount of the substance that reaches the systemic circulation unchanged, after administration by any route (such as oral, intravenous, etc.).

The biological availability (F) of a drug can be calculated using the area under the curve (AUC) of the plasma concentration-time profile after extravascular and intravenous dosing, according to the following formula:

F = (AUCex/AUCiv) x (Doseiv/Doseex)

where AUCex is the AUC after extravascular dosing, AUCiv is the AUC after intravenous dosing, Doseiv is the intravenous dose, and Doseex is the extravascular dose.

Biological availability is an important consideration in drug development and therapy, as it can affect the drug's efficacy, safety, and dosage regimen. Drugs with low biological availability may require higher doses to achieve the desired therapeutic effect, while drugs with high biological availability may have a more rapid onset of action and require lower doses to avoid toxicity.

A cell line that is derived from tumor cells and has been adapted to grow in culture. These cell lines are often used in research to study the characteristics of cancer cells, including their growth patterns, genetic changes, and responses to various treatments. They can be established from many different types of tumors, such as carcinomas, sarcomas, and leukemias. Once established, these cell lines can be grown and maintained indefinitely in the laboratory, allowing researchers to conduct experiments and studies that would not be feasible using primary tumor cells. It is important to note that tumor cell lines may not always accurately represent the behavior of the original tumor, as they can undergo genetic changes during their time in culture.

Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) is not a medical term per se, but a biochemical term. It is widely used in medical and biological research. Here's the definition:

Bovine Serum Albumin is a serum albumin protein derived from cows. It is often used as a stabilizer, an emulsifier, or a protein source in various laboratory and industrial applications, including biochemical experiments, cell culture media, and diagnostic kits. BSA has a high solubility in water and can bind to many different types of molecules, making it useful for preventing unwanted interactions between components in a solution. It also has a consistent composition and is relatively inexpensive compared to human serum albumin, which are factors that contribute to its widespread use.

Antineoplastic agents are a class of drugs used to treat malignant neoplasms or cancer. These agents work by inhibiting the growth and proliferation of cancer cells, either by killing them or preventing their division and replication. Antineoplastic agents can be classified based on their mechanism of action, such as alkylating agents, antimetabolites, topoisomerase inhibitors, mitotic inhibitors, and targeted therapy agents.

Alkylating agents work by adding alkyl groups to DNA, which can cause cross-linking of DNA strands and ultimately lead to cell death. Antimetabolites interfere with the metabolic processes necessary for DNA synthesis and replication, while topoisomerase inhibitors prevent the relaxation of supercoiled DNA during replication. Mitotic inhibitors disrupt the normal functioning of the mitotic spindle, which is essential for cell division. Targeted therapy agents are designed to target specific molecular abnormalities in cancer cells, such as mutated oncogenes or dysregulated signaling pathways.

It's important to note that antineoplastic agents can also affect normal cells and tissues, leading to various side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and myelosuppression (suppression of bone marrow function). Therefore, the use of these drugs requires careful monitoring and management of their potential adverse effects.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

Silicon dioxide is not a medical term, but a chemical compound with the formula SiO2. It's commonly known as quartz or sand and is not something that would typically have a medical definition. However, in some cases, silicon dioxide can be used in pharmaceutical preparations as an excipient (an inactive substance that serves as a vehicle or medium for a drug) or as a food additive, often as an anti-caking agent.

In these contexts, it's important to note that silicon dioxide is considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, exposure to very high levels of respirable silica dust, such as in certain industrial settings, can increase the risk of lung disease, including silicosis.

Cell survival refers to the ability of a cell to continue living and functioning normally, despite being exposed to potentially harmful conditions or treatments. This can include exposure to toxins, radiation, chemotherapeutic drugs, or other stressors that can damage cells or interfere with their normal processes.

In scientific research, measures of cell survival are often used to evaluate the effectiveness of various therapies or treatments. For example, researchers may expose cells to a particular drug or treatment and then measure the percentage of cells that survive to assess its potential therapeutic value. Similarly, in toxicology studies, measures of cell survival can help to determine the safety of various chemicals or substances.

It's important to note that cell survival is not the same as cell proliferation, which refers to the ability of cells to divide and multiply. While some treatments may promote cell survival, they may also inhibit cell proliferation, making them useful for treating diseases such as cancer. Conversely, other treatments may be designed to specifically target and kill cancer cells, even if it means sacrificing some healthy cells in the process.

Endocytosis is the process by which cells absorb substances from their external environment by engulfing them in membrane-bound structures, resulting in the formation of intracellular vesicles. This mechanism allows cells to take up large molecules, such as proteins and lipids, as well as small particles, like bacteria and viruses. There are two main types of endocytosis: phagocytosis (cell eating) and pinocytosis (cell drinking). Phagocytosis involves the engulfment of solid particles, while pinocytosis deals with the uptake of fluids and dissolved substances. Other specialized forms of endocytosis include receptor-mediated endocytosis and caveolae-mediated endocytosis, which allow for the specific internalization of molecules through the interaction with cell surface receptors.

Pharmaceutical preparations refer to the various forms of medicines that are produced by pharmaceutical companies, which are intended for therapeutic or prophylactic use. These preparations consist of an active ingredient (the drug) combined with excipients (inactive ingredients) in a specific formulation and dosage form.

The active ingredient is the substance that has a therapeutic effect on the body, while the excipients are added to improve the stability, palatability, bioavailability, or administration of the drug. Examples of pharmaceutical preparations include tablets, capsules, solutions, suspensions, emulsions, ointments, creams, and injections.

The production of pharmaceutical preparations involves a series of steps that ensure the quality, safety, and efficacy of the final product. These steps include the selection and testing of raw materials, formulation development, manufacturing, packaging, labeling, and storage. Each step is governed by strict regulations and guidelines to ensure that the final product meets the required standards for use in medical practice.

Lactic acid, also known as 2-hydroxypropanoic acid, is a chemical compound that plays a significant role in various biological processes. In the context of medicine and biochemistry, lactic acid is primarily discussed in relation to muscle metabolism and cellular energy production. Here's a medical definition for lactic acid:

Lactic acid (LA): A carboxylic acid with the molecular formula C3H6O3 that plays a crucial role in anaerobic respiration, particularly during strenuous exercise or conditions of reduced oxygen availability. It is formed through the conversion of pyruvate, catalyzed by the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), when there is insufficient oxygen to complete the final step of cellular respiration in the Krebs cycle. The accumulation of lactic acid can lead to acidosis and muscle fatigue. Additionally, lactic acid serves as a vital intermediary in various metabolic pathways and is involved in the production of glucose through gluconeogenesis in the liver.

"Cutaneous administration" is a route of administering medication or treatment through the skin. This can be done through various methods such as:

1. Topical application: This involves applying the medication directly to the skin in the form of creams, ointments, gels, lotions, patches, or solutions. The medication is absorbed into the skin and enters the systemic circulation slowly over a period of time. Topical medications are often used for local effects, such as treating eczema, psoriasis, or fungal infections.

2. Iontophoresis: This method uses a mild electrical current to help a medication penetrate deeper into the skin. A positive charge is applied to a medication with a negative charge, or vice versa, causing it to be attracted through the skin. Iontophoresis is often used for local pain management and treating conditions like hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating).

3. Transdermal delivery systems: These are specialized patches that contain medication within them. The patch is applied to the skin, and as time passes, the medication is released through the skin and into the systemic circulation. This method allows for a steady, controlled release of medication over an extended period. Common examples include nicotine patches for smoking cessation and hormone replacement therapy patches.

Cutaneous administration offers several advantages, such as avoiding first-pass metabolism (which can reduce the effectiveness of oral medications), providing localized treatment, and allowing for self-administration in some cases. However, it may not be suitable for all types of medications or conditions, and potential side effects include skin irritation, allergic reactions, and systemic absorption leading to unwanted systemic effects.

Neoplasms are abnormal growths of cells or tissues in the body that serve no physiological function. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are typically slow growing and do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant neoplasms are aggressive, invasive, and can metastasize to distant sites.

Neoplasms occur when there is a dysregulation in the normal process of cell division and differentiation, leading to uncontrolled growth and accumulation of cells. This can result from genetic mutations or other factors such as viral infections, environmental exposures, or hormonal imbalances.

Neoplasms can develop in any organ or tissue of the body and can cause various symptoms depending on their size, location, and type. Treatment options for neoplasms include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy, among others.

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is a type of electron microscopy that uses a focused beam of electrons to scan the surface of a sample and produce a high-resolution image. In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of a specimen, and secondary electrons are emitted from the sample due to interactions between the electrons and the atoms in the sample. These secondary electrons are then detected by a detector and used to create an image of the sample's surface topography. SEM can provide detailed images of the surface of a wide range of materials, including metals, polymers, ceramics, and biological samples. It is commonly used in materials science, biology, and electronics for the examination and analysis of surfaces at the micro- and nanoscale.

Lipids are a broad group of organic compounds that are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar organic solvents. They include fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, and phospholipids. Lipids serve many important functions in the body, including energy storage, acting as structural components of cell membranes, and serving as signaling molecules. High levels of certain lipids, particularly cholesterol and triglycerides, in the blood are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

I'm happy to help! However, I must clarify that "materials testing" is not a medical term per se. It is a term used in various fields, including engineering and materials science, to describe the process of subjecting materials to different tests to evaluate their properties and performance under various conditions.

In the context of medical devices or implants, materials testing may refer to the evaluation of the physical and mechanical properties of materials used in their construction. These tests can include assessments of strength, durability, biocompatibility, and other factors that are critical to ensuring the safety and efficacy of medical devices.

Medical device manufacturers must comply with regulatory standards for materials testing to ensure that their products meet specific requirements for performance, safety, and quality. These standards may vary depending on the type of device, its intended use, and the country or region in which it will be marketed and sold.

Confocal microscopy is a powerful imaging technique used in medical and biological research to obtain high-resolution, contrast-rich images of thick samples. This super-resolution technology provides detailed visualization of cellular structures and processes at various depths within a specimen.

In confocal microscopy, a laser beam focused through a pinhole illuminates a small spot within the sample. The emitted fluorescence or reflected light from this spot is then collected by a detector, passing through a second pinhole that ensures only light from the focal plane reaches the detector. This process eliminates out-of-focus light, resulting in sharp images with improved contrast compared to conventional widefield microscopy.

By scanning the laser beam across the sample in a raster pattern and collecting fluorescence at each point, confocal microscopy generates optical sections of the specimen. These sections can be combined to create three-dimensional reconstructions, allowing researchers to study cellular architecture and interactions within complex tissues.

Confocal microscopy has numerous applications in medical research, including studying protein localization, tracking intracellular dynamics, analyzing cell morphology, and investigating disease mechanisms at the cellular level. Additionally, it is widely used in clinical settings for diagnostic purposes, such as analyzing skin lesions or detecting pathogens in patient samples.

Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is a type of infrared spectroscopy that uses the Fourier transform mathematical technique to convert the raw data obtained from an interferometer into a more interpretable spectrum. This technique allows for the simultaneous collection of a wide range of wavelengths, resulting in increased sensitivity and speed compared to traditional dispersive infrared spectroscopy.

FTIR spectroscopy measures the absorption or transmission of infrared radiation by a sample as a function of frequency, providing information about the vibrational modes of the molecules present in the sample. This can be used for identification and quantification of chemical compounds, analysis of molecular structure, and investigation of chemical interactions and reactions.

In summary, FTIR spectroscopy is a powerful analytical technique that uses infrared radiation to study the vibrational properties of molecules, with increased sensitivity and speed due to the use of Fourier transform mathematical techniques and an interferometer.

Peptides are short chains of amino acid residues linked by covalent bonds, known as peptide bonds. They are formed when two or more amino acids are joined together through a condensation reaction, which results in the elimination of a water molecule and the formation of an amide bond between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another.

Peptides can vary in length from two to about fifty amino acids, and they are often classified based on their size. For example, dipeptides contain two amino acids, tripeptides contain three, and so on. Oligopeptides typically contain up to ten amino acids, while polypeptides can contain dozens or even hundreds of amino acids.

Peptides play many important roles in the body, including serving as hormones, neurotransmitters, enzymes, and antibiotics. They are also used in medical research and therapeutic applications, such as drug delivery and tissue engineering.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a type of microscopy in which an electron beam is transmitted through a ultra-thin specimen, interacting with it as it passes through. An image is formed from the interaction of the electrons with the specimen; the image is then magnified and visualized on a fluorescent screen or recorded on an electronic detector (or photographic film in older models).

TEM can provide high-resolution, high-magnification images that can reveal the internal structure of specimens including cells, viruses, and even molecules. It is widely used in biological and materials science research to investigate the ultrastructure of cells, tissues and materials. In medicine, TEM is used for diagnostic purposes in fields such as virology and bacteriology.

It's important to note that preparing a sample for TEM is a complex process, requiring specialized techniques to create thin (50-100 nm) specimens. These include cutting ultrathin sections of embedded samples using an ultramicrotome, staining with heavy metal salts, and positive staining or negative staining methods.

Intravenous injections are a type of medical procedure where medication or fluids are administered directly into a vein using a needle and syringe. This route of administration is also known as an IV injection. The solution injected enters the patient's bloodstream immediately, allowing for rapid absorption and onset of action. Intravenous injections are commonly used to provide quick relief from symptoms, deliver medications that are not easily absorbed by other routes, or administer fluids and electrolytes in cases of dehydration or severe illness. It is important that intravenous injections are performed using aseptic technique to minimize the risk of infection.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

Oral administration is a route of giving medications or other substances by mouth. This can be in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids, pastes, or other forms that can be swallowed. Once ingested, the substance is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract and enters the bloodstream to reach its intended target site in the body. Oral administration is a common and convenient route of medication delivery, but it may not be appropriate for all substances or in certain situations, such as when rapid onset of action is required or when the patient has difficulty swallowing.

Temperature, in a medical context, is a measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment. It is usually measured using a thermometer and reported in degrees Celsius (°C), degrees Fahrenheit (°F), or kelvin (K). In the human body, normal core temperature ranges from about 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) when measured rectally, and can vary slightly depending on factors such as time of day, physical activity, and menstrual cycle. Elevated body temperature is a common sign of infection or inflammation, while abnormally low body temperature can indicate hypothermia or other medical conditions.

Molecular structure, in the context of biochemistry and molecular biology, refers to the arrangement and organization of atoms and chemical bonds within a molecule. It describes the three-dimensional layout of the constituent elements, including their spatial relationships, bond lengths, and angles. Understanding molecular structure is crucial for elucidating the functions and reactivities of biological macromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. Various experimental techniques, like X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), are employed to determine molecular structures at atomic resolution, providing valuable insights into their biological roles and potential therapeutic targets.

"Nude mice" is a term used in the field of laboratory research to describe a strain of mice that have been genetically engineered to lack a functional immune system. Specifically, nude mice lack a thymus gland and have a mutation in the FOXN1 gene, which results in a failure to develop a mature T-cell population. This means that they are unable to mount an effective immune response against foreign substances or organisms.

The name "nude" refers to the fact that these mice also have a lack of functional hair follicles, resulting in a hairless or partially hairless phenotype. This feature is actually a secondary consequence of the same genetic mutation that causes their immune deficiency.

Nude mice are commonly used in research because their weakened immune system makes them an ideal host for transplanted tumors, tissues, and cells from other species, including humans. This allows researchers to study the behavior of these foreign substances in a living organism without the complication of an immune response. However, it's important to note that because nude mice lack a functional immune system, they must be kept in sterile conditions and are more susceptible to infection than normal mice.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Fluorescence microscopy is a type of microscopy that uses fluorescent dyes or proteins to highlight and visualize specific components within a sample. In this technique, the sample is illuminated with high-energy light, typically ultraviolet (UV) or blue light, which excites the fluorescent molecules causing them to emit lower-energy, longer-wavelength light, usually visible light in the form of various colors. This emitted light is then collected by the microscope and detected to produce an image.

Fluorescence microscopy has several advantages over traditional brightfield microscopy, including the ability to visualize specific structures or molecules within a complex sample, increased sensitivity, and the potential for quantitative analysis. It is widely used in various fields of biology and medicine, such as cell biology, neuroscience, and pathology, to study the structure, function, and interactions of cells and proteins.

There are several types of fluorescence microscopy techniques, including widefield fluorescence microscopy, confocal microscopy, two-photon microscopy, and total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, each with its own strengths and limitations. These techniques can provide valuable insights into the behavior of cells and proteins in health and disease.

BRCA1 (BReast CAncer gene 1) is a tumor suppressor gene that produces a protein involved in repairing damaged DNA and maintaining genetic stability. Mutations in the BRCA1 gene are associated with an increased risk of developing hereditary breast and ovarian cancers. Inherited mutations in this gene account for about 5% of all breast cancers and about 10-15% of ovarian cancers. Women who have a mutation in the BRCA1 gene have a significantly higher risk of developing breast cancer and ovarian cancer compared to women without mutations. The protein produced by the BRCA1 gene also interacts with other proteins to regulate cell growth and division, so its disruption can lead to uncontrolled cell growth and tumor formation.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

Genotype, in genetics, refers to the complete heritable genetic makeup of an individual organism, including all of its genes. It is the set of instructions contained in an organism's DNA for the development and function of that organism. The genotype is the basis for an individual's inherited traits, and it can be contrasted with an individual's phenotype, which refers to the observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism that result from the expression of its genes in combination with environmental influences.

It is important to note that an individual's genotype is not necessarily identical to their genetic sequence. Some genes have multiple forms called alleles, and an individual may inherit different alleles for a given gene from each parent. The combination of alleles that an individual inherits for a particular gene is known as their genotype for that gene.

Understanding an individual's genotype can provide important information about their susceptibility to certain diseases, their response to drugs and other treatments, and their risk of passing on inherited genetic disorders to their offspring.

Genetic testing is a type of medical test that identifies changes in chromosomes, genes, or proteins. The results of a genetic test can confirm or rule out a suspected genetic condition or help determine a person's chance of developing or passing on a genetic disorder. Genetic tests are performed on a sample of blood, hair, skin, amniotic fluid (the fluid that surrounds a fetus during pregnancy), or other tissue. For example, a physician may recommend genetic testing to help diagnose a genetic condition, confirm the presence of a gene mutation known to increase the risk of developing certain cancers, or determine the chance for a couple to have a child with a genetic disorder.

There are several types of genetic tests, including:

* Diagnostic testing: This type of test is used to identify or confirm a suspected genetic condition in an individual. It may be performed before birth (prenatal testing) or at any time during a person's life.
* Predictive testing: This type of test is used to determine the likelihood that a person will develop a genetic disorder. It is typically offered to individuals who have a family history of a genetic condition but do not show any symptoms themselves.
* Carrier testing: This type of test is used to determine whether a person carries a gene mutation for a genetic disorder. It is often offered to couples who are planning to have children and have a family history of a genetic condition or belong to a population that has an increased risk of certain genetic disorders.
* Preimplantation genetic testing: This type of test is used in conjunction with in vitro fertilization (IVF) to identify genetic changes in embryos before they are implanted in the uterus. It can help couples who have a family history of a genetic disorder or who are at risk of having a child with a genetic condition to conceive a child who is free of the genetic change in question.
* Pharmacogenetic testing: This type of test is used to determine how an individual's genes may affect their response to certain medications. It can help healthcare providers choose the most effective medication and dosage for a patient, reducing the risk of adverse drug reactions.

It is important to note that genetic testing should be performed under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional who can interpret the results and provide appropriate counseling and support.

BRCA2 is a specific gene that provides instructions for making a protein that helps suppress the growth of cells and plays a crucial role in repairing damaged DNA. Mutations in the BRCA2 gene are known to significantly increase the risk of developing breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and several other types of cancer.

The BRCA2 protein is involved in the process of homologous recombination, which is a type of DNA repair that occurs during cell division. When DNA is damaged, this protein helps to fix the damage by finding a similar sequence on a sister chromatid (a copy of the chromosome) and using it as a template to accurately repair the break.

If the BRCA2 gene is mutated and cannot produce a functional protein, then the cell may not be able to repair damaged DNA effectively. Over time, this can lead to an increased risk of developing cancer due to the accumulation of genetic alterations that cause cells to grow and divide uncontrollably.

It's worth noting that while mutations in the BRCA2 gene are associated with an increased risk of cancer, not everyone who has a mutation will develop cancer. However, those who do develop cancer tend to have an earlier onset and more aggressive form of the disease. Genetic testing can be used to identify mutations in the BRCA2 gene, which can help inform medical management and screening recommendations for individuals and their families.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

I must clarify that the term "pedigree" is not typically used in medical definitions. Instead, it is often employed in genetics and breeding, where it refers to the recorded ancestry of an individual or a family, tracing the inheritance of specific traits or diseases. In human genetics, a pedigree can help illustrate the pattern of genetic inheritance in families over multiple generations. However, it is not a medical term with a specific clinical definition.

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Lagzi, István (2013). "Chemical Robotics-Chemotactic Drug Carriers". Central European Journal of Medicine. 8 (4): 377-382. doi: ... Applications include targeted delivery of drugs in the body. More recently, enzyme molecules have also shown positive ...
ISBN 978-0-12-821900-3. Maiti, Sabyasachi; Jana, Sougata (2019-06-14). Polysaccharide Carriers for Drug Delivery. Woodhead ...
Limitations One limitation of Biological and bio-hybrid drug carriers, especially leukocytes, is that they have a low drug- ... drug to be delivered in a selective way and (iv) spacer sequence which joins drug molecule to the carrier and due to it enzyme ... which offer compatibility with the human immune system and a simple way to load drugs as a bio-hybrid drug carrier. Leukocytes ... leading to a decrease in the efficacy of the drug and drug carrier. Moreover, the therapeutic proteins produced may have ...
Ajima, K; Yudasaka M; Murakami T; Maigné A; Shiba K; Iijima S (2005). "Carbon Nanohorns as Anticancer Drug Carriers". Mol. ... 2008). "Single wall carbon nanohorn as a drug carrier for controlled release". Chem. Phys. Lett. 461 (4-6): 189-192. Bibcode: ... 2008). "Water-dispersed single-wall carbon nanohorns as drug carriers for local cancer chemotherapy". Nanomedicine. 3 (4): 453- ... 2005). "Carbon Nanohorns as Anticancer Drug Carriers". Molecular Pharmaceutics. 2 (6): 475-480. doi:10.1021/mp0500566. PMID ...
This useful structure allows them to act as drug carriers in the body, as long as the compounds to be delivered have compatible ... Cyclodextrin nanosponges were not discovered to have potential in being drug carriers until work done by Trotta and colleagues ... Trotta, Francesco; Zanetti, Marco; Cavalli, Roberta (2012-11-29). "Cyclodextrin-based nanosponges as drug carriers". Beilstein ... Although nanosponges are one three-thousandth the size of red blood cells, they each can carry thousands of drug molecules. ...
... is almost insoluble ... Spernath, A.; Aserin, A. (2006). "Microemulsions as carriers for drugs and nutraceuticals". ... Chopra's Indigenous Drugs of India (2nd ed.). Academic Publishers. pp. 178-179. ISBN 978-81-85086-80-4. Ashurst, Philip R. ( ...
Excipient Spernath A; Aserin A (December 2006). "Microemulsions as carriers for drugs and nutraceuticals". Adv Colloid ... anti-malaria drugs beta-artemether and halofantrine, anti-HIV drug UC 781, nimodipine, exemestane, anti-cancer drugs 9- ... A self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) is a drug delivery system that uses a microemulsion achieved by chemical ... For many drugs taken by mouth, faster release rates improve the drug acceptance by consumers. Greater bioavailability means ...
Kali, G; Haddadzadegan, S; Laffleur, F; Bernkop-Schnürch, A (2023). "Per-thiolated cyclodextrins: Nanosized drug carriers ... GRN 000046, gamma-cyclodextrin Uekama, Kaneto; Hirayama, Fumitoshi; Irie, Tetsumi (1998). "Cyclodextrin Drug Carrier Systems". ... The likely smallest drug carrier providing enhanced cellular uptake and endosomal escape". Carbohydrate Polymers. 316: 121070. ... The cellular uptake of various model drugs, for instance, was up to 20-fold improved by using thiolated α-cyclodextrin as ...
"Puerto Rico Enlists Mail Carriers in Drug War". The Beaver County Times. June 23, 1993. Archived from the original on September ... Though recreational drug use was uncommon in Puerto Rico in the 1950s, it markedly increased in the 1960s. By the following ... Illegal drugs are routed from Venezuela and the Dominican Republic, continue through Puerto Rico and on to Newark, New Jersey, ... The 27-year-old was punched, injected with drugs, tied to heavy stones, thrown over a bridge into a river and then shot at. The ...
"Large porous carriers of nanoparticles for drug delivery". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 99 (19): 12001- ... Drug Delivery VI: 187-192. Wang, J.; Ben-Jebria, A.; Edwards, D.A. (1999). "Inhalation of estradiol for sustained systemic ... In 1997, Science published his study on a new type of inhalable aerosol that efficiently delivered drugs to the lungs. Edwards ... Edwards' scientific work in biomedical engineering concerns the research and development of drug delivery platforms for ...
Carriers with more lipophilicity exert better mucoadhesion and residence time. Drug system pH, solubility, and hydrogen bonding ... Recently, exosomes are being utilized as drug carriers. These systems are observed to be stable, specific, and safe. Moreover, ... Drug delivery is a process of administering therapeutics to treat human diseases. The first drug delivery system often dates ... Drugs can be loaded in dendrimers through formulation and nanoconstruct. For drug delivery systems to bypass the blood brain ...
Yoo, J.-W., et al., Bio-inspired, bioengineered and biomimetic drug delivery carriers. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, 2011. 10 ... "Application of Drug Nanocrystal Technologies on Oral Drug Delivery of Poorly Soluble Drugs". Pharmaceutical Research. 30 (2): ... Drug-dendrimer conjugation can elongate the half-life of drugs. Currently, dendrimer use in biological systems is limited due ... Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 2011. 63(3): p. 136-151. Miyazaki, S., C. Yokouchi, and M. Takada, External control of drug ...
Microbubbles can also serve as effective drug carriers. Drugs can be adhered to the surface of microbubbles, encapsulated ... This method achieves local drug release while limiting off-target toxicities. Drug-loaded microbubbles with FUS has been shown ... "Drug-loaded bubbles with matched focused ultrasound excitation for concurrent blood-brain barrier opening and brain-tumor drug ... "Concurrent blood-brain barrier opening and local drug delivery using drug-carrying microbubbles and focused ultrasound for ...
"Biomimetic nano drug delivery carriers for treating cardiovascular diseases". Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and ... An early study from 2003 developed a method for producing "PLGA microspheres" that can be loaded with anti-inflammatory drugs, ... Studies have shown that leukolike vectors have a specific advantage in chemotherapy drug delivery to cancer. This is because ... The thicker membranes and arrangement of hydrophobic chains of polymersomes greater stability and drug retention within the ...
Li, Cuixia; Obireddy, Sreekanth Reddy; Lai, Wing-Fu (2021-01-01). "Preparation and use of nanogels as carriers of drugs". Drug ... To repair and regenerate damaged tissue, nanogels have been explored to not only encapsulate drugs and growth factors for local ... These complex networks of polymers present a unique opportunity in the field of drug delivery at the intersection of ... Vinogradov, Serguei V (2010). "Nanogels in the race for drug delivery". Nanomedicine. 5 (2): 165-8. doi:10.2217/nnm.09.103. ...
Wei, Hao; Hu (2021). "Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: magnetic nanoplatforms as drug carriers". International ... Wahajuddin; Arora, Sumit (2012-07-06). "Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: magnetic nanoplatforms as drug carriers". ... Wahajuddin; Arora, Sumit (2012). "Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: magnetic nanoplatforms as drug carriers". ... Wahajuddin; Arora, Sumit (2012). "Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: magnetic nanoplatforms as drug carriers". ...
Crit Rev Ther Drug Carrier Syst. 5 (1): 21-67. PMID 3293807. (Articles with short description, Short description is different ... Drug delivery is another application that utilizes BSM coatings. Drug delivery systems employ pharmaceutical products within ... The behavior of BSM and drugs is investigated to ensure that one element does not disrupt the function of the other. Coatings ... These compartments are composed of hydrophilic polymers that enable the release of a particular drug at a specified rate and ...
Ulbrich K, Subr V (February 2010). "Structural and chemical aspects of HPMA copolymers as drug carriers". Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev ... The concept of using pHPMA as polymeric drug carriers has opened a new perspective in modern pharmaceutical science, and ... Thus, it is frequently used as macromolecular carrier for low molecular weight drugs (especially anti-cancer chemotherapeutic ... Drug Deliv. Rev. 62 (2): 122-49. doi:10.1016/j.addr.2009.10.004. PMC 2836498. PMID 19919846. Vasey PA, Kaye SB, Morrison R, ...
Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems. 26 (4): 333-372. doi:10.1615/critrevtherdrugcarriersyst.v26.i4.10. PMID ... A common application for cationic liposomes is cancer drug delivery. In the 1960s, Alec D. Bangham discovered liposomes as ... Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. Advanced Liposome Research. 154-155: 102-122. doi:10.1016/j.addr.2020.07.002. PMID 32650041. ...
"Lipid-based nanoparticles as pharmaceutical drug carriers: from concepts to clinic". Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug ... It can be used to prepare lipid nanoparticles which are used in mRNA vaccines, In particular, it forms part of the drug ... Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 29 June 2022. (Chemical articles with multiple compound IDs, Multiple chemicals in an ... Carrier Systems. 26 (6): 523-80. doi:10.1615/critrevtherdrugcarriersyst.v26.i6.10. PMC 2885142. PMID 20402623. Salvatori G, ...
Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems. 30 (1): 1-49. doi:10.1615/CritRevTherDrugCarrierSyst.2013005469. PMID ... "Antiviral drug". TheFreeDictionary.com. Retrieved 2021-04-14. Dolgin E (April 2021). "The race for antiviral drugs to beat ... Overall, the notion of virucide differs from an antiviral drug such as Aciclovir, which inhibits the proliferation of the virus ... Best M, Springthorpe VS, Sattar SA (June 1994). "Feasibility of a combined carrier test for disinfectants: studies with a ...
Khandare JJ, Minko T (2006). "Antibodies and peptides in cancer therapy". Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems ... Technology Insight: cytotoxic drug immunoconjugates for cancer therapy. 2007 looks useful from the abstract. Targeted Therapy ... and to develop monoclonal antibody therapy as a targeted form of chemotherapy when they are often known as antibody-drug ... Antineoplastic drugs, All stub articles, Immunology stubs). ...
Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems. 17 (5): 509-555. doi:10.1615/CritRevTherDrugCarrierSyst.v17.i5.30. ISSN ... Hussain, Alamdar; Ahsan, Fakhrul (2005-03-21). "The vagina as a route for systemic drug delivery". Journal of Controlled ... Woolfson, A. David; Malcolm, R. Karl; Gallagher, Rory (2000-01-01). "Drug Delivery by the Intravaginal Route". ... "Why consider vaginal drug administration?". Fertility and Sterility. 82 (1): 1-12. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2004.01.025. ISSN ...
Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems. 21 (4): 257-317. doi:10.1615/CritRevTherDrugCarrierSyst.v21.i4.10. PMID ...
Impact of Therapeutic Carrier Systems and Gemcitabine's Drug Conjugates on Cancer Therapy". Critical Reviews in Therapeutic ... As of 2014, drug interactions had not been studied. Gemcitabine is a chemotherapy drug that works by killing any cells that are ... "Drug Formulary/Drugs/ gemcitabine - Provider Monograph". Cancer Care Ontario. Retrieved 6 December 2020. "FDA Approval for ... Sneader, Walter (2005). Drug discovery: a history. New York: Wiley. p. 259. ISBN 978-0-471-89979-2. "Gemzar". European ...
Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems. 24 (6): 493-545. doi:10.1615/CritRevTherDrugCarrierSyst.v24.i6.10. PMID ... Risks for developing osteomyelitis include diabetes, intravenous drug use, prior removal of the spleen, and trauma to the area ... When adults are affected, it may be because of compromised host resistance due to debilitation, intravenous drug abuse, ... Local and sustained availability of drugs have proven to be more effective in achieving prophylactic and therapeutic outcomes. ...
Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems. 30 (5): 435-467. doi:10.1615/CritRevTherDrugCarrierSyst.2013007419. ISSN ... Saxena, Aaruni; Balaramnavar, Vishal M.; Hohlfeld, Thomas; Saxena, Anil K. (2013-12-05). "Drug/drug interaction of common ... Prostaglandin inhibitors are drugs that inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandin in human body. There are various types of ... Pharmacodynamics refers to the study of how the drugs exert their actions in human body. NSAIDs inhibits the synthesis of ...
... drug carriers are also able to target specific cells. This can be done by manufacturing a material to bond to ... Materials used in drug delivery in the past ten years have primarily been polymers. However, nanotechnology has opened the door ... Polymers also tend to swell in liquid which can cause an unwanted burst of drugs. The lack of swelling shown by most ceramics ... The large surface area to volume ratio of nanophase materials makes it possible for large amounts of drugs to be released over ...
These water-soluble can be applied into drug or gene carriers. There are two main advantages for polyrotaxanes applied to drug/ ... The drastic structural change can be used for programmed drug or gene delivery, in which the drug or gene can be released with ... The drastic structural change can be used for programmed drug or gene delivery, of which drug or gene can be released with the ... rotaxanes and capsulated drugs/genes and provides the carriers with other predetermined functions. As the network is further ...
A drug carrier or drug vehicle is a substrate used in the process of drug delivery which serves to improve the selectivity, ... Disadvantages associated with using liposomes as drug carriers involve poor control over drug release. Drugs which have high ... effectiveness, and/or safety of drug administration. Drug carriers are primarily used to control the release of drugs into ... Different types of drug carrier utilize different methods of attachment, and some carriers can even implement a variety of ...
Ethics of Infection Control Measures for Carriers of Antimicrobial Drug-Resistant Organisms On This Page ... Rump B, Timen A, Hulscher M, Verweij M. Ethics of Infection Control Measures for Carriers of Antimicrobial Drug-Resistant ... Ethics of Infection Control Measures for Carriers of Antimicrobial Drug-Resistant Organisms. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018 ... The Carrier as a Nondefining Factor in a Slowly Evolving Threat. In all cases analyzed for this study, the individual carrier ...
Books_Drug Textbooks_Carrier_Drug Textbooks_Enzyme_Drug Textbooks_Target_Drug Textbooks_Transporter_Drug Format. a tibble with ... drug/ carrier/ target/ enzyme/ transporter id. An object of class spec_tbl_df. (inherits from tbl_df. , tbl. , data.frame. ) ... Drugs/ Carriers/ Enzymes/ Targets/ Transporters related Books. Description. A list of text books that were used as references ...
Segura, T., & Ng, Q. (2012). Multivalent clustering targeting strategy for drug carriers. ... Segura T, Ng Q. Multivalent clustering targeting strategy for drug carriers. 2012. ... Segura T, Ng Q. Multivalent clustering targeting strategy for drug carriers. 2012. ...
Integration of Diagnostic Imaging Agents and Responsive Controlled Release Drug Delivery Carriers ...
Liposomes as drug carriers : recent trends and progress / edited by Gregory Gregoriadis. Contributor(s): Gregoriadis, Gregory ...
Drug Carriers / administration & dosage * Electroporation * Gene Expression Regulation * Gene Transfer Techniques* * Genes, ...
carriers for controlled drug delivery * non-viral vectors for gene therapy Our current projects include: ... Our laboratory specializes in biomaterials, drug delivery, gene therapy, and tissue engineering. It emphasizes the use of ... fabricating injectable, in situ polymerizable, biodegradable composite scaffolds as carriers for bone and cartilage cells to ...
Many still think that the Argentine is just judging by the absent-mindedness and that he will renew with the French club for two more seasons. Others believe he may be closer to returning to FC Barcelona than one might think. Meanwhile, certain people do not rule out that big offers from clubs in the Saudi Arabian league will lure him.. he latest place to become fashionable in all aspects and, above all, for soccer are the Arab countries. Since the World Cup in Qatar, the countrys soccer teams have wanted to take a leap in this sport. Now you can find the best betting sites where you can bet on soccer through a VPN to keep your data safe.. In addition, by registering with these bookmakers, you are eligible for fantastic promotions and bonuses in the game. Middle Eastern countries have begun to become loyal to other sports such as basketball or boxing, too.. Messis career changed after signing for PSG. Messis career path changed when he decided to leave Barcelona in 2021. A decision that the ...
PHYTOSOME: A NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY CARRIER. Malay K. Das, Bhupen Kalita and Anil Kumar Sharma ...
Here, we integrated SF and ZIF-8 to develop novel drug carriers that selectively release drug in the acidic intracellular ... Specifically, SF was assembled into nanoparticles (SF-NPs), which were then loaded with an antitumor drug, doxorubicin (DOX), ... Bombyx mori (B. mori) silk fibroin; biomimetic nucleation; drug delivery; pH-responsive; zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF- ... Frameworks on Silk Fibroin Nanoparticles for Designing Core-Shell-Structured pH-Responsive Anticancer Drug Carriers. ...
MVS Division Settles Step-4 Grievance on Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) Drug and Alcohol Clearinghouse. " ...
Related Categories: FORMULATIONS, CARDIOLOGY, DOSAGE FORMS/DRUG CARRIERS Printer-Friendly Version Related Articles from IJPC. ...
... drug/alcohol abusers . drug dealers . weapon carriers . gang members . school dropouts . unemployed youths . homeless youth . ... Deeply imbedded cultural problems such as racism, sexism, poverty, drug and alcohol abuse, drug trafficking, and frequent ... Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration. Division of Grants and Contract Management. Room 13C-20. Parklawn ... Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Administration. Division of Applied Sciences and Services. National Institute of Mental ...
Polymeric nanocapsules as drug carriers for sustained anticancer activity of calcitriol in breast cancer cells. Int J Pharm. ... The IV study drug was administered 3 times weekly with hemodialysis; the oral study drug was administered daily. The primary ... Clin Drug Investig. 2010;30(8):545-557.. *Oblak M, Mlinsek G, Kandus A, et al. Effects of paricalcitol on biomarkers of ... Clin Drug Investig. 2006;26(11):629-638.. *Sagar PS, Saravanabavan S, Munt A, et al. Effect of early and delayed commencement ...
... requires small employer carriers to provide continuity of care with respect to prescription drug coverage. ... Consumer Protection from Nonmedical Changes to Prescription Drug Formularies; Provides that changes to prescription drug ... Consumer Protection from Nonmedical Changes to Prescription Drug Formularies. Mayfield. Similar. Last Action: 5/5/2017 H Died ... CS/HB 95: Consumer Protection from Nonmedical Changes to Prescription Drug Formularies. GENERAL BILL by Health Innovation ...
Hollow MnNMs, functioning as drug carriers, offer promising potential in targeted drug delivery. Furthermore, the degradation ... In 2022, the Shen research team engineered TME-responsive nanomaterials by employing MnO2-albumin as a drug carrier, loaded ... Comparative images at different time points after the injection of three drugs into mice. (A) Injection of MnNR@PEG. (B) ... Upon reaching the tumor site, the acidic TME triggers the degradation of MnO2, leading to rapid drug release. MnO2-mediated O2 ...
New Carriers for Bioadhesive Gastroretentive Drug Delivery Systems Based on Eudragit® EPO/Eudragit® L100 Interpolyelectrolyte ... This article belongs to the Topic Natural Products and Drug Discovery). Download keyboard_arrow_down Download PDF Download PDF ... J. Drug Dev. Res. 2010, 2, 488-492. [Google Scholar]. *Kanife, U.; Odesanmi, O.; Doherty, V. Phytochemical composition and ... BPH Induction and Drug Administration. Rats were randomly distributed to the following 4 groups (6-8 animals per group): (1) ...
Nanoparticles, physiologic neovascularization, drug carriers, nanotechnology, hepatocyte growth factor Research Lab(s): ...
LR: 20150812; JID: 101263847; 0 (Drug Carriers); IT942ZTH98 (Curcumin); OID: NLM: PMC4525803; OTO: NOTNLM; 2015 [ecollection]; ... METHODS: Data for 2,892 high school students were derived from the 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey. This ... School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, UNESP - Sao Paulo State University, Campus Araraquara, Department of Drugs and Medicines, ...
Using a single general-purpose GPU (GPGPU) card, solubility parameters for all drug carriers towards Ibuprofen can be computed ... Table 2: Solubility parameter differences between Ibuprofen and five known drug carriers. Solubility parameter predictions were ... Drug Stability Towards Chemical Degradation. Chemical stabilities of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) and drug ... Mahlin, D.; Bergström, C.A.S., Early drug development predictions of glass-forming ability and physical stability of drugs.. ...
Tetraether lipid Liposomes for the Preparation of Novel Liposomal Drug Carriers by: Özcetin, Aybike Published: (2011) ...
System; Carrier-Based Drug Delivery System2) By Carrier Type: Liposomes; Nanoparticles; Microspheres; Monoclonal Antibodies3) ... By Technology: Prodrug; Implants And Intrauterine Devices; Targeted Drug Delivery; Polymeric Drug Delivery4) By Application: ... Advanced Drug Delivery Systems Global Market Opportunities And Strategies To 2033. Apr 16, 2024 , Published by: The Business ... Pharmaceutical Drug Delivery Global Market Opportunities And Strategies To 2033. Apr 16, 2024 , Published by: The Business ...
Nevertheless, each drug requires a tailor-made carrier: the shape, size, composition and destination of the particles must be ... Health and medicine/Clinical medicine/Medical treatments/Drug therapy/Medications/Antiinflammatory drugs ... How can a drug be delivered exactly where it is needed, while limiting the risk of side effects? The use of nanoparticles to ... This is why this molecule is not yet available as a drug,» says Gaby Palmer, a professor in the Department of Medicine and the ...
Protein nanoparticles as drug delivery carriers for cancer therapy. Authors. Lohcharoenkal W; Wang L; Chen YC; Rojanasakul Y ...
Research areas include the development of cell-based imaging and drug delivery agents and nanoparticle-based carriers for ... Research areas include the development of cell-based imaging and drug delivery agents and nanoparticle-based carriers for ...
Porous metal-organic-framework nanoscale carriers as a potential platform for drug delivery and imaging. P Horcajada, T Chalati ... Rationale of drug encapsulation and release from biocompatible porous metal-organic frameworks. D Cunha, M Ben Yahia, S Hall, ... Influence of pore size of MCM-41 matrices on drug delivery rate. P Horcajada, A Ramila, J P rez-Pariente, M Vallet-Regı ... Metal-organic frameworks as efficient materials for drug delivery. P Horcajada, C Serre, M Vallet‐Reg , M Sebban, F Taulelle, G ...
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  • Some of the more popular types of drug carriers include liposomes, polymeric micelles, microspheres, and nanoparticles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biomimetic Nucleation of Metal-Organic Frameworks on Silk Fibroin Nanoparticles for Designing Core-Shell-Structured pH-Responsive Anticancer Drug Carriers. (bvsalud.org)
  • Specifically, SF was assembled into nanoparticles (SF-NPs), which were then loaded with an antitumor drug , doxorubicin (DOX), to form DSF-NPs. (bvsalud.org)
  • Protein nanoparticles as drug delivery carriers for cancer therapy. (cdc.gov)
  • The use of nanoparticles to encapsulate a drug to protect it and the body until it reaches its point of action is being increasingly studied. (eurekalert.org)
  • The scientists tested different porous nanoparticles, with the main criteria being a reduction in toxicity and in the required dosage, as well as the ability to release the drug only once the nanoparticle has reached the interior of the macrophages. (eurekalert.org)
  • Protein nanoparticles are promising targeted drug delivery carriers due to their low toxicity, biodegradability, and abundance of proteins in natural sources. (bvsalud.org)
  • Disadvantages associated with using liposomes as drug carriers involve poor control over drug release. (wikipedia.org)
  • Much of the current research involving liposomes is focused on improving the delivery of anticancer drugs such as doxorubicin and paclitaxel. (wikipedia.org)
  • These carriers are comparable to liposomes, however the lack of an aqueous core makes polymeric micelles less accommodating to a wide variety of drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liposomes as drug carriers : recent trends and progress / edited by Gregory Gregoriadis. (who.int)
  • Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers. (bvsalud.org)
  • Research areas include the development of cell-based imaging and drug delivery agents and nanoparticle-based carriers for therapeutics, toward immunomodulation and the treatment of cancer. (umass.edu)
  • Recombinant elastin-based proteins (ELPs) are used in applications that include therapeutics, drug delivery, and tissue engineering due to their biocompatibility and unique ability to undergo simple coacervation. (bvsalud.org)
  • LMU) has succeeded in developing a fully biodegradable nanoparticle capable of delivering a new anti-inflammatory drug directly into macrophages - the cells where uncontrolled inflammatory reactions are triggered - ensuring its effectiveness. (eurekalert.org)
  • The porous silica nanoparticle, on the other hand, met all the criteria: it was fully biodegradable, of the right size to be swallowed by macrophages, and was able to absorb the drug into its numerous pores without releasing it too early. (eurekalert.org)
  • When the LIFU power is 2.4 W/cm 2 , it can improve the permeability of cells, further promote the uptake of drugs by cells, and improve the toxicity of drugs. (hindawi.com)
  • Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. (bvsalud.org)
  • However, this requires identifying the right nanoparticle for each drug according to a series of precise parameters. (eurekalert.org)
  • Using a nanoparticle as a transport vessel would circumvent these shortcomings by delivering the drug directly into macrophages to combat inflammatory overactivation in the place where it begins. (eurekalert.org)
  • Different methods of attaching the drug to the carrier have been implemented, including adsorption, integration into the bulk structure, encapsulation, and covalent bonding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Critical reviews in therapeutic drug carrier systems 2021 0 0. (cdc.gov)
  • Protein drugs are a critically important therapeutic modality due to the sophisticated binding recognition, catalytic properties, and disease relevance of proteins. (bvsalud.org)
  • Current research in pharmacology and drug discovery 2021 0 0. (cdc.gov)
  • Microspheres are hollow, micron-sized carriers often formed via self-assembly of polymeric compounds which are most often used to encapsulate the active drug for delivery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of the research currently being done uses advanced assembly techniques, such as precision particle fabrication (PPF), to create microspheres capable of sustained control over drug release. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pharmacotherapy for SARS-CoV-2 and Seizures for drug repurposing presumed on Mechanistic Targets. (cdc.gov)
  • Drugs which have high membrane-permeability can readily 'leak' from the carrier, while optimization of in vivo stability can cause drug release by diffusion to be a slow and inefficient process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water-resistance being a desired property, ethanol-based formulations were investigated further for stability, drug release and ungual permeation. (researcher-app.com)
  • Schrödinger's Materials Science Suite provides an automated simulation workflow for quantum chemical analysis over the stability of drug compounds towards various degradation mechanisms such as oxidation, hydrolysis, and photo-degradation (Figure 1). (schrodinger.com)
  • A drug carrier or drug vehicle is a substrate used in the process of drug delivery which serves to improve the selectivity, effectiveness, and/or safety of drug administration. (wikipedia.org)
  • This hydrophobic/hydrophilic composition is particularly useful for drug delivery as these carriers can accommodate a number of drugs of varying lipophilicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carrier-based drug delivery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. (bvsalud.org)
  • Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. (bvsalud.org)
  • Other emerging applications include genetic predisposition to adverse drug effects (pharmacogenomics), carrier testing of prospective parents, and use of polygenic risk scores in disease detection and prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • Adverse drug events in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19: A data mining study on the FDA adverse event reporting system. (cdc.gov)
  • Drug carriers are primarily used to control the release of drugs into systemic circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Risk of Underlying Diseases and Effectiveness of Drugs on COVID-19 Inpatients Assessed Using Medical Claims in Japan: Retrospective Observational Study. (cdc.gov)
  • Los portadores de fármacos se utilizan en los sistemas de liberación de fármacos como en la tecnología de liberación controlada para prolongar las acciones del fármaco in vivo, disminuir su metabolismo y su toxicidad. (bvsalud.org)
  • Many controlled release formulations utilize the ability of lipid or polymer-based aggregates in solution to sequester, solubilize and deliver drugs in a controlled and tunable manner. (schrodinger.com)
  • In vitro release studies of drug-loaded nanospheres were carried out by the centrifugal ultrafiltration method. (bvsalud.org)
  • The in vitro release of drug-loaded nanospheres was found to be first order. (bvsalud.org)
  • Protein Nanocarriers Capable of Encapsulating Both Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Drugs. (bvsalud.org)
  • This can be accomplished either by slow release of a particular drug over a long period of time (typically diffusion) or by triggered release at the drug's target by some stimulus, such as changes in pH, application of heat, and activation by light. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drug release is often achieved by diffusion through pores in the microsphere structure or by degradation of the microsphere shell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we integrated SF and ZIF-8 to develop novel drug carriers that selectively release drug in the acidic intracellular environment of cancer cells . (bvsalud.org)
  • The release of drug from drug-loaded nanospheres dispersing in a conventional cream was evaluated. (bvsalud.org)
  • With the accelerating pace of drug discovery in the 21st century, fast and efficient ways to both preformulate and formulate new drugs are critical elements of the pharmaceutical development. (schrodinger.com)
  • These carriers form at some high concentration specific to the compounds used, called the critical micelle concentration. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2,3,4,5 Table 1 lists a set of predicted 1st and 2nd hydrogen abstraction energy of several drug compounds, obtained from the automated simulation workflow. (schrodinger.com)
  • Hydrogen abstraction energies for the weakest-bound (H1) and the 2nd-weakest-bound (H2) hydrogen atoms of well-known drug compounds. (schrodinger.com)
  • In 2016, a large outbreak of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Typhi infections began in Sindh province, Pakistan [1]. (cdc.gov)
  • Studies on drug : polymer ratio showed a linear relationship between drug concentration and percentage of loading. (bvsalud.org)
  • Polymeric micelles are drug carriers formed by the aggregation of some amphiphilic molecule with an amphiphilic block copolymer. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is why this molecule is not yet available as a drug,» says Gaby Palmer, a professor in the Department of Medicine and the Geneva Centre for Inflammation Research at the UNIGE Faculty of Medicine, who codirected the study. (eurekalert.org)
  • The present study was carried out to exploit the feasibility of using polymeric nanospheres as an alternative and cheaper carrier for targeting corticosteroids to the skin. (bvsalud.org)
  • and antimicrobial resistance is a slowly evolving threat on which individual carriers have limited effect. (cdc.gov)
  • Recent studies have shown that the tumor microenvironment is closely related to HCC progression, prognosis, and drug resistance. (hindawi.com)
  • The vast majority of 2009 H1N1 viruses tested for drug resistance have been susceptible to oseltamivir and zanamivir but resistant to the adamantanes (amantadine, rimantadine). (cdc.gov)
  • Different types of drug carrier utilize different methods of attachment, and some carriers can even implement a variety of attachment methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods used in study of ethics of infection control measures for carriers of antimicrobial-resistant organisms, the Netherlands, January 1, 2008-January 16, 2016. (cdc.gov)
  • Dr. Phillips and colleagues evaluated whether adjuvant tamoxifen treatment for BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutation carriers with a first diagnosis of breast cancer would reduce the risk for contralateral recurrence. (medscape.com)
  • Many countries have implemented infection control measures directed at carriers of multidrug-resistant organisms. (cdc.gov)
  • 1) Information on extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Salmonel a Typhi (Typhi) infections among U.S. residents without international travel, and 2) Treatment recommendations for XDR Typhi infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Drug carriers are also used to improve the pharmacokinetic properties, specifically the bioavailability, of many drugs with poor water solubility and/or membrane permeability. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many countries have implemented measures to control AMR, including proper use of antimicrobial drugs in humans, minimization of antimicrobial drug use in animals, and prevention of further transmission of resistant microbes within the healthcare system ( 1 - 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Contralateral breast cancer developed in 520 women (24% of BRCA1 and 17% of BRCA2 mutation carriers), and 100 of these cases occurred after the patients' entry into the cohort. (medscape.com)
  • A wide variety of drug carrier systems have been developed and studied, each of which has unique advantages and disadvantages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our aim was to investigate the potential of UV-curable gels - currently used as cosmetics - as topical drug carriers for their treatment. (researcher-app.com)
  • BRCA carriers face a heightened risk for both breast and ovarian cancer, and undergoing bilateral mastectomy and premenopausal bilataleral salpingo-oophorectomy are associated with a more than 90% reduction in the risk of developing breast cancer, the authors note. (medscape.com)
  • Surgery cuts the risk by 100%, and my recommendation for women with breast cancer who are BRCA carriers is bilateral mastectomy and oophorectomy. (medscape.com)
  • Drawing from these results, does it make sense to give tamoxifen to BRCA carriers prior to developing breast cancer in the first place? (medscape.com)
  • Their analysis used pooled observational cohort data from several studies: the International BRCA1 , and BRCA2 Carrier Cohort Study, the Kathleen Cuningham Foundation Consortium for Research into Familial Breast Cancer, and the Breast Cancer Family Registry. (medscape.com)
  • Of 1583 BRCA1 and 881 BRCA2 mutation carriers who were identified, 383 (24%) and 454 (52%), respectively, took tamoxifen after being diagnosed with breast cancer. (medscape.com)
  • and, in exceptional cases, exclusion of the carrier from work or joint facilities. (cdc.gov)
  • Control measures may effectively control transmission of multidrug-resistant organisms, but negative effects on the health and well-being of carriers have been reported from countries that follow stringent multidrug-resistant organism policies and from countries that have a less aggressive approach ( 13 - 16 ). (cdc.gov)
  • How can a drug be delivered exactly where it is needed, while limiting the risk of side effects? (eurekalert.org)
  • We found that control measures aimed at carriers have a range of negative implications. (cdc.gov)
  • No drug-polymer interactions were found and drug loading did not affect the film's properties, such as thickness, crystallinity and transition temperatures. (researcher-app.com)
  • requires small employer carriers to provide continuity of care with respect to prescription drug coverage. (flsenate.gov)