Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Camptothecin: An alkaloid isolated from the stem wood of the Chinese tree, Camptotheca acuminata. This compound selectively inhibits the nuclear enzyme DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE I. Several semisynthetic analogs of camptothecin have demonstrated antitumor activity.Reinforcement Schedule: A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.DeoxycytidinePaclitaxel: A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.Drug Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.Device Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.Equipment Safety: Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.Drug Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.United StatesElephantiasis, Filarial: Parasitic infestation of the human lymphatic system by WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI or BRUGIA MALAYI. It is also called lymphatic filariasis.Immunization Schedule: Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.Legislation, Drug: Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.Columbidae: Family in the order COLUMBIFORMES, comprised of pigeons or doves. They are BIRDS with short legs, stout bodies, small heads, and slender bills. Some sources call the smaller species doves and the larger pigeons, but the names are interchangeable.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Filaricides: Pharmacological agents destructive to nematodes in the superfamily Filarioidea.Drug Administration Routes: The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.Product Surveillance, Postmarketing: Surveillance of drugs, devices, appliances, etc., for efficacy or adverse effects, after they have been released for general sale.Diethylcarbamazine: An anthelmintic used primarily as the citrate in the treatment of filariasis, particularly infestations with Wucheria bancrofti or Loa loa.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Fee Schedules: A listing of established professional service charges, for specified dental and medical procedures.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Consumer Product SafetyAlbendazole: A benzimidazole broad-spectrum anthelmintic structurally related to MEBENDAZOLE that is effective against many diseases. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p38)Investigational New Drug Application: An application that must be submitted to a regulatory agency (the FDA in the United States) before a drug can be studied in humans. This application includes results of previous experiments; how, where, and by whom the new studies will be conducted; the chemical structure of the compound; how it is thought to work in the body; any toxic effects found in animal studies; and how the compound is manufactured. (From the "New Medicines in Development" Series produced by the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association and published irregularly.)Food Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, NUTRITIONAL VALUE, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Antiparasitic Agents: Drugs used to treat or prevent parasitic infections.Ivermectin: A mixture of mostly avermectin H2B1a (RN 71827-03-7) with some avermectin H2B1b (RN 70209-81-3), which are macrolides from STREPTOMYCES avermitilis. It binds glutamate-gated chloride channel to cause increased permeability and hyperpolarization of nerve and muscle cells. It also interacts with other CHLORIDE CHANNELS. It is a broad spectrum antiparasitic that is active against microfilariae of ONCHOCERCA VOLVULUS but not the adult form.Drug and Narcotic Control: Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Product Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a product or its container or wrapper. It includes purpose, effect, description, directions, hazards, warnings, and other relevant information.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Drug Evaluation: Any process by which toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, preferred route of administration, safe dosage range, etc., for a drug or group of drugs is determined through clinical assessment in humans or veterinary animals.Wuchereria bancrofti: A white threadlike worm which causes elephantiasis, lymphangitis, and chyluria by interfering with the lymphatic circulation. The microfilaria are found in the circulating blood and are carried by mosquitoes.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Equipment and Supplies: Expendable and nonexpendable equipment, supplies, apparatus, and instruments that are used in diagnostic, surgical, therapeutic, scientific, and experimental procedures.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems: Systems developed for collecting reports from government agencies, manufacturers, hospitals, physicians, and other sources on adverse drug reactions.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Appetitive Behavior: Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.Neglected Diseases: Diseases that are underfunded and have low name recognition but are major burdens in less developed countries. The World Health Organization has designated six tropical infectious diseases as being neglected in industrialized countries that are endemic in many developing countries (HELMINTHIASIS; LEPROSY; LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS; ONCHOCERCIASIS; SCHISTOSOMIASIS; and TRACHOMA).Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions: Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Drugs, Investigational: Drugs which have received FDA approval for human testing but have yet to be approved for commercial marketing. This includes drugs used for treatment while they still are undergoing clinical trials (Treatment IND). The main heading includes drugs under investigation in foreign countries.Work Schedule Tolerance: Physiological or psychological effects of periods of work which may be fixed or flexible such as flexitime, work shifts, and rotating shifts.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Anthelmintics: Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.Dextroamphetamine: The d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Therapeutic Equivalency: The relative equivalency in the efficacy of different modes of treatment of a disease, most often used to compare the efficacy of different pharmaceuticals to treat a given disease.Chlordiazepoxide: An anxiolytic benzodiazepine derivative with anticonvulsant, sedative, and amnesic properties. It has also been used in the symptomatic treatment of alcohol withdrawal.Mice, Inbred C57BLDrug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Off-Label Use: The practice of prescribing or using a drug outside the scope of the drug's official approved label as designated by a regulatory agency concerning the treatment of a particular disease or condition.Nonprescription Drugs: Medicines that can be sold legally without a DRUG PRESCRIPTION.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Drug Tolerance: Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.Administration, Rectal: The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Diagnostic Equipment: Nonexpendable items used in examination.Metabolic Clearance Rate: Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Congresses as Topic: Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.Discrimination Learning: Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.Extinction, Psychological: The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Drug Therapy: The use of DRUGS to treat a DISEASE or its symptoms. One example is the use of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to treat CANCER.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Infusions, Parenteral: The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Administration, Sublingual: Administration of a soluble dosage form by placement under the tongue.Central Nervous System Stimulants: A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Mice, Inbred BALB CSafety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Pharmacovigilance: The detection of long and short term side effects of conventional and traditional medicines through research, data mining, monitoring, and evaluation of healthcare information obtained from healthcare providers and patients.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Administration, Cutaneous: The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Medical Device Legislation: Laws and regulations pertaining to devices used in medicine, proposed for enactment, or enacted by a legislative body.Medication Errors: Errors in prescribing, dispensing, or administering medication with the result that the patient fails to receive the correct drug or the indicated proper drug dosage.Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.Orphan Drug Production: Production of drugs or biologicals which are unlikely to be manufactured by private industry unless special incentives are provided by others.Food Safety: Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Drug Contamination: The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Methamphetamine: A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.Biopharmaceutics: The study of the physical and chemical properties of a drug and its dosage form as related to the onset, duration, and intensity of its action.

Clindamycin plus gentamicin as expectant therapy for presumed mixed infections. (1/14307)

The prevalence of obligate anaerobes was studied prospectively in 60 patients with severe sepsis of intra-abdominal, soft tissue, female genital or oropulmonary origin. In addition, the efficacy of clindamycin (for anaerobes) plus gentamicin (for aerobic bacteria, especially coliforms) as initial empiric therapy in these patients was evaluated. Among 54 patients with cultural proof of infection, anaerobic pathogens were recovered from 52%. Nineteen patients had bacteremia; Bacteroides fragilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the most prevalent pathogens, being isolated in five patients each. Infection was eradicated in 56 of the 60 patients (93%). Mortality related to sepsis was 7% in the entire group, 16% in patients with bacteremia and 2% in patients without bacteremia. Eighty-five percent of aerobic isolates tested were susceptible in vitro to either gentamicin or clindamycin; 97% of anaerobic isolates were inhibited by 5 mug/ml of clindamycin.  (+info)

A comparison of three methods of setting prescribing budgets, using data derived from defined daily dose analyses of historic patterns of use. (2/14307)

BACKGROUND: Prescribing matters (particularly budget setting and research into prescribing variation between doctors) have been handicapped by the absence of credible measures of the volume of drugs prescribed. AIM: To use the defined daily dose (DDD) method to study variation in the volume and cost of drugs prescribed across the seven main British National Formulary (BNF) chapters with a view to comparing different methods of setting prescribing budgets. METHOD: Study of one year of prescribing statistics from all 129 general practices in Lothian, covering 808,059 patients: analyses of prescribing statistics for 1995 to define volume and cost/volume of prescribing for one year for 10 groups of practices defined by the age and deprivation status of their patients, for seven BNF chapters; creation of prescribing budgets for 1996 for each individual practice based on the use of target volume and cost statistics; comparison of 1996 DDD-based budgets with those set using the conventional historical approach; and comparison of DDD-based budgets with budgets set using a capitation-based formula derived from local cost/patient information. RESULTS: The volume of drugs prescribed was affected by the age structure of the practices in BNF Chapters 1 (gastrointestinal), 2 (cardiovascular), and 6 (endocrine), and by deprivation structure for BNF Chapters 3 (respiratory) and 4 (central nervous system). Costs per DDD in the major BNF chapters were largely independent of age, deprivation structure, or fundholding status. Capitation and DDD-based budgets were similar to each other, but both differed substantially from historic budgets. One practice in seven gained or lost more than 100,000 Pounds per annum using DDD or capitation budgets compared with historic budgets. The DDD-based budget, but not the capitation-based budget, can be used to set volume-specific prescribing targets. CONCLUSIONS: DDD-based and capitation-based prescribing budgets can be set using a simple explanatory model and generalizable methods. In this study, both differed substantially from historic budgets. DDD budgets could be created to accommodate new prescribing strategies and raised or lowered to reflect local intentions to alter overall prescribing volume or cost targets. We recommend that future work on setting budgets and researching prescribing variations should be based on DDD statistics.  (+info)

Intensive weekly chemotherapy is not effective in advanced pancreatic cancer patients: a report from the Italian Group for the Study of Digestive Tract Cancer (GISCAD). (3/14307)

Twenty-two patients, with locally advanced unresectable and/or metastatic pancreatic carcinoma, received weekly administration of cisplatin 40 mg m(-2), 5-fluorouracil 500 mg m(-2), epidoxorubicin 35 mg m(-2), 6S stereoisomer of leucovorin 250 mg m(-2) and glutathione 1.5 mg m(-2), supported by a daily administration of lenograstim at a dose of 5 microg kg(-1). Nineteen patients were men and three were women. Median age was 63 years (range 47-70). At study entry, pain was present in 15 out of 22 patients (68%) with a mean value of Scott-Huskisson scale of 27.6+/-23.8, whereas a weight loss >10% was present in 15 patients. After eight weekly treatments, three partial responses were achieved for a response rate of 13% (95% CI 0-26%), five patients had stable disease and 14 progressed on therapy. Pain was present in 9 out of 22 patients (40%) with a mean value of Scott-Huskisson scale of 12.3+/-18.4. Eight patients (36%) (three partial response and five stable disease) had a positive weight change. Toxicity was mild: WHO grade III or IV toxicity was recorded in terms of anaemia in 7 out of 188 cycles (3.7%), of neutropenia in 9 out of 188 cycles (4.7%) and of thrombocytopenia in 3 out of 188 cycles (1.5%). Median survival of all patients was 6 months. The outcome of this intensive chemotherapy regimen does not support its use in pancreatic cancer.  (+info)

Synergistic protective effects of antioxidant and nitric oxide synthase inhibitor in transient focal ischemia. (4/14307)

Both nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors and free radical scavengers have been shown to protect brain tissue in ischemia-reperfusion injury. Nitric oxide and superoxide anion act via distinct mechanisms and react together to form the highly deleterious peroxynitrite. Therefore the authors examined the effects and the interaction between the NOS inhibitor, NG nitro-L-arginine (LNA) and the antioxidant/superoxide scavenger, di-tert-butyl-hydroxybenzoic acid (DtBHB) in the rat submitted to 2 hours of middle cerebral artery occlusion. Posttreatment was initiated 4 hours after the onset of ischemia and infarct volume was measured at 48 hours. The dose-related effect of LNA resulted in a bell-shaped curve: 15, 56, 65, and 33% reduction of total infarct for 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, and 1 mg/kg (intravenously [IV]) respectively and 11% increase in infarct volume for 3 mg/kg (IV). Whereas DtBHB (20 mg/kg; intraperitoneally [IP]) was ineffective, the dose of 60 mg/kg produced 65% protection in infarct volume. The combination of a subthreshold dose of LNA (0.03 mg/kg; IV) and DtBHB (20 mg/kg; IP) resulted in significant reduction (49%) in infarct volume. These results show that LNA and DtBHB act synergistically to provide a consistent neuroprotection against ischemic injury when administered 4 hours after ischemia. This suggests that nitric oxide and free radicals are involved and interact in synergy in ischemia-reperfusion injury.  (+info)

Beta2-adrenoceptor polymorphism and bronchoprotective sensitivity with regular short- and long-acting beta2-agonist therapy. (5/14307)

The aim of the present study was to investigate bronchoprotective sensitivity in patients receiving regular treatment with short- and long-acting beta2-agonists and to evaluate any possible association with genetic polymorphism. Thirty-eight patients with stable mild to moderate asthma and receiving inhaled corticosteroids were randomized in a parallel group, double-blind, double-dummy fashion to receive 2 weeks of treatment with either formoterol (12 microg once daily, 6 microg twice daily or 24 microg twice daily) or terbutaline (500 microg four times daily). Bronchoprotection against methacholine challenge (as a provocative dose to produce a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in 1.0 s: PD20) was measured at baseline (unprotected) after an initial 1 week run-in without beta2-agonist, and at 1 h after the first and last doses of each treatment. The PD20 values were log-transformed and calculated as change from baseline. Percentage desensitization of log PD20 for first- versus last-dose bronchoprotection was calculated and analysed according to effects of treatment and beta2-adrenoceptor polymorphism at codon 16 or 27. The mean degree of desensitization for bronchoprotection was comparable with all four treatments and there were no significant differences in absolute PD20 values after 2 weeks of chronic dosing. The PD20 values were (as microg of methacholine, geometric means+/-S. E.M.): formoterol, 12 microg once daily, 99+/-42 microg; formoterol, 6 microg twice daily, 107+/-44 microg; formoterol, 24 microg twice daily, 108+/-45 microg; terbutaline, 500 microg four times daily, 88+/-37 microg. All patients receiving formoterol, 24 microg twice daily, exhibited a loss of protection greater than 30% which was unrelated to polymorphism at codon 16 or 27. For codon 16, the use of lower doses of formoterol (12 microg once daily or 6 microg twice daily) showed wider variability in the propensity for protection loss in patients who were heterozygous, in contrast to a more uniform protection loss seen with homozygous glycine patients. The amount of protection loss was not significantly related to polymorphism at codon 16 or 27, expressed as values (mean+/-S.E.M.) for percentage desensitization according to each genotype (pooled treatments): Gly-16, 66+/-11%; Het-16, 53+/-8%; Arg-16, 69+/-18%; Glu-27, 68+/-12%; Het-27, 58+/-8%; Gln-27, 52+/-12%. The results of this preliminary study showed that bronchoprotective desensitization occurred readily in response to short- or long-acting beta2-agonist exposure irrespective of beta2-adrenoceptor polymorphism at codon 16 or 27. Further studies with larger patient numbers are required to further evaluate the effects of polymorphisms with lower doses of regular formoterol.  (+info)

Warfarin therapy: evolving strategies in anticoagulation. (6/14307)

Warfarin is the oral anticoagulant most frequently used to control and prevent thromboembolic disorders. Prescribing the dose that both avoids hemorrhagic complications and achieves sufficient suppression of thrombosis requires a thorough understanding of the drug's unique pharmacology. Warfarin has a complex dose-response relationship that makes safe and effective use a challenge. For most indications, the dose is adjusted to maintain the patient's International Normalized Ratio (INR) at 2 to 3. Because of the delay in factor II (prothrombin) suppression, heparin is administered concurrently for four to five days to prevent thrombus propagation. Loading doses of warfarin are not warranted and may result in bleeding complications. Interactions with other drugs must be considered, and therapy in elderly patients requires careful management. Current dosing recommendations are reviewed, and practical guidelines for the optimal use of warfarin are provided.  (+info)

Protective alterations in phase 1 and 2 metabolism of aflatoxin B1 by oltipraz in residents of Qidong, People's Republic of China. (7/14307)

BACKGROUND: Residents of Qidong, People's Republic of China, are at high risk for development of hepatocellular carcinoma, in part due to consumption of foods contaminated with aflatoxins, which require metabolic activation to become carcinogenic. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind phase IIa chemoprevention trial, we tested oltipraz, an antischistosomal drug that has been shown to be a potent and effective inhibitor of aflatoxin-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in animal models. METHODS: In 1995, 234 adults from Qidong were enrolled. Healthy eligible individuals were randomly assigned to receive by mouth 125 mg oltipraz daily, 500 mg oltipraz weekly, or a placebo. Sequential immunoaffinity chromatography and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry or to fluorescence detection were used to identify and quantify phase 1 and phase 2 metabolites of aflatoxin B1 in the urine of study participants. Reported P values are two-sided. RESULTS: One month of weekly administration of 500 mg oltipraz led to a 51% decrease in median levels of the phase 1 metabolite aflatoxin M1 excreted in urine compared with administration of a placebo (P = .030), but it had no effect on levels of a phase 2 metabolite, aflatoxin-mercapturic acid (P = .871). By contrast, daily intervention with 125 mg oltipraz led to a 2.6-fold increase in median aflatoxin-mercapturic acid excretion (P = .017) but had no effect on excreted aflatoxin M1 levels (P = .682). CONCLUSIONS: Intermittent, high-dose oltipraz inhibited phase 1 activation of aflatoxins, and sustained low-dose oltipraz increased phase 2 conjugation of aflatoxin, yielding higher levels of aflatoxin-mercapturic acid. While both mechanisms can contribute to protection, this study highlights the feasibility of inducing phase 2 enzymes as a chemopreventive strategy in humans.  (+info)

Secondary glioblastoma remarkably reduced by steroid administration after anaplastic transformation from gliomatosis cerebri--case report. (8/14307)

A 45-year-old female presented with gliomatosis cerebri manifesting as hemiballismus-like involuntary movement in the arm, motor weakness in the leg, and hypesthesia in her left side. Computed tomography showed only diffuse swelling of the right cerebral hemisphere, but T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging revealed a diffuse lesion spreading from the right thalamus to the temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes on the same side. No abnormal enhancement was recognized. Cerebral angiography showed no specific finding. A right occipital lobectomy was performed to confirm the diagnosis of gliomatosis cerebri. Anaplastic transformation was recognized 5 months later. The disease did not resolve with radiation or interferon administration, but steroid therapy achieved remarkably effective tumor regression. The patient died due to pneumonia. Autopsy showed the features of diffuse glioblastoma. Steroid therapy may be an effective treatment for gliomatosis cerebri before the terminal stage.  (+info)

Capecitabine is active in metastatic breast cancer but the conventional schedule (1250 mg/m2/12 hr 2 weeks on, one week off) produces grade 2 or greater hand and foot syndrome in up to 50% of patients leading to those reductions. Some authors have tested continuous administration schedules of capecitabine, showing better tolerance and apparently similar antitumor activity. Capecitabine is a pro-drug of 5-FU and mimics an i.v. continuous infusion administration of this antimetabolite. On the other hand, there are theoretical reasons to administer S-phase specific agents in continuous, protracted rather than intermittent schedules. Our study compares the standard schedule(1250 mg/m2/12 hr 2 weeks on, one week off)with a continuous administration schule (800 mg/m2/12hr). The latter schedule administer approximately the same cumulative dose of capecitabine as the standard one. The study hypothesis is that grade 2 or greater hand and foot syndrome will be reduced from 50% (standard arm) to 20% ...
We evaluated a simple, weight-based, extended-interval dosing (EID) gentamicin protocol specifically in neonates with gestational age ≤ 33 weeks, and its impact on sub-therapeutic peaks, elevated troughs, and simplification of dosing and monitoring as compared to a weight-based, multiple daily dose (MDD) protocol. Methodology. This study evaluated all infants with GA ≤ 33 weeks receiving gentamicin 1-year before EID protocol implementation in Jan 2002, and 1-year after. The MDD protocol used 2.5mg/kg every 8, 12, 18, or 24 hrs based on weight and age groupings. The EID protocol uses 3mg/kg q24 hours if weight , 1500gm and 4mg/kg if weight ≤ 1500gm. Desired trough was ≤ 2.0 mcg/ml and peak was 5 - 12 mcg/ml. Results. Characteristics were similar for the 123 MDD and 98 EID patients reviewed. The percentage of patients with at least 1 sub-therapeutic peak was lower with EID (7% vs. 20%, p,0.001); however the percentage with at least 1 elevated trough was similar (15% vs. 19%, p=0.219). ...
Cohorts of 3 evaluable patients will initially be entered within each dose level, sequentially. In each dose level the second and third patient will enter 2 weeks after the first one. The second and third patient may be treated simultaneously, except if a DLT is reported in the first patient, in which case the second and third patient should be treated sequentially, at least one week apart.. Dose escalation will be done when all the patients included in each DL will finish the first treatment cycle. Three additional patients will be sequentially entered (separated by one week each other) if one DLT is observed in cycle 1 among the first 3 patients entered within a dose level. If a DLT is observed in a second patient at this dose level, no further dose escalation will be allowed and the dose level will be considered the MTD.. Once the RD (one level below the MTD) has been defined, additional patients (up to 12) will be treated in order to confirm the safety profile of the combination. ...
Purpose: This phase I study evaluated the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary efficacy of the combination of decitabine with vorinostat.. Patients and Methods: Patients with advanced solid tumors or non-Hodgkins lymphomas were eligible. Sequential and concurrent schedules were studied.. Results: Forty-three patients were studied in 9 different dose levels (6 sequential and 3 concurrent). The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) on the sequential schedule was decitabine 10 mg/m2/day on days 1 to 5 and vorinostat 200 mg three times a day on days 6 to 12. The MTD on the concurrent schedule was decitabine 10 mg/m2/day on days 1 to 5 with vorinostat 200 mg twice a day on days 3 to 9. However, the sequential schedule of decitabine 10 mg/m2/day on days 1 to 5 and vorinostat 200 mg twice a day on days 6 to 12 was more deliverable than both MTDs with fewer delays on repeated dosing and it represents the recommended phase II (RP2D) dose of this combination. Dose-limiting toxicities during the ...
Volume 1" (2011).. rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/monographs/2011/RAND_MG1171.1.pdf. Table 4.3 (page 43) shows that in the 2001 SAR the USAF IOC was to be June 2011, and the 2009 SAR placed that date at March 2013. By May 2013 the USAF predicting an IOC by December 2016. This of course is, we are to believe, "on schedule.". Table 4.9 on page 56 shows just how badly production was slipped between the 2001 plan and 2011, causing at that time production to not end in 2027 as planned in 2001. Rather production was to extend into 2034 in the 2009 scheme. If we all play pretend that may be "on schedule." If we pretend hard enough it might actually end in 2034. Try to wish real hard, it may save Tinkerbell.. Once again the program is NOT on schedule, it is on a schedule contrived by use of an imaginary start date, one selected to fit the claim being made. Further slippages will be met, as they have in the past, by newly invented start dates. 2001? It never happened, the world was created in 2013. Or ...
The neuroscience sequence is foundational in nature and stresses the organizational principles and structure/function relationships in the central ner
This course sequence teaches the pathophysiology of common diseases of the nervous system (including visual, auditory, and vestibular systems), and th
Background This phase I study investigated the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety, pharmacokinetics and antitumor activity of ganetespib in patients with solid malignancies.
The primary objective of this trial is to explore the overall objective best response rate and the rate of non-progression at 16 weeks of sequential, al
Process for calculating decreasing doses of a drug a patient needs to take to be able to finally stop taking the drug algorithm. The process is based on an exponential drug taper. This is particularly useful for a drug which a patient is either physically or psychologically dependent, and for a drug where there are potentially serious side effects (for example, seizures) if the drug is rapidly discontinued. The program calculates the amount of drug and provides the clinician the opportunity to look at several different possible drug taper schedules, both numerically and graphically, and to aid the clinician in choosing the appropriate drug taper. The process can calculate a drug taper based upon actual clinical response of a patient. The process corrects for actual dosage sizes available, and calculates administration schedules for the patient and nurse.
Shots (also called vaccinations or immunizations) help protect children from serious diseases. Share this resource to help parents get their children all the shots recommended by age 2.
Doctors recommend that pre-teens ages 11 and 12 get important shots (also called vaccinations or immunizations). Share this guide to help parents get their pre-teens the shots they need.
Am I the only one who finds all the Thomas story lines complete snoozers? Sheesh! What is the fun in reading about a train on his daily schedule? I think the most exciting thing that has happened to Thomas was when a log on the track screwed him for about 2 seconds, then he was back to his same old boring schedule. Also, one of the trains - I cant remember which one - is a total dick! I dont need that kind of negativity around my son. One more thing...Sir Topham Hatt? Could you have come up with a more difficult name to pronounce especially for a 2 year old? Might as well have named him Eioapnakbn Poaypruawedjralsdj (I apologize if this is your name and I have offended you). Whew! As usual...I digress ...
In case clinical signs are not adequately controlled (clinical evaluation and/or diagnostic testing) it is recommended to increase the total daily dose by 0.5 mg increments every 4 to 6 weeks until stabilisation occurs and if the drug is tolerated at that dose. If signs of dose intolerance develop, treatment should be stopped for 2-3 days and reinstated at one-half of the previous dose. The total daily dose may then be titrated back up to the desired clinical effect by 0.5 mg increments every 2-4 weeks. If a dose is missed, the next scheduled dose should be administered as prescribed ...
We all know you need to work your body at least 2-3 times a week to stay flexible, build muscle and keep the metabolic juices flowing. Many of us either go to the gym, walk during our lunch breaks or ride a bike to work.. What about your brain? Your mind also needs a good workout to stay limber, build neurotransmitters and keep the cerebral juices flowing.. Wheres your mental gym?. Use it or lose it.. Your body has over 800 muscles and joints which need to be flexed every day.. Your brain has 5 cognitive functions which need to be practiced, too.. These 5 habits will keep your mind stimulated and sharp; try incorporating them into your daily schedule:. (1). Memories…. ...
The Puerto Vallarta Daily Schedule of Events is continually updated. Last-minute additions and corrections are frequent. Click on most listings for more information about individual events.. The city is VERY alive. ...
Despite your best attempts at remembering, if you still miss out on a dose, then take it as soon as you remember about it. But keep in mind that you will have to adjust your next dose by spacing it out by 4 to 5 hours. If this is not possible, then the best thing to do would be to skip the missed dose and continue with your normal dosage schedule ...
Despite your best attempts at remembering, if you still miss out on a dose, then take it as soon as you remember about it. But keep in mind that you will have to adjust your next dose by spacing it out by 4 to 5 hours. If this is not possible, then the best thing to do would be to skip the missed dose and continue with your normal dosage schedule ...
Despite your best attempts at remembering, if you still miss out on a dose, then take it as soon as you remember about it. But keep in mind that you will have to adjust your next dose by spacing it out by 4 to 5 hours. If this is not possible, then the best thing to do would be to skip the missed dose and continue with your normal dosage schedule ...
Despite your best attempts at remembering, if you still miss out on a dose, then take it as soon as you remember about it. But keep in mind that you will have to adjust your next dose by spacing it out by 4 to 5 hours. If this is not possible, then the best thing to do would be to skip the missed dose and continue with your normal dosage schedule ...
Despite your best attempts at remembering, if you still miss out on a dose, then take it as soon as you remember about it. But keep in mind that you will have to adjust your next dose by spacing it out by 4 to 5 hours. If this is not possible, then the best thing to do would be to skip the missed dose and continue with your normal dosage schedule ...
While the NFL continues with its plans to begin the 2020 campaign on schedule Sept. 10 amid the coronavirus pandemic, the league is expected to lose billions of dollars in revenue because of the need to limit gate receipts...
A team of researchers from Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine reported that the way the body metabolizes the HIV medication efavirenz may ...
Entering into a different schedule of prepping all your meals ahead can take the perfect time to acquire some having utilized to. Peters suggests starting with a couple of days worth of meals at any given time, then slowly but surely increase to making a complete week of meals in one session. "If you try to do per week unexpectedly at first, youre going to get discouraged and ...
Healthy Green has the right daily dosage of CBD oil pre-measured and ready for delivery. Browse our formulated CBD daily doses today!
I think that we might have evolved a fondness for traits in our own babies, to make it so we dont have any desire to kill them and even desire to protect them - aka small, chubby, versions of things - and fuzzy would be left over from our own once-fuzzy nature. Its an interesting thought ...
You should try and take your doses on time taking care not to miss any. But if you do miss a dose, then take it as soon as you remember. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the one you missed and go back to your regular schedule. But do not take a double dose ...
Follow Me to hear about all of the Weekly Challenges. This Weeks Challenge: Make anything Steampunk. (See examples of Steampunk here.) Only 15...
Oral alkylating drugs, alone and in combination therapy with steroids, have been extensively evaluated in the upfront treatment of WM. The greatest experience with oral alkylator therapy has been with chlorambucil, which has been administered on both a continuous (i.e. daily dose schedule) as well as an intermittent schedule. Patients receiving chlorambucil on a continuous schedule typically receive 0.1 mg/kg per day, whilst on the intermittent schedule patients will typically receive 0.3 mg/kg for 7 days, every 6 weeks. In a prospective randomized study, Kyle et al.109 reported no significant difference in the overall response rate between these schedules, although interestingly the median response duration was greater for patients receiving intermittent versus continuously dosed chlorambucil (46 vs. 26 months). Despite the favorable median response duration in this study for use of the intermittent schedule, no difference in the median overall survival was observed. Moreover, an increased ...
This phase I dose-escalation study is investigating the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of BAY-1161909 in patients with advanced malignancies.
This trial will investigate the tolerability and pharmacokinetic parameters of IMGN 388. The drug will be dosed every 3 weeks, until dose-limiting toxicities
The goal of this clinical research study is to find the highest tolerable dose of PCI-32765 that can be given to patients with recurrent B-cell lymphoma.
Appeals court: 1 Texas execution back on schedule - AP News: HOUSTON (AP) - A federal appeals court on Wednesday threw .01/18/2018 3:18:36AM EST.
Buy Levofloxacina Online! Levofloxacina is a fluoroquinolone antibacterial that is the L-isomer of ofloxacin. In addition, this regimen lends itself to better compliance because of the shorter duration of treatment and the convenient once-daily administration schedule.
We talked about liver function which is frequently and erroneously misinterpreted as transaminase levels. The two are completely different and occasionally unrelated. The livers function is to produce albumin, coagulation factors (check INR/PTT), eliminate nitrogenous waste (asterixis/encephalopathy), clear portal blood of toxins/nutrients (ascites and thrombocytopenia from portal hypertension), and produce glucose in states of starvation (hypoglycemia is a feature of advanced liver failure). Transaminase elevation can occur without impairing these functions, and these functions can be quite impaired with mild or no transaminase elevation ...
Comparison of weekly administration of cisplatin versus three courses of cisplatin 100 mg-m2 for definitive radiochemotherapy of locally advanced head-and-neck cancers. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
I would really like to start making my own bread - if possible, in the oven. We get through a lot of bread, a loaf a day, pretty much. Id like to ma
Overall, 21 pts have been treated (18/3 pts in IRP/ARP, respectively) and 71 cycles administered (median: 3 cycles, range 1-9). In IRP three DL were explored (range 200-400 mcg/m2 nemorubicin + 40-60 mg/m2 cisplatin). One DLT (thrombocytopenia) was reported at the first DL 200 mcg/m2 nemorubicin + 40 mg/m2 cisplatin. One other DLT (fatigue) occurred at the fourth DL (600 mcg/m2 nemorubicin + 60 mg/m2 cisplatin), currently under expansion. Common drug-related adverse events were transient liver transaminases increase (all pts, max grade [G] 3), neutropenia/thrombocytopenia (5 pts, G2-3), fatigue (5 pts, G1-2), nausea/vomiting (4 pts, max G3 in one case), ototoxicity (1 pts, G3). Across dose levels, confirmed partial responses were reported in 3/11 currently evaluable pts (27%), stable disease , 3 months in 5/11 pts (45.4%) and progressive disease in the remaining 3 pts. In ARP one DL has been explored (200 mcg/m2 nemorubicin + 60 mg/m2 cisplatin): no DLTs were reported; one pts has stable disease ...
Purpose:OSI-906 is a potent inhibitor of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and insulin receptor (IR). The purpose of this study was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and preliminary activity of OSI-906 in patients with advanced solid tumors. Patients and Methods:This was a nonrandomized, open-label, phase I, dose-escalation study in patients with advanced solid tumors. The study also included a diabetic expansion cohort and a biomarker expansion cohort of patients with colorectal cancer. Patients were treated with OSI-906 by once- or twice-daily continuous dosing schedules. Results:Of 95 patients enrolled in the study, 86 received at least one dose of OSI-906. Dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) included QTc prolongation, grade 2 abdominal pain and nausea, hyperglycemia and elevation of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase (all grade 3). The MTDs were established to be 400 mg once daily and 150 mg twice daily. ...
The goal of this clinical research study is to find the best dose of the drugs dabrafenib and trametinib that can be given together or alone in patients with advanced solid cancer that has a BRAF mutation. The effects of the study drugs at different dose levels and the safety of the study drugs will also be studied
EXHIBIT A. AGREEMENT REGARDING JOINT FILING. OF STATEMENT ON SCHEDULE 13D OR 13G. The undersigned agree to file jointly with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC") any and all statements on Schedule 13D or Schedule 13G or Forms 3, 4 or 5(and any amendments or supplements thereto) required under section 13(d) and 16(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, in connection with purchases by the undersigned of the securities of any issuer. For that purpose, the undersigned hereby constitute and appoint Stonepine Capital Management, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company, as their true and lawful agent and attorney-in-fact, with full power and authority for and on behalf of the undersigned to prepare or cause to be prepared, sign, file with the SEC and furnish to any other person all certificates, instruments, agreements and documents necessary to comply with section 13(d) and section 16(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, in connection with said ...
Adjuvant S-1 was started at least 3 weeks after curative surgery. The intended dose of S-1 was based on that published in the ACTS-GC trial,4 and was 40 mg/m2 twice daily for 4 weeks followed by 2 weeks of rest for each cycle. Specifically, during the treatment weeks, patients with body surface area (BSA) of ,1.25 m2 received 80 mg daily; those with BSA of 1.25 m2 to ,1.5 m2 received 100 mg daily; and those with BSA of ≥1.5 m2 received 120 mg daily. As clinically indicated, dose reductions were considered one dose level at a time; in general, one dose level reduction refers to reducing the prior daily dose by 20 mg, eg from 120 mg to 100 mg daily. As renal impairment has been associated with increased incidence of myelosuppression, dose reduction by one dose level was made in patients who had a creatinine clearance of 40-49 mL/min. A maximum of eight 6-weekly cycles were administered. The dose of S-1 was reduced in patients with significant toxicities, as assessed by the respective ...
Adjuvant S-1 was started at least 3 weeks after curative surgery. The intended dose of S-1 was based on that published in the ACTS-GC trial,4 and was 40 mg/m2 twice daily for 4 weeks followed by 2 weeks of rest for each cycle. Specifically, during the treatment weeks, patients with body surface area (BSA) of ,1.25 m2 received 80 mg daily; those with BSA of 1.25 m2 to ,1.5 m2 received 100 mg daily; and those with BSA of ≥1.5 m2 received 120 mg daily. As clinically indicated, dose reductions were considered one dose level at a time; in general, one dose level reduction refers to reducing the prior daily dose by 20 mg, eg from 120 mg to 100 mg daily. As renal impairment has been associated with increased incidence of myelosuppression, dose reduction by one dose level was made in patients who had a creatinine clearance of 40-49 mL/min. A maximum of eight 6-weekly cycles were administered. The dose of S-1 was reduced in patients with significant toxicities, as assessed by the respective ...
It was always that 4:00 p.m.dose! Rob (a pseudonym) sounded angry and scared. I was always up on a ladder with a paintbrush in my hand, or on a roof ...
The Bad Astronomer writes A century ago, astronomers (including Edwin Hubble) discovered the Universe was expanding. Using the same methods — but this time with observations from an orbiting infrared space telescope — a new study confirms this expansion, and nails the rate with higher p...
The calendar, as published by the Office of the Senate Secretary, is the official publication containing legislative activities or a list of bills awaiting action on a specific day. The weekly schedule is an allocation of meeting times set by the President and is subject to change. Senate calendars and weekly schedules are in the PDF format and may be viewed with Adobe Acrobat Reader®. Calendars and weekly schedules from sessions prior to 2011 are available on archive.flsenate.gov.. ...
Diabetic patients should follow a particular schedule for the healthy life. The daily schedule for diabetic patients consists of following things-
Our team has worked tirelessly to ensure that we continue offering academic and social continuity. We continue to enhance our dynamic lessons, interactive zoom meetings, as well as the weekly supply lists and projects for our youngest GBDS students. We think that setting up a schedule that mirrors our daily schedule in school will further enhance your childs remote school day. ...
See the Presidents daily schedule, explore behind-the-scenes photos from inside the White House, and find out all the ways you can engage with the most interactive administration in our countrys history.
Commuting and sitting for long periods of time at work could be as dangerous as smoking, according to a new survey. The AXA Healthcare survey asked 2,000 people about their daily schedule, with those who sit at work said to sit for up to nine hours a day, including time spent travelling to their office.
"Controlled Substances in Schedule III". Drug Enforcement Administration. 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-02-02. ... the sum effect of the drugs is far greater than would be expected considering the effect of both drugs separately. This is due ... Inhibitors of the hepatic enzyme CYP3A4 may also increase the risk, severity, and duration of side effects, many drugs inhibit ... Taking butalbital-based medications with some other drugs may also increase the side effects of the other medication. ...
Schedule I'". Government Of Canada. 2014-12-12. "关于印发《非药用类麻醉药品和精神药品列管办法》的通知" (in Chinese). China Food and Drug Administration. ... On March 5, 2014 the UK Home Office announced that 5-MAPB would be made a class B drug on 10 June 2014 alongside every other ... "Temporary class drug order report on 5-6APB and NBOMe compounds". UK Home Office. 4 Jun 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-10. "' ... 5-MAPB (1-(benzofuran-5-yl)-N-methylpropan-2-amine) is an entactogenic designer drug similar to MDMA
"Section 1308.12 Schedules of Controlled Substances". Title 21 Code of Federal Regulations. Drug Enforcement Administration.. ... Glutethimide is a Schedule II drug under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances.[9] It was originally a Schedule III drug in ... Methaqualone and Glutethimide". Illegal Drugs: A Complete Guide to Their History, Chemistry, Use, and Abuse.. ... Barceloux DG (2012). Medical Toxicology of Drug Abuse: Synthesized Chemicals and Psychoactive Plants. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley ...
1308.11 Schedule I. "Scheduling Actions 2002". U.S. Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). Florida ... China Food and Drug Administration. 27 September 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015. "Misuse of Drugs (Classification of BZP) ... It was briefly Schedule I, but was removed from Schedule I in Texas after the US federal government dropped its federal ... which has been sold as a single drug). Studies into other related piperazine drugs such as mCPP suggest that certain side ...
"关于印发《非药用类麻醉药品和精神药品列管办法》的通知" (in Chinese). China Food and Drug Administration. 27 September 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015. " ... Placement of Chemicals in Schedule I". Commonwealth of Virginia. 2 December 2015. Retrieved 11 March 2016. ... 4-Bromomethcathinone (4-BMC, Brephedrone) is a psychoactive drug and research chemical of the phenethylamine, amphetamine, and ... Foley, K. F.; Cozzi, N. V. (2003). "Novel aminopropiophenones as potential antidepressants
"关于印发《非药用类麻醉药品和精神药品列管办法》的通知" (in Chinese). China Food and Drug Administration. 27 September 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015. " ... Placement of Chemicals in Schedule I". Commonwealth of Virginia. 2 December 2015. Retrieved 11 March 2016. ... is a stimulant drug of the cathinone class that has been sold online as a designer drug. Clephedrone is an Anlage I controlled ... 4-CMC is considered a Schedule 1 substance in Virginia. 4-Bromomethcathinone 4
In addition, oxycodone is a Schedule 2 drug per the Misuse of Drugs Regulations 2001 which "provide certain exemptions from the ... "Controlled substance scheduling". Drug information and scheduling. Drug Enforcerment Administration. Retrieved 23 November 2015 ... Oxycodone is a Class A drug under the Misuse of Drugs Act. For Class A drugs, which are "considered to be the most likely to ... Oxycodone is listed as a Class A drug in the Misuse of Drugs Act of Singapore, which means offences in relation to the drug ...
"Controlled Substances in Schedule III". Drug Enforcement Administration. 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-02-02. ... the sum effect of the drugs is far greater than would be expected considering the effect of both drugs separately. This is due ... "MedicinePlus Drug Information. Archived from the original on December 30, 2006. Retrieved December 31, 2006.. " ... Evers S, Afra J, Frese A, Goadsby PJ, Linde M, May A, Sándor PS (September 2009). "EFNS guideline on the drug treatment of ...
It is designated as a Schedule III controlled substance by the Drug Enforcement Administration. A study of dependence in rats ... It is designated as a Schedule III controlled substance by the Drug Enforcement Administration. As of August 2016 perampanel ... The drug label has a black box warning that the drug cause may cause serious psychiatric and behavioral changes; it may cause ... The drug is 95% bound to plasma protein. Its primary route of metabolism is by CYP3A4. It does not induce P450 enzymes. About ...
Schedule 2 - ACP Licence Endorsements mechanical ventilation; administration of drug therapy on the direct order of a Transport ... The "Schedule 2" endorsements appear on the PCP licence as "IV" or "ET". Schedule 1 - PCP Licence Qualifications all EMR Skills ... Schedule 1 - CCP Licence Qualifications All ACP Skills and Endorsements arterial line placement. Schedule 2 - CCP Licence ... Licensing qualifications and endorsements can be found in the EMA Regulations under Schedule 1 and Schedule 2. An emergency ...
"Controlled Substances in Schedule I". Drug Enforcement Administration - Office of Diversion Control. Retrieved 2012-05-11. ... Similarly to many of its analogues, noracymethadol is a Schedule I controlled substance in the United States with an ACSCN of ... and is also controlled internationally under the United Nations Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961. The salts known ... Thomas Nordegren (1 March 2002). The A-Z Encyclopedia of Alcohol and Drug Abuse. Universal-Publishers. p. 468. ISBN 978-1-58112 ...
"关于印发《非药用类麻醉药品和精神药品列管办法》的通知" (in Chinese). China Food and Drug Administration. 27 September 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015. " ... On January 28, 2014, the DEA listed it, along with 9 other synthetic cathinones, on the Schedule 1 with a temporary ban, ... A forensic standard of Pentedrone is available, and the compound has been posted on the Forendex website of potential drugs of ... Pentedrone is a Anlage II controlled drug in Germany. As of October 2015 Pentedrone is a
"The UN Drug Control Conventions". 8 October 2015.. *^ "Drug Schedules; Schedule 1". US Drug Enforcement Administration, ... US Food and Drug Administration. September 2004. Retrieved 14 January 2018.. *^ "Sativex Oromucosal Spray - Summary of Product ... such as in the United States where the National Institute on Drug Abuse and Drug Enforcement Administration regulated sources ... Cannabis as a plant is scheduled by the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs (Schedule I and IV). It is specifically still ...
"The UN Drug Control Conventions". 8 October 2015.. *^ "Drug Schedules; Schedule 1". US Drug Enforcement Agency, Department of ... US Food and Drug Administration. September 2004. Retrieved 14 January 2018.. *^ "Sativex Oromucosal Spray - Summary of Product ... Cannabis as a plant is scheduled by the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs (Schedule I and IV). It is specifically still ... Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference: Single User (35th ed.). Pharmaceutical Press. ISBN 978-0-85369-703-9.. [page needed] ...
Temporary Placement of Butyryl Fentanyl and Beta-Hydroxythiofentanyl into Schedule I" (PDF). Drug Enforcement Administration. ... "关于印发《非药用类麻醉药品和精神药品列管办法》的通知" (in Chinese). China Food and Drug Administration. 27 September 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015.. ... There was a proposal being discussed by the UN Commission on Narcotic Drugs (CND) to include butyrfentanyl in Schedule 1 of the ... One of the first mentions of this drug can be found in document written by The College on Problem of
FDA Approved Drug Products". Drugs@FDA: FDA Approved Drug Products. US Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 1 October 2016. ... "Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (c. 38): SCHEDULE 2: Controlled Drugs". Office of Public Sector Information. Retrieved 15 June 2009. " ... In India, methylphenidate is a schedule X drug and is controlled by the Drugs and Cosmetics Rule, 1945. It is dispensed only by ... Food and Drug Administration. 17 December 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013. "FDA Drug Safety Communication: Safety Review ...
Health Canada added natalizumab to Schedule F of the Food and Drug Regulations on April 3, 2008 as a prescription drug ... Natalizumab was approved in 2004 by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). It was subsequently withdrawn from the market ... "SOR/2008-101: Food and Drug Act; Regulations Amending the Food and Drug Regulations (1528-Schedule F)" (PDF). Canada Gazette ... By January 21, 2010 the United States Food and Drug Administration reported a total of 31 confirmed cases of PML associated ...
Drug Enforcement Administration (February 2011) "Tennessee News: Tramadol and Carisoprodol Now Classified Schedule IV". ... Tramadol is classified in Schedule 4 (prescription only) in Australia, rather than as a Schedule 8 Controlled Drug (Possession ... co-administration of drugs and new drug delivery systems". Biomed. Pharmacother. 70: 234-8. doi:10.1016/j.biopha.2015.01.022. ... those of the parent drug. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved tramadol in March 1995 and an extended-release ( ...
"Schedules of Controlled Substances: Placement of AH-7921 Into Schedule I". Drug Enforcement Administration. 14 April 2016. ... must be registered by the Drug Enforcement Administration. The Canadian Controlled Drugs and Substances Act was amended in 2016 ... In the UK, AH-7921 was included as a Class A drug in January 2015 as part of The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Amendment) (No. 2) ... Further, Health Canada amended the Food and Drug Regulations in May, 2016 to classify AH-7921 as a restricted drug. Only those ...
On September 24, 2007, the Drug Enforcement Administration formally added oripavine to Schedule II. Under the Controlled ... Geneva, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2007. Accessed September 18, 2007. Drug Enforcement Administration. " ... and placed oripavine in the Schedule I. Until recently, oripavine was a Schedule II drug in the United States by default as a ... "Decision 50/1: Inclusion of oripavine in Schedule I of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 and that Convention as ...
... schedule I drug), the Netherlands (List I drug), the United States (schedule II drug), Australia (schedule 8), Thailand ( ... "National Drug Code Amphetamine Search Results". National Drug Code Directory. United States Food and Drug Administration. ... United States Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 7 March 2016. "Evekeo". United States Food and Drug Administration. ... "Table of controlled Narcotic Drugs under the Thai Narcotics Act" (PDF). Thailand Food and Drug Administration. 22 May 2013. ...
Future Synthetic Drugs of Abuse. Drug Enforcement Administration, McLean, Virginia Brown, David T. (2003). Cannabis: The Genus ... 1308.11 Schedule I.. ... THC-O-acetate is a Class A drug in the United Kingdom. THC-O- ... and THC-O-acetate was ruled to be a Class A drug in that case. The description of that case appears to indicate the convicted ... This derivative of THC is notable in that it is one of the few analogues of THC to have been encountered as a recreational drug ...
Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 2010-07-19. U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (15 December 2011). "Schedules of ... In December 2011, the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) placed the substance into Schedule V of the Controlled ... Food and Drug Administration accepted Valeant's New Drug Application for retigabine on December 30, 2009. The FDA Peripheral ... and by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), under the trade name Potiga, on June 10, 2011. Production has been ...
Temporary Placement of the Synthetic Cannabinoid MAB-CHMINACA Into Schedule I". Drug Enforcement Administration. 16 September ... ADB-CHMINACA is listed in the Fifth Schedule of the Misuse of Drugs Act (MDA) and therefore illegal in Singapore as of May 2015 ... The DEA announced its intent to place ADB-CHMINACA into Schedule I of the USA Controlled Substances Act on September 16, 2015. ... doi:10.1007/s11419-015-0272-y. Alan Schwarz (24 April 2015). "Potent 'Spice' Drug Fuels Rise in Visits to Emergency Room". The ...
... is a List II drugs of the Opium Law in the Netherlands. Ketazolam is a Schedule IV drug under the Controlled ... Drug Enforcement Administration (USA). "Drug Scheduling". United States Government. Retrieved 26 August 2008. ... Food and Drug Administration (January 2006). "FDA Public Health Advisory - Consumers Filling U.S. Prescriptions Abroad May Get ... The U.S. Food and Drug Administration warns that in Spain, ketazolam marketed as Marcen may sometimes be mistakenly confused ...
Under his administration, Cambodia was converted into a one-party communist state governed according to Pol Pot's ... scrutinising things such as menus for state receptions or the programming schedules for radio broadcasts.[448] Although some of ... "Pol Pot 'killed himself with drugs'". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 August 2014 ... In 1970, a coup led to Lon Nol taking control of Cambodia and instituting a right-wing, pro-U.S. administration. ...
Drug Enforcement Administration said Thursday it will not call for reclassifying marijuana, NBC News reports. In a notice for ... A schedule I classification bans doctors from prescribing it and limits all but the most carefully controlled research. ... The U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration said Thursday it will not call for reclassifying marijuana, NBC News reports. ... Drug Enforcement Administration Will Not Call for Reclassifying Marijuana. The federal listing is independent of state ...
... scheduling decisions were made by the National Drugs and Poisons Schedule Committee (NDPSC), an independent expert co ... National Drugs and Poisons Schedule Committee (NDPSC). Until 30 June 2010, scheduling decisions were made by the National Drugs ... Records of reasons from meetings of the National Drugs and Poisons Schedule Committee (NDPSC) ... Important notice regarding matters for consideration at the June 2010 meeting of the National Drugs and Poisons Scheduling ...
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Placed on Calendar in the Senate version). H.J.Res. 77 (113th): Food and Drug Administration Continuing Appropriations ... 77 (113th): Food and Drug Administration Continuing ... as of Oct 9, 2013 ( ... Food and Drug Safety Act .. This joint resolution may be cited as the Food and Drug Administration Continuing Appropriations ... Department of Health and Human Services-Food and Drug Administration .. (b) The rate for operations provided by subsection (a) ...
Single-Key Assay of Drug Self-Administration. For intravenous drug administration, a double-lumen catheter was implanted into a ... The ED50 value of the dose-effect curve for drug choice was defined as the dose of drug or drug mixture that produced 50% drug ... Drugs were administered i.m. in the thigh (schedule-controlled responding, thermal nociception) or i.v. (drug self- ... in assays of schedule-controlled responding for food reinforcement, thermal nociception, drug self-administration, and food ...
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Xiaflex is the only drug approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treatment of Dupuytrens contracture, which has ... Drugs.com Mobile Apps. The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own ... Drugs.com provides accurate and independent information on more than 24,000 prescription drugs, over-the-counter medicines and ... Subscribe to Drugs.com newsletters for the latest medication news, alerts, new drug approvals and more. ...
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Results of search for su:{Drug administration schedule.} Refine your search. *Availability * Limit to currently available ... Monitoring drug coverage for preventive chemotherapy. by World Health Organization Material type: Book; Format: print Publisher ... by WHO Collaborating Centre for Drug Statistics Methodology , Nordiska Läkemedelsnämnden Edition: 2nd ed.Material type: Book; ... Format: print Publisher: Oslo : WHO Collaborating Centre for Drug Statistics Methodology , 1993Other title: Defined Daily Dose. ...
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Drug Enforcement Administration. Schedules of Controlled Substances: Placement of Perampanel into Schedule III" (PDF). Federal ... The drug or other substance has a potential for abuse less than the drugs or other substances in schedules I and II. The drug ... The complete list of Schedule III drugs follows. The Administrative Controlled Substances Code Number for each drug is included ... This is the list of Schedule III drugs as defined by the United States Controlled Substances Act at 21 U.S.C. § 812(c) and 21 C ...
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Food and Drug Administration. October 29, 2014 approval letter-Flublok. Silver Spring, MD: US Department of Health and Human ... The 2015 adult immunization schedule contains the following changes from the 2014 schedule:. *Figure 1, the recommended adult ... the 2015 adult immunization schedule from the 2014 schedule included the August 2014 recommendation for routine administration ... and the October 2014 approval by the Food and Drug Administration to expand the approved age for use of recombinant influenza ...
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"DEA Schedules Deadly Synthetic Drug U-47700". November 10, 2016. Drug Enforcement Administration (2015). "Schedules of ... Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) (22 Jan 2002). "Title 21 - Food and Drugs Chapter 13 - Drug Abuse Prevention and Control ... The list of Schedule I drugs is defined by a law of the United States, the Controlled Substances Act, part of the drug policy ... Drug Enforcement Administration, Department of Justice (2015). "Schedules of controlled substances: Temporary placement of ...
United States Food, Drugs, Healthcare, Life Sciences Mintz 17 Apr 2013 ... Changes to Plan Reimbursement and Administration. Payment Increase CMS Assumes Physician Fee Schedule Fix. CMS heeded the call ... of covered brand drugs and 28% of covered generic drugs. ... More Popular Related Articles on Food, Drugs, Healthcare, Life ... Incremental Fills of Schedule II Controlled Substances Prescriptions. CMS cites a September 2012 OIG Report finding that the ...
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... drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related medications. ... Table 1: RECOMBIVAX HB Recommended Dose and Administration Schedules. Group. Dose/Regimen. ... Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration. You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs ... home drugs a-z list side effects drug center recombivax (hepatitis b vaccine (recombinant)) drug ...
  • Schedule I is reserved for substances that have a "high potential for abuse," "no currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States" and "no accepted safety for use of the drug or other substance under medical supervision," criteria that differ from scientific literature exploring kratom and its constituents. (wordpress.com)
  • The Schedule I designation also would effectively halt scientific investigation into kratom's medicinal benefits, while making it impossible to enact sensible legal regulations, such as quality control measures, product labeling requirements, as well as marketing, branding and retail display restrictions, which are long proven to reduce substance misuse and youth access. (wordpress.com)
  • The official notice indicates that comments received by the DEA will be considered - along with formal input from the Food and Drug Administration - before a determination is made about scheduling kratom. (wordpress.com)
  • Many people struggling with opioid addiction have turned to kratom as a safer alternative, but all promising scientific studies on its role in opioid treatment would have been immediately shut down by a Schedule I designation. (wordpress.com)
  • This is a truly remarkable moment to see the Drug Enforcement Administration, a law enforcement agency with a long track record of ignoring both science and public opinion, being forced to consider the scientific evidence and public opinion before taking additional steps with respect to kratom," said Grant Smith, deputy director of national affairs at the Drug Policy Alliance. (wordpress.com)
  • The 2012 recommended childhood and adolescent immunization schedules have been approved by the American Academy of Pediatrics, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the American Academy of Family Physicians. (aappublications.org)
  • The 2011 recommended childhood and adolescent immunization schedules have been approved by the American Academy of Pediatrics, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the American Academy of Family Physicians (schedules have been provided following this article and online as Supplemental Information). (aappublications.org)
  • Other Schedule II narcotics include: morphine, opium, and codeine. (chron.com)
  • Reduction in liver size and hepatic blood flow lead to a decreased first-pass effect, which results in higher serum concentrations of drugs that are highly metabolized in the liver, such as morphine. (nursingcenter.com)
  • 8 This results in an increased concentration of drugs that require high renal clearance, such as morphine and oxycodone, leading to the accumulation of drug metabolites and an increased risk of toxicity. (nursingcenter.com)
  • To assess the extent to which mGlu receptor antagonists selectively enhance morphine-induced antinociception, the rate-decreasing effects of mGlu antagonist/morphine mixtures were first examined in an assay of schedule-controlled responding maintained by liquid food. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Like morphine, codeine is an alkaloid (a naturally occurring base) of opium, a drug made from the milky juice of unripe seed capsules of the opium poppy plant. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Codeine, morphine, opium, heroin, and other opium alkaloids - the opioids - make up the class of drugs known as the narcotic analgesics. (encyclopedia.com)
  • When German pharmacist Friedrich Wilhelm Seturner isolated morphine from opium in 1805, a new era in drug production and use began. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The chemical works of E. Merck, established in 1827 to manufacture morphine, began producing codeine the same year the drug was discovered. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Opium, morphine, and codeine are among drugs classified as Schedule II in the U.S. Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In a letter sent to the White House on Wednesday, the signers referred to Obama's comments in a recent New Yorker article that marijuana is no more dangerous than alcohol and called on the first president to admit inhaling to "take action to help alleviate the harms to society caused by the federal Schedule I classification of marijuana. (mercurynews.com)
  • We request that you take action to help alleviate the harms to society caused by the federal Schedule I classification of marijuana. (mercurynews.com)
  • A Schedule I or II classification also means that marijuana businesses in states where adult or medical use are legal cannot deduct business expenses from their taxes or take tax credits due to Section 280E of the federal tax code. (mercurynews.com)
  • When medications are not administered on time, according to the patient's unique schedule, patients may experience an immediate increase in symptoms. (ismp.org)
  • Once ordered, the medications were scheduled using the hospital's standard administration times. (ismp.org)
  • However, for patients with Parkinson's disease, it is safest to administer antiparkinsonian drugs according to the scheduled times the patient takes the medications at home. (ismp.org)
  • The patient suffered significant hallucinations and was unable to communicate until his medications were readjusted to his schedule at home. (ismp.org)
  • 4 However, opioids and other medications used to treat pain must be used with caution in older adults due to the increased risk of serious adverse drug events (ADEs), including respiratory depression, central nervous system depression, falls and fractures, gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, sedation, delirium, and cognitive changes. (nursingcenter.com)
  • Davis's Canadian Drug Guide for Nurses®, Sixteenth Edition plus 2019 updates, delivers all of the information you need to administer medications safely across the lifespan-well-organized monographs for hundreds of generic and thousands of trade-name drugs-along with the Canadian-specific information you want. (skyscape.com)
  • Taking butalbital-based medications with some other drugs may also increase the side effects of the other medication. (wikipedia.org)
  • This report compares adult mental health prevalence estimates generated from the 2009 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) with estimates of similar measures generated from other national data sources. (samhsa.gov)
  • A summary of changes in the 2015 adult immunization schedule is published concurrently in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report . (annals.org)
  • Tetanus toxoid is classified as FDA pregnancy risk category C. Animal reproduction studies have shown an adverse effect on the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in humans, but potential benefits may warrant use of the drug in pregnant women despite potential risks. (medicinenet.com)
  • Although numerous studies have documented that nicotine can function as an effective reinforcer of intravenous self-administration behavior in animals, it has not been clearly shown to maintain intravenous self-administration behavior above vehicle placebo levels in humans. (springer.com)
  • Davis's Drug Guide for Nurses - now with over 760 Integrated Calculators - combines the most comprehensive, up-to-date and practical drug resource with built in drug dosing calculation tools for most weight or body surface area based dosing. (bio-medicine.org)
  • DrDrugs®: Drug Guide for Physicians - now with over 760 Integrated Calculators - combines the most comprehensive, up-to-date and practical drug resource with built in drug dosing calculation tools for most weight or body surface area based dosing. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Now, in addition to providing the most comprehensive, up-to-date and practical drug information, DrDrugs includes over 800 built in drug dosing calculation tools . (skyscape.com)
  • Over 800 built-in drug dosing calculation tools. (skyscape.com)
  • 2\ The Administrator transmitted the notice of intent to place 4-fluoroisobutyryl fentanyl into schedule I on a temporary basis to the Assistant Secretary by letter dated January 5, 2017. (usdoj.gov)
  • The DEA has found that the control of 4-fluoroisobutyryl fentanyl in schedule I on a temporary basis is necessary to avoid an imminent hazard to the public safety, and as required by 21 U.S.C. 811(h)(1)(A), a notice of intent to issue a temporary order to schedule 4-fluoroisobutyryl fentanyl was published in the Federal Register on March 23, 2017. (usdoj.gov)
  • The meeting time and Public Participation Information portions have been changed for the March 13-14, 2017, joint meeting of the Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee and the Anesthetic and Analgesic Drug Products Advisory Committee. (fda.gov)
  • The Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) plans to provide a free of charge, live webcast of the March 13-14, 2017 joint meeting of the Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee and the Anesthetic and Analgesic Drug Products Advisory Committee. (fda.gov)
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), drug overdose deaths involving synthetic opioids (excluding methadone), such as fentanyl and tramadol, increased from 5,544 in 2014 to 9,580 in 2015. (ncadd.org)
  • Overall, preclinical studies support CQ and HCQ use in anti-cancer therapy, especially in combination with conventional anti-cancer treatments since they are able to sensitise tumour cells to a variety of drugs, potentiating the therapeutic activity. (ecancer.org)
  • Serious or life-threatening reactions to TMP / SMX (e.g., anaphylaxis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, hypotension) that would contraindicate therapy with sulfa drugs. (nih.gov)
  • The principles used to derive the age-based dosing schedule have potential application for use with other pharmacologic agents, particularly nonprescription drugs. (nih.gov)
  • Although the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) is the national body for the regulation of medicines, each state and territory self-regulates under the general principles established by the TGA and has its own interpretation and legislation regarding S8 drugs, resulting in varied prescribing requirements. (mja.com.au)
  • State-based legal requirements for Schedule 8 prescriptions: why so complicated? (mja.com.au)
  • The words "CHO approval number" followed by the identifying number for the approval must be annotated on prescriptions for S8 drugs. (mja.com.au)
  • To compare the reinforcing effectiveness of nicotine versus saline placebo in human research volunteers responding under fixed-ratio (FR) schedules of intravenous drug self-administration while systematically increasing response requirements. (springer.com)
  • A 2014 review of the probability of added benefit of perampanel to the standard of care was unable to come to any conclusions, as no trial conducted by Eisai compared perampanel to a drug within the standard of care, but only to placebo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Long-term use rebound effects, which resembled those seen in withdrawal, have anecdotally been described in patients who were still taking a stable dose of the drug. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antiparkinsonian agents have been inappropriately withheld because patients were NPO for surgery, and surgical patients have been given a contraindicated anesthetic agent, or a centrally acting antidopaminergic drug such as haloperidol, metoclopramide, or prochlorperazine, postoperatively. (ismp.org)
  • One in three patients with Parkinson's disease has been prescribed contraindicated drugs during hospitalization. (ismp.org)
  • Once you download the 27 free sample drug entries, you will quickly discover that the Nursing Drug Handbook app is easy to use and includes all of the safety information you need to provide top-level care for your patients. (appbrain.com)
  • Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative (DND i ) is a collaborative, patients' needs-driven, non-profit drug research and development (R&D) organization that is developing new treatments for neglected patients. (dndi.org)
  • or when prescribing for drug-dependent patients. (mja.com.au)
  • Beginning in the late 1600s until the discovery of anesthesia in the mid-1800s, a preparation of alcohol and opium, usually given in whisky or rum, was the drug most widely used to prepare patients for surgery. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Examples of Schedule IIIN non-narcotics include: benzphetamine (Didrex), phendimetrazine, ketamine, and anabolic steroids such as Depo-Testosterone. (chron.com)
  • Ecstasy usually refers to a drug that comes in pill form that has been cut with other ingredients and can range from the somewhat innocuous substances of sugar or caffeine to potentially more harmful drugs such as Ketamine or Methamphetamines. (villanova.edu)
  • One-year subscription to Davis's Canadian Drug Guide for Nurses® via WebView - Skyscape's online tool. (skyscape.com)
  • Examples of Schedule V substances include: cough preparations containing not more than 200 milligrams of codeine per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams (Robitussin AC, Phenergan with Codeine), and ezogabine. (chron.com)
  • Examples of Schedule III narcotics include: products containing not more than 90 milligrams of codeine per dosage unit (Tylenol with Codeine), and buprenorphine (Suboxone). (chron.com)
  • Considerations for formulating recommendations for a 2-dose schedule of HPV vaccine included the following key factors: balance of benefits over harms, GRADE evidence type, values and preferences, and cost-effectiveness considerations ( Table 7 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Other serious side effects include suicidal thoughts or behavior (like all anti-epileptic drugs), dizziness and gait disturbance, somnolence and fatigue, risk of falls, and increased risk of seizures if the drug is quickly withdrawn. (wikipedia.org)
  • This presentation reviewed the various factors that contribute to the immunogenicity of biologic agents, assays for anti-drug antibodies (ADAs), and consequences of antidrug antibodies. (clevelandclinicmeded.com)
  • Because of the increasing complexity of the vaccine schedule and the limited amount of space for footnotes, repetition between footnotes has been eliminated. (aappublications.org)
  • We conducted a randomized, controlled, multicenter, observer-blinded trial comparing immunogenicity and tolerability of an accelerated vaccine schedule of 0 and 21 days to a longer interval of 0 and 60 days for 4-component MenB vaccine (MenB-4C) in students 17-25 years of age. (cdc.gov)
  • 95% of participants sustained protective titers regardless of their vaccine schedule. (cdc.gov)
  • and as a result, this procedure was used to determine the relative potencies of the agonists and to provide an empirical basis for the relative proportions of drugs subsequently used in drug mixtures. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In addition, these data confirm that the behavioral effects of drug mixtures depend on the endpoint under study. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Therefore, drugs that have antagonist action at postsynaptic mGlu receptors may provide an alternative to NMDA receptor antagonists in clinically therapeutic drug mixtures for the treatment of pain. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Other Schedule II substances include: amobarbital, glutethimide, and pentobarbital. (chron.com)
  • Analysis of confiscated glutethimide seems to invariably show the drug or the results of attempted synthesis, whereas purported methaqualone is in a significant majority of cases found to be inert, or contain diphenhydramine or benzodiazepines . (wikipedia.org)
  • Glutethimide is a Schedule II drug under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances . (wikipedia.org)