Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Developed Countries: Countries that have reached a level of economic achievement through an increase of production, per capita income and consumption, and utilization of natural and human resources.Epididymis: The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.Sperm Maturation: The maturing process of SPERMATOZOA after leaving the testicular SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. Maturation in SPERM MOTILITY and FERTILITY takes place in the EPIDIDYMIS as the sperm migrate from caput epididymis to cauda epididymis.Gross Domestic Product: Value of all final goods and services produced in a country in one year.EuropeWorld Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Economics: The science of utilization, distribution, and consumption of services and materials.Sperm Transport: Passive or active movement of SPERMATOZOA from the testicular SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES through the male reproductive tract as well as within the female reproductive tract.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Europe, EasternAsia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)AfricaUnited StatesSocioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.United Nations: An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Economic Development: Mobilization of human, financial, capital, physical and or natural resources to generate goods and services.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Cross-Cultural Comparison: Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.IndiaAfrica South of the Sahara: All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Alcoholic Beverages: Drinkable liquids containing ETHANOL.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Rete Testis: The network of channels formed at the termination of the straight SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES in the mediastinum testis. Rete testis channels drain into the efferent ductules that pass into the caput EPIDIDYMIS.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Latin America: The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.Epididymitis: Inflammation of the EPIDIDYMIS. Its clinical features include enlarged epididymis, a swollen SCROTUM; PAIN; PYURIA; and FEVER. It is usually related to infections in the URINARY TRACT, which likely spread to the EPIDIDYMIS through either the VAS DEFERENS or the lymphatics of the SPERMATIC CORD.BrazilIncidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Population Growth: Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Financial Support: The provision of monetary resources including money or capital and credit; obtaining or furnishing money or capital for a purchase or enterprise and the funds so obtained. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed.)Middle East: The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Sperm Motility: Movement characteristics of SPERMATOZOA in a fresh specimen. It is measured as the percentage of sperms that are moving, and as the percentage of sperms with productive flagellar motion such as rapid, linear, and forward progression.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Ejaculatory Ducts: Paired ducts in the human male through which semen is ejaculated into the urethra.European Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Taxes: Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Budgets: Detailed financial plans for carrying out specific activities for a certain period of time. They include proposed income and expenditures.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Models, Econometric: The application of mathematical formulas and statistical techniques to the testing and quantifying of economic theories and the solution of economic problems.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Sperm Head: The anterior portion of the spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) that contains mainly the nucleus with highly compact CHROMATIN material.Capital Expenditures: Those funds disbursed for facilities and equipment, particularly those related to the delivery of health care.Sperm Tail: The posterior filiform portion of the spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) that provides sperm motility.Health Transition: Demographic and epidemiologic changes that have occurred in the last five decades in many developing countries and that are characterized by major growth in the number and proportion of middle-aged and elderly persons and in the frequency of the diseases that occur in these age groups. The health transition is the result of efforts to improve maternal and child health via primary care and outreach services and such efforts have been responsible for a decrease in the birth rate; reduced maternal mortality; improved preventive services; reduced infant mortality, and the increased life expectancy that defines the transition. (From Ann Intern Med 1992 Mar 15;116(6):499-504)Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Financing, Organized: All organized methods of funding.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Genitalia, Male: The male reproductive organs. They are divided into the external organs (PENIS; SCROTUM;and URETHRA) and the internal organs (TESTIS; EPIDIDYMIS; VAS DEFERENS; SEMINAL VESICLES; EJACULATORY DUCTS; PROSTATE; and BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS).Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Urbanization: The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.ScandinaviaPublic Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Resource Allocation: Societal or individual decisions about the equitable distribution of available resources.Child Mortality: Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.Asia, Southeastern: The geographical area of Asia comprising BORNEO; BRUNEI; CAMBODIA; INDONESIA; LAOS; MALAYSIA; the MEKONG VALLEY; MYANMAR (formerly Burma), the PHILIPPINES; SINGAPORE; THAILAND; and VIETNAM.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Economic Recession: Significant decline in economic activity spread across the economy, lasting more than a few months, normally visible in real gross domestic product, real income, employment, industrial production, and wholesale-retail sales. (National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc,, accessed 4/23/2009)Infant Mortality: Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.Drug Costs: The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Great BritainPregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)PakistanSex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Social Conditions: The state of society as it exists or in flux. While it usually refers to society as a whole in a specified geographical or political region, it is applicable also to restricted strata of a society.Pacific Islands: The islands of the Pacific Ocean divided into MICRONESIA; MELANESIA; and POLYNESIA (including NEW ZEALAND). The collective name Oceania includes the aforenamed islands, adding AUSTRALIA; NEW ZEALAND; and the Malay Archipelago (INDONESIA). (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p910, 880)JapanHealth Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Models, Economic: Statistical models of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, as well as of financial considerations. For the application of statistics to the testing and quantifying of economic theories MODELS, ECONOMETRIC is available.Americas: The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.South AmericaFamily Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Sanitation: The development and establishment of environmental conditions favorable to the health of the public.Financing, Personal: Payment by individuals or their family for health care services which are not covered by a third-party payer, either insurance or medical assistance.Government: The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.BangladeshUrban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Body Fluids: Liquid components of living organisms.Androgen-Binding Protein: Carrier proteins produced in the Sertoli cells of the testis, secreted into the seminiferous tubules, and transported via the efferent ducts to the epididymis. They participate in the transport of androgens. Androgen-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as SEX HORMONE-BINDING GLOBULIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.Africa, Northern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.State Government: The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Fees, Pharmaceutical: Amounts charged to the patient or third-party payer for medication. It includes the pharmacist's professional fee and cost of ingredients, containers, etc.Indonesia: A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.Inflation, Economic: An increase in the volume of money and credit relative to available goods resulting in a substantial and continuing rise in the general price level.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.International Agencies: International organizations which provide health-related or other cooperative services.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Tobacco Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of agriculture, manufacture, and distribution related to tobacco and tobacco-derived products.Vasectomy: Surgical removal of the ductus deferens, or a portion of it. It is done in association with prostatectomy, or to induce infertility. (Dorland, 28th ed)Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Seminiferous Tubules: The convoluted tubules in the TESTIS where sperm are produced (SPERMATOGENESIS) and conveyed to the RETE TESTIS. Spermatogenic tubules are composed of developing germ cells and the supporting SERTOLI CELLS.Cities: A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.Technology: The application of scientific knowledge to practical purposes in any field. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation.Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Fees and Charges: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for health care services.Economics, Medical: Economic aspects of the field of medicine, the medical profession, and health care. It includes the economic and financial impact of disease in general on the patient, the physician, society, or government.Acrosome: The cap-like structure covering the anterior portion of SPERM HEAD. Acrosome, derived from LYSOSOMES, is a membrane-bound organelle that contains the required hydrolytic and proteolytic enzymes necessary for sperm penetration of the egg in FERTILIZATION.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Thailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.MexicoSpermatogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Mediterranean Region: The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Orchiectomy: The surgical removal of one or both testicles.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Caribbean Region: The area that lies between continental North and South America and comprises the Caribbean Sea, the West Indies, and the adjacent mainland regions of southern Mexico, Central America, Colombia, and Venezuela.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Poverty Areas: City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Poliomyelitis: An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)Central AmericaNigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Emigrants and Immigrants: People who leave their place of residence in one country and settle in a different country.Androgens: Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Vas Deferens: The excretory duct of the testes that carries SPERMATOZOA. It rises from the SCROTUM and joins the SEMINAL VESICLES to form the ejaculatory duct.Sri LankaHealth Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Ghana: A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Condiments: Aromatic substances added to food before or after cooking to enhance its flavor. These are usually of vegetable origin.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.USSRLife Expectancy: Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.North AmericaCapitation Fee: A method of payment for health services in which an individual or institutional provider is paid a fixed, per capita amount without regard to the actual number or nature of services provided to each patient.PeruLocal Government: Smallest political subdivisions within a country at which general governmental functions are carried-out.ArgentinaAscophyllum: A BROWN ALGAE closely related to FUCUS. It is found attached to rocks and boulders on the middle shore, primarily in the North Atlantic basin.RussiaPublic Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.New Zealand: A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)ItalyEjaculation: The emission of SEMEN to the exterior, resulting from the contraction of muscles surrounding the male internal urogenital ducts.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.GermanyBenchmarking: Method of measuring performance against established standards of best practice.VietnamQuality-Adjusted Life Years: A measurement index derived from a modification of standard life-table procedures and designed to take account of the quality as well as the duration of survival. This index can be used in assessing the outcome of health care procedures or services. (BIOETHICS Thesaurus, 1994)IsraelTreatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
... those on the UN's list of least-developed countries and certain other countries having per-capita incomes of less than US$745 a ... However, such drugs are too expensive for developing countries and generally protected by patents. In the United States, if the ... The declaration allows compulsory licenses to be issued in developed countries for the manufacture of patented drugs, provided ... it should be noted that this is not limited to only least-developed countries - every country that is a member of the WTO has ...
Developing countries (such as Brazil, Cameroon, Jordan) with high inequality have "succeeded in initiating growth at high rates ... drug use), and lower rates of social goods (life expectancy, educational performance, trust among strangers, women's status, ... social mobility, even numbers of patents issued per capita), on the other. The authors argue inequality leads to the social ... Using statistics from 23 developed countries and the 50 states of the US, British researchers Richard G. Wilkinson and Kate ...
Corruption is not specific to poor, developing, or transition countries. In western countries, cases of bribery and other forms ... Corruption is often most evident in countries with the smallest per capita incomes, relying on foreign aid for health services ... Instead, the donated money was expended through "counterfeit drugs, siphoning off of drugs to the black market, and payments to ... "Corruption in Developing Countries". Annual Review of Economics. 4: 479-509. doi:10.1146/annurev-economics-080511-110917. Luis ...
2005). "Sugar Policies: An Opportunity for Change". Global Agricultural Trade and Developing Countries. World Bank Publications ... U.S. per capita caloric sweeteners estimated deliveries for domestic food and beverage use, by calendar year". Economic ... Since 2014, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has declared HFCS to be safe as a food ingredient. In 2015, ... Some countries, including Mexico, use sucrose, or table sugar, in soft drinks. In the U.S., soft drinks, including Coca-Cola, ...
In a 2010 study, New Zealand was shown to have the lowest level of medication use in 14 developed countries (i.e. used least ... In general, PHARMAC will select an effective and safe medication from a class of drugs, and negotiate with the drug ... Funding Per capita government spending (PPP Int $): 1,905 (2006) Per capita total spending (PPP Int $): 2,447 (2006) Total ... In a sample of 13 developed countries New Zealand was thirteenth in its population weighted usage of medication in 14 classes ...
Emerging markets Science in newly industrialized countries Flying geese paradigm Developing country Developed country North- ... GDP per capita typically is an indicator for living standards in a given country as well. Brazil, China, India, Mexico and ... Mexico's economic growth is hampered in some areas by an ongoing drug war in the north of the country. Meanwhile, other NICs ... NICs are countries whose economies have not yet reached a developed country's status but have, in a macroeconomic sense, ...
India has also offered to contribute to the research for developing affordable drugs for cure or vaccination. Prior to this, ... The country also donated $500,000 to affected countries. France has committed €70 million in aid to fight the epidemic. This ... "Israel makes largest per-capita pledge against Ebola". Haaretz. 29 December 2014. Retrieved 29 December 2014. "Israel pledges $ ... "India offers cooperation to develop affordable Ebola drugs, vaccines". Retrieved 29 October 2014. "India contributes $500,000 ...
... a highly developed country, and various Caribbean societies, many of them developing nations, creates a unique economic and ... Though recreational drug use was uncommon in Puerto Rico in the 1950s, it had markedly increased in the 1960s. By the following ... For example, in the mid-2000s the territory's issues ranked it sixth worldwide in murders per capita. Organizations such as the ... 2005). Drugs and democracy in Latin America: The impact of U.S. policy. Lynne Rienner Publishers. pp. 324-328. ISBN ...
The average health expenditure per capita in western countries is estimated at $947 compared to $20 per capita in low income ... rather that just focusing on developing new drugs. There is also a need to build the primary health care sector in developing ... and the disparity of curable diseases throughout developing and developed countries, some people believe the 10/90 gap is a ... A substantial portion of diseases, most prevalent in impoverished or developing countries, are those which are preventable and/ ...
As in all developed countries, primary and secondary education is free, universal and mandatory. Parents do have the option of ... which gave individual states the authority to drug test welfare recipients. Drug testing in order for potential recipients to ... Per capita spending on tertiary education is among the highest in the world[citation needed]. Public education is managed by ... The Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Services Block Grant (or ADMS Block Grant) is a federal assistance block grant given ...
Vietnam developed little during the war years; industry was nearly non-existent in both North and South and both countries were ... After the war, per-capita income stood at US$101; it decreased to $91 in 1980 and then increased to $99 by 1982, according to ... 250,000 drug addicts, 300,000 prostitutes and 3 million unemployed. Having won the war and defeated South Vietnam, Lê Duẩn's ... "Concentrate the forces of the whole country to achieve a leap forward in agriculture; vigorously develop light industry". "[T] ...
... found that the United States spends more per-capita than other similarly developed nations but falls below similar countries in ... FDA to approve generic biologic drugs and specifically allows for 12 years of exclusive use for newly developed biologic drugs ... the WHO study marked down countries for having private or fee-paying health treatment and rated countries by comparison to ... Some of the many reasons cited for the cost differential with other countries include: Higher administrative costs of a private ...
Budget expenditures per capita should be equal for all regions of the country. To revise the results of privatization, but ... To develop local government. In the Middle East to bring the case to the end. To deploy foreign policy to the South. The ... Without it, not to conquer alcoholism, drugs, divorce, domestic murder. ... To develop Russian tourism. Return completely free health care. Paying women for the rejection of abortion a child is raised by ...
In a sample of 13 developed countries Germany was seventh in its population weighted usage of medication in 14 classes in 2009 ... Expenditure on pharmaceutical drugs is almost half as high as those for the entire hospital sector. Pharmaceutical drug ... per capita. According to the World Health Organization, Germany's health care system was 77% government-funded and 23% ... The drugs studied were selected on the basis that the conditions treated had high incidence, prevalence and/or mortality, ...
Grand Lake o' the Cherokees Lendonwood Gardens Jack Chrisman, drag racer, helped develop the Funny Car Roy Clark, musician and ... The per capita income for the city was $18,351. About 9.3% of families and 14.4% of the population were below the poverty line ... popular television personality from Hee-Haw Pat Dodson, former Major League Baseball player (first base) Jana Jae, country ...
However, the U.S. had much higher murder rates compared to other countries identified in the report as "developed", which all ... The United States has the highest rate of civilian gun ownership per capita. According to the CDC, between 1999 and 2014 there ... According to a 2013 report by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), between 2005 and 2012[update], the average ... However, some countries such as Canada have similar definitions of what constitutes a violent crime, and nearly all countries ...
The US infant mortality rate is 6.37 per 1000 live births, higher than almost all other developed countries, as well as Cuba ... the most important life-saving cancer drugs are rationed not by "death panels" but by The Medicare Prescription Drug, ... ", "spectacularly wasteful" and "expensive". Emanuel co-wrote, We have the most expensive system in the world per capita, but ... US health care expenditures are 2.4 times the average of those of all developed countries ($2759 per person), yet health ...
Similar to surrounding communities, Selden has a number of shopping centers along Middle Country Road, which developed as ... The per capita income for the CDP was $20,577. About 3.1% of families and 5.2% of the population were below the poverty line, ... Its original anchor tenants included King Kullen, Builder's Emporium, and Genovese Drug Stores. Selden Plaza, at the ... As of 2009, plans had been made to develop a town center in and around Independence Plaza. Selden is located at 40°52′15″N 73°2 ...
... posed by poverty and in developing policies and strategies that would bring about results for children and enable the country ... 162,000 GNI per capita in USD in 2005 - 1,470 Overall poverty level - 30% in 2005 Poverty level among children - 41.9 per cent ... 10 Majority of HIV-infected persons are from 20-39 age group HIV transmission through injecting drug use - 50.3% HIV ... There are fifteen specialized agencies, programs and funds in the UN Country Team under the supervision of the UN Resident ...
... network CIVETS countries Developing 8 Countries European Union-Indonesia trade relations G-20 major economies G20 developing ... Real per capita income has reached fiscal year 1996/1997 levels. Growth was driven primarily by domestic consumption, which ... The Jakarta Stock Exchange was the best performing market in Asia in 2004 up by 42%. Problems that continue to put a drag on ... From a steep recession in 1965 with an 8% decline in GDP, the country began to develop economically in the 1970s, earning much ...
Real per capita income has reached fiscal year 1996/1997 levels. Growth was driven primarily by domestic consumption, which ... The Jakarta Stock Exchange was the best performing market in Asia in 2004 up by 42%. Problems that continue to put a drag on ... The economic history of the colony was closely related to the economic health of the mother country. Despite increasing returns ... industrialised and developing economies. The $512 billion economy expanded 4.4% in the first quarter from a year earlier and ...
The U.S. Agency for International Development pushed condom use in developing countries to help solve the "world population ... The media attention led the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to classify condoms as a drug in 1937 and mandate that every ... Beginning in the 1960s, the Japanese used more condoms per capita than any other nation in the world. The birth control pill ... DKT International annually sells millions of condoms at discounted rates in developing countries around the world. By selling ...
Suicides are more frequent in the industrially developed regions and in the rural areas of the country than in the cities; In ... In contrast, 35% of urban and rural Ukrainians were poor based on per capita income less than one dollar per day in the regions ... and drug abuse, thus setting the conditions for wider spread of the epidemic. In terms of income, the rural western and central ... Death rates also vary widely by region; Eastern and southern Ukraine have the highest death rates in the country, and the life ...
Developing countries face an even more critical disparity in primary care practitioners. The Pan American Health Organization ... Two studies found specialists were more likely to adopt COX-2 drugs before the drugs were recalled by the FDA. One of the ... despite the fact that the US spends two to three times as much per capita. Arrangements for after-hours care were almost twice ... application of all other resources such as drugs, vaccines and supplies." "There are currently 57 countries with critical ...
In a sample of 13 developed countries Canada was tenth in its population weighted usage of medication in 14 classes in 2009 and ... "Directory [of drug rehab centers by province]". Drug Rehab Services (a nonprofit organization). Retrieved 19 January 2017. " ... It is also the greatest at the extremes of age at a cost of $17,469 per capita in those older than 80 and $8,239 for those less ... because prescription drug prices in Canada are substantially lower than prescription drug prices in the United States; this ...
The per capita income for the city was $17,641. About 13.0% of families and 15.5% of the population were below the poverty line ... Houston Raceway is a motorsports complex featuring National Hot Rod Association (NHRA) races and a weekly drag racing program. ... RaeLynn, country music star and competed on The Voice (TV series) in 2012. ... developed as early boomtowns.[8] The "East" in East Baytown was later dropped because it was west of Goose Creek.[9] ...
The experience of a number of countries and programs has demonstrated that essential medicines and vaccines can be reliably ... and assurance of rational use and correct dispensing are all critical components of any drug and vaccine supply system. ... In countries where palliative care is fairly well developed and available, the consumption of morphine per capita averages over ... In countries that charge a value added tax on drugs, the tax can add 15 to 20 percent to the price of the drug (Levison and ...
Americans spend more per capita on pharmaceutical drugs than residents of any other developed country. Americans often pay more ... Over time, reducing trade barriers and increasing the exchange of drugs will likely result in lower prices for the country that ... Permitting the Importation of Safe Prescription Drugs from Other Countries. The Secretary of Health and Human Services shall, ... the parallel trade of drugs has existed for decades and has been estimated to reduce the price of certain drugs by up to 20 ...
Americans pay more per capita for prescription drugs than residents of any other developed country in the world. It is ... Other countries governments regulate drug prices by negotiating with drug manufacturers to secure bargain prices, leaving ... including other developed nations. When the Federal Government purchases a drug covered by Medicare - the cost of which is ... for a pharmaceutical product that the drug manufacturer sells in a member country of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation ...
The China Alzheimers drugs market is estimated to have reached a value of around CNY 20.03 billion in 2012, growing by almost ... Globally, the GDP per capita of developed countries is generally between USD 5,000 and USD 10,000 when becoming aging nations. ... In over 70 aging-population countries worldwide, the GDP per capita of over 40% of them is more than USD 10,000. However, the ... For more information on the China Alzheimers drugs market, please click here: China Alzheimers drugs market. ...
On the one hand, consumption of EPO per capita in developed countries such as the U.S.A. is very large. On the other hand, ... The EPO market is thus inevitably less developed than the antitumor drug market. ... In other countries including Chinese mainland, Taiwan and Japan, the drug is sold by Kirin Inc. and Johnson & Johnson with the ... for tumor patients spend most of their money on antitumor surgeries and drugs before choosing EPO as the adjuvant drug. ...
... rapid development in healthcare infrastructure in developing countries such as India, China, and South Korea; growing ... healthcare research investments in this region; and increasing per capita income of the middle-class population. ... Therapeutic Drug Monitoring Market worth $1.63 billion in 2023 The report "Therapeutic Drug Monitoring Market by Product ( ... HOME › Press Releases › Therapeutic Drug Monitoring Market worth $1.63 billion in 2023 ...
Managing Procurement and Logistics of HIV/AIDS Drugs and Related Supplies World Bank Training Program . Jabulani Nyenwa, MD, ... Public drug expenditure ,US$2 per capita in 38 developing countries *Public health expenditure US$57 billion short of minimum ... The global drug gap is due to market and government failures and limited budgets and income in developing countries ... Developing countries are a small market to global pharmaceutical market (20% sales, 80% global population) ...
... and spend more than twice as much on drugs per capita, on average, than residents of other highly developed countries." ... Well-paid baby boom workers are retiring and being replaced by lower-paid millennials; this drags down average wages. Or the ... We have fewer doctors and fewer doctor visits per capita. We have fewer hospital beds and lower hospital occupancy rates. We ...
The US may have more personal motor vehicles per capita than any other country, but it is also a leader in drug use, and the ... Years ago I had some limited success with The United States: A Study of a Developing Country. It dealt with the retarded south ... Insofar as the US has lost the war against drugs as well as guns, it may be best to think of another spurt of prohibition gone ... The South is more like the rest of the country than it was a half century ago, but still has higher scores on poverty, crime, ...
On the one hand, consumption of EPO per capita in developed countries such as the U.S.A. is very large. On the other hand, ... The EPO market is thus inevitably less developed than the antitumor drug market. Annual sales revenue of EPO in China is under ... In other countries including Chinese mainland, Taiwan and Japan, the drug is sold by Kirin Inc. and Johnson & Johnson with the ... for tumor patients spend most of their money on antitumor surgeries and drugs before choosing EPO as the adjuvant drug. ...
per capita on a list compiled by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Those that outrank the U.S. are primarily in ... While the U.S. has a high number of gun deaths compared to many developed countries, it ... That compares to 34,485 deaths attributed to motor vehicle accidents and 41,592 poisoning deaths, which includes drug overdose ... How does the United States compare to other countries in terms of gun deaths? ...
The Ten Countries that Spend the Most on Health CareWhile government spending […] ... Each year health care costs Denmark $4,348 per capita - the seventh most among developed countries. This large amount is ... In many of these countries, the source of high costs is drug prices. In four of the countries with the most expensive health ... The incidence of these behaviors is different country to country.. Many of the countries that spend the most per capita on ...
... and low per-capita income on pharmaceutical prices in developing economies using the example of the antiretroviral drugs (ARVs ... This paper quantifies the effects of drug monopolies ... " " quantifies the effects of drug monopolies and low per-capita ... income on pharmaceutical prices in developing economies using the example of the antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) used to treat HIV. ... L65 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Manufacturing - - - Chemicals; Rubber; Drugs; Biotechnology; Plastics. *O34 ...
... of prescription drugs used, on longevity using longitudinal, country-level data on 30 developing and high-income countries ... I control for fixed country and year effects, real per capita income, the unemployment rate, mean years of schooling, the ... that life expectancy at all ages and survival rates above age 25 increased faster in countries with larger increases in drug ... and that the increase in life expectancy at birth due to the increase in the fraction of drugs consumed that were launched ...
Furthermore, the elderly are the greatest consumers of prescription drugs. In developed countries, people over 60 years old ... consume approximately 50% of all prescription medicines (as much as three times more per capita than the general population) ... Adherence to treatment by children and adolescents ranges from 43% to 100%, with an average of 58% in developed countries (7). ... They have become the fastest-growing segment of the population in many developing countries (11,12). ...
... spends much more on health care than other developed countries; the chief reason is not greater health care utilization, but ... The United States, on a per capita basis, spends much more on health care than other developed countries; the chief reason is ... was due mainly to higher prices-including higher drug prices, higher salaries for doctors and nurses, higher hospital ... U.S. Health Care Spending Highest Among Developed Countries. Americans on average continue to spend much more for health care- ...
An investigation by Tegna-owned TV stations across the country uncovered lawmakers accepting millions in campaign contributions ... from drug companies, while congress helped big pharma make a lot of money in return. ... In 2013, 19 developed countries spent on average $400 per capita. U.S. citizens spent more than twice as much ($858). "Some of ... "prescription drug spending in the United States exceeds that in all other countries." Every other country directly negotiates ...
That compares to about $15 per capita among the worlds poor and is 50-100 percent higher than in other developed countries, ... And we need rational drug pricing. … If our politics werent so corrupt, this would end in a day." ... Most sanitation problems in developing countries are the result of poor use of aid, he said: "Africas not scarce in water ... "Why do other countries have lower costs and better results?" he asked. "Single-payer (health insurance) is whats needed. … ...
So where do we stand? The costs of IP to developing countries-more expensive drugs, books, and software-are clear: Making it ... The country has a per capita gross domestic product of less than $3,500. It also has Asias fastest-growing rate of HIV/AIDS ... But theres another story that might fit the developing world better. Back when the United States was a developing country, we ... The group wants developing countries to accept strict intellectual property rules that may harm them. Heres why its arguments ...
"Even more ominously," Baker continued, "as soon as countries cross a threshold of $12,616 GNI per capita - roughly fourth of ... Some negotiating developing countries are already approaching that level, he said. "In terms of actual concessions, the U.S. ... Even more ominously, IP will remain in the investment chapter, meaning that drug companies will immediately be able to sue TPP ... including in developing country TPP partners." It said it is pursuing a "differential approach" that would allow potential ...
... countries at an affordable price and within a shorter time period. especially in developing countries. clinical evaluation and ... annual per capita income less than US$1000) for new vaccines and infrastructure development. Merck and SP-MSD. is the Drugs ... In developing countries especially. the future trend. Immunization is the most 17 Section 2: Vaccination Market and Strategic ... developing country governments are able to budget and plan for immunization programmes. The donor commitments provide vaccine ...
Per Capita Average Musculoskeletal Disorders Drugs Expenditure, By Country;. 9. Musculoskeletal Disorders Drugs Market ... It covers all the regions, key developed countries and major emerging markets. It draws comparisons with country populations ... 6. Musculoskeletal Disorders Drugs Market Regional And Country Analysis;. 6.1. Global Musculoskeletal Disorders Drugs Market, ... Global Pharmaceutical Drugs Market Segments, 2016, By Country;. 7. Global Musculoskeletal Disorders Drugs Market Comparison ...
Metabolic Disorders Drugs Market Size, Percentage Of GDP, By Country; 8.2. Per Capita Average Metabolic Disorders Drugs ... It covers all the regions, key developed countries and major emerging markets. It draws comparisons with country populations ... 6. Metabolic Disorders Drugs Market Regional And Country Analysis;. 6.1. Global Metabolic Disorders Drugs Market, 2016, By ... Per Capita Average Metabolic Disorders Drugs Expenditure, Global;. 8. Metabolic Disorders Drugs Market Comparison With Macro ...
... but no drug in this class has ever achieved blockbuster status[1]. Understanding the factors that have ... The potential market for anti-obesity drugs is enormous, ... of several developed and developing countries[2]. The US is a ... Figure 1. Per Capita Pharmaceutical Spending and Absolute Incidence of Obesity. Table 1 shows estimates for 2008 total sales of ... Pharmaceutical spending data for developing countries was taken from Anderson T, Das I, Olson J, Sobelman D. Assessment of ...
Expenditures per capita on drugs in the U.S. were $1,443 in 2016, while all other countries included in these analyses were at ... Part of it can be explained by the fact that people in America pay more for medicine than other developed countries. ... Even though the U.S. typically spends more on health care than other high-income countries, we achieve poorer health outcomes ... The burden of chronic diseases is higher in the U.S. than virtually all other high-income countries. In the United Kingdom, ...
  • The Executive Order of July 24, 2020 (Lowering Drug Prices by Putting America First), is revoked. (
  • Growth of the overall global injectable drug market has also been forecasted for the period 2016-2020, taking into consideration the previous growth patterns, the growth drivers and the current and future trends. (
  • The global injectable drug market has increased at a significant CAGR during 2012-2015 and projections are made that the market would rise tremendously in the next five years i.e. 2016-2020. (
  • 'Genito-Urinary Drugs Global Market Report 2020-30: Covid 19 Impact and Recovery ' from The Business Research Company provides the strategists, marketers and senior management with the critical information they need to assess the global genito-urinary drugs market as it emerges from the Covid 19 shut down. (
  • Rail traffic came to a halt in February 2020 as Wet'suwet'en hereditary chiefs and their Mohawk allies blocked the tracks in British Columbia and Ontario to protest the construction of a pipeline to take natural gas to a Kitimat, British Columbia plant to liquefy for shipment to Asia. (
  • Specifically, developed countries must agree binding targets for significant emission cuts by 2020, while developing countries must outline measures to halt their emissions growth below a business-as-usual scenario, de Boer said. (
  • In addition to being unfair, high drug prices in the United States also have serious economic and health consequences for patients in need of treatment. (
  • Payment Model on the Most-Favored-Nation Price in Medicare Part B . To the extent consistent with law, the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall immediately take appropriate steps to implement his rulemaking plan to test a payment model pursuant to which Medicare would pay, for certain high-cost prescription drugs and biological products covered by Medicare Part B, no more than the most-favored-nation price. (
  • The model would test whether, for patients who require pharmaceutical treatment, paying no more than the most-favored-nation price would mitigate poor clinical outcomes and increased expenditures associated with high drug costs. (
  • In many of these countries, the source of high costs is drug prices. (
  • Much like France, Germany's expenditure on health care as a percentage of GDP is high among developed nations. (
  • Nearly all of the drugs are life-saving, but did not receive the high publicity as EpiPen did earlier this year. (
  • And then it finds, using a simple measure of correlation, that the countries that have strong IP laws also enjoy high levels of innovation. (
  • Lipitor's peak worldwide sales of $13B suggest an upper limit of $1.3B for worldwide sales that can be achieved for a drug with these high dropout rates. (
  • Profits are necessary to fund the high risk research that is essential to developing innovative new drugs and therapies. (
  • If high prescription drug costs are giving you a headache, here's a suggestion: Take it up with your doctor. (
  • Despite the market is governed by various growth drivers, there are certain challenges faced by the market such as high risk of re-operation or death, injectable drug safety issues and less patient compliance. (
  • On the other hand, hormonal treatment controversy, high cost and complications of the therapy such as side effects of drug treatment and misdiagnosis low healthcare expenditure in developing regions, etc. (
  • Despite the vast differences in scale of health statistics between developed and developing countries, economic hardships and high military expenditures, all nations have demonstrated significant declines in life expectancy and infant mortality rates. (
  • Despite claims that Canada has the best health care system in the world, the truth is our government monopolies produce mediocre results at best, and at very high per capita costs. (
  • Patients, post realization of the risks and cost involved in surgical procedures, show high inclination toward optic nerve disorders drugs over surgeries, which is a key pacesetter of optic nerve disorders drugs market growth in the future. (
  • ROME - Last week's encouraging results from two trials showing that prophylactic use of AIDS drugs in HIV-negative people can help prevent infection has underscored the value of studying new preventative treatments, particularly in high-risk groups. (
  • And while those ideas were certainly given mention, most of the country representatives at the AIDS High Level Meeting on Thursday here in New York were more concerned with basic access to technology that is already out there. (
  • What explains the high price of cancer drugs? (
  • Dr. Vincent Rajkumar of the Mayo Clinic talks with EconTalk host Russ Roberts about the high price of cancer drugs--drugs that can cost an American with cancer $300,000 per year and require multiple years of treatment. (
  • Till now, the trend has been that most dialysis patients were either in the United States or Europe as these regions comprise developed countries where patients are able to afford the high cost of hemodialysis. (
  • Similarly, the numbers of patients that constitute the hemodialysis market in developing countries are comparatively low because of the high cost of treatment and a low general level of awareness about the therapy. (
  • The reason for hemodialysis being expensive is the high cost of devices and equipment used for the procedure, the need of skilled medical professionals to carry out the procedure, and the expensive drugs that are used for treating renal failure. (
  • In 2015, North America dominated the empty capsules market with a revenue share of over 39.6% due to the high disease burden, the access to the latest drugs in this region, and the high consumption rate of nutraceutical and cosmeceutical products in this region. (
  • High costs of life-saving drugs are detrimental to both the personal finances of the individual patient, as well as society which must bear the increasing costs in terms of increased health insurance premiums, taxes, or both. (
  • We outline the underlying reasons why cancer drugs are so expensive, the measures that are required to lower cost, and propose potential ways in which costs can be reduced while still delivering high-quality care. (
  • In many countries, high costs limit access to effective drugs, as neither the health care system nor the individual patient can afford these costs without cutting back on other essential needs. (
  • High Cost of Prescription Drugs. (
  • While these lawsuits and investigations are important, litigation cannot solve the problem with the high cost of prescription drugs. (
  • For example, the per-capita ingestion of oxycodone in the US is the highest in the world, almost twice as high as the next country (Canada) and between five and ten times the rate of other developed countries (2013 data). (
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) has made rotavirus vaccine introduction in developing countries a high priority. (
  • Researchers discovered that in all five countries knowledge of rotavirus was extremely low, and as a result was not considered a high priority. (
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) has made the development and distribution of rotavirus vaccines in developing countries a high priority [ 4 ]. (
  • While the United States is famous for break-the-bank cancer drugs, the high price of many commonly used medications contributes heavily to health care costs and certainly causes more widespread anguish, since many insurance policies offer only partial coverage for medicines. (
  • With a 'very high' Human Development Index, the South American country is set to even improve its economic status. (
  • North America dominates the global biochemical reagents market, due to sophisticated infrastructure, awareness among patients, and high per capita health care expenditure in the region. (
  • Geographically, North America dominates the global syringe filters market due to increase in drug purification agency and high demand for HPLC systems in pharmaceutical industries and biotechnology industries. (
  • The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic used to rank countries according to their development levels from "very high" to "low. (
  • In response to poor access to medications and the high cost of drug therapy in developing countries, the World Health Assembly in 1975 introduced the concepts of "essential drugs" and "national drug policy", and they quickly became part of the global public health vocabulary. (
  • Toronto, ON - SanofiPasteur announces Health Canada's approval of FLUZONE® High-Dose vaccine, the first and only influenza vaccine developed for adults 65 years of age and older with evidence demonstrating that it is significantly more effective in preventing lab-confirmed influenza illness versus a standard dose trivalent influenza vaccine. (
  • The paper finds that the U.S. remains an outlier in terms of per capita health care spending, which was $9,892 in 2016. (
  • The global musculoskeletal disorders drugs market was estimated to be around $121 billion as of 2016. (
  • The musculoskeletal disorders drugs market made up around 11% of the overall pharmaceuticals market in 2016. (
  • The musculoskeletal disorders drugs market was the fourth largest market in the global pharmaceutical market in 2016. (
  • Expenditures per capita on drugs in the U.S. were $1,443 in 2016, while all other countries included in these analyses were at less than $1,000 per capita, ranging from $466 to $939. (
  • Such diseases, conditionally labeled as diseases of affluence ( Nutrition Health Topics, 2016 ), are growing rapidly in the developing countries, making almost 80% of deaths due to NCDs ( New WHO report: deaths from noncommunicable diseases on the rise, with developing world hit hardest, 2011 ). (
  • In 2016, Quark Pharmaceuticals Inc. - a key player in the optic nerve disorders drugs market- partnered with Biocon Ltd., a leading biopharmaceutical firm to start various clinical trials of a drug meant to treat eye disorders. (
  • The results indicate that the approximate cost of the resources needed for the country to reach its targets of treating 364,963 TB cases and 1,692 Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases in 2014 would be USD 100 million and this figure would rise to $118 million (excluding inflation) in 2016 as the targets increase. (
  • A recent analysis found that the government could have saved roughly $14 billion on the top 50 drugs covered by Medicare Part D in 2016 if the program negotiated drugmakers down to prices paid by the Department of Veterans Affairs, STAT reports. (
  • The development of newer medications does increase drug prices overall but a study suggests drug manufacturers hike the prices of older medicines too. (
  • But the growing wealth of many developing countries is adding a wrinkle to the calculus of which nations get cheap access to essential medicines. (
  • After food, medicines make up the largest family expenditure for most developing countries . (
  • Inevitably the focus of activist groups has been on the role that drug patents play in blocking access to essential medicines in the world's poorest countries. (
  • Only 17 of the 319 items could be effectively patented, and the typical developing country is likely to have far fewer essential medicines under patent or pending patent application than that. (
  • Drug companies usually do not seek to patent their medicines in most poor countries, even if patenting laws allow them to do so. (
  • In only 1.4 percent of cases (or 300 out of 20,735 combinations of essential medicines and countries) did patents or patent applications exist for essential medicines. (
  • Out-licensing is one such tool-i.e., granting voluntary licences to generic drug companies to produce medicines for use only in poor, developing countries. (
  • The proportion of population with access to affordable, essential drugs on a sustainable basis is the share of the population that has essential medicines continuously available and affordable at public or private health facilities or medicine outlets that are within one hour's walk from the homes of the population. (
  • Possible alternative benchmarks are the national poverty line (see indicator 1.1a) or international poverty lines of $1.25 per day (extreme poverty) or $2 per day at purchasing power parity (see indicator 1.1), Essential drugs (medicines) are those that satisfy the priority health care needs of the population. (
  • An official updated national medicines policy (NMP) is recorded as existing when the country has an official NMP document that has been updated within the last 5 years. (
  • With increasing concerns regarding access to safe and effective essential medicines, in April 2009 the State Council of China launched the National Essential Medicine System (NEMS) with the goals of cutting the profit link between healthcare facilities, doctors, and drugs, and to improve drug availability, affordability, and rational use [ 10 ]. (
  • Affected by the lower price of human albumin in foreign countries, China has long been increasing its import volume, with the proportion in 2010 reaching 48.4% (by lot release volume), up 7.2% year-on-year. (
  • A minimum package of health services would cost approximately $13 per capita, and would address a large proportion (69%) of major causes of premature mortality. (
  • Drug therapy for coronary artery disease costs approximately $1,000 a year compared to $41,000 for bypass surgery. (
  • In any country, many stakeholders are interested in the national policy on pharmaceuticals. (
  • Pharmaceuticals not only hold the greatest promise for medical advancement, they can also help control health care costs as new drugs reduce dependence on less effective and more costly medical treatments. (
  • Some of the key market players operating in the optic nerve disorders drugs market include Novartis AG, Santhera Pharmaceuticals, Allergan plc. (
  • In 2019, Santhera Pharmaceuticals- a leading player in the optic nerve disorders drugs market- made an official announcement regarding its successful completion of patient enrollments in the on-going Phase 1V study (LEROS) using Raxone (idebenone) for treatment of hereditary optic neuropathies, otherwise known as optic nerve disorders. (
  • For example, patients may develop acute conditions that result in poor clinical outcomes or that require drastic and expensive medical interventions. (
  • These outcomes can be influenced by new therapies (for example, new drugs), new diagnostic techniques and new professional services (for example, medication therapy management). (
  • Any national drug policy broadly relates to three key objectives: increasing access, improving and ensuring quality, and ensuring rational prescription and use by providers and patients. (
  • In China, application of EPO in chemotherapy is far below a reasonable level, for tumor patients spend most of their money on antitumor surgeries and drugs before choosing EPO as the adjuvant drug. (
  • As Chinese economy develops and health care improves, more patients will be able to afford renal dialysis. (
  • Although socioeconomic status has not consistently been found to be an independent predictor of adherence, in developing countries low socioeconomic status may put patients in the position of having to choose between competing priorities. (
  • If the government starts cracking down on copycat drugs, it would hurt patients. (
  • Market penetration is 0.7% in the UK, the only major pharmaceutical market where patients are routinely reimbursed for anti-obesity drug costs. (
  • Figure 2 compares the percentage of statin and anti-obesity drug patients remaining on therapy in the 12 months after filling their first prescription. (
  • Despite this culture, many health care providers have admitted to seeing increasing numbers of patients with symptoms consistent with sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and the phenomenon of men having sex with men is known to exist in the country. (
  • Patients suffering from optic nerve disorders show marked preferences for optic nerve disorders drugs over surgeries for treating optic neuropathies, as they are highly cost-effective and minimally risky. (
  • With the inflow of multiple drugs, patients are developing higher confidence on these optic nerve disorders drugs types and moving away from surgical interventions. (
  • The study will further determine, over a duration of more than 12 months, the levels of efficacy and safety of drug candidate ;QPI-1007 on the patients suffering from acute non-arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION), a medical condition wherein low blood supply to the optic nerves results in permanent vision impairment. (
  • Doctors have puzzled as to why some patients can fend off the virus better with drugs, while others progress despite receiving the best antiviral medications available. (
  • The report also observes that of all patients suffering from ESRD, only about 10%-20% receive dialysis in developing countries. (
  • The drug, perhaps best known as the pharmaceutical company Roche's Accutane, has been embraced by dermatologists and their suffering patients, but has also been dogged by controversy for its side effects. (
  • These inefficiencies lead to consumers paying up to three times as much as patients in western countries. (
  • This leads to patients' inability to buy the drugs they need when they need them. (
  • Currently operating in five African countries , they manage inventory for a network of over 200 pharmacies and serve more than 40,000 patients each month. (
  • But to some extent these pharmacoeconomic concerns are amplified in myeloma due to the need for multidrug regimens that combine 2 or more expensive new drugs, continuous therapy, and the prolonged disease course in most patients. (
  • The distributors negotiated prices and product delivery with pharmacies, which then sold the drugs to patients. (
  • Manufacturers have a large incentive to get their drugs on the formulary so that patients will use them and sales will go up. (
  • There are real patients with real pain asking, sometimes begging their doctors to step up to the plate to prescribe them sufficiently strong drugs to do the job. (
  • But I think it would be more prudent to stop payment for care that does not help such as prescribing statin drugs for elderly people without coronary disease, doing PSA testing in elderly men, performing mammography in elderly women, doing coronary CT angiography, doing Pap smears on women who have had a hysterectomy for benign disease, and authorizing chemotherapy for patients with advanced cancer who are debilitated and close to death. (
  • As a result, a number of products that are sold directly to patients in other countries remain available only by prescription in the United States. (
  • Twenty years ago, drugs that could safely be sold directly to patients typically moved off the prescription model as their patent life ended. (
  • In October 2001 it became obvious that drug patents for anti-retroviral drugs (used to treat AIDS patients) were rarely on file in African countries and could therefore not be the major barrier to drug access. (
  • This will allow medical device manufacturers and health-care providers to develop new products and services to enhance the quality of medical support for their customers and patients. (
  • In a retrospective U.K. study cohort, about 11% of stroke patients developed post-stroke epilepsy (PSE), according to Beate Diehl, MD, PhD, of University College London (UCL), and colleagues at the American Epilepsy Society meeting. (
  • Their findings are in line with recent reports of a higher percentage of stroke patients developing epilepsy, they said, and concluded that doctors treating stroke patients should keep in mind that PSE is common, so they should watch for risk factors, such as extent of brain damage and younger age. (
  • So far, relief from bilateral debt is available for the 173 members of the International Development Association (the World Bank's concessional lending arm for the poorest developing countries) only until December. (
  • In the poorest countries, advocacy and communication efforts to raise awareness about rotavirus sufficient for prioritization and accelerated vaccine introduction might benefit from a knowledge translation approach that delivers information and evidence about rotavirus through the broader context of diarrheal disease control, an existing priority, and including information about other new interventions, specifically low-osmolarity oral rehydration solution and zinc treatment. (
  • Other countries' governments regulate drug prices by negotiating with drug manufacturers to secure bargain prices, leaving Americans to make up the difference - effectively subsidizing innovation and lower-cost drugs for the rest of the world. (
  • When the Federal Government purchases a drug covered by Medicare - the cost of which is shared by American seniors who take the drug and American taxpayers - it should insist on, at a minimum, the lowest price at which the manufacturer sells that drug to any other developed nation. (
  • What do drug monopolies cost consumers in developing countries? (
  • In short, expanded IP protections come at a cost in developing countries. (
  • For example, in October 2001, the NIH exercised an option to make the licenses for the AIDS drug DDI non-exclusive, ten years after the initial FDA registration (see: Videx® Expanding Possibilities: A Case Study, NIH, National Institutes of Health Office of Technology Transfer, September 2003) in order to expand access to the drug, and to obtain lower cost supplies for federal programs. (
  • Of course, in a perfect world we'd have all the wonder drugs we need at little or no cost. (
  • We summarize the primary reasons why cancer drugs are so expensive, and list some measures that are required to lower cost. (
  • The treatment of myeloma varies across the world depending on many factors, including access to new drugs and resources, cost constraints, and treatment philosophy. (
  • The higher rebate paid by one manufacturer for annual sales of a particular drug is a tremendous inducement for the PBM to ignore the overtures of other manufacturers that may offer a drug that is more cost-efficient or effective. (
  • In some cases, generic drugs cost less than plan deductibles for brand name drugs. (
  • The growing cost of prescription drugs presents a significant challenge to the quality and affordability of healthcare in the United States. (
  • Direct medical cost especially drugs and consumables for HD and dialysis solutions and tubing for PD were the main cost drivers. (
  • Further research is needed to determine the cost of dialysis based on a standard methodology grounded on existing economic guidelines and to address the question whether dialysis should be an element of the essential package of health in resource-poor countries. (
  • They cause 7 out of every 10 deaths and cost our country 75 cents of every health care dollar. (
  • The government is developing an exit strategy which aims to eliminate dependency on these grants and which focuses on increasing government budget allocations, generating revenue from insurance and corporate social responsibility financing, and improving cost-effectiveness and efficiency. (
  • To develop such cost projections for TB services a tool was developed and was used in Central Java, a province with around 32 million people. (
  • They argue that today's PBMs get paid in part based on the percentage spread by which they can get drug companies to lower their prices. (
  • The China Alzheimer's drugs market is estimated to have reached a value of around CNY 20.03 billion in 2012, growing by almost 24.5% over 2011. (
  • However, the GDP per capita of China was only over USD 5,000 in 2011, which indicated that China became an aging nation in advance. (
  • However, due to expansion of communities and rural markets in China, more market space is provided for EPO to develop. (
  • China is almost at the bottom of the 191 member countries of the W.H.O., in terms of how fairly health resources are allocated, beaten only by countries like Myanmar and Sierra Leone. (
  • The South is more like the rest of the country than it was a half century ago, but still has higher scores on poverty, crime, and illiteracy. (
  • c Data on GDP per capita refers to purchasing power parity (PPP) international dollars 2002, obtained from World Bank's World Development Indicators , 2005. (
  • RÉSUMÉ Une analyse de la situation relative au VIH/SIDA a été réalisée au Yémen en 2002 pour évaluer les connaissances et attitudes concernant le préservatif masculin en tant que moyen de prévention du VIH. (
  • By Lucas Laursen Thirty years ago this month, scientists first reported the existence of AIDS, and in the intervening decades researchers have focused steady efforts on prevention, long-term treatments such as antiretroviral drugs, and patient care. (
  • On the basis of product, the global therapeutic drug monitoring market is segmented into consumables and equipment. (
  • Don t miss out on business opportunities in Therapeutic Drug Monitoring Market. (
  • A pharmacy owner checks packages of drugs at a market in Jakarta, Indonesia, on Nov. 26, 2008. (
  • The Musculoskeletal Disorders Drugs Market Global Report provides strategists, marketers and senior management with the critical information they need to assess the global musculoskeletal disorders drugs sector. (
  • Where is the largest and fastest growing market for the musculoskeletal disorders drugs? (
  • The musculoskeletal disorders drugs market global report from the Business Research Company answers all these questions and many more. (
  • It draws comparisons with country populations and economies to understand the importance of the market by country and how this is changing. (
  • The musculoskeletal disorders drugs market section of the report gives context. (
  • Data segmentations: country and regional historic and forecast data, market share of competitors, market segments. (
  • The properties of lorcaserin and other emerging anti-obesity drugs are then examined to determine whether these new agents will be able to overcome these barriers, expand the current market, and achieve blockbuster status. (
  • The US is a key potential market for anti-obesity drugs as shown by its unique position on the plot. (
  • The market penetration of patented prescription anti-obesity drugs is especially low in the key US market. (
  • The Insulin Drugs market global report answers all these questions and many more. (
  • Moreover, wider approval of marijuana-based drugs by the FDA for partial onset seizure treatment is projected to propel the global partial onset seizures market. (
  • Continuous research and development to provide innovative drugs and treatment for animal or insect sting has boosted the development of the anti-venom market. (
  • The developing global economic conditions create a huge opportunity for the expansion of the anti-venom market. (
  • published Injectable Drug Market from its database. (
  • The competition in the global injectable drug market is stiff and dominated by the big players like Pfizer, Inc. Further, key players of the injectable drug market such as Merck & Co., Inc., Novartis AG and Johnson & Johnson are also profiled with their financial information and respective business strategies. (
  • The drug segment is, however, suffering from market fragmentation, which has put pressure on the price margins. (
  • Additionally, the fastest uptake of new diagnostics and drugs in the US drives the labyrinthitis market. (
  • Rising number of instances of optic nerve disorders are indicating unabated demand for optic nerve disorders drugs in the coming years, thereby driving the optic nerve disorders drugs market. (
  • Rising demand for non-invasive procedures in the optometric space is also creating favorable grounds for optic nerve disorders drugs market. (
  • Manufacturers in the optic nerve disorders drugs market are vying to offer compliant and safe products, wherein reliability is given utmost importance for boosting end-user confidence. (
  • In addition, companies in the optic nerve disorders drugs market are also focusing on expansion of their product pipelines and effective management of internal sales & marketing teams to achieve long-term profitability. (
  • However, manufacturers are likely to incur sizeable operating losses as they make investments, continue with developments, and commercialize new products in the optic nerve disorders drug development market. (
  • Colombia is a market economy with major commercial and investment links to the United States, and more recently to its neighbor countries in the Andean region. (
  • As for the drugs that constitute a vital portion of the hemodialysis market, the leading players are EPO and heparin. (
  • Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of multiple myeloma have come at a rapid pace, especially with several new drugs entering the market in the last few years. (
  • Based on application, the biochemical reagents market has been segmented into disease diagnosis, drug discovery & development, and forensic studies. (
  • With extensive research and analysis capabilities, Transparency Market Research employs rigorous primary and secondary research techniques to develop distinctive data sets and research material for business reports. (
  • Footnote 1 This allows generic manufacturers and other companies to create equivalent drugs to capture brand named companies' market share and force companies such as Pfizer, Merck, and Novartis to focus their resources on creating strategies that defend market share instead of growing market share. (
  • The majority of these people are either extremely poor or are living in remote rural areas where the supply of drugs is limited or nonexistent-or both. (
  • With the US having almost as many guns as people, and twice as many guns per capita as the closest western democracy, it may be too late to cope with the combination of fire arms and violence . (
  • Part of it can be explained by the fact that people in America pay more for medicine than other developed countries. (
  • Another contributing factor is that Americans order more tests such as MRIs and CT scans than people in other countries. (
  • Michael Hobbes addresses the reasons why AIDS has killed more people on a per-capita basis in the United States than in other developed countries. (
  • Global health programs have made great strides in the last ten years, mobilizing billions of dollars to provide life-saving drugs and immunizations to people in resource-poor settings. (
  • He found that when you compare rich countries to poor countries, the people in the wealthy nations were more satisfied. (
  • So for a study out in the British Medical Journal , a team of researchers in Sweden looked at a deluge of data for 5,756 people who took the drug. (
  • Click here to view an article on the attempts to solve prescription drug abuse while protecting access for people with pain. (
  • even as they make people feel good in the short term, over time their effectiveness wanes and people become trapped by physical dependence on the drugs. (
  • The underlying gravitas to these stories is that most people are getting these drugs not from pill mills (ie: home-based manufacturing) but from a prescribing pad. (
  • If you bring enormous masses of people over and 'share the wealth' with them you are most likely going to end up collapsing those countries infrastructures and societal structures. (
  • For a country of 8 million people, as an example, how many immigrants pro year do you think should be let in? (
  • Would the west really be able to absorb enough people to put even a temporary dent into overpopulated countries' populations? (
  • Taking people from overpopulated countries just means the next couple generations will fill their places unless the countries develop to the point where people stop having so many children. (
  • This economic and political turmoil within Argentina forced the Argentine leaders then to invade the Falklands, hoping to get the country and its people in order again. (
  • Conclusion: Consumer reporting may be important for developing countries to implement a proper and effective pharmacovigilance program that can reduce morbidity and mortality rates, as well as reducing the economic burden of ADRs. (