Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Street Drugs: Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.Cocaine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.Child Abuse: Abuse of children in a family, institutional, or other setting. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Marijuana Abuse: The excessive use of marijuana with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.Opioid-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from abuse or mis-use of opioids.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Child Abuse, Sexual: Sexual maltreatment of the child or minor.Behavior, Addictive: The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.Tobacco Use Disorder: Tobacco used to the detriment of a person's health or social functioning. Tobacco dependence is included.Narcotics: Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.Substance Abuse Treatment Centers: Health facilities providing therapy and/or rehabilitation for substance-dependent individuals. Methadone distribution centers are included.Heroin Dependence: Strong dependence, both physiological and emotional, upon heroin.Barbiturates: A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry): The co-existence of a substance abuse disorder with a psychiatric disorder. The diagnostic principle is based on the fact that it has been found often that chemically dependent patients also have psychiatric problems of various degrees of severity.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Amphetamine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of amphetamines.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Cannabis: The plant genus in the Cannabaceae plant family, Urticales order, Hamamelidae subclass. The flowering tops are called many slang terms including pot, marijuana, hashish, bhang, and ganja. The stem is an important source of hemp fiber.Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System: Acute and chronic neurologic disorders associated with the various neurologic effects of ETHANOL. Primary sites of injury include the brain and peripheral nerves.Methadone: A synthetic opioid that is used as the hydrochloride. It is an opioid analgesic that is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. It has actions and uses similar to those of MORPHINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1082-3)Morphine Dependence: Strong dependence, both physiological and emotional, upon morphine.Antisocial Personality Disorder: A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Methamphetamine: A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.Elder Abuse: Emotional, nutritional, financial, or physical maltreatment, exploitation, or abandonment of the older person generally by family members or by institutional personnel.Drug and Narcotic Control: Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.United StatesChild of Impaired Parents: Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.Impulsive Behavior: An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Substance Abuse Detection: Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factors: A family of closely related nerve growth factors that promote NEURON survival. They bind to GDNF RECEPTORS and stimulate SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION through PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-RET.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Interview, Psychological: A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.Narcotic Antagonists: Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.Spouse Abuse: Deliberate severe and repeated injury to one domestic partner by the other.Adult Survivors of Child Abuse: Persons who were child victims of violence and abuse including physical, sexual, or emotional maltreatment.Prisons: Penal institutions, or places of confinement for war prisoners.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Amphetamine: A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Criminal Law: A branch of law that defines criminal offenses, regulates the apprehension, charging and trial of suspected persons, and fixes the penalties and modes of treatment applicable to convicted offenders.Violence: Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.Americas: The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Internal-External Control: Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.United States Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to substance abuse and mental health. It is commonly referred to by the acronym SAMHSA. On 1 October 1992, the United States Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (ADAMHA) became SAMHSA.Heroin: A narcotic analgesic that may be habit-forming. It is a controlled substance (opium derivative) listed in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Parts 329.1, 1308.11 (1987). Sale is forbidden in the United States by Federal statute. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Nicotine: Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Drug Tolerance: Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.Buprenorphine: A derivative of the opioid alkaloid THEBAINE that is a more potent and longer lasting analgesic than MORPHINE. It appears to act as a partial agonist at mu and kappa opioid receptors and as an antagonist at delta receptors. The lack of delta-agonist activity has been suggested to account for the observation that buprenorphine tolerance may not develop with chronic use.Twins: Two individuals derived from two FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic (TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC) or dizygotic (TWINS, DIZYGOTIC).Oxycodone: A semisynthetic derivative of CODEINE.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Prescription Drugs: Drugs that cannot be sold legally without a prescription.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Central Nervous System Stimulants: A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.Substance Abuse, Intravenous: Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Phencyclidine Abuse: The misuse of phencyclidine with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Psychotropic Drugs: A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Therapeutic Community: Psychotherapeutic technique which emphasizes socioenvironmental and interpersonal influences in the resocialization and rehabilitation of the patient. The setting is usually a hospital unit or ward in which professional and nonprofessional staff interact with the patients.Prescription Drug Misuse: Improper use of drugs or medications outside the intended purpose, scope, or guidelines for use. This is in contrast to MEDICATION ADHERENCE, and distinguished from DRUG ABUSE, which is a deliberate or willful action.Crime: A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.Drug Users: People who take drugs for a non-therapeutic or non-medical effect. The drugs may be legal or illegal, but their use often results in adverse medical, legal, or social consequences for the users.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Family Therapy: A form of group psychotherapy. It involves treatment of more than one member of the family simultaneously in the same session.Tranquilizing Agents: A traditional grouping of drugs said to have a soothing or calming effect on mood, thought, or behavior. Included here are the ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS (minor tranquilizers), ANTIMANIC AGENTS, and the ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS (major tranquilizers). These drugs act by different mechanisms and are used for different therapeutic purposes.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Residential Treatment: A specialized residential treatment program for behavior disorders including substance abuse. It may include therapeutically planned group living and learning situations including teaching of adaptive skills to help patient functioning in the community. (From Kahn, A. P. and Fawcett, J. Encyclopedia of Mental Health, 1993, p320.)Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Forensic Medicine: The application of medical knowledge to questions of law.Drainage, Sanitary: A system of artificial or natural drains, generally used for the disposal of liquid wastes.Opiate Substitution Treatment: Medical treatment for opioid dependence using a substitute opiate such as METHADONE or BUPRENORPHINE.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Sex Offenses: Any violation of established legal or moral codes in respect to sexual behavior.Mandatory Reporting: A legal requirement that designated types of information acquired by professionals or institutions in the course of their work be reported to appropriate authorities.National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts research focused on improving the treatment and prevention of alcoholism and alcohol-related problems to reduce the health, social, and economic consequences of this disease. NIAAA, NIMH, and NIDA were created as coequal institutes within the Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Administration in 1974. It was established within the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH in 1992.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.PrisonersLegislation, Drug: Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Alcohol-Related Disorders: Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Poison Control Centers: Facilities which provide information concerning poisons and treatment of poisoning in emergencies.Psychoses, Substance-Induced: Psychotic organic mental disorders resulting from the toxic effect of drugs and chemicals or other harmful substance.N-Methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine: An N-substituted amphetamine analog. It is a widely abused drug classified as a hallucinogen and causes marked, long-lasting changes in brain serotonergic systems. It is commonly referred to as MDMA or ecstasy.Amphetamines: Analogs or derivatives of AMPHETAMINE. Many are sympathomimetics and central nervous system stimulators causing excitation, vasopressin, bronchodilation, and to varying degrees, anorexia, analepsis, nasal decongestion, and some smooth muscle relaxation.Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors: Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Hallucinogens: Drugs capable of inducing illusions, hallucinations, delusions, paranoid ideations, and other alterations of mood and thinking. Despite the name, the feature that distinguishes these agents from other classes of drugs is their capacity to induce states of altered perception, thought, and feeling that are not experienced otherwise.Homeless Persons: Persons who have no permanent residence. The concept excludes nomadic peoples.Sodium Oxybate: The sodium salt of 4-hydroxybutyric acid. It is used for both induction and maintenance of ANESTHESIA.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Counseling: The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Behavioral Research: Research that involves the application of the behavioral and social sciences to the study of the actions or reactions of persons or animals in response to external or internal stimuli. (from American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed)Drug Overdose: Accidental or deliberate use of a medication or street drug in excess of normal dosage.Naloxone: A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Crack Cocaine: The purified, alkaloidal, extra-potent form of cocaine. It is smoked (free-based), injected intravenously, and orally ingested. Use of crack results in alterations in function of the cardiovascular system, the autonomic nervous system, the central nervous system, and the gastrointestinal system. The slang term "crack" was derived from the crackling sound made upon igniting of this form of cocaine for smoking.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Drug Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.Psychopathology: The study of significant causes and processes in the development of mental illness.Drug-Seeking Behavior: Activities performed to obtain licit or illicit substances.Criminals: Persons who have committed a crime or have been convicted of a crime.Pain, Intractable: Persistent pain that is refractory to some or all forms of treatment.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Couples Therapy: Psychotherapy used specifically for unmarried couples, of mixed or same sex. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Nucleus Accumbens: Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic: A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.Human Rights Abuses: Deliberate maltreatment of groups of humans beings including violations of generally-accepted fundamental rights as stated by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted and proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly resolution 217 A (III) of 10 December 1948.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Domestic Violence: Deliberate, often repetitive physical, verbal, and/or other types of abuse by one or more members against others of a household.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Neurobiology: The study of the structure, growth, activities, and functions of NEURONS and the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Receptors, Opioid, mu: A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Mu opioid receptors bind, in decreasing order of affinity, endorphins, dynorphins, met-enkephalin, and leu-enkephalin. They have also been shown to be molecular receptors for morphine.CaliforniaMotor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Inhalant Abuse: Illicit use of chemicals and products whose vapors can be inhaled to produce a rapid mind-altering effect. Inhalants include aerosols, gases, and volatile solvents that are often inhaled repeatedly to achieve the short-lived intoxicating effect.Midwestern United States: The geographic area of the midwestern region of the United States in general or when the specific state or states are not indicated. The states usually included in this region are Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, Oklahoma, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wisconsin.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.BaltimoreSchools, Nursing: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of nursing.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Crime Victims: Individuals subjected to and adversely affected by criminal activity. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Dronabinol: A psychoactive compound extracted from the resin of Cannabis sativa (marihuana, hashish). The isomer delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is considered the most active form, producing characteristic mood and perceptual changes associated with this compound.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Marijuana Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke from CANNABIS.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.Alcohol Deterrents: Substances interfering with the metabolism of ethyl alcohol, causing unpleasant side effects thought to discourage the drinking of alcoholic beverages. Alcohol deterrents are used in the treatment of alcoholism.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Ambulatory Care: Health care services provided to patients on an ambulatory basis, rather than by admission to a hospital or other health care facility. The services may be a part of a hospital, augmenting its inpatient services, or may be provided at a free-standing facility.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Suicide, Attempted: The unsuccessful attempt to kill oneself.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Benzodiazepines: A group of two-ring heterocyclic compounds consisting of a benzene ring fused to a diazepine ring.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Dopamine Agents: Any drugs that are used for their effects on dopamine receptors, on the life cycle of dopamine, or on the survival of dopaminergic neurons.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Naltrexone: Derivative of noroxymorphone that is the N-cyclopropylmethyl congener of NALOXONE. It is a narcotic antagonist that is effective orally, longer lasting and more potent than naloxone, and has been proposed for the treatment of heroin addiction. The FDA has approved naltrexone for the treatment of alcohol dependence.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Reinforcement Schedule: A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Triazolam: A short-acting benzodiazepine used in the treatment of insomnia. Some countries temporarily withdrew triazolam from the market because of concerns about adverse reactions, mostly psychological, associated with higher dose ranges. Its use at lower doses with appropriate care and labeling has been reaffirmed by the FDA and most other countries.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Social Media: Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Adolescent Psychology: Field of psychology concerned with the normal and abnormal behavior of adolescents. It includes mental processes as well as observable responses.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Aneurysm, Infected: Aneurysm due to growth of microorganisms in the arterial wall, or infection arising within preexisting arteriosclerotic aneurysms.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.AlabamaExploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Factor Analysis, Statistical: A set of statistical methods for analyzing the correlations among several variables in order to estimate the number of fundamental dimensions that underlie the observed data and to describe and measure those dimensions. It is used frequently in the development of scoring systems for rating scales and questionnaires.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Conditioning (Psychology): A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.
Professor C Heather Ashton (2002). "BENZODIAZEPINE ABUSE". Drugs and Dependence. Harwood Academic Publishers. Retrieved ... It is a popular drug of abuse in countries where it is available. Doses as low as 5 mg can impair driving skills. Therefore, ... Chatterjee A, Uprety L, Chapagain M, Kafle K (1996). "Drug abuse in India: a rapid assessment study". Bull Narc. 48 (1-2): 11- ... The drug causes a delay in the onset, and decrease in the duration of REM sleep. Following discontinuation of the drug, REM ...
ISBN 978-1-59385-572-7. Higgins, Stephen T.; Sigmon, Stacey C.; Heil, Sarah H. (2008). "Drug Abuse and Dependence". In Barlow, ... Given that at least 10 separate classes of drugs are covered in the DSM-5 Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders section, it ...
"Benzodiazepine Abuse". Drink, Drugs and Dependence: From Science to Clinical Practice (1st ed.). Routledge. pp. 197-211. ISBN ... Benzodiazepine abuse is mostly limited to individuals who abuse other drugs, i.e. poly-drug abusers. Most prescribed users do ... "Adverse effects of stimulant drugs in a community sample of drug users". Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 44 (2-3): 87-94. doi: ... "Drug Abuse Warning Network, 2006: National Estimates of Drug-Related Emergency Department Visits". Substance Abuse and Mental ...
"Dextromethorphan Abuse and Dependence in Adolescents". Journal of Dual Diagnosis. U.S. National Library of Medicine: Drug ... Giannini AJ (1997). Drugs of abuse (2nd ed.). Los Angeles: Practice Management Information Corp. ISBN 1570660530. [page needed ... However, it does not produce physical addiction, according to the WHO Committee on Drug Dependence. It is considered less ... "Dextromethorphan" (PDF). Drugs and Chemicals of Concern. Drug Enforcement Administration. August 2010. Archived from the ...
Busto U, Sellers EM (1986). "Pharmacokinetic determinants of drug abuse and dependence. A conceptual perspective". Clinical ... Benzodiazepine abuse is mostly limited to individuals who abuse other drugs, i.e., poly-drug abusers. On the international ... "List of Drugs Currently Controlled Under The Misuse of Drugs Legislation" (PDF). Misuse of Drugs Act UK. British Government. ... Benzodiazepine abuse ranges from occasional binges on large doses, to chronic and compulsive drug abuse of high doses. ...
Brown, TK (March 2013). "Ibogaine in the treatment of substance dependence". Current Drug Abuse Reviews. 6 (1): 3-16. doi: ... Diphenidine: a novel designer drug sold on the internet. Dizocilpine (MK-801): an experimental drug used in scientific research ... though these effects and the strength thereof vary from drug to drug. Most NMDA receptor antagonists are metabolized in the ... are used as recreational drugs. At subanesthetic doses, these drugs have mild stimulant effects and, at higher doses, begin ...
"Drug Abuse and Dependence Sypmtoms". Retrieved April 17, 2015. "Drug Abuse and Addiction". Retrieved April 17, 2015. Aldhous, ... Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a substance (drug) in which the user consumes the substance in ... "Drug Addictions: complications". Retrieved April 17, 2015. "Drug Abuse and Dependence Symptoms". Retrieved April 17, 2015. ... "Drug Abuse and Dependence Sypmtoms". 12/3/2014. Check date values in: ,date= (help) Substance-related disorder at Curlie (based ...
"Mindfulness meditation improves emotion regulation and reduces drug abuse". Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 163: S13-S18. doi: ... Studies suggest this can cause the phenomenon of increased nicotine dependence and lower smoking cessation rate in darker ... Like other physically addictive drugs, nicotine addiction causes a down-regulation of the production of dopamine and other ... U.S. Food and Drug Administration. "FDA Poisonous Plant Database". www.accessdata.fda.gov. Nelson, Lauren. "Hallucinogen in ' ...
"Efficacy of psychostimulant drugs for amphetamine abuse or dependence". Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 9 (9): CD009695. doi: ... "Commonly Abused Prescription Drugs Chart". National Institute on Drug Abuse. Retrieved 7 May 2012. "Stimulant ADHD Medications ... National Institute on Drug Abuse,. Retrieved 7 May 2012. "National Institute on Drug Abuse. 2009. Stimulant ADHD Medications - ... Chronic overuse of dextroamphetamine can lead to severe drug dependence, resulting in withdrawal symptoms when drug use stops. ...
"Efficacy of psychostimulant drugs for amphetamine abuse or dependence". Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 9 (9): CD009695. doi: ... "European drug report 2014: Trends and developments" (PDF). Lisbon, Portugal: European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug ... "National Drug Code Amphetamine Search Results". National Drug Code Directory. United States Food and Drug Administration. ... In other nations, such as Canada (schedule I drug), the Netherlands (List I drug), the United States (schedule II drug), ...
"Magnesium in drug dependences". Magnes. Res. 21 (1): 5-15. PMID 18557129. O'Connor, Patrick. "Amphetamines: Drug Use and Abuse ... "Efficacy of psychostimulant drugs for amphetamine abuse or dependence". Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 9: CD009695. doi:10.1002/ ... "Methamphetamine". Drug profiles. European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA). 16 August 2010. Retrieved 1 ... "Efficacy of psychostimulant drugs for amphetamine abuse or dependence". Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 9: CD009695. doi:10.1002/ ...
"Efficacy of psychostimulant drugs for amphetamine abuse or dependence". Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 9 (9): CD009695. doi: ... lisdexamfetamine may have a lower liability for abuse as a recreational drug. Drug tolerance develops rapidly in amphetamine ... J. Drug Alcohol Abuse. 40 (6): 428-437. doi:10.3109/00952990.2014.933840. PMID 25083822. ΔFosB is an essential transcription ... J. Drug Alcohol Abuse. 41 (1): 7-15. doi:10.3109/00952990.2014.976708. PMC 4831948 . PMID 25397661. The limited research ...
While physical dependence and withdrawal occur with some drugs of abuse (opiates, ethanol), these phenomena are not useful in ... "Commonly Abused Prescription Drugs Chart". National Institute on Drug Abuse. Retrieved 7 May 2012. "Stimulant ADHD Medications ... "National Drug Code Amphetamine Search Results". National Drug Code Directory. United States Food and Drug Administration. ... "Efficacy of psychostimulant drugs for amphetamine abuse or dependence". Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 9 (9): CD009695. doi: ...
"Sober living houses for alcohol and drug dependence: 18-month outcomes". J Subst Abuse Treat. 38 (4): 356-65. doi:10.1016/j. ... "Affordable housing for people with alcohol and other drug problems". Contemporary Drug Problems. 20 (3): 541-609.. ... and drug-free living environments for individuals attempting to maintain abstinence from alcohol and drugs".[3] They are ... "Journal of Psychoactive Drugs. 40 (2): 153-159. doi:10.1080/02791072.2008.10400625. PMC 2556949. PMID 18720664.. ...
A spectrum of drug use, drug abuse and substance dependence. One spectrum of this type, adopted by the Health Officers Council ... "abuse", but explicitly recognizes a spectrum ranging from potentially beneficial to chronic dependence (also known as addiction ... 2008 Jun 30;159(3):300-7. A Public Health Approach to Drug Control in Canada (2005) Sbrana A, Bizzarri JV, Rucci P, et al. ( ... In concert with the identified spectrum of drug use, a spectrum of policy approaches was identified which depended partly on ...
"Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 98 (1-2): 1-12. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2008.05.004. PMC 2646607. PMID 18599224.. ... It is estimated that around 10,000 former athletes bear the physical and mental scars of years of drug abuse,[54] one of them ... Int J Drug Policy. 2010;21(4):276-82. *^ a b Quirk, Frances H. "Health psychology and drugs in sport." Sport in Society, vol. ... Wilson, Wayne (2000). Doping in Elite Sport: The Politics of Drugs in the Olympic Mvnt: The Politics of Drugs in the Olympic ...
By National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). "Heroin-assisted treatment for opioid dependence: randomised controlled trial". Br ... "Reducing the harm of Drug Use and Dependence" (PDF). "Decriminalise drugs to meet users' right to good health, says UN official ... In 2013 European Union's European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction issued guidelines for the years 2013-2020; for ... Drug policy of Switzerland Drug policy of the Netherlands Overdose Death Rates. ...
Brown, T.K. (2013) Ibogaine in the Treatment of Substance Dependence. Curr Drug Abuse Rev. Jun 18;6(1):3-16. DOI: 10.2174/ ... The Potential of Psychedelics as a Preventative and Auxiliary Therapy for Drug Abuse Curr Drug Abuse Rev. Jun 18;6(1):1-2 " ... "DrugFacts: Hallucinogens - LSD, mescaline, Psilocybin, and PCP." Drugabuse.gov. National Institute on Drug Abuse, n.d. Web. 13 ... Glennon, R (1999). "Arylalkylamine Drugs of Abuse An Overview of Drug Discrimination Studies". Pharmacology Biochemistry and ...
... is a drug of potential abuse. Cases of etizolam dependence have been documented in the medical literature. However, ... In the UK, etizolam has been classified as a Class C drug by the May 2017 amendment to The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 along with ... WHO Expert Committee on Drug Dependence Inchem.org - Etizolam. ... Gupta S, Garg B (2014). "A case of etizolam dependence". Indian ... wide interindividual variation in the drug interaction". Ther Drug Monit. 26 (6): 638-42. doi:10.1097/00007691-200412000-00009 ...
Brown, Thomas (March 2013). "Ibogaine in the treatment of substance dependence". Current Drug Abuse Reviews 6 (1): 3-16. doi: ... Several drugs have been used to treat cocaine withdrawal and cravings: *The anti-convulsant drug carbamazepine (Tegretol);[29] ... The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 16 (3-4): 275=286. doi:10.3109/00952999009001589. ... Non-drug treatments like acupuncture[12][13] and hypnosis[14][15] have been studied. However, these studies have not clearly ...
Arbo, M.D.; Bastos, M.L.; Carmo, H.F. (2012). "Piperazine compounds as drugs of abuse". Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 122 (3): ... "New drug BZP to be placed under control across the EU" (PDF). European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. 3 March ... "New drug under formal scrutiny: Council asks EMCDDA to assess risks of BZP" (PDF). European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and ... Benzylpiperazine is, however, to be the subject of a European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) risk ...
"Mindfulness meditation improves emotion regulation and reduces drug abuse". Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 163: S13-S18. doi: ... Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 56 (3): 205-212. doi:10.1016/S0376-8716(99)00034-4. PMID 10529022. Swan, G. C.; Carmelli, D.; ... The smoking of tobacco and various hallucinogenic drugs was used to achieve trances and to come into contact with the spirit ... "A bill to protect the public health by providing the Food and Drug Administration with certain authority to regulate tobacco ...
New Abuse of an Old Drug -- Clinical Evaluation of Opioid Activity". Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 24 (2): 95-101. doi:10.1016/ ... Janiri, L.; Mannelli, P.; Pirrongelli, C.; lo Monaco, M.; Tempesta, E. (1989). "Lephetamine Abuse and Dependence: Clinical ... Further, Health Canada amended the Food and Drug Regulations in May, 2016 to classify Lefetamine as a controlled drug. Some ... that it produced withdrawal symptoms and had dependence and abuse potential to a certain degree. In a small study in 1994, it ...
"Psychosocial treatments for cocaine dependence": National Institute on Drug Abuse Collaborative Cocaine Treatment Study. Arch ... and mentions that drugs can "create a dependence just as devastating as dependence on alcohol".[39] However, according to AA ... "The effects of sponsorship in 12-step treatment of injection drug users". Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 65 (3): 291-301. doi: ... Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 38, pp. 51-56.Link. *^ "Narcotics Anonymous participation and changes in substance use and social ...
Testing for Abuse Liability of Drugs in Humans (PDF). National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Monograph Series. 92. Rockville ... New pharmaceutical substances were assayed (in the prisoner population) for their abuse and addiction (substance dependence) ... Drug Addiction and the US Public Health Service. National Institute of Drug Abuse. The entire book is available online at http ... The hospital was a US Government facility for treating drug abuse; some patients were sentenced drug offenders, while others ...
... , also called Val66Met or G196A, is a gene variation, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the BDNF gene that codes for the so-called brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Well over a hundred research studies have examined the polymorphism. A number of studies have examined the role of this polymorphism in risk of neuropsychiatric disorders , including schizophrenia and depression. It is generally thought that some variants of the polymorphism lead to memory impairment and susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders, and a 2007 meta-analysis of case-control studies found a relationship between the SNP and substance-related disorders, eating disorders, and schizophrenia. Another 2007 meta-analysis could, however, find no association between the SNP and schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Meta-analyses of Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease also indicate that the SNP has little or no association with these diseases. Also inconsistencies in association studies with depression have ...
A residential treatment center (RTC), sometimes called a rehab, is a live-in health care facility providing therapy for substance abuse, mental illness, or other behavioral problems. Residential treatment may be considered the "last-ditch" approach to treating abnormal psychology or psychopathology. In the 1600s, Great Britain established the Poor Law that allowed poor children to become trained in apprenticeships by removing them from their families and forcing them to live in group homes. In the 1800s, the United States copied this system, but often mentally ill children were placed in jail with adults because society did not know what to do with them. There were no RTCs in place to provide the 24-hour care they needed and they were placed in jail when they could not live in the home. In the 1900s, Anna Freud and her peers were part of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society and they worked on how to care for children. They worked to create residential treatment centers for children and ...
The law was completely rewritten in the Child Abuse Prevention, Adoption and Family Services Act of 1988 (Public Law 100-294). It was further amended by the Child Abuse Prevention Challenge Grants Reauthorization Act of 1989 (P.L. 101-126 and the Drug Free School Amendments of 1989 (Public Law 101-226). The Community-Based Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention Grants was a program that was originally authorized by Sections 402 to 409 of the Continuing Appropriations Act for Fiscal Year 1985 (Public Law 98-473). The Child Abuse Prevention Challenge Grants Reauthorization Act of 1989 (Public Law 101-126) transferred the program to the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, as amended. A new Title III, Certain Preventive Services Regarding Children of Homeless Families or Families at Risk of Homelessness, was added to the Child Abuse and Neglect and Treatment Act by the Stewart ...
... , previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.[3][4][6] The elevated mood is significant and is known as mania or hypomania, depending on its severity, or whether symptoms of psychosis are present.[3] During mania, an individual behaves or feels abnormally energetic, happy, or irritable.[3] Individuals often make poorly thought out decisions with little regard to the consequences.[4] The need for sleep is usually reduced during manic phases.[4] During periods of depression, there may be crying, a negative outlook on life, and poor eye contact with others.[3] The risk of suicide among those with the illness is high at greater than 6 percent over 20 years, while self-harm occurs in 30-40 percent.[3] Other mental health issues such as anxiety disorders and substance use disorder are commonly associated with bipolar disorder.[3] The causes are not clearly understood, but both environmental and ...
Drug misuse is a term used commonly when prescription medication with sedative, anxiolytic, analgesic, or stimulant properties are used for mood alteration or intoxication ignoring the fact that overdose of such medicines can sometimes have serious adverse effects. It sometimes involves drug diversion from the individual for whom it was prescribed. Prescription misuse has been defined differently and rather inconsistently based on status of drug prescription, the uses without a prescription, intentional use to achieve intoxicating effects, route of administration, co-ingestion with alcohol, and the presence or absence of dependence symptoms.[13][14] Chronic use of certain substances leads to a change in the central nervous system known as a 'tolerance' to the medicine such that more of the substance is needed in order to produce desired effects. With some substances, stopping or reducing use ...
Sandy Denny had suffered from substance abuse problems for some time, and by 1977 her addictions were obvious to others.[15] Linda Thompson told The Guardian that shortly after the birth of their daughter Georgia in July 1977, Denny "was crashing the car and leaving the baby in the pub and all sorts of stuff."[16] Thompson also noted that the child was born prematurely, yet Denny seemed to have little concern for her new baby.[16] In late March 1978, while on holiday with her parents and baby Georgia in Cornwall, Denny was injured when she fell down a staircase and hit her head on concrete.[17] Following the incident, Denny suffered from intense headaches; a doctor prescribed her the painkiller Distalgesic,[16] a drug known to have fatal side effects when mixed with alcohol.[16] On 13 April, concerned with his wife's erratic behaviour and fearing for his daughter's safety, Trevor Lucas left the UK and returned to his native Australia with their ...
A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that crosses the blood-brain barrier. Its action affects the central nervous system. It can affect the brain and change perception, mood, consciousness, cognition and behaviour.[1] Hypnotics are often prescribed to help people sleep. Sometimes they are also used in rituals, or as illegal drugs. These drugs enable their users to change their consciousness. This can also help students when they are preparing their examinations. Certain therapies also use such substances. Psychoactive substances change the consciousness and mood of their user. The people using them may have pleasant feelings, such as euphoria or they may be more alert. For this reason, many psychoactive substances are abused: They are used outside the aims of the treatment. This may lead to the user developing a psychological and physical ...
The use of psychoactive substances is one of the most perplexing human behaviors. Psychoactive drugs can relieve the symptoms of mental disorders (e.g. lithium) or cause harm to individuals and societies (e.g. heroin). Psychoactive drugs can induce pleasure, increase energy (e.g. chocolate, coffee), relieve pain (Aspirin), or can impose a large social burden in the form of chronic illness (e.g. tobacco) and be a cause of mortality. Why do humans seek out and at times even develop addictions to drugs that harm them? A number of attempts have been made to understand drug use and addiction from an evolutionary perspective. Evolutionary models of drug use are unique in that they emphasize the effect drugs had on fitness over human evolution. The dominant paradigm of drug ...
The U.S. state of Oregon has various policies restricting the production, sale, and use of different substances. In 2006, Oregon's per capita drug use exceeded the national average. The most used substances were marijuana, methamphetamine and illicit painkillers and stimulants. Oregonians consume an average amount of beer and distilled spirits, and an above average amount of wine. As of 2007, the consumption of spirits is on the rise, while beer consumption is holding steady. Also, 11% of beer sold in Oregon was brewed in-state, the highest figure in the United States. Oregon was the first place in the United States to prohibit alcohol, prior to becoming a U.S. state in the mid-19th century. That law was quickly repealed, but Oregon again preceded the rest of the country in outlawing alcohol, passing a law several years before federal prohibition was enacted with the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. Following the repeal of prohibition in 1933, Oregon ...
... refers to the use of two or more psychoactive drugs in combination to achieve a particular effect. In many cases one drug is used as a base or primary drug, with additional drugs to leaven or compensate for the side effects of the primary drug and make the experience more enjoyable with drug synergy effects, or to supplement for primary drug when supply is low. Poly drug use often carries with it more risk than use of a single drug, due to an increase in side effects, and drug synergy. The potentiating effect of one drug on another is sometimes considerable and here the licit drugs and medicines - such ...
This revised version of the CRAFFT screening tool incorporates changes that enhance the sensitivity of the system in terms of identifying adolescents with substance use, and presents new recommended clinician talking points, informed by the latest science and clinician feedback, to guide a brief discussion about substance use with adolescents. The CRAFFT 2.0 provides an updated and revised version of this well-validated and widely utilized adolescent substance use screening protocol. Although the previous version of the CRAFFT will still be available, CeASAR recommends that clinicians transition to using version 2.0. The CRAFFT 2.0 screening tool begins with past-12-month frequency items, rather than the previous "yes/no" question for any use over the past year. A recent study examining these opening yes/no questions found that they had relatively low sensitivity in identifying youth with any past-12-month alcohol or marijuana use (62% and 72%, respectively).[1] Research also has suggested that ...
It has long been established that genetic factors along with environmental (e.g., psychosocial) factors are significant contributors to addiction vulnerability.[3][30] Epidemiological studies estimate that genetic factors account for 40-60% of the risk factors for alcoholism.[citation needed] Similar rates of heritability for other types of drug addiction have been indicated by other studies.[31] Knestler hypothesized in 1964 that a gene or group of genes might contribute to predisposition to addiction in several ways. For example, altered levels of a normal protein due to environmental factors could then change the structure or functioning of specific brain neurons during development. These altered brain neurons could change the susceptibility of an individual to an initial drug use experience. In support of this hypothesis, animal studies have shown that environmental factors such as stress can affect an animal's genotype.[31] Overall, the ...
It has long been established that genetic factors along with environmental (e.g., psychosocial) factors are significant contributors to addiction vulnerability.[3][30] Epidemiological studies estimate that genetic factors account for 40-60% of the risk factors for alcoholism.[citation needed] Similar rates of heritability for other types of drug addiction have been indicated by other studies.[31] Knestler hypothesized in 1964 that a gene or group of genes might contribute to predisposition to addiction in several ways. For example, altered levels of a normal protein due to environmental factors could then change the structure or functioning of specific brain neurons during development. These altered brain neurons could change the susceptibility of an individual to an initial drug use experience. In support of this hypothesis, animal studies have shown that environmental factors such as stress can affect an animal's genotype.[31] Overall, the ...
Crabbe JC, Belknap JK, Buck KJ (1994a): Genetic animal models of alcohol and drug abuse. Science 264:1715-1723. Crabbe JC, ... Type 1 alcoholics, on the other hand, are high in harm avoidance and reward dependence associated with anxiety, shyness, ... The second level of review will be provided by the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. REVIEW CRITERIA ... This Request for Applications (RFA) is related to the priority areas of alcohol abuse reduction and alcoholism treatment. ...
Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence. The Guideline synthesizes more than 8,700 peer-reviewed articles and contains updated ... recommendations for clinicians, health systems, smokers and policymakers on successfully treating tobacco dependence. The full ... Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence Guidelines. National Institute on Drug Abuse website. https://www.drugabuse.gov/drugs-abuse ... "Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence Guidelines." National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2 Nov. 2017, https://www.drugabuse.gov/drugs ...
This volume brings together basic and clinical investigators for the purpose of deepening our knowledge about drugs of abuse ... Current Status of Drug Dependence/Abuse Studies. Edited by Edited by Syed F. Ali (Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center ... These drugs of abuse are known to be neurotoxic in several species, including rodents, dogs, nonhuman primates, and humans. ... Methamphetamine, MDMA, PMA, and various solvents are the most widely abused drugs in the world, and their use has dramatically ...
"The Neurobiology of Drug Addiction." National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2 Jan. 2007, https://www.drugabuse.gov/neurobiology-drug ... The Neurobiology of Drug Addiction. National Institute on Drug Abuse website. https://www.drugabuse.gov/neurobiology-drug- ... Explores the consequences of drug abuse on the brain and body and introduces the topics of prevention, and treatment. ... 9: Brain regions mediating the development of morphine dependence. The development of dependence to morphine also involves ...
Sex/Gender Differences in Drug and Alcohol Abuse/Dependence (R03) PA-14-037. NIDA ... Research on all drugs of abuse, including the nonmedical use of prescription drugs, over-the-counter drugs with abuse potential ... of drug abuse and dependence. *Sex/gender difference in modulation of drug abuse vulnerability by interactions between the HPA ... Sex/gender differences in opportunity to use drugs, access to drugs, patterns of drugs of use and abuse, and factors affecting ...
Women and Sex/Gender Differences in Drug and Alcohol Abuse/Dependence (R03) PA-07-330. NIDA ... the predictors of drug abuse and dependence are often gender-based, as are factors associated with drug abuse and dependence ... Research on all drugs of abuse, including the nonmedical use of prescription drugs, over-the-counter drugs with abuse potential ... drug use and dependence.. *Studies of the genetic basis of sex/gender differences in drug abuse and dependence using a variety ...
17.81 Contracts for residential treatment services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse disabilities. ... 38 CFR § 17.81 - Contracts for residential treatment services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse ... Contracts for residential treatment services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse disabilities. ... residents to adjust to and maintain freedom from dependence on or involvement with alcohol or drug abuse or dependence during ...
See more ideas about Alcoholism recovery, Addiction alcohol and Alcohol and drug abuse. ... Find and save ideas about Alcohol dependence on Pinterest. , ...
US National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) to Conduct Clinical Study on Biotie s Nepicastat in Cocaine Dependence. ... The study will be conducted at approximately 12 US clinics specializing in the treatment of drug dependence. ... drug dependence and inflammatory liver disease.. Biotie s highly experienced development teams in Europe and the US are focused ... We are pleased to be working with NIDA and some of the world s most renowned investigators of treatments for cocaine dependence ...
Observational Study to Evaluate Risks of Side Effects, Drug Abuse and Dependence in Patients Who Received Xyrem ® on ... Evaluation of risk for development adverse events, withdrawal syndrome and potential for dependence, abuse, overdose and misuse ... Information on the Adverse Events and potential misuse or abuse of Xyrem ® will be collected. ...
Kenneth Kendler and his colleagues assessed the association between three levels of childhood sex abuse (nongenital, genital, ... Women who are sexually abused during childhood are at increased risk for drug abuse as adults, according to NIDA-supported ... alcohol dependence, and drug dependence. Women who experienced any type of sexual abuse in childhood were roughly three times ... childhood sexual abuse was associated with increased likelihood of drug dependence, alcohol dependence, and psychiatric ...
... and addiction can help you better understand drug abuse and the development of addiction. ... Drug dependence is a medically treatable condition. The goal is to separate the patient from the drug slowly, instead of ... Just as some drugs that cause dependence are not addictive, there are also highly addictive drugs that do not produce physical ... Although dependence is often a part of addiction, non-addictive drugs can also produce dependence in patients. A prime example ...
... aged 18 to 64 met the criteria for past year illicit drug dependence or abuse (Figure 2.3 and Table 2.4). Approximately 7.5 ... to 25-year-old workers had past year illicit drug dependence or abuse. This was ... Prevalence of Illicit Drug Dependence or Abuse Among Full-Time Workers in the US) Approximately 3 million full-time workers ( ... Prevalence of Illicit Drug Dependence or Abuse Among Full-Time Workers in the US. Share This ...
Efficacy of psychostimulant drugs for amphetamine abuse or dependence. Overview of attention for article published in Cochrane ... Amphetamine dependence is a public health problem with medical, psychiatric, cognitive, legal and socioeconomic consequences. ...
Staff work to positively influence the social norms which perpetuate the use and abuse of alcohol and other drugs and problem ... Substance Abuse Center Our Mission. . .NCADD-RA provides research-based substance abuse and problem gambling prevention ... DePauls National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence-Rochester Area - ... DePauls National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence-Rochester Area. 1931 Buffalo Road Rochester New York 14624. Monroe ...
Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence. The Guideline synthesizes more than 8,700 peer-reviewed articles and contains updated ... MEDLINEplus Health Information on Substance Abuse - National Library of Medicine, NIH www.abovetheinfluence.com - Office of ... recommendations for clinicians, health systems, smokers and policymakers on successfully treating tobacco dependence. The full ... Home » Drugs of Abuse » Tobacco Addiction » Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence Guidelines ...
This is the first quantitative analysis of data from urine drug tests for compliance to treatment medications and abstinence ... from Psychoactive Drug Abuse in Chemical Dependence Programs: Data from the Comprehensive Analysis of Reported Drugs ... quantitative analysis of data from urine drug tests for compliance to treatment medications and abstinence from drug abuse ... compliance to treatment medications and abstinence from drugs of abuse supported treatment effectiveness for many. Compared to ...
Nicotine users have by far the highest probably of eventual transition to dependence, but cocaine dependence rises most quickly ... This figure contains data representing probability of transition to dependence for nicotine, alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine ... The probability of first-time alcohol, cocaine, and cannabis users transitioning to dependence was much less. For cocaine and ... Probability and predictors of transition from first use to dependence on nicotine, alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine: Results of ...
... the articles published in this journal provides a guide to the assessment and treatment of abuse and dependence of alcohol ...
Drug Abuse And Dependence. Abuse. Abuse potential was not evaluated in human studies. Rats were able to distinguish tizanidine ... Dependence. Tizanidine is closely related to clonidine, which is often abused in combination with narcotics and is known to ... Some treatment MS drugs may be safe to use during pregnancy; however, some drugs should not be taken, for example, baclofen ( ... Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration. You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs ...
... alcohol dependence syndrome, alcoholic disease, alcohol substance abuse, ut ... Alcohol dependence (synonyms: chronic alcoholism, chronic alcohol intoxication, ... Abuse-Drug.com. , Alcohol dependence. , Alcohol dependence (alcoholism). Alcohol dependence (alcoholism). Posted on February 24 ... alcohol dependence syndrome, alcoholic disease, alcohol substance abuse, utilism).. Alcohol dependence refers to diseases, ...
31% of college students meet the criteria for alcohol abuse.. What is Alcoholism or Drug Dependence?. Alcoholism or drug ... What is Alcohol or Other Drug Abuse?. Abuse of alcohol or other drugs is characterized by recurrent negative consequences such ... dependence is characterized by preoccupation with or lack of control over drug or alcohol use, reoccurring negative ... But if alcohol or other drug use interferes with your academic success, interpersonal relationships, general state of health, ...
... drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related medications. ... Drug Abuse And Dependence. Controlled Substance. Effexor XR is not a controlled substance. ... home drugs a-z list side effects drug center effexor xr (venlafaxine hydrochloride extended-release) drug ... and/or abused once marketed. Consequently, physicians should carefully evaluate patients for history of drug abuse and follow ...
... drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related medications. ... Drug Abuse And Dependence. Controlled Substance Class. PAXIL is not a controlled substance. ... Drug-Drug Interactions. In vitro drug interaction studies reveal that paroxetine inhibits CYP2D6. Clinical drug interaction ... Drugs Metabolized by CYP2D6: Many drugs, including most drugs effective in the treatment of major depressive disorder ( ...
... drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related medications. ... Drug Abuse And Dependence. There were no reported cases of abuse or evidence of drug dependence with the use of BROVANA ... DRUG INTERACTIONS. Adrenergic Drugs. If additional adrenergic drugs are to be administered by any route, they should be used ... home drugs a-z list side effects drug center brovana (arformoterol tartrate inhalation solution) drug ...
  • Biotie aims to develop treatment solutions that will improve the lives of patients with conditions such as Parkinson s and Alzheimer s diseases, drug dependence and inflammatory liver disease. (webwire.com)
  • Although dependence is often a part of addiction, non-addictive drugs can also produce dependence in patients. (drugabuse.com)
  • Comprehensive Analysis of Reported Drugs (CARD) data was used in this post-hoc retrospective observational study from 10,570 patients, filtered to include a total of 2,919 patients prescribed at least one treatment medication during 2010 and 2011. (dominiondiagnostics.com)
  • Withdrawal syndrome (abstinentia - abstinence) syndrome physical and/or mental disorders developing in patients with alcohol dependence after discontinuation of alcohol or dose reduction. (abuse-drug.com)
  • Patients should be carefully instructed on the correct use of this drug product (please refer to the accompanying Medication Guide ). (rxlist.com)
  • Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at an increased risk of death. (rxlist.com)
  • Do not prescribe VisRx for use in patients that are now taking prescription MAOIs (certain drugs for depression, psychiatric or emotional conditions, or Parkinson's disease), or for 14 days after stopping MAOI drug therapy. (drugs.com)
  • Pseudoephedrine HCl is known to be substantially excreted by the kidneys and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. (drugs.com)
  • Patients may increase the amount of drug and frequency of use, producing toxicity and perpetuating the rebound congestion. (drugs.com)
  • Patients with hepatic insufficiency do not clear the drug as rapidly as normal subjects. (healthyplace.com)
  • Patients who develop angioedema after treatment with Zolpidem tartrate tablets should not be rechallenged with the drug. (healthyplace.com)
  • Recruitment period: May 2008 - December 2009 Patients were eligible for observation if the transfer from an ongoing opioid dependence therapy to Suboxone was indicated and planned prior to enrollment to P05444 by the treating physician. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Hyperpyretic crisis seizures, and deaths have occurred in patients receiving cyclobenzaprine (or structurally similar tricyclic antidepressants) concomitantly with MAO inhibitor drugs. (prescriptiondrugs.com)
  • Gabapentin oral solution is contraindicated in patients who have demonstrated hypersensitivity to the drug or its ingredients. (prescriptiondrugs.com)
  • The recommended controlled substance classification for REYVOW is currently under review by the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and is expected within 90 days of today's FDA approval, after which REYVOW will be available to patients in retail pharmacies. (yahoo.com)
  • Though Percocet and other oxycodone-containing medications were originally used only for acute (short-term) pain, changes in government recommendations and aggressive marketing by pharmaceutical companies have led to a dramatic increase in the use of this drug in patients with chronic (long-term) pain since the 1990s. (drugabuse.com)
  • For patients, these drawbacks can be reduced by medical monitoring and care, but for abusers this dependence can lock a person into a destructive cycle of addiction. (drugabuse.com)
  • Patients with partial data (n = 4) also showed reductions in ASI-Lite drug use scores and family/social status problems. (nih.gov)
  • A report by Nygaard et al on women with chronic pelvic pain found that those patients in the study who had been subject to abuse had a greater tendency toward analgesic use, obstructed defecation syndrome, anxiety, and subjective health complaints. (medscape.com)
  • WOODCLIFF LAKE, N.J. , Oct. 22, 2012 /PRNewswire/ -- Eisai Inc. announced today that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved FYCOMPA (perampanel) as an adjunctive treatment for partial-onset seizures with or without secondarily generalized seizures in patients with epilepsy age 12 and older. (biospace.com)
  • Patients should tell their healthcare provider if they have abused prescription medicines, street drugs, or alcohol in the past. (biospace.com)
  • Ultimately, it is designed to serve those patients suffering from abuse of and addiction to drugs and alcohol. (springer.com)
  • Patients taking LOVAZA and an anticoagulant or other drug affecting coagulation (e.g., anti-platelet agents) should be monitored periodically. (gsksource.com)
  • Drug addiction is a cluster of behavioral, cognitive, and physiological phenomena that develop after repeated substance use and includes: a strong desire to take the drug, difficulties in controlling its use, persisting in its use despite harmful consequences, a higher priority given to drug use than to other activities and obligations, increased tolerance, and sometimes a physical withdrawal. (com.dz)
  • The Family Health History and Health Appraisal questionnaires were used to collect information on child abuse and neglect, household challenges, and other socio-behavioral factors in the original CDC-Kaiser ACE Study. (cdc.gov)
  • In stage one, there are no outward behavioral changes caused by the use of drugs. (brightkite.com)
  • Drug interactions of Zanaflex include ciprofloxacin , amiodarone , cimetidine , oral contraceptives , acyclovir , and fluvoxamine , which can slow the breakdown of Zanaflex and lead to increased sedation, drowsiness, and slowed reflexes. (medicinenet.com)
  • The recommended dose of NUPLAZID when coadministered with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g., ketoconazole) is 10 mg, taken orally as one tablet once daily [see DRUG INTERACTIONS ]. (rxlist.com)
  • an increase in NUPLAZID dosage may be needed [see DRUG INTERACTIONS ]. (rxlist.com)
  • I find it addictive, expensive, has bizarre drug interactions like this one, and in the final analysis I suspect it's working at opiate receptors like the regular opiates, so I tend to prefer a good old narcotic like Percocet. (google.com)
  • Special chapters on topics not found in most other books, such as pharmacology of drug-drug interactions, abstinence, and prevention, are included. (springer.com)
  • Another theory is that people learn how to use drugs by copying the behavior of others, especially their parents. (epnet.com)
  • Abused children may not want to go home after school, or may have self-destructive behavior, such as cutting themselves or aggressive attitude towards other children. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • Critical review of liability for benzodiazepine abuse among alcoholics. (springer.com)
  • Approximately 3 million full-time workers (2.6 percent) aged 18 to 64 met the criteria for past year illicit drug dependence or abuse (Figure 2.3 and Table 2.4). (drugwarfacts.org)
  • Approximately 7.5 percent of 18- to 25-year-old workers had past year illicit drug dependence or abuse. (drugwarfacts.org)
  • Males were nearly twice as likely as females to meet the criteria for past year illicit drug dependence or abuse (3.3 vs. 1.8 percent) (Figure 2.4 and Table 2.4). (drugwarfacts.org)
  • SALT LAKE CITY)--In addition to incurring serious dental problems, memory loss and other physical and mental issues, methamphetamine users are three times more at risk for getting Parkinson's disease than non-illicit drug users, new research from the University of Utah and Intermountain Healthcare shows. (eurekalert.org)
  • illicit drug use is minimal in the first year of medical school. (ncjrs.gov)
  • Nitrazepam at doses of 5 mg or higher impairs driving skills and like other hypnotic drugs, it is associated with an increased risk of traffic accidents. (wikipedia.org)
  • as part of that assessment, therapeutic doses of REYVOW were associated with less drug liking when compared to alprazolam, but more than placebo. (yahoo.com)
  • Though acetaminophen does not contribute to the abuse potential, it does cause significant liver toxicity when taken at excess doses. (drugabuse.com)
  • Stimulant abuse -- for instance, by taking them in higher doses or by crushing pills and snorting them -- can lead to addiction. (webmd.com)
  • one of its metabolites, normeperidine, is extremely toxic when the drug is taken for prolonged periods or at high doses. (google.com)