Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
In a medical context, the term "wing" is not typically used as a standalone definition; however, it can refer to various flat, wing-shaped structures in anatomy, such as the iliac wings of the pelvis or the zygomatic wings of the cheekbone.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Specialized cells in the invertebrates that detect and transduce light. They are predominantly rhabdomeric with an array of photosensitive microvilli. Illumination depolarizes invertebrate photoreceptors by stimulating Na+ influx across the plasma membrane.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
'Nerve tissue proteins' are specialized proteins found within the nervous system's biological tissue, including neurofilaments, neuronal cytoskeletal proteins, and neural cell adhesion molecules, which facilitate structural support, intracellular communication, and synaptic connectivity essential for proper neurological function.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
A proto-oncogene protein and member of the Wnt family of proteins. It is expressed in the caudal MIDBRAIN and is essential for proper development of the entire mid-/hindbrain region.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects.
Prominent lobed neuropils found in ANNELIDA and all ARTHROPODS except crustaceans. They are thought to be involved in olfactory learning and memory.
A layer of cells lining the fluid-filled cavity (blastocele) of a BLASTULA, usually developed from a fertilized insect, reptilian, or avian egg.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Specialized organs adapted for the reception of stimuli by the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.
A nutritional reservoir of fatty tissue found mainly in insects and amphibians.
Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A family of proteins that contain several 42-amino acid repeat domains and are homologous to the Drosophila armadillo protein. They bind to other proteins through their armadillo domains and play a variety of roles in the CELL including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, regulation of DESMOSOME assembly, and CELL ADHESION.
In invertebrate zoology, a lateral lobe of the FOREBRAIN in certain ARTHROPODS. In vertebrate zoology, either of the corpora bigemina of non-mammalian VERTEBRATES. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1329)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
Slender tubular or hairlike excretory structures found in insects. They emerge from the alimentary canal between the mesenteron (midgut) and the proctodeum (hindgut).
Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).
Hollow sacs of cells in LARVA that form adult structures in insects during BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS.
'Eye proteins' are structural or functional proteins, such as crystallins, opsins, and collagens, located in various parts of the eye, including the cornea, lens, retina, and aqueous humor, that contribute to maintaining transparency, refractive power, phototransduction, and overall integrity of the visual system.
Light sensory organ in ARTHROPODS consisting of a large number of ommatidia, each functioning as an independent photoreceptor unit.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysterone is the 20-hydroxylated ECDYSONE.
Activities designed to attract the attention or favors of another.
Color of the iris.
The normal length of time of an organism's life.
The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.
The portion of chromosome material that remains condensed and is transcriptionally inactive during INTERPHASE.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Sexual activities of animals.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.
Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.
Antennapedia homeodomain protein is a homeobox protein involved in limb patterning in ARTHROPODS. Mutations in the gene for the antennapedia homeodomain protein are associated with the conversion of antenna to leg or leg to antenna DROSOPHILA.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Genetic mechanisms that allow GENES to be expressed at a similar level irrespective of their GENE DOSAGE. This term is usually used in discussing genes that lie on the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Because the sex chromosomes are only partially homologous, there is a different copy number, i.e., dosage, of these genes in males vs. females. In DROSOPHILA, dosage compensation is accomplished by hypertranscription of genes located on the X CHROMOSOME. In mammals, dosage compensation of X chromosome genes is accomplished by random X CHROMOSOME INACTIVATION of one of the two X chromosomes in the female.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A family of seven-pass transmembrane cell-surface proteins that combines with LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 or LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 to form receptors for WNT PROTEINS. Frizzled receptors often couple with HETEROTRIMERIC G PROTEINS and regulate the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.
An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.
Circadian rhythm signaling proteins that influence circadian clock by interacting with other circadian regulatory proteins and transporting them into the CELL NUCLEUS.
Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
A multisubunit polycomb protein complex with affinity for CHROMATIN that contains methylated HISTONE H3. It contains an E3 ubiquitin ligase activity that is specific for HISTONE H2A and works in conjunction with POLYCOMB REPRESSIVE COMPLEX 2 to effect EPIGENETIC REPRESSION.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
The anatomical parts that make up an organism in the early stages of development.
A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
Fushi tarazu transcription factors were originally identified in DROSOPHILA. They are found throughout ARTHROPODS and play important roles in segmentation and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM development.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
A dense intricate feltwork of interwoven fine glial processes, fibrils, synaptic terminals, axons, and dendrites interspersed among the nerve cells in the gray matter of the central nervous system.
The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.
A family of intracellular tyrosine kinases that participate in the signaling cascade of cytokines by associating with specific CYTOKINE RECEPTORS. They act upon STAT TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS in signaling pathway referred to as the JAK/STAT pathway. The name Janus kinase refers to the fact the proteins have two phosphate-transferring domains.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.

Novel regulation of the homeotic gene Scr associated with a crustacean leg-to-maxilliped appendage transformation. (1/18666)

Homeotic genes are known to be involved in patterning morphological structures along the antero-posterior axis of insects and vertebrates. Because of their important roles in development, changes in the function and expression patterns of homeotic genes may have played a major role in the evolution of different body plans. For example, it has been proposed that during the evolution of several crustacean lineages, changes in the expression patterns of the homeotic genes Ultrabithorax and abdominal-A have played a role in transformation of the anterior thoracic appendages into mouthparts termed maxillipeds. This homeotic-like transformation is recapitulated at the late stages of the direct embryonic development of the crustacean Porcellio scaber (Oniscidea, Isopoda). Interestingly, this morphological change is associated with apparent novelties both in the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of the Porcellio scaber ortholog of the Drosophila homeotic gene, Sex combs reduced (Scr). Specifically, we find that Scr mRNA is present in the second maxillary segment and the first pair of thoracic legs (T1) in early embryos, whereas protein accumulates only in the second maxillae. In later stages, however, high levels of SCR appear in the T1 legs, which correlates temporally with the transformation of these appendages into maxillipeds. Our observations provide further insight into the process of the homeotic leg-to-maxilliped transformation in the evolution of crustaceans and suggest a novel regulatory mechanism for this process in this group of arthropods.  (+info)

Apontic binds the translational repressor Bruno and is implicated in regulation of oskar mRNA translation. (2/18666)

The product of the oskar gene directs posterior patterning in the Drosophila oocyte, where it must be deployed specifically at the posterior pole. Proper expression relies on the coordinated localization and translational control of the oskar mRNA. Translational repression prior to localization of the transcript is mediated, in part, by the Bruno protein, which binds to discrete sites in the 3' untranslated region of the oskar mRNA. To begin to understand how Bruno acts in translational repression, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify Bruno-interacting proteins. One interactor, described here, is the product of the apontic gene. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments lend biochemical support to the idea that Bruno and Apontic proteins physically interact in Drosophila. Genetic experiments using mutants defective in apontic and bruno reveal a functional interaction between these genes. Given this interaction, Apontic is likely to act together with Bruno in translational repression of oskar mRNA. Interestingly, Apontic, like Bruno, is an RNA-binding protein and specifically binds certain regions of the oskar mRNA 3' untranslated region.  (+info)

Stromal cells mediate retinoid-dependent functions essential for renal development. (3/18666)

The essential role of vitamin A and its metabolites, retinoids, in kidney development has been demonstrated in vitamin A deficiency and gene targeting studies. Retinoids signal via nuclear transcription factors belonging to the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) families. Inactivation of RARaplpha and RARbeta2 receptors together, but not singly, resulted in renal malformations, suggesting that within a given renal cell type, their concerted function is required for renal morphogenesis. At birth, RARalpha beta2(-) mutants displayed small kidneys, containing few ureteric bud branches, reduced numbers of nephrons and lacking the nephrogenic zone where new nephrons are continuously added. These observations have prompted us to investigate the role of RARalpha and RARbeta2 in renal development in detail. We have found that within the embryonic kidney, RARalpha and RARbeta2 are colocalized in stromal cells, but not in other renal cell types, suggesting that stromal cells mediate retinoid-dependent functions essential for renal development. Analysis of RARalpha beta2(-) mutant kidneys at embryonic stages revealed that nephrons were formed and revealed no changes in the intensity or distribution of molecular markers specific for different metanephric mesenchymal cell types. In contrast the development of the collecting duct system was greatly impaired in RARalpha beta2(-) mutant kidneys. Fewer ureteric bud branches were present, and ureteric bud ends were positioned abnormally, at a distance from the renal capsule. Analysis of genes important for ureteric bud morphogenesis revealed that the proto-oncogene c-ret was downregulated. Our results suggest that RARalpha and RARbeta2 are required for generating stromal cell signals that maintain c-ret expression in the embryonic kidney. Since c-ret signaling is required for ureteric bud morphogenesis, loss of c-ret expression is a likely cause of impaired ureteric bud branching in RARalpha beta2(-) mutants.  (+info)

The Drosophila kismet gene is related to chromatin-remodeling factors and is required for both segmentation and segment identity. (4/18666)

The Drosophila kismet gene was identified in a screen for dominant suppressors of Polycomb, a repressor of homeotic genes. Here we show that kismet mutations suppress the Polycomb mutant phenotype by blocking the ectopic transcription of homeotic genes. Loss of zygotic kismet function causes homeotic transformations similar to those associated with loss-of-function mutations in the homeotic genes Sex combs reduced and Abdominal-B. kismet is also required for proper larval body segmentation. Loss of maternal kismet function causes segmentation defects similar to those caused by mutations in the pair-rule gene even-skipped. The kismet gene encodes several large nuclear proteins that are ubiquitously expressed along the anterior-posterior axis. The Kismet proteins contain a domain conserved in the trithorax group protein Brahma and related chromatin-remodeling factors, providing further evidence that alterations in chromatin structure are required to maintain the spatially restricted patterns of homeotic gene transcription.  (+info)

Transcriptional repression by the Drosophila giant protein: cis element positioning provides an alternative means of interpreting an effector gradient. (5/18666)

Early developmental patterning of the Drosophila embryo is driven by the activities of a diverse set of maternally and zygotically derived transcription factors, including repressors encoded by gap genes such as Kruppel, knirps, giant and the mesoderm-specific snail. The mechanism of repression by gap transcription factors is not well understood at a molecular level. Initial characterization of these transcription factors suggests that they act as short-range repressors, interfering with the activity of enhancer or promoter elements 50 to 100 bp away. To better understand the molecular mechanism of short-range repression, we have investigated the properties of the Giant gap protein. We tested the ability of endogenous Giant to repress when bound close to the transcriptional initiation site and found that Giant effectively represses a heterologous promoter when binding sites are located at -55 bp with respect to the start of transcription. Consistent with its role as a short-range repressor, as the binding sites are moved to more distal locations, repression is diminished. Rather than exhibiting a sharp 'step-function' drop-off in activity, however, repression is progressively restricted to areas of highest Giant concentration. Less than a two-fold difference in Giant protein concentration is sufficient to determine a change in transcriptional status of a target gene. This effect demonstrates that Giant protein gradients can be differentially interpreted by target promoters, depending on the exact location of the Giant binding sites within the gene. Thus, in addition to binding site affinity and number, cis element positioning within a promoter can affect the response of a gene to a repressor gradient. We also demonstrate that a chimeric Gal4-Giant protein lacking the basic/zipper domain can specifically repress reporter genes, suggesting that the Giant effector domain is an autonomous repression domain.  (+info)

A Drosophila doublesex-related gene, terra, is involved in somitogenesis in vertebrates. (6/18666)

The Drosophila doublesex (dsx) gene encodes a transcription factor that mediates sex determination. We describe the characterization of a novel zebrafish zinc-finger gene, terra, which contains a DNA binding domain similar to that of the Drosophila dsx gene. However, unlike dsx, terra is transiently expressed in the presomitic mesoderm and newly formed somites. Expression of terra in presomitic mesoderm is restricted to cells that lack expression of MyoD. In vivo, terra expression is reduced by hedgehog but enhanced by BMP signals. Overexpression of terra induces rapid apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that a tight regulation of terra expression is required during embryogenesis. Terra has both human and mouse homologs and is specifically expressed in mouse somites. Taken together, our findings suggest that terra is a highly conserved protein that plays specific roles in early somitogenesis of vertebrates.  (+info)

Membrane-tethered Drosophila Armadillo cannot transduce Wingless signal on its own. (7/18666)

Drosophila Armadillo and its vertebrate homolog beta-catenin are key effectors of Wingless/Wnt signaling. In the current model, Wingless/Wnt signal stabilizes Armadillo/beta-catenin, which then accumulates in nuclei and binds TCF/LEF family proteins, forming bipartite transcription factors which activate transcription of Wingless/Wnt responsive genes. This model was recently challenged. Overexpression in Xenopus of membrane-tethered beta-catenin or its paralog plakoglobin activates Wnt signaling, suggesting that nuclear localization of Armadillo/beta-catenin is not essential for signaling. Tethered plakoglobin or beta-catenin might signal on their own or might act indirectly by elevating levels of endogenous beta-catenin. We tested these hypotheses in Drosophila by removing endogenous Armadillo. We generated a series of mutant Armadillo proteins with altered intracellular localizations, and expressed these in wild-type and armadillo mutant backgrounds. We found that membrane-tethered Armadillo cannot signal on its own; however it can function in adherens junctions. We also created mutant forms of Armadillo carrying heterologous nuclear localization or nuclear export signals. Although these signals alter the subcellular localization of Arm when overexpressed in Xenopus, in Drosophila they have little effect on localization and only subtle effects on signaling. This supports a model in which Armadillo's nuclear localization is key for signaling, but in which Armadillo intracellular localization is controlled by the availability and affinity of its binding partners.  (+info)

Sonic hedgehog signaling by the patched-smoothened receptor complex. (8/18666)

BACKGROUND: The Hedgehog (Hh) family of secreted proteins is involved in a number of developmental processes as well as in cancer. Genetic and biochemical data suggest that the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) receptor is composed of at least two proteins: the tumor suppressor protein Patched (Ptc) and the seven-transmembrane protein Smoothened (Smo). RESULTS: Using a biochemical assay for activation of the transcription factor Gli, a downstream component of the Hh pathway, we show here that Smo functions as the signaling component of the Shh receptor, and that this activity can be blocked by Ptc. The inhibition of Smo by Ptc can be relieved by the addition of Shh. Furthermore, oncogenic forms of Smo are insensitive to Ptc repression in this assay. Mapping of the Smo domains required for binding to Ptc and for signaling revealed that the Smo-Ptc interaction involves mainly the amino terminus of Smo, and that the third intracellular loop and the seventh transmembrane domain are required for signaling. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that Smo is the signaling component of a multicomponent Hh receptor complex and that Ptc is a ligand-regulated inhibitor of Smo. Different domains of Smo are involved in Ptc binding and activation of a Gli reporter construct. The latter requires the third intracellular loop and the seventh transmembrane domain of Smo, regions often involved in coupling to G proteins. No changes in the levels of cyclic AMP or calcium associated with such pathways could be detected following receptor activation, however.  (+info)

'Drosophila proteins' refer to the proteins that are expressed in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. This organism is a widely used model system in genetics, developmental biology, and molecular biology research. The study of Drosophila proteins has contributed significantly to our understanding of various biological processes, including gene regulation, cell signaling, development, and aging.

Some examples of well-studied Drosophila proteins include:

1. HSP70 (Heat Shock Protein 70): A chaperone protein involved in protein folding and protection from stress conditions.
2. TUBULIN: A structural protein that forms microtubules, important for cell division and intracellular transport.
3. ACTIN: A cytoskeletal protein involved in muscle contraction, cell motility, and maintenance of cell shape.
4. BETA-GALACTOSIDASE (LACZ): A reporter protein often used to monitor gene expression patterns in transgenic flies.
5. ENDOGLIN: A protein involved in the development of blood vessels during embryogenesis.
6. P53: A tumor suppressor protein that plays a crucial role in preventing cancer by regulating cell growth and division.
7. JUN-KINASE (JNK): A signaling protein involved in stress response, apoptosis, and developmental processes.
8. DECAPENTAPLEGIC (DPP): A member of the TGF-β (Transforming Growth Factor Beta) superfamily, playing essential roles in embryonic development and tissue homeostasis.

These proteins are often studied using various techniques such as biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and structural biology to understand their functions, interactions, and regulation within the cell.

"Drosophila" is a genus of small flies, also known as fruit flies. The most common species used in scientific research is "Drosophila melanogaster," which has been a valuable model organism for many areas of biological and medical research, including genetics, developmental biology, neurobiology, and aging.

The use of Drosophila as a model organism has led to numerous important discoveries in genetics and molecular biology, such as the identification of genes that are associated with human diseases like cancer, Parkinson's disease, and obesity. The short reproductive cycle, large number of offspring, and ease of genetic manipulation make Drosophila a powerful tool for studying complex biological processes.

'Drosophila melanogaster' is the scientific name for a species of fruit fly that is commonly used as a model organism in various fields of biological research, including genetics, developmental biology, and evolutionary biology. Its small size, short generation time, large number of offspring, and ease of cultivation make it an ideal subject for laboratory studies. The fruit fly's genome has been fully sequenced, and many of its genes have counterparts in the human genome, which facilitates the understanding of genetic mechanisms and their role in human health and disease.

Here is a brief medical definition:

Drosophila melanogaster (droh-suh-fih-luh meh-lon-guh-ster): A species of fruit fly used extensively as a model organism in genetic, developmental, and evolutionary research. Its genome has been sequenced, revealing many genes with human counterparts, making it valuable for understanding genetic mechanisms and their role in human health and disease.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Insect Proteins" is not a recognized medical term. However, I can provide some information about insect protein from a nutritional and food science perspective.

Insect proteins refer to the proteins that are obtained from insects. Insects are a rich source of protein, and their protein content varies by species. For example, mealworms and crickets have been found to contain approximately 47-63% and 60-72% protein by dry weight, respectively.

In recent years, insect proteins have gained attention as a potential sustainable source of nutrition due to their high protein content, low environmental impact, and the ability to convert feed into protein more efficiently compared to traditional livestock. Insect proteins can be used in various applications such as food and feed additives, nutritional supplements, and even cosmetics.

However, it's important to note that the use of insect proteins in human food is not widely accepted in many Western countries due to cultural and regulatory barriers. Nonetheless, research and development efforts continue to explore the potential benefits and applications of insect proteins in the global food system.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Sequence homology, amino acid, refers to the similarity in the order of amino acids in a protein or a portion of a protein between two or more species. This similarity can be used to infer evolutionary relationships and functional similarities between proteins. The higher the degree of sequence homology, the more likely it is that the proteins are related and have similar functions. Sequence homology can be determined through various methods such as pairwise alignment or multiple sequence alignment, which compare the sequences and calculate a score based on the number and type of matching amino acids.

A larva is a distinct stage in the life cycle of various insects, mites, and other arthropods during which they undergo significant metamorphosis before becoming adults. In a medical context, larvae are known for their role in certain parasitic infections. Specifically, some helminth (parasitic worm) species use larval forms to infect human hosts. These invasions may lead to conditions such as cutaneous larva migrans, visceral larva migrans, or gnathostomiasis, depending on the specific parasite involved and the location of the infection within the body.

The larval stage is characterized by its markedly different morphology and behavior compared to the adult form. Larvae often have a distinct appearance, featuring unsegmented bodies, simple sense organs, and undeveloped digestive systems. They are typically adapted for a specific mode of life, such as free-living or parasitic existence, and rely on external sources of nutrition for their development.

In the context of helminth infections, larvae may be transmitted to humans through various routes, including ingestion of contaminated food or water, direct skin contact with infective stages, or transmission via an intermediate host (such as a vector). Once inside the human body, these parasitic larvae can cause tissue damage and provoke immune responses, leading to the clinical manifestations of disease.

It is essential to distinguish between the medical definition of 'larva' and its broader usage in biology and zoology. In those fields, 'larva' refers to any juvenile form that undergoes metamorphosis before reaching adulthood, regardless of whether it is parasitic or not.

Developmental gene expression regulation refers to the processes that control the activation or repression of specific genes during embryonic and fetal development. These regulatory mechanisms ensure that genes are expressed at the right time, in the right cells, and at appropriate levels to guide proper growth, differentiation, and morphogenesis of an organism.

Developmental gene expression regulation is a complex and dynamic process involving various molecular players, such as transcription factors, chromatin modifiers, non-coding RNAs, and signaling molecules. These regulators can interact with cis-regulatory elements, like enhancers and promoters, to fine-tune the spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development.

Dysregulation of developmental gene expression can lead to various congenital disorders and developmental abnormalities. Therefore, understanding the principles and mechanisms governing developmental gene expression regulation is crucial for uncovering the etiology of developmental diseases and devising potential therapeutic strategies.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

A nonmammalian embryo refers to the developing organism in animals other than mammals, from the fertilized egg (zygote) stage until hatching or birth. In nonmammalian species, the developmental stages and terminology differ from those used in mammals. The term "embryo" is generally applied to the developing organism up until a specific stage of development that is characterized by the formation of major organs and structures. After this point, the developing organism is referred to as a "larva," "juvenile," or other species-specific terminology.

The study of nonmammalian embryos has played an important role in our understanding of developmental biology and evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo). By comparing the developmental processes across different animal groups, researchers can gain insights into the evolutionary origins and diversification of body plans and structures. Additionally, nonmammalian embryos are often used as model systems for studying basic biological processes, such as cell division, gene regulation, and pattern formation.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Genes in insects refer to the hereditary units of DNA that are passed down from parents to offspring and contain the instructions for the development, function, and reproduction of an organism. These genetic materials are located within the chromosomes in the nucleus of insect cells. They play a crucial role in determining various traits such as physical characteristics, behavior, and susceptibility to diseases.

Insect genes, like those of other organisms, consist of exons (coding regions) that contain information for protein synthesis and introns (non-coding regions) that are removed during the process of gene expression. The expression of insect genes is regulated by various factors such as transcription factors, enhancers, and silencers, which bind to specific DNA sequences to activate or repress gene transcription.

Understanding the genetic makeup of insects has important implications for various fields, including agriculture, public health, and evolutionary biology. For example, genes associated with insect pests' resistance to pesticides can be identified and targeted to develop more effective control strategies. Similarly, genes involved in disease transmission by insect vectors such as mosquitoes can be studied to develop novel interventions for preventing the spread of infectious diseases.

Genetically modified animals (GMAs) are those whose genetic makeup has been altered using biotechnological techniques. This is typically done by introducing one or more genes from another species into the animal's genome, resulting in a new trait or characteristic that does not naturally occur in that species. The introduced gene is often referred to as a transgene.

The process of creating GMAs involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The desired gene is isolated from the DNA of another organism.
2. Transfer: The isolated gene is transferred into the target animal's cells, usually using a vector such as a virus or bacterium.
3. Integration: The transgene integrates into the animal's chromosome, becoming a permanent part of its genetic makeup.
4. Selection: The modified cells are allowed to multiply, and those that contain the transgene are selected for further growth and development.
5. Breeding: The genetically modified individuals are bred to produce offspring that carry the desired trait.

GMAs have various applications in research, agriculture, and medicine. In research, they can serve as models for studying human diseases or testing new therapies. In agriculture, GMAs can be developed to exhibit enhanced growth rates, improved disease resistance, or increased nutritional value. In medicine, GMAs may be used to produce pharmaceuticals or other therapeutic agents within their bodies.

Examples of genetically modified animals include mice with added genes for specific proteins that make them useful models for studying human diseases, goats that produce a human protein in their milk to treat hemophilia, and pigs with enhanced resistance to certain viruses that could potentially be used as organ donors for humans.

It is important to note that the use of genetically modified animals raises ethical concerns related to animal welfare, environmental impact, and potential risks to human health. These issues must be carefully considered and addressed when developing and implementing GMA technologies.

Nuclear proteins are a category of proteins that are primarily found in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell. They play crucial roles in various nuclear functions, such as DNA replication, transcription, repair, and RNA processing. This group includes structural proteins like lamins, which form the nuclear lamina, and regulatory proteins, such as histones and transcription factors, that are involved in gene expression. Nuclear localization signals (NLS) often help target these proteins to the nucleus by interacting with importin proteins during active transport across the nuclear membrane.

Transcription factors are proteins that play a crucial role in regulating gene expression by controlling the transcription of DNA to messenger RNA (mRNA). They function by binding to specific DNA sequences, known as response elements, located in the promoter region or enhancer regions of target genes. This binding can either activate or repress the initiation of transcription, depending on the properties and interactions of the particular transcription factor. Transcription factors often act as part of a complex network of regulatory proteins that determine the precise spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development, differentiation, and homeostasis in an organism.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

In medical terms, "wing" is not a term that is used as a standalone definition. However, it can be found in the context of certain anatomical structures or medical conditions. For instance, the "wings" of the lungs refer to the upper and lower portions of the lungs that extend from the main body of the organ. Similarly, in dermatology, "winging" is used to describe the spreading out or flaring of the wings of the nose, which can be a characteristic feature of certain skin conditions like lupus.

It's important to note that medical terminology can be highly specific and context-dependent, so it's always best to consult with a healthcare professional for accurate information related to medical definitions or diagnoses.

DNA-binding proteins are a type of protein that have the ability to bind to DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), the genetic material of organisms. These proteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as regulation of gene expression, DNA replication, repair and recombination.

The binding of DNA-binding proteins to specific DNA sequences is mediated by non-covalent interactions, including electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, and van der Waals forces. The specificity of binding is determined by the recognition of particular nucleotide sequences or structural features of the DNA molecule.

DNA-binding proteins can be classified into several categories based on their structure and function, such as transcription factors, histones, and restriction enzymes. Transcription factors are a major class of DNA-binding proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences in the promoter region of genes and recruiting other proteins to modulate transcription. Histones are DNA-binding proteins that package DNA into nucleosomes, the basic unit of chromatin structure. Restriction enzymes are DNA-binding proteins that recognize and cleave specific DNA sequences, and are widely used in molecular biology research and biotechnology applications.

In genetics, sequence alignment is the process of arranging two or more DNA, RNA, or protein sequences to identify regions of similarity or homology between them. This is often done using computational methods to compare the nucleotide or amino acid sequences and identify matching patterns, which can provide insight into evolutionary relationships, functional domains, or potential genetic disorders. The alignment process typically involves adjusting gaps and mismatches in the sequences to maximize the similarity between them, resulting in an aligned sequence that can be visually represented and analyzed.

Chromosome mapping, also known as physical mapping, is the process of determining the location and order of specific genes or genetic markers on a chromosome. This is typically done by using various laboratory techniques to identify landmarks along the chromosome, such as restriction enzyme cutting sites or patterns of DNA sequence repeats. The resulting map provides important information about the organization and structure of the genome, and can be used for a variety of purposes, including identifying the location of genes associated with genetic diseases, studying evolutionary relationships between organisms, and developing genetic markers for use in breeding or forensic applications.

Recombinant fusion proteins are artificially created biomolecules that combine the functional domains or properties of two or more different proteins into a single protein entity. They are generated through recombinant DNA technology, where the genes encoding the desired protein domains are linked together and expressed as a single, chimeric gene in a host organism, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells.

The resulting fusion protein retains the functional properties of its individual constituent proteins, allowing for novel applications in research, diagnostics, and therapeutics. For instance, recombinant fusion proteins can be designed to enhance protein stability, solubility, or immunogenicity, making them valuable tools for studying protein-protein interactions, developing targeted therapies, or generating vaccines against infectious diseases or cancer.

Examples of recombinant fusion proteins include:

1. Etaglunatide (ABT-523): A soluble Fc fusion protein that combines the heavy chain fragment crystallizable region (Fc) of an immunoglobulin with the extracellular domain of the human interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R). This fusion protein functions as a decoy receptor, neutralizing IL-6 and its downstream signaling pathways in rheumatoid arthritis.
2. Etanercept (Enbrel): A soluble TNF receptor p75 Fc fusion protein that binds to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and inhibits its proinflammatory activity, making it a valuable therapeutic option for treating autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and psoriasis.
3. Abatacept (Orencia): A fusion protein consisting of the extracellular domain of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) linked to the Fc region of an immunoglobulin, which downregulates T-cell activation and proliferation in autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis.
4. Belimumab (Benlysta): A monoclonal antibody that targets B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) protein, preventing its interaction with the B-cell surface receptor and inhibiting B-cell activation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
5. Romiplostim (Nplate): A fusion protein consisting of a thrombopoietin receptor agonist peptide linked to an immunoglobulin Fc region, which stimulates platelet production in patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP).
6. Darbepoetin alfa (Aranesp): A hyperglycosylated erythropoiesis-stimulating protein that functions as a longer-acting form of recombinant human erythropoietin, used to treat anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease or cancer.
7. Palivizumab (Synagis): A monoclonal antibody directed against the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which prevents RSV infection and is administered prophylactically to high-risk infants during the RSV season.
8. Ranibizumab (Lucentis): A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody fragment that binds and inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), used in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and other ocular disorders.
9. Cetuximab (Erbitux): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), used in the treatment of colorectal cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
10. Adalimumab (Humira): A fully humanized monoclonal antibody that targets tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and Crohn's disease.
11. Bevacizumab (Avastin): A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to VEGF-A, used in the treatment of various cancers, including colorectal, lung, breast, and kidney cancer.
12. Trastuzumab (Herceptin): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets HER2/neu receptor, used in the treatment of breast cancer.
13. Rituximab (Rituxan): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to CD20 antigen on B cells, used in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and rheumatoid arthritis.
14. Palivizumab (Synagis): A humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus, used in the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infection in high-risk infants.
15. Infliximab (Remicade): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
16. Natalizumab (Tysabri): A humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to α4β1 integrin, used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease.
17. Adalimumab (Humira): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis.
18. Golimumab (Simponi): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and ulcerative colitis.
19. Certolizumab pegol (Cimzia): A PEGylated Fab' fragment of a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and Crohn's disease.
20. Ustekinumab (Stelara): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-12 and IL-23, used in the treatment of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and Crohn's disease.
21. Secukinumab (Cosentyx): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A, used in the treatment of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
22. Ixekizumab (Taltz): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A, used in the treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.
23. Brodalumab (Siliq): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17 receptor A, used in the treatment of psoriasis.
24. Sarilumab (Kevzara): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets the IL-6 receptor, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
25. Tocilizumab (Actemra): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets the IL-6 receptor, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, giant cell arteritis, and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell-induced cytokine release syndrome.
26. Siltuximab (Sylvant): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6, used in the treatment of multicentric Castleman disease.
27. Satralizumab (Enspryng): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6 receptor alpha, used in the treatment of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.
28. Sirukumab (Plivensia): A human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6, used in the treatment

Complementary DNA (cDNA) is a type of DNA that is synthesized from a single-stranded RNA molecule through the process of reverse transcription. In this process, the enzyme reverse transcriptase uses an RNA molecule as a template to synthesize a complementary DNA strand. The resulting cDNA is therefore complementary to the original RNA molecule and is a copy of its coding sequence, but it does not contain non-coding regions such as introns that are present in genomic DNA.

Complementary DNA is often used in molecular biology research to study gene expression, protein function, and other genetic phenomena. For example, cDNA can be used to create cDNA libraries, which are collections of cloned cDNA fragments that represent the expressed genes in a particular cell type or tissue. These libraries can then be screened for specific genes or gene products of interest. Additionally, cDNA can be used to produce recombinant proteins in heterologous expression systems, allowing researchers to study the structure and function of proteins that may be difficult to express or purify from their native sources.

Photoreceptor cells in invertebrates are specialized sensory neurons that convert light stimuli into electrical signals. These cells are primarily responsible for the ability of many invertebrates to detect and respond to light, enabling behaviors such as phototaxis (movement towards or away from light) and vision.

Invertebrate photoreceptor cells typically contain light-sensitive pigments that absorb light at specific wavelengths. The most common type of photopigment is rhodopsin, which consists of a protein called opsin and a chromophore called retinal. When light hits the photopigment, it changes the conformation of the chromophore, triggering a cascade of molecular events that ultimately leads to the generation of an electrical signal.

Invertebrate photoreceptor cells can be found in various locations throughout the body, depending on their function. For example, simple eyespots containing a few photoreceptor cells may be scattered over the surface of the body in some species, while more complex eyes with hundreds or thousands of photoreceptors may be present in other groups. In addition to their role in vision, photoreceptor cells can also serve as sensory organs for regulating circadian rhythms, detecting changes in light intensity, and mediating social behaviors.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Nerve tissue proteins are specialized proteins found in the nervous system that provide structural and functional support to nerve cells, also known as neurons. These proteins include:

1. Neurofilaments: These are type IV intermediate filaments that provide structural support to neurons and help maintain their shape and size. They are composed of three subunits - NFL (light), NFM (medium), and NFH (heavy).

2. Neuronal Cytoskeletal Proteins: These include tubulins, actins, and spectrins that provide structural support to the neuronal cytoskeleton and help maintain its integrity.

3. Neurotransmitter Receptors: These are specialized proteins located on the postsynaptic membrane of neurons that bind neurotransmitters released by presynaptic neurons, triggering a response in the target cell.

4. Ion Channels: These are transmembrane proteins that regulate the flow of ions across the neuronal membrane and play a crucial role in generating and transmitting electrical signals in neurons.

5. Signaling Proteins: These include enzymes, receptors, and adaptor proteins that mediate intracellular signaling pathways involved in neuronal development, differentiation, survival, and death.

6. Adhesion Proteins: These are cell surface proteins that mediate cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, playing a crucial role in the formation and maintenance of neural circuits.

7. Extracellular Matrix Proteins: These include proteoglycans, laminins, and collagens that provide structural support to nerve tissue and regulate neuronal migration, differentiation, and survival.

Tertiary protein structure refers to the three-dimensional arrangement of all the elements (polypeptide chains) of a single protein molecule. It is the highest level of structural organization and results from interactions between various side chains (R groups) of the amino acids that make up the protein. These interactions, which include hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, van der Waals forces, and disulfide bridges, give the protein its unique shape and stability, which in turn determines its function. The tertiary structure of a protein can be stabilized by various factors such as temperature, pH, and the presence of certain ions. Any changes in these factors can lead to denaturation, where the protein loses its tertiary structure and thus its function.

Membrane proteins are a type of protein that are embedded in the lipid bilayer of biological membranes, such as the plasma membrane of cells or the inner membrane of mitochondria. These proteins play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including:

1. Cell-cell recognition and signaling
2. Transport of molecules across the membrane (selective permeability)
3. Enzymatic reactions at the membrane surface
4. Energy transduction and conversion
5. Mechanosensation and signal transduction

Membrane proteins can be classified into two main categories: integral membrane proteins, which are permanently associated with the lipid bilayer, and peripheral membrane proteins, which are temporarily or loosely attached to the membrane surface. Integral membrane proteins can further be divided into three subcategories based on their topology:

1. Transmembrane proteins, which span the entire width of the lipid bilayer with one or more alpha-helices or beta-barrels.
2. Lipid-anchored proteins, which are covalently attached to lipids in the membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor or other lipid modifications.
3. Monotopic proteins, which are partially embedded in the membrane and have one or more domains exposed to either side of the bilayer.

Membrane proteins are essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and are targets for various therapeutic interventions, including drug development and gene therapy. However, their structural complexity and hydrophobicity make them challenging to study using traditional biochemical methods, requiring specialized techniques such as X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM).

Insect hormones are chemical messengers that regulate various physiological and behavioral processes in insects. They are produced and released by endocrine glands and organs, such as the corpora allata, prothoracic glands, and neurosecretory cells located in the brain. Insect hormones play crucial roles in the regulation of growth and development, reproduction, diapause (a state of dormancy), metamorphosis, molting, and other vital functions. Some well-known insect hormones include juvenile hormone (JH), ecdysteroids (such as 20-hydroxyecdysone), and neuropeptides like the brain hormone and adipokinetic hormone. These hormones act through specific receptors, often transmembrane proteins, to elicit intracellular signaling cascades that ultimately lead to changes in gene expression, cell behavior, or organ function. Understanding insect hormones is essential for developing novel strategies for pest management and control, as well as for advancing our knowledge of insect biology and evolution.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the genetic material present in the cells of organisms where it is responsible for the storage and transmission of hereditary information. DNA is a long molecule that consists of two strands coiled together to form a double helix. Each strand is made up of a series of four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - that are linked together by phosphate and sugar groups. The sequence of these bases along the length of the molecule encodes genetic information, with A always pairing with T and C always pairing with G. This base-pairing allows for the replication and transcription of DNA, which are essential processes in the functioning and reproduction of all living organisms.

Zinc fingers are a type of protein structural motif involved in specific DNA binding and, by extension, in the regulation of gene expression. They are so named because of their characteristic "finger-like" shape that is formed when a zinc ion binds to the amino acids within the protein. This structure allows the protein to interact with and recognize specific DNA sequences, thereby playing a crucial role in various biological processes such as transcription, repair, and recombination of genetic material.

I must clarify that the term 'pupa' is not typically used in medical contexts. Instead, it is a term from the field of biology, particularly entomology, which is the study of insects.

In insect development, a pupa refers to a stage in the life cycle of certain insects undergoing complete metamorphosis. During this phase, the larval body undergoes significant transformation and reorganization within a protective casing called a chrysalis (in butterflies and moths) or a cocoon (in other insects). The old larval tissues are broken down and replaced with new adult structures. Once this process is complete, the pupal case opens, and the adult insect emerges.

Since 'pupa' is not a medical term, I couldn't provide a medical definition for it. However, I hope this explanation helps clarify its meaning in the context of biology.

Genetic transcription is the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is used to create a complementary RNA molecule. This process is the first step in gene expression, where the genetic code in DNA is converted into a form that can be used to produce proteins or functional RNAs.

During transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase binds to the DNA template strand and reads the sequence of nucleotide bases. As it moves along the template, it adds complementary RNA nucleotides to the growing RNA chain, creating a single-stranded RNA molecule that is complementary to the DNA template strand. Once transcription is complete, the RNA molecule may undergo further processing before it can be translated into protein or perform its functional role in the cell.

Transcription can be either "constitutive" or "regulated." Constitutive transcription occurs at a relatively constant rate and produces essential proteins that are required for basic cellular functions. Regulated transcription, on the other hand, is subject to control by various intracellular and extracellular signals, allowing cells to respond to changing environmental conditions or developmental cues.

Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.

In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.

Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

A genome in the context of insects refers to the complete set of genetic material, including all of the DNA and RNA, that is present in the cells of an insect. The genome contains all of the genes that provide the instructions for the development, growth, and function of the insect. It also includes non-coding regions of DNA that may have regulatory functions or may be the result of historical processes.

The genome of an insect is typically divided into several chromosomes, which are structures in the cell's nucleus that contain long stretches of DNA. The number and appearance of these chromosomes can vary between different species of insects. For example, some insects may have a diploid number of two sets of chromosomes (one set from each parent), while others may have a haploid number of a single set of chromosomes.

The genome size of insects can also vary significantly, with some species having genomes that are only a few hundred million base pairs in length, while others have genomes that are several billion base pairs long. The genome sequence of an insect can provide valuable insights into its evolutionary history, as well as information about the genes and regulatory elements that are important for its biology and behavior.

The eye is the organ of sight, primarily responsible for detecting and focusing on visual stimuli. It is a complex structure composed of various parts that work together to enable vision. Here are some of the main components of the eye:

1. Cornea: The clear front part of the eye that refracts light entering the eye and protects the eye from harmful particles and microorganisms.
2. Iris: The colored part of the eye that controls the amount of light reaching the retina by adjusting the size of the pupil.
3. Pupil: The opening in the center of the iris that allows light to enter the eye.
4. Lens: A biconvex structure located behind the iris that further refracts light and focuses it onto the retina.
5. Retina: A layer of light-sensitive cells (rods and cones) at the back of the eye that convert light into electrical signals, which are then transmitted to the brain via the optic nerve.
6. Optic Nerve: The nerve that carries visual information from the retina to the brain.
7. Vitreous: A clear, gel-like substance that fills the space between the lens and the retina, providing structural support to the eye.
8. Conjunctiva: A thin, transparent membrane that covers the front of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelids.
9. Extraocular Muscles: Six muscles that control the movement of the eye, allowing for proper alignment and focus.

The eye is a remarkable organ that allows us to perceive and interact with our surroundings. Various medical specialties, such as ophthalmology and optometry, are dedicated to the diagnosis, treatment, and management of various eye conditions and diseases.

Proteins are complex, large molecules that play critical roles in the body's functions. They are made up of amino acids, which are organic compounds that are the building blocks of proteins. Proteins are required for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's tissues and organs. They are essential for the growth, repair, and maintenance of body tissues, and they play a crucial role in many biological processes, including metabolism, immune response, and cellular signaling. Proteins can be classified into different types based on their structure and function, such as enzymes, hormones, antibodies, and structural proteins. They are found in various foods, especially animal-derived products like meat, dairy, and eggs, as well as plant-based sources like beans, nuts, and grains.

Carrier proteins, also known as transport proteins, are a type of protein that facilitates the movement of molecules across cell membranes. They are responsible for the selective and active transport of ions, sugars, amino acids, and other molecules from one side of the membrane to the other, against their concentration gradient. This process requires energy, usually in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).

Carrier proteins have a specific binding site for the molecule they transport, and undergo conformational changes upon binding, which allows them to move the molecule across the membrane. Once the molecule has been transported, the carrier protein returns to its original conformation, ready to bind and transport another molecule.

Carrier proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the balance of ions and other molecules inside and outside of cells, and are essential for many physiological processes, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and nutrient uptake.

The cell nucleus is a membrane-bound organelle found in the eukaryotic cells (cells with a true nucleus). It contains most of the cell's genetic material, organized as DNA molecules in complex with proteins, RNA molecules, and histones to form chromosomes.

The primary function of the cell nucleus is to regulate and control the activities of the cell, including growth, metabolism, protein synthesis, and reproduction. It also plays a crucial role in the process of mitosis (cell division) by separating and protecting the genetic material during this process. The nuclear membrane, or nuclear envelope, surrounding the nucleus is composed of two lipid bilayers with numerous pores that allow for the selective transport of molecules between the nucleoplasm (nucleus interior) and the cytoplasm (cell exterior).

The cell nucleus is a vital structure in eukaryotic cells, and its dysfunction can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

"Body patterning" is a general term that refers to the process of forming and organizing various tissues and structures into specific patterns during embryonic development. This complex process involves a variety of molecular mechanisms, including gene expression, cell signaling, and cell-cell interactions. It results in the creation of distinct body regions, such as the head, trunk, and limbs, as well as the organization of internal organs and systems.

In medical terminology, "body patterning" may refer to specific developmental processes or abnormalities related to embryonic development. For example, in genetic disorders such as Poland syndrome or Holt-Oram syndrome, mutations in certain genes can lead to abnormal body patterning, resulting in the absence or underdevelopment of certain muscles, bones, or other structures.

It's important to note that "body patterning" is not a formal medical term with a specific definition, but rather a general concept used in developmental biology and genetics.

Oogenesis is the biological process of formation and maturation of female gametes, or ova or egg cells, in the ovary. It begins during fetal development and continues throughout a woman's reproductive years. The process involves the division and differentiation of a germ cell (oogonium) into an immature ovum (oocyte), which then undergoes meiotic division to form a mature ovum capable of being fertilized by sperm.

The main steps in oogenesis include:

1. Multiplication phase: The oogonia divide mitotically to increase their number.
2. Growth phase: One of the oogonia becomes primary oocyte and starts to grow, accumulating nutrients and organelles required for future development.
3. First meiotic division: The primary oocyte undergoes an incomplete first meiotic division, resulting in two haploid cells - a secondary oocyte and a smaller cell called the first polar body. This division is arrested in prophase I until puberty.
4. Second meiotic division: At ovulation or just before fertilization, the secondary oocyte completes the second meiotic division, producing another small cell, the second polar body, and a mature ovum (egg) with 23 chromosomes.
5. Fertilization: The mature ovum can be fertilized by a sperm, restoring the normal diploid number of chromosomes in the resulting zygote.

Oogenesis is a complex and highly regulated process that involves various hormonal signals and cellular interactions to ensure proper development and maturation of female gametes for successful reproduction.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

A lethal gene is a type of gene that causes the death of an organism or prevents it from surviving to maturity. This can occur when the gene contains a mutation that disrupts the function of a protein essential for the organism's survival. In some cases, the presence of two copies of a lethal gene (one inherited from each parent) can result in a condition that is incompatible with life, and the organism will not survive beyond embryonic development or shortly after birth.

Lethal genes can also contribute to genetic disorders, where the disruption of protein function caused by the mutation leads to progressive degeneration and ultimately death. In some cases, lethal genes may only cause harm when expressed in certain tissues or at specific stages of development, leading to a range of phenotypes from embryonic lethality to adult-onset disorders.

It's important to note that the term "lethal" is relative and can depend on various factors such as genetic background, environmental conditions, and the presence of modifier genes. Additionally, some lethal genes may be targeted for gene editing or other therapeutic interventions to prevent their harmful effects.

"Genetic crosses" refer to the breeding of individuals with different genetic characteristics to produce offspring with specific combinations of traits. This process is commonly used in genetics research to study the inheritance patterns and function of specific genes.

There are several types of genetic crosses, including:

1. Monohybrid cross: A cross between two individuals that differ in the expression of a single gene or trait.
2. Dihybrid cross: A cross between two individuals that differ in the expression of two genes or traits.
3. Backcross: A cross between an individual from a hybrid population and one of its parental lines.
4. Testcross: A cross between an individual with unknown genotype and a homozygous recessive individual.
5. Reciprocal cross: A cross in which the male and female parents are reversed to determine if there is any effect of sex on the expression of the trait.

These genetic crosses help researchers to understand the mode of inheritance, linkage, recombination, and other genetic phenomena.

Morphogenesis is a term used in developmental biology and refers to the process by which cells give rise to tissues and organs with specific shapes, structures, and patterns during embryonic development. This process involves complex interactions between genes, cells, and the extracellular environment that result in the coordinated movement and differentiation of cells into specialized functional units.

Morphogenesis is a dynamic and highly regulated process that involves several mechanisms, including cell proliferation, death, migration, adhesion, and differentiation. These processes are controlled by genetic programs and signaling pathways that respond to environmental cues and regulate the behavior of individual cells within a developing tissue or organ.

The study of morphogenesis is important for understanding how complex biological structures form during development and how these processes can go awry in disease states such as cancer, birth defects, and degenerative disorders.

Wnt1 protein is a member of the Wnt family, which is a group of secreted signaling proteins that play crucial roles in embryonic development and tissue homeostasis in adults. Specifically, Wnt1 is a highly conserved gene that encodes a glycoprotein with a molecular weight of approximately 40 kDa. It is primarily expressed in the developing nervous system, where it functions as a key regulator of neural crest cell migration and differentiation during embryogenesis.

Wnt1 protein mediates its effects by binding to Frizzled receptors on the surface of target cells, leading to the activation of several intracellular signaling pathways, including the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway and non-canonical Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway. In the canonical pathway, Wnt1 protein stabilizes β-catenin, which then translocates to the nucleus and interacts with TCF/LEF transcription factors to regulate gene expression.

Dysregulation of Wnt1 signaling has been implicated in several human diseases, including cancer. For example, aberrant activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by Wnt1 protein has been observed in various types of tumors, such as medulloblastomas and breast cancers, leading to uncontrolled cell proliferation and tumor growth. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying Wnt1 signaling is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies for treating these diseases.

Homeodomain proteins are a group of transcription factors that play crucial roles in the development and differentiation of cells in animals and plants. They are characterized by the presence of a highly conserved DNA-binding domain called the homeodomain, which is typically about 60 amino acids long. The homeodomain consists of three helices, with the third helix responsible for recognizing and binding to specific DNA sequences.

Homeodomain proteins are involved in regulating gene expression during embryonic development, tissue maintenance, and organismal growth. They can act as activators or repressors of transcription, depending on the context and the presence of cofactors. Mutations in homeodomain proteins have been associated with various human diseases, including cancer, congenital abnormalities, and neurological disorders.

Some examples of homeodomain proteins include PAX6, which is essential for eye development, HOX genes, which are involved in body patterning, and NANOG, which plays a role in maintaining pluripotency in stem cells.

Ecdysone is a steroid hormone that triggers molting in arthropods, including insects. It's responsible for the regulation of growth and development in these organisms. When ecdysone binds to specific receptors within the cell, it initiates a cascade of events leading to the shedding of the old exoskeleton and the formation of a new one. This process is essential for the growth and survival of arthropods, as their rigid exoskeletons do not allow for expansion. By understanding ecdysone and its role in insect development, researchers can develop targeted strategies to control pest insect populations.

"Mushroom bodies" is a term that is primarily used in the field of insect neuroanatomy, rather than human or mammalian medicine. They are a pair of prominent structures in the insect brain, located in the olfactory processing center and involved in sensory integration, learning, and memory.

These structures have a distinctive morphology, resembling a mushroom with a large cap-like structure (the calyx) sitting atop a stalk (the peduncle). The calyx receives input from various sensory neurons, while the peduncle and its downstream processes are involved in information processing and output.

While not directly relevant to human medicine, understanding the organization and function of insect nervous systems can provide valuable insights into the evolution of neural circuits and behaviors across species.

The blastoderm is the layer of cells that forms on the surface of a developing embryo, during the blastula stage of embryonic development. In mammals, this layer of cells is also known as the epiblast. The blastoderm is responsible for giving rise to all of the tissues and organs of the developing organism. It is formed by the cleavage of the fertilized egg, or zygote, and is typically a single layer of cells that surrounds a fluid-filled cavity called the blastocoel. The blastoderm plays a critical role in the early stages of embryonic development, and any disruptions to its formation or function can lead to developmental abnormalities or death of the embryo.

Chromosomes are thread-like structures that exist in the nucleus of cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes. They are composed of DNA and proteins, and are typically present in pairs in the nucleus, with one set inherited from each parent. In humans, there are 23 pairs of chromosomes for a total of 46 chromosomes. Chromosomes come in different shapes and forms, including sex chromosomes (X and Y) that determine the biological sex of an individual. Changes or abnormalities in the number or structure of chromosomes can lead to genetic disorders and diseases.

Sense organs are specialized structures in living organisms that are responsible for receiving and processing various external or internal stimuli, such as light, sound, taste, smell, temperature, and touch. They convert these stimuli into electrical signals that can be interpreted by the nervous system, allowing the organism to interact with and respond to its environment. Examples of sense organs include the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin.

Biological metamorphosis is a complex process of transformation that certain organisms undergo during their development from embryo to adult. This process involves profound changes in form, function, and structure of the organism, often including modifications of various body parts, reorganization of internal organs, and changes in physiology.

In metamorphosis, a larval or juvenile form of an animal is significantly different from its adult form, both morphologically and behaviorally. This phenomenon is particularly common in insects, amphibians, and some fish and crustaceans. The most well-known examples include the transformation of a caterpillar into a butterfly or a tadpole into a frog.

The mechanisms that drive metamorphosis are regulated by hormonal signals and genetic programs. In many cases, metamorphosis is triggered by environmental factors such as temperature, moisture, or food availability, which interact with the organism's internal developmental cues to initiate the transformation. The process of metamorphosis allows these organisms to exploit different ecological niches at different stages of their lives and contributes to their evolutionary success.

In situ hybridization (ISH) is a molecular biology technique used to detect and localize specific nucleic acid sequences, such as DNA or RNA, within cells or tissues. This technique involves the use of a labeled probe that is complementary to the target nucleic acid sequence. The probe can be labeled with various types of markers, including radioisotopes, fluorescent dyes, or enzymes.

During the ISH procedure, the labeled probe is hybridized to the target nucleic acid sequence in situ, meaning that the hybridization occurs within the intact cells or tissues. After washing away unbound probe, the location of the labeled probe can be visualized using various methods depending on the type of label used.

In situ hybridization has a wide range of applications in both research and diagnostic settings, including the detection of gene expression patterns, identification of viral infections, and diagnosis of genetic disorders.

Notch receptors are a type of transmembrane receptor proteins that play crucial roles in cell-cell communication and regulation of various biological processes, including cell fate determination, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. These receptors are highly conserved across species and are essential for normal development and tissue homeostasis.

The Notch signaling pathway is initiated when the extracellular domain of a Notch receptor on one cell interacts with its ligand (such as Delta or Jagged) on an adjacent cell. This interaction triggers a series of proteolytic cleavage events that release the intracellular domain of the Notch receptor, which then translocates to the nucleus and regulates gene expression by interacting with transcription factors like CSL (CBF1/RBP-Jκ/Su(H)/Lag-1).

There are four known Notch receptors in humans (Notch1-4) that share a similar structure, consisting of an extracellular domain containing multiple epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats, a transmembrane domain, and an intracellular domain. Mutations or dysregulation of the Notch signaling pathway have been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disorders, and developmental abnormalities.

The nervous system is a complex, highly organized network of specialized cells called neurons and glial cells that communicate with each other via electrical and chemical signals to coordinate various functions and activities in the body. It consists of two main parts: the central nervous system (CNS), including the brain and spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system (PNS), which includes all the nerves and ganglia outside the CNS.

The primary function of the nervous system is to receive, process, and integrate information from both internal and external environments and then respond by generating appropriate motor outputs or behaviors. This involves sensing various stimuli through specialized receptors, transmitting this information through afferent neurons to the CNS for processing, integrating this information with other inputs and memories, making decisions based on this processed information, and finally executing responses through efferent neurons that control effector organs such as muscles and glands.

The nervous system can be further divided into subsystems based on their functions, including the somatic nervous system, which controls voluntary movements and reflexes; the autonomic nervous system, which regulates involuntary physiological processes like heart rate, digestion, and respiration; and the enteric nervous system, which is a specialized subset of the autonomic nervous system that controls gut functions. Overall, the nervous system plays a critical role in maintaining homeostasis, regulating behavior, and enabling cognition and consciousness.

Chromosomes in insects are thread-like structures that contain genetic material, made up of DNA and proteins, found in the nucleus of a cell. In insects, like other eukaryotes, chromosomes come in pairs, with one set inherited from each parent. They are crucial for the inheritance, storage, and transmission of genetic information from one generation to the next.

Insects typically have a diploid number of chromosomes (2n), which varies among species. The chromosomes are present in the cell's nucleus during interphase as loosely coiled structures called chromatin. During cell division, they condense and become visible under the microscope as distinct, X-shaped structures called metaphase chromosomes.

The insect chromosome set includes autosomal chromosomes, which are identical in appearance and function between males and females, and sex chromosomes, which differ between males and females. In many insects, the males have an XY sex chromosome constitution, while the females have an XX sex chromosome constitution. The sex chromosomes carry genes that determine the sex of the individual.

Insect chromosomes play a vital role in various biological processes, including development, reproduction, and evolution. They are also essential for genetic research and breeding programs in agriculture and medicine.

A "fat body" is not a medical term that is typically used to describe human anatomy. It is more commonly used in the context of insects and other invertebrates, where it refers to a specialized tissue that functions to store energy in the form of fat.

However, in humans, we do have adipose tissue, which is the medical term for body fat. Adipose tissue is found throughout the body, but is particularly concentrated in certain areas such as the abdomen, hips, and thighs. It serves a variety of functions, including storing energy, insulating the body, and producing hormones that regulate metabolism and appetite.

If you are looking for information on obesity or excess body fat in humans, there are many medical resources available to help you understand these topics better.

Homeobox genes are a specific class of genes that play a crucial role in the development and regulation of an organism's body plan. They encode transcription factors, which are proteins that regulate the expression of other genes. The homeobox region within these genes contains a highly conserved sequence of about 180 base pairs that encodes a DNA-binding domain called the homeodomain. This domain is responsible for recognizing and binding to specific DNA sequences, thereby controlling the transcription of target genes.

Homeobox genes are particularly important during embryonic development, where they help establish the anterior-posterior axis and regulate the development of various organs and body segments. They also play a role in maintaining adult tissue homeostasis and have been implicated in certain diseases, including cancer. Mutations in homeobox genes can lead to developmental abnormalities and congenital disorders.

Some examples of homeobox gene families include HOX genes, PAX genes, and NKX genes, among others. These genes are highly conserved across species, indicating their fundamental role in the development and regulation of body plans throughout the animal kingdom.

DNA transposable elements, also known as transposons or jumping genes, are mobile genetic elements that can change their position within a genome. They are composed of DNA sequences that include genes encoding the enzymes required for their own movement (transposase) and regulatory elements. When activated, the transposase recognizes specific sequences at the ends of the element and catalyzes the excision and reintegration of the transposable element into a new location in the genome. This process can lead to genetic variation, as the insertion of a transposable element can disrupt the function of nearby genes or create new combinations of gene regulatory elements. Transposable elements are widespread in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes and are thought to play a significant role in genome evolution.

The X chromosome is one of the two types of sex-determining chromosomes in humans (the other being the Y chromosome). It's one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes that make up a person's genetic material. Females typically have two copies of the X chromosome (XX), while males usually have one X and one Y chromosome (XY).

The X chromosome contains hundreds of genes that are responsible for the production of various proteins, many of which are essential for normal bodily functions. Some of the critical roles of the X chromosome include:

1. Sex Determination: The presence or absence of the Y chromosome determines whether an individual is male or female. If there is no Y chromosome, the individual will typically develop as a female.
2. Genetic Disorders: Since females have two copies of the X chromosome, they are less likely to be affected by X-linked genetic disorders than males. Males, having only one X chromosome, will express any recessive X-linked traits they inherit.
3. Dosage Compensation: To compensate for the difference in gene dosage between males and females, a process called X-inactivation occurs during female embryonic development. One of the two X chromosomes is randomly inactivated in each cell, resulting in a single functional copy per cell.

The X chromosome plays a crucial role in human genetics and development, contributing to various traits and characteristics, including sex determination and dosage compensation.

RNA interference (RNAi) is a biological process in which RNA molecules inhibit the expression of specific genes. This process is mediated by small RNA molecules, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), that bind to complementary sequences on messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules, leading to their degradation or translation inhibition.

RNAi plays a crucial role in regulating gene expression and defending against foreign genetic elements, such as viruses and transposons. It has also emerged as an important tool for studying gene function and developing therapeutic strategies for various diseases, including cancer and viral infections.

Molecular evolution is the process of change in the DNA sequence or protein structure over time, driven by mechanisms such as mutation, genetic drift, gene flow, and natural selection. It refers to the evolutionary study of changes in DNA, RNA, and proteins, and how these changes accumulate and lead to new species and diversity of life. Molecular evolution can be used to understand the history and relationships among different organisms, as well as the functional consequences of genetic changes.

An allele is a variant form of a gene that is located at a specific position on a specific chromosome. Alleles are alternative forms of the same gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same locus or position on homologous chromosomes.

Each person typically inherits two copies of each gene, one from each parent. If the two alleles are identical, a person is said to be homozygous for that trait. If the alleles are different, the person is heterozygous.

For example, the ABO blood group system has three alleles, A, B, and O, which determine a person's blood type. If a person inherits two A alleles, they will have type A blood; if they inherit one A and one B allele, they will have type AB blood; if they inherit two B alleles, they will have type B blood; and if they inherit two O alleles, they will have type O blood.

Alleles can also influence traits such as eye color, hair color, height, and other physical characteristics. Some alleles are dominant, meaning that only one copy of the allele is needed to express the trait, while others are recessive, meaning that two copies of the allele are needed to express the trait.

Repressor proteins are a type of regulatory protein in molecular biology that suppress the transcription of specific genes into messenger RNA (mRNA) by binding to DNA. They function as part of gene regulation processes, often working in conjunction with an operator region and a promoter region within the DNA molecule. Repressor proteins can be activated or deactivated by various signals, allowing for precise control over gene expression in response to changing cellular conditions.

There are two main types of repressor proteins:

1. DNA-binding repressors: These directly bind to specific DNA sequences (operator regions) near the target gene and prevent RNA polymerase from transcribing the gene into mRNA.
2. Allosteric repressors: These bind to effector molecules, which then cause a conformational change in the repressor protein, enabling it to bind to DNA and inhibit transcription.

Repressor proteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as development, metabolism, and stress response, by controlling gene expression patterns in cells.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

Hemocytes are specialized cells found in the open circulatory system of invertebrates, including insects, crustaceans, and mollusks. They play crucial roles in the immune response and defense mechanisms of these organisms. Hemocytes can be categorized into several types based on their functions and morphologies, such as phagocytic cells, encapsulating cells, and clotting cells. These cells are responsible for various immunological activities, including recognition and removal of foreign particles, pathogens, and debris; production of immune effector molecules; and contribution to the formation of blood clots to prevent excessive bleeding. In some invertebrates, hemocytes also participate in wound healing, tissue repair, and other physiological processes.

A transgene is a segment of DNA that has been artificially transferred from one organism to another, typically between different species, to introduce a new trait or characteristic. The term "transgene" specifically refers to the genetic material that has been transferred and has become integrated into the host organism's genome. This technology is often used in genetic engineering and biomedical research, including the development of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for agricultural purposes or the creation of animal models for studying human diseases.

Transgenes can be created using various techniques, such as molecular cloning, where a desired gene is isolated, manipulated, and then inserted into a vector (a small DNA molecule, such as a plasmid) that can efficiently enter the host organism's cells. Once inside the cell, the transgene can integrate into the host genome, allowing for the expression of the new trait in the resulting transgenic organism.

It is important to note that while transgenes can provide valuable insights and benefits in research and agriculture, their use and release into the environment are subjects of ongoing debate due to concerns about potential ecological impacts and human health risks.

A conserved sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to a pattern of nucleotides (in DNA or RNA) or amino acids (in proteins) that has remained relatively unchanged over evolutionary time. These sequences are often functionally important and are highly conserved across different species, indicating strong selection pressure against changes in these regions.

In the case of protein-coding genes, the corresponding amino acid sequence is deduced from the DNA sequence through the genetic code. Conserved sequences in proteins may indicate structurally or functionally important regions, such as active sites or binding sites, that are critical for the protein's activity. Similarly, conserved non-coding sequences in DNA may represent regulatory elements that control gene expression.

Identifying conserved sequences can be useful for inferring evolutionary relationships between species and for predicting the function of unknown genes or proteins.

Armadillo (ARM) domain proteins are a family of conserved cytoskeletal proteins characterized by the presence of armadillo repeats, which are structural motifs involved in protein-protein interactions. These proteins play crucial roles in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, cell adhesion, and intracellular transport.

The ARM domain is composed of multiple tandem repeats (usually 4 to 12) of approximately 40-42 amino acid residues. Each repeat forms a pair of antiparallel alpha-helices that stack together to create a superhelix structure, which provides a binding surface for various partner proteins.

Examples of ARM domain proteins include:

1. β-catenin and plakoglobin (also known as γ-catenin): These proteins are essential components of the Wnt signaling pathway, where they interact with transcription factors to regulate gene expression. They also play a role in cell adhesion by binding to cadherins at the plasma membrane.
2. Paxillin: A focal adhesion protein that interacts with various structural and signaling molecules, including integrins, growth factor receptors, and kinases, to regulate cell migration and adhesion.
3. Importin-α: A nuclear transport receptor that recognizes and binds to cargo proteins containing a nuclear localization signal (NLS), facilitating their import into the nucleus through interaction with importin-β and the nuclear pore complex.
4. DEC1 (also known as STRA13): A transcriptional repressor involved in cell differentiation, apoptosis, and circadian rhythm regulation.
5. HEF1/NEDD9: A scaffolding protein that interacts with various signaling molecules to regulate cell migration, adhesion, and survival.
6. p120-catenin: A member of the catenin family that regulates cadherin stability and function in cell adhesion.

These proteins have been implicated in several human diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurological disorders.

The optic lobe in non-mammals refers to a specific region of the brain that is responsible for processing visual information. It is a part of the protocerebrum in the insect brain and is analogous to the mammalian visual cortex. The optic lobes receive input directly from the eyes via the optic nerves and are involved in the interpretation and integration of visual stimuli, enabling non-mammals to perceive and respond to their environment. In some invertebrates, like insects, the optic lobe is further divided into subregions, including the lamina, medulla, and lobula, each with distinct functions in visual processing.

Genetic models are theoretical frameworks used in genetics to describe and explain the inheritance patterns and genetic architecture of traits, diseases, or phenomena. These models are based on mathematical equations and statistical methods that incorporate information about gene frequencies, modes of inheritance, and the effects of environmental factors. They can be used to predict the probability of certain genetic outcomes, to understand the genetic basis of complex traits, and to inform medical management and treatment decisions.

There are several types of genetic models, including:

1. Mendelian models: These models describe the inheritance patterns of simple genetic traits that follow Mendel's laws of segregation and independent assortment. Examples include autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X-linked inheritance.
2. Complex trait models: These models describe the inheritance patterns of complex traits that are influenced by multiple genes and environmental factors. Examples include heart disease, diabetes, and cancer.
3. Population genetics models: These models describe the distribution and frequency of genetic variants within populations over time. They can be used to study evolutionary processes, such as natural selection and genetic drift.
4. Quantitative genetics models: These models describe the relationship between genetic variation and phenotypic variation in continuous traits, such as height or IQ. They can be used to estimate heritability and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that contribute to trait variation.
5. Statistical genetics models: These models use statistical methods to analyze genetic data and infer the presence of genetic associations or linkage. They can be used to identify genetic risk factors for diseases or traits.

Overall, genetic models are essential tools in genetics research and medical genetics, as they allow researchers to make predictions about genetic outcomes, test hypotheses about the genetic basis of traits and diseases, and develop strategies for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.

The Central Nervous System (CNS) is the part of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord. It is called the "central" system because it receives information from, and sends information to, the rest of the body through peripheral nerves, which make up the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS).

The CNS is responsible for processing sensory information, controlling motor functions, and regulating various autonomic processes like heart rate, respiration, and digestion. The brain, as the command center of the CNS, interprets sensory stimuli, formulates thoughts, and initiates actions. The spinal cord serves as a conduit for nerve impulses traveling to and from the brain and the rest of the body.

The CNS is protected by several structures, including the skull (which houses the brain) and the vertebral column (which surrounds and protects the spinal cord). Despite these protective measures, the CNS remains vulnerable to injury and disease, which can have severe consequences due to its crucial role in controlling essential bodily functions.

Malpighian tubules are specialized excretory structures found in the circulatory system of many arthropods, including insects. They are named after Marcello Malpighi, an Italian physician and biologist who was one of the first to describe them. These tubules play a crucial role in eliminating waste products and maintaining water and ion balance within the insect's body.

Functionally, Malpighian tubules are analogous to the vertebrate kidneys as they filter the hemolymph (insect blood) and reabsorb necessary substances while excreting waste materials. The main waste product excreted by these tubules is uric acid, which is a less toxic form of nitrogenous waste compared to urea or ammonia, making it more suitable for terrestrial arthropods.

Malpighian tubules originate from the midgut epithelium and extend into the hemocoel (insect body cavity). They are lined with a single layer of epithelial cells that contain microvilli, increasing their surface area for efficient filtration. The tubules receive nutrient-rich hemolymph from the hemocoel through open-ended or blind-ended structures called ostia.

The filtrate formed by Malpighian tubules passes through a series of cellular transport processes involving both active and passive transport mechanisms. These processes help in reabsorbing water, ions, and nutrients back into the hemolymph while concentrating waste products for excretion. The final waste-laden fluid is then released into the hindgut, where it gets mixed with fecal material before being eliminated from the body through the anus.

In summary, Malpighian tubules are vital excretory organs in arthropods that filter hemolymph, reabsorb essential substances, and excrete waste products to maintain homeostasis within their bodies.

Salivary glands are exocrine glands that produce saliva, which is secreted into the oral cavity to keep the mouth and throat moist, aid in digestion by initiating food breakdown, and help maintain dental health. There are three major pairs of salivary glands: the parotid glands located in the cheeks, the submandibular glands found beneath the jaw, and the sublingual glands situated under the tongue. Additionally, there are numerous minor salivary glands distributed throughout the oral cavity lining. These glands release their secretions through a system of ducts into the mouth.

Imaginal discs are embryonic structures found in insects that give rise to specific organs or body segments during metamorphosis. They are formed during the early stages of embryonic development and remain dormant until the larval stage is complete. At the onset of metamorphosis, imaginal discs grow and differentiate into various adult structures such as wings, legs, antennae, and other external body parts. This process allows insects to undergo a significant transformation between their larval and adult forms.

Eye proteins, also known as ocular proteins, are specific proteins that are found within the eye and play crucial roles in maintaining proper eye function and health. These proteins can be found in various parts of the eye, including the cornea, iris, lens, retina, and other structures. They perform a wide range of functions, such as:

1. Structural support: Proteins like collagen and elastin provide strength and flexibility to the eye's tissues, enabling them to maintain their shape and withstand mechanical stress.
2. Light absorption and transmission: Proteins like opsins and crystallins are involved in capturing and transmitting light signals within the eye, which is essential for vision.
3. Protection against damage: Some eye proteins, such as antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins, help protect the eye from oxidative stress, UV radiation, and other environmental factors that can cause damage.
4. Regulation of eye growth and development: Various growth factors and signaling molecules, which are protein-based, contribute to the proper growth, differentiation, and maintenance of eye tissues during embryonic development and throughout adulthood.
5. Immune defense: Proteins involved in the immune response, such as complement components and immunoglobulins, help protect the eye from infection and inflammation.
6. Maintenance of transparency: Crystallin proteins in the lens maintain its transparency, allowing light to pass through unobstructed for clear vision.
7. Neuroprotection: Certain eye proteins, like brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), support the survival and function of neurons within the retina, helping to preserve vision.

Dysfunction or damage to these eye proteins can contribute to various eye disorders and diseases, such as cataracts, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and others.

A compound eye is a characteristic type of eye found in arthropods, including insects, crustaceans, and some extinct fossil groups. Each eye is composed of numerous individual photoreceptor units called ommatidia, which function together to provide a wide field of vision and excellent motion detection capabilities.

In an arthropod compound eye, each ommatidium contains a group of visual cells (called retinula cells) surrounding a central rhabdomere, which is the light-sensitive structure that converts light into electrical signals. The number of ommatidia in a compound eye can vary greatly between species and even within different regions of an individual's eye, ranging from just a few to tens of thousands.

Compound eyes offer several advantages for arthropods:

1. Wide Field of Vision: Compound eyes provide a panoramic view of the environment, allowing arthropods to detect predators, prey, or mates from various directions simultaneously.
2. Motion Detection: The apposition-type compound eye (one type of compound eye structure) is particularly adept at detecting motion due to the neural processing of signals between adjacent ommatidia. This allows arthropods to respond quickly to potential threats or opportunities.
3. Light Adaptation: Compound eyes can adapt to different light conditions, allowing arthropods to function effectively in both bright daylight and dimly lit environments. Some species have specialized regions within their compound eyes that are optimized for specific light conditions, such as the dorsal rim area in insects, which is sensitive to polarized skylight.
4. UV Sensitivity: Many arthropods can detect ultraviolet (UV) light due to the presence of photopigments within their ommatidia that absorb UV wavelengths. This ability allows them to perceive patterns and cues in their environment that are invisible to humans, such as floral guides in bees or mate-recognition signals in certain insects.

Despite their limitations in terms of resolution and image quality compared to vertebrate eyes, compound eyes have evolved to serve the unique needs and ecological roles of arthropods effectively.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

Biological models, also known as physiological models or organismal models, are simplified representations of biological systems, processes, or mechanisms that are used to understand and explain the underlying principles and relationships. These models can be theoretical (conceptual or mathematical) or physical (such as anatomical models, cell cultures, or animal models). They are widely used in biomedical research to study various phenomena, including disease pathophysiology, drug action, and therapeutic interventions.

Examples of biological models include:

1. Mathematical models: These use mathematical equations and formulas to describe complex biological systems or processes, such as population dynamics, metabolic pathways, or gene regulation networks. They can help predict the behavior of these systems under different conditions and test hypotheses about their underlying mechanisms.
2. Cell cultures: These are collections of cells grown in a controlled environment, typically in a laboratory dish or flask. They can be used to study cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene expression, or metabolism, and to test the effects of drugs or other treatments on these processes.
3. Animal models: These are living organisms, usually vertebrates like mice, rats, or non-human primates, that are used to study various aspects of human biology and disease. They can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of diseases, the mechanisms of drug action, and the safety and efficacy of new therapies.
4. Anatomical models: These are physical representations of biological structures or systems, such as plastic models of organs or tissues, that can be used for educational purposes or to plan surgical procedures. They can also serve as a basis for developing more sophisticated models, such as computer simulations or 3D-printed replicas.

Overall, biological models play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of biology and medicine, helping to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention, develop novel drugs and treatments, and improve human health.

Ecdysterone is a type of steroid hormone that occurs naturally in various plants and animals. In animals, ecdysterones are known to play important roles in the growth, development, and reproduction of arthropods, such as insects and crustaceans. They are called "ecdysteroids" and are crucial for the process of molting, in which the arthropod sheds its exoskeleton to grow a new one.

In plants, ecdysterones are believed to function as growth regulators and defense compounds. Some studies suggest that they may help protect plants against pests and pathogens.

Ecdysterone has also gained attention in the context of human health and performance enhancement. While it is not a hormone naturally produced by the human body, some research suggests that ecdysterone may have anabolic effects, meaning it could potentially promote muscle growth and improve physical performance. However, more studies are needed to confirm these findings and establish the safety and efficacy of ecdysterone supplementation in humans.

It is important to note that the use of performance-enhancing substances, including ecdysterone, may be subject to regulations and anti-doping rules in various sports organizations. Always consult with a healthcare professional before starting any new supplement regimen.

To the best of my knowledge, there is no medical definition for "courtship" as it is a term that is more commonly used in social and cultural contexts rather than in the field of medicine. Courtship generally refers to the period of time during which two people engage in various social activities to get to know each other and determine whether they are compatible before deciding to start a romantic relationship or get married.

However, it's worth noting that some aspects of courtship, such as dating and forming intimate relationships, can have implications for mental and physical health. For example, having positive and satisfying relationships is associated with better mental and physical health outcomes, while being in abusive or unhealthy relationships can negatively impact one's well-being.

Eye color is a characteristic determined by variations in a person's genes. The color of the eyes depends on the amount and type of pigment called melanin found in the eye's iris.

There are three main types of eye colors: brown, blue, and green. Brown eyes have the most melanin, while blue eyes have the least. Green eyes have a moderate amount of melanin combined with a golden tint that reflects light to give them their unique color.

Eye color is a polygenic trait, which means it is influenced by multiple genes. The two main genes responsible for eye color are OCA2 and HERC2, both located on chromosome 15. These genes control the production, transport, and storage of melanin in the iris.

It's important to note that eye color can change during infancy and early childhood due to the development of melanin in the iris. Additionally, some medications or medical conditions may also cause changes in eye color over time.

Longevity, in a medical context, refers to the condition of living for a long period of time. It is often used to describe individuals who have reached a advanced age, such as 85 years or older, and is sometimes associated with the study of aging and factors that contribute to a longer lifespan.

It's important to note that longevity can be influenced by various genetic and environmental factors, including family history, lifestyle choices, and access to quality healthcare. Some researchers are also studying the potential impact of certain medical interventions, such as stem cell therapies and caloric restriction, on lifespan and healthy aging.

Germ cells are the reproductive cells, also known as sex cells, that combine to form offspring in sexual reproduction. In females, germ cells are called ova or egg cells, and in males, they are called spermatozoa or sperm cells. These cells are unique because they carry half the genetic material necessary for creating new life. They are produced through a process called meiosis, which reduces their chromosome number by half, ensuring that when two germ cells combine during fertilization, the normal diploid number of chromosomes is restored.

Heterochromatin is a type of chromatin (the complex of DNA, RNA, and proteins that make up chromosomes) that is characterized by its tightly packed structure and reduced genetic activity. It is often densely stained with certain dyes due to its high concentration of histone proteins and other chromatin-associated proteins. Heterochromatin can be further divided into two subtypes: constitutive heterochromatin, which is consistently highly condensed and transcriptionally inactive throughout the cell cycle, and facultative heterochromatin, which can switch between a condensed, inactive state and a more relaxed, active state depending on the needs of the cell. Heterochromatin plays important roles in maintaining the stability and integrity of the genome by preventing the transcription of repetitive DNA sequences and protecting against the spread of transposable elements.

Biological evolution is the change in the genetic composition of populations of organisms over time, from one generation to the next. It is a process that results in descendants differing genetically from their ancestors. Biological evolution can be driven by several mechanisms, including natural selection, genetic drift, gene flow, and mutation. These processes can lead to changes in the frequency of alleles (variants of a gene) within populations, resulting in the development of new species and the extinction of others over long periods of time. Biological evolution provides a unifying explanation for the diversity of life on Earth and is supported by extensive evidence from many different fields of science, including genetics, paleontology, comparative anatomy, and biogeography.

Fertility is the natural ability to conceive or to cause conception of offspring. In humans, it is the capacity of a woman and a man to reproduce through sexual reproduction. For women, fertility usually takes place during their reproductive years, which is from adolescence until menopause. A woman's fertility depends on various factors including her age, overall health, and the health of her reproductive system.

For men, fertility can be affected by a variety of factors such as age, genetics, general health, sexual function, and environmental factors that may affect sperm production or quality. Factors that can negatively impact male fertility include exposure to certain chemicals, radiation, smoking, alcohol consumption, drug use, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

Infertility is a common medical condition affecting about 10-15% of couples trying to conceive. Infertility can be primary or secondary. Primary infertility refers to the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected sexual intercourse, while secondary infertility refers to the inability to conceive following a previous pregnancy.

Infertility can be treated with various medical and surgical interventions depending on the underlying cause. These may include medications to stimulate ovulation, intrauterine insemination (IUI), in vitro fertilization (IVF), or surgery to correct anatomical abnormalities.

Gene expression is the process by which the information encoded in a gene is used to synthesize a functional gene product, such as a protein or RNA molecule. This process involves several steps: transcription, RNA processing, and translation. During transcription, the genetic information in DNA is copied into a complementary RNA molecule, known as messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNA then undergoes RNA processing, which includes adding a cap and tail to the mRNA and splicing out non-coding regions called introns. The resulting mature mRNA is then translated into a protein on ribosomes in the cytoplasm through the process of translation.

The regulation of gene expression is a complex and highly controlled process that allows cells to respond to changes in their environment, such as growth factors, hormones, and stress signals. This regulation can occur at various stages of gene expression, including transcriptional activation or repression, RNA processing, mRNA stability, and translation. Dysregulation of gene expression has been implicated in many diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and neurological conditions.

Sexual behavior in animals refers to a variety of behaviors related to reproduction and mating that occur between members of the same species. These behaviors can include courtship displays, mating rituals, and various physical acts. The specific forms of sexual behavior displayed by a given species are influenced by a combination of genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors.

In some animals, sexual behavior is closely tied to reproductive cycles and may only occur during certain times of the year or under specific conditions. In other species, sexual behavior may be more frequent and less closely tied to reproduction, serving instead as a means of social bonding or communication.

It's important to note that while humans are animals, the term "sexual behavior" is often used in a more specific sense to refer to sexual activities between human beings. The study of sexual behavior in animals is an important area of research within the field of animal behavior and can provide insights into the evolutionary origins of human sexual behavior as well as the underlying mechanisms that drive it.

Cell polarity refers to the asymmetric distribution of membrane components, cytoskeleton, and organelles in a cell. This asymmetry is crucial for various cellular functions such as directed transport, cell division, and signal transduction. The plasma membrane of polarized cells exhibits distinct domains with unique protein and lipid compositions that define apical, basal, and lateral surfaces of the cell.

In epithelial cells, for example, the apical surface faces the lumen or external environment, while the basolateral surface interacts with other cells or the extracellular matrix. The establishment and maintenance of cell polarity are regulated by various factors including protein complexes, lipids, and small GTPases. Loss of cell polarity has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

Neurons, also known as nerve cells or neurocytes, are specialized cells that constitute the basic unit of the nervous system. They are responsible for receiving, processing, and transmitting information and signals within the body. Neurons have three main parts: the dendrites, the cell body (soma), and the axon. The dendrites receive signals from other neurons or sensory receptors, while the axon transmits these signals to other neurons, muscles, or glands. The junction between two neurons is called a synapse, where neurotransmitters are released to transmit the signal across the gap (synaptic cleft) to the next neuron. Neurons vary in size, shape, and structure depending on their function and location within the nervous system.

Neuropeptides are small protein-like molecules that are used by neurons to communicate with each other and with other cells in the body. They are produced in the cell body of a neuron, processed from larger precursor proteins, and then transported to the nerve terminal where they are stored in secretory vesicles. When the neuron is stimulated, the vesicles fuse with the cell membrane and release their contents into the extracellular space.

Neuropeptides can act as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators, depending on their target receptors and the duration of their effects. They play important roles in a variety of physiological processes, including pain perception, appetite regulation, stress response, and social behavior. Some neuropeptides also have hormonal functions, such as oxytocin and vasopressin, which are produced in the hypothalamus and released into the bloodstream to regulate reproductive and cardiovascular function, respectively.

There are hundreds of different neuropeptides that have been identified in the nervous system, and many of them have multiple functions and interact with other signaling molecules to modulate neural activity. Dysregulation of neuropeptide systems has been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as chronic pain, addiction, depression, and anxiety.

An ovary is a part of the female reproductive system in which ova or eggs are produced through the process of oogenesis. They are a pair of solid, almond-shaped structures located one on each side of the uterus within the pelvic cavity. Each ovary measures about 3 to 5 centimeters in length and weighs around 14 grams.

The ovaries have two main functions: endocrine (hormonal) function and reproductive function. They produce and release eggs (ovulation) responsible for potential fertilization and development of an embryo/fetus during pregnancy. Additionally, they are essential in the production of female sex hormones, primarily estrogen and progesterone, which regulate menstrual cycles, sexual development, and reproduction.

During each menstrual cycle, a mature egg is released from one of the ovaries into the fallopian tube, where it may be fertilized by sperm. If not fertilized, the egg, along with the uterine lining, will be shed, leading to menstruation.

"Animal Flight" is not a medical term per se, but it is a concept that is studied in the field of comparative physiology and biomechanics, which are disciplines related to medicine. Animal flight refers to the ability of certain animal species to move through the air by flapping their wings or other appendages. This mode of locomotion is most commonly associated with birds, bats, and insects, but some mammals such as flying squirrels and sugar gliders are also capable of gliding through the air.

The study of animal flight involves understanding the biomechanics of how animals generate lift and propulsion, as well as the physiological adaptations that allow them to sustain flight. For example, birds have lightweight skeletons and powerful chest muscles that enable them to flap their wings rapidly and generate lift. Bats, on the other hand, use a more complex system of membranes and joints to manipulate their wings and achieve maneuverability in flight.

Understanding animal flight has important implications for the design of aircraft and other engineering systems, as well as for our broader understanding of how animals have evolved to adapt to their environments.

Juvenile hormones (JHs) are a class of sesquiterpenoid compounds that play a crucial role in the regulation of insect development, reproduction, and other physiological processes. They are primarily produced by the corpora allata, a pair of endocrine glands located in the head of insects.

JHs are essential for maintaining the larval or nymphal stage of insects, preventing the expression of adult characteristics during molting. As the concentration of JH decreases in the hemolymph (insect blood), a molt to the next developmental stage occurs, and if the insect has reached its final instar, it will metamorphose into an adult.

In addition to their role in development, JHs also influence various aspects of insect reproductive physiology, such as vitellogenesis (yolk protein synthesis), oocyte maturation, and spermatogenesis. Furthermore, JHs have been implicated in regulating diapause (a period of suspended development during unfavorable environmental conditions) and caste determination in social insects like bees and ants.

Overall, juvenile hormones are vital regulators of growth, development, and reproduction in insects, making them attractive targets for the development of novel pest management strategies.

Sequence homology in nucleic acids refers to the similarity or identity between the nucleotide sequences of two or more DNA or RNA molecules. It is often used as a measure of biological relationship between genes, organisms, or populations. High sequence homology suggests a recent common ancestry or functional constraint, while low sequence homology may indicate a more distant relationship or different functions.

Nucleic acid sequence homology can be determined by various methods such as pairwise alignment, multiple sequence alignment, and statistical analysis. The degree of homology is typically expressed as a percentage of identical or similar nucleotides in a given window of comparison.

It's important to note that the interpretation of sequence homology depends on the biological context and the evolutionary distance between the sequences compared. Therefore, functional and experimental validation is often necessary to confirm the significance of sequence homology.

Genetic enhancer elements are DNA sequences that increase the transcription of specific genes. They work by binding to regulatory proteins called transcription factors, which in turn recruit RNA polymerase II, the enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into messenger RNA (mRNA). This results in the activation of gene transcription and increased production of the protein encoded by that gene.

Enhancer elements can be located upstream, downstream, or even within introns of the genes they regulate, and they can act over long distances along the DNA molecule. They are an important mechanism for controlling gene expression in a tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific manner, allowing for the precise regulation of gene activity during embryonic development and throughout adult life.

It's worth noting that genetic enhancer elements are often referred to simply as "enhancers," and they are distinct from other types of regulatory DNA sequences such as promoters, silencers, and insulators.

A multigene family is a group of genetically related genes that share a common ancestry and have similar sequences or structures. These genes are arranged in clusters on a chromosome and often encode proteins with similar functions. They can arise through various mechanisms, including gene duplication, recombination, and transposition. Multigene families play crucial roles in many biological processes, such as development, immunity, and metabolism. Examples of multigene families include the globin genes involved in oxygen transport, the immune system's major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, and the cytochrome P450 genes associated with drug metabolism.

Retroelements are a type of mobile genetic element that can move within a host genome by reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. They are called "retro" because they replicate through a retrotransposition process, which involves the reverse transcription of their RNA into DNA, and then integration of the resulting cDNA into a new location in the genome.

Retroelements are typically divided into two main categories: long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons and non-LTR retrotransposons. LTR retrotransposons have direct repeats of several hundred base pairs at their ends, similar to retroviruses, while non-LTR retrotransposons lack these repeats.

Retroelements are widespread in eukaryotic genomes and can make up a significant fraction of the DNA content. They are thought to play important roles in genome evolution, including the creation of new genes and the regulation of gene expression. However, they can also cause genetic instability and disease when they insert into or near functional genes.

Mutagenesis is the process by which the genetic material (DNA or RNA) of an organism is changed in a way that can alter its phenotype, or observable traits. These changes, known as mutations, can be caused by various factors such as chemicals, radiation, or viruses. Some mutations may have no effect on the organism, while others can cause harm, including diseases and cancer. Mutagenesis is a crucial area of study in genetics and molecular biology, with implications for understanding evolution, genetic disorders, and the development of new medical treatments.

Mitosis is a type of cell division in which the genetic material of a single cell, called the mother cell, is equally distributed into two identical daughter cells. It's a fundamental process that occurs in multicellular organisms for growth, maintenance, and repair, as well as in unicellular organisms for reproduction.

The process of mitosis can be broken down into several stages: prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. During prophase, the chromosomes condense and become visible, and the nuclear envelope breaks down. In prometaphase, the nuclear membrane is completely disassembled, and the mitotic spindle fibers attach to the chromosomes at their centromeres.

During metaphase, the chromosomes align at the metaphase plate, an imaginary line equidistant from the two spindle poles. In anaphase, sister chromatids are pulled apart by the spindle fibers and move toward opposite poles of the cell. Finally, in telophase, new nuclear envelopes form around each set of chromosomes, and the chromosomes decondense and become less visible.

Mitosis is followed by cytokinesis, a process that divides the cytoplasm of the mother cell into two separate daughter cells. The result of mitosis and cytokinesis is two genetically identical cells, each with the same number and kind of chromosomes as the original parent cell.

DNA primers are short single-stranded DNA molecules that serve as a starting point for DNA synthesis. They are typically used in laboratory techniques such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The primer binds to a complementary sequence on the DNA template through base pairing, providing a free 3'-hydroxyl group for the DNA polymerase enzyme to add nucleotides and synthesize a new strand of DNA. This allows for specific and targeted amplification or analysis of a particular region of interest within a larger DNA molecule.

Genetic selection, also known as natural selection, is a fundamental mechanism of evolution. It refers to the process by which certain heritable traits become more or less common in a population over successive generations due to differential reproduction of organisms with those traits.

In genetic selection, traits that increase an individual's fitness (its ability to survive and reproduce) are more likely to be passed on to the next generation, while traits that decrease fitness are less likely to be passed on. This results in a gradual change in the distribution of traits within a population over time, leading to adaptation to the environment and potentially speciation.

Genetic selection can occur through various mechanisms, including viability selection (differential survival), fecundity selection (differences in reproductive success), and sexual selection (choices made by individuals during mating). The process of genetic selection is driven by environmental pressures, such as predation, competition for resources, and changes in the availability of food or habitat.

Mosaicism, in the context of genetics and medicine, refers to the presence of two or more cell lines with different genetic compositions in an individual who has developed from a single fertilized egg. This means that some cells have one genetic makeup, while others have a different genetic makeup. This condition can occur due to various reasons such as errors during cell division after fertilization.

Mosaicism can involve chromosomes (where whole or parts of chromosomes are present in some cells but not in others) or it can involve single genes (where a particular gene is present in one form in some cells and a different form in others). The symptoms and severity of mosaicism can vary widely, depending on the type and location of the genetic difference and the proportion of cells that are affected. Some individuals with mosaicism may not experience any noticeable effects, while others may have significant health problems.

The Antennapedia (Antp) homeodomain protein is a transcription factor that plays a crucial role in the development of insects. It is encoded by the Antennapedia gene, which is part of the homeotic complex in the genome of Drosophila melanogaster (fruit flies). The homeodomain is a conserved DNA-binding domain found in many transcription factors and is responsible for recognizing specific sequences of DNA to regulate gene expression.

The Antennapedia protein contains several functional domains, including the homeodomain, a homeobox, and a proline-rich region. The homeodomain binds to DNA, while the homeobox acts as a regulatory domain that interacts with other proteins. The proline-rich region is involved in protein-protein interactions and may play a role in mediating the activity of the Antennapedia protein.

During development, the Antennapedia protein helps regulate the expression of genes that are important for the proper formation of body segments and structures. Mutations in the Antennapedia gene can lead to homeotic transformations, where one body segment is transformed into another. For example, a mutation in the Antennapedia gene can cause the second thoracic segment to develop features normally found in the first thoracic segment, such as legs instead of antennae.

In summary, the Antennapedia homeodomain protein is a transcription factor that plays a critical role in the development of insects by regulating gene expression and helping to ensure proper body segment formation.

Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) is not a medical term per se, but a scientific term used in the field of molecular biology. GFP is a protein that exhibits bright green fluorescence when exposed to light, particularly blue or ultraviolet light. It was originally discovered in the jellyfish Aequorea victoria.

In medical and biological research, scientists often use recombinant DNA technology to introduce the gene for GFP into other organisms, including bacteria, plants, and animals, including humans. This allows them to track the expression and localization of specific genes or proteins of interest in living cells, tissues, or even whole organisms.

The ability to visualize specific cellular structures or processes in real-time has proven invaluable for a wide range of research areas, from studying the development and function of organs and organ systems to understanding the mechanisms of diseases and the effects of therapeutic interventions.

Genetic variation refers to the differences in DNA sequences among individuals and populations. These variations can result from mutations, genetic recombination, or gene flow between populations. Genetic variation is essential for evolution by providing the raw material upon which natural selection acts. It can occur within a single gene, between different genes, or at larger scales, such as differences in the number of chromosomes or entire sets of chromosomes. The study of genetic variation is crucial in understanding the genetic basis of diseases and traits, as well as the evolutionary history and relationships among species.

The thorax is the central part of the human body, located between the neck and the abdomen. In medical terms, it refers to the portion of the body that contains the heart, lungs, and associated structures within a protective cage made up of the sternum (breastbone), ribs, and thoracic vertebrae. The thorax is enclosed by muscles and protected by the ribcage, which helps to maintain its structural integrity and protect the vital organs contained within it.

The thorax plays a crucial role in respiration, as it allows for the expansion and contraction of the lungs during breathing. This movement is facilitated by the flexible nature of the ribcage, which expands and contracts with each breath, allowing air to enter and exit the lungs. Additionally, the thorax serves as a conduit for major blood vessels, such as the aorta and vena cava, which carry blood to and from the heart and the rest of the body.

Understanding the anatomy and function of the thorax is essential for medical professionals, as many conditions and diseases can affect this region of the body. These may include respiratory disorders such as pneumonia or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiovascular conditions like heart attacks or aortic aneurysms, and musculoskeletal issues involving the ribs, spine, or surrounding muscles.

Genetic dosage compensation is a process that evens out the effects of genes on an organism's phenotype (observable traits), even when there are differences in the number of copies of those genes present. This is especially important in cases where sex chromosomes are involved, as males and females often have different numbers of sex chromosomes.

In many species, including humans, females have two X chromosomes, while males have one X and one Y chromosome. To compensate for the difference in dosage, one of the female's X chromosomes is randomly inactivated during early embryonic development, resulting in each cell having only one active X chromosome, regardless of sex. This process ensures that both males and females have similar levels of gene expression from their X chromosomes and helps to prevent an imbalance in gene dosage between the sexes.

Defects in dosage compensation can lead to various genetic disorders, such as Turner syndrome (where a female has only one X chromosome) or Klinefelter syndrome (where a male has two or more X chromosomes). These conditions can result in developmental abnormalities and health issues due to the imbalance in gene dosage.

Basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) transcription factors are a type of proteins that regulate gene expression through binding to specific DNA sequences. They play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. The bHLH domain is composed of two amphipathic α-helices separated by a loop region. This structure allows the formation of homodimers or heterodimers, which then bind to the E-box DNA motif (5'-CANNTG-3') to regulate transcription.

The bHLH family can be further divided into several subfamilies based on their sequence similarities and functional characteristics. Some members of this family are involved in the development and function of the nervous system, while others play critical roles in the development of muscle and bone. Dysregulation of bHLH transcription factors has been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer and neurodevelopmental disorders.

In medical terms, the sense of smell is referred to as olfaction. It is the ability to detect and identify different types of chemicals in the air through the use of the olfactory system. The olfactory system includes the nose, nasal passages, and the olfactory bulbs located in the brain.

When a person inhales air containing volatile substances, these substances bind to specialized receptor cells in the nasal passage called olfactory receptors. These receptors then transmit signals to the olfactory bulbs, which process the information and send it to the brain's limbic system, including the hippocampus and amygdala, as well as to the cortex. The brain interprets these signals and identifies the various scents or smells.

Impairment of the sense of smell can occur due to various reasons such as upper respiratory infections, sinusitis, nasal polyps, head trauma, or neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Loss of smell can significantly impact a person's quality of life, including their ability to taste food, detect dangers such as smoke or gas leaks, and experience emotions associated with certain smells.

In the context of medical and biological sciences, a "binding site" refers to a specific location on a protein, molecule, or cell where another molecule can attach or bind. This binding interaction can lead to various functional changes in the original protein or molecule. The other molecule that binds to the binding site is often referred to as a ligand, which can be a small molecule, ion, or even another protein.

The binding between a ligand and its target binding site can be specific and selective, meaning that only certain ligands can bind to particular binding sites with high affinity. This specificity plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as signal transduction, enzyme catalysis, or drug action.

In the case of drug development, understanding the location and properties of binding sites on target proteins is essential for designing drugs that can selectively bind to these sites and modulate protein function. This knowledge can help create more effective and safer therapeutic options for various diseases.

A genetic complementation test is a laboratory procedure used in molecular genetics to determine whether two mutated genes can complement each other's function, indicating that they are located at different loci and represent separate alleles. This test involves introducing a normal or wild-type copy of one gene into a cell containing a mutant version of the same gene, and then observing whether the presence of the normal gene restores the normal function of the mutated gene. If the introduction of the normal gene results in the restoration of the normal phenotype, it suggests that the two genes are located at different loci and can complement each other's function. However, if the introduction of the normal gene does not restore the normal phenotype, it suggests that the two genes are located at the same locus and represent different alleles of the same gene. This test is commonly used to map genes and identify genetic interactions in a variety of organisms, including bacteria, yeast, and animals.

Restriction mapping is a technique used in molecular biology to identify the location and arrangement of specific restriction endonuclease recognition sites within a DNA molecule. Restriction endonucleases are enzymes that cut double-stranded DNA at specific sequences, producing fragments of various lengths. By digesting the DNA with different combinations of these enzymes and analyzing the resulting fragment sizes through techniques such as agarose gel electrophoresis, researchers can generate a restriction map - a visual representation of the locations and distances between recognition sites on the DNA molecule. This information is crucial for various applications, including cloning, genome analysis, and genetic engineering.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Frizzled receptors are a type of cell surface receptor that are involved in the Wnt signaling pathway. They are named after the Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) mutant phenotype "frizzy" because of their role in regulating cell fate and patterning during development.

Frizzled receptors are composed of a seven-pass transmembrane domain, an extracellular cysteine-rich domain, and an intracellular tail. They bind to Wnt ligands, which are secreted proteins that play important roles in cell-cell communication during development and tissue homeostasis.

There are ten different Frizzled receptors identified in humans (FZD1-10) that can activate multiple signaling pathways, including the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway, noncanonical planar cell polarity pathway, and the Wnt/Ca2+ pathway. Dysregulation of Frizzled receptors has been implicated in various diseases, such as cancer, neurodevelopmental disorders, and metabolic disorders.

Trans-activators are proteins that increase the transcriptional activity of a gene or a set of genes. They do this by binding to specific DNA sequences and interacting with the transcription machinery, thereby enhancing the recruitment and assembly of the complexes needed for transcription. In some cases, trans-activators can also modulate the chromatin structure to make the template more accessible to the transcription machinery.

In the context of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection, the term "trans-activator" is often used specifically to refer to the Tat protein. The Tat protein is a viral regulatory protein that plays a critical role in the replication of HIV by activating the transcription of the viral genome. It does this by binding to a specific RNA structure called the Trans-Activation Response Element (TAR) located at the 5' end of all nascent HIV transcripts, and recruiting cellular cofactors that enhance the processivity and efficiency of RNA polymerase II, leading to increased viral gene expression.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

A genome is the complete set of genetic material (DNA, or in some viruses, RNA) present in a single cell of an organism. It includes all of the genes, both coding and noncoding, as well as other regulatory elements that together determine the unique characteristics of that organism. The human genome, for example, contains approximately 3 billion base pairs and about 20,000-25,000 protein-coding genes.

The term "genome" was first coined by Hans Winkler in 1920, derived from the word "gene" and the suffix "-ome," which refers to a complete set of something. The study of genomes is known as genomics.

Understanding the genome can provide valuable insights into the genetic basis of diseases, evolution, and other biological processes. With advancements in sequencing technologies, it has become possible to determine the entire genomic sequence of many organisms, including humans, and use this information for various applications such as personalized medicine, gene therapy, and biotechnology.

Cell differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell, or stem cell, becomes a more specialized cell type with specific functions and structures. This process involves changes in gene expression, which are regulated by various intracellular signaling pathways and transcription factors. Differentiation results in the development of distinct cell types that make up tissues and organs in multicellular organisms. It is a crucial aspect of embryonic development, tissue repair, and maintenance of homeostasis in the body.

Hedgehog proteins are a group of signaling molecules that play crucial roles in the development and regulation of various biological processes in animals. They are named after the hedgehog mutant fruit flies, which have spiky bristles due to defects in this pathway. These proteins are involved in cell growth, differentiation, and tissue regeneration. They exert their effects by binding to specific receptors on the surface of target cells, leading to a cascade of intracellular signaling events that ultimately influence gene expression and cell behavior.

There are three main types of Hedgehog proteins in mammals: Sonic hedgehog (Shh), Indian hedgehog (Ihh), and Desert hedgehog (Dhh). These protecules undergo post-translational modifications, including cleavage and lipid modification, which are essential for their activity. Dysregulation of Hedgehog signaling has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, developmental abnormalities, and degenerative disorders.

A chromosome inversion is a genetic rearrangement where a segment of a chromosome has been reversed end to end, so that its order of genes is opposite to the original. This means that the gene sequence on the segment of the chromosome has been inverted.

In an inversion, the chromosome breaks in two places, and the segment between the breaks rotates 180 degrees before reattaching. This results in a portion of the chromosome being inverted, or turned upside down, relative to the rest of the chromosome.

Chromosome inversions can be either paracentric or pericentric. Paracentric inversions involve a segment that does not include the centromere (the central constriction point of the chromosome), while pericentric inversions involve a segment that includes the centromere.

Inversions can have various effects on an individual's phenotype, depending on whether the inversion involves genes and if so, how those genes are affected by the inversion. In some cases, inversions may have no noticeable effect, while in others they may cause genetic disorders or predispose an individual to certain health conditions.

Period (PER) circadian proteins are a group of proteins that play a crucial role in the regulation of circadian rhythms, which are physical, mental, and behavioral changes that follow a daily cycle. They are named after the PERIOD gene, whose protein product is one of the key components of the molecular circadian clock mechanism.

The molecular clock is a self-sustaining oscillator present in most organisms, from cyanobacteria to humans. In mammals, the molecular clock consists of two interlocking transcriptional-translational feedback loops that generate rhythmic expression of clock genes and their protein products with a period of approximately 24 hours.

The primary loop involves the positive regulators CLOCK and BMAL1, which heterodimerize and bind to E-box elements in the promoter regions of target genes, including PERIOD (PER) and CRYPTOCHROME (CRY) genes. Upon transcription and translation, PER and CRY proteins form a complex that translocates back into the nucleus, where it inhibits CLOCK-BMAL1-mediated transcription, thereby suppressing its own expression. After a certain period, the repressive complex dissociates, allowing for another cycle of transcription and translation to occur.

The second loop involves the regulation of additional clock genes such as REV-ERBα and RORα, which compete for binding to ROR response elements (ROREs) in the BMAL1 promoter, thereby modulating its expression level. REV-ERBα also represses PER and CRY transcription by recruiting histone deacetylases (HDACs) and nuclear receptor corepressor 1 (NCOR1).

Overall, Period circadian proteins are essential for the proper functioning of the molecular clock and the regulation of various physiological processes, including sleep-wake cycles, metabolism, hormone secretion, and cellular homeostasis. Dysregulation of these proteins has been implicated in several diseases, such as sleep disorders, metabolic syndromes, and cancer.

Polytene chromosomes are highly specialized and significantly enlarged chromosomes that are formed by the endoreduplication process, where multiple rounds of DNA replication occur without cell division. This results in the formation of several identical sister chromatids that remain tightly associated with each other, forming a single, visually thick and banded structure. These chromosomes are typically found in the cells of certain insects, such as dipteran flies, and are particularly prominent during the larval stages of development. Polytene chromosomes play crucial roles in various biological processes, including growth, development, and gene regulation. The distinctive banding pattern observed in polytene chromosomes is often used in genetic studies to map the locations of specific genes within the genome.

The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is the specialized synapse or chemical communication point, where the motor neuron's nerve terminal (presynaptic element) meets the muscle fiber's motor end plate (postsynaptic element). This junction plays a crucial role in controlling muscle contraction and relaxation.

At the NMJ, the neurotransmitter acetylcholine is released from the presynaptic nerve terminal into the synaptic cleft, following an action potential. Acetylcholine then binds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the muscle fiber, leading to the generation of an end-plate potential. If sufficient end-plate potentials are generated and summate, they will trigger an action potential in the muscle fiber, ultimately causing muscle contraction.

Dysfunction at the neuromuscular junction can result in various neuromuscular disorders, such as myasthenia gravis, where autoantibodies attack acetylcholine receptors, leading to muscle weakness and fatigue.

The Y chromosome is one of the two sex-determining chromosomes in humans and many other animals, along with the X chromosome. The Y chromosome contains the genetic information that helps to determine an individual's sex as male. It is significantly smaller than the X chromosome and contains fewer genes.

The Y chromosome is present in males, who inherit it from their father. Females, on the other hand, have two X chromosomes, one inherited from each parent. The Y chromosome includes a gene called SRY (sex-determining region Y), which initiates the development of male sexual characteristics during embryonic development.

It is worth noting that the Y chromosome has a relatively high rate of genetic mutation and degeneration compared to other chromosomes, leading to concerns about its long-term viability in human evolution. However, current evidence suggests that the Y chromosome has been stable for at least the past 25 million years.

Promoter regions in genetics refer to specific DNA sequences located near the transcription start site of a gene. They serve as binding sites for RNA polymerase and various transcription factors that regulate the initiation of gene transcription. These regulatory elements help control the rate of transcription and, therefore, the level of gene expression. Promoter regions can be composed of different types of sequences, such as the TATA box and CAAT box, and their organization and composition can vary between different genes and species.

In medical terms, the "head" is the uppermost part of the human body that contains the brain, skull, face, eyes, nose, mouth, and ears. It is connected to the rest of the body by the neck and is responsible for many vital functions such as sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch, and thought processing. The head also plays a crucial role in maintaining balance, speech, and eating.

Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 (PRC1) is a protein complex that plays a crucial role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression, primarily through the process of histone modification. It is associated with the maintenance of gene repression during development and differentiation. PRC1 facilitates the monoubiquitination of histone H2A at lysine 119 (H2AK119ub1), leading to chromatin compaction and transcriptional silencing. This complex is composed of several core subunits, including BMI1, RING1A/B, and one of the six PCGF proteins, which define different PRC1 variants. Dysregulation of PRC1 has been implicated in various human diseases, such as cancers and developmental disorders.

A homozygote is an individual who has inherited the same allele (version of a gene) from both parents and therefore possesses two identical copies of that allele at a specific genetic locus. This can result in either having two dominant alleles (homozygous dominant) or two recessive alleles (homozygous recessive). In contrast, a heterozygote has inherited different alleles from each parent for a particular gene.

The term "homozygote" is used in genetics to describe the genetic makeup of an individual at a specific locus on their chromosomes. Homozygosity can play a significant role in determining an individual's phenotype (observable traits), as having two identical alleles can strengthen the expression of certain characteristics compared to having just one dominant and one recessive allele.

Sex chromosomes, often denoted as X and Y, are one of the 23 pairs of human chromosomes found in each cell of the body. Normally, females have two X chromosomes (46,XX), and males have one X and one Y chromosome (46,XY). The sex chromosomes play a significant role in determining the sex of an individual. They contain genes that contribute to physical differences between men and women. Any variations or abnormalities in the number or structure of these chromosomes can lead to various genetic disorders and conditions related to sexual development and reproduction.

Meiosis is a type of cell division that results in the formation of four daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. It is a key process in sexual reproduction, where it generates gametes or sex cells (sperm and eggs).

The process of meiosis involves one round of DNA replication followed by two successive nuclear divisions, meiosis I and meiosis II. In meiosis I, homologous chromosomes pair, form chiasma and exchange genetic material through crossing over, then separate from each other. In meiosis II, sister chromatids separate, leading to the formation of four haploid cells. This process ensures genetic diversity in offspring by shuffling and recombining genetic information during the formation of gametes.

Epistasis is a phenomenon in genetics where the effect of one gene (the "epistatic" gene) is modified by one or more other genes (the "modifier" genes). This interaction can result in different phenotypic expressions than what would be expected based on the individual effects of each gene.

In other words, epistasis occurs when the expression of one gene is influenced by the presence or absence of another gene. The gene that is being masked or modified is referred to as the hypostatic gene, while the gene doing the masking or modifying is called the epistatic gene.

Epistasis can take many forms and can be involved in complex genetic traits and diseases. It can also make it more difficult to map genes associated with certain traits or conditions because the phenotypic expression may not follow simple Mendelian inheritance patterns.

There are several types of epistasis, including recessive-recessive, dominant-recessive, and dominant-dominant epistasis. In recessive-recessive epistasis, for example, the presence of two copies of the epistatic gene prevents the expression of the hypostatic gene, even if the individual has two copies of the hypostatic gene.

Understanding epistasis is important in genetics because it can help researchers better understand the genetic basis of complex traits and diseases, as well as improve breeding programs for plants and animals.

An oocyte, also known as an egg cell or female gamete, is a large specialized cell found in the ovary of female organisms. It contains half the number of chromosomes as a normal diploid cell, as it is the product of meiotic division. Oocytes are surrounded by follicle cells and are responsible for the production of female offspring upon fertilization with sperm. The term "oocyte" specifically refers to the immature egg cell before it reaches full maturity and is ready for fertilization, at which point it is referred to as an ovum or egg.

Embryonic structures refer to the various parts and components that develop during the embryonic stage of prenatal development, which occurs from fertilization to the end of the 8th week of gestation. These structures include the primitive streak, notochord, neural tube, heart, somites, and limb buds, among others.

During this stage, the embryo undergoes rapid cell division, differentiation, and organization to form these structures, which will eventually develop into the various organs and systems of the human body. The embryonic structures are formed through a complex process of gene expression, signaling pathways, and interactions between cells and tissues.

Understanding the development of embryonic structures is crucial for understanding normal human development, as well as for identifying abnormalities or defects that may occur during this critical period. This knowledge can also inform medical interventions and treatments to address developmental issues and improve health outcomes for individuals throughout their lives.

Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) is a group of enzymes responsible for catalyzing the oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones, and reducing equivalents such as NAD+ to NADH. In humans, ADH plays a crucial role in the metabolism of ethanol, converting it into acetaldehyde, which is then further metabolized by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) into acetate. This process helps to detoxify and eliminate ethanol from the body. Additionally, ADH enzymes are also involved in the metabolism of other alcohols, such as methanol and ethylene glycol, which can be toxic if allowed to accumulate in the body.

Chromosomal proteins, non-histone, are a diverse group of proteins that are associated with chromatin, the complex of DNA and histone proteins, but do not have the characteristic structure of histones. These proteins play important roles in various nuclear processes such as DNA replication, transcription, repair, recombination, and chromosome condensation and segregation during cell division. They can be broadly classified into several categories based on their functions, including architectural proteins, enzymes, transcription factors, and structural proteins. Examples of non-histone chromosomal proteins include high mobility group (HMG) proteins, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs), and condensins.

A circadian rhythm is a roughly 24-hour biological cycle that regulates various physiological and behavioral processes in living organisms. It is driven by the body's internal clock, which is primarily located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus in the brain.

The circadian rhythm controls many aspects of human physiology, including sleep-wake cycles, hormone secretion, body temperature, and metabolism. It helps to synchronize these processes with the external environment, particularly the day-night cycle caused by the rotation of the Earth.

Disruptions to the circadian rhythm can have negative effects on health, leading to conditions such as insomnia, sleep disorders, depression, bipolar disorder, and even increased risk of chronic diseases like cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Factors that can disrupt the circadian rhythm include shift work, jet lag, irregular sleep schedules, and exposure to artificial light at night.

Fushi Tarazu (FTZ) transcription factors are a family of proteins that regulate gene expression during development in various organisms, including insects and mammals. The name "Fushi Tarazu" comes from the phenotype observed in Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) mutants, which have segmentation defects resembling a "broken rosary bead" or "incomplete abdomen."

FTZ transcription factors contain a zinc finger DNA-binding domain and are involved in the regulation of homeotic genes, which control body pattern formation during development. They play crucial roles in establishing and maintaining proper segmentation and regional identity along the anterior-posterior axis of the organism. In mammals, FTZ transcription factors have been implicated in various processes, including neurogenesis, adipogenesis, and energy metabolism.

'Animal behavior' refers to the actions or responses of animals to various stimuli, including their interactions with the environment and other individuals. It is the study of the actions of animals, whether they are instinctual, learned, or a combination of both. Animal behavior includes communication, mating, foraging, predator avoidance, and social organization, among other things. The scientific study of animal behavior is called ethology. This field seeks to understand the evolutionary basis for behaviors as well as their physiological and psychological mechanisms.

RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) is a single-stranded, linear polymer of ribonucleotides. It is a nucleic acid present in the cells of all living organisms and some viruses. RNAs play crucial roles in various biological processes such as protein synthesis, gene regulation, and cellular signaling. There are several types of RNA including messenger RNA (mRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), small nuclear RNA (snRNA), microRNA (miRNA), and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA). These RNAs differ in their structure, function, and location within the cell.

Genetic recombination is the process by which genetic material is exchanged between two similar or identical molecules of DNA during meiosis, resulting in new combinations of genes on each chromosome. This exchange occurs during crossover, where segments of DNA are swapped between non-sister homologous chromatids, creating genetic diversity among the offspring. It is a crucial mechanism for generating genetic variability and facilitating evolutionary change within populations. Additionally, recombination also plays an essential role in DNA repair processes through mechanisms such as homologous recombinational repair (HRR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ).

An axon is a long, slender extension of a neuron (a type of nerve cell) that conducts electrical impulses (nerve impulses) away from the cell body to target cells, such as other neurons or muscle cells. Axons can vary in length from a few micrometers to over a meter long and are typically surrounded by a myelin sheath, which helps to insulate and protect the axon and allows for faster transmission of nerve impulses.

Axons play a critical role in the functioning of the nervous system, as they provide the means by which neurons communicate with one another and with other cells in the body. Damage to axons can result in serious neurological problems, such as those seen in spinal cord injuries or neurodegenerative diseases like multiple sclerosis.

Introns are non-coding sequences of DNA that are present within the genes of eukaryotic organisms, including plants, animals, and humans. Introns are removed during the process of RNA splicing, in which the initial RNA transcript is cut and reconnected to form a mature, functional RNA molecule.

After the intron sequences are removed, the remaining coding sequences, known as exons, are joined together to create a continuous stretch of genetic information that can be translated into a protein or used to produce non-coding RNAs with specific functions. The removal of introns allows for greater flexibility in gene expression and regulation, enabling the generation of multiple proteins from a single gene through alternative splicing.

In summary, introns are non-coding DNA sequences within genes that are removed during RNA processing to create functional RNA molecules or proteins.

Neuropil refers to the complex network of interwoven nerve cell processes (dendrites, axons, and their synaptic connections) in the central nervous system that forms the basis for information processing and transmission. It is the part of the brain or spinal cord where the neuronal cell bodies are not present, and it mainly consists of unmyelinated axons, dendrites, and synapses. Neuropil plays a crucial role in neural communication and is often the site of various neurochemical interactions.

Hemolymph is not a term typically used in human medicine, but it is commonly used in the study of invertebrates, particularly arthropods such as insects and crustaceans. Hemolymph is the fluid that circulates within the open circulatory system of these animals, serving multiple functions similar to both blood and lymphatic systems in vertebrates.

In simpler terms, hemolymph is a combined fluid that performs the functions of both blood and lymph in invertebrates. It serves as a transport medium for nutrients, waste products, hormones, and immune cells (hemocytes) throughout the body. Hemolymph does not contain red and white blood cells like human blood; instead, hemocytes are the primary cellular components responsible for immune responses and wound healing in these animals.

Janus kinases (JAKs) are a family of intracellular non-receptor tyrosine kinases that play a crucial role in the signaling of cytokines and growth factors. They are named after the Roman god Janus, who is depicted with two faces, because JAKs have two similar domains, which contain catalytic activity.

JAKs mediate signal transduction by phosphorylating and activating signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) proteins, leading to the regulation of gene expression. Dysregulation of JAK-STAT signaling has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and inflammatory conditions.

There are four members of the JAK family: JAK1, JAK2, JAK3, and TYK2 (tyrosine kinase 2). Each JAK isoform has a distinct pattern of expression and functions in specific cell types and signaling pathways. For example, JAK3 is primarily expressed in hematopoietic cells and plays a critical role in immune function, while JAK2 is widely expressed and involved in the signaling of various cytokines and growth factors.

Inhibition of JAKs has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy for several diseases. Several JAK inhibitors have been approved by the FDA for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and myelofibrosis, among other conditions.

An ovum is the female reproductive cell, or gamete, produced in the ovaries. It is also known as an egg cell and is released from the ovary during ovulation. When fertilized by a sperm, it becomes a zygote, which can develop into a fetus. The ovum contains half the genetic material necessary to create a new individual.

is an integrated database of genomic, expression and protein data for Drosophila University of California, Santa Cruz "D. ... willistoni Drosophila (Drosophila) mojavensis Drosophila (Drosophila) virilis Drosophila (Drosophila) grimshawi The data have ... Lifecycle of Drosophila The following section is based on the following Drosophila species: Drosophila simulans and Drosophila ... The following section is based on the following Drosophila species: Drosophila serrata, Drosophila pseudoobscura, Drosophila ...
A mutation in the GSC gene in Drosophila is lethal. GSC gene promotes the formation of Spemann's Organizer. This organizer ... Homeobox protein goosecoid (GSC) is a homeobox protein that is encoded in humans by the GSC gene. Like other homeobox proteins ... Errors in the formation of goosecoid protein in mice and humans have a range of consequences on the developing embryo typically ... "Xenopus Goosecoid". Interactive Fly, Drosophila. Blum M, De Robertis EM, Kojis T, Heinzmann C, Klisak I, Geissert D, Sparkes RS ...
Smads were first discovered in Drosophila, in which they are known as mothers against dpp (Mad), through a genetic screen for ... Thus, the two proteins could be caught in a "vicious cycle" of regulation. Pin1 causes both itself and Smad2 to be associated ... Therefore, downregulating ID proteins is a pathway by which TGF-B signaling could arrest the cell cycle. In a DNA microarray ... Liu F, Hata A, Baker JC, Doody J, Cárcamo J, Harland RM, Massagué J (June 1996). "A human Mad protein acting as a BMP-regulated ...
Nanos protein forms a gradient at the posterior end. The Bicoid protein blocks translation of caudal mRNA so Caudal protein is ... The Bicoid protein is a morphogen as well. The Nanos protein is a translational repressor protein. Bicoid has a DNA-binding ... and Caudal proteins is in the transcriptional regulation of other zygotically expressed proteins. Many of these are the protein ... Nanos protein, in complex with Pumilio protein, binds to the hunchback mRNA and blocks its translation in the posterior end of ...
August 1997). "Natural behavior polymorphism due to a cGMP-dependent protein kinase of Drosophila". Science. 277 (5327): 834-6 ... cGMP-dependent protein kinase or protein kinase G (PKG) is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that is activated by cGMP ... EC Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases and the Cardiovascular System cGMP-Dependent+Protein+Kinases at the U.S. ... Protein pages needing a picture, Genes on human chromosome 4, Protein kinases, EC 2.7.11). ...
33-41 Hubby, J. L. (1963). "Protein Differences in Drosophila. I. Drosophila melanogaster". Genetics. 48 (6): 871-879. doi: ... In 1963, Jack L. Hubby published an electrophoresis study of protein variation in Drosophila; soon after, Hubby began ... the significance of constant protein evolution rates, and the functional constraints on protein evolution that biochemists and ... The advent of protein sequencing allowed molecular biologists[citation needed] to create phylogenies based on sequence ...
"Entrez Gene: TWIST1 twist homolog 1 (acrocephalosyndactyly 3; Saethre-Chotzen syndrome) (Drosophila)". Lee MS, Lowe GN, Strong ... Twist-related protein 1 (TWIST1) also known as class A basic helix-loop-helix protein 38 (bHLHa38) is a basic helix-loop-helix ... proteins is the novel target for direct inhibition by another bHLH protein, Twist". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 17 (11): ... The protein encoded by this gene is a bHLH transcription factor and shares similarity with another bHLH transcription factor, ...
Drosophila contain a single Notch protein, C. elegans contain two redundant notch paralogs, Lin-12 and GLP-1, and humans have ... This protein is called Kuzbanian in Drosophila, sup-17 in C. elegans, and ADAM10 in humans. After proteolytic cleavage, the ... Genetic screens conducted in Drosophila led to the identification of several proteins that play a central role in Notch ... Notch proteins are a family of type-1 transmembrane proteins that form a core component of the Notch signaling pathway, which ...
The name of the human PION gene derives the corresponding Drosophila gene. The transcribed human pigeon homolog protein is 854 ... Protein pigeon homolog also known as gamma-secretase activating protein (GSAP) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... derived from 121 residues from the C-terminus region of the full length protein is known as the γ-secretase activating protein ... More distantly related orthologs are also expressed in insects including the pigeon gene in Drosophila melanogaster that when ...
Yeast DOS2 protein, involved in single-copy DNA replication and ubiquitination. Drosophila synapse-associated protein SAP47. ... synapse-associated proteins and DOS2-like proteins in which it is found. It is also found in several hypothetical proteins. It ... Some proteins known to contain one or two BSD domains are: Mammalian TFIIH basal transcription factor complex p62 subunit ( ... In molecular biology, the BSD domain is an approximately 60-amino-acid-long protein domain named after the BTF2-like ...
Smith, Nick G. C.; Eyre-Walker, Adam (February 2002). "Adaptive protein evolution in Drosophila". Nature. 415 (6875): 1022-1024 ...
Studies in the fly Drosophila melanogaster suggest that if a mutation changes a protein produced by a gene, this will probably ... Smith, N. G. C.; Eyre-Walker, A. (2002). "Adaptive protein evolution in Drosophila". Nature. 415 (6875): 1022-1024. Bibcode: ... of genes or proteins (e.g., a null mutation, a loss-of-function mutation), or at a higher phenotypic level (e.g., red-eye ... "Prevalence of positive selection among nearly neutral amino acid replacements in Drosophila". Proceedings of the National ...
Ribosome-inactivating proteins and defense against parasitic wasps in Drosophila". PLOS Pathogens. 13 (7): e1006431. doi: ... Drosophila neotestacea is a member of the testacea species group of Drosophila. Testacea species are specialist fruit flies ... This loss of Diptericin B is also common to the related Drosophila testacea and Drosophila guttifera, but not the also-related ... Drosophila neotestacea and other mushroom-breeding Drosophila have been studied extensively for their interactions with ...
The founding member of the human MBNL family of proteins was the Drosophila Muscleblind protein (PMID 9334280). Human MBNL1 is ... The Zinc Finger domains play a role in both protein:protein contacts as well as RNA:protein contacts when bound to an ... Human MBNL1 is a 370 amino acid protein composed of four Zinc Finger protein domains of the CCCH type linked in tandem. The ... "RNA-dependent integrin alpha3 protein localization regulated by the Muscleblind-like protein MLP1". Nature Cell Biology. 7 (12 ...
It is found in a single copy in Drosophila proteins and is often associated with the MADF domain. Proteins known to contain a ... Drosophila Suppressor of variegation protein 3-7 (Su(var)3-7), which could play a role in chromosome condensation. Drosophila ... Drosophila Dorsal-interacting protein 3 (Dip3). It functions both as an activator to bind DNA in a sequence specific manner and ... In molecular biology, the BESS domain is a protein domain which has been named after the three proteins that originally defined ...
The protein encoded by this gene is involved in cell signaling. The several mammalian variants of the Drosophila hedgehog gene ... "Entrez Gene: desert hedgehog homolog (Drosophila)". DHH protein, human at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ... This protein is predicted to be made as a precursor that is autocatalytically cleaved; the N-terminal portion is soluble and ... Desert hedgehog, also Desert hedgehog homolog or Dhh, is a protein encoded by the DHH gene, and is a member of the hedgehog ...
"Entrez Gene: Kelch-like 3 (Drosophila)". Retrieved 2012-04-26. "KLHL3 mutations cause familial hyperkalemic hypertension by ... Kelch-like protein 3 is a protein in humans that is encoded by the KLHL3 gene. Alternative splicing results in multiple ... This gene is ubiquitously expressed and encodes a full-length protein which has an N-terminal BTB domain followed by a BACK ... These kelch-like repeats promote substrate ubiquitination of bound proteins via interaction of the BTB domain with the CUL3 ( ...
Brody T, Cravchik A (July 2000). "Drosophila melanogaster G protein-coupled receptors". The Journal of Cell Biology. 150 (2): ... In Drosophila larvae, for example, eclosion hormone is expressed in just two neurons. The first neuropeptide, Substance P, was ... Neuropeptides typically bind to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to modulate neural activity and other tissues like the gut ... The signal peptide sequence guides the protein to the secretory pathway, starting at the endoplasmic reticulum. The signal ...
... a glycerol uptake/efflux facilitator protein. Drosophila neurogenic protein 'big brain' (bib). This protein may mediate ... Aquaporins Integral membrane protein Transporter Classification Database Protein Superfamily Protein family Fu D, Libson A, ... Lipids crystallize with the protein. Ion channel activity has been shown for Aquaporins 0, 1, and 6, Drosophila 'Big Brain' ( ... Major intrinsic proteins comprise a large superfamily of transmembrane protein channels that are grouped together on the basis ...
"The human homolog of Drosophila cornichon protein is differentially expressed in alloactivated T-cells". Biochim Biophys Acta. ... Protein cornichon homolog is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CNIH gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000100528 ... 2003). "The Secreted Protein Discovery Initiative (SPDI), a Large-Scale Effort to Identify Novel Human Secreted and ... "Entrez Gene: CNIH cornichon homolog (Drosophila)". Castro CP, Piscopo D, Nakagawa T, Derynck R (2007). "Cornichon regulates ...
Hamilton PT, Peng F, Boulanger MJ, Perlman SJ (January 2016). "A ribosome-inactivating protein in a Drosophila defensive ... Drosophila bizonata, and Drosophila testacea species groups. Evolutionary studies in these various mushroom-feeding Drosophila ... The sister species Drosophila subquinaria and Drosophila recens overlap in geographic range and are capable of hybridization, ... Drosophila innubila is also commonly infected by the double-stranded DNA virus Drosophila innubila nudivirus (DiNV), the ...
This family contains proteins that are related to Drosophila rhomboid-1. Members of this family are found in both prokaryotes ... Rhomboid-related protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RHBDL2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... Urban S, Lee JR, Freeman M (October 2001). "Drosophila rhomboid-1 defines a family of putative intramembrane serine proteases ... "Entrez Gene: Rhomboid, veinlet-like 2 (Drosophila)". Lichtenthaler SF, Lemberg MK, Fluhrer R (August 2018). "Proteolytic ...
"Entrez Gene: KLHL8 kelch-like 8 (Drosophila)". Nakajima D, Okazaki N, Yamakawa H, et al. (2003). "Construction of expression- ... Kelch-like protein 8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KLHL8 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000145332 - ... 2006). "A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration". Cell. ... 2001). "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs ...
In a pairwise alignment, humans share 55% homology with Drosophila and 43% with C. elegans. Drosophila and C. elegans share 43 ... protein]-3-O-(N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl)-L-serine + H2O ⇌ [protein]-L-serine + N-acetyl-D-glucosamine [protein]-3-O-(N-acetyl-β ... Protein O-GlcNAcase (EC, OGA, glycoside hydrolase O-GlcNAcase, O-GlcNAcase, BtGH84, O-GlcNAc hydrolase) is an enzyme ... Over 600 proteins are targets for O-GlcNAcylation. While the functional effects of O-GlcNAc modification is not fully known, it ...
"Entrez Gene: KLHL7 kelch-like 7 (Drosophila)". Bredholt G, Storstein A, Haugen M, et al. (2006). "Detection of autoantibodies ... Kelch-like protein 7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KLHL7 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000122550 - ... 2001). "Toward a Catalog of Human Genes and Proteins: Sequencing and Analysis of 500 Novel Complete Protein Coding Human cDNAs ... 2001). "Systematic subcellular localization of novel proteins identified by large-scale cDNA sequencing". EMBO Rep. 1 (3): 287- ...
"Entrez Gene: KLHL18 kelch-like 18 (Drosophila)". Gerdin AK (2010). "The Sanger Mouse Genetics Programme: high throughput ... Kelch-like protein 18 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KLHL18 gene. Model organisms have been used in the study of ... "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs". Genome ... The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Research. 5 (5): 277-86. ...
Indian hedgehog homolog (Drosophila), also known as IHH, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the IHH gene. This cell ... The Indian hedgehog protein is one of three proteins in the mammalian hedgehog family, the others being desert hedgehog (DHH) ... signaling protein is in the hedgehog signaling pathway. The several mammalian variants of the Drosophila hedgehog gene (which ... The protein is released by small, non-proliferating, mature chondrocytes during endochondral ossification. Recently, Ihh ...
... is Tudor domain containing protein and Tudor Proteins are highly conserved proteins and even present in Drosophila ... Ying, Muying; Chen, Dahua (1 January 2012). "Tudor domain-containing proteins of Drosophila melanogaster". Development, Growth ... Staphylococcal nuclease domain-containing protein 1 also known as 100 kDa coactivator or Tudor domain-containing protein 11 ( ... multidomain organization and relationship to the staphylococcal nuclease fold and to the tudor protein involved in Drosophila ...
... a vital Drosophila gene is required in development and defines a new conserved family of ring-finger proteins". Genetics. 155 ( ... Protein ariadne-2 homolog is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARIH2 gene. ARIH2 influences development of Mll-Ell- ... October 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-1178. ... September 2005). "A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957-968 ...
1999). "Sequencing analysis of forty-eight human image cDNA clones similar to Drosophila mutant protein". DNA Seq. 9 (5-6): 307 ... Twist-related protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TWIST2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a basic ... TWIST2+protein,+human at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text ... Li L, Cserjesi P, Olson EN (Dec 1995). "Dermo-1: a novel twist-related bHLH protein expressed in the developing dermis". Dev ...
Hsp70Ba Heat shock protein 70 Ba [Drosophila melanogaster] Hsp70Ba Heat shock protein 70 Ba [Drosophila melanogaster]. Gene ID: ... Heat-shock-protein-70Ba. Hsp70Ba-PA. heat shock 70. heat shock protein 70BA. heat-shock protein 70. hsp70 87C. protein 70. ... mRNA and Protein(s) * NM_169469.2 → NP_731716.1 heat shock protein 70 Ba [Drosophila melanogaster] ... General protein information Go to the top of the page Help Preferred Names. heat shock protein 70 Ba. Names. 70 kDa heat shock ...
Identification and characterization of Drosophila genes for synaptic vesicle proteins. A DiAntonio, RW Burgess, AC Chin, DL ... Identification and characterization of Drosophila genes for synaptic vesicle proteins. A DiAntonio, RW Burgess, AC Chin, DL ... Identification and characterization of Drosophila genes for synaptic vesicle proteins. A DiAntonio, RW Burgess, AC Chin, DL ... Identification and characterization of Drosophila genes for synaptic vesicle proteins Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded ...
In Drosophila, manifestations of PCP are visible in the eye, wing, and cuticle. Several components of the PCP signaling have b ... Kermit interacts with Gαo, Vang, and motor proteins in Drosophila planar cell polarity PLoS One. 2013 Oct 3;8(10):e76885. doi: ... Using a genetic screen we uncover Kermit, previously implicated in G protein and PCP signaling, as a novel binding partner of ... Our results place Kermit as a potential transducer of Go, linking Vang with motor proteins for its delivery to dedicated ...
This work identifies Drosophila S2 cells as a clinically-relevant platform suited for the production of difficult-to-make ... The antibodies induced by one protein variant were shown to be qualitatively similar to responses induced by other vaccine ... However it has proved challenging to identify a heterologous expression platform that can produce a soluble protein-based ... proteins from Plasmodium parasites, and identifies a PfRH5 sequence variant that can be used for clinical production of a non- ...
... ... of Drosophila larvae is different from that in other tissues because instead of the Hsp70 and other common heat shock proteins ... Subhash C. Lakhotia, Priya Srivastava, and K. V. Prasanth "Regulation of heat shock proteins, Hsp70 and Hsp64, in heat-shocked ... Subhash C. Lakhotia, Priya Srivastava, K. V. Prasanth "Regulation of heat shock proteins, Hsp70 and Hsp64, in heat-shocked ...
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Evolution can tinker with multi-protein machines and replace them with simpler single-protein systems performing equivalent ... indicating that all three proteins may be components of a large multi-enzyme complex. The deletion of Drosophila STING leads to ... which help to refold proteins from aggregates using either two proteins with different functions (IbpA and IbpB) or a ... In this work we describe a previously unknown role of STING in lipid metabolism in Drosophila. Flies with STING deletion are ...
A model for circadian oscillations in the drosophila period protein. Proceedings of Biological Sciences, 261(1362), 319-324. ... Goldbeter, A. (1995) A model for circadian oscillations in the drosophila period protein. Proceedings of Biological Sciences, ... Berberine Attenuated Aging-Accelerating Effect of High Temperature in Drosophila Model Valeriya Navrotskaya, Gregory Oxenkrug, ...
Human EWS-FLI protein recapitulates in Drosophila the neomorphic functions that induce Ewing sarcoma tumorigenesis ...
We demonstrate that a Drosophila Golgi protein, Gorab, is present not only in the trans-Golgi but also in the centriole ... Gorab is a Golgi protein required for structure and duplication of Drosophila centrioles. Nature Genet., 50 (7). S. 1021 - 1034 ... Gorab is a Golgi protein required for structure and duplication of Drosophila centrioles ... We demonstrate the separation of centriole and Golgi functions of Drosophila Gorab in two ways: first, we have created Gorab ...
Drosophila ciD encodes a hybrid Pangolin/Cubitus interruptus protein that diverts the Wingless into the Hedgehog signaling ... Schweizer, L; Basler, K (1998). Drosophila ciD encodes a hybrid Pangolin/Cubitus interruptus protein that diverts the Wingless ... The ci gene in ciD is controlled by the ubiquitous pan promoter and encodes a hybrid Ci protein that carries the N-terminal ... The ci gene in ciD is controlled by the ubiquitous pan promoter and encodes a hybrid Ci protein that carries the N-terminal ...
The reversible phosphorylation of proteins on serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues represents a fundamental strategy used ... Identification and Classification of Drosophila Protein Kinases and Phosphatases. Our survey of Drosophila protein kinases and ... Several protein groups that are structurally related to the eukaryotic protein kinases are also found in the Drosophila genome ... Protein Phosphatases. Unlike protein kinases, which share a common catalytic structure, protein phosphatases have different ...
The Drosophila Extramacrochaetae protein antagonizes the proneural function of the Achaete and Scute proteins in the generation ... The Drosophila extramacrochaetae protein antagonizes sequence-specific DNA binding by daughterless/achaete-scute protein ... Patterns of expression of Cut, a protein required for external sensory organ development in wild-Type and cut mutant Drosophila ... dead-pan, an essential pan-neural gene encoding an HLH protein, acts as a denominator in Drosophila sex determination ...
Adaptive protein evolution is pervasive in Drosophila. Genomic studies, thus far, have analyzed each protein as a single entity ... Non-domain regions of proteins clearly play a major role in adaptive protein evolution on a genomic scale and merit future ... However, the targets of adaptive events may be localized to particular parts of proteins, such as protein domains or regions ... Interestingly, we find that non-domain regions of proteins are more frequent targets of directional selection. Protein domains ...
... of Drosophila encodes a protein with extensive homology to the Importin protein of Xenopus ( ... of Drosophila encodes a protein with extensive homology to the Importin protein of Xenopus (50% identity), the related yeast ... Pendulin, a Drosophila protein with cell cycle-dependent nuclear localization, is required for normal cell proliferation. ... The overgrown hematopoietic organs-31 tumor suppressor gene of Drosophila encodes an Importin-like protein accumulating in the ...
The protein is ubiquitously expressed during development. We show that Asx is required in the central nervous system to ... Asx was cloned by transposon tagging and encodes a protein of 1668 amino acids containing an unusual cysteine cluster at the ... gene of Drosophila is a member of the Polycomb group of genes, which are required for maintenance of stable repression of ... Drosophila, Drosophila Proteins, Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental, Immunohistochemistry, Insect Proteins, Molecular ...
"Drosophila Proteins" by people in this website by year, and whether "Drosophila Proteins" was a major or minor topic of these ... Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied ... "Drosophila Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Drosophila Proteins" by people in Profiles. ...
keywords = "Drosophila, adaptation, distribution of fitness effects, site frequency spectrum (SFS)",. author = "Peter Keightley ... We apply the method to estimate unfolded SFSs for synonymous and nonsynonymous sites in a population of Drosophila melanogaster ... We apply the method to estimate unfolded SFSs for synonymous and nonsynonymous sites in a population of Drosophila melanogaster ... We apply the method to estimate unfolded SFSs for synonymous and nonsynonymous sites in a population of Drosophila melanogaster ...
Recombinant Drosophila melanogaster VSV-g Tag Protein expressed from Insect Cells. Conjugated to MAT tag. Order Protein ... VSV-g Tag Protein (MAT tag). 宿主: Drosophila melanogaster 宿主: Insect Cells Recombinant 95 % ... Drosophila melanogaster 资源 All sources for VSV-g Tag 蛋白 * Insect Cells 1 ... VSV-G Epitope Tag protein (MAT tag) 宿主: Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV) 宿主: Insect Cells Recombinant 25 % -30 % ...
The Enzyme Collection contains over 550 mAbs that recognize catalytic domains or associated regulatory subunits in enyme complexes
Antibodies against mitochondrial proteins of Drosophila melanogaster. MS112 Western blotting Detection of NDUFS3 $250.00 100µg ...
HI! Early Drosophila development depends on the correct distribution of maternal proteins in anterior/posterior (A/P) and the ... This image shows the embryonic expression pattern of a Drosophila protein called HAIRY (seen in yellow). Based on what you know ... The new eye isnt ennervated so the Drosophila cannot see out of it. However, the functional parts of a Drosophila eye are ... The A/P axis is set up by a protein called BICOID that is expressed in a anterior-to-posterior gradient. What will happen to an ...
The Uncovered Function of the Drosophila GBA1a-Encoded Protein. / Cabasso, Or; Paul, Sumit; Maor, Gali et al. In: Cells, Vol. ... The Uncovered Function of the Drosophila GBA1a-Encoded Protein. Or Cabasso, Sumit Paul, Gali Maor, Metsada Pasmanik-Chor, ... The Uncovered Function of the Drosophila GBA1a-Encoded Protein. Cells. 2021 Mar 12;10(3):1-20. 630. doi: 10.3390/cells10030630 ... Dive into the research topics of The Uncovered Function of the Drosophila GBA1a-Encoded Protein. Together they form a unique ...
amino acidDNAguanine nucleotide binding proteinproteinreceptorRNAalgorithmamino acid sequencearticleDNA sequenceDrosophilagene ... A novel family of divergent seven-transmembrane proteins: Candidate odorant receptors in Drosophila. ... We have developed a novel search algorithm, used it to search the Drosophila genomic sequence database, and identified a large ... multigene family encoding seven transmembrane domain proteins that are expressed in olfactory organs. We show that expression ...
Amplification of genes for chorion proteins during oogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980 Feb; 77 ...
Ohshiro T, Yagami T, Zhang C, Matsuzaki F. Role of cortical tumour-suppressor proteins in asymmetric division of Drosophila ... Role of cortical tumour-suppressor proteins in asymmetric division of Drosophila neuroblast. In: Nature. 2000 ; Vol. 408, No. ... Role of cortical tumour-suppressor proteins in asymmetric division of Drosophila neuroblast. / Ohshiro, Tomokazu; Yagami, ... Dive into the research topics of Role of cortical tumour-suppressor proteins in asymmetric division of Drosophila neuroblast ...
is an integrated database of genomic, expression and protein data for Drosophila University of California, Santa Cruz "D. ... willistoni Drosophila (Drosophila) mojavensis Drosophila (Drosophila) virilis Drosophila (Drosophila) grimshawi The data have ... Lifecycle of Drosophila The following section is based on the following Drosophila species: Drosophila simulans and Drosophila ... The following section is based on the following Drosophila species: Drosophila serrata, Drosophila pseudoobscura, Drosophila ...
The RNA-binding fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP, also known as FMR1) controls translation and its loss triggers the ... Here, we demonstrate for the first time that germline, as well as somatic expression, of Drosophila Fmr1 (denoted dFmr1), the ... Moreover, dFmr1 interacts genetically and biochemically with Aubergine, an Argonaute protein and a key player in this pathway. ... Drosophila ortholog of FMRP, are necessary in a pathway mediated by piRNAs. ...
... which then are loaded into Argonaute proteins and act as sequence-specific guides. A powerful tool to understand the molecular ... Here, we describe methods for in vitro small RNA production assay using recombinant human and Drosophila Dicer proteins. ... Kinetic Analysis of Small Silencing RNA Production by Human and Drosophila Dicer Enzymes In Vitro Methods Mol Biol. 2018;1680: ... which then are loaded into Argonaute proteins and act as sequence-specific guides. A powerful tool to understand the molecular ...
... ... the Drosophila Homolog of Nme Metastasis Suppressor Proteins, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna ... Nme1 is found in human body fluids and its protein level correlates with prognosis in cancer patients. This prompted me to gain ... Nme1 is found in human body fluids and its protein level correlates with prognosis in cancer patients. This prompted me to gain ...
  • Genetic evidence for adaptation-driven incipient speciation of Drosophila melanogaster along a microclimatic contrast in "Evolution Canyon," Israel. (
  • Divergence of Drosophila melanogaster repeatomes in response to a sharp microclimate contrast in Evolution Canyon, Israel. (
  • Naturally occurring transposable elements disrupt hsp70 promoter function in Drosophila melanogaster. (
  • Inducing extra copies of the Hsp70 gene in Drosophila melanogaster increases energetic demand. (
  • Here we report the production of full-length PfRH5 protein using a cGMP-compliant platform called ExpreS 2 , based on a Drosophila melanogaster Schneider 2 (S2) stable cell line system. (
  • We have cloned the oho31 gene of Drosophila melanogaster and determined its nucleotide sequence. (
  • The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development. (
  • We apply the method to estimate unfolded SFSs for synonymous and nonsynonymous sites in a population of Drosophila melanogaster from Phase 2 of the Drosophila Population Genomics Project. (
  • Drosophila melanogaster has two GBA1 orthologs. (
  • Amplification of genes for chorion proteins during oogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. (
  • One species of Drosophila in particular, D. melanogaster, has been heavily used in research in genetics and is a common model organism in developmental biology. (
  • The terms "fruit fly" and "Drosophila" are often used synonymously with D. melanogaster in modern biological literature. (
  • citation needed] Several Drosophila species, including Drosophila melanogaster, D. immigrans, and D. simulans, are closely associated with humans, and are often referred to as domestic species. (
  • The work presented in this PhD thesis focuses on the study of awd (abnormal wing discs) gene function during the development of Drosophila melanogaster. (
  • Recently, these functions have been genetically dissected in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster , revealing a crucial role for cell-surface activation of the downstream effector kinase Akt in many of these processes. (
  • The cells in Drosophila melanogaster that produce pheromones are located in the abdomen. (
  • Drosophila melanogaster porcupine and its mouse homologue PORCN gene encode transmembrane bound endoplasmic reticulum proteins needed for the secretion of Wnt (Wingless and INT-1) proteins. (
  • In Drosophila melanogaster , the PORCN gene is involved in the processing of the wingless protein. (
  • Using mosaic analysis and RNAi in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, we show that Dystroglycan is required cell-autonomously for cellular polarity in two different cell types, the epithelial cells (apicobasal polarity) and the oocyte (anteroposterior polarity). (
  • IKEN, H.H. Ecological imprinting and protein biosynthesis experiments on Drosophila melanogaster. (
  • Northern analysis and in situ hybridizations to mRNA indicate that the novel vamp, as well as the genes for synaptotagmin (syt) and rab3 (drab3), is expressed in the Drosophila nervous system. (
  • Because of their distribution in the nervous system and because n-syb, synaptotagmin, and drab3 do not appear to be in a family of functionally redundant homologs, we predict that mutation of these genes will have a profound neurological phenotype and that they are therefore good candidates for a genetic dissection in Drosophila. (
  • The Additional sex combs (Asx) gene of Drosophila is a member of the Polycomb group of genes, which are required for maintenance of stable repression of homeotic and other loci. (
  • We show that two outgroups are required for accurate estimation of the SFS if there is substantial variation in selective constraints, which is expected to be the case for nonsynonymous sites in protein-coding genes. (
  • The SALL1 gene is part of a group of related genes that provide instructions for making proteins involved in the formation of tissues and organs before birth. (
  • These proteins are transcription factors, which means they attach (bind) to specific regions of DNA and help control the activity of particular genes. (
  • A shortage of functioning SALL1 protein, due to either type of mutation, likely impairs the regulation of genes that direct the development of many different organs and tissues before birth. (
  • The gypsy element of Drosophila differs from most LTR retrotransposons in containing a third open reading frame that resembles retroviral env genes. (
  • The Polycomb group (PcG) and trithorax group (trxG) genes encode proteins involved in chromatin remodelling. (
  • The conserved family of Transcription Intermediary Factors (TIF1) proteins consists of key transcriptional regulators that control transcription of target genes by modulating chromatin state. (
  • One previously reported candidate (syb), a Drosophila homolog of the vamp or synaptobrevin proteins, has been shown to be expressed at very low levels in neurons and is most abundant in the gut. (
  • The Plasmodium falciparum reticulocyte-binding protein homolog 5 (PfRH5) has recently emerged as a leading candidate antigen against the blood-stage human malaria parasite. (
  • This domain has previously been shown to bind to the b-catenin homolog Armadillo (Arm), raising the possibility that Wg input, in addition to Hh input, modulates the activity of the hybrid CiD protein. (
  • Ignesti, Marilena (2017) Uncovering the Relationship between Endocytosis and Awd, the Drosophila Homolog of Nme Metastasis Suppressor Proteins , [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. (
  • The haploinsuffcient dVHL (von-Hippel Lindau) gene is the Drosophila homolog of the human VHL tumour suppressor gene. (
  • We report here the characterization of the Drosophila homolog of the onecut homeobox gene, which encodes a protein product with one cut domain and one homeodomain. (
  • Abstract The Drosophila genome is subject to a high degree of selection, especially unusually widespread negative selection compared to other taxa. (
  • article{5f173e96-c6fe-4b5f-8f37-b070076bc387, abstract = {{The transmembrane protein Dystroglycan is a central element of the dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex, which is involved in the pathogenesis of many forms of muscular dystrophy. (
  • The ci gene in ciD is controlled by the ubiquitous pan promoter and encodes a hybrid Ci protein that carries the N-terminal region of Pan. (
  • A variety of approaches, including biochemical purification, gene isolation by homology, and genetic screens, have been successfully used for the identification of putative protein kinases and phosphatases. (
  • The function of the Drosophila extramacrochaetae ( emc ) gene has been characterized almost exclusively in relation to the pat-terning of the fly's sensory organs (chaetae and other types of sensilla). (
  • The overgrown hematopoietic organs-31 tumor suppressor gene of Drosophila encodes an Importin-like protein accumulating in the nucleus at the onset of mitosis. (
  • The tumor suppressor gene overgrown hematopoietic organs-31 (oho31) of Drosophila encodes a protein with extensive homology to the Importin protein of Xenopus (50% identity), the related yeast SRP1 protein, and the mammalian hSRP1 and RCH1 proteins. (
  • The gene encodes a phosphoprotein of 522 amino acids made of three domains: a central hydrophobic domain of eight repeats of 42-44 amino acids each, displaying similarity to the arm motif found in junctional and nucleopore complex proteins, and flanked by two hydrophilic NH2- and COOH-terminal domains. (
  • The Additional sex combs gene of Drosophila encodes a chromatin protein that binds to shared and unique Polycomb group sites on polytene chromosomes. (
  • Bordet G, Lodhi N, Kossenkov A, Tulin A. Age-Related Changes of Gene Expression Profiles in Drosophila. (
  • Thus far, GBA1b was documented as a bone fide GCase-encoding gene, while the role of GBA1a encoded protein remained unclear. (
  • The SALL1 protein helps turn off (repress) gene activity by interacting with other proteins that alter how tightly regions of DNA are packaged. (
  • By controlling gene activity, the SALL1 protein plays an important role in development of the hands (particularly the thumbs), ears, anus, kidneys, and other parts of the body before birth. (
  • Most SALL1 gene mutations involved in this disorder lead to the production of an abnormally short version of the SALL1 protein that malfunctions within cells. (
  • The malfunctioning protein is thought to interfere with normal copies of the SALL1 protein, which are produced from the other copy of the SALL1 gene that does not have a mutation. (
  • This interference prevents the normal proteins from entering the nucleus to regulate gene activity. (
  • Drosophila embryonic dorsal-ventral polarity originates in the ovarian follicle through the restriction of pipe gene expression to a ventral subpopulation of follicle cells. (
  • This gene provides instructions for making a protein that is responsible for modifying other proteins, including Wnt proteins. (
  • PORCN , a member of the porcupine (PORC) gene family, encodes transmembrane endoplasmic reticulum proteins that target Wnt signaling proteins. (
  • If Extramacrochaetae par-ticipates in cell specification by dimerizing with basic-region-helix-loop-helix proteins, the variety of defects and tissues affected by the insufficiency of extramacrochaetae suggests that helix-loop-helix proteins are involved in many embryonic developmental processes. (
  • During the interphase of early embryonic cell cycles, the OHO31 protein is present in the cytoplasm and massively accumulates in the nucleus at the onset of mitosis in late interphase and prophase. (
  • This image shows the embryonic expression pattern of a Drosophila protein called HAIRY (seen in yellow). (
  • Since Wnt signaling proteins cannot be released without the PORCN protein, and Wnt signaling is important for normal embryonic development, the defects found in this disorder are related to lack of Wnt signaling. (
  • Wnt proteins are key regulators of embryonic development. (
  • Using Drosophila oogenesis as a model system, we show that mutations in smn cause abnormal nuclear organization in nurse cells and oocytes. (
  • Drosophila ciD encodes a hybrid Pangolin/Cubitus interruptus protein that diverts the Wingless into the Hedgehog signaling pathway. (
  • Asx was cloned by transposon tagging and encodes a protein of 1668 amino acids containing an unusual cysteine cluster at the carboxy terminus. (
  • Unlike mammals that have four TIF1 members, Drosophila only encodes one member of the family, Bonus. (
  • and this study sets the stage for analyzing the Dystroglycan complex by using the power of Drosophila molecular genetics. (
  • The activities of the two pathways depend on each other during Drosophila embryogenesis. (
  • In the present study, we have investigated the binding of Trithorax (TRX) and Polycomb (PC) protein in the bithorax complex (BX-C) during embryogenesis. (
  • Furthermore, we show that the accumulation of activated Akt in the cytoplasm is responsible for this phenotype and leads to a much higher expression of LSD2, the fly homologue of the vertebrate lipid-storage protein perilipin. (
  • Here, we demonstrate for the first time that germline, as well as somatic expression, of Drosophila Fmr1 (denoted dFmr1), the Drosophila ortholog of FMRP, are necessary in a pathway mediated by piRNAs. (
  • This important study advances our understanding of the functions and regulation of the Drosophila transcriptional regulator Bonus, an ortholog of mammalian TIF1 family members. (
  • It is known from earlier studies that the heat shock (HS) response in Malpighian tubules (MTs) of Drosophila larvae is different from that in other tissues because instead of the Hsp70 and other common heat shock proteins, Hsp64 and certain other new proteins are induced immediately after HS. (
  • Our results strongly indicated that GBA1a-encoded protein plays a role in midgut maturation during larvae development. (
  • Here we show that a tumour-suppressor protein, Lethal giant larvae (Lgl), is essential for asymmetric cortical localization of all basal determinants in mitotic neuroblasts, and is therefore indispensable for neural fate decisions. (
  • Bordet G, Lodhi N, Guo D, Kossenkov A, Tulin AV. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 in genome-wide expression control in Drosophila. (
  • The spinal muscular atrophy protein SMN affects Drosophila germline nuclear organization through the U body-P body pathway. (
  • Drosophila Slowpoke (dSlo) calcium-dependent potassium channels bind directly to the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKAc). (
  • The antibodies induced by one protein variant were shown to be qualitatively similar to responses induced by other vaccine platforms. (
  • A powerful tool to understand the molecular mechanism of small silencing RNA production by Dicers is an in vitro RNA processing assay using recombinant Dicer proteins. (
  • Here, we describe methods for in vitro small RNA production assay using recombinant human and Drosophila Dicer proteins. (
  • Thus, the Hh and the Wg pathways are affected by the ciD mutation, and the CiD fusion protein integrates the activities of both. (
  • In Drosophila, the maintenance of developmentally important transcription patterns is controlled at the level of chromatin structure. (
  • Genomic studies, thus far, have analyzed each protein as a single entity. (
  • Non-domain regions of proteins clearly play a major role in adaptive protein evolution on a genomic scale and merit future investigations of their functional properties. (
  • We have developed a novel search algorithm, used it to search the Drosophila genomic sequence database, and identified a large multigene family encoding seven transmembrane domain proteins that are expressed in olfactory organs. (
  • Moreover, the cell cycle-dependent accumulation of OHO31 in the nucleus indicates that this protein may be required for critical nuclear reactions occurring at the onset of mitosis. (
  • Without the bicoid protein, as in the null mutant, anterior structures do not form properly and the embryo eventually dies. (
  • For example, some research indicates that the abnormally short SALL1 protein interferes with proteins that control the formation of cellular structures called cilia. (
  • The intracellular domain of the Drosophila cholinesterase-like neural adhesion protein, gliotactin, is natively unfolded. (
  • Because synaptic transmission is fundamentally similar between vertebrates and invertebrates, vesicle proteins from vertebrates that are important for synaptic transmission should be present in Drosophila as well. (
  • Several components of the PCP signaling have been characterized in flies and vertebrates, including the heterotrimeric Go protein. (
  • In vertebrates this subfamily contains four proteins: TIF1α/TRIM24, TIF1β/TRIM28, TIF1γ/TRIM33, and TIF1δ/TRIM66, while only one protein, Bonus (Bon), is present in Drosophila , making it an attractive model to understand the conserved functions of TIF1 proteins. (
  • We further demonstrate that the activity of Kermit in PCP differentially relies on the motor proteins: the microtubule-based dynein and kinesin motors and the actin-based myosin VI. (
  • We found that Drosophila STING interacts with lipid synthesizing enzymes acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FASN). (
  • Moreover, dFmr1 interacts genetically and biochemically with Aubergine, an Argonaute protein and a key player in this pathway. (
  • Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. (
  • Drosophila (/drəˈsɒfɪlə, drɒ-, droʊ-/) is a genus of flies, belonging to the family Drosophilidae, whose members are often called "small fruit flies" or (less frequently)[citation needed] pomace flies, vinegar flies, or wine flies, a reference to the characteristic of many species to linger around overripe or rotting fruit. (
  • Males of this genus are known to have the longest sperm cells of any studied organism on Earth, including one species, Drosophila bifurca, that has sperm cells that are 58 mm (2.3 in) long. (
  • The other members of the genus Drosophila also make relatively few giant sperm cells, with that of D. bifurca being the longest. (
  • Another tumour-suppressor protein, Lethal discs large (Dlg), participates in this process by regulating the localization of Lgl. (
  • Hyperactivation of IIS has been implicated in the generation of many different human tumours, which are frequently defective for the tumour-suppressor protein PTEN, a PtdIns(3,4,5)- P 3 phosphatase that directly antagonizes the effects of PI3-kinases( Goberdhan and Wilson,2003b ). (
  • We demonstrate that a Drosophila Golgi protein, Gorab, is present not only in the trans-Golgi but also in the centriole cartwheel where, complexed to Sas6, it is required for centriole duplication. (
  • Our findings suggest that during animal evolution, a Golgi protein has arisen with a second, apparently independent, role in centriole duplication. (
  • In this work we describe a previously unknown role of STING in lipid metabolism in Drosophila . (
  • Together, our results demonstrate a previously undescribed role of STING in lipid metabolism in Drosophila . (
  • The reversible phosphorylation of proteins on serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues represents a fundamental strategy used by eukaryotic organisms to regulate a host of biological functions, including DNA replication, cell cycle progression, energy metabolism, and cell growth and differentiation. (
  • The insulin/insulin-like growth factor signalling (IIS) cascade performs a broad range of evolutionarily conserved functions, including the regulation of growth, developmental timing and lifespan, and the control of sugar, protein and lipid metabolism. (
  • These photos show a wild-type Drosophila embryo that developed with normal BICOID levels and a mutant that did not have any BICOID. (
  • This is a leg from another Drosophila mutant. (
  • Similarly, Pipe protein exhibits an altered subcellular localization in the follicle cells of females mutant for windbeutel. (
  • Drosophila Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • Drosophila species are small flies, typically pale yellow to reddish brown to black, with red eyes. (
  • This investigation describes Drosophila homologs of vamp, synaptotagmin, and rab3 that are expressed in a pattern consistent with a function in Drosophila neurotransmission. (
  • Protein phosphorylation can regulate enzyme function, mediate protein-protein interactions, alter subcellular localization, and control protein stability. (
  • The Drosophila Extramacrochaetae protein antagonizes the proneural function of the Achaete and Scute proteins in the generation of the adult fly sensory organs. (
  • Drosophila brain structure and function develop and age significantly from larval to adult stage. (
  • The malfunctioning protein may also interact with other proteins, disrupting their function. (
  • Identification of the essential protein domains for Mib2 function during the development of the Drosophila larval musculature and adult flight muscles. (
  • In this study, we have examined the mechanistic aspects of Mib2 function by performing a detailed functional dissection of the Mib2 protein . (
  • We show that the ankyrin repeats , in its entirety, and the hitherto uncharacterized Mib-specific domains (MIB), are important for the major function of Mib2 in skeletal and visceral muscles in the Drosophila embryo . (
  • We compared the population genetic mechanisms driving sequence polymorphism and divergence in defined protein domains and non-domain regions. (
  • and HSPA6 (heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 6). (
  • Proteins associated with synaptic vesicles are likely to control the release of neurotransmitter. (
  • This distribution suggests that these molecules are components of synaptic vesicles in Drosophila. (
  • Drosophila species are found all around the world, with more species in the tropical regions. (
  • Drosophila made their way to the Hawaiian Islands and radiated into over 800 species. (
  • Drosophila species that are fruit-breeding are attracted to various products of fermentation, especially ethanol and methanol. (
  • Fruits exploited by Drosophila species include those with a high pectin concentration, which is an indicator of how much alcohol will be produced during fermentation. (
  • Dicer enzymes produce small silencing RNAs such as microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), which then are loaded into Argonaute proteins and act as sequence-specific guides. (
  • The transmembrane protein Dystroglycan is a central element of the dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex, which is involved in the pathogenesis of many forms of muscular dystrophy. (
  • A neuronal Drosophila vamp (n-syb) is described here and is localized to chromosome band 62A. (
  • D-Onecut appears to be a moderate transcriptional activator and functions as a nuclear protein in neuronal tissues of both the CNS and PNS during development and in the adult. (
  • Comparative analysis of the binding of the two proteins shows that TRX and PC bind target sequences (PcG-regulated elements, PREs) by cellular blastoderm, when BX-C transcription begins. (
  • Thereafter, the OHO31 protein is predominantly expressed, albeit at reduced levels, in proliferating tissues. (
  • We present evidence that D-Onecut can bind to similar DNA sequences with high specificity and affinity as other Onecut proteins through the highly conserved cut domain and homeodomain. (
  • In Drosophila, neuroblasts undergo typical asymmetric divisions to produce another neuroblast and a ganglion mother cell. (
  • Test results with eight chemicals in a drosophila-based developmental toxicity prescreen. (
  • ACC and FASN also interact with each other, indicating that all three proteins may be components of a large multi-enzyme complex. (
  • However it has proved challenging to identify a heterologous expression platform that can produce a soluble protein-based vaccine in a manner compliant with current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP). (
  • These 'oenocytes' are revealed by expression of a protein fluorescing green. (