Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.WingDNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Photoreceptor Cells, Invertebrate: Specialized cells in the invertebrates that detect and transduce light. They are predominantly rhabdomeric with an array of photosensitive microvilli. Illumination depolarizes invertebrate photoreceptors by stimulating Na+ influx across the plasma membrane.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Nerve Tissue ProteinsProtein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Insect Hormones: Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Zinc Fingers: Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.Pupa: An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Genome, Insect: The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Oogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Genes, Lethal: Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Wnt1 Protein: A proto-oncogene protein and member of the Wnt family of proteins. It is expressed in the caudal MIDBRAIN and is essential for proper development of the entire mid-/hindbrain region.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Ecdysone: A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects.Mushroom Bodies: Prominent lobed neuropils found in ANNELIDA and all ARTHROPODS except crustaceans. They are thought to be involved in olfactory learning and memory.Blastoderm: A layer of cells lining the fluid-filled cavity (blastocele) of a BLASTULA, usually developed from a fertilized insect, reptilian, or avian egg.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Sense Organs: Specialized organs adapted for the reception of stimuli by the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Metamorphosis, Biological: Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Receptors, Notch: A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Chromosomes, Insect: Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.Fat Body: A nutritional reservoir of fatty tissue found mainly in insects and amphibians.Genes, Homeobox: Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Hemocytes: Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Armadillo Domain Proteins: A family of proteins that contain several 42-amino acid repeat domains and are homologous to the Drosophila armadillo protein. They bind to other proteins through their armadillo domains and play a variety of roles in the CELL including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, regulation of DESMOSOME assembly, and CELL ADHESION.Optic Lobe, Nonmammalian: In invertebrate zoology, a lateral lobe of the FOREBRAIN in certain ARTHROPODS. In vertebrate zoology, either of the corpora bigemina of non-mammalian VERTEBRATES. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1329)Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Malpighian Tubules: Slender tubular or hairlike excretory structures found in insects. They emerge from the alimentary canal between the mesenteron (midgut) and the proctodeum (hindgut).Salivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).Imaginal Discs: Hollow sacs of cells in LARVA that form adult structures in insects during BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS.Eye ProteinsCompound Eye, Arthropod: Light sensory organ in ARTHROPODS consisting of a large number of ommatidia, each functioning as an independent photoreceptor unit.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Ecdysterone: A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysterone is the 20-hydroxylated ECDYSONE.Courtship: Activities designed to attract the attention or favors of another.Eye Color: Color of the iris.Longevity: The normal length of time of an organism's life.Germ Cells: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.Heterochromatin: The portion of chromosome material that remains condensed and is transcriptionally inactive during INTERPHASE.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Flight, Animal: The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.Juvenile Hormones: Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Retroelements: Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Mosaicism: The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.Antennapedia Homeodomain Protein: Antennapedia homeodomain protein is a homeobox protein involved in limb patterning in ARTHROPODS. Mutations in the gene for the antennapedia homeodomain protein are associated with the conversion of antenna to leg or leg to antenna DROSOPHILA.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Thorax: The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Dosage Compensation, Genetic: Genetic mechanisms that allow GENES to be expressed at a similar level irrespective of their GENE DOSAGE. This term is usually used in discussing genes that lie on the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Because the sex chromosomes are only partially homologous, there is a different copy number, i.e., dosage, of these genes in males vs. females. In DROSOPHILA, dosage compensation is accomplished by hypertranscription of genes located on the X CHROMOSOME. In mammals, dosage compensation of X chromosome genes is accomplished by random X CHROMOSOME INACTIVATION of one of the two X chromosomes in the female.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Frizzled Receptors: A family of seven-pass transmembrane cell-surface proteins that combines with LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 or LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 to form receptors for WNT PROTEINS. Frizzled receptors often couple with HETEROTRIMERIC G PROTEINS and regulate the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Hedgehog Proteins: A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.Chromosome Inversion: An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.Period Circadian Proteins: Circadian rhythm signaling proteins that influence circadian clock by interacting with other circadian regulatory proteins and transporting them into the CELL NUCLEUS.Polytene Chromosomes: Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.Neuromuscular Junction: The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.Y Chromosome: The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Head: The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.Polycomb Repressive Complex 1: A multisubunit polycomb protein complex with affinity for CHROMATIN that contains methylated HISTONE H3. It contains an E3 ubiquitin ligase activity that is specific for HISTONE H2A and works in conjunction with POLYCOMB REPRESSIVE COMPLEX 2 to effect EPIGENETIC REPRESSION.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Sex Chromosomes: The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Epistasis, Genetic: A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Embryonic Structures: The anatomical parts that make up an organism in the early stages of development.Alcohol Dehydrogenase: A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Fushi Tarazu Transcription Factors: Fushi tarazu transcription factors were originally identified in DROSOPHILA. They are found throughout ARTHROPODS and play important roles in segmentation and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM development.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Neuropil: A dense intricate feltwork of interwoven fine glial processes, fibrils, synaptic terminals, axons, and dendrites interspersed among the nerve cells in the gray matter of the central nervous system.Hemolymph: The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.Janus Kinases: A family of intracellular tyrosine kinases that participate in the signaling cascade of cytokines by associating with specific CYTOKINE RECEPTORS. They act upon STAT TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS in signaling pathway referred to as the JAK/STAT pathway. The name Janus kinase refers to the fact the proteins have two phosphate-transferring domains.Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
Novel regulation of the homeotic gene Scr associated with a crustacean leg-to-maxilliped appendage transformation. (1/18666)Homeotic genes are known to be involved in patterning morphological structures along the antero-posterior axis of insects and vertebrates. Because of their important roles in development, changes in the function and expression patterns of homeotic genes may have played a major role in the evolution of different body plans. For example, it has been proposed that during the evolution of several crustacean lineages, changes in the expression patterns of the homeotic genes Ultrabithorax and abdominal-A have played a role in transformation of the anterior thoracic appendages into mouthparts termed maxillipeds. This homeotic-like transformation is recapitulated at the late stages of the direct embryonic development of the crustacean Porcellio scaber (Oniscidea, Isopoda). Interestingly, this morphological change is associated with apparent novelties both in the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of the Porcellio scaber ortholog of the Drosophila homeotic gene, Sex combs reduced (Scr). Specifically, we find that Scr mRNA is present in the second maxillary segment and the first pair of thoracic legs (T1) in early embryos, whereas protein accumulates only in the second maxillae. In later stages, however, high levels of SCR appear in the T1 legs, which correlates temporally with the transformation of these appendages into maxillipeds. Our observations provide further insight into the process of the homeotic leg-to-maxilliped transformation in the evolution of crustaceans and suggest a novel regulatory mechanism for this process in this group of arthropods. (+info)
Apontic binds the translational repressor Bruno and is implicated in regulation of oskar mRNA translation. (2/18666)The product of the oskar gene directs posterior patterning in the Drosophila oocyte, where it must be deployed specifically at the posterior pole. Proper expression relies on the coordinated localization and translational control of the oskar mRNA. Translational repression prior to localization of the transcript is mediated, in part, by the Bruno protein, which binds to discrete sites in the 3' untranslated region of the oskar mRNA. To begin to understand how Bruno acts in translational repression, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify Bruno-interacting proteins. One interactor, described here, is the product of the apontic gene. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments lend biochemical support to the idea that Bruno and Apontic proteins physically interact in Drosophila. Genetic experiments using mutants defective in apontic and bruno reveal a functional interaction between these genes. Given this interaction, Apontic is likely to act together with Bruno in translational repression of oskar mRNA. Interestingly, Apontic, like Bruno, is an RNA-binding protein and specifically binds certain regions of the oskar mRNA 3' untranslated region. (+info)
Stromal cells mediate retinoid-dependent functions essential for renal development. (3/18666)The essential role of vitamin A and its metabolites, retinoids, in kidney development has been demonstrated in vitamin A deficiency and gene targeting studies. Retinoids signal via nuclear transcription factors belonging to the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) families. Inactivation of RARaplpha and RARbeta2 receptors together, but not singly, resulted in renal malformations, suggesting that within a given renal cell type, their concerted function is required for renal morphogenesis. At birth, RARalpha beta2(-) mutants displayed small kidneys, containing few ureteric bud branches, reduced numbers of nephrons and lacking the nephrogenic zone where new nephrons are continuously added. These observations have prompted us to investigate the role of RARalpha and RARbeta2 in renal development in detail. We have found that within the embryonic kidney, RARalpha and RARbeta2 are colocalized in stromal cells, but not in other renal cell types, suggesting that stromal cells mediate retinoid-dependent functions essential for renal development. Analysis of RARalpha beta2(-) mutant kidneys at embryonic stages revealed that nephrons were formed and revealed no changes in the intensity or distribution of molecular markers specific for different metanephric mesenchymal cell types. In contrast the development of the collecting duct system was greatly impaired in RARalpha beta2(-) mutant kidneys. Fewer ureteric bud branches were present, and ureteric bud ends were positioned abnormally, at a distance from the renal capsule. Analysis of genes important for ureteric bud morphogenesis revealed that the proto-oncogene c-ret was downregulated. Our results suggest that RARalpha and RARbeta2 are required for generating stromal cell signals that maintain c-ret expression in the embryonic kidney. Since c-ret signaling is required for ureteric bud morphogenesis, loss of c-ret expression is a likely cause of impaired ureteric bud branching in RARalpha beta2(-) mutants. (+info)
The Drosophila kismet gene is related to chromatin-remodeling factors and is required for both segmentation and segment identity. (4/18666)The Drosophila kismet gene was identified in a screen for dominant suppressors of Polycomb, a repressor of homeotic genes. Here we show that kismet mutations suppress the Polycomb mutant phenotype by blocking the ectopic transcription of homeotic genes. Loss of zygotic kismet function causes homeotic transformations similar to those associated with loss-of-function mutations in the homeotic genes Sex combs reduced and Abdominal-B. kismet is also required for proper larval body segmentation. Loss of maternal kismet function causes segmentation defects similar to those caused by mutations in the pair-rule gene even-skipped. The kismet gene encodes several large nuclear proteins that are ubiquitously expressed along the anterior-posterior axis. The Kismet proteins contain a domain conserved in the trithorax group protein Brahma and related chromatin-remodeling factors, providing further evidence that alterations in chromatin structure are required to maintain the spatially restricted patterns of homeotic gene transcription. (+info)
Transcriptional repression by the Drosophila giant protein: cis element positioning provides an alternative means of interpreting an effector gradient. (5/18666)Early developmental patterning of the Drosophila embryo is driven by the activities of a diverse set of maternally and zygotically derived transcription factors, including repressors encoded by gap genes such as Kruppel, knirps, giant and the mesoderm-specific snail. The mechanism of repression by gap transcription factors is not well understood at a molecular level. Initial characterization of these transcription factors suggests that they act as short-range repressors, interfering with the activity of enhancer or promoter elements 50 to 100 bp away. To better understand the molecular mechanism of short-range repression, we have investigated the properties of the Giant gap protein. We tested the ability of endogenous Giant to repress when bound close to the transcriptional initiation site and found that Giant effectively represses a heterologous promoter when binding sites are located at -55 bp with respect to the start of transcription. Consistent with its role as a short-range repressor, as the binding sites are moved to more distal locations, repression is diminished. Rather than exhibiting a sharp 'step-function' drop-off in activity, however, repression is progressively restricted to areas of highest Giant concentration. Less than a two-fold difference in Giant protein concentration is sufficient to determine a change in transcriptional status of a target gene. This effect demonstrates that Giant protein gradients can be differentially interpreted by target promoters, depending on the exact location of the Giant binding sites within the gene. Thus, in addition to binding site affinity and number, cis element positioning within a promoter can affect the response of a gene to a repressor gradient. We also demonstrate that a chimeric Gal4-Giant protein lacking the basic/zipper domain can specifically repress reporter genes, suggesting that the Giant effector domain is an autonomous repression domain. (+info)
A Drosophila doublesex-related gene, terra, is involved in somitogenesis in vertebrates. (6/18666)The Drosophila doublesex (dsx) gene encodes a transcription factor that mediates sex determination. We describe the characterization of a novel zebrafish zinc-finger gene, terra, which contains a DNA binding domain similar to that of the Drosophila dsx gene. However, unlike dsx, terra is transiently expressed in the presomitic mesoderm and newly formed somites. Expression of terra in presomitic mesoderm is restricted to cells that lack expression of MyoD. In vivo, terra expression is reduced by hedgehog but enhanced by BMP signals. Overexpression of terra induces rapid apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that a tight regulation of terra expression is required during embryogenesis. Terra has both human and mouse homologs and is specifically expressed in mouse somites. Taken together, our findings suggest that terra is a highly conserved protein that plays specific roles in early somitogenesis of vertebrates. (+info)
Membrane-tethered Drosophila Armadillo cannot transduce Wingless signal on its own. (7/18666)Drosophila Armadillo and its vertebrate homolog beta-catenin are key effectors of Wingless/Wnt signaling. In the current model, Wingless/Wnt signal stabilizes Armadillo/beta-catenin, which then accumulates in nuclei and binds TCF/LEF family proteins, forming bipartite transcription factors which activate transcription of Wingless/Wnt responsive genes. This model was recently challenged. Overexpression in Xenopus of membrane-tethered beta-catenin or its paralog plakoglobin activates Wnt signaling, suggesting that nuclear localization of Armadillo/beta-catenin is not essential for signaling. Tethered plakoglobin or beta-catenin might signal on their own or might act indirectly by elevating levels of endogenous beta-catenin. We tested these hypotheses in Drosophila by removing endogenous Armadillo. We generated a series of mutant Armadillo proteins with altered intracellular localizations, and expressed these in wild-type and armadillo mutant backgrounds. We found that membrane-tethered Armadillo cannot signal on its own; however it can function in adherens junctions. We also created mutant forms of Armadillo carrying heterologous nuclear localization or nuclear export signals. Although these signals alter the subcellular localization of Arm when overexpressed in Xenopus, in Drosophila they have little effect on localization and only subtle effects on signaling. This supports a model in which Armadillo's nuclear localization is key for signaling, but in which Armadillo intracellular localization is controlled by the availability and affinity of its binding partners. (+info)
Sonic hedgehog signaling by the patched-smoothened receptor complex. (8/18666)BACKGROUND: The Hedgehog (Hh) family of secreted proteins is involved in a number of developmental processes as well as in cancer. Genetic and biochemical data suggest that the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) receptor is composed of at least two proteins: the tumor suppressor protein Patched (Ptc) and the seven-transmembrane protein Smoothened (Smo). RESULTS: Using a biochemical assay for activation of the transcription factor Gli, a downstream component of the Hh pathway, we show here that Smo functions as the signaling component of the Shh receptor, and that this activity can be blocked by Ptc. The inhibition of Smo by Ptc can be relieved by the addition of Shh. Furthermore, oncogenic forms of Smo are insensitive to Ptc repression in this assay. Mapping of the Smo domains required for binding to Ptc and for signaling revealed that the Smo-Ptc interaction involves mainly the amino terminus of Smo, and that the third intracellular loop and the seventh transmembrane domain are required for signaling. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that Smo is the signaling component of a multicomponent Hh receptor complex and that Ptc is a ligand-regulated inhibitor of Smo. Different domains of Smo are involved in Ptc binding and activation of a Gli reporter construct. The latter requires the third intracellular loop and the seventh transmembrane domain of Smo, regions often involved in coupling to G proteins. No changes in the levels of cyclic AMP or calcium associated with such pathways could be detected following receptor activation, however. (+info)
The Drosophila kismet gene was identified in a screen for dominant suppressors of Polycomb, a repressor of homeotic genes. Here we show that kismet mutations suppress the Polycomb mutant phenotype by blocking the ectopic transcription of homeotic genes. Loss of zygotic kismet function causes homeotic transformations similar to those associated with loss-of-function mutations in the homeotic genes Sex combs reduced and Abdominal-B. kismet is also required for proper larval body segmentation. Loss of maternal kismet function causes segmentation defects similar to those caused by mutations in the pair-rule gene even-skipped. The kismet gene encodes several large nuclear proteins that are ubiquitously expressed along the anterior-posterior axis. The Kismet proteins contain a domain conserved in the trithorax group protein Brahma and related chromatin-remodeling factors, providing further evidence that alterations in chromatin structure are required to maintain the spatially restricted patterns of ...
Recommended Readings:. Chekulaeva, M. and A. Ephrussi. 2004. "Drosophila Development: RNA Interference Ab Ovo." Current Biology 14 (11): R428-R430. Hachet, O. and A. Ephrussi. 2001. "Drosophila Y14 Shuttles to the Posterior of the Oocyte and is Required for Oskar mRNA Transport." Current Biology 11 (21): 1666-1674. Jambor, H., C. Brunel, and A. Ephrussi. 2011. "Dimerization of Oskar 3′ UTRs Promotes Hitchhiking for RNA Localization in the Drosophila Oocyte." RNA 17 (12): 2049-2057. Krauss, J., S. López de Quinto, C. Nüsslein-Volhard, and A. Ephrussi. 2009. "Myosin-V Regulates Oskar mRNA Localization in the Drosophila Oocyte." Current Biology 19 (12): 1058-1063. Vanzo, N., A. Oprins, D. Xanthakis, A. Ephrussi, and C. Rabouille. 2007. "Stimulation of Endocytosis and Actin Dynamics by Oskar Polarizes the Drosophila Oocyte." Developmental Cell 12 (4): 543-555. Vanzo, N. F. and A. Ephrussi. 2002. "Oskar Anchoring Restricts Pole Plasm Formation to the Posterior of the Drosophila Oocyte." ...
THE imaginal discs of the Drosophila larva have long served as a model system in which to understand the control of organ size. Imaginal discs are epithelial sacs that, following metamorphosis, will form much of the adult tissue. The primordia of these discs are set aside in the embryo as small groups of 20-50 cells that remain diploid while much of the rest of the animal becomes polyploid. Over the 4 days that span the three larval instars, these primordia proliferate by ∼1000-fold to approach their final size. The size of the imaginal disc at the initiation of pupation is a major determinant of the size of the adult organ following metamorphosis. This size is highly regular, reflecting the importance for appropriate physiology and functioning of, for example, the complex optics of the compound eye or the aerodynamics of the wing and haltere flight organs. Thus, tight developmental controls must exist to permit sufficient but not excessive growth of the imaginal discs.. Classic and ...
The microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton is reorganized during myogenesis as individual myoblasts fuse into multinucleated myotubes. Although this reorganization has long been observed in cell culture, these findings have not been validated during development, and proteins that regulate this process are largely unknown. A novel postmitotic function has been identified for the cytokinesis proteins RacGAP50C (Tumbleweed) and Pavarotti as essential regulators of MT organization during Drosophila myogenesis. The localization of the MT nucleator gamma-tubulin changes from diffuse cytoplasmic staining in mononucleated myoblasts to discrete cytoplasmic puncta at the nuclear periphery in multinucleated myoblasts, and this change in localization depends on RacGAP50C. RacGAP50C and gamma-tubulin colocalize at perinuclear sites in myotubes, and in RacGAP50C mutants gamma-tubulin remains dispersed throughout the cytoplasm. Furthermore, the mislocalization of RacGAP50C in pavarotti mutants is sufficient to ...
In this study, we demonstrate that Dscam endodomain variants are dynamically and differentially expressed in the developing Drosophila CNS. This conclusion derives from: (1) the analysis of Dscam transcript compositions by RT-PCR, (2) the localization of specific Dscam endodomains by depleting the alternatives via RNAi against exon 19, exon 23, or the unique exon-exon junctions derived from skipping of exon 19 or exon 23 (Fig. 2), and (3) the direct visualization of Dscam+19 using Ab19 as opposed to labeling all the Dscam isoforms with Ab18 (Fig. 3). Postembryonic neuronal morphogenesis uses Dscam variants lacking exons 19 and 23 (Fig. 4C), while Dscam+19 plays a more important role in the wiring of embryonic neural tracts (Fig. 4F). Skipping exon 19 prevents accumulation of Dscams in neuronal cell bodies, implicating a mechanism for regulating Dscam protein targeting by the alternative splicing of exon 19 (Figs. 6, 7). In addition, exon 23 is dispensable for most Dscam-dependent neuronal ...
The tubular epithelium of the Drosophila tracheal system forms a network with a stereotyped pattern consisting of cells and branches with distinct identity. The tracheal primordium undergoes primary branching induced by the FGF homolog Branchless, differentiates cells with specialized functions such as fusion cells, which perform target recognition and adhesion during branch fusion, and extends branches toward specific targets. Specification of a unique identity for each primary branch is essential for directed migration, as a defect in either the EGFR or the Dpp pathway leads to a loss of branch identity and the misguidance of tracheal cell migration. Here, we investigate the role of Wingless signaling in the specification of cell and branch identity in the tracheal system. Wingless and its intracellular signal transducer, Armadillo, have multiple functions, including specifying the dorsal trunk through activation of Spalt expression and inducing differentiation of fusion cells in all fusion ...
The Hippo pathway controls metazoan organ growth by regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis. Many components have been identified, but our knowledge of the composition and structure of this pathway is still incomplete. Using existing pathway components as baits, we generated by mass spectrometry a high-confidence Drosophila Hippo protein-protein interaction network (Hippo-PPIN) consisting of 153 proteins and 204 interactions. Depletion of 67% of the proteins by RNAi regulated the transcriptional coactivator Yorkie (Yki) either positively or negatively. We selected for further characterization a new member of the alpha-arrestin family, Leash, and show that it promotes degradation of Yki through the lysosomal pathway. Given the importance of the Hippo pathway in tumor development, the Hippo-PPIN will contribute to our understanding of this network in both normal growth and cancer.. ...
Wounding, apoptosis, or infection can trigger a proliferative response in neighboring cells to replace damaged tissue. Studies in Drosophila have implicated c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK)-dependent activation of Yorkie (Yki) as essential to regeneration-associated growth, as well as growth associated with neoplastic tumors. Yki is a transcriptional coactivator that is inhibited by Hippo signaling, a conserved pathway that regulates growth. We identified a conserved mechanism by which JNK regulated Hippo signaling. Genetic studies in Drosophila identified Jub (also known as Ajuba LIM protein) as required for JNK-mediated activation of Yki and showed that Jub contributed to wing regeneration after wounding and to tumor growth. Biochemical studies revealed that JNK promoted the phosphorylation of Ajuba family proteins in both Drosophila and mammalian cells. Binding studies in mammalian cells indicated that JNK increased binding between the Ajuba family proteins LIMD1 or WTIP and LATS1, a kinase ...
Benign tumors accumulate mutations that enable them to progress to malignancy and metastasis. Although Yki overexpression promotes cell proliferation and inhibits apoptosis, Yki expression does not normally lead to the formation of malignant tumors in the Drosophila wing epithelia. Our findings show that inactivation of the BAP complex in discs expressing Yki results in the formation of giant larvae, a phenomenon characteristic of larvae with neoplastic tumors. The overgrown imaginal discs in these animals exhibit features of malignant transformation, including loss of epithelial polarity and expression of the proinvasive marker Mmp1. Moreover, when transplanted to a normal host, fragments of these discs produced tumors that grew and spread to kill the host.. The tumor suppressive role of the BAP complex appears to be context dependent. Overexpression of EGFR and Yki each results in tissue hyperplasia. Yki regulates cell proliferation and represses apoptosis by regulating target genes, including ...
The dorsoventral pattern of the Drosophila embryo is mediated by a gradient of nuclear localization of the dorsal protein which acts as amorphogen. Establishment of the nuclear concentration gradient of dorsal protein requires the activities of the 10 maternal dorsal group genes whose function results in the positive regulation of the nuclear uptake of the dorsal protein. Here we show that in contrast to the dorsal group genes, the maternal gene cactus acts as a negative regulator of the nuclear localization of the dorsal protein. While loss of function mutations of any of the dorsal group genes lead to dorsalized embryos, loss of cactusfunction results in a ventralization of the body pattern. Progressive loss of maternal cactus activity causes progressive loss of dorsal pattern elements accompanied by the expansion of ventrolateral and ventral anlagen. However, embryos still retain dorsoventral polarity, even if derived from germline clones using the strongest available, zygotic lethal cactus ...
Increasing evidence implicates the Hippo signalling pathway as a major mediator of contact inhibition of growth. In agreement with this model, genetic analysis in Drosophila and mice showed that this pathway restrains cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis to limit organ size and suppress tumorigenesis [,,]. The core kinase cascade of this pathway-Hippo (MST1/2)-Salvador (WW45)-Warts (Lats1/2)-has been well characterized in Drosophila and is conserved in mammals, whereas its upstream regulation, which is rather complex, seems to have diverged after the separation of arthropods and chordates. In Drosophila, the atypical cadherin Fat and the apical polarity protein Crumbs activate the core kinase cascade through the FERM domain protein Expanded [,]. Interestingly, genetic epistasis experiments showed that Merlin cooperates with Expanded to activate the Hippo pathway in the fly []. Mammalian cells lack a clear functional homologue of Fat [,]. A recent study ...
The Hippo pathway inactivates genes involved in organ size and when aberrant, can lead to cancer. To control organ size, the Hippo pathway inhibits Yorkie (Yki), a transcriptional coactivator that works with Scalloped (Sd), a DNA binding protein. When active, Yki translocates into the nucleus and initiates transcription. Conversely, when inactive, Yki remains in the cytoplasm. However, my work shows that cytoplasmic, inactive Yki interacts with other proteins in the Hippo pathway by recruiting them to the plasma membrane. Accordingly, this study challenges the notion that cytoplasmic Yki is inactive and instead, may play a dual role in the Hippo pathway.
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An exceptionally soft and smooth but also robust lightweight tartan - in our view the worlds finest. It will be woven to order for you, using traditional methods, by the worlds last artisan tartan weaving mill, deep in the Scottish Borders. Its an
Once upon a time, there was an excellent Italian tenor named Luciano Pavarotti.He didnt have the biggest voice in the world, or the sweetest. He didnt make the most dramatic of sounds, or the most
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We propose that the six genes previously classified as Polycomb group genes in which loss-of-function or antimorphic mutations show intergenic noncomplementation with mutations in trithorax group genes and increase the penetrance caused by double heterozygosis of mutations in trithorax group genes belong in a distinct group (Table 6). We propose that this group be called the ETP (Enhancers of trithorax and Polycomb mutations) group. Loss-of-function mutations in this group of genes enhance the dominant phenotype caused by Polycomb mutations like mutations in Polycomb group genes but also enhance the phenotype caused by heterozygosity for double mutations in trithorax group genes such as ash1VF101 trxb11 and brm2 trxe2 like mutations in trithorax group genes. Jürgens (1985) estimated that there were ∼40 genes in the Polycomb group based on the enhancement of the Polycomb mutant phenotype by a sample of deficiencies. We suggest that this number may be an overestimate. Many of the genes in which ...
Previous experiments have shown two germline stem cell genes, bam and bgcn, to be under strong positive selection in Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans (Bauer DuMont et al. 2007). This prompted the question of whether the same pattern of selection observed in these two species was present in the germline stem cell genes of other Drosophila lineages? The Aquadro Lab has been sequencing many germline stem cell genes in Drosophila species, and the answer to this question so far has been that some lineages show strong positive selection and some do not. This observation led the Aquadro Lab to begin to test hypotheses about the driver - or drivers - of the positive selection in the germline stem cell genes across some Drosophila lineages. One hypothesis proposed by Bauer DuMont et al. (2007) is that coevolution with pathogens such as the reproductive parasite, Wolbachia pipientis, infecting the germline could be driving this observed selection. This project looked for signs of selection ...
Cell adhesion molecule that plays a role in neuronal self-avoidance. Promotes repulsion between specific neuronal processes of either the same cell or the same subtype of cells. Mediates within retinal amacrine and ganglion cell subtypes both isoneuronal self-avoidance for creating an orderly dendritic arborization and heteroneuronal self-avoidance to maintain the mosaic spacing between amacrine and ganglion cell bodies (PubMed:10925149). Receptor for netrin required for axon guidance independently of and in collaboration with the receptor DCC. In spinal chord development plays a role in guiding commissural axons projection and pathfinding across the ventral midline to reach the floor plate upon ligand binding (PubMed:18585357, PubMed:19196994). Enhances netrin-induced phosphorylation of PAK1 and FYN (PubMed:15169762). Mediates intracellular signaling by stimulating the activation of MAPK8 and MAP kinase p38 (PubMed:18585357, PubMed:19196994). Adhesion molecule that promotes lamina-specific ...
Decapentaplegic (Dpp) is one of the best characterized morphogens, required for dorso-ventral patterning of the Drosophila embryo and for anterior-posterior (A/P) patterning of the wing imaginal disc. In the larval wing pouch, the Dpp target gene optomotor-blind (omb) is generally assumed to be expressed in a step function above a certain threshold of Dpp signaling activity. We show that the transcription factor Omb forms, in fact, a symmetrical gradient on both sides of the A/P compartment boundary. Disruptions of the Omb gradient lead to a re-organization of the epithelial cytoskeleton and to a retraction of cells toward the basal membrane suggesting that the Omb gradient is required for correct epithelial morphology. Moreover, by analysing the shape of omb gain- and loss-of-function clones, we find that Omb promotes cell sorting along the A/P axis in a concentration-dependent manner. Our findings show that Omb distribution in the wing imaginal disc is described by a gradient rather than a step
A protein encoded by a gene in band 22 of the long arm of human chromosome 21. The gene contains multiple exons which allow multiple mRNAs to be transcribed by alternative splicing (q.v.). The transcripts are differentially expressed in different substructures of the adult brain. The DSCAM is a member of the immunoglobulin domain superfamily (q.v.). These isoforms may be involved in the patterning of neural networks by selective adhesions between axons. See innate immunity. ...
Kitagawa M., Oyama T., Kawashima T., Yedvobnick B., Kumar A., Matsuno K., Harigaya K.. Mastermind (Mam) has been implicated as an important positive regulator of the Notch signaling pathway by genetic studies using Drosophila melanogaster. Here we describe a biochemical mechanism of action of Mam within the Notch signaling pathway. Expression of a human sequence related to Drosophila Mam (hMam-1) in mammalian cells augments induction of Hairy Enhancer of split (HES) promoters by Notch signaling. hMam-1 stabilizes and participates in the DNA binding complex of the intracellular domain of human Notch1 and a CSL protein. Truncated versions of hMam-1 that can maintain an association with the complex behave in a dominant negative fashion and depress transactivation. Furthermore, Drosophila Mam forms a similar complex with the intracellular domain of Drosophila Notch and Drosophila CSL protein during activation of Enhancer of split, the Drosophila counterpart of HES. These results indicate that Mam is ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The actin-binding protein Lasp promotes Oskar accumulation at the posterior pole of the Drosophila embryo. AU - Suyama, Ritsuko. AU - Jenny, Andreas. AU - Curado, Silvia. AU - Pellis-van Berkel, Wendy. AU - Ephrussi, Anne. PY - 2009/4/14. Y1 - 2009/4/14. N2 - During Drosophila oogenesis, oskar mRNA is transported to the posterior pole of the oocyte, where it is locally translated and induces germ-plasm assembly. Oskar protein recruits all of the components necessary for the establishment of posterior embryonic structures and of the germline. Tight localization of Oskar is essential, as its ectopic expression causes severe patterning defects. Here, we show that the Drosophila homolog of mammalian Lasp1 protein, an actin-binding protein previously implicated in cell migration in vertebrate cell culture, contributes to the accumulation of Oskar protein at the posterior pole of the embryo. The reduced number of primordial germ cells in embryos derived from lasp mutant females can be ...
In all Metazoa, transcription is inactive during the first mitotic cycles after fertilisation. In Drosophila melanogaster, Zygotic Genome Activation (ZGA) occurs in two waves, starting respectively at mitotic cycles 8 (approximately 60 genes) and 14 (over a thousand genes). The regulatory mechanisms underlying these drastic transcriptional changes remain largely unknown. We developed an original gene clustering method based on discretized transition profiles, and applied it to datasets from three landmark early embryonic transcriptome studies. We identified 417 genes significantly up-regulated during ZGA. De novo motif discovery returned nine motifs over-represented in their non-coding sequences (upstream, introns, UTR), three of which correspond to previously known transcription factors: Zelda, Tramtrack and Trithorax-like (Trl). The nine discovered motifs were combined to scan ZGA-associated regions and predict about 1300 putative cis-regulatory modules. The fact that Trl is known to act as chromatin
Author Summary Morphogens are signaling molecules that trigger specific responses in cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The formation of morphogen gradients is essential for the patterning of tissues and organs. Decapentaplegic (Dpp) is the Drosophila homolog of the bone morphogenic proteins in vertebrates and forms a morphogen gradient along the anterior-posterior axis of the Drosophila wing imaginal disc, a single-cell layered epithelium. Dpp determines the growth and final size of the wing disc and serves as an ideal model system to study gradient formation. Despite extensive studies the mechanism by which morphogen gradients are established remains controversial. In the case of Dpp two mechanisms have been postulated, namely extracellular diffusion and receptor-mediated transcytosis. In the first model Dpp is suggested to move by diffusion through the extracellular matrix of a tissue, whereas in the latter model Dpp is transported through the cells by receptor-mediated uptake and re
TY - JOUR. T1 - JAK/STAT and the GATA factor Pannier control hemocyte maturation and differentiation in Drosophila. AU - Minakhina, Svetlana. AU - Tan, William. AU - Steward, Ruth. PY - 2011/1/1. Y1 - 2011/1/1. N2 - The lymph gland is the major site of hematopoiesis in Drosophila. During late larval stages three types of hemocytes are produced, plasmatocytes, crystal cells, and lamellocytes, and their differentiation is tightly controlled by conserved factors and signaling pathways. JAK/STAT is one of these pathways which have essential roles in vertebrate and fly hematopoiesis. We show that Stat has opposing cell-autonomous and non-autonomous functions in hemocyte differentiation. Using a clonal approach we established that loss of Stat in a set of prohemocytes in the cortical zone induces plasmatocyte maturation in adjacent hemocytes. Hemocytes lacking Stat fail to differentiate into plasmatocytes, indicating that Stat positively and cell-autonomously controls plasmatocyte differentiation. We ...
In Drosophila embryos, checkpoints maintain genome stability by delaying cell cycle progression that allows time for damage repair or to complete DNA synthesis. Drosophila MOF, a member of MYST histone acetyl transferase is an essential component of male X hyperactivation process. Until recently its involvement in G2/M cell cycle arrest and defects in ionizing radiation induced DNA damage pathways was not well established. Drosophila MOF is highly expressed during early embryogenesis. In the present study we show that haplo-insufficiency of maternal MOF leads to spontaneous mitotic defects like mitotic asynchrony, mitotic catastrophe and chromatid bridges in the syncytial embryos. Such abnormal nuclei are eliminated and digested in the yolk tissues by nuclear fall out mechanism. MOF negatively regulates Drosophila checkpoint kinase 2 tumor suppressor homologue. In response to DNA damage the checkpoint gene Chk2 (Drosophila mnk) is activated in the mof mutants, there by causing centrosomal inactivation
Monoclonal antibodies were prepared against a 46,000 mol wt major cytoplasmic protein from Drosophila melanogaster Kc cells. These antibodies reacted with the 46,000 and a 40,000 mol wt protein from Kc cells. Some antibodies showed cross-reaction with 55,000 (vimentin) and 52,000 mol wt (desmin) proteins from baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells that form intermediate sized filaments in vertebrate cells. In indirect immunofluorescence, the group of cross reacting antibodies stained a filamentous meshwork in the cytoplasm of vertebrate cells. In Kc cells the fluorescence seemed to be localized in a filamentous meshwork that became more obvious after the cells had flattened out on a surface. These cytoskeletal structures are heat-labile; the proteins in Kc or BHK cells rearrange after a brief heat shock, forming juxtanuclear cap structures.
Cyclin Y is a highly conserved member of the Cyclin superfamily of proteins. In Drosophila the Cyclin Y gene (CycY) is required for progression through several stages of development but the specific pathways that Cyclin Y belongs to and that account for its requirement are not known. Studies in human and Drosophila cell lines have shown that membrane-localized Cyclin Y is required for phosphorylation of the wingless/Wnt co-receptor, arrow/LRP6, and for full activation of the canonical wingless/Wnt pathway. CycY null Drosophila, however, do not phenocopy loss-of-function mutations in canonical wingless pathway genes, suggesting that Cyclin Y may have additional roles outside the wingless pathway in vivo. To identify roles for Cyclin Y in Drosophila I used RNAi to knock down CycY expression in 31 distinct tissue patterns. The screen revealed that expression of the CycY shRNA in specific tissue patterns causes larval lethality and other developmental defects. Knockdown of CycY but not arrow in imaginal
N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most common internal modification of eukaryotic messenger RNA (mRNA) and is decoded by YTH domain proteins1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. The mammalian mRNA m6A methylosome is a complex of nuclear proteins that includes METTL3 (methyltransferase-like 3), METTL14, WTAP (Wilms tumour 1-associated protein) and KIAA1429. Drosophila has corresponding homologues named Ime4 and KAR4 (Inducer of meiosis 4 and Karyogamy protein 4), and Female-lethal (2)d (Fl(2)d) and Virilizer (Vir)8, 9, 10, 11, 12. In Drosophila, fl(2)d and vir are required for sex-dependent regulation of alternative splicing of the sex determination factor Sex lethal (Sxl)13. However, the functions of m6A in introns in the regulation of alternative splicing remain uncertain3. Here we show that m6A is absent in the mRNA of Drosophila lacking Ime4. In contrast to mouse and plant knockout models5, 7, 14, Drosophila Ime4-null mutants remain viable, though flightless, and show a sex bias towards maleness. This is ...
Binding of pumilio to maternal hunchback mRNA is required for posterior patterning in Drosophila embryos. Developmental regulation of vesicle transport in Drosophila embryos: forces and kinetics
TY - JOUR. T1 - DCtBP mediates transcriptional repression by Knirps, Kruppel and Snail in the Drosophila embryo. AU - Nibu, Yutaka. AU - Zhang, Hailan. AU - Bajor, Ewa. AU - Barolo, Scott. AU - Small, Stephen. AU - Levine, Michael. PY - 1998/12/1. Y1 - 1998/12/1. N2 - The pre-cellular Drosophila embryo contains 10 well characterized sequence-specific transcriptional repressors, which represent a broad spectrum of DNA-binding proteins. Previous studies have shown that two of the repressors, Hairy and Dorsal, recruit a common co-repressor protein, Groucho. Here we present evidence that three different repressors, Knirps, Kruppel and Snail, recruit a different co-repressor, dCtBP. Mutant embryos containing diminished levels of maternal dCtBP products exhibit both segmentation and dorsoventral patterning defects, which can be attributed to loss of Kruppel, Knirps and Snail activity. In contrast, the Dorsal and Hairy repressors retain at least some activity in dCtBP mutant embryos, dCtBP interacts ...
In multicellular organisms all cells in one individual have an identical genotype, and yet their bodies consist of many and very different tissues and thus many different cell types. Somehow there must be a difference in how genes are interpreted. So, there must be signals that tell the genes when and where to be active and inactive, respectively. In some instances a specific an expression pattern (active or inactive) is epigenetic; it is established and maintained throughout multiple rounds of cell divisions. In the developing Drosophila embryo, the proper expression pattern of e.g. the homeotic genes Abd-B and Ubx is to be kept active in the posterior part and silenced in the anterior. Properly silenced homeotic genes are crucial for the correct segmentation pattern of the fly and the Polycomb group (Pc-G) proteins are vital for maintaining this type of stable repression.. As part of this thesis, Suppressor of zeste 12 (Su(z)12) is characterized as a Drosophila Pc-G gene. Mutations in the gene ...
Remarkably, a motif corresponding to the Tramtrack (TTK) binding motif was discovered with the de novo approach. TTK is a maternal repressor, which is progressively titrated as the NC ratio increases during early mitotic cycles, thereby releasing the expression of zygotic genes . Surprisingly, the TTK binding motif is found over-represented in the sequences of pre-cellular activated blastoderm genes and of the genes with the discrete signature "Lu u s D s s H ", but not in the sequences of genes known to depend on the NC ratio, which might be explained by the intervention of some other factors in this mechanism .. The TTK protein has been reported to physically interact with TRL proteins and to repress TRL-mediated even-skipped activation . TTK could act either directly by binding DNA and repressing the transcription of specific target genes, or indirectly by repressing an activator such as Trl. Interestingly, the TTK motif is significantly under-represented (sig = 5) in upstream ...
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Acar, M., et al. (2006). Senseless physically interacts with proneural proteins and functions as a transcriptional co-activator. Development 133: 1979-1989. PubMed ID: 16624856 Alifragis, P., et al. (1997). A network of interacting transcriptional regulators involved in Drosophila neural fate specification revealed by the yeast two-hybrid system. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 94(24): 13099-13104. PubMed ID: 9371806 Bardin, A. J., et al. (2010). Transcriptional control of stem cell maintenance in the Drosophila intestine. Development 137(5): 705-14. PubMed ID: 20147375 Barndt, R. J., Dai, M. and Zhuang, Y. (2000). Functions of E2A-HEB heterodimers in T-cell development revealed by a dominant negative mutation of HEB. Mol. Cell Biol. 20: 6677-6685. PubMed ID: 10958665 Brown, N. L., et al. (1996). daughterless is required for Drosophila photoreceptor cell determination, eye morphogenesis, and cell cycle progression. Dev. Biol. 179: 65-78. PubMed ID: 8873754 Buszczak, M., Paterno, S. and Spradling, A. C. ...
Polyamine transport is elevated in many tumor types, suggesting that toxic polyamine-drug conjugates could be targeted to cancer cells via the polyamine transporter (PAT). We have previously reported the use of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and its PAT-deficient mutant cell line, CHO-MG, to screen anthracene-polyamine conjugates for their PAT-selective targeting ability. We report here a novel Drosophila-based model for screening anthracene-polyamine conjugates in a developing and intact epithelium (Drosophila imaginal discs), wherein cell-cell adhesion properties are maintained. Data from the Drosophila assay are consistent with previous results in CHO cells, indicating that the Drosophila epithelium has a PAT with vertebrate-like characteristics. This assay will be of use to medicinal chemists interested in screening drugs that use PAT for cellular entry, and it offers the possibility of genetic dissection of the polyamine transport process, including identification of a Drosophila PAT.
An in vivo screen of 86 RNAi lines, representing the majority of annotated Drosophila phosphatases/regulators, for altered activity rhythms was carried out. The screen identified a total of 19 candidate genes (Table 1) that altered clock function upon RNAi knockdown in Drosophila clock cells. Further genetic validation of one candidate showed that the RPTP Lar is required for the development of axonal projections from circadian pacemaker neurons that support rhythmic activity in constant darkness but not during light:dark cycles (Agrawal and Hardin 2016).. As expected, a majority of these candidates were not validated upon further analysis of independent genetic reagents (Table 2). However, these reagents consisted of additional P element inserts, where the P element insertion site may not interfere with gene function, or strains that could be used for overexpression, which also may not impact the function of a protein that is already at saturating levels. Therefore, a lack of validation with P ...
Receptors for Wingless and other signalling molecules of the Wnt gene family have yet to be identified. We show here that cultured Drosophila cells transfected with a novel member of the frizzled gene family in Drosophila, Dfz2, respond to added Wingless protein by elevating the level of the Armadillo protein. Moreover, Wingless binds to Drosophila or human cells expressing Dfz2. These data demonstrate that Dfz2 functions as a Wingless receptor, and they imply, in general, that Frizzled proteins are receptors for the Wnt signalling molecules ...
Applications are invited for a postdoc position and a full-time technician = position in Drosophila epigenetics research laboratory of Dr. Tulin at the = Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA. Both positions planned for at = least three years, with possible renewal. The successful applicants will = use Drosophila model system to study epigenetics of development and = cancer. The primary research focus of Dr. Tulin=92s lab is on = fundamentals of chromatin reprogramming and RNA fate regulation during = normal development and carcinogenics, as well as on translating = fundamental research for clinical applications in oncology. Projects in = Dr. Tulin=92s lab cover the molecular mechanisms of the chromatin = remodeling and regulation of gene expression and employ Drosophila model = and in vitro assays as well as human cells, mouse models. Applicants for the postdoctoral position should have a Ph.D. in molecular = biology, molecular genetics, biochemistry, or a related field and 0-3 = years of ...
Circularization was recently recognized to broadly expand transcriptome complexity. Here, we exploit massive Drosophila total RNA-sequencing data, |5 billion paired-end reads from |100 libraries covering diverse developmental stages, tissues, and cultured cells, to rigorously annotate |2,500 fruit fly circular RNAs. These mostly derive from back-splicing of protein-coding genes and lack poly(A) tails, and the circularization of hundreds of genes is conserved across multiple Drosophila species. We elucidate structural and sequence properties of Drosophila circular RNAs, which exhibit commonalities and distinctions from mammalian circles. Notably, Drosophila circular RNAs harbor |1,000 well-conserved canonical miRNA seed matches, especially within coding regions, and coding conserved miRNA sites reside preferentially within circularized exons. Finally, we analyze the developmental and tissue specificity of circular RNAs and note their preferred derivation from neural genes and enhanced accumulation in
TY - JOUR. T1 - TGF-β family signaling in drosophila. AU - Upadhyay, Ambuj. AU - Moss-Taylor, Lindsay. AU - Kim, Myung Jun. AU - Ghosh, Arpan C.. AU - OConnor, Michael B.. PY - 2017/9. Y1 - 2017/9. N2 - The transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) family signaling pathway is conserved and ubiquitous in animals. In Drosophila, fewer representatives of each signaling component are present compared with vertebrates, simplifying mechanistic study of the pathway. Although there are fewer family members, the TGF-β family pathway still regulates multiple and diverse functions in Drosophila. In this review, we focus our attention on several of the classic and best-studied functions for TGF-β family signaling in regulating Drosophila developmental processes such as embryonic and imaginal disc patterning, but we also describe several recently discovered roles in regulating hormonal, physiological, neuronal, innate immunity, and tissue homeostatic processes.. AB - The transforming growth factor β ...
Author Summary Organisms such as the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster have long been used as model systems to understand complex aspects of human biology. Work on Drosophila antimicrobial immunity has led to identification of mechanisms underlying human innate immunity, such as the use of Toll-like receptors for recognizing antigen and initiating humoral immune responses. Flies and humans are also infected by larger parasites against which they mount immune blood-cell based responses, but the genetic basis for cellular immunity is poorly characterized. In nature, flies are often infected by parasitoid wasps that lay their eggs in fly larvae, inducing a cellular immune response in the flies. Fly blood cells surround the wasp egg and form a tightly connected capsule leading to death of the egg in a process called encapsulation, which is similar to human granuloma formation. In this study we identified eight new genes that are important for encapsulation. These genes are part of the N-glycosylation pathway
The patterning of the imaginal discs in Drosophila melanogaster is a progressive process that, like the patterning of the larval epidermis during embryogenesis, requires the activity of segment polarity genes. One segment polarity gene, wingless, encodes a homolog of the mouse proto-oncogene Wnt-1 and plays a prominent role in the patterning of the larval epidermis and the imaginal discs. However, whereas the function of wingless in the embryo is initially associated with a pattern of stripes along the anteroposterior axis that are part of a Cartesian coordinate system, it is shown here that during imaginal development wingless is associated with a pattern of sectors that provide references for a polar coordinate system homologous to that postulated in a well-known model for the regeneration of insect and vertebrate limbs. ...
The Drosophila brahma (brm) gene encodes an activator of homeotic genes that is highly related to the yeast transcriptional activator SWI2 (SNF2), a potential helicase. To determine whether brm is a functional homolog of SWI2 or merely a member of a family of SWI2-related genes, we searched for additional Drosophila genes related to SWI2 and examined their function in yeast cells. In addition to brm, we identified one other Drosophila relative of SWI2: the closely related ISWI gene. The 1,027-residue ISWI protein contains the DNA-dependent ATPase domain characteristic of the SWI2 protein family but lacks the three other domains common to brm and SWI2. In contrast, the ISWI protein is highly related (70% identical) to the human hSNF2L protein over its entire length, suggesting that they may be functional homologs. The DNA-dependent ATPase domains of brm and SWI2, but not ISWI, are functionally interchangeable; a chimeric SWI2-brm protein partially rescued the slow growth of swi2- cells and ...
Unlike sex determination in the soma, which is an autonomous process, sex determination in the germline of Drosophila has both inductive and autonomous components. In this paper, we examined how sexual identity is selected and maintained in the Drosophila germline. We show that female-specific expression of genes in the germline is dependent on a somatic signaling pathway. This signaling pathway requires the sex-non-specific transformer 2 gene but, surprisingly, does not appear to require the sex-specific genes, transformer and doublesex. Moreover, in contrast to the soma where pathway initiation and maintenance are independent processes, the somatic signaling pathway appears to function continuously from embryogenesis to the larval stages to select and sustain female germline identity. We also show that the primary target for the somatic signaling pathway in germ cells can not be the Sex-lethal gene. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Isolation and characterization of two new Drosophila protein kinase C genes, including one specifically expressed in photoreceptor cells. AU - Schaeffer, Eric. AU - Smith, Dean. AU - Mardon, Graeme. AU - Quinn, William. AU - Zuker, Charles. PY - 1989/5/5. Y1 - 1989/5/5. N2 - We have isolated and characterized two new protein kinase C (PKC) genes from D. melanogaster. One, dPKC98F, maps to chromosome region 98F and displays over 60% amino acid sequence identity with members of a recently described "PKC-related" subfamily in mammals. The other, dPKC53E(ey), maps to region 53E 4-7 on the second chromosome and lies within 50 kb of a PKC gene previously characterized (dPKC). While dPKC98F transcripts are expressed throughout development, expression of the two genes mapping at cytogenetic location 53E is primarily in adults. dPKC98F and the previously reported 53E gene are transcribed predominantly in brain tissue. In contrast, dPKC53E(ey) is transcribed only in photoreceptor cells. We ...
Drosophila Models of Human Disease was founded in 2012 by Stephanie Mohr, PhD, who has more than fifteen years of experience in Drosophila genetics and related research. She is the Director of the Drosophila RNAi Screening Center in the Department of Genetics at Harvard Medical School. Grant support for the DRSC and related activities includes NIH NIGMS R01 GM067761 (N. Perrimon PI and S.M. Co-PI) and NIH NCRR/ORIP R24 RR032668 (N. Perrimon PI ...
The proneural protein Atonal (Ato) is responsible for the development of Drosophila's R8 photoreceptors. However, it does not ... Proneural proteins bind DNA as heterodimeric complexes that are formed by bHLH proteins or E proteins. Because ... Although proneural proteins are responsible for trigger neurogenesis, different proteins are required for different neural and/ ... "Lateral inhibition mediated by the Drosophila neurogenic gene delta is enhanced by proneural proteins". Proceedings of the ...
Presgraves DC (September 2005). "Recombination enhances protein adaptation in Drosophila melanogaster". Current Biology. Cell ...
Paired box protein Pax-6, also known as aniridia type II protein (AN2) or oculorhombin, is a protein that in humans is encoded ... Of the four Drosophila Pax6 orthologues, it is thought that the eyeless (ey) and twin of eyeless (toy) gene products share ... protein binding. • DNA binding. • sequence-specific DNA binding. • ubiquitin-protein transferase activity. • transcriptional ... protein kinase binding. • ubiquitin protein ligase binding. • histone acetyltransferase binding. • transcription regulatory ...
Adaptive Protein Evolution and Regulatory Divergence in Drosophila. Mol Biol Evol. 2006 Mar 14 ...
"Hearing in Drosophila requires TilB, a conserved protein associated with ciliary motility". Genetics. 185: 177-88. doi:10.1534 ... Nematode sperm is thought to be the only eukaryotic cell without the globular protein G-actin. ...
... (gene), a gene in Drosophila melanogaster that encodes the CYCLE protein ...
Interactions with proteins. All the functions of DNA depend on interactions with proteins. These protein interactions can be ... Koltzoff N (October 1934). "The structure of the chromosomes in the salivary glands of Drosophila". Science. 80 (2075): 312-13 ... Structural proteins that bind DNA are well-understood examples of non-specific DNA-protein interactions. Within chromosomes, ... A distinct group of DNA-binding proteins is the DNA-binding proteins that specifically bind single-stranded DNA. In humans, ...
Hubby, J. L. Protein Differences in Drosophila. I. Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1963, 48 (6): 871-879. PMC 1210521. PMID ... 不同物種帶有不同數量的基因，以不同的模式散布在其基因體內。有些物種，如大多數細菌、Drosophila屬果蠅、擬南芥的基因體特別緊湊，非編碼DNA較少。相較之下，哺乳動物和玉米的基因體則有大量的重複序列、較長的內含子以及
Proteins also play a large role in the cryoprotective compounds that increase ability to survive the cold hardening process and ... The Drosophila melanogaster (common fruit fly) is a frequently experimented insect involving cold hardening. A proven example ... Glycogen phosphorylase(GlyP) has been a key protein found during testing to increase in comparison to a controlled group not ... Antifreeze protein Cryobiology Cryopreservation Thorsen, Stig Morten; Höglind, Mats (2010-12-15). "Modelling cold hardening and ...
Presgraves, Daven C. Recombination Enhances Protein Adaptation in Drosophila melanogaster. Current Biology (Cambridge, MA: Cell ... Amount of Variation and Degree of Heterozygosity in Natural Populations of Drosophila Pseudoobscura. Genetics. 1966, 54 (2): ...
Analyse eines Mosaikindividuums bei Drosophila melanogaster. Bio. Zentr. 51, 194-199. *^ Stern C. 1936. "Somatic crossing-over ... The resulting BLM protein is defective. the defect in RecQ an helicase facilitates the defective unwinding of DNA during ... It was first discovered by Curt Stern in Drosophila in 1936. The amount of tissue which is mosaic depends on where in the tree ... In 1929, Alfred Sturtevant studied mosaicism in Drosophila. A few years later, In the 1930s, Curt Stern demonstrated that ...
2001-04-06). "Extension of Life-Span by Loss of CHICO, a Drosophila Insulin Receptor Substrate Protein". Science. 292 (5514): ...
Muscleblind-like (Drosophila), also known as MBNL1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MBNL1 gene. It has been ... "RNA-dependent integrin alpha3 protein localization regulated by the Muscleblind-like protein MLP1". Nature Cell Biology. 7 (12 ... Fardaei M, Rogers MT, Thorpe HM, Larkin K, Hamshere MG, Harper PS, Brook JD (Apr 2002). "Three proteins, MBNL, MBLL and MBXL, ... 78 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Research. 4 (5): 307-13. doi:10.1093/dnares/4.5.307 ...
Medzhitov R, Preston-Hurlburt P, Janeway CA (July 1997). "A human homologue of the Drosophila Toll protein signals activation ... essential adapter proteins in TLR signaling), they were still able to induce inflammatory responses, increase T cell activation ...
Adler PN, Conover S, Vinson CR (1989). "A Drosophila tissue polarity locus encodes a protein containing seven potential ... Frizzled is a family of G protein-coupled receptor proteins that serves as receptors in the Wnt signaling pathway and other ... Frizzled proteins include cysteine-rich domain that is conserved in diverse proteins, including several receptor tyrosine ... Fz produces an mRNA that encodes an integral membrane protein with 7 putative transmembrane (TM) domains. This protein should ...
... is Tudor Domain containing protein and Tudor Proteins are highly conserved proteins and even present in Drosophila ... Ying, Muying; Chen, Dahua (1 January 2012). "Tudor domain-containing proteins of Drosophila melanogaster". Development, Growth ... Staphylococcal nuclease domain-containing protein 1 also known as 100 kDa coactivator or Tudor domain-containing protein 11 ( ... multidomain organization and relationship to the staphylococcal nuclease fold and to the tudor protein involved in Drosophila ...
... a vital Drosophila gene is required in development and defines a new conserved family of ring-finger proteins". Genetics. 155 ( ... Protein ariadne-2 homolog is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARIH2 gene. GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ... "A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell ... a new class of proteins with a novel cysteine-rich signature". Protein Sci. 8 (7): 1557-61. doi:10.1110/ps.8.7.1557. PMC ...
Muying Ying; Dahua Chen (2012). "Tudor domain-containing proteins of Drosophila melanogaster". Development, Growth & ... The proteins TP53BP1 (Tumor suppressor p53-binding protein 1) and its fission yeast homolog Crb2 and JMJD2A (Jumonji domain ... protein structural domain originally identified as a region of 50 amino acids found in the Tudor protein encoded in Drosophila ... Other tudor domain containing proteins include AKAP1 (A-kinase anchor protein 1) and ARID4A (AT rich interactive domain 4A) ...
33-41 Hubby, J. L. (1963). "Protein Differences in Drosophila. I. Drosophila melanogaster". Genetics. 48 (6): 871-879. PMC ... In 1963, Jack L. Hubby published an electrophoresis study of protein variation in Drosophila; soon after, Hubby began ... the significance of constant protein evolution rates, and the functional constraints on protein evolution that biochemists and ... The advent of protein sequencing allowed molecular biologists to create phylogenies based on sequence comparison, and to use ...
Zelhof AC, Bao H, Hardy RW, Razzaq A, Zhang B, Doe CQ (December 2001). "Drosophila Amphiphysin is implicated in protein ... a protein similar to the yeast proteins, Rvs167 and Rvs161". FEBS Letters. 351 (1): 73-9. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(94)00826-4. ... "Drosophila Amphiphysin is a post-synaptic protein required for normal locomotion but not endocytosis". Traffic. 2 (11): 839-50 ... protein binding. • phospholipid binding. Cellular component. • actin cytoskeleton. • cytoplasm. • cell junction. • synapse. • ...
The protein is similar to a Drosophila protein involved in early embryogenesis and the structural organization of indirect ... Protein flightless-1 homolog is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FLII gene. This gene encodes a protein with a ... Wilson, S A; Brown E C; Kingsman A J; Kingsman S M (Aug 1998). "TRIP: a novel double stranded RNA binding protein which ... Fong, K S; de Couet H G (Jun 1999). "Novel proteins interacting with the leucine-rich repeat domain of human flightless-I ...
"ChIP for Hox Proteins from Drosophila Imaginal Discs". Methods in Molecular Biology. 1196: 241-253. doi:10.1007/978-1-4939-1242 ... "The Drosophila Homologue of Ataxin-2 Binding Protein: Toward a Fruit Fly Model of Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 2?". Alternatives ... "Genome-level identification of targets of Hox protein Ultrabithorax in Drosophila: novel mechanisms for target selection". ... Studying Drosophila melanogaster (commonly known as fruit fly) as a model, he elucidated the molecular pathways Wnt, TGF-? and ...
Dally (division abnormally delayed) is the name of a gene that encodes a HS-modified-protein found in the fruit fly (Drosophila ... Also the expression of mutated dally proteins alters Wnt signalling pathways, which leads to anomalies in Drosophila ... transmembrane proteins. Therefore, it regulates two cell growth factors in Drosophila melanogaster, Wingless (Wg) and ... "Pupal and larval cuticle proteins of Drosophila melanogaster". Biochemistry. 23 (24): 5767-74. doi:10.1021/bi00319a015. PMID ...
Smith, N. G. C.; Eyre-Walker, A. (2002). "Adaptive protein evolution in Drosophila". Nature. 415 (6875): 1022-1024. doi:10.1038 ... The two types of sites can be either synonymous or nonsynonymous within a protein-coding region. In a protein-coding sequence ... "Adaptive protein evolution at the Adh locus in Drosophila" (PDF). Nature. 351: 652-654. doi:10.1038/351652a0. Futuyma, D. J. ... A site in a protein-coding sequence of DNA is nonsynonymous if a point mutation at that site results in a change in the amino ...
Yeast DOS2 protein, involved in single-copy DNA replication and ubiquitination. Drosophila synapse-associated protein SAP47. ... synapse-associated proteins and DOS2-like proteins in which it is found. It is also found in several hypothetical proteins. The ... Some proteins known to contain one or two BSD domains are listed below: Mammalian TFIIH basal transcription factor complex p62 ... It can be found associated with other domains such as the BTB domain or the U-box in multidomain proteins. The function of the ...
... non-protein-coding genes, and chromosomal structural elements) under selection for biological function.. " Mouse Genome ... Drosophila melanogaster. 黑腹果蠅 180,000,000 13,350 Oryza sativa. 亞洲稻 466,000,000 45,000-55,000 ... This proportion is much higher than can be explained by protein-coding sequences alone, implying that the genome contains many ...
Heterochromatin protein 1 is required for correct chromosome segregation in Drosophila embryos. ... Heterochromatin protein 1 is associated with centromeric heterochromatin in Drosophila, mice, and humans. Loss of function ... Heterochromatin protein 1 is required for correct chromosome segregation in Drosophila embryos.. ... These heterochromatin protein 1 mutations not only suppress this position-effect variegation, but also cause recessive ...
Horsley, D ; Hutchings, A ; Butcher, G W ; Singh, P B. / M32, a murine homologue of Drosophila heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1 ... Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of M32, a murine homologue of Drosophila heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1), localises ... Horsley, D, Hutchings, A, Butcher, GW & Singh, PB 1996, M32, a murine homologue of Drosophila heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1 ... M32, a murine homologue of Drosophila heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1), localises to euchromatin within interphase nuclei and is ...
I work with hemocytes extracted from drosophila adult flies and I have a problem with my DAPI staining. When I look at the ... DAPI staining in fixed Drosophila Hemocytes - posted in Cell Biology: Hi everybody, ... Overexposure to FA usually increases the crosslinking between proteins. I dont know in your cells but in bacteria it can ... I work with hemocytes extracted from drosophila adult flies and I have a problem with my DAPI staining. When I look at the ...
Antennapedia Homeodomain Protein information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and ... gene for the antennapedia homeodomain protein are associated with the conversion of antenna to leg or leg to antenna DROSOPHILA ... Antennapedia Homeodomain Protein: Antennapedia homeodomain protein is a homeobox protein involved in limb patterning in ... Introduction: Antennapedia Homeodomain Protein. Description of Antennapedia Homeodomain Protein. ...
... which appear to have roles in morphogenesis and cytokinesis in organisms such as yeast and Drosophila. Results from temperature ... Harris, S. D., Hamer, L., Sharpless, K. E., & Hamer, J. E. (1997). The Aspergillus nidulans sepA gene encodes an FH1/2 protein ... The sepA gene encodes a member of the growing family of FH1/2 proteins, which appear to have roles in morphogenesis and ... The sepA gene encodes a member of the growing family of FH1/2 proteins, which appear to have roles in morphogenesis and ...
... Wojciech J. Stec and Martin P. Zeidler MRC Centre for Developmental and Biomedical Genetics and ... Wojciech J. Stec and Martin P. Zeidler, "Drosophila SOCS Proteins," Journal of Signal Transduction, vol. 2011, Article ID ...
Reversible protein modification-demodification in bacterial membranes has been shown to be an important mechanism for the ... Thammana P. (1980) Phosphorylated Proteins in Drosophila Membranes. In: Siddiqi O., Babu P., Hall L.M., Hall J.C. (eds) ... 2-4 We have explored the possibility of in vitro phosphorylation of proteins in membrane preparations obtained from Drosophila ... 3 Greengard and coworkers have shown that phosphorylation of a set of synaptic membrane proteins, collectively known as protein ...
Temporal phosphorylation of the Drosophila period protein. I Edery, L J Zwiebel, M E Dembinska, and M Rosbash ... We report here that per protein (PER) undergoes daily oscillations in apparent molecular mass as well as abundance. The ... We suggest that the phosphorylation status of PER is an important determinant in the Drosophila clocks time-keeping mechanism. ... The period gene (per) is required for Drosophila melanogaster to manifest circadian (congruent to 24 hr) rhythms. ...
Evolution of protein-coding genes in Drosophila.. Larracuente AM1, Sackton TB, Greenberg AJ, Wong A, Singh ND, Sturgill D, ... We use the Drosophila genomic data to distinguish between factors that increase the strength of purifying selection on proteins ... We confirm the importance of translational selection in shaping protein evolution in Drosophila and show that factors such as ... The recently sequenced 12 Drosophila genomes provide a unique opportunity to shed light on these unresolved issues. Here, we ...
... association of motor and other proteins with vesicles, and docking and fusion of vesicles at defined locations. In vertebrates ... Rab proteins are small GTPases that play important roles in transport of vesicle cargo and recruitment, ... and constitutively active forms of 31 Drosophila Rab proteins. We describe Drosophila Rab expression patterns during ... Thirty-one flavors of Drosophila rab proteins Genetics. 2007 Jun;176(2):1307-22. doi: 10.1534/genetics.106.066761. Epub 2007 ...
Taking advantage of the available protein structure of ADH in Drosophila species in the Protein Data Bank, we first mapped the ... Evolving protein functional diversity in new genes of Drosophila. Jianming Zhang, Antony M. Dean, Frédéric Brunet, Manyuan Long ... Evolving protein functional diversity in new genes of Drosophila. Jianming Zhang, Antony M. Dean, Frédéric Brunet, Manyuan Long ... Evolving protein functional diversity in new genes of Drosophila. Jianming Zhang, Antony M. Dean, Frédéric Brunet, and Manyuan ...
Osbp Oxysterol binding protein [Drosophila melanogaster] Osbp Oxysterol binding protein [Drosophila melanogaster]. Gene ID: ... protein coding. RNA name oxysterol binding protein. RefSeq status. REVIEWED. Organism. Drosophila melanogaster (old-lineage: ... mRNA and Protein(s) * NM_057923.4 → NP_477271.1 oxysterol binding protein [Drosophila melanogaster] ... General protein information Go to the top of the page Help Preferred Names. oxysterol binding protein. Names. CG6708-PA. Osbp- ...
Five populations of Drosophila melanogasterthat had been selected for postponed aging were compared with five control ... populations using two-dimensional protein gel electrophoresis. The goals of the... ... Aging results in an unusual expression ofDrosophila heat shock proteins. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 85: 4099-4103.PubMedGoogle ... Biochemic phylogenies ofDrosophila: protein differences detected by two-dimensional electrohoresis. Genetica 61: 55-63.Google ...
... Nguyen Trong Tue,1,2,3 Kouhei Shimaji,1,2 Naoki Tanaka,4 and ... We tested the ability of αB-crystallin to suppress the aggregation of a polyQ protein and α-synuclein in Drosophila. We found ... To examine the effect of αB-crystallin protein on polyQ-induced neurodegeneration in Drosophila, we crossed gmr-Q92 fly lines ... Small heat-shock proteins, such as αB-crystallin, act as chaperones to prevent protein aggregation and play a key role in the ...
1999 Interactions between coiled-coil proteins: Drosophila lamin Dm0 binds to the Bicaudal-D protein. Eur. J. Cell Biol. 78: ... In most of these proteins, the coiled-coil domains are flanked by protein domains that control the proteins distribution or ... it appears that the coiling of the protein occurs along the entire length of the protein, and the protein may form a rod. ... 1992 The Drosophila orb gene is predicted to encode sex-specific germline RNA-binding proteins and has localized transcripts in ...
wingless (wg, DWnt-1) protein, a putative signaling molecule, is expressed only in prospective ventral cells in each of the … ... The adult appendages of Drosophila are formed from imaginal discs, sheets of epithelial cells that proliferate during larval ... Organizing activity of wingless protein in Drosophila Cell. 1993 Feb 26;72(4):527-40. doi: 10.1016/0092-8674(93)90072-x. ... wingless (wg, DWnt-1) protein, a putative signaling molecule, is expressed only in prospective ventral cells in each of the leg ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... Drosophila (IPR006611). Key Species. Key species. Number of proteins. FASTA. Protein IDs. ... Species: Protein of unknown function DUF1431, cysteine-rich, ...
Drosophila melanogaster males transfer seminal fluid proteins along with sperm during mating. Among these proteins, ACPs (Ac ... Coleman, S., B. Drahn, G. Petersen, J. Stolorov and K. Kraus, 1995 A Drosophila male accessory gland protein that is a member ... 1980 Proteins of the Drosophila melanogaster male reproductive system: two-dimensional gel patterns of proteins synthesized in ... Ravi Ram, K., S. Ji and M. F. Wolfner, 2005 Fates and targets of male accessory gland proteins in mated female Drosophila ...
Protein Equilibration Through Somatic Ring Canals in Drosophila Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... In Drosophila, some cells maintain direct cytoplasmic connections with their siblings by intercellular bridges known as ring ... clone boundaries and enable the equilibration of protein between transcriptionally mosaic follicle cells in the Drosophila ... Although intercellular bridges resulting from incomplete cytokinesis were discovered in somatic Drosophila tissues decades ago ...
... protein domain specific binding, Ras GTPase binding, compound eye development, dorsal closure ... Protein-protein interaction databases. Protein interaction database and analysis system. More...IntActi. Q24279, 2 interactors ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Pfam protein domain database. More...Pfami. View protein in Pfam. PF01843 DIL, 1 hit. PF00498 FHA, 1 hit. PF00595 PDZ, 1 hit ...
Protein predictedi ,p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the protein ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. B4K8I3. P47989. Q9UH91. Q585T6. UPI000CA05161. ... Pfam protein domain database. More...Pfami. View protein in Pfam. PF01315. Ald_Xan_dh_C. 1 hit. PF02738. Ald_Xan_dh_C2. 1 hit. ... Pfam protein domain database. More...Pfami. View protein in Pfam. PF01315. Ald_Xan_dh_C. 1 hit. PF02738. Ald_Xan_dh_C2. 1 hit. ...
Interacts with other neurogenic proteins in the specification of the neuroblast versus epidermoblast cell fate. ... Drosophila ananassae (Fruit fly). Drosophila rhopaloa (Fruit fly). Drosophila yakuba (Fruit fly). Drosophila erecta (Fruit fly) ... Drosophila yakuba (Fruit fly). Drosophila simulans (Fruit fly). Drosophila erecta (Fruit fly). Drosophila biarmipes (Fruit fly) ... Drosophila serrata (Fruit fly). Drosophila kikkawai (Fruit fly). Drosophila ananassae (Fruit fly). Drosophila rhopaloa (Fruit ...
Confidence scores for protein-protein interactions (A) Drosophila protein-protein interactions have been binned according to ... Statistical properties of the refined Drosophila interaction map. The high-confidence Drosophila protein-protein interactions ... Drosophila proteins with sequence similarity to human disease proteins are denoted by a star outline (according to the ... A) Protein family/human disease ortholog view. Proteins are color-coded according to protein family as annotated by the Gene ...
"Drosophila Proteins" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Drosophila Proteins" was a major or minor ... Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied ... "Drosophila Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Drosophila Proteins" by people in Profiles. ...
Centrosomal protein 190kD *cp309 (also known as pericentrin-like protein) *gamma-tubulin ring protein 84 *Microtubule- ... Drosophila sensory cilia lacking MKS-proteins exhibit striking defects in development but only subtle defects in adults. Cilia ... protein. It seems unlikely that Rootletin is the centrosome linker protein in Drosophila because it is not expressed generally ... Time-lapse live-cell imaging reveals dual function of Oseg4, Drosophila WDR35, in ciliary protein trafficking. Cilia are highly ...
GenesGeneAbstractMutationsChromosomeNucleiMelanogasterHomologEmbryosBindsEncodes a proteinPhosphorylationAntibodyNeuromuscular junctionMorphogenesisMammalian cellsSOCS ProteinsHomologousVertebrateChromatinPutativeLocusYeastAdaptorInteractionOogenesisRegulatorsEmbryonicRolesSequencePhenotypeMRNAGenomesVivoBiologySuppressorAmino acidMutantsCdnaPolycombFusion proteinsFollicle cellsMale X chromosomeFunctionalCreative BioMartPhenotypesGenusLethalConstitutivelyPoorlyMechanismsFunctionally
- Mutations in the gene for the antennapedia homeodomain protein are associated with the conversion of antenna to leg or leg to antenna DROSOPHILA . (rightdiagnosis.com)
- The sepA gene encodes a member of the growing family of FH1/2 proteins, which appear to have roles in morphogenesis and cytokinesis in organisms such as yeast and Drosophila. (elsevier.com)
- T.R. Venkatesh, S. Zingde and K.S. Krishnan, Isolation and characterization of membranes from Drosophila melanogaster ,this volume. (springer.com)
- The period gene (per) is required for Drosophila melanogaster to manifest circadian (congruent to 24 hr) rhythms. (pnas.org)
- Here we applied a modified version of the HiChIP protocol to retrieve the significant contacts mediated by architectural protein CP190 in D. melanogaster cells. (springer.com)
- A molecular characterization of the homologous genomic region in Drosophila melanogaster revealed that ynd is a gene duplicate of another related gene that is expressed specifically in testis, Yellow emperor ( Ymp ) ( 6 - 8 ). (pnas.org)
- In the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster , the four male-specific lethal (msl) genes are required to achieve dosage compensation of the male X chromosome. (genetics.org)
- The histone H4 acetylated isoform, H4Ac16, colocalizes with the MSL proteins at a majority of sites on the D. melanogaster X chromosome. (genetics.org)
- The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development. (harvard.edu)
- Is the Subject Area "Drosophila melanogaster" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
- We applied label-free quantitative proteomics to Drosophila melanogaster male reproductive tissue - where Sfps are unprocessed, and highly abundant - and quantified Sfps before and immediately after mating, to infer those transferred during copulation. (mcponline.org)
- In the salivary glands of Drosophila melanogaster , 8-10 discrete rounds of S phases occur during embryonic and larval periods to produce polytene chromosomes ( Rudkin, 1972 ). (rupress.org)
- Synthetic peptide corresponding to Fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) Forkhead box protein O (N terminal). (abcam.com)
- In this thesis, I investigate the molecular evolution of reproductive proteins in the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster, focusing on a class of ejaculate proteins known as accessory gland proteins (?Acps? (cornell.edu)
- Here, we generated genetic models of the sole Drosophila melanogaster PI4KII gene. (biologists.org)
- Addgene: Genome-wide analysis of mRNAs regulated by Drosha and Argonaute proteins in Drosophila melanogaster. (addgene.org)
- The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster represents a key model organism for analyzing how neuronal circuits regulate behavior. (frontiersin.org)
- Drosophila melanogaster offers the advantage that transgenes can be easily expressed in neuronal subpopulations, e.g., in intrinsic mushroom body neurons (Kenyon cells). (frontiersin.org)
- Homologues of many of these genes have been identified in Saccharomyces pombe, Drosophila melanogaster, Xenopus laevis, Mus musculus and Homo sapiens (reviewed by Musacchio and Hardwick, 2002 ). (biologists.org)
- We have chosen to search for mitotic regulators in Drosophila melanogaster , which offers the possibility of studying the effects of mitotic mutations within the intact cell. (rupress.org)
- The Drosophila melanogaster gypsy transposable element encodes putative gene products homologous to retroviral proteins. (asm.org)
- We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the gypsy element present at the forked locus of Drosophila melanogaster in the f1 allele. (asm.org)
- The D. melanogaster genome has two genes, CG18584 and CG6589, which encode SUN domain proteins. (utexas.edu)
- Here we describe the characterization of a putative SET-domain gene in Drosophila melanogaster, G9a. (uio.no)
- Comparative analysis of the sequence and structure of two Drosophila melanogaster genes encoding vitelline membrane proteins. (nextbio.com)
- Here we examined whether genetic manipulations of APP-like (APPL) protein cleavage in Drosophila melanogaster affect rest-activity rhythms and core circadian clock function in this model organism. (oregonstate.edu)
- The model organism Drosophila melanogaster was used for this study because of their quantifiable response to noxious stimuli and the powerful tools available for genetic manipulations. (uncg.edu)
- Transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43, also known as TBPH in Drosophila melanogaster and TARDBP in mammals) is the main protein component of the pathological inclusions observed in neurons of patients affected by different neurodegenerative disorders, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and fronto-temporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). (biologists.org)
- The Trithorax group (TrxG) proteins and the Polycomb group (PcG) proteins, originally identified in Drosophila melanogaster but present in all higher eukaryotes, cooperate to sustain gene expression states by establishing and organizing information contained in the chromatin template. (biomedcentral.com)
- Identification of cellular factors that recognize UV-damaged DNA in Drosophila melanogaster. (nii.ac.jp)
- Publications] T. Todo et al: 'Identification of cellular factors that recognize UV-damaged DNA in Drosophila melanogaster' Mutation Research. (nii.ac.jp)
- Publications] Takeshi toda and Haruko Ryo: 'Identification of cellular factors that recognize UVーdamaged DNA in Drosophila melanogaster' Mutation Research. (nii.ac.jp)
- The Sex-lethal (Sxl) protein of Drosophila melanogaster regulates alternative splicing of the transformer (tra) mRNA precursor by binding to the tra polypyrimidine tract in the sex determination cascade. (nii.ac.jp)
- We analysed the collection of available protein trap lines in Drosophila melanogaster and identified potential biases that are likely to restrict genome coverage in protein trap screens. (biomedcentral.com)
- From our previous studies in the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster , we have identified a cooperative interaction between a mutation in the apico-basal cell polarity regulator Scribble (Scrib) and overexpression of the BTB-ZF protein Abrupt (Ab). (biologists.org)
- Drosophila melanogaster has one of the best characterized metazoan genomes in terms of functionally annotated regulatory elements. (ox.ac.uk)
- We report the nuclear cloning, chromosome mapping and developmental pattern of a putative serine/threonine protein phosphates 2C(PP2C), DPP2C1, from Drosophila melanogaster. (nus.edu.sg)
- More distantly related orthologs are also expressed in insects including the pigeon gene in Drosophila melanogaster that when mutated produces the "pigeon" phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
- Furthermore, Ter 94, the Drosophila homolog of the myeloid leukemia factor 1, and heat-shock-transcription-factor-1 (HSF1-) activating compounds are also reported to have a dominant role in suppressing polyQ aggregation [ 7 - 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
- To gain insight into APP function, we used a molecular-genetic approach to manipulate the structure and levels of the Drosophila APP homolog APPL. (jneurosci.org)
- A proteomic screen for MSL-interacting proteins identified UpSET, the Drosophila homolog of yeast SET3 and mammalian MLL5. (harvard.edu)
- Imp-L2, a putative homolog of vertebrate IGF-binding protein 7, counteracts insulin signaling in Drosophila and is essential for starvation resistance. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Anti- FZR1 (Fizzy-Related Protein Homolog, Fizzy/Cell Division Cycle 20 Related 1 (Drosophila)) by USBiological, Cat. (lucerna-chem.ch)
- The human S3 protein, although 80% identical to its Drosophila homolog and shorter by only two amino acids, has only marginal N-glycosylase activity. (iupui.edu)
- Protein pigeon homolog also known as gamma-secretase activating protein (GSAP) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PION gene. (wikipedia.org)
- The transcribed human pigeon homolog protein is 854 amino acid residues in length. (wikipedia.org)
- The dorsal protein is cytoplasmic in early embryos, possibly because of a direct interaction with cactus. (biologists.org)
- Females with dorsal levels roughly twice that of wild-type produced normal embryos, while a higher level of dorsal protein resulted in phenotypes similar to those observed for loss-of-function cactus mutations. (biologists.org)
- Here, we used an alternative approach in which the in vitro pre-formed ribonucleoprotein complex of the purified Cas9 protein, in vitro transcribed tracrRNA, and target gene-specific crRNAs was injected into the Drosophila embryos to knockout the gene of interest and validated the mutation-inducing efficiency based on the T7 endonuclease I (T7E1) assay in G0 founders and F1 mutants. (g3journal.org)
- Remarkably, SRm160 protein was concentrated in the nuclei of precellular embryos but was very rapidly excluded from nuclei or degraded coincident with cellularization. (cnrs.fr)
- In embryos from pum , brat , or nos mutant mothers, HB protein is ectopically expressed in the posterior of the embryo, leading to a loss of abdominal cell fates and embryonic lethality [ 3 - 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Distribution of the wingless gene product in Drosophila embryos: a protein involved in cell-cell communication. (stanford.edu)
- Actin-binding proteins from Drosophila embryos: a complex network of interacting proteins detected by F-actin affinity chromatography. (rupress.org)
- By using F-actin affinity chromatography columns to select proteins solely by their ability to bind to actin filaments, we have identified and partially purified greater than 40 proteins from early Drosophila embryos. (rupress.org)
- These proteins represent approximately 0.5% of the total protein present in soluble cell extracts, and 2 mg are obtained by chromatography of an extract from 10 g of embryos. (rupress.org)
- As judged by immunofluorescence of fixed embryos, 90% of the proteins that we have detected in F-actin column eluates are actin-associated in vivo (12 of 13 proteins tested). (rupress.org)
- Cg binds to en PRE2. (nih.gov)
- Previous studies have indicated that QBP1 (polyQ binding peptide 1) binds to the expanded polyQ stretch and inhibits aggregate formation of the expanded polyQ protein in vitro [ 5 , 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
- A role for the Orbit protein in regulating microtubule behavior in mitosis is suggested by its association with microtubules throughout the spindle at all mitotic stages, by its copurification with microtubules from embryonic extracts, and by the finding that the Orbit protein directly binds to MAP-free microtubules in a GTP-dependent manner. (rupress.org)
- Here, we show that the secreted Imaginal morphogenesis protein-Late 2 (Imp-L2) binds Drosophila insulin-like peptide 2 (Dilp2) and inhibits growth non-autonomously. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- It is thought to be a protein scaffold that binds numerous protein partners at distinct sites along its length (see Fig. 1 ) (for review see Polakis 1999 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- SLO binding protein (SLOB) binds to and modulates SLO activity. (jefferson.edu)
- show that in the fruit fly Drosophila , the Fat protein binds to another protein called Fbxl7. (elifesciences.org)
- The cDNA encoding the Trpl protein was initially isolated on the basis that the expressed protein binds calmodulin. (biochemj.org)
- This result provides the first insight into the mechanism by which a protein binds specifically to a cognate RNA that has no intramolecular base pairs. (nii.ac.jp)
- BRAT binds mRNAs that encode proteins associated with a variety of functions, many of which are distinct from those implemented by PUM-associated transcripts. (biomedcentral.com)
- DDP1 is a ssDNA binding protein that specifically binds the unstructured dodeca-satellite C-strand. (jbsdonline.com)
- The gene encodes a protein that is highly similar to rat dynamin, 69% of the amino-acid sequence is identical. (caltech.edu)
- The gene encodes a protein of 1637 amino acids with similar domain architecture as the mammalian homologue of same name. (uio.no)
- This gene encodes a protein with multiple PDZ domains. (creativebiomart.net)
- 1,2 Phosphorylation of membrane proteins in the mammalian system is a well-documented phenomenon. (springer.com)
- 3 Greengard and coworkers have shown that phosphorylation of a set of synaptic membrane proteins, collectively known as protein I is stimulated specifically in response to cAMP and calcium. (springer.com)
- 2-4 We have explored the possibility of in vitro phosphorylation of proteins in membrane preparations obtained from Drosophila fly heads. (springer.com)
- W.B. Huttner and P. Greengard, Multiple phosphorylation sites in protein I and their differential regulation by cyclic AMP and calcium, Proc. (springer.com)
- We suggest that the phosphorylation status of PER is an important determinant in the Drosophila clock's time-keeping mechanism. (pnas.org)
- Modification of proteins by O-linked β- N -acetylglucosamine ( O -GlcNAc) is a reversible posttranslational modification that occurs on cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins and, like phosphorylation, appears to serve a regulatory function. (sciencemag.org)
- To study the effect of tension we analysed the kinetochore localization of spindle checkpoint proteins in relation to tension-sensitive kinetochore phosphorylation recognised by the 3F3/2 antibody. (biologists.org)
- Phosphorylation of a serine residue within a peptide encompassing CBS-1 by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) abolishes calmodulin binding, and phosphorylation of the adjacent serine by protein kinase C appears to modulate this phosphorylation by PKA. (biochemj.org)
- Analyses of mutants, antibody microinjection in tissue culture cells and expression of truncated proteins with a dominant negative phenotype, have shown that inhibition of a single protein inactivates the checkpoint (reviewed by Amon, 1999 ), allowing for sister chromatid separation in the absence of microtubules. (biologists.org)
- Over 280,000 products but you can't find the right antibody for your protein or application? (acris-antibodies.com)
- To investigate the role of APP at single, identified synapses, we used the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ). (jneurosci.org)
- Additionally, we show that important proteins involved in neuromuscular junction function, such as syntaxin (SYX), decrease their levels as a consequence of TDP-43 loss of function implying that the degenerative phenotype is a consequence of TDP-43 sequestration into the aggregates. (biologists.org)
- Most of the fly proteins are clearly related to specific vertebrate proteins. (nih.gov)
- Alpha-crystallins ( α -crystallins) are major protein components of the vertebrate eye lens. (hindawi.com)
- Hu DH, Kimura S, Maruyama K. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis of connectin-like high molecular weight proteins of various types of vertebrate and invertebrate muscles. (springer.com)
- A) Schematic diagrams of vertebrate and Drosophila APC proteins. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Ando-Kuri M., Rivera I.S.M., Rowley M.J., Corces V.G. (2018) Analysis of Chromatin Interactions Mediated by Specific Architectural Proteins in Drosophila Cells. (springer.com)
- In addition, polytene chromosomes, because of their immense size, allow a visual examination of protein-chromatin interactions in interphase, in the absence of chromatin condensation. (rupress.org)
- In this dissertation I explore how identifying protein-protein interactions on chromatin reveals insights into these unanswered questions critical to chromatin biology. (harvard.edu)
- Prominent among them is the conserved chromatin reader PHD finger protein 7 (Phf7). (sciencemag.org)
- wingless (wg, DWnt-1) protein, a putative signaling molecule, is expressed only in prospective ventral cells in each of the leg discs. (nih.gov)
- Deletion analysis demonstrated that APPL sequences responsible for synaptic alteration reside in the cytoplasmic domain, at the internalization sequence GYENPTY and a putative G o -protein binding site. (jneurosci.org)
- This transposable element is 7,469 base pairs long and encodes three putative protein products. (asm.org)
- The second one encodes a putative protein which shows extensive amino acid homology to retroviral proteins, including gag-specific protease, reverse transcriptase, and DNA endonuclease. (asm.org)
- As the amino-terminal RBD (RBD1) of the Sxl protein exhibits low sequence homology to the typical RBDs, paticularly at the putative functional residues, it was difficult to unambiguously locate the RNP1 and RNP2 motifs. (nii.ac.jp)
- The stoned locus of Drosophila produces a dicistronic transcript and encodes two proteins, stoned-A (STNA) and stoned-B (STNB). (biochemj.org)
- Adaptive protein evolution at the Adh locus in Drosophila. (scienceopen.com)
- Here we propose a simple statistical test of the neutral protein evolution hypothesis based on a comparison of the number of amino-acid replacement substitutions to synonymous substitutions in the coding region of a locus. (scienceopen.com)
- One of these polypeptides, termed Erv14p (ER-vesicle protein of 14 kD), corresponds to an open reading frame on yeast chromosome VII that is predicted to encode an integral membrane protein and shares sequence identity with the Drosophila cornichon gene product. (psu.edu)
- Dynamin is a GTP-driven mechanochemical enzyme related to mammalian mx-proteins and to the yeast vpsl gene product. (caltech.edu)
- A yeast two-hybrid screening revealed that DmG9a interacts with Tungus, a LIM-domain protein associated with α-Actinin. (uio.no)
- They identified the FGF receptor-specific adaptor protein Dof as the target for O-GlcNAcylation. (sciencemag.org)
- The STNB protein contains a domain that has homology with the μ-subunit of the AP (adaptor protein) complex, as well as a number of NPF (Asp-Pro-Phe) motifs known to bind EH (Eps15 homology) domains. (biochemj.org)
- Our lab has identified a novel role for the conserved adaptor protein, Dreadlocks (Dock), in regulating ring canal size and germ cell stability. (butler.edu)
- Osswald M, Santos AF, Morais-de-Sá E. Light-Induced Protein Clustering for Optogenetic Interference and Protein Interaction Analysis in Drosophila S2 Cells. (mdpi.com)
- Altogether, our results suggest that spindle checkpoint proteins sense distinct aspects of kinetochore interaction with the spindle, with Mad2 and Bub1 monitoring microtubule occupancy while BubR1 and Bub3 monitor tension across attached kinetochores. (biologists.org)
- The STNB protein has also been shown to interact with synaptic vesicles via synaptogamin-I. We initiated an investigation of the possible interaction of DAP-160 (dynamin-associated protein of 160 kDa), a Drosophila member of the intersectin family, with the STNB protein. (biochemj.org)
- Finally, we show that immunoprecipitation of STNB from fly head extracts co-precipitates with DAP-160, and we conclude that the interaction of the STNB protein with both synaptotagmin I and DAP-160 may regulate synaptic vesicle recycling by recruiting dynamin to a pre-fission complex. (biochemj.org)
- BRAT was thought to be recruited to mRNAs indirectly through interaction with the RNA-binding protein Pumilio (PUM). (biomedcentral.com)
- Automated protein-DNA interaction screening of Drosophila regulatory elements. (ox.ac.uk)
- One group of proteins that represent important physiological regulators of both EGFR and JAK/STAT signalling is the members of the SOCS family. (whiterose.ac.uk)
- Among many MT regulators, katanin was the first identified MT-severing protein, but its neuronal functions have not yet been examined in a multicellular organism. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- I also investigate the molecular evolution of a class of Acps and female reproductive tract proteins that (I argue) are particularly likely to undergo co-evolution between males and females, namely proteolysis regulators and targets of proteolysis. (cornell.edu)
- The SR proteins are a well-conserved class of RNA-binding proteins that have an essential role in the regulation of splice site selection, and have also been implicated as key regulators during other stages of RNA metabolism. (ku.edu)
- Rab proteins are small GTPases that play important roles in transport of vesicle cargo and recruitment, association of motor and other proteins with vesicles, and docking and fusion of vesicles at defined locations. (nih.gov)
- Recent studies of the functions of certain Rab proteins have revealed specific roles in mediating developmental signal transduction. (nih.gov)
- These seminal fluid proteins (Sfps) play crucial roles in reproduction, such as supporting sperm function, and particularly in insects, modifying female physiology and behaviour. (mcponline.org)
- Klaroid and Dspag4 thus have cellular roles typical for SUN domain proteins, and Dspag4 is unique in that its function is to attach nuclei to centrioles exclusively in maturing spermatids in the male germline. (utexas.edu)
- The Drosophila S3 ribosomal protein has important roles in both protein translation and DNA repair. (iupui.edu)
- We report here the identification of Combgap (Cg), a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein that is involved in recruitment of PcG proteins. (nih.gov)
- Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
- This region of the protein is highly conserved throughout the ADARs and sequence comparisons with human ADAR2 at the DNA level show it has the potential to be edited at the same site as dADAR. (bl.uk)
- Given that Imp-L2 and the human tumor suppressor IGFBP-7 show sequence homology in their carboxy-terminal immunoglobulin-like domains, we suggest that their common precursor was an ancestral insulin-binding protein. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Sequence of unusually large protein implicated in regulation of myosin activity in C . elegans. (springer.com)
- The RNA is characteristically extended and bound in this cleft, where the UGUUUUUUU sequence is specifically recognised by the protein. (nii.ac.jp)
- If the trapping exon is in-frame with coding sequence of the host protein, a functional GFP-tagged version of the protein may be produced. (biomedcentral.com)
- In light of the shibire phenotype, we suggest that these proteins provide the motor for vesicular transport during endocytosis. (caltech.edu)
- This novel Drosophila model exhibits an evident degenerative phenotype with reduced lifespan and early locomotion defects. (biologists.org)
- Further examination of the overexpression lines will provide insight to the mechanism behind the dramatic Dock overexpression phenotype as well as point to possible Dock-interacting proteins. (butler.edu)
- During oscillations, the peak in per mRNA precedes by several hours the peak in total PER protein. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- Pre-mRNA splicing is typically regulated by RNA-binding proteins that recognize cis-acting RNA elements, and either activate or repress splicing of adjacent exons in a temporal, and tissue specific, manner. (ku.edu)
- Here, we present a comprehensive study to elucidate how the SR proteins coordinate to regulate alternative pre-mRNA splicing (AS) in Drosophila. (ku.edu)
- Publications] N.Handa: 'Structural basis for tra mRNA precursor recognition by the Sex-lethal protein' Nature. (nii.ac.jp)
- In mitotic cycling cells, p53A was the only isoform expressed to detectable levels, and its mRNA and protein levels increased after irradiation, but there was no evidence for an increase in protein stability. (iupui.edu)
- This comprehensive analysis reveals position-dependent RNA splicing maps, in vivo consensus binding motifs, and a high level of cross- and coordinated regulation of alternative splicing by the SR protein family. (ku.edu)
- In support of this were experiments executed in vivo that showed that human S3 and the Drosophila site-directed glutamine-changed S3 performed poorly when compared with Drosophilawild-type S3 and its ability to protect a bacterial mutant from the harmful effects of DNA-damaging agents. (iupui.edu)
- D.H. MacLennan, C.C. Yip, G.H. Iles and P. Seeman, Isolation of sarcoplasmic reticulum proteins, Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology, 32: 469 (1972). (springer.com)
- Although intercellular bridges resulting from incomplete cytokinesis were discovered in somatic Drosophila tissues decades ago, the impact of these structures on intercellular communication and tissue biology is largely unknown. (sciencemag.org)
- Drosophila Schneider 2 (S2) cells are a simple and powerful system commonly used in cell biology because they are well suited for high resolution microscopy and RNAi-mediated depletion. (mdpi.com)
- This review focuses on the works of the authors in the context of outstanding international achievements in the rapidly evolving research area, the biology of piRNA and the functions of the Piwi protein. (deepdyve.com)
- Imp-L2, the first functionally characterized insulin-binding protein in invertebrates, serves as a nutritionally controlled suppressor of insulin-mediated growth in Drosophila. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The Drosophila Suppressor of Hairy-wing [Su(Hw)] protein is a multi-zinc finger DNA binding factor required for the gypsy insulator function. (uiowa.edu)
- Tsaur S, Ting C, Wu C. Sex in Drosophila mauritiana: a very high level of amino acid polymorphism in a male reproductive protein gene, Acp26Aa. (labome.org)
- Publications] M.Inoue: 'A Characteristic Arrangement of Aromatic Amino Acid Residues in the Solution Structure of the Amino-terminal RNA-binding Domain of Drosophila Sex-lethal' J.Mol.Biol.272. (nii.ac.jp)
- Thus, a single amino acid change converted the Drosophila activity into one that is similar to that possessed by the human S3 protein. (iupui.edu)
- In PI4KII mutants, mucin-containing glue granules failed to reach normal size, with glue protein aberrantly accumulating in enlarged Rab7-positive late endosomes. (biologists.org)
- Drosophila projectin: Relatedness to titin and twitchin and correlation with lethal (4) 102CDa and bent-dominant mutants. (springer.com)
- Combgap contributes to recruitment of Polycomb group proteins in Drosophila. (nih.gov)
- PcG proteins are organized into multiprotein complexes that are recruited to DNA via cis-acting elements known as "Polycomb response elements" (PREs). (nih.gov)
- Several of these key groups, such as the Male-Specific Lethal complex and Polycomb Group have been well characterized in Drosophila. (harvard.edu)
- These fusion proteins repress activator function by as much as 30-fold, and the effect on different activation domains is distinct for each Pc-G protein. (asm.org)
- Repression is observed when the LexA fusion proteins are bound directly adjacent to activator binding sites and also when bound 1,700 bases from the promoter. (asm.org)
- Using both fusion proteins and a synthetic peptide, we now show that two calmodulin-binding sites are present in the C-terminal domain of the Trpl protein, CBS-1 and CBS-2. (biochemj.org)
- In this work, we demonstrate that the ~250-nanometer-diameter somatic ring canals permit diffusion of cytoplasmic contents between connected cells and across mitotic clone boundaries and enable the equilibration of protein between transcriptionally mosaic follicle cells in the Drosophila ovary. (sciencemag.org)
- 1 It has been suggested that the protein modification mechanisms might have wider functional implications and might form the basis for an understanding of complex phenomena such as information storage and retrieval. (springer.com)
- The mechanism by which protein functional diversity expands is an important evolutionary issue. (pnas.org)
- These data suggest that protein functional diversity can expand rapidly under the joint forces of exon shuffling, gene duplication, and natural selection. (pnas.org)
- To test the functional importance of the heptad repeat domains in Bic-D, and to further understand its function, we have undertaken a structure-function analysis of the Bic-D protein. (genetics.org)
- In mammals, insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) bind IGFs with high affinity and modulate their mitogenic, anti-apoptotic and metabolic actions, but no functional homologs have been identified in invertebrates so far. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Available information about sex-biased phenotypes in Drosophila tumors in organs with nonreproductive function is limited to nonmalignant, genetically induced hyperplastic tumors induced by altering Notch ( N ) or APC-ras signaling in the adult midgut ( 17 ) and natural hyperplasia formed in the aging gut ( 13 ), which are more frequent in females. (sciencemag.org)
- To determine whether Drosophila experimental models of malignant growth may serve to investigate the cell biological axes that control sex-linked tumor dimorphism, we have studied brain tumor ( brat ) ( 18 ) and lethal(3)malignant brain tumor [ l(3)mbt ] ( 19 ) malignant brain neoplasias (henceforth referred to as brat and mbt tumors, respectively). (sciencemag.org)
- Several contributing factors have been implicated in evolutionary rate heterogeneity among proteins, but their evolutionary mechanisms remain poorly characterized. (nih.gov)
- Although abnormal processing of β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) has been implicated in the pathogenic cascade leading to Alzheimer's disease, the normal function of this protein is poorly understood. (jneurosci.org)
- The requirement for microtubules in the mitotic spindle is self-evident, and yet the role of nonneuronal microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) in its function is poorly understood (for review, see Hyman and Karsenti 1996 ). (rupress.org)
- The complexity of the RNA targets, and specificity of RNA binding location remains poorly understood for many members of the SR protein family. (ku.edu)
- Our data suggest that Cg can recruit Ph in the absence of PRC1 and illustrate the diversity and redundancy of PcG protein recruitment mechanisms. (nih.gov)
- Similar observations have been made in Drosophila suggesting that the cellular mechanisms underlying human glutamine-repeat diseases are conserved in invertebrates [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Although the mechanisms underlying oocyte determination are unclear, the initial establishment of oocyte identity is dependent on the accumulation of oocyte-specific transcripts and proteins. (genetics.org)
- Thus, the major findings of this project revealed that Drosophila nociceptor sensitivity is controlled by RNA processing mechanisms from transcription to translation. (uncg.edu)
- We find that SR proteins bind a distinct, but functionally diverse, class of RNAs that includes mRNAs, both constitutive and alternatively spliced, as well as non-coding RNAs. (ku.edu)
- Interestingly, even in cases where protein domains are predicted, protein trap insertions frequently occur in regions encoding surface exposed areas that are likely to be functionally neutral. (biomedcentral.com)