Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.
Calamities producing great damage, loss of life, and distress. They include results of natural phenomena and man-made phenomena. Normal conditions of existence are disrupted and the level of impact exceeds the capacity of the hazard-affected community.
Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
The ability of organisms to sense and adapt to high concentrations of salt in their growth environment.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
Removal of moisture from a substance (chemical, food, tissue, etc.).
Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
A plant species of the genus PINUS which is the source of pinosylvin. It is sometimes called Scotch pine or Scots pine, which is also a common name for other species of this genus.
The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE known for the edible beans.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE widely cultivated in the tropics for the sweet cane that is processed into sugar.
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the millets used in EDIBLE GRAIN. It contains vitexin. The common name of buffelgrass is also used for CENCHRUS.
The contribution to barometric PRESSURE of gaseous substance in equilibrium with its solid or liquid phase.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.
A plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida.
A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE that is a source of TANNINS. Do not confuse with Holly (ILEX).
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Balm of Gilead is a common name used for P. candicans, or P. gileadensis, or P. jackii, and sometimes also used for ABIES BALSAMEA or for COMMIPHORA.
A plant genus in the family FABACEAE which is the source of edible beans and the lectin PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
A plant genus of the family CISTACEAE. The common name of rock rose is also sometimes used with the closely related Helianthemum genus (CISTACEAE).
A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.
The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
Sudden onset water phenomena with different speed of occurrence. These include flash floods, seasonal river floods, and coastal floods, associated with CYCLONIC STORMS; TIDALWAVES; and storm surges.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE.

DNA sequence variation and selection of tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms at candidate genes for drought-stress response in Pinus taeda L. (1/754)

Genetic association studies are rapidly becoming the experimental approach of choice to dissect complex traits, including tolerance to drought stress, which is the most common cause of mortality and yield losses in forest trees. Optimization of association mapping requires knowledge of the patterns of nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium and the selection of suitable polymorphisms for genotyping. Moreover, standard neutrality tests applied to DNA sequence variation data can be used to select candidate genes or amino acid sites that are putatively under selection for association mapping. In this article, we study the pattern of polymorphism of 18 candidate genes for drought-stress response in Pinus taeda L., an important tree crop. Data analyses based on a set of 21 putatively neutral nuclear microsatellites did not show population genetic structure or genomewide departures from neutrality. Candidate genes had moderate average nucleotide diversity at silent sites (pi(sil) = 0.00853), varying 100-fold among single genes. The level of within-gene LD was low, with an average pairwise r2 of 0.30, decaying rapidly from approximately 0.50 to approximately 0.20 at 800 bp. No apparent LD among genes was found. A selective sweep may have occurred at the early-response-to-drought-3 (erd3) gene, although population expansion can also explain our results and evidence for selection was not conclusive. One other gene, ccoaomt-1, a methylating enzyme involved in lignification, showed dimorphism (i.e., two highly divergent haplotype lineages at equal frequency), which is commonly associated with the long-term action of balancing selection. Finally, a set of haplotype-tagging SNPs (htSNPs) was selected. Using htSNPs, a reduction of genotyping effort of approximately 30-40%, while sampling most common allelic variants, can be gained in our ongoing association studies for drought tolerance in pine.  (+info)

Mortality, recruitment and change of desert tree populations in a hyper-arid environment. (2/754)

BACKGROUND: Long-term vegetation changes in hyper-arid areas have long been neglected. Mortality, recruitment and change in populations of the ecologically and culturally important and drought persistent Acacia tortilis and Balanites aegyptiaca are therefore estimated in the Eastern Desert of Egypt, and are related to the primary agents of change, water conditions and human intervention. METHODOLOGY: A change analysis using high-resolution Corona images (1965) in combination with field data (2003) is the basis for recruitment, mortality and change estimates. For assessing the influence of water conditions on patterns in recruitment and survival, different types of generalized linear models are tested. CONCLUSIONS: The overall trend in population size in that part of the Eastern Desert studied here is negative. At some sites this negative trend is alarming, because the reduction in mature trees is substantial (>50%) at the same time as recruitment is nearly absent. At a few sites there is a positive trend and better recruitment. Frequent observations of sprouting in saplings indicate that this is an important mechanism to increase their persistence. It is the establishment itself that seems to be the main challenge in the recruitment process. There are indications that hydrological variables and surface water in particular can explain some of the observed pattern in mortality, but our results indicate that direct human intervention, i.e., charcoal production, is the main cause of tree mortality in the Eastern Desert.  (+info)

Pepper pectin methylesterase inhibitor protein CaPMEI1 is required for antifungal activity, basal disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. (3/754)

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Arabidopsis DREB2A-interacting proteins function as RING E3 ligases and negatively regulate plant drought stress-responsive gene expression. (4/754)

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The crucial role of plant mitochondria in orchestrating drought tolerance. (5/754)

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C4 photosynthesis and water stress. (6/754)

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Dolichol biosynthesis and its effects on the unfolded protein response and abiotic stress resistance in Arabidopsis. (7/754)

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Photosynthesis under drought and salt stress: regulation mechanisms from whole plant to cell. (8/754)

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"Drought" is not a medical term. It is a term used in meteorology and environmental science to refer to a prolonged period of abnormally low rainfall, leading to water shortage and scarcity in the affected areas. Droughts can have various impacts on human health, including dehydration, heat-related illnesses, reduced air quality, increased transmission of waterborne diseases, and mental health issues related to stress and displacement. However, drought itself is not a medical condition.

A disaster is a serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society involving widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses and impacts, which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources. Disasters can be natural, such as earthquakes, hurricanes, tsunamis, and wildfires, or they can be caused by human activities, such as technological accidents, intentional acts of violence, and complex emergencies.

The medical definition of a disaster focuses on the health impacts and consequences of the event, which can include injury, illness, disability, and death, as well as psychological distress and social disruption. The response to a disaster typically involves a coordinated effort by multiple agencies and organizations, including healthcare providers, emergency responders, public health officials, and government authorities, to address the immediate needs of affected individuals and communities and to restore basic services and infrastructure.

Disasters can have long-term effects on the health and well-being of individuals and populations, including increased vulnerability to future disasters, chronic illness and disability, and mental health problems such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety. Preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery efforts are critical components of disaster management, with the goal of reducing the risks and impacts of disasters and improving the resilience of communities and societies to withstand and recover from them.

Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone that plays a crucial role in the regulation of various physiological processes, including seed dormancy, bud dormancy, leaf senescence, and response to abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, and cold temperatures. It is a sesquiterpene compound that is synthesized in plants primarily in response to environmental stimuli that trigger the onset of stress responses.

ABA functions by regulating gene expression, cell growth and development, and stomatal closure, which helps prevent water loss from plants under drought conditions. It also plays a role in the regulation of plant metabolism and the activation of defense mechanisms against pathogens and other environmental stressors. Overall, abscisic acid is an essential hormone that enables plants to adapt to changing environmental conditions and optimize their growth and development.

Medical definitions of water generally describe it as a colorless, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for all forms of life. It is a universal solvent, making it an excellent medium for transporting nutrients and waste products within the body. Water constitutes about 50-70% of an individual's body weight, depending on factors such as age, sex, and muscle mass.

In medical terms, water has several important functions in the human body:

1. Regulation of body temperature through perspiration and respiration.
2. Acting as a lubricant for joints and tissues.
3. Facilitating digestion by helping to break down food particles.
4. Transporting nutrients, oxygen, and waste products throughout the body.
5. Helping to maintain healthy skin and mucous membranes.
6. Assisting in the regulation of various bodily functions, such as blood pressure and heart rate.

Dehydration can occur when an individual does not consume enough water or loses too much fluid due to illness, exercise, or other factors. This can lead to a variety of symptoms, including dry mouth, fatigue, dizziness, and confusion. Severe dehydration can be life-threatening if left untreated.

Stomata are microscopic pores found in the epidermis of plant leaves, stems, and other organs. They are essential for gas exchange between the plant and the atmosphere, allowing the uptake of carbon dioxide for photosynthesis and the release of oxygen. Plant stomata consist of two guard cells that surround and regulate the size of the pore. The opening and closing of the stomatal pore are influenced by environmental factors such as light, humidity, and temperature, as well as internal signals within the plant.

Physiological stress is a response of the body to a demand or threat that disrupts homeostasis and activates the autonomic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. This results in the release of stress hormones such as adrenaline, cortisol, and noradrenaline, which prepare the body for a "fight or flight" response. Increased heart rate, rapid breathing, heightened sensory perception, and increased alertness are some of the physiological changes that occur during this response. Chronic stress can have negative effects on various bodily functions, including the immune, cardiovascular, and nervous systems.

Dehydration is a condition that occurs when your body loses more fluids than it takes in. It's normal to lose water throughout the day through activities like breathing, sweating, and urinating; however, if you don't replenish this lost fluid, your body can become dehydrated.

Mild to moderate dehydration can cause symptoms such as:
- Dry mouth
- Fatigue or weakness
- Dizziness or lightheadedness
- Headache
- Dark colored urine
- Muscle cramps

Severe dehydration can lead to more serious health problems, including heat injury, urinary and kidney problems, seizures, and even hypovolemic shock, a life-threatening condition that occurs when your blood volume is too low.

Dehydration can be caused by various factors such as illness (e.g., diarrhea, vomiting), excessive sweating, high fever, burns, alcohol consumption, and certain medications. It's essential to stay hydrated by drinking plenty of fluids, especially during hot weather, exercise, or when you're ill.

Gene expression regulation in plants refers to the processes that control the production of proteins and RNA from the genes present in the plant's DNA. This regulation is crucial for normal growth, development, and response to environmental stimuli in plants. It can occur at various levels, including transcription (the first step in gene expression, where the DNA sequence is copied into RNA), RNA processing (such as alternative splicing, which generates different mRNA molecules from a single gene), translation (where the information in the mRNA is used to produce a protein), and post-translational modification (where proteins are chemically modified after they have been synthesized).

In plants, gene expression regulation can be influenced by various factors such as hormones, light, temperature, and stress. Plants use complex networks of transcription factors, chromatin remodeling complexes, and small RNAs to regulate gene expression in response to these signals. Understanding the mechanisms of gene expression regulation in plants is important for basic research, as well as for developing crops with improved traits such as increased yield, stress tolerance, and disease resistance.

I believe there may be a slight misunderstanding in your question. "Plant leaves" are not a medical term, but rather a general biological term referring to a specific organ found in plants.

Leaves are organs that are typically flat and broad, and they are the primary site of photosynthesis in most plants. They are usually green due to the presence of chlorophyll, which is essential for capturing sunlight and converting it into chemical energy through photosynthesis.

While leaves do not have a direct medical definition, understanding their structure and function can be important in various medical fields, such as pharmacognosy (the study of medicinal plants) or environmental health. For example, certain plant leaves may contain bioactive compounds that have therapeutic potential, while others may produce allergens or toxins that can impact human health.

Genetically modified plants (GMPs) are plants that have had their DNA altered through genetic engineering techniques to exhibit desired traits. These modifications can be made to enhance certain characteristics such as increased resistance to pests, improved tolerance to environmental stresses like drought or salinity, or enhanced nutritional content. The process often involves introducing genes from other organisms, such as bacteria or viruses, into the plant's genome. Examples of GMPs include Bt cotton, which has a gene from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis that makes it resistant to certain pests, and golden rice, which is engineered to contain higher levels of beta-carotene, a precursor to vitamin A. It's important to note that genetically modified plants are subject to rigorous testing and regulation to ensure their safety for human consumption and environmental impact before they are approved for commercial use.

Physiological adaptation refers to the changes or modifications that occur in an organism's biological functions or structures as a result of environmental pressures or changes. These adaptations enable the organism to survive and reproduce more successfully in its environment. They can be short-term, such as the constriction of blood vessels in response to cold temperatures, or long-term, such as the evolution of longer limbs in animals that live in open environments.

In the context of human physiology, examples of physiological adaptation include:

1. Acclimatization: The process by which the body adjusts to changes in environmental conditions, such as altitude or temperature. For example, when a person moves to a high-altitude location, their body may produce more red blood cells to compensate for the lower oxygen levels, leading to improved oxygen delivery to tissues.

2. Exercise adaptation: Regular physical activity can lead to various physiological adaptations, such as increased muscle strength and endurance, enhanced cardiovascular function, and improved insulin sensitivity.

3. Hormonal adaptation: The body can adjust hormone levels in response to changes in the environment or internal conditions. For instance, during prolonged fasting, the body releases stress hormones like cortisol and adrenaline to help maintain energy levels and prevent muscle wasting.

4. Sensory adaptation: Our senses can adapt to different stimuli over time. For example, when we enter a dark room after being in bright sunlight, it takes some time for our eyes to adjust to the new light level. This process is known as dark adaptation.

5. Aging-related adaptations: As we age, various physiological changes occur that help us adapt to the changing environment and maintain homeostasis. These include changes in body composition, immune function, and cognitive abilities.

"Oryza sativa" is the scientific name for Asian rice, which is a species of grass and one of the most important food crops in the world. It is a staple food for more than half of the global population, providing a significant source of calories and carbohydrates. There are several varieties of Oryza sativa, including indica and japonica, which differ in their genetic makeup, growth habits, and grain characteristics.

Oryza sativa is an annual plant that grows to a height of 1-2 meters and produces long slender leaves and clusters of flowers at the top of the stem. The grains are enclosed within a tough husk, which must be removed before consumption. Rice is typically grown in flooded fields or paddies, which provide the necessary moisture for germination and growth.

Rice is an important source of nutrition for people around the world, particularly in developing countries where it may be one of the few reliable sources of food. It is rich in carbohydrates, fiber, and various vitamins and minerals, including thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, iron, and magnesium. However, rice can also be a significant source of arsenic, a toxic heavy metal that can accumulate in the grain during growth.

In medical terms, Oryza sativa may be used as a component of nutritional interventions for individuals who are at risk of malnutrition or who have specific dietary needs. It may also be studied in clinical trials to evaluate its potential health benefits or risks.

A plant root is not a medical term per se, but it is a term from botany, which is the study of plants. However, I can certainly provide a definition for you.

Plant roots are the underground organs of a plant that typically grow downward into the soil. They serve several important functions, including:

1. Anchorage: Roots help to stabilize the plant and keep it upright in the ground.
2. Absorption: Roots absorb water and nutrients from the soil, which are essential for the plant's growth and development.
3. Conduction: Roots conduct water and nutrients up to the above-ground parts of the plant, such as the stem and leaves.
4. Vegetative reproduction: Some plants can reproduce vegetatively through their roots, producing new plants from root fragments or specialized structures called rhizomes or tubers.

Roots are composed of several different tissues, including the epidermis, cortex, endodermis, and vascular tissue. The epidermis is the outermost layer of the root, which secretes a waxy substance called suberin that helps to prevent water loss. The cortex is the middle layer of the root, which contains cells that store carbohydrates and other nutrients. The endodermis is a thin layer of cells that surrounds the vascular tissue and regulates the movement of water and solutes into and out of the root. The vascular tissue consists of xylem and phloem, which transport water and nutrients throughout the plant.

"Plant proteins" refer to the proteins that are derived from plant sources. These can include proteins from legumes such as beans, lentils, and peas, as well as proteins from grains like wheat, rice, and corn. Other sources of plant proteins include nuts, seeds, and vegetables.

Plant proteins are made up of individual amino acids, which are the building blocks of protein. While animal-based proteins typically contain all of the essential amino acids that the body needs to function properly, many plant-based proteins may be lacking in one or more of these essential amino acids. However, by consuming a variety of plant-based foods throughout the day, it is possible to get all of the essential amino acids that the body needs from plant sources alone.

Plant proteins are often lower in calories and saturated fat than animal proteins, making them a popular choice for those following a vegetarian or vegan diet, as well as those looking to maintain a healthy weight or reduce their risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease and cancer. Additionally, plant proteins have been shown to have a number of health benefits, including improving gut health, reducing inflammation, and supporting muscle growth and repair.

Salinity is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in general terms, salinity refers to the level of salt or sodium content in a substance, usually measured in parts per thousand (ppt). In a medical context, salinity might be discussed in relation to things like the body's fluid balance or the composition of certain bodily fluids, such as sweat or tears.

It is worth noting that in some cases, high salinity levels can have negative effects on health. For example, consuming water with very high salt content can lead to dehydration and electrolyte imbalances, which can be dangerous. Similarly, exposure to high-salinity environments (such as seawater) can cause skin irritation and other problems in some people. However, these are not direct medical definitions of salinity.

A gene in plants, like in other organisms, is a hereditary unit that carries genetic information from one generation to the next. It is a segment of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) that contains the instructions for the development and function of an organism. Genes in plants determine various traits such as flower color, plant height, resistance to diseases, and many others. They are responsible for encoding proteins and RNA molecules that play crucial roles in the growth, development, and reproduction of plants. Plant genes can be manipulated through traditional breeding methods or genetic engineering techniques to improve crop yield, enhance disease resistance, and increase nutritional value.

Photosynthesis is not strictly a medical term, but it is a fundamental biological process with significant implications for medicine, particularly in understanding energy production in cells and the role of oxygen in sustaining life. Here's a general biological definition:

Photosynthesis is a process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria convert light energy, usually from the sun, into chemical energy in the form of organic compounds, such as glucose (or sugar), using water and carbon dioxide. This process primarily takes place in the chloroplasts of plant cells, specifically in structures called thylakoids. The overall reaction can be summarized as:

6 CO2 + 6 H2O + light energy → C6H12O6 + 6 O2

In this equation, carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) are the reactants, while glucose (C6H12O6) and oxygen (O2) are the products. Photosynthesis has two main stages: the light-dependent reactions and the light-independent reactions (Calvin cycle). The light-dependent reactions occur in the thylakoid membrane and involve the conversion of light energy into ATP and NADPH, which are used to power the Calvin cycle. The Calvin cycle takes place in the stroma of chloroplasts and involves the synthesis of glucose from CO2 and water using the ATP and NADPH generated during the light-dependent reactions.

Understanding photosynthesis is crucial for understanding various biological processes, including cellular respiration, plant metabolism, and the global carbon cycle. Additionally, research into artificial photosynthesis has potential applications in renewable energy production and environmental remediation.

Acclimatization is the process by which an individual organism adjusts to a change in its environment, enabling it to maintain its normal physiological functions and thus survive and reproduce. In the context of medicine, acclimatization often refers to the body's adaptation to changes in temperature, altitude, or other environmental factors that can affect health.

For example, when a person moves from a low-altitude area to a high-altitude area, their body may undergo several physiological changes to adapt to the reduced availability of oxygen at higher altitudes. These changes may include increased breathing rate and depth, increased heart rate, and altered blood chemistry, among others. This process of acclimatization can take several days or even weeks, depending on the individual and the degree of environmental change.

Similarly, when a person moves from a cold climate to a hot climate, their body may adjust by increasing its sweat production and reducing its heat production, in order to maintain a stable body temperature. This process of acclimatization can help prevent heat-related illnesses such as heat exhaustion and heat stroke.

Overall, acclimatization is an important physiological process that allows organisms to adapt to changing environments and maintain their health and well-being.

'Arabidopsis' is a genus of small flowering plants that are part of the mustard family (Brassicaceae). The most commonly studied species within this genus is 'Arabidopsis thaliana', which is often used as a model organism in plant biology and genetics research. This plant is native to Eurasia and Africa, and it has a small genome that has been fully sequenced. It is known for its short life cycle, self-fertilization, and ease of growth, making it an ideal subject for studying various aspects of plant biology, including development, metabolism, and response to environmental stresses.

Salt tolerance, in a medical context, refers to the body's ability to maintain normal physiological functions despite high levels of salt (sodium chloride) in the system. While our kidneys usually regulate sodium levels, certain medical conditions such as some forms of kidney disease or heart failure can impair this process, leading to an accumulation of sodium in the body. Some individuals may have a genetic predisposition to better handle higher salt intakes, but generally, a high-salt diet is discouraged due to risks of hypertension and other health issues for most people.

Biomass is defined in the medical field as a renewable energy source derived from organic materials, primarily plant matter, that can be burned or converted into fuel. This includes materials such as wood, agricultural waste, and even methane gas produced by landfills. Biomass is often used as a source of heat, electricity, or transportation fuels, and its use can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions and dependence on fossil fuels.

In the context of human health, biomass burning can have both positive and negative impacts. On one hand, biomass can provide a source of heat and energy for cooking and heating, which can improve living standards and reduce exposure to harmful pollutants from traditional cooking methods such as open fires. On the other hand, biomass burning can also produce air pollution, including particulate matter and toxic chemicals, that can have negative effects on respiratory health and contribute to climate change.

Therefore, while biomass has the potential to be a sustainable and low-carbon source of energy, it is important to consider the potential health and environmental impacts of its use and implement appropriate measures to minimize any negative effects.

Desiccation is a medical term that refers to the process of extreme dryness or the state of being dried up. It is the removal of water or moisture from an object or tissue, which can lead to its dehydration and preservation. In medicine, desiccation may be used as a therapeutic technique for treating certain conditions, such as drying out wet wounds or preventing infection in surgical instruments. However, desiccation can also have harmful effects on living tissues, leading to cell damage or death.

In a broader context, desiccation is also used to describe the process of drying up of an organ, tissue, or body part due to various reasons such as exposure to air, heat, or certain medical conditions that affect moisture regulation in the body. For example, diabetic patients may experience desiccation of their skin due to decreased moisture production and increased evaporation caused by high blood sugar levels. Similarly, people living in dry climates or using central heating systems may experience desiccation of their mucous membranes, leading to dryness of the eyes, nose, and throat.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "rain" is not a medical term. In general, rain refers to water droplets that fall from the sky as part of the Earth's weather cycle. These drops form when moisture in the air condenses and cools, creating clouds which eventually become heavy enough to release the collected water.

If you have any medical concerns or questions, I'd be happy to try and help answer those for you!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "seedling" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is an agricultural and horticultural term that refers to a young plant grown from a seed, typically during the early stages of its growth. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to try to help with those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "soil" is not a term that has a medical definition. Soil is defined as the top layer of earth in which plants grow, a mixture of organic material, clay, sand, and silt. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you.

Arabidopsis proteins refer to the proteins that are encoded by the genes in the Arabidopsis thaliana plant, which is a model organism commonly used in plant biology research. This small flowering plant has a compact genome and a short life cycle, making it an ideal subject for studying various biological processes in plants.

Arabidopsis proteins play crucial roles in many cellular functions, such as metabolism, signaling, regulation of gene expression, response to environmental stresses, and developmental processes. Research on Arabidopsis proteins has contributed significantly to our understanding of plant biology and has provided valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying various agronomic traits.

Some examples of Arabidopsis proteins include transcription factors, kinases, phosphatases, receptors, enzymes, and structural proteins. These proteins can be studied using a variety of techniques, such as biochemical assays, protein-protein interaction studies, and genetic approaches, to understand their functions and regulatory mechanisms in plants.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "trees" is not a medical term. It is a common term used in various fields, including biology, ecology, and dendrology, to refer to a woody perennial plant with a single stem or trunk that supports branches and leaves in most species.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, please provide more context so I can offer an accurate and helpful response.

"Pinus sylvestris" is the scientific name for a species of tree, not a medical term. It is commonly known as the Scotch Pine or Scots Pine and is native to Eurasia, ranging from Western Europe to Eastern Siberia. The tree can also be found in other parts of the world as an introduced species.

Here's some information about Pinus sylvestris that you might find interesting:
* Pinus sylvestris is a coniferous evergreen tree that typically grows to a height of 30-40 meters (98-131 feet) but can reach up to 60 meters (197 feet) in some cases.
* The bark of the tree is thick, scaly, and orange-reddish in color, while the leaves are needle-shaped, green, and grow in clusters of two.
* Pinus sylvestris produces both male and female cones, with the male cones releasing pollen and the female cones producing seeds.
* The tree is an important source of timber and is commonly used for construction, pulp and paper production, and as a Christmas tree.
* Pinus sylvestris has several medicinal uses, including as a treatment for respiratory conditions such as bronchitis and asthma, as well as for skin conditions like eczema and psoriasis. The needles and bark of the tree contain compounds with anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties that are believed to be responsible for these therapeutic effects.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Plant Physiological Phenomena" is not a standard medical term. It falls more within the domain of botany, which is a branch of biology focused on the study of plants.

However, I can provide a general explanation: Plant physiological phenomena refer to the functional processes and activities that occur within plants. This includes various aspects such as photosynthesis (the process by which plants convert light energy into chemical energy to fuel their growth), respiration, plant nutrition (the uptake and assimilation of nutrients from the soil), water relations (how plants absorb, transport, and use water), plant hormone functions, and many other processes.

If you have a term that is used in a medical context which you would like defined, I'd be happy to help with that!

I apologize for any confusion, but "Cicer" is not a medical term or a widely recognized abbreviation in the medical field. It might be referring to Cicero, an ancient Roman philosopher and statesman, or it could have other meanings depending on the context. If you could provide more information about where you encountered this term, I would be happy to help you further.

Climate, in the context of environmental science and medicine, refers to the long-term average of weather conditions (such as temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, rainfall, and other meteorological elements) in a given region over a period of years to decades. It is the statistical description of the weather patterns that occur in a particular location over long periods of time.

In medical terms, climate can have significant impacts on human health, both physical and mental. For example, extreme temperatures, air pollution, and ultraviolet radiation levels associated with certain climates can increase the risk of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, heat-related illnesses, and skin cancer. Similarly, changes in climate patterns can affect the distribution and prevalence of infectious diseases, such as malaria and Lyme disease.

Climate change, which refers to significant long-term changes in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods ranging from decades to millions of years, can have even more profound impacts on human health, including increased rates of heat-related illnesses and deaths, worsening air quality, and altered transmission patterns of infectious diseases.

Agricultural crops refer to plants that are grown and harvested for the purpose of human or animal consumption, fiber production, or other uses such as biofuels. These crops can include grains, fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, and legumes, among others. They are typically cultivated using various farming practices, including traditional row cropping, companion planting, permaculture, and organic farming methods. The choice of crop and farming method depends on factors such as the local climate, soil conditions, and market demand. Proper management of agricultural crops is essential for ensuring food security, promoting sustainable agriculture, and protecting the environment.

"Triticum" is the genus name for a group of cereal grains that includes common wheat (T. aestivum), durum wheat (T. durum), and spelt (T. spelta). These grains are important sources of food for humans, providing carbohydrates, proteins, and various nutrients. They are used to make a variety of foods such as bread, pasta, and breakfast cereals. Triticum species are also known as "wheat" in layman's terms.

"Saccharum" is not a medical term, but a genus name in botany. It refers to the sugarcane plant (*Saccharum officinarum*), which is a tall perennial grass native to tropical regions of Southeast Asia. The sap of this plant contains high amounts of sucrose and has been used as a sweetener for thousands of years.

In a medical context, "saccharum" might be encountered in the form of sugar-based ingredients, such as dextrose (glucose) or sucrose, which are derived from sugarcane or other sugar-rich plants. These substances can be used in various medical applications, including intravenous fluids and nutritional supplements.

A medical definition for "plant shoots" may not be readily available, as the term is primarily used in botany and horticulture. However, I can provide you with a general definition:

Plant shoots refer to the above-ground portion of a plant, which typically includes structures like stems, leaves, flowers, and buds. Shoots originate from the seed or the growing tip of the plant and are responsible for photosynthesis, nutrient absorption, and reproduction. In some contexts, "plant shoots" might also refer to new growth that emerges from an existing plant, such as when a leaf or stem sprouts a new branch or flower.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Pennisetum" is not a medical term. It is the name of a genus of plants in the grass family, also known as fountain grasses or feather grasses. They are often used in ornamental landscaping. If you have any questions about a medical term or concept, I'd be happy to help clarify!

Vapor pressure, in the context of physical chemistry and thermodynamics, refers to the pressure exerted by a vapor in equilibrium with its condensed phase (liquid or solid) at a given temperature. It is a measure of the escaping tendency of molecules from the liquid or solid state to the gas state. At higher temperatures, the vapor pressure generally increases because a greater number of molecules possess sufficient energy to overcome intermolecular forces and enter the vapor phase.

In medical terminology, vapor pressure is not frequently used explicitly. However, understanding this concept can be helpful in pharmaceutical sciences, particularly when dealing with the formulation and delivery of drugs in various dosage forms such as aerosols, nebulizers, or inhalers. These applications rely on the transformation between liquid and vapor states under specific conditions to achieve desired therapeutic effects.

Sodium Chloride is defined as the inorganic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions. It is commonly known as table salt or halite, and it is used extensively in food seasoning and preservation due to its ability to enhance flavor and inhibit bacterial growth. In medicine, sodium chloride is used as a balanced electrolyte solution for rehydration and as a topical wound irrigant and antiseptic. It is also an essential component of the human body's fluid balance and nerve impulse transmission.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "tropical climate" is not a medical term. It is a geographical term that refers to the climate of tropical regions, which are located around the equator. These regions are characterized by high temperatures and consistent rainfall throughout the year.

However, it's worth noting that certain environmental factors, such as climate, can have an impact on human health. For instance, tropical climates can contribute to the spread of certain diseases, like malaria and dengue fever, due to the presence of mosquitoes that thrive in warm, wet environments. But a "tropical climate" itself is not a medical condition or diagnosis.

In the context of medical terminology, "germination" is not typically used as a term to describe a physiological process in humans or animals. It is primarily used in the field of botany to refer to the process by which a seed or spore sprouts and begins to grow into a new plant.

However, if you are referring to the concept of germination in the context of bacterial or viral growth, then it could be defined as:

The process by which bacteria, viruses, or other microorganisms become active and start to multiply, often after a period of dormancy or latency. This can occur when the microorganisms encounter favorable conditions, such as moisture, warmth, or nutrients, that allow them to grow and reproduce. In medical contexts, this term is more commonly used in relation to infectious diseases caused by these microorganisms.

Xylem is a term used in the field of botany and plant anatomy, but I understand you're asking for a medical definition. In human anatomy, there isn't a direct structure equivalent to xylem. However, I can provide the general definition of xylem from its botanical context:

Xylem is one of the two types of vascular tissues in plants (the other being phloem). It is responsible for transporting water and dissolved nutrients from the roots to various parts of the plant, including stems, leaves, and flowers. Xylem consists of several types of cells, including vessels, tracheids, xylem fibers, and xylem parenchyma. The transportation in xylem occurs due to the cohesion-tension mechanism, where water is pulled up through the plant via transpiration pull.

Tamaricaceae is not a medical term, but a botanical term referring to a family of flowering plants known as the tamarisk family. It includes trees and shrubs that are often found in dry or saline habitats. Some species in this family have been used in traditional medicine, although it's important to note that the use of botanicals for medicinal purposes should be done under the guidance of a healthcare provider due to potential risks and interactions with other medications.

"Quercus" is not a medical term. It is the genus name for oak trees in the plant kingdom, specifically within the family Fagaceae. Some people may confuse it with "Quercetin," which is a type of flavonoid antioxidant commonly found in many plants, including oak trees. Quercetin has been studied for its potential health benefits, such as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, but it is not specific to oak trees.

An "ecosystem" is not a term that has a specific medical definition, as it is a concept that is more commonly used in the fields of ecology and environmental science. However, I can provide you with the general ecological definition of an ecosystem:

An ecosystem is a community of living organisms interacting with each other and their non-living environment, including both biotic factors (plants, animals, microorganisms) and abiotic factors (climate, soil, water, and air). These interactions create a complex network of relationships that form the foundation of ecological processes, such as energy flow, nutrient cycling, and population dynamics.

While there is no direct medical definition for an ecosystem, understanding the principles of ecosystems can have important implications for human health. For example, healthy ecosystems can provide clean air and water, regulate climate, support food production, and offer opportunities for recreation and relaxation, all of which contribute to overall well-being. Conversely, degraded ecosystems can lead to increased exposure to environmental hazards, reduced access to natural resources, and heightened risks of infectious diseases. Therefore, maintaining the health and integrity of ecosystems is crucial for promoting human health and preventing disease.

"Controlled Environment" is a term used to describe a setting in which environmental conditions are monitored, regulated, and maintained within certain specific parameters. These conditions may include factors such as temperature, humidity, light exposure, air quality, and cleanliness. The purpose of a controlled environment is to ensure that the conditions are optimal for a particular activity or process, and to minimize the potential for variability or contamination that could affect outcomes or results.

In medical and healthcare settings, controlled environments are used in a variety of contexts, such as:

* Research laboratories: To ensure consistent and reproducible experimental conditions for scientific studies.
* Pharmaceutical manufacturing: To maintain strict quality control standards during the production of drugs and other medical products.
* Sterile fields: In operating rooms or cleanrooms, to minimize the risk of infection or contamination during surgical procedures or sensitive medical operations.
* Medical storage: For storing temperature-sensitive medications, vaccines, or specimens at specific temperatures to maintain their stability and efficacy.

Overall, controlled environments play a critical role in maintaining safety, quality, and consistency in medical and healthcare settings.

In medical terms, "seeds" are often referred to as a small amount of a substance, such as a radioactive material or drug, that is inserted into a tissue or placed inside a capsule for the purpose of treating a medical condition. This can include procedures like brachytherapy, where seeds containing radioactive materials are used in the treatment of cancer to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Similarly, in some forms of drug delivery, seeds containing medication can be used to gradually release the drug into the body over an extended period of time.

It's important to note that "seeds" have different meanings and applications depending on the medical context. In other cases, "seeds" may simply refer to small particles or structures found in the body, such as those present in the eye's retina.

A plant stem is not typically defined in a medical context, but rather in the field of botany. However, I can certainly provide a general biological definition for you.

In plants, stems are organs that serve primarily as support structures, holding leaves, flowers, and fruits aloft where they can receive sunlight and exchange gases. They also act as conduits, transporting water, nutrients, and sugars made during photosynthesis between the roots and shoots of a plant.

The stem is usually composed of three main tissue systems: dermal, vascular, and ground. The dermal tissue system forms the outermost layer(s) of the stem, providing protection and sometimes participating in gas exchange. The vascular tissue system contains the xylem (which transports water and nutrients upward) and phloem (which transports sugars and other organic compounds downward). The ground tissue system, located between the dermal and vascular tissues, is responsible for food storage and support.

While not a direct medical definition, understanding the structure and function of plant stems can be relevant in fields such as nutrition, agriculture, and environmental science, which have implications for human health.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Populus" is not a medical term. It is actually the genus name for a group of trees commonly known as poplars, aspens, and cottonwoods. If you have any medical terms or concepts that you would like me to define or explain, I would be happy to help!

"Phaseolus" is a term that refers to a genus of plants in the legume family Fabaceae, also known as the pea family. The most common and well-known species in this genus is "Phaseolus vulgaris," which is commonly called the common bean. This includes many familiar varieties such as kidney beans, black beans, navy beans, pinto beans, and green beans.

These plants are native to the Americas and have been cultivated for thousands of years for their edible seeds (beans) and pods (green beans). They are an important source of protein, fiber, vitamins, and minerals in many diets around the world.

It's worth noting that "Phaseolus" is a taxonomic term used in the scientific classification of plants, and it does not have a specific medical definition. However, the beans from these plants do have various health benefits and potential medicinal properties, such as being associated with reduced risk of heart disease, improved gut health, and better blood sugar control.

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) in plants refers to the long, single-stranded molecules that are essential for the translation of genetic information from deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) into proteins. RNA is a nucleic acid, like DNA, and it is composed of a ribose sugar backbone with attached nitrogenous bases (adenine, uracil, guanine, and cytosine).

In plants, there are several types of RNA that play specific roles in the gene expression process:

1. Messenger RNA (mRNA): This type of RNA carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a sequence of three-base code units called codons. These codons specify the order of amino acids in a protein.
2. Transfer RNA (tRNA): tRNAs are small RNA molecules that serve as adaptors between the mRNA and the amino acids during protein synthesis. Each tRNA has a specific anticodon sequence that base-pairs with a complementary codon on the mRNA, and it carries a specific amino acid that corresponds to that codon.
3. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA): rRNAs are structural components of ribosomes, which are large macromolecular complexes where protein synthesis occurs. In plants, there are several types of rRNAs, including the 18S, 5.8S, and 25S/28S rRNAs, that form the core of the ribosome and help catalyze peptide bond formation during protein synthesis.
4. Small nuclear RNA (snRNA): These are small RNA molecules that play a role in RNA processing, such as splicing, where introns (non-coding sequences) are removed from pre-mRNA and exons (coding sequences) are joined together to form mature mRNAs.
5. MicroRNA (miRNA): These are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by binding to complementary sequences in target mRNAs, leading to their degradation or translation inhibition.

Overall, these different types of RNAs play crucial roles in various aspects of RNA metabolism, gene regulation, and protein synthesis in plants.

Climate change, as defined medically, refers to the long-term alterations in the statistical distribution of weather patterns caused by changes in the Earth's climate system. These changes can have significant impacts on human health and wellbeing.

Medical professionals are increasingly recognizing the importance of addressing climate change as a public health issue. The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified climate change as one of the greatest threats to global health in the 21st century, with potential impacts including increased heat-related mortality, more frequent and severe natural disasters, changes in the distribution of infectious diseases, and decreased food security.

Climate change can also exacerbate existing health disparities, as vulnerable populations such as children, the elderly, low-income communities, and those with chronic medical conditions are often disproportionately affected by its impacts. As a result, addressing climate change is an important public health priority, and medical professionals have a critical role to play in advocating for policies and practices that reduce greenhouse gas emissions and promote adaptation to the changing climate.

Plant growth regulators (PGRs) are natural or synthetic chemical substances that, when present in low concentrations, can influence various physiological and biochemical processes in plants. These processes include cell division, elongation, and differentiation; flowering and fruiting; leaf senescence; and stress responses. PGRs can be classified into several categories based on their mode of action and chemical structure, including auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, abscisic acid, ethylene, and others. They are widely used in agriculture to improve crop yield and quality, regulate plant growth and development, and enhance stress tolerance.

'Cistus' is a term that refers to a genus of plants commonly known as rockroses. These plants are native to the Mediterranean region and have pink, white, or red flowers. They belong to the family Cistaceae. While 'Cistus' is a plant genus and not a medical term, extracts from some species of Cistus have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes, such as treating skin conditions and wounds. However, it is important to note that the medical efficacy and safety of these uses have not been thoroughly studied or proven by modern scientific research.

I believe you may be asking for a medical explanation or examples of substances that are referred to as "waxes." Waxes are not a specific medical term, but they can refer to various natural or synthetic esters that are insoluble in water and have a soft, waxy consistency. In a medical context, the term "waxes" might refer to:

1. Cerumen (Earwax): A yellowish waxy substance produced by glands in the ear canal. Cerumen helps protect the ear by trapping dirt, dust, and other particles and preventing them from entering the inner ear.
2. Sebaceous Waxes: These are esters found in sebum, an oily substance produced by sebaceous glands in the skin. Sebum helps keep the skin and hair moisturized and protected.
3. Cutaneous Waxes: These are lipid-rich substances secreted by specialized sweat glands called eccrine glands. They help to waterproof and protect the skin.
4. Histological Waxes: Paraffin or other waxes used in histology for tissue processing, embedding, and microtomy to prepare thin sections of tissues for examination under a microscope.

These are some examples of substances that can be referred to as "waxes" in a medical context.

I apologize for any confusion, but "agriculture" is not a term that has a medical definition. Agriculture refers to the cultivation and breeding of animals, plants, and fungi for food, fiber, biofuel, medicinal plants, and other products used to sustain and enhance human life. It is an important industry and practice that has been developed over thousands of years and continues to play a critical role in global food production and security.

Osmotic pressure is a fundamental concept in the field of physiology and biochemistry. It refers to the pressure that is required to be applied to a solution to prevent the flow of solvent (like water) into it, through a semi-permeable membrane, when the solution is separated from a pure solvent or a solution of lower solute concentration.

In simpler terms, osmotic pressure is the force that drives the natural movement of solvent molecules from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration, across a semi-permeable membrane. This process is crucial for maintaining the fluid balance and nutrient transport in living organisms.

The osmotic pressure of a solution can be determined by its solute concentration, temperature, and the ideal gas law. It is often expressed in units of atmospheres (atm), millimeters of mercury (mmHg), or pascals (Pa). In medical contexts, understanding osmotic pressure is essential for managing various clinical conditions such as dehydration, fluid and electrolyte imbalances, and dialysis treatments.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Mediterranean Region" is not a term with a specific medical definition. The Mediterranean Region typically refers to the geographical area surrounding the Mediterranean Sea, including countries in Southern Europe, North Africa, and Western Asia. However, in a medical context, it might refer to the study of diseases or health characteristics typical of certain populations in this region. For example, the "Mediterranean diet" is a popular term in nutrition and medicine, referring to the traditional eating habits in Mediterranean countries, which are associated with numerous health benefits. If you're looking for medical information related to a specific aspect of the Mediterranean Region or its population, please provide more context so I can give you a more accurate response.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "seasons" is not a term that has a medical definition. Seasons refer to the four divisions of the year (spring, summer, autumn or fall, and winter) based on the position of the earth in its orbit around the sun. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

'Zea mays' is the biological name for corn or maize, which is not typically considered a medical term. However, corn or maize can have medical relevance in certain contexts. For example, cornstarch is sometimes used as a diluent for medications and is also a component of some skin products. Corn oil may be found in topical ointments and creams. In addition, some people may have allergic reactions to corn or corn-derived products. But generally speaking, 'Zea mays' itself does not have a specific medical definition.

Poaceae is not a medical term but a taxonomic category, specifically the family name for grasses. In a broader sense, you might be asking for a medical context where knowledge of this plant family could be relevant. For instance, certain members of the Poaceae family can cause allergies or negative reactions in some people.

In a medical definition, Poaceae would be defined as:

The family of monocotyledonous plants that includes grasses, bamboo, and sedges. These plants are characterized by narrow leaves with parallel veins, jointed stems (called "nodes" and "internodes"), and flowers arranged in spikelets. Some members of this family are important food sources for humans and animals, such as rice, wheat, corn, barley, oats, and sorghum. Other members can cause negative reactions, like skin irritation or allergies, due to their silica-based defense structures called phytoliths.

Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in the chloroplasts of photosynthetic plants, algae, and some bacteria. It plays an essential role in light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis by absorbing light energy, primarily from the blue and red parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, and converting it into chemical energy to fuel the synthesis of carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water. The structure of chlorophyll includes a porphyrin ring, which binds a central magnesium ion, and a long phytol tail. There are several types of chlorophyll, including chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b, which have distinct absorption spectra and slightly different structures. Chlorophyll is crucial for the process of photosynthesis, enabling the conversion of sunlight into chemical energy and the release of oxygen as a byproduct.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Floods" is not a medical term, but rather a natural disaster or hydrological phenomenon that occurs when a body of water overflows its banks or normal confines, causing damage to surrounding areas. If you are looking for a medical definition, perhaps you meant to ask about a different term? I would be happy to help if you could clarify your question further.

'Agrostis' is a genus of plants, commonly known as bentgrasses. These grasses are native to many parts of the world and are often used in lawns, golf courses, and other landscaped areas due to their fine texture and ability to tolerate close mowing. They are also an important food source for many species of wildlife.

In a medical context, 'Agrostis' is not commonly used as it is not a substance or process that directly relates to human health or disease. However, like all plants, bentgrasses do contain various compounds that may have potential medicinal properties. For example, some species of Agrostis have been found to contain antioxidant compounds that could potentially have health benefits. However, more research is needed to confirm these effects and determine their safety and effectiveness as treatments for any specific medical conditions.

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... drought of 2002 was reminiscent of the 1988 drought and was compared to the droughts of the 1930s, the 1983 drought and the dry ... Other early notable droughts in North America include the Fairbank Drought of 500 BC and the Whitewater Drought of 330 C.E. ... Other severe drought years in the United States happened through the 1950s. These droughts continued from the 1940s drought in ... The drought also affected Canada in certain divisions.[citation needed] The drought of 1988 became the worst drought since the ...
... is an adaptive root response to drought stress. New emerging roots are short, swollen, and hairless, ... This rhizogenesis has been called a drought tolerance strategy for after-stress recovery. These drought induced short roots can ... 471-482, ISBN 0-8247-0631-5 Vartanian, N., "Some aspects of structural and functional modifications induced by drought in root ... Vartanian, N. (1996), "The Drought Rhizogenesis", in Waisel, Yoav; Eshel, Amram; Kafkafi, Uzi (eds.), Plant Roots: The Hidden ...
... , or drought semi-deciduous plants refers to plants that shed their leaves during periods of drought or in the ... It can shed their leaves drought-deciduous species can adjust to only discharge nutrient after drought relief for canopy ... "Drought-deciduous behavior reduces nutrient losses from temperate deciduous trees under severe drought". Oecologia. 163 (4): ... Drought deciduous plant species can be found in the most part of Europe, the eastern part of North and South America, Southern ...
... was an American film editor and script supervisor known for her work at Paramount during the 1920s and 1930s. ... Director Francis D. Lyon trained under Drought, who was one of four or five female editors at the studio at the time. Little is ... Doris was born to Philip Drought and Margaret Bigger in Kansas City, Kansas, in 1899. An only child, she attended the ... "Doris Drought, the script clerk, on whose shoulders is the weight of matching action in following scenes, who must catch any ...
Look up worster-drought in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Worster-Drought may refer to: Cecil Charles Worster-Drought (1888- ... aka Worster-Drought syndrome Search for "Worster-Drought" on Wikipedia. Drought (disambiguation) Worster, a surname All pages ... with titles beginning with Worster-Drought All pages with titles containing Worster-Drought This disambiguation page lists ... 1971), British medical doctor, physician, neurologist Worster-Drought syndrome, a form of congenital suprabulbar paresis ...
... is a collaboration album between American rappers Berner & The Jacka, the first album of their Drought Season ... Drought Season peaked at #55 on the R&B/Hip-Hop Albums chart and at #25 on the Rap Albums chart, making it Berner's first ... "Drought Season - The Jacka , Credits , AllMusic" - via www.allmusic.com. "The Jacka Music News & Info , Billboard.com". ... "Drought Season - The Jacka , Songs, Reviews, Credits , AllMusic" - via www.allmusic.com. (Articles with short description, ...
CD single (1) "Desert Drought" "Cobwebs" "Desert Drought" (Desert Dry Mouth mix) "Desert Drought" (CD-Rom mix) CD single (2) " ... "Desert Drought" "Curtains" (Purple Curtains remix) "Desert Drought" (Solomon remix) Cast John Power - vocals, guitar Peter ... "Desert Drought" is the twelfth single by the Liverpool britpop band Cast, fronted by ex La's bassist John Power. ...
A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. Drought, The Drought, ... Worster-Drought (disambiguation) All pages with titles beginning with Drought All pages with titles containing drought All ... neurologist Drought (EP), a 2012 EP by Deathspell Omega The Drought (The Kill Devil Hills album), 2006 The Drought (Puce Mary ... "The Drought" (SATC episode), a 1998 television episode Drought, a 2011 speculative fiction book by Pam Bachorz Search for " ...
2009). When this drought occurred, it dried the wetlands and water storages (the drought refuge). For many species of birds and ... Droughts also cause changes in food resources and water quality. Drought refuges protect plant and animal populations from ... Drought leads to a shift in refuge spacing and connections at different spatial and temporal scales. Droughts disrupt ... Because drought refuges may provide the only sites allowing populations to persist during droughts, they are highly vulnerable ...
Drought is an EP by Deathspell Omega. It is the band's first release of new material since their 2010 album Paracletus. It is ... But while that may seem like creative fatigue or ennui the first time through, after a while, Drought reveals itself to be so ... Drought received mostly positive reviews from music critics. MetalSucks wrote that "in 20ish minutes, they create discomfort, ... "Deathspell Omega - Drought Review". About.com. Archived from the original on 29 June 2012. Retrieved 5 August 2012. Mystery ...
... (born June 14, 2001) is an American soccer player who plays as a left back for Cornell Big Red. Ivy League Men's ... Connor Drought at Soccerway v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Men's association ... Soccer All-Second Team: 2019 "Connor Drought - 2021-22 - Men's Soccer". "Ivy League Men's Soccer Concludes Season with All-Ivy ...
The Aoyate drought was an acute meteorological drought that according to Turkana tradition affected much of the Rift Valley ... Quoted in Clifton Crais, Poverty, War, and Violence in South Africa The drought decimated the herds of the Chemwal, thought to ... He notes that concurrent drought traditions suggested in the chronological reconstruction of neighboring communities indicates ... Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Climate of Kenya, Droughts in Africa). ...
... is the ability by which a plant maintains its biomass production during arid or drought conditions. Some ... Drought-evading plants: non-succulent perennials which restrict their growth only to periods of moisture availability. Drought- ... The plants behind drought tolerance are complex and involve many pathways which allows plants to respond to specific sets of ... Drought-resisting plants: also known as succulent perennials, they have water stored in their leaves and stems for sparing uses ...
... may refer to: 1540 European drought 2022 European drought 2023 European drought This disambiguation page lists ... articles associated with the title European drought. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point ...
... is unusual for a Scottish literary magazine in that it only infrequently publishes poetry, arguing that as poetry ... The Drouth is an American-format quarterly periodical published in Glasgow, Scotland. It was founded in 2001 by Mitchell Miller ... The Drouth's editorial stance could be described as non-aligned left with occasional anarchistic and libertarian overtones, as ... photography The Drouth has recently published two books based partly on essays and features that first appeared in its pages; ...
Droughts in Australia, 1902 in Australia, 19th-century droughts, 20th-century droughts, 1902 natural disasters, 1900s droughts ... In Australia, the Federation Drought is the name given to a prolonged period of drought that occurred around the time of ... Drought in Australia Dust storm Hunt, H.A.;Results of rain and river observations made in New South Wales during 1903-1908 with ... Despite El Niño, drought-stricken Gippsland has one of its wettest winters on record as a series of storms produced torrential ...
"Love Drought" debuted at a position of 69 on the UK Singles Chart for the chart dated April 29, 2016. The following week it ... "Love Drought" was written by Ingrid Burley, Mike Dean and Beyoncé while the production was handled by the latter two. During an ... "Love Drought" is a song recorded by American singer Beyoncé for her sixth studio album, Lemonade (2016). It was written by ... She revealed that Beyoncé herself, was also unaware that the lyrics of "Love Drought" were aimed at Parkwood Entertainment. ...
... may refer to: James William Drought, American author James Drought (theologian), Irish academic This ...
A flash drought is a type of drought characterized by its rapid onset, intensification, and severity over a relatively short ... The term "flash drought" was coined to describe the rapid onset and intensification of drought conditions, which set it apart ... Flash droughts differ from other drought categories such as meteorological, hydrological, agricultural, ecological, and ... Flash droughts have gained increasing attention from researchers and policymakers due to their significant impacts on ...
Droughts correlate with heat waves (see List of Indian heat waves). All such episodes of severe drought correlate with El Niño- ... The drought of 1899 can be classified as meteorological as well as hydrological and was the most severe documented drought ... In simple words, drought has destroyed India on a large scale. Eighteen meteorological and 16 hydrological droughts occurred in ... In the past, droughts have periodically led to major Indian famines, including the Bengal famine of 1770, in which up to one ...
The Doñana National Park is being threatened by drought. Drought warnings are in place for the summer. It was the driest ... 2023 has been Catalonia's worse drought in decades. The April 2023 heat wave has also exacerbated drought problems. The Fuente ... "One hot, dry spell away from drought returning this summer, National Drought Group warns". GOV.UK. Retrieved 4 April 2023. ... Climate change in Europe 1540 European drought 2022 heat waves 2022 European heat waves 2022 European drought 2023 European ...
This relief did not last long as the country began to see more droughts in the coming years.[citation needed] Drought and ... There have been several seasons of drought in Afghanistan in recent decades. According to an analysis of climate and drought ... Afghanistan began experiencing unusual droughts starting in 1995, right after the Taliban emerged. It remained this way until ... In 2012, Afghanistan's long drought ended due to heavy snow. Environmental issues in Afghanistan Water supply in Afghanistan ...
2017 Somali drought Food security Water security 2020-2023 Horn of Africa Drought "Worsening drought affects 2.3 million people ... "UN sounds alarm on Somalia's 'rapidly worsening' drought". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2021-11-20. "Worsening drought affects ... 2021 natural disasters, Natural disasters in Somalia, 2021 in Somalia, 2021 droughts, Droughts in Africa, 2021 disasters in ... By December 2021 a similar situation to the 2017 Somali drought is expected. As of November 2021; 5.9M are in need of ...
The 2011 Tuvalu drought was a period of severe drought afflicting Tuvalu, a South Pacific island country of approximately ... On Vaitupu the drought was also severe, but not as bad as the other islands. The government declared a state of emergency on ... The drought conditions resulted in water being rationed on the islands of Funafuti and Nukulaelae as water reserves ran low. ... In response to the 2011 drought, Japan funded the purchase of a 100 m³/d desalination plant and two portable 10 m³/d plants as ...
Works by George Drought Warburton at Project Gutenberg Halpenny, Francess G, ed. (1985). "Warburton, George Drought". ... George Drought Warburton (1816-1857) was an Irish soldier, politician and writer on Canada. The third son of George Warburton ... 1899). "Warburton, George Drought". Dictionary of National Biography. Vol. 59. London: Smith, Elder & Co. (Articles ... 1899). "Warburton, George Drought" . Dictionary of National Biography. Vol. 59. London: Smith, Elder & Co. ...

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