Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Specialized cells in the invertebrates that detect and transduce light. They are predominantly rhabdomeric with an array of photosensitive microvilli. Illumination depolarizes invertebrate photoreceptors by stimulating Na+ influx across the plasma membrane.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
A proto-oncogene protein and member of the Wnt family of proteins. It is expressed in the caudal MIDBRAIN and is essential for proper development of the entire mid-/hindbrain region.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects.
Prominent lobed neuropils found in ANNELIDA and all ARTHROPODS except crustaceans. They are thought to be involved in olfactory learning and memory.
A layer of cells lining the fluid-filled cavity (blastocele) of a BLASTULA, usually developed from a fertilized insect, reptilian, or avian egg.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Specialized organs adapted for the reception of stimuli by the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.
A nutritional reservoir of fatty tissue found mainly in insects and amphibians.
Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A family of proteins that contain several 42-amino acid repeat domains and are homologous to the Drosophila armadillo protein. They bind to other proteins through their armadillo domains and play a variety of roles in the CELL including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, regulation of DESMOSOME assembly, and CELL ADHESION.
In invertebrate zoology, a lateral lobe of the FOREBRAIN in certain ARTHROPODS. In vertebrate zoology, either of the corpora bigemina of non-mammalian VERTEBRATES. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1329)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
Slender tubular or hairlike excretory structures found in insects. They emerge from the alimentary canal between the mesenteron (midgut) and the proctodeum (hindgut).
Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).
Hollow sacs of cells in LARVA that form adult structures in insects during BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS.
Light sensory organ in ARTHROPODS consisting of a large number of ommatidia, each functioning as an independent photoreceptor unit.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysterone is the 20-hydroxylated ECDYSONE.
Activities designed to attract the attention or favors of another.
Color of the iris.
The normal length of time of an organism's life.
The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.
The portion of chromosome material that remains condensed and is transcriptionally inactive during INTERPHASE.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Sexual activities of animals.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.
Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.
Antennapedia homeodomain protein is a homeobox protein involved in limb patterning in ARTHROPODS. Mutations in the gene for the antennapedia homeodomain protein are associated with the conversion of antenna to leg or leg to antenna DROSOPHILA.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Genetic mechanisms that allow GENES to be expressed at a similar level irrespective of their GENE DOSAGE. This term is usually used in discussing genes that lie on the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Because the sex chromosomes are only partially homologous, there is a different copy number, i.e., dosage, of these genes in males vs. females. In DROSOPHILA, dosage compensation is accomplished by hypertranscription of genes located on the X CHROMOSOME. In mammals, dosage compensation of X chromosome genes is accomplished by random X CHROMOSOME INACTIVATION of one of the two X chromosomes in the female.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A family of seven-pass transmembrane cell-surface proteins that combines with LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 or LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 to form receptors for WNT PROTEINS. Frizzled receptors often couple with HETEROTRIMERIC G PROTEINS and regulate the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.
An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.
Circadian rhythm signaling proteins that influence circadian clock by interacting with other circadian regulatory proteins and transporting them into the CELL NUCLEUS.
Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
A multisubunit polycomb protein complex with affinity for CHROMATIN that contains methylated HISTONE H3. It contains an E3 ubiquitin ligase activity that is specific for HISTONE H2A and works in conjunction with POLYCOMB REPRESSIVE COMPLEX 2 to effect EPIGENETIC REPRESSION.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
The anatomical parts that make up an organism in the early stages of development.
A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
Fushi tarazu transcription factors were originally identified in DROSOPHILA. They are found throughout ARTHROPODS and play important roles in segmentation and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM development.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
A dense intricate feltwork of interwoven fine glial processes, fibrils, synaptic terminals, axons, and dendrites interspersed among the nerve cells in the gray matter of the central nervous system.
The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.
A family of intracellular tyrosine kinases that participate in the signaling cascade of cytokines by associating with specific CYTOKINE RECEPTORS. They act upon STAT TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS in signaling pathway referred to as the JAK/STAT pathway. The name Janus kinase refers to the fact the proteins have two phosphate-transferring domains.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.

Novel regulation of the homeotic gene Scr associated with a crustacean leg-to-maxilliped appendage transformation. (1/18666)

Homeotic genes are known to be involved in patterning morphological structures along the antero-posterior axis of insects and vertebrates. Because of their important roles in development, changes in the function and expression patterns of homeotic genes may have played a major role in the evolution of different body plans. For example, it has been proposed that during the evolution of several crustacean lineages, changes in the expression patterns of the homeotic genes Ultrabithorax and abdominal-A have played a role in transformation of the anterior thoracic appendages into mouthparts termed maxillipeds. This homeotic-like transformation is recapitulated at the late stages of the direct embryonic development of the crustacean Porcellio scaber (Oniscidea, Isopoda). Interestingly, this morphological change is associated with apparent novelties both in the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of the Porcellio scaber ortholog of the Drosophila homeotic gene, Sex combs reduced (Scr). Specifically, we find that Scr mRNA is present in the second maxillary segment and the first pair of thoracic legs (T1) in early embryos, whereas protein accumulates only in the second maxillae. In later stages, however, high levels of SCR appear in the T1 legs, which correlates temporally with the transformation of these appendages into maxillipeds. Our observations provide further insight into the process of the homeotic leg-to-maxilliped transformation in the evolution of crustaceans and suggest a novel regulatory mechanism for this process in this group of arthropods.  (+info)

Apontic binds the translational repressor Bruno and is implicated in regulation of oskar mRNA translation. (2/18666)

The product of the oskar gene directs posterior patterning in the Drosophila oocyte, where it must be deployed specifically at the posterior pole. Proper expression relies on the coordinated localization and translational control of the oskar mRNA. Translational repression prior to localization of the transcript is mediated, in part, by the Bruno protein, which binds to discrete sites in the 3' untranslated region of the oskar mRNA. To begin to understand how Bruno acts in translational repression, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify Bruno-interacting proteins. One interactor, described here, is the product of the apontic gene. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments lend biochemical support to the idea that Bruno and Apontic proteins physically interact in Drosophila. Genetic experiments using mutants defective in apontic and bruno reveal a functional interaction between these genes. Given this interaction, Apontic is likely to act together with Bruno in translational repression of oskar mRNA. Interestingly, Apontic, like Bruno, is an RNA-binding protein and specifically binds certain regions of the oskar mRNA 3' untranslated region.  (+info)

Stromal cells mediate retinoid-dependent functions essential for renal development. (3/18666)

The essential role of vitamin A and its metabolites, retinoids, in kidney development has been demonstrated in vitamin A deficiency and gene targeting studies. Retinoids signal via nuclear transcription factors belonging to the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) families. Inactivation of RARaplpha and RARbeta2 receptors together, but not singly, resulted in renal malformations, suggesting that within a given renal cell type, their concerted function is required for renal morphogenesis. At birth, RARalpha beta2(-) mutants displayed small kidneys, containing few ureteric bud branches, reduced numbers of nephrons and lacking the nephrogenic zone where new nephrons are continuously added. These observations have prompted us to investigate the role of RARalpha and RARbeta2 in renal development in detail. We have found that within the embryonic kidney, RARalpha and RARbeta2 are colocalized in stromal cells, but not in other renal cell types, suggesting that stromal cells mediate retinoid-dependent functions essential for renal development. Analysis of RARalpha beta2(-) mutant kidneys at embryonic stages revealed that nephrons were formed and revealed no changes in the intensity or distribution of molecular markers specific for different metanephric mesenchymal cell types. In contrast the development of the collecting duct system was greatly impaired in RARalpha beta2(-) mutant kidneys. Fewer ureteric bud branches were present, and ureteric bud ends were positioned abnormally, at a distance from the renal capsule. Analysis of genes important for ureteric bud morphogenesis revealed that the proto-oncogene c-ret was downregulated. Our results suggest that RARalpha and RARbeta2 are required for generating stromal cell signals that maintain c-ret expression in the embryonic kidney. Since c-ret signaling is required for ureteric bud morphogenesis, loss of c-ret expression is a likely cause of impaired ureteric bud branching in RARalpha beta2(-) mutants.  (+info)

The Drosophila kismet gene is related to chromatin-remodeling factors and is required for both segmentation and segment identity. (4/18666)

The Drosophila kismet gene was identified in a screen for dominant suppressors of Polycomb, a repressor of homeotic genes. Here we show that kismet mutations suppress the Polycomb mutant phenotype by blocking the ectopic transcription of homeotic genes. Loss of zygotic kismet function causes homeotic transformations similar to those associated with loss-of-function mutations in the homeotic genes Sex combs reduced and Abdominal-B. kismet is also required for proper larval body segmentation. Loss of maternal kismet function causes segmentation defects similar to those caused by mutations in the pair-rule gene even-skipped. The kismet gene encodes several large nuclear proteins that are ubiquitously expressed along the anterior-posterior axis. The Kismet proteins contain a domain conserved in the trithorax group protein Brahma and related chromatin-remodeling factors, providing further evidence that alterations in chromatin structure are required to maintain the spatially restricted patterns of homeotic gene transcription.  (+info)

Transcriptional repression by the Drosophila giant protein: cis element positioning provides an alternative means of interpreting an effector gradient. (5/18666)

Early developmental patterning of the Drosophila embryo is driven by the activities of a diverse set of maternally and zygotically derived transcription factors, including repressors encoded by gap genes such as Kruppel, knirps, giant and the mesoderm-specific snail. The mechanism of repression by gap transcription factors is not well understood at a molecular level. Initial characterization of these transcription factors suggests that they act as short-range repressors, interfering with the activity of enhancer or promoter elements 50 to 100 bp away. To better understand the molecular mechanism of short-range repression, we have investigated the properties of the Giant gap protein. We tested the ability of endogenous Giant to repress when bound close to the transcriptional initiation site and found that Giant effectively represses a heterologous promoter when binding sites are located at -55 bp with respect to the start of transcription. Consistent with its role as a short-range repressor, as the binding sites are moved to more distal locations, repression is diminished. Rather than exhibiting a sharp 'step-function' drop-off in activity, however, repression is progressively restricted to areas of highest Giant concentration. Less than a two-fold difference in Giant protein concentration is sufficient to determine a change in transcriptional status of a target gene. This effect demonstrates that Giant protein gradients can be differentially interpreted by target promoters, depending on the exact location of the Giant binding sites within the gene. Thus, in addition to binding site affinity and number, cis element positioning within a promoter can affect the response of a gene to a repressor gradient. We also demonstrate that a chimeric Gal4-Giant protein lacking the basic/zipper domain can specifically repress reporter genes, suggesting that the Giant effector domain is an autonomous repression domain.  (+info)

A Drosophila doublesex-related gene, terra, is involved in somitogenesis in vertebrates. (6/18666)

The Drosophila doublesex (dsx) gene encodes a transcription factor that mediates sex determination. We describe the characterization of a novel zebrafish zinc-finger gene, terra, which contains a DNA binding domain similar to that of the Drosophila dsx gene. However, unlike dsx, terra is transiently expressed in the presomitic mesoderm and newly formed somites. Expression of terra in presomitic mesoderm is restricted to cells that lack expression of MyoD. In vivo, terra expression is reduced by hedgehog but enhanced by BMP signals. Overexpression of terra induces rapid apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that a tight regulation of terra expression is required during embryogenesis. Terra has both human and mouse homologs and is specifically expressed in mouse somites. Taken together, our findings suggest that terra is a highly conserved protein that plays specific roles in early somitogenesis of vertebrates.  (+info)

Membrane-tethered Drosophila Armadillo cannot transduce Wingless signal on its own. (7/18666)

Drosophila Armadillo and its vertebrate homolog beta-catenin are key effectors of Wingless/Wnt signaling. In the current model, Wingless/Wnt signal stabilizes Armadillo/beta-catenin, which then accumulates in nuclei and binds TCF/LEF family proteins, forming bipartite transcription factors which activate transcription of Wingless/Wnt responsive genes. This model was recently challenged. Overexpression in Xenopus of membrane-tethered beta-catenin or its paralog plakoglobin activates Wnt signaling, suggesting that nuclear localization of Armadillo/beta-catenin is not essential for signaling. Tethered plakoglobin or beta-catenin might signal on their own or might act indirectly by elevating levels of endogenous beta-catenin. We tested these hypotheses in Drosophila by removing endogenous Armadillo. We generated a series of mutant Armadillo proteins with altered intracellular localizations, and expressed these in wild-type and armadillo mutant backgrounds. We found that membrane-tethered Armadillo cannot signal on its own; however it can function in adherens junctions. We also created mutant forms of Armadillo carrying heterologous nuclear localization or nuclear export signals. Although these signals alter the subcellular localization of Arm when overexpressed in Xenopus, in Drosophila they have little effect on localization and only subtle effects on signaling. This supports a model in which Armadillo's nuclear localization is key for signaling, but in which Armadillo intracellular localization is controlled by the availability and affinity of its binding partners.  (+info)

Sonic hedgehog signaling by the patched-smoothened receptor complex. (8/18666)

BACKGROUND: The Hedgehog (Hh) family of secreted proteins is involved in a number of developmental processes as well as in cancer. Genetic and biochemical data suggest that the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) receptor is composed of at least two proteins: the tumor suppressor protein Patched (Ptc) and the seven-transmembrane protein Smoothened (Smo). RESULTS: Using a biochemical assay for activation of the transcription factor Gli, a downstream component of the Hh pathway, we show here that Smo functions as the signaling component of the Shh receptor, and that this activity can be blocked by Ptc. The inhibition of Smo by Ptc can be relieved by the addition of Shh. Furthermore, oncogenic forms of Smo are insensitive to Ptc repression in this assay. Mapping of the Smo domains required for binding to Ptc and for signaling revealed that the Smo-Ptc interaction involves mainly the amino terminus of Smo, and that the third intracellular loop and the seventh transmembrane domain are required for signaling. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that Smo is the signaling component of a multicomponent Hh receptor complex and that Ptc is a ligand-regulated inhibitor of Smo. Different domains of Smo are involved in Ptc binding and activation of a Gli reporter construct. The latter requires the third intracellular loop and the seventh transmembrane domain of Smo, regions often involved in coupling to G proteins. No changes in the levels of cyclic AMP or calcium associated with such pathways could be detected following receptor activation, however.  (+info)

The Drosophila kismet gene was identified in a screen for dominant suppressors of Polycomb, a repressor of homeotic genes. Here we show that kismet mutations suppress the Polycomb mutant phenotype by blocking the ectopic transcription of homeotic genes. Loss of zygotic kismet function causes homeotic transformations similar to those associated with loss-of-function mutations in the homeotic genes Sex combs reduced and Abdominal-B. kismet is also required for proper larval body segmentation. Loss of maternal kismet function causes segmentation defects similar to those caused by mutations in the pair-rule gene even-skipped. The kismet gene encodes several large nuclear proteins that are ubiquitously expressed along the anterior-posterior axis. The Kismet proteins contain a domain conserved in the trithorax group protein Brahma and related chromatin-remodeling factors, providing further evidence that alterations in chromatin structure are required to maintain the spatially restricted patterns of ...
Insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) plays an important role as a systemic regulator of metabolism in multicellular organisms. Hyperinsulinemia, a high level of blood insulin, is often associated with impaired physiological conditions such as hypoglycemia, insulin resistance, and diabetes. However, due to the complex pathophysiology of hyperinsulinemia, the causative role of excess insulin/IGF signaling has remained elusive. To investigate the biological effects of a high level of insulin in metabolic homeostasis and physiology, we generated flies overexpressing Drosophila insulin-like peptide 2 (Dilp2), which has the highest potential of promoting tissue growth among the Ilp genes in Drosophila. In this model, a UAS-Dilp2 transgene was overexpressed under control of sd-Gal4 that drives expression predominantly in developing imaginal wing discs. Overexpression of Dilp2 caused semi-lethality, which was partially suppressed by mutations in the insulin receptor (InR) or Akt1, suggesting that dilp2
Recommended Readings:. Chekulaeva, M. and A. Ephrussi. 2004. Drosophila Development: RNA Interference Ab Ovo. Current Biology 14 (11): R428-R430. Hachet, O. and A. Ephrussi. 2001. Drosophila Y14 Shuttles to the Posterior of the Oocyte and is Required for Oskar mRNA Transport. Current Biology 11 (21): 1666-1674. Jambor, H., C. Brunel, and A. Ephrussi. 2011. Dimerization of Oskar 3′ UTRs Promotes Hitchhiking for RNA Localization in the Drosophila Oocyte. RNA 17 (12): 2049-2057. Krauss, J., S. López de Quinto, C. Nüsslein-Volhard, and A. Ephrussi. 2009. Myosin-V Regulates Oskar mRNA Localization in the Drosophila Oocyte. Current Biology 19 (12): 1058-1063. Vanzo, N., A. Oprins, D. Xanthakis, A. Ephrussi, and C. Rabouille. 2007. Stimulation of Endocytosis and Actin Dynamics by Oskar Polarizes the Drosophila Oocyte. Developmental Cell 12 (4): 543-555. Vanzo, N. F. and A. Ephrussi. 2002. Oskar Anchoring Restricts Pole Plasm Formation to the Posterior of the Drosophila Oocyte. ...
THE imaginal discs of the Drosophila larva have long served as a model system in which to understand the control of organ size. Imaginal discs are epithelial sacs that, following metamorphosis, will form much of the adult tissue. The primordia of these discs are set aside in the embryo as small groups of 20-50 cells that remain diploid while much of the rest of the animal becomes polyploid. Over the 4 days that span the three larval instars, these primordia proliferate by ∼1000-fold to approach their final size. The size of the imaginal disc at the initiation of pupation is a major determinant of the size of the adult organ following metamorphosis. This size is highly regular, reflecting the importance for appropriate physiology and functioning of, for example, the complex optics of the compound eye or the aerodynamics of the wing and haltere flight organs. Thus, tight developmental controls must exist to permit sufficient but not excessive growth of the imaginal discs.. Classic and ...
Background: The modulation of mRNA levels across tissues and time is key for the establishment and operation of the developmental programs that transform the fertilized egg into a fully formed embryo. Although the developmental mechanisms leading to differential mRNA synthesis are heavily investigated, comparatively little attention is given to the processes of mRNA degradation and how these relate to the molecular programs controlling development. Results: Here we combine timed collection of Drosophila embryos and unfertilized eggs with genome-wide microarray technology to determine the degradation patterns of all mRNAs present during early fruit fly development. Our work studies the kinetics of mRNA decay, the contributions of maternally and zygotically encoded factors to mRNA degradation, and the ways in which mRNA decay profiles relate to gene function, mRNA localization patterns, translation rates and protein turnover. We also detect cis-regulatory sequences enriched in transcripts with ...
The microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton is reorganized during myogenesis as individual myoblasts fuse into multinucleated myotubes. Although this reorganization has long been observed in cell culture, these findings have not been validated during development, and proteins that regulate this process are largely unknown. A novel postmitotic function has been identified for the cytokinesis proteins RacGAP50C (Tumbleweed) and Pavarotti as essential regulators of MT organization during Drosophila myogenesis. The localization of the MT nucleator gamma-tubulin changes from diffuse cytoplasmic staining in mononucleated myoblasts to discrete cytoplasmic puncta at the nuclear periphery in multinucleated myoblasts, and this change in localization depends on RacGAP50C. RacGAP50C and gamma-tubulin colocalize at perinuclear sites in myotubes, and in RacGAP50C mutants gamma-tubulin remains dispersed throughout the cytoplasm. Furthermore, the mislocalization of RacGAP50C in pavarotti mutants is sufficient to ...
We show that generation of holes in the Drosophila embryo can substitute for the Tsl protein in the activation of the Torso Receptor Tyrosine Kinase (RTK) and t
We studied transcription during the first 14 mitotic cycles of Drosophila development, by gel electrophoresis of RNA pulse-labeled in vivo. Synthesis of rRNA, tRNAs, 5S RNAs, snRNAs, poly(A)+ RNAs, and histone mRNAs is first detectable during cycle 11 or 12. Histone genes are transcribed during S ph …
In this study, we demonstrate that Dscam endodomain variants are dynamically and differentially expressed in the developing Drosophila CNS. This conclusion derives from: (1) the analysis of Dscam transcript compositions by RT-PCR, (2) the localization of specific Dscam endodomains by depleting the alternatives via RNAi against exon 19, exon 23, or the unique exon-exon junctions derived from skipping of exon 19 or exon 23 (Fig. 2), and (3) the direct visualization of Dscam+19 using Ab19 as opposed to labeling all the Dscam isoforms with Ab18 (Fig. 3). Postembryonic neuronal morphogenesis uses Dscam variants lacking exons 19 and 23 (Fig. 4C), while Dscam+19 plays a more important role in the wiring of embryonic neural tracts (Fig. 4F). Skipping exon 19 prevents accumulation of Dscams in neuronal cell bodies, implicating a mechanism for regulating Dscam protein targeting by the alternative splicing of exon 19 (Figs. 6, 7). In addition, exon 23 is dispensable for most Dscam-dependent neuronal ...
Research Interest: Neuronal development in Drosophila Areas of Research A. Neural development in Drosophila melanogaster. 1. We are focussing on the function of the adhesion molecules Drosophila E-cadherin homolog (DE-cad) and Fas (an Ig-like protein) during neuroblast formation, axonogensis and synapse formation in the embryonic and larval brain. Following the cloning of DE-cad, its phenotypic and expression analysis, we have generated constructs that allow us to overexpress normal and mutant DE-cad forms at specific times and locations during nervous system development. Tepass, U., Gruszynski-de Feo, E., Haag, T.A., Omatyar, L., Török, T., and Hartenstein, V. (1996). shotgun encodes Drosophila E-cadherin and is preferentially required during cell rearrangement in the neuroectoderm and other morphogenetically active epithelia. Genes & Dev. 10, 672-685 Lekven, A., Tepass, U., Keshmeshian, M., Hartenstein, V. (1998) faint sausage encodes a novel member of the Ig superfamily required for ...
Compartments are units of cell lineage that subdivide territories with different developmental potential. In Drosophila, the wing and haltere discs are subdivided into anterior and posterior (A/P) compartments, which require the activity of Hedgehog, and into dorsal and ventral (D/V) compartments, n …
The tubular epithelium of the Drosophila tracheal system forms a network with a stereotyped pattern consisting of cells and branches with distinct identity. The tracheal primordium undergoes primary branching induced by the FGF homolog Branchless, differentiates cells with specialized functions such as fusion cells, which perform target recognition and adhesion during branch fusion, and extends branches toward specific targets. Specification of a unique identity for each primary branch is essential for directed migration, as a defect in either the EGFR or the Dpp pathway leads to a loss of branch identity and the misguidance of tracheal cell migration. Here, we investigate the role of Wingless signaling in the specification of cell and branch identity in the tracheal system. Wingless and its intracellular signal transducer, Armadillo, have multiple functions, including specifying the dorsal trunk through activation of Spalt expression and inducing differentiation of fusion cells in all fusion ...
The Hay tartan. The surname Hay was first found in Perthshire. In Scottish history, few names go farther back than Hay. The ancestors of the Hay family lived in ancient chronicles where the tradition relating this distinguished Pictish family of Hay begins during an attack by the Danes in the reign of Kenneth III of Scotland in 980. Connect with Scottish Hay tartan customers around the world to celebrate your Hay heritage! The Hay tartan; Designed, developed & woven in Scotland so you can join the Hay Scottish tartan family wherever you are!. ...
Signaling through the Hippo-Salvador-Warts (Wts) kinase cascade inhibits cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis by preventing nuclear accumulation of the transcriptional coactivator Yorkie (Yki in the fruit fly) or Yap (in vertebrates). Hippo-dependent phosphorylation of Yki by Wts prevents nuclear accumulation of Yki. In the nucleus, Yki cooperates with its partner Scalloped to promote expression of several target genes that inhibit apoptosis and promote mitosis. Two studies report that the serine-threonine kinase homeodomain-interacting protein kinase (Hipk) promotes Yki activity. Studies by Chen and Verheyen and by Poon et al. both demonstrate that, like overexpresison of yki or knockdown of wts, overexpresison of hipk in fly imaginal discs caused excessive cell proliferation, leading to tissue overgrowth, and stimulation of endogenous Yki transcriptional targets and reporter constructs. Reducing Hipk activity by mutation or RNA interference (RNAi) reduced both tissue size and expression ...
The Hippo pathway controls metazoan organ growth by regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis. Many components have been identified, but our knowledge of the composition and structure of this pathway is still incomplete. Using existing pathway components as baits, we generated by mass spectrometry a high-confidence Drosophila Hippo protein-protein interaction network (Hippo-PPIN) consisting of 153 proteins and 204 interactions. Depletion of 67% of the proteins by RNAi regulated the transcriptional coactivator Yorkie (Yki) either positively or negatively. We selected for further characterization a new member of the alpha-arrestin family, Leash, and show that it promotes degradation of Yki through the lysosomal pathway. Given the importance of the Hippo pathway in tumor development, the Hippo-PPIN will contribute to our understanding of this network in both normal growth and cancer.. ...
Wounding, apoptosis, or infection can trigger a proliferative response in neighboring cells to replace damaged tissue. Studies in Drosophila have implicated c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK)-dependent activation of Yorkie (Yki) as essential to regeneration-associated growth, as well as growth associated with neoplastic tumors. Yki is a transcriptional coactivator that is inhibited by Hippo signaling, a conserved pathway that regulates growth. We identified a conserved mechanism by which JNK regulated Hippo signaling. Genetic studies in Drosophila identified Jub (also known as Ajuba LIM protein) as required for JNK-mediated activation of Yki and showed that Jub contributed to wing regeneration after wounding and to tumor growth. Biochemical studies revealed that JNK promoted the phosphorylation of Ajuba family proteins in both Drosophila and mammalian cells. Binding studies in mammalian cells indicated that JNK increased binding between the Ajuba family proteins LIMD1 or WTIP and LATS1, a kinase ...
The Auld Lang Syne heavyweight tartan. Auld Lang Syne is a Robert Burns poem written in 1788, which is also sung in many countries on December 31st to bid farewell to the old year at the stroke of midnight on New Years Eve. Its is also sung at funerals, graduations, and as a farewell or ending to other occasions. Celebrate your Scottish roots with the Auld Lang Syne tartan! Designed, developed & woven in Scotland so you can join the thousands of other Auld Lang Syne tartan wearers, wherever you are!. ...
Benign tumors accumulate mutations that enable them to progress to malignancy and metastasis. Although Yki overexpression promotes cell proliferation and inhibits apoptosis, Yki expression does not normally lead to the formation of malignant tumors in the Drosophila wing epithelia. Our findings show that inactivation of the BAP complex in discs expressing Yki results in the formation of giant larvae, a phenomenon characteristic of larvae with neoplastic tumors. The overgrown imaginal discs in these animals exhibit features of malignant transformation, including loss of epithelial polarity and expression of the proinvasive marker Mmp1. Moreover, when transplanted to a normal host, fragments of these discs produced tumors that grew and spread to kill the host.. The tumor suppressive role of the BAP complex appears to be context dependent. Overexpression of EGFR and Yki each results in tissue hyperplasia. Yki regulates cell proliferation and represses apoptosis by regulating target genes, including ...
The dorsoventral pattern of the Drosophila embryo is mediated by a gradient of nuclear localization of the dorsal protein which acts as amorphogen. Establishment of the nuclear concentration gradient of dorsal protein requires the activities of the 10 maternal dorsal group genes whose function results in the positive regulation of the nuclear uptake of the dorsal protein. Here we show that in contrast to the dorsal group genes, the maternal gene cactus acts as a negative regulator of the nuclear localization of the dorsal protein. While loss of function mutations of any of the dorsal group genes lead to dorsalized embryos, loss of cactusfunction results in a ventralization of the body pattern. Progressive loss of maternal cactus activity causes progressive loss of dorsal pattern elements accompanied by the expansion of ventrolateral and ventral anlagen. However, embryos still retain dorsoventral polarity, even if derived from germline clones using the strongest available, zygotic lethal cactus ...
Increasing evidence implicates the Hippo signalling pathway as a major mediator of contact inhibition of growth. In agreement with this model, genetic analysis in Drosophila and mice showed that this pathway restrains cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis to limit organ size and suppress tumorigenesis [[83],[84],[85]]. The core kinase cascade of this pathway-Hippo (MST1/2)-Salvador (WW45)-Warts (Lats1/2)-has been well characterized in Drosophila and is conserved in mammals, whereas its upstream regulation, which is rather complex, seems to have diverged after the separation of arthropods and chordates. In Drosophila, the atypical cadherin Fat and the apical polarity protein Crumbs activate the core kinase cascade through the FERM domain protein Expanded [[84],[86]]. Interestingly, genetic epistasis experiments showed that Merlin cooperates with Expanded to activate the Hippo pathway in the fly [[32]]. Mammalian cells lack a clear functional homologue of Fat [[87],[88]]. A recent study ...
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The Hippo pathway inactivates genes involved in organ size and when aberrant, can lead to cancer. To control organ size, the Hippo pathway inhibits Yorkie (Yki), a transcriptional coactivator that works with Scalloped (Sd), a DNA binding protein. When active, Yki translocates into the nucleus and initiates transcription. Conversely, when inactive, Yki remains in the cytoplasm. However, my work shows that cytoplasmic, inactive Yki interacts with other proteins in the Hippo pathway by recruiting them to the plasma membrane. Accordingly, this study challenges the notion that cytoplasmic Yki is inactive and instead, may play a dual role in the Hippo pathway.
An exceptionally soft and smooth but also robust lightweight tartan - in our view the worlds finest. It will be woven to order for you, using traditional methods, by the worlds last artisan tartan weaving mill, deep in the Scottish Borders. Its an
An exceptionally soft and smooth but also robust lightweight tartan - in our view the worlds finest. It will be woven to order for you, using traditional methods, by the worlds last artisan tartan weaving mill, deep in the Scottish Borders. Its an
BY KATRINA TWEEDIE THOUSANDS of Scots and their descendants take to the streets of Manhattan every year for the annual Tartan Day Parade celebrating the historic links between both nations. New Yorks Tartan Day Parade AS surreal moments go, nothing will ever compare to standing in the middle of 6th Avenue as thousands of Saltire-waving…
Once upon a time, there was an excellent Italian tenor named Luciano Pavarotti.He didnt have the biggest voice in the world, or the sweetest. He didnt make the most dramatic of sounds, or the most
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Be who you are. And who you want to be. BE Colliers.. We believe there are as many versions of success as there are people, and were committed to empowering you to become a better you, no matter what you do. We promote a culture of continuous learning and will encourage you to set challenging goals for yourself, while supporting you in achieving them.. BE. One word, two letters, unlimited possibilities. What could you BE at Colliers?. #BEColliers ...
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Hi, I have a 7 yr old yorkie who I am concerned about but Im not sure if I have just been googling too much :) She currently weighs 8.5 down from 9.5 recently and 10 overall. We have been adamen...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transcription control of a gene for Drosophila transcription factor, DREF by DRE and cis-elements conserved between Drosophila melanogaster and virilis. AU - Kwon, Eunjeong. AU - Seto, Hirokazu. AU - Hirose, Fumiko. AU - Ohshima, Nobuko. AU - Takahashi, Yasuhiko. AU - Nishida, Yasuyoshi. AU - Yamaguchi, Masamitsu. PY - 2003/5/8. Y1 - 2003/5/8. N2 - A DNA replication-related element (DRE)-binding factor (DREF) has been revealed to be an important transcription factor for activating promoters of cell proliferation and differentiation related genes. The amino acid sequences of DREF are conserved in evolutionary separate Drosophila species, Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) and Drosophila virilis (Dv) in three regions. In the present study, evidence was obtained that there are several highly conserved regions in the 5′ flanking region between the DmDREF and DvDREF genes. Band mobility shift assays using oligonucleotides corresponding to these conserved regions revealed that specific ...
We propose that the six genes previously classified as Polycomb group genes in which loss-of-function or antimorphic mutations show intergenic noncomplementation with mutations in trithorax group genes and increase the penetrance caused by double heterozygosis of mutations in trithorax group genes belong in a distinct group (Table 6). We propose that this group be called the ETP (Enhancers of trithorax and Polycomb mutations) group. Loss-of-function mutations in this group of genes enhance the dominant phenotype caused by Polycomb mutations like mutations in Polycomb group genes but also enhance the phenotype caused by heterozygosity for double mutations in trithorax group genes such as ash1VF101 trxb11 and brm2 trxe2 like mutations in trithorax group genes. Jürgens (1985) estimated that there were ∼40 genes in the Polycomb group based on the enhancement of the Polycomb mutant phenotype by a sample of deficiencies. We suggest that this number may be an overestimate. Many of the genes in which ...
Previous experiments have shown two germline stem cell genes, bam and bgcn, to be under strong positive selection in Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans (Bauer DuMont et al. 2007). This prompted the question of whether the same pattern of selection observed in these two species was present in the germline stem cell genes of other Drosophila lineages? The Aquadro Lab has been sequencing many germline stem cell genes in Drosophila species, and the answer to this question so far has been that some lineages show strong positive selection and some do not. This observation led the Aquadro Lab to begin to test hypotheses about the driver - or drivers - of the positive selection in the germline stem cell genes across some Drosophila lineages. One hypothesis proposed by Bauer DuMont et al. (2007) is that coevolution with pathogens such as the reproductive parasite, Wolbachia pipientis, infecting the germline could be driving this observed selection. This project looked for signs of selection ...
Cell adhesion molecule that plays a role in neuronal self-avoidance. Promotes repulsion between specific neuronal processes of either the same cell or the same subtype of cells. Mediates within retinal amacrine and ganglion cell subtypes both isoneuronal self-avoidance for creating an orderly dendritic arborization and heteroneuronal self-avoidance to maintain the mosaic spacing between amacrine and ganglion cell bodies (PubMed:10925149). Receptor for netrin required for axon guidance independently of and in collaboration with the receptor DCC. In spinal chord development plays a role in guiding commissural axons projection and pathfinding across the ventral midline to reach the floor plate upon ligand binding (PubMed:18585357, PubMed:19196994). Enhances netrin-induced phosphorylation of PAK1 and FYN (PubMed:15169762). Mediates intracellular signaling by stimulating the activation of MAPK8 and MAP kinase p38 (PubMed:18585357, PubMed:19196994). Adhesion molecule that promotes lamina-specific ...
Flybase THE Database of Drosophila Genes & Genomes. NCBI Pubmed citations from the biomedical literature. Flymove images and movies of Drosophila development. Atlas of Drosophila development illustrations of embryogenesis. Drosophila protocols a list of lab homepages with Drosophila protocols JEDI network of junior Drosophila investigators. BSDB the British society of Developmental Biology US fly meeting the American annual Drosophila research conference. European fly meeting the European biannual Drosophila research conference. ...
Decapentaplegic (Dpp) is one of the best characterized morphogens, required for dorso-ventral patterning of the Drosophila embryo and for anterior-posterior (A/P) patterning of the wing imaginal disc. In the larval wing pouch, the Dpp target gene optomotor-blind (omb) is generally assumed to be expressed in a step function above a certain threshold of Dpp signaling activity. We show that the transcription factor Omb forms, in fact, a symmetrical gradient on both sides of the A/P compartment boundary. Disruptions of the Omb gradient lead to a re-organization of the epithelial cytoskeleton and to a retraction of cells toward the basal membrane suggesting that the Omb gradient is required for correct epithelial morphology. Moreover, by analysing the shape of omb gain- and loss-of-function clones, we find that Omb promotes cell sorting along the A/P axis in a concentration-dependent manner. Our findings show that Omb distribution in the wing imaginal disc is described by a gradient rather than a step
A protein encoded by a gene in band 22 of the long arm of human chromosome 21. The gene contains multiple exons which allow multiple mRNAs to be transcribed by alternative splicing (q.v.). The transcripts are differentially expressed in different substructures of the adult brain. The DSCAM is a member of the immunoglobulin domain superfamily (q.v.). These isoforms may be involved in the patterning of neural networks by selective adhesions between axons. See innate immunity. ...
Kitagawa M., Oyama T., Kawashima T., Yedvobnick B., Kumar A., Matsuno K., Harigaya K.. Mastermind (Mam) has been implicated as an important positive regulator of the Notch signaling pathway by genetic studies using Drosophila melanogaster. Here we describe a biochemical mechanism of action of Mam within the Notch signaling pathway. Expression of a human sequence related to Drosophila Mam (hMam-1) in mammalian cells augments induction of Hairy Enhancer of split (HES) promoters by Notch signaling. hMam-1 stabilizes and participates in the DNA binding complex of the intracellular domain of human Notch1 and a CSL protein. Truncated versions of hMam-1 that can maintain an association with the complex behave in a dominant negative fashion and depress transactivation. Furthermore, Drosophila Mam forms a similar complex with the intracellular domain of Drosophila Notch and Drosophila CSL protein during activation of Enhancer of split, the Drosophila counterpart of HES. These results indicate that Mam is ...
Whats my tartan? Thats the question that gets asked of us most often at the Scottish Tartans Museum. For a small fee, our museum staff will research any family name for you, and recommend a particular tartan to identify with that name, from our database of nearly 3000 unique tartan designs. For many, this will be a clan or family tartan based on the history of that particular surname. For others, it will be a district tartan that represents the region where the name originated, or held lands. In any case, your particular name is individually researched and the tartan selected that best identifies with that name. For many names, more than one tartan may be appropriate to wear! In this case, the most common tartan for that name is selected.. For a $10.00 donation to the Scottish Tartans Museum, you will receive a letter, on official Museum letterhead, signed by the curator of the Scottish Tartans Museum, explaining why this particular tartan was chosen for your name. You will also receive a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mutations that alter the timing and pattern of cubitus interruptus gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster. AU - Slusarski, D. C.. AU - Motzny, C. K.. AU - Holmgren, R.. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - The cubitus interruptus (ci) gene is a member of the Drosophila segment polarity gene family and encodes a protein with a zinc finger domain homologous to the vertebrate Gli genes and the nematode tra-1 gene. Three classes of existing mutations in the ci locus alter the regulation of ci expression and can be used to examine ci function during development. The first class of ci mutations causes interruptions in wing veins four and five due to inappropriate expression of the ci product in the posterior compartment of imaginal discs. The second class of mutations eliminates ci protein early in embryogenesis and causes the deletion of structures that are derived from the region including and adjacent to the engrailed expressing cells. The third class of mutations eliminates ci ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The actin-binding protein Lasp promotes Oskar accumulation at the posterior pole of the Drosophila embryo. AU - Suyama, Ritsuko. AU - Jenny, Andreas. AU - Curado, Silvia. AU - Pellis-van Berkel, Wendy. AU - Ephrussi, Anne. PY - 2009/4/14. Y1 - 2009/4/14. N2 - During Drosophila oogenesis, oskar mRNA is transported to the posterior pole of the oocyte, where it is locally translated and induces germ-plasm assembly. Oskar protein recruits all of the components necessary for the establishment of posterior embryonic structures and of the germline. Tight localization of Oskar is essential, as its ectopic expression causes severe patterning defects. Here, we show that the Drosophila homolog of mammalian Lasp1 protein, an actin-binding protein previously implicated in cell migration in vertebrate cell culture, contributes to the accumulation of Oskar protein at the posterior pole of the embryo. The reduced number of primordial germ cells in embryos derived from lasp mutant females can be ...
In all Metazoa, transcription is inactive during the first mitotic cycles after fertilisation. In Drosophila melanogaster, Zygotic Genome Activation (ZGA) occurs in two waves, starting respectively at mitotic cycles 8 (approximately 60 genes) and 14 (over a thousand genes). The regulatory mechanisms underlying these drastic transcriptional changes remain largely unknown. We developed an original gene clustering method based on discretized transition profiles, and applied it to datasets from three landmark early embryonic transcriptome studies. We identified 417 genes significantly up-regulated during ZGA. De novo motif discovery returned nine motifs over-represented in their non-coding sequences (upstream, introns, UTR), three of which correspond to previously known transcription factors: Zelda, Tramtrack and Trithorax-like (Trl). The nine discovered motifs were combined to scan ZGA-associated regions and predict about 1300 putative cis-regulatory modules. The fact that Trl is known to act as chromatin
Author Summary Morphogens are signaling molecules that trigger specific responses in cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The formation of morphogen gradients is essential for the patterning of tissues and organs. Decapentaplegic (Dpp) is the Drosophila homolog of the bone morphogenic proteins in vertebrates and forms a morphogen gradient along the anterior-posterior axis of the Drosophila wing imaginal disc, a single-cell layered epithelium. Dpp determines the growth and final size of the wing disc and serves as an ideal model system to study gradient formation. Despite extensive studies the mechanism by which morphogen gradients are established remains controversial. In the case of Dpp two mechanisms have been postulated, namely extracellular diffusion and receptor-mediated transcytosis. In the first model Dpp is suggested to move by diffusion through the extracellular matrix of a tissue, whereas in the latter model Dpp is transported through the cells by receptor-mediated uptake and re
TY - JOUR. T1 - JAK/STAT and the GATA factor Pannier control hemocyte maturation and differentiation in Drosophila. AU - Minakhina, Svetlana. AU - Tan, William. AU - Steward, Ruth. PY - 2011/1/1. Y1 - 2011/1/1. N2 - The lymph gland is the major site of hematopoiesis in Drosophila. During late larval stages three types of hemocytes are produced, plasmatocytes, crystal cells, and lamellocytes, and their differentiation is tightly controlled by conserved factors and signaling pathways. JAK/STAT is one of these pathways which have essential roles in vertebrate and fly hematopoiesis. We show that Stat has opposing cell-autonomous and non-autonomous functions in hemocyte differentiation. Using a clonal approach we established that loss of Stat in a set of prohemocytes in the cortical zone induces plasmatocyte maturation in adjacent hemocytes. Hemocytes lacking Stat fail to differentiate into plasmatocytes, indicating that Stat positively and cell-autonomously controls plasmatocyte differentiation. We ...
In Drosophila embryos, checkpoints maintain genome stability by delaying cell cycle progression that allows time for damage repair or to complete DNA synthesis. Drosophila MOF, a member of MYST histone acetyl transferase is an essential component of male X hyperactivation process. Until recently its involvement in G2/M cell cycle arrest and defects in ionizing radiation induced DNA damage pathways was not well established. Drosophila MOF is highly expressed during early embryogenesis. In the present study we show that haplo-insufficiency of maternal MOF leads to spontaneous mitotic defects like mitotic asynchrony, mitotic catastrophe and chromatid bridges in the syncytial embryos. Such abnormal nuclei are eliminated and digested in the yolk tissues by nuclear fall out mechanism. MOF negatively regulates Drosophila checkpoint kinase 2 tumor suppressor homologue. In response to DNA damage the checkpoint gene Chk2 (Drosophila mnk) is activated in the mof mutants, there by causing centrosomal inactivation
Monoclonal antibodies were prepared against a 46,000 mol wt major cytoplasmic protein from Drosophila melanogaster Kc cells. These antibodies reacted with the 46,000 and a 40,000 mol wt protein from Kc cells. Some antibodies showed cross-reaction with 55,000 (vimentin) and 52,000 mol wt (desmin) proteins from baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells that form intermediate sized filaments in vertebrate cells. In indirect immunofluorescence, the group of cross reacting antibodies stained a filamentous meshwork in the cytoplasm of vertebrate cells. In Kc cells the fluorescence seemed to be localized in a filamentous meshwork that became more obvious after the cells had flattened out on a surface. These cytoskeletal structures are heat-labile; the proteins in Kc or BHK cells rearrange after a brief heat shock, forming juxtanuclear cap structures.
Smaug is an RNA-binding protein that induces the degradation and represses the translation of mRNAs in the early Drosophila embryo. Smaug has two identified direct target mRNAs that it differentially regulates: nanos and Hsp83. Smaug represses the translation of nanos mRNA but has only a modest effect on its stability, whereas it destabilizes Hsp83 mRNA but has no detectable effect on Hsp83 translation. Smaug is required to destabilize more than one thousand mRNAs in the early embryo, but whether these transcripts represent direct targets of Smaug is unclear and the extent of Smaug-mediated translational repression is unknown. To gain a panoramic view of Smaug function in the early embryo, we identified mRNAs that are bound to Smaug using RNA co-immunoprecipitation followed by hybridization to DNA microarrays. We also identified mRNAs that are translationally repressed by Smaug using polysome gradients and microarrays. Comparison of the bound mRNAs to those that are translationally repressed by Smaug
Cyclin Y is a highly conserved member of the Cyclin superfamily of proteins. In Drosophila the Cyclin Y gene (CycY) is required for progression through several stages of development but the specific pathways that Cyclin Y belongs to and that account for its requirement are not known. Studies in human and Drosophila cell lines have shown that membrane-localized Cyclin Y is required for phosphorylation of the wingless/Wnt co-receptor, arrow/LRP6, and for full activation of the canonical wingless/Wnt pathway. CycY null Drosophila, however, do not phenocopy loss-of-function mutations in canonical wingless pathway genes, suggesting that Cyclin Y may have additional roles outside the wingless pathway in vivo. To identify roles for Cyclin Y in Drosophila I used RNAi to knock down CycY expression in 31 distinct tissue patterns. The screen revealed that expression of the CycY shRNA in specific tissue patterns causes larval lethality and other developmental defects. Knockdown of CycY but not arrow in imaginal
N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most common internal modification of eukaryotic messenger RNA (mRNA) and is decoded by YTH domain proteins1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. The mammalian mRNA m6A methylosome is a complex of nuclear proteins that includes METTL3 (methyltransferase-like 3), METTL14, WTAP (Wilms tumour 1-associated protein) and KIAA1429. Drosophila has corresponding homologues named Ime4 and KAR4 (Inducer of meiosis 4 and Karyogamy protein 4), and Female-lethal (2)d (Fl(2)d) and Virilizer (Vir)8, 9, 10, 11, 12. In Drosophila, fl(2)d and vir are required for sex-dependent regulation of alternative splicing of the sex determination factor Sex lethal (Sxl)13. However, the functions of m6A in introns in the regulation of alternative splicing remain uncertain3. Here we show that m6A is absent in the mRNA of Drosophila lacking Ime4. In contrast to mouse and plant knockout models5, 7, 14, Drosophila Ime4-null mutants remain viable, though flightless, and show a sex bias towards maleness. This is ...
Binding of pumilio to maternal hunchback mRNA is required for posterior patterning in Drosophila embryos. Developmental regulation of vesicle transport in Drosophila embryos: forces and kinetics
The JAK/STAT pathway is an essential signalling cascade required for multiple processes during development and for adult homeostasis. A key question in understanding this pathway is how it is regulated in different cell contexts. Here we have examined how endocytic processing contributes to signalling by the single cytokine receptor, Domeless, in Drosophila melanogaster cells. We identify an evolutionarily conserved di-Leu motif that is required for Domeless internalisation and show that endocytosis is required for activation of a subset of Domeless targets. Our data indicate that endocytosis both qualitatively and quantitatively regulates Domeless signalling. STAT92E, the single STAT transcription factor in Drosophila, appears to be the target of endocytic regulation and our studies show that phosphorylation of STAT92E on Tyr704, while necessary, is not always sufficient for target transcription. Finally, we identify a conserved residue, Thr702, which is essential for Tyr704 phosphorylation. ...
Mating rate is a major determinant of female lifespan and fitness, and is predicted to optimize at an intermediate level, beyond which superfluous matings are costly. In female Drosophila melanogaster, nutrition is a key regulator of mating rate but the underlying mechanism is unknown. The evolutionarily conserved insulin/insulin-like growth factor-like signalling (IIS) pathway is responsive to nutrition, and regulates development, metabolism, stress resistance, fecundity and lifespan. Here we show that inhibition of IIS, by ablation of Drosophila insulin-like peptide (DILP)-producing median neurosecretory cells, knockout of dilp2, dilp3 or dilp5 genes, expression of a dominant-negative DILP-receptor (InR) transgene or knockout of Lnk, results in reduced female remating rates. IIS-mediated regulation of female remating can occur independent of virgin receptivity, developmental defects, reduced body size or fecundity, and the receipt of the female receptivity-inhibiting male sex peptide. Our ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - DCtBP mediates transcriptional repression by Knirps, Kruppel and Snail in the Drosophila embryo. AU - Nibu, Yutaka. AU - Zhang, Hailan. AU - Bajor, Ewa. AU - Barolo, Scott. AU - Small, Stephen. AU - Levine, Michael. PY - 1998/12/1. Y1 - 1998/12/1. N2 - The pre-cellular Drosophila embryo contains 10 well characterized sequence-specific transcriptional repressors, which represent a broad spectrum of DNA-binding proteins. Previous studies have shown that two of the repressors, Hairy and Dorsal, recruit a common co-repressor protein, Groucho. Here we present evidence that three different repressors, Knirps, Kruppel and Snail, recruit a different co-repressor, dCtBP. Mutant embryos containing diminished levels of maternal dCtBP products exhibit both segmentation and dorsoventral patterning defects, which can be attributed to loss of Kruppel, Knirps and Snail activity. In contrast, the Dorsal and Hairy repressors retain at least some activity in dCtBP mutant embryos, dCtBP interacts ...
In multicellular organisms all cells in one individual have an identical genotype, and yet their bodies consist of many and very different tissues and thus many different cell types. Somehow there must be a difference in how genes are interpreted. So, there must be signals that tell the genes when and where to be active and inactive, respectively. In some instances a specific an expression pattern (active or inactive) is epigenetic; it is established and maintained throughout multiple rounds of cell divisions. In the developing Drosophila embryo, the proper expression pattern of e.g. the homeotic genes Abd-B and Ubx is to be kept active in the posterior part and silenced in the anterior. Properly silenced homeotic genes are crucial for the correct segmentation pattern of the fly and the Polycomb group (Pc-G) proteins are vital for maintaining this type of stable repression.. As part of this thesis, Suppressor of zeste 12 (Su(z)12) is characterized as a Drosophila Pc-G gene. Mutations in the gene ...
Remarkably, a motif corresponding to the Tramtrack (TTK) binding motif was discovered with the de novo approach. TTK is a maternal repressor, which is progressively titrated as the NC ratio increases during early mitotic cycles, thereby releasing the expression of zygotic genes [5]. Surprisingly, the TTK binding motif is found over-represented in the sequences of pre-cellular activated blastoderm genes and of the genes with the discrete signature Lu u s D s s H , but not in the sequences of genes known to depend on the NC ratio, which might be explained by the intervention of some other factors in this mechanism [5].. The TTK protein has been reported to physically interact with TRL proteins and to repress TRL-mediated even-skipped activation [20]. TTK could act either directly by binding DNA and repressing the transcription of specific target genes, or indirectly by repressing an activator such as Trl. Interestingly, the TTK motif is significantly under-represented (sig = 5) in upstream ...
Looking for online definition of Big Brain in the Medical Dictionary? Big Brain explanation free. What is Big Brain? Meaning of Big Brain medical term. What does Big Brain mean?
Background: The family of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases (JNK) plays important roles in embryonic development and in cellular responses to stress. Toxic metals and their compounds are potent activators of JNK in mammalian cells. The mechanism of mammalian JNK activation by cadmium and sodium arsenite involves toxicant-induced oxidative stress. The study of mammalian signaling pathways to JNK is complicated by the significant degree of redundancy among upstream JNK regulators, especially at the level of JNK kinase kinases (JNKKK). Results: Using Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells, we demonstrate here that cadmium and arsenite activate Drosophila JNK (D-JNK) via oxidative stress as well, thus providing a simpler model system to study JNK signaling. To elucidate the signaling pathways that lead to activation of D-JNK in response to cadmium or arsenite, we employed RNA interference (RNAi) to knock down thirteen upstream regulators of D-JNK, either singly or in combinations of up to seven at a time. Conclusion: D
Acar, M., et al. (2006). Senseless physically interacts with proneural proteins and functions as a transcriptional co-activator. Development 133: 1979-1989. PubMed ID: 16624856 Alifragis, P., et al. (1997). A network of interacting transcriptional regulators involved in Drosophila neural fate specification revealed by the yeast two-hybrid system. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 94(24): 13099-13104. PubMed ID: 9371806 Bardin, A. J., et al. (2010). Transcriptional control of stem cell maintenance in the Drosophila intestine. Development 137(5): 705-14. PubMed ID: 20147375 Barndt, R. J., Dai, M. and Zhuang, Y. (2000). Functions of E2A-HEB heterodimers in T-cell development revealed by a dominant negative mutation of HEB. Mol. Cell Biol. 20: 6677-6685. PubMed ID: 10958665 Brown, N. L., et al. (1996). daughterless is required for Drosophila photoreceptor cell determination, eye morphogenesis, and cell cycle progression. Dev. Biol. 179: 65-78. PubMed ID: 8873754 Buszczak, M., Paterno, S. and Spradling, A. C. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Activation of a meiotic checkpoint regulates translation of Gurken during Drosophila oogenesis. AU - Ghabrial, Amin. AU - Schüpbach, Trudi. N1 - Funding Information: ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We thank K. McKim, J. Sekelsky, S. Hawley, S. Wayson and R. Ray for mutant stocks and helpful discussions; C. VanBuskirk for sharing anti-Grk monoclonal antibodies; I. Clark for Vasa reagents and advice on Vasa westerns; G. Shanower, G. Deshpande and P. Schedl for their advice; and E. Wieschaus, L. Nilson, C. VanBuskirk and A. Norvell for comments on the manuscript. This work was supported by the US Public Health Service grant PO1 CA 41086 and the HHMI. Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to T.S.. PY - 1999/10. Y1 - 1999/10. N2 - The genes okra and spindle-B act during meiosis in Drosophila to repair double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) associated with meiotic recombination. Unexpectedly, mutations in these genes cause dorsoventral patterning defects during oogenesis. These ...
Polyamine transport is elevated in many tumor types, suggesting that toxic polyamine-drug conjugates could be targeted to cancer cells via the polyamine transporter (PAT). We have previously reported the use of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and its PAT-deficient mutant cell line, CHO-MG, to screen anthracene-polyamine conjugates for their PAT-selective targeting ability. We report here a novel Drosophila-based model for screening anthracene-polyamine conjugates in a developing and intact epithelium (Drosophila imaginal discs), wherein cell-cell adhesion properties are maintained. Data from the Drosophila assay are consistent with previous results in CHO cells, indicating that the Drosophila epithelium has a PAT with vertebrate-like characteristics. This assay will be of use to medicinal chemists interested in screening drugs that use PAT for cellular entry, and it offers the possibility of genetic dissection of the polyamine transport process, including identification of a Drosophila PAT.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular cloning of the Drosophila melanogaster gene χ5 dm encoding a 20S proteasome χ-type subunit. AU - Zaiss, Dietmar. AU - Belote, John M.. N1 - Funding Information: We would like to thank Dr Russ Finley for the pJG4-5 cDNA library and Dr Kerrie-Ann Smyth for providing the salivary gland chromosome squashes for the in situ hybridization experiment, Evan Katz for carrying out the reduced stringency hybridization screen, and Xiaoqing Yuan for mapping Pros29 (a3_dm). We would also like to thank Jing Ma, Mary Miller and Kerrie-Ann Smyth for their helpful comments on the manuscript. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. MCB-9506885. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.. PY - 1997/11/12. Y1 - 1997/11/12. N2 - Proteasomes are large, multisubunit particles that act as the ...
Zhu LJ, Christensen RG, Kazemian M, Hull CJ, Enuameh MS, Basciotta MD, Brasefield JA, Zhu C, Asriyan Y, Lapointe DS, Sinha S, Wolfe SA, Brodsky MH. FlyFactorSurvey: a database of Drosophila transcription factor binding specificities determined using the bacterial one-hybrid system. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39(Database issue):D111-7 ...
The human c-myc proto-oncogene, implicated in the control of many cellular processes including cell growth and apoptosis, encodes three isoforms which differ in their N-terminal region. The functions of these isoforms have never been addressed in vivo. Here, we used Drosophila melanogaster to examine their functions in a fully integrated system. First, we established that the human c-Myc protein can rescue lethal mutations of the Drosophila myc ortholog, dmyc, demonstrating the biological relevance of this model. Then, we characterized a new lethal dmyc insertion allele, which permits expression of human c-Myc in place of dMyc and used it to compare physiological activities of these isoforms in whole-organism rescue, transcription, cell growth, and apoptosis. These isoforms differ both quantitatively and qualitatively. Most remarkably, while the small c-MycS form truncated for much of its N-terminal trans-activation domain efficiently rescued viability and cell growth, it did not induce ...
An in vivo screen of 86 RNAi lines, representing the majority of annotated Drosophila phosphatases/regulators, for altered activity rhythms was carried out. The screen identified a total of 19 candidate genes (Table 1) that altered clock function upon RNAi knockdown in Drosophila clock cells. Further genetic validation of one candidate showed that the RPTP Lar is required for the development of axonal projections from circadian pacemaker neurons that support rhythmic activity in constant darkness but not during light:dark cycles (Agrawal and Hardin 2016).. As expected, a majority of these candidates were not validated upon further analysis of independent genetic reagents (Table 2). However, these reagents consisted of additional P element inserts, where the P element insertion site may not interfere with gene function, or strains that could be used for overexpression, which also may not impact the function of a protein that is already at saturating levels. Therefore, a lack of validation with P ...
Receptors for Wingless and other signalling molecules of the Wnt gene family have yet to be identified. We show here that cultured Drosophila cells transfected with a novel member of the frizzled gene family in Drosophila, Dfz2, respond to added Wingless protein by elevating the level of the Armadillo protein. Moreover, Wingless binds to Drosophila or human cells expressing Dfz2. These data demonstrate that Dfz2 functions as a Wingless receptor, and they imply, in general, that Frizzled proteins are receptors for the Wnt signalling molecules ...
Applications are invited for a postdoc position and a full-time technician = position in Drosophila epigenetics research laboratory of Dr. Tulin at the = Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA. Both positions planned for at = least three years, with possible renewal. The successful applicants will = use Drosophila model system to study epigenetics of development and = cancer. The primary research focus of Dr. Tulin=92s lab is on = fundamentals of chromatin reprogramming and RNA fate regulation during = normal development and carcinogenics, as well as on translating = fundamental research for clinical applications in oncology. Projects in = Dr. Tulin=92s lab cover the molecular mechanisms of the chromatin = remodeling and regulation of gene expression and employ Drosophila model = and in vitro assays as well as human cells, mouse models. Applicants for the postdoctoral position should have a Ph.D. in molecular = biology, molecular genetics, biochemistry, or a related field and 0-3 = years of ...
33-41 Hubby, J. L. (1963). "Protein Differences in Drosophila. I. Drosophila melanogaster". Genetics. 48 (6): 871-879. PMC ... In 1963, Jack L. Hubby published an electrophoresis study of protein variation in Drosophila; soon after, Hubby began ... the significance of constant protein evolution rates, and the functional constraints on protein evolution that biochemists and ... The advent of protein sequencing allowed molecular biologists[citation needed] to create phylogenies based on sequence ...
Yeast DOS2 protein, involved in single-copy DNA replication and ubiquitination. Drosophila synapse-associated protein SAP47. ... synapse-associated proteins and DOS2-like proteins in which it is found. It is also found in several hypothetical proteins. It ... Some proteins known to contain one or two BSD domains are: Mammalian TFIIH basal transcription factor complex p62 subunit ( ... In molecular biology, the BSD domain is an approximately 60-amino-acid-long protein domain named after the BTF2-like ...
Smith, Nick G. C.; Eyre-Walker, Adam (February 2002). "Adaptive protein evolution in Drosophila". Nature. 415 (6875): 1022-1024 ...
Studies in the fly Drosophila melanogaster suggest that if a mutation changes a protein produced by a gene, this will probably ... Smith, N. G. C.; Eyre-Walker, A. (2002). "Adaptive protein evolution in Drosophila". Nature. 415 (6875): 1022-1024. Bibcode: ... Petrov, D. A. (2002). "DNA loss and evolution of genome size in Drosophila". Genetica. 115 (1): 81-91. doi:10.1023/A: ... "Prevalence of positive selection among nearly neutral amino acid replacements in Drosophila". Proceedings of the National ...
The founding member of the human MBNL family of proteins was the Drosophila Muscleblind protein (PMID 9334280). Human MBNL1 is ... The Zinc Finger domains play a role in both protein:protein contacts as well as RNA:protein contacts when bound to an ... Human MBNL1 is a 370 amino acid protein composed of four Zinc Finger protein domains of the CCCH type linked in tandem. The ... "RNA-dependent integrin alpha3 protein localization regulated by the Muscleblind-like protein MLP1". Nature Cell Biology. 7 (12 ...
It is found in a single copy in Drosophila proteins and is often associated with the MADF domain. Proteins known to contain a ... Drosophila Suppressor of variegation protein 3-7 (Su(var)3-7), which could play a role in chromosome condensation. Drosophila ... Drosophila Dorsal-interacting protein 3 (Dip3). It functions both as an activator to bind DNA in a sequence specific manner and ... In molecular biology, the BESS domain is a protein domain which has been named after the three proteins that originally defined ...
Brody T, Cravchik A (July 2000). "Drosophila melanogaster G protein-coupled receptors". The Journal of Cell Biology. 150 (2): ... In Drosophila larvae, for example, eclosion hormone is expressed in just two neurons. The first neuropeptide, Substance P, was ... Neuropeptides typically bind to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to modulate neural activity and other tissues like the gut ... The signal peptide sequence guides the protein to the secretory pathway, starting at the endoplasmic reticulum. The signal ...
1999). "Mammalian homologues of the Drosophila slit protein are ligands of the heparan sulfate proteoglycan glypican-1 in brain ... Slit homolog 2 protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLIT2 gene. SLIT2 has been shown to interact with Glypican ... 1999). "Slit proteins bind Robo receptors and have an evolutionarily conserved role in repulsive axon guidance". Cell. 96 (6): ... Wong K; Park HT; Wu JY; Rao Y (2003). "Slit proteins: molecular guidance cues for cells ranging from neurons to leukocytes". ...
... is Tudor domain containing protein and Tudor Proteins are highly conserved proteins and even present in Drosophila ... Ying, Muying; Chen, Dahua (1 January 2012). "Tudor domain-containing proteins of Drosophila melanogaster". Development, Growth ... Staphylococcal nuclease domain-containing protein 1 also known as 100 kDa coactivator or Tudor domain-containing protein 11 ( ... multidomain organization and relationship to the staphylococcal nuclease fold and to the tudor protein involved in Drosophila ...
Speedy protein A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SPDYA gene. SPDYA has been shown to interact with CDKN1B. GRCh38 ... "Entrez Gene: SPDYA speedy homolog A (Drosophila)". Porter LA, Kong-Beltran M, Donoghue DJ (Sep 2003). "Spy1 interacts with ... v t e (Genes on human chromosome 2, All stub articles, Protein stubs). ... "Identification and comparative analysis of multiple mammalian Speedy/Ringo proteins". Cell Cycle. 4 (1): 155-65. doi:10.4161/cc ...
... a vital Drosophila gene is required in development and defines a new conserved family of ring-finger proteins". Genetics. 155 ( ... Protein ariadne-2 homolog is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARIH2 gene. GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ... "A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957-968. doi:10.1016/j. ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-1178. Bibcode: ...
Drosophila melanogaster serve as the natural host. Delmas, B; Attoui, H; Ghosh, S; Malik, YS; Mundt, E; Vakharia, VN; ICTV ... The genome codes for 5 proteins. Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by penetration into the ... Its natural host is the fly Drosophila melanogaster. There are two species in this genus. The genus contains the following ... species: Drosophila X virus Mosquito X virus Viruses in the genus Entomobirnavirus are non-enveloped, with icosahedral and ...
Homer protein homolog 1 or Homer1 is a neuronal protein that in humans is encoded by the HOMER1 gene. Other names are Vesl and ... "Entrez Gene: HOMER1 homer homolog 1 (Drosophila)". Hayashi MK, Ames HM, Hayashi Y (August 2006). "Tetrameric hub structure of ... Homer1 protein has an N-terminal EVH1 domain, involved in protein interaction, and a C-terminal coiled-coil domain involved in ... Brakeman PR, Lanahan AA, O'Brien R, Roche K, Barnes CA, Huganir RL, Worley PF (March 1997). "Homer: a protein that selectively ...
... protein,+Drosophila at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) (Protein pages needing a picture, ... "A conserved family of nuclear proteins containing structural elements of the finger protein encoded by Krüppel, a Drosophila ... Licht JD, Grossel MJ, Figge J, Hansen UM (July 1990). "Drosophila Krüppel protein is a transcriptional repressor". Nature. 346 ... Drosophila melanogaster Drosophila embryogenesis Maternal effect Kinzler KW, Ruppert JM, Bigner SH, Vogelstein B (March 1988 ...
The protein is similar to a Drosophila protein involved in early embryogenesis and the structural organization of indirect ... Protein flightless-1 homolog is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FLII gene. This gene encodes a protein with a ... Wilson, S A; Brown E C; Kingsman A J; Kingsman S M (Aug 1998). "TRIP: a novel double stranded RNA binding protein which ... Fong, K S; de Couet H G (Jun 1999). "Novel proteins interacting with the leucine-rich repeat domain of human flightless-I ...
Presgraves DC (September 2005). "Recombination enhances protein adaptation in Drosophila melanogaster". Current Biology. Cell ...
"The human homolog of Drosophila cornichon protein is differentially expressed in alloactivated T-cells". Biochim Biophys Acta. ... Protein cornichon homolog is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CNIH gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000100528 ... 2003). "The Secreted Protein Discovery Initiative (SPDI), a Large-Scale Effort to Identify Novel Human Secreted and ... "Entrez Gene: CNIH cornichon homolog (Drosophila)". Castro CP, Piscopo D, Nakagawa T, Derynck R (2007). "Cornichon regulates ...
Kin of IRRE-like protein 1, also known as NEPH1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KIRREL gene. NEPH1 is a member ... "Entrez Gene: KIRREL kin of IRRE like (Drosophila)". Liu G, Kaw B, Kurfis J, Rahmanuddin S, Kanwar YS, Chugh SS (Jul 2003). " ... a novel protein with homology to NEPHRIN". Mol. Cell. Biol. 21 (14): 4829-36. doi:10.1128/MCB.21.14.4829-4836.2001. PMC 87176. ... The cytoplasmic domains of these proteins interact with the C terminus of podocin (NPHS2; MIM 604766). NEPH1 is expressed in ...
Specifically, he found that proteins conserved in biological clock mechanisms among three species (Drosophila melanogaster, ... Intrinsically disordered proteins do not have a stable secondary structure. Throughout the day, these proteins have different ... Dunlap concluded that because disordered proteins are so conserved among different species, the proteins must be essential for ... similar proteins were identified in 1998 in Drosophila. This confirmed a common model for the transcription-translation ...
Protein pages needing a picture, Drosophila melanogaster genes). ... In adult Drosophila, E3 is expressed in the abdomen, head, legs ... Additionally, the Drosophila line Df(svb)108 contains a deletion in the DG2, DG3, and Z enhancers. Heat shocking these lines ... The drosophila EGF receptor (DER) is responsible for activating shavenbaby both directly and by driving expression of the ... The E6 enhancer is expressed in the dorsal and quaternary cells of Drosophila embryos, larvae, and in the pupal epidermis. The ...
"ChIP for Hox Proteins from Drosophila Imaginal Discs". Hox Genes. Methods in Molecular Biology. Vol. 1196. pp. 241-253. doi: ... "The Drosophila Homologue of Ataxin-2 Binding Protein: Toward a Fruit Fly Model of Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 2?". Alternatives ... Ataxin-2 binding protein 1 is a context-specific positive regulator of Notch signaling during neurogenesis in Drosophila ... "Genome-level identification of targets of Hox protein Ultrabithorax in Drosophila: novel mechanisms for target selection". ...
In Drosophila, the homologous protein is called armadillo. β-catenin is a subunit of the cadherin protein complex and acts as ... a protein responsible for cytoplasmatic anchoring of cadherins. But very soon, it was realized that the Drosophila protein ... The single Dsh protein of Drosophila corresponds to three paralogous genes, Dvl1, Dvl2 and Dvl3 in mammals.) Dsh associates ... McCrea PD, Turck CW, Gumbiner B (November 1991). "A homolog of the armadillo protein in Drosophila (plakoglobin) associated ...
Protein pages needing a picture, Drosophila melanogaster genes). ... is a Drosophila gene that encodes the Drosophila epidermal ... Drosophila EGF receptor is involved in the development of embryos as well as larvae/pupae's wings, eyes, legs and ovaries. ... The gene is located at 3-26 of the Drosophila melanogaster genome. It is named faint little ball because when the gene is ... Expression of the flb gene can be seen as early as four hours into the development of Drosophila melanogaster. At four hours ...
Protein pages needing a picture, Drosophila melanogaster genes). ... The motif is likely responsible for protein-protein ... Rabconnectin-3A (Rbcn-3A) or DmX (Drosophila melanogaster X-gene) is a gene located on the X chromosome in Drosophila and ... Rabconnectin-3A belongs to the superfamily of WD-repeat proteins which consists of mainly regulatory proteins involved in a ... a human homologue of the DmX gene from Drosophila melanogaster coding for a WD repeat protein". Genomics. 64 (1): 97-101. doi: ...
HIV Gag protein is encoded by the HIV gag gene, HXB2 nucleotides 790-2292. The HIV p17 matrix protein (MA) is a 17 kDa protein ... It has independently arose in Tetrapoda and Drosophila. Caulimoviridae members rarely get a gag assignment to its capsid- ... The HIV nucleocapsid protein (NC) is a 7 kDa zinc finger protein in the Gag polyprotein and which, after viral maturation, ... Each capsid is assembled from 540 proteins. Unlike orthoretroviral CA proteins, it does not require dramatic maturation. The ...
Protein pages needing a picture, Drosophila melanogaster genes). ... The amnesiac (amn) gene in Drosophila is a mutant suppressor of ... By suppressing dunce through mutagenesis, the amnesiac gene plays a role in reproduction of Drosophila because dunce is the ... Feany MB, Quinn WG (May 1995). "A Neuropeptide Gene Defined by the Drosophila Memory Mutant amnesiac". Science. 268 (5212): 869 ... Quinn WG, Sziber PP, Booker R (January 1979). "The Drosophila memory mutant amnesiac". Nature. 277 (5693): 212-214. doi:10.1038 ...
Proboscipedia (pb) is a protein coding gene in Drosophila melanogaster, the fruit fly. This hox gene participates in the ... Protein pages needing a picture, Drosophila melanogaster genes). ... Drosophila Antp-like HOM-gen". HOX Pro db. Archived from the ... Brody TB (1996). "Proboscipedia". Interactive Fly, Drosophila. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 1 April 2015 ... January 2015). "FlyBase: introduction of the Drosophila melanogaster Release 6 reference genome assembly and large-scale ...
Dally (division abnormally delayed) is the name of a gene that encodes a HS-modified-protein found in the fruit fly (Drosophila ... Also the expression of mutated dally proteins alters Wnt signalling pathways, which leads to anomalies in Drosophila ... transmembrane proteins. Therefore, it regulates two cell growth factors in Drosophila melanogaster, Wingless (Wg) and ... "Pupal and larval cuticle proteins of Drosophila melanogaster". Biochemistry. 23 (24): 5767-74. doi:10.1021/bi00319a015. PMID ...
"Entrez Gene: sine oculis binding protein homolog (Drosophila)". Birk, E.; Har-Zahav, A.; Manzini, C. M.; Pasmanik-Chor, M.; ... Sine oculis-binding protein homolog (SOBP) also known as Jackson circler protein 1 (JXC1) is a protein that in humans is ... 2005). "A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi: ... counting 2595 nucleotides that encode a protein of 864 amino acids. The protein features two nuclear localization signals on ...
Protein pages needing a picture, Drosophila melanogaster genes). ... In Drosophila, there are two main players in the generation of ... "JRKL - Jerky protein homolog-like - Homo sapiens (Human) - JRKL gene & protein". Retrieved 2019-04-11. ... The Jrk mutation deletes much of the gene that encodes for the glutamine (Q)-rich C terminus of the protein. This region is ... "Clk Clock [Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly)] - Gene - NCBI". Retrieved 2019-04-11. "FlyBase Allele ...
... the cell grows in size and synthesizes mRNA and protein that are required for DNA synthesis. Once the required proteins and ... and Drosophila embryos, the G1 phase is barely existent and is defined as the gap, if one exists, between the end of mitosis ... In these cases where the G1 phase is affected, it is generally because gene regulatory proteins of the E2F family have become ... In this part of interphase, the cell synthesizes mRNA and proteins in preparation for subsequent steps leading to mitosis. G1 ...
This family contains proteins that are related to Drosophila rhomboid-1. Members of this family are found in both prokaryotes ... Rhomboid-related protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RHBDL2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... Urban S, Lee JR, Freeman M (October 2001). "Drosophila rhomboid-1 defines a family of putative intramembrane serine proteases ... "Entrez Gene: Rhomboid, veinlet-like 2 (Drosophila)". Lichtenthaler SF, Lemberg MK, Fluhrer R (August 2018). "Proteolytic ...
The protein encoded by this gene shares similarity with the product of Drosophila syd gene, required for the functional ... "Entrez Gene: MAPK8IP3 mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 3". Matsuura, Hiroshi; Nishitoh Hideki; Takeda ... a novel jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK)-binding protein that functions as a Scaffold factor in the JNK signaling pathway". ... "Interaction of a mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling module with the neuronal protein JIP3". Mol Cell Biol. 20 (3): 1030 ...
Martínez-Cruzado JC, Swimmer C, Fenerjian MG, Kafatos FC (July 1988). "Evolution of the Autosomal Chorion Locus in Drosophila. ... Leclerc RF, Regier JC (November 1993). "Choriogenesis in the Lepidoptera: morphogenesis, protein synthesis, specific mRNA ...
... a computational tool to investigate protein function, disease, and genetic diversity. Curr Protoc Protein Sci. Vol. chapter 2. ... Akiyama Y, Hosoya T, Poole AM, Hotta Y (December 1996). "The gcm-motif: a novel DNA-binding motif conserved in Drosophila and ... When a sequence motif appears in the exon of a gene, it may encode the "structural motif" of a protein; that is a stereotypical ... In 2018, a Markov random field approach has been proposed to infer DNA motifs from DNA-binding domains of proteins. The E. coli ...
Teneurin protein was first identified and characterised in Drosophila by Baumgartner and Chiquet-Ehrismann in early 1990s. They ... a vertebrate homologue of the Drosophila pair-rule gene ten-m, is a neuronal protein with a novel type of heparin-binding ... A Novel Family of Neuronal Cell Surface Proteins in Vertebrates, Homologous to the Drosophila Pair-Rule Gene Product Ten-m". ... The proteins were called Ten-ms in zebrafish, teneurins in chicken, Ten-m1-4, Odz1-4, Ten-m/Odz1-4, DOC4 in mouse, neurestin in ...
... of their proteins, a figure that rises to 95% for humans and mice. Thus we can't exclude protein-sequence evolution as an ... using the fruit fly Drosophila as the model organism. He has won the Shaw Scientist Award and the Stephen Jay Gould Prize for ... Most of the changes are in genetic control, not in proteins. 11. Endless Forms Most Beautiful Carroll concludes by revisiting ... which do not code for structural proteins (such as enzymes), control embryonic development. In turn, these regulatory genes ...
To recognize protein as designated substrate, 19S complex has subunits that are capable to recognize proteins with a special ... transcript disrupted by proviral integration in mice is conserved in Drosophila". Development. 109 (1): 235-42. doi:10.1242/dev ... Accordingly, misfolded proteins and damaged protein need to be continuously removed to recycle amino acids for new synthesis; ... The 19S regulatory particles can recognize ubiquitin-labeled protein as degradation substrate, unfold the protein to linear, ...
Tyrosine-protein kinase ABL1 also known as ABL1 is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ABL1 gene (previous symbol ABL ... Drosophila Abl tyrosine kinase - The Interactive Fly ABL1 Info with links in the Cell Migration Gateway ABL1 on the Atlas of ... Welch PJ, Wang JY (November 1993). "A C-terminal protein-binding domain in the retinoblastoma protein regulates nuclear c-Abl ... Yamanashi Y, Baltimore D (January 1997). "Identification of the Abl- and rasGAP-associated 62 kDa protein as a docking protein ...
Free radicals can damage proteins, lipids or DNA. Glycation mainly damages proteins. Damaged proteins and lipids accumulate in ... Drosophila melanogaster). Study of these organisms has revealed the presence of at least two conserved aging pathways. Gene ... Chemical damage to structural proteins can lead to loss of function; for example, damage to collagen of blood vessel walls can ... These adducts can further rearrange to form reactive species, which can then cross-link the structural proteins or DNA to ...
mtDNA is packaged with proteins which appear to be as protective as proteins of the nuclear chromatin. Moreover, mitochondria ... Kondo R, Matsuura ET, Chigusa SI (April 1992). "Further observation of paternal transmission of Drosophila mitochondrial DNA by ... InterMitoBase: an annotated database and analysis platform of protein-protein interactions for human mitochondria. (apparently ... an annotated database and analysis platform of protein-protein interactions for human mitochondria". BMC Genomics. 12: 335. doi ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TLR6 gene. TLR6 is a transmembrane protein, member of toll- ... TLRs are highly conserved from Drosophila to humans and share structural and functional similarities. They recognize pathogen- ... It is also known that TLR2/6 binds some viral products, among them hepatitis C core and NS3 protein from the hepatitis C virus ... TLR6 has also been designated as CD286 (cluster of differentiation 286). The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the ...
Beyond these two proteins, other notable protein substrates include Cholecystokinin (CCK), Factor V and Factor VIII, gastrin, ... including Drosophila melanogaster. Its importance can be further demonstrated by the fact as much as 1% of all secreted and ... Kehoe JW, Bertozzi CR (Mar 2000). "Tyrosine sulfation: a modulator of extracellular protein-protein interactions". Chemistry & ... and other cell-cell and protein-protein interactions. Selection for specific tyrosine residues requires a generally accessible ...
Most of our understanding of germ cell nests come from Drosophila (fruit flies). In the Drosophila model, germ cell nests arise ... Developing sperm carrying a Y chromosome can be supplied with essential proteins encoded by genes on the X chromosome. de ... Similar to the drosophila model, germ-line cysts in mammals such as mice and humans facilitate the transport of substances ... However, invertebrate models, especially drosophila have provided insight into the mechanisms surrounding formation. In females ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MAML3 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Entrez Gene: Mastermind-like 3 (Drosophila)". Margolis RL, Abraham MR, Gatchell SB, Li SH, Kidwai AS, Breschel TS, Stine OC, ... Lin SE, Oyama T, Nagase T, Harigaya K, Kitagawa M (December 2002). "Identification of new human mastermind proteins defines a ...
Two families of genes, the cip/kip (CDK interacting protein/Kinase inhibitory protein) family and the INK4a/ARF (Inhibitor of ... Lilly MA, Duronio RJ (April 2005). "New insights into cell cycle control from the Drosophila endocycle". Oncogene. 24 (17): ... Originally, a green fluorescent protein, mAG, was fused to hGem(1/110) and an orange fluorescent protein (mKO2) was fused to ... Norbury C (1995). "Cdk2 protein kinase (vertebrates)". In Hardie DG, Hanks S (eds.). Protein kinase factsBook. Boston: Academic ...
These stem cells are important to the reproduction of Drosophila as they turn into sperm cells. In Drosophila testicles, the ... Mahowald was concerned as to why organisms have multiple, very similar, genes that encode for the same proteins with only a few ... By using the Drosophila as an easily controlled genetic system, Mahowald and his team discovered that mutations in the Act5C ... Fyrberg EA, Mahaffey JW, Bond BJ, Davidson N (May 1983). "Transcripts of the six Drosophila actin genes accumulate in a stage- ...
Drosophila) and bacteria. They are involved in the differential development of queen larva and worker larvae, thus establishing ... He found two proteins as potential markers for freshness of royal jelly protein and named them royal jelly proteins (RJP-1 and ... Major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs) are a family of proteins secreted by honey bees. The family consists of nine proteins, of ... The five proteins constitute 82-90% of the total proteins in royal jelly. Royal jelly is a nutrient-rich mixture of vitamins, ...
Brenchley, Rachel (2009). Towards automated annotation of protein phosphatases (PhD thesis). University of Manchester. OCLC ... "Five glycyl tRNA genes within the noc gene complex of Drosophila melanogaster". Nucleic Acids Research. 16 (14): 7189. doi: ...
The gene encodes a protein that is split up into multiple parts. Japanese names Straw Hat Pirates (麦わら海賊団, Mugiwara Kaizoku-dan ... A gene in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) was named "Baramicin", partly taking inspiration from the One Piece character ...
Studies using a Drosophila model for DM1 showed an influence on related phenotypic outcomes such as eye morphology and climbing ... They hypothesized that RNA could be "druggable" by targeting the 3D structure in the same way as protein 3D structures are used ... Zapp, Maria L; Stern, Seth; Green, Michael R (1993). "Small molecules that selectively block RNA binding of HIV-1 rev protein ... Whereas 85% of the human genome is transcribed into RNA only 3% of the transcripts code for functional protein. Although, ...
Protein salvador homolog 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SAV1 gene. WW domain-containing proteins are found in ... "salvador Promotes both cell cycle exit and apoptosis in Drosophila and is mutated in human cancer cell lines". Cell. 110 (4): ... The encoded protein is 94% identical to the mouse protein at the amino acid level. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000151748 ... This gene encodes a protein which contains 2 WW domains and a coiled-coil region. It is ubiquitously expressed in adult tissues ...
The protein encoded by this gene localizes to the cytoplasm and activates patched Drosophila homolog (PTCH) gene expression. It ... Zinc finger protein GLI2 also known as GLI family zinc finger 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GLI2 gene. The ... Gli2+protein at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) GLI2+protein,+human at the US National ... The anti-apoptotic protein BCL-2 is up regulated by Gli2 and, to a lesser extent, Gli1 - but not Gli3, which may lead to ...
... s (abbreviated Arr) are a small family of proteins important for regulating signal transduction at G protein-coupled ... kurtz in Drosophila). Later arr1 and arr2 were found to play an important role in olfactory neurons and renamed "sensory". ... Arrestins were first discovered as a part of a conserved two-step mechanism for regulating the activity of G protein-coupled ... In response to a stimulus, GPCRs activate heterotrimeric G proteins. In order to turn off this response, or adapt to a ...
The MyD88 protein acts as an adapter, connecting proteins that receive signals from outside the cell to the proteins that relay ... Tauszig-Delamasure S, Bilak H, Capovilla M, Hoffmann JA, Imler JL (January 2002). "Drosophila MyD88 is required for the ... After ligand binding, all TLRs apart from TLR3, interact with adaptor protein MyD88. Another adaptor protein, which is ... MyD88+Protein at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) (All articles with dead external links, ...
Drosophila melanogaster, C. elegans and rat. The origins and history of recombinant inbred strains are described by Crow. While ... and the electrophoretic mobility of proteins. Somewhat larger families of recombinant inbred strains were generated ... "Systems genetics of complex traits in Drosophila melanogaster". Nature Genetics. 41 (3): 299-307. doi:10.1038/ng.332. PMC ...
"Reduced Nm23/Awd protein in tumour metastasis and aberrant Drosophila development". Nature. 342 (6246): 177-80. Bibcode: ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode:2005Natur. ... NME1 has been shown to interact with: Aurora A kinase, CD29 NME3, Protein SET, RAR-related orphan receptor alpha, RAR-related ... "Entrez Gene: NME1 non-metastatic cells 1, protein (NM23A) expressed in". Du J, Hannon GJ (December 2002). "The centrosomal ...
... studying the Drosophila melanogaster homolog of the Amyloid precursor protein. After his postdoctoral work in the lab of Lily ...
During transport, translation of oskar is repressed by the RNA-binding protein Bruno, which is in turn released by the binding ... Ephrussi established that oskar RNA is accumulated at and thereby defines the posterior pole of the Drosophila oocyte. Aberrant ... Further, the roles of non-canonical RNA binding proteins in development as well as germ plasm assembly and function are ... After proper localization, oskar RNA is translated and organizes germ plasm by recruiting other proteins such as Vasa. Her ...
In Drosophila, researchers have also pinpointed the molecules responsible for coordinating apical constriction in time. Protein ... The molecular picture of apical constriction is most complete for Drosophila. During Drosophila gastrulation, apical ... The transmembrane protein T48 is part of a redundant pathway that is also needed for coordination of apical constriction. Both ... Because Shroom3 is an actin-binding protein and accumulates on the apical side, the most likely mechanism is that Shroom3 ...
Although these proteins are known to be required for germline development, t … ... a subfamily of the ARGONAUTE/PIWI protein family, have been implicated in transcriptional and posttranscriptional gene ... PIWI proteins are essential for early Drosophila embryogenesis Dev Biol. 2014 Jan 15;385(2):340-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2013.10 ... Here, we examine the maternal function of all three PIWI proteins in Drosophila; Piwi, Aubergine (Aub) and Argonaute3 (Ago3) ...
We found that the Drosophila melanogaster CPEB protein Orb2 is acutely required for long-term conditioning of male courtship ... Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding (CPEB) proteins are thought to contribute to the local protein synthesis that ... Our data thus demonstrate that a CPEB protein is important in long-term memory and map the molecular, spatial and temporal ... Both long-term behavioral memory and synaptic plasticity require protein synthesis, some of which may occur locally at specific ...
Ndfip protein, Drosophila. Known as: Nedd4 family interacting protein 2, Drosophila, dNdfip protein, Drosophila ... In the Drosophila wing, the Nedd4 ubiquitin ligases (E3s), dNedd4 and Su(dx), are important negative regulators of Notch… ...
Usui T, Smolik SM, Goodman RH (1993) Isolation of Drosophila CREB-B: a novel CRE-binding protein. DNA Cell Biol 12: 589-595. ... Drosophila dCREB2 isoforms. A, Schematic representation of four different dCREB2 isoforms. B, DNA and protein sequence of the ... In Drosophila, the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein 2 (dCREB2) has been reported to modulate the ... The Role of cAMP Response Element-Binding Protein in Drosophila Long-Term Memory. Bastianella Perazzona, Guillaume Isabel, ...
Okra and spindle-B encode DNA repair proteins and affect meiosis and pattern formation during Drosophila oogenesis. Ghabrial, ...
Ribosome protein mutant cells rely on the GR64 cluster of gustatory receptors for survival and proteostasis in Drosophila. ... Ribosome protein mutant cells rely on the GR64 cluster of gustatory receptors for survival and proteostasis in Drosophila ... Ribosome protein mutant cells rely on the GR64 cluster of gustatory receptors for survival and proteostasis in Drosophila ... Ribosome protein mutant cells rely on the GR64 cluster of gustatory receptors for survival and proteostasis in Drosophila ...
... the Elav-Hu family protein RNA-binding protein 9 (rbp9) has been reported important for germ cell differentiation in Drosophila ... The function of RNA Binding Protein 9 in germ cell differentiation in Drosophila ovary. ... Drosophila oogenesis has long been served as a model system to study germ cell development. Previously, ... In all, this study will help better understand function of rbp9 in germ cell differentiation in Drosophila ovary, and may also ...
Spatiotemporal recruitment of RhoGTPase protein GRAF inhibits actomyosin ring constriction in Drosophila cellularization. ... Spatiotemporal recruitment of RhoGTPase protein GRAF inhibits actomyosin ring constriction in Drosophila cellularization ... Spatiotemporal recruitment of RhoGTPase protein GRAF inhibits actomyosin ring constriction in Drosophila cellularization ... Rho inhibition by RhoGTPase activating proteins (GAP) remains to be studied. We have found that the RhoGAP, GRAF inhibits ...
The miRNA machinery targets Mei-P26 and regulates Myc protein levels in the Drosophila wing ...
Lamont, Ella, "The effect of ribosomal protein inhibition on lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster" (2015). WWU Honors College ...
... a glial-specific homeodomain protein required for embryonic nerve cord condensation and viability in Drosophila. ... RK2, a glial-specific homeodomain protein required for embryonic nerve cord condensation and viability in Drosophila. Journal ... We report the identification of RK2, a glial-specific homeodomain protein. RK2 is localized to the nucleus of virtually all ...
Small heat shock protein Hsp67Bc plays a significant role in Drosophila melanogaster cold stress tolerance Dina Malkeyeva 0000- ... Hsp67Bc in Drosophila melanogaster is a member of the small heat shock protein family, the main function of which is to prevent ... Identification of the Drosophila ortholog of HSPB8: implication of HSPB8 loss of function in protein folding diseases ... Gene and protein expression of Drosophila Starvin during cold stress and recovery from chill coma ...
The indirect flight muscles of Drosophila are adapted for rapid oscillatory movements which depend on properties of the ... Flightin, a novel myofibrillar protein of Drosophila stretch-activated muscles. J O Vigoreaux, J O Vigoreaux ... J O Vigoreaux, J D Saide, K Valgeirsdottir, M L Pardue; Flightin, a novel myofibrillar protein of Drosophila stretch-activated ... We now report a novel protein that is found only in flight muscles and has, therefore, been named flightin. Although we detect ...
Homeodomain-interacting protein kinase phosphorylates the Drosophila Paired box protein 6 (Pax6) homologues Twin of eyeless and ... Homeodomain-interacting protein kinase phosphorylates the Drosophila Paired box protein 6 (Pax6) homologues Twin of eyeless and ...
Regulation of Drosophila neural development by a putative secreted protein. Hideyuki Okano, Shigeo Hayashi, Teiichi Tanimura, ... Dive into the research topics of Regulation of Drosophila neural development by a putative secreted protein. Together they ...
Networks that link cytoskeletal regulators and diaphragm proteins underpin filtration function in Drosophila nephrocytes.. ... Networks that link cytoskeletal regulators and diaphragm proteins underpin filtration function in Drosophila nephrocytes.. ... Networks that link cytoskeletal regulators and diaphragm proteins underpin filtration function in Drosophila nephrocytes.. ... Networks that link cytoskeletal regulators and diaphragm proteins underpin filtration function in Drosophila nephrocytes. ...
Assessment of genome-wide protein function classification for Drosophila melanogaster. scientific article published on ... PANTHER: a browsable database of gene products organized by biological function, using curated protein family and subfamily ... The SWISS-PROT protein sequence database and its supplement TrEMBL in 2000. ... MIPS: a database for protein sequences, homology data and yeast genome information ...
T1 - The baculovirus anti-apoptotic protein Op-IAP does not inhibit Drosophila caspases or apoptosis in Drosophila S2 cells and ... The baculovirus anti-apoptotic protein Op-IAP does not inhibit Drosophila caspases or apoptosis in Drosophila S2 cells and ... The baculovirus anti-apoptotic protein Op-IAP does not inhibit Drosophila caspases or apoptosis in Drosophila S2 cells and ... The baculovirus anti-apoptotic protein Op-IAP does not inhibit Drosophila caspases or apoptosis in Drosophila S2 cells and ...
The Drosophila gastrulation gene concertina encodes a G alpha-like protein.. Title. The Drosophila gastrulation gene concertina ... The cta gene has been cloned, and sequence analysis suggests that it encodes an alpha subunit of a G protein. G proteins have a ... Amino Acid Sequence, Animals, Base Sequence, DNA, Drosophila, Embryo, Nonmammalian, Female, Gastrula, Gene Expression ... In Drosophila, gastrulation begins immediately upon cellularization of the blastoderm stage embryo with the formation of the ...
Purchase Recombinant Drosophila virilis Protein wntless(wls). It is produced in in vitro E.coli expression system. High purity ... wls Proteins. *Recombinant Drosophila virilis Protein wntless(wls) ,partial ( Yeast-CSB-YP459634DMP1 E.coli-CSB-EP459634DMP1 ... Protein Length. Full Length of Mature Protein. Tag Info. The following tags are available.. N-terminal His-tagged. Tag-Free. ... Cell junction, synapse, postsynaptic cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein. Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein. ...
Proteins of the brain and body wall cells of third instar larvae of Drosophila melanogaster have been examined by two- ... Proteins of the brain and body wall in larvae of Drosophila melanogaster. Journal of Biosciences. 1980 Jun; 2(2): 145-156. ... Proteins of the brain and body wall in larvae of Drosophila melanogaster. ...
rugose (rg), a drosophila a kinase anchor protein, is required for retinal pattern formation and interacts genetically with ... rugose (rg), a drosophila a kinase anchor protein, is required for retinal pattern formation and interacts genetically with ... rugose (rg), a drosophila a kinase anchor protein, is required for retinal pattern formation and interacts genetically with ... rugose (rg), a drosophila a kinase anchor protein, is required for retinal pattern formation and interacts genetically with ...
The SHH gene provides instructions for making a protein called Sonic Hedgehog. Learn about this gene and related health ... sonic hedgehog homolog (Drosophila). *sonic hedgehog protein. *sonic hedgehog protein preproprotein. Additional Information & ... The SHH gene provides instructions for making a protein called Sonic Hedgehog. This protein functions as a chemical signal that ... This protein is important for development of the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system), eyes, limbs, and many other ...
... glutamate receptor-interacting protein; Drosophila,br/,; Title: A glutamate receptor-interacting protein homolog organizes ... A glutamate receptor-interacting protein homolog organizes muscle guidance in Drosophila Swan, L. E., Wichmann, C., Prange, U ... 2004). A glutamate receptor-interacting protein homolog organizes muscle guidance in Drosophila. Genes & Development, 18(2), ...
Insertions and deletions trigger adaptive walks in Drosophila proteins. Evgeny V. Leushkin, Georgii A. Bazykin, Alexey S. ... Leushkin, EV, Bazykin, GA & Kondrashov, AS 2012, Insertions and deletions trigger adaptive walks in Drosophila proteins, ... Insertions and deletions trigger adaptive walks in Drosophila proteins. / Leushkin, Evgeny V.; Bazykin, Georgii A.; Kondrashov ... Insertions and deletions trigger adaptive walks in Drosophila proteins. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences ...
The Drosophila protein shares an 86% identity over the first 22 amino acids with the yeast YL43 protein and a 60% identity over ... The Drosophila protein shares an 86% identity over the first 22 amino acids with the yeast YL43 protein and a 60% identity over ... The Drosophila protein shares an 86% identity over the first 22 amino acids with the yeast YL43 protein and a 60% identity over ... The Drosophila protein shares an 86% identity over the first 22 amino acids with the yeast YL43 protein and a 60% identity over ...
Two proteins, CifA and CifB, underlie the genetic basis of CI and rescue, but how amino acid sites across these proteins ... The results of this study reveal a phenotypic complexity underlying the expression of these proteins and provide relevance to ... Siegmund T, Lehmann M. The Drosophila Pipsqueak protein defines a new family of helix-turn-helix DNA-binding proteins. Dev ... The Drosophila pumilio gene: an unusually long transcription unit and an unusual protein. Dev Camb Engl. 1992;114: 221-232. * ...
Drosophila p38 MAPK communicates with BAG-3/starvin to control age-dependent protein homeostasis. targetcloth1 77 days ago News ...
6-BISPHOSPHATE ALDOLASE FROM DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER AT 2.5 ANGSTROMS RESOLUTION ... Significant differences were found in surface loops and the N- and C-terminal regions of the protein. Here we present the first ... Drosophila melanogaster. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: Ald1, CG6058. EC: ... The crystal structure of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase from Drosophila melanogaster at 2.5 A resolution.. Hester, G., ...
Here, we show how the Drosophila fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), a conserved RNA-binding protein, limits dendrite ... Here, we show how the Drosophila fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), a conserved RNA-binding protein, limits dendrite ... Here, we show how the Drosophila fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), a conserved RNA-binding protein, limits dendrite ... Here, we show how the Drosophila fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), a conserved RNA-binding protein, limits dendrite ...
  • We found that the Drosophila melanogaster CPEB protein Orb2 is acutely required for long-term conditioning of male courtship behavior. (
  • Hsp67Bc in Drosophila melanogaster is a member of the small heat shock protein family, the main function of which is to prevent the aggregation of misfolded or damaged proteins. (
  • Since some IAP proteins can bind and inhibit caspases, we tested whether Op-IAP could inhibit the activity of caspases from Drosophila melanogaster. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Proteins of the brain and body wall in larvae of Drosophila melanogaster. (
  • Proteins of the brain and body wall cells of third instar larvae of Drosophila melanogaster have been examined by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. (
  • Here, we use evolution-guided, substitution mutagenesis of conserved amino acids across the Cif proteins, coupled with transgenic expression in uninfected Drosophila melanogaster , to determine the functional impacts of conserved residues evolving mostly under purifying selection. (
  • The structure of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase from Drosophila melanogaster has been determined by X-ray diffraction at 2.5 A resolution. (
  • Control of the hypoxic response in Drosophila melanogaster by the basic helix-loop-helix PAS protein similar. (
  • Here we define a homologous system in Drosophila melanogaster, and we characterize its activity in vivo during development. (
  • The lab uses a combination of genetic, biochemical, and cell biological approaches in both Drosophila melanogaster and mammalian cells to investigate the biology of several different protein kinases. (
  • Drosophila melanogaster porcupine and its mouse homologue PORCN gene encode transmembrane bound endoplasmic reticulum proteins needed for the secretion of Wnt (Wingless and INT-1) proteins. (
  • In Drosophila melanogaster , the PORCN gene is involved in the processing of the wingless protein. (
  • We used an integrative approach to probe the significance of the interaction between the relay loop and converter domain of the myosin molecular motor from Drosophila melanogaster indirect flight muscle. (
  • Extracellular matrix protein N-glycosylation mediates immune self-tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster . (
  • IKEN, H.H. Ecological imprinting and protein biosynthesis experiments on Drosophila melanogaster. (
  • Las proteínas de la especie mas estudiada de la drosophila, la DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, son las que más interés tienen en el área de la MORFOGÉNESIS y el desarrollo. (
  • The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER , are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development. (
  • Structure of a specific alcohol-binding site defined by the odorant binding protein LUSH from Drosophila melanogaster. (
  • The Aedes aegypti G protein-coupled receptors AAEL024199 (AeCNMaR-1a) and AAEL018316 (AeCNMaR-1b) were identified as orthologs of the Drosophila melanogaster CNMa receptor (DmCNMaR). (
  • Introduction When analyzing biological processes and development, Drosophila melanogaster is an ideal organism to utilize. (
  • The simple but revolutionary organism Drosophila melanogaster has intricate properties that are studied to find its relations with human genes. (
  • Not only is D. melanogaster a model organism for its rapid growth, inexpensive culturing, and easy modifications, the Drosophila can provide more in-depth scientific analysis that can solve human diseases. (
  • Introduction: The Drosophila melanogaster, otherwise known as the common fruit fly has been a useful organism to the field of genetics. (
  • Lillian M. Cosentino University of North Carolina Wilmington Rachel Hanson BIOL 335-204 7 October 2015 Determining mode of inheritance for eyeless mutation in Drosophila melanogaster Abstract: The purpose of this experiment is to determine the mode of inheritance for the eyeless mutation in Drosophila melanogaster, whether it be autosomal or sex-linked. (
  • Drosophila melanogaster: Inheritance Pattern Experiment Kaitlyn Grifka Saginaw Valley State University Abstract The purpose of this experiment was to study a population of Drosophila melanogaster, or more commonly known as the fruit fly. (
  • Title : Drosophila melanogaster Sexual Inheritance Patterns Introduction: This experiment determines sexual inheritance patterns amongst drosophila melanogaster. (
  • The model species drosophila melanogaster was used to study the passing of genes from one generation to the next. (
  • We use the mating behavior of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a model. (
  • In a previous study, Drosophila adenylate kinase isozyme 2 (Dak2) knockout was reported to cause developmental lethality at the larval stage in Drosophila melanogaster. (
  • The Drosophila melanogaster Hox factor Ultrabithorax (Ubx) directs the development of thoracic and abdominal segments and appendages, and loss of Ubx function can lead for example to the transformation of third thoracic segment appendages (e.g. halters) into second thoracic segment appendages (e.g. wings), resulting in a characteristic four-wing phenotype. (
  • Here we present a Drosophila melanogaster strain with a V5-epitope tagged Ubx allele, which we employed to obtain a high quality genome-wide map of Ubx binding sites using ChIP-seq. (
  • Chang, J.S., Tan, L. & Schedl, P. The Drosophila CPEB homolog orb is required for oskar protein expression in oocytes. (
  • 2004). A glutamate receptor-interacting protein homolog organizes muscle guidance in Drosophila. (
  • Fox, MG & Gaynor, JJ 1997, ' A cDNA encodes the drosophila homolog of yeast 60S ribosomal protein YL43 ', Mitochondrial DNA , vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 123-125. (
  • FMRP also controls dendrite outgrowth by regulating the Drosophila profilin homolog chickadee (chic). (
  • Here, we characterized the role of the Drosophila homolog (APPL) in the adult giant fiber (GF) neurons. (
  • Here, we show that the Drosophila homolog of mammalian Lasp1 protein, an actin-binding protein previously implicated in cell migration in vertebrate cell culture, contributes to the accumulation of Oskar protein at the posterior pole of the embryo. (
  • Christerson, L.B. & McKearin, D.M. orb is required for anteroposterior and dorsoventral patterning during Drosophila oogenesis. (
  • Drosophila oogenesis has long been served as a model system to study germ cell development. (
  • During Drosophila oogenesis, oskar mRNA is transported to the posterior pole of the oocyte, where it is locally translated and induces germ-plasm assembly. (
  • Dr. Todd Strochlic's research interests include protein kinases, oncogenic signaling, breast cancer and Drosophila oogenesis. (
  • Ack kinase regulates CTP synthase filaments during Drosophila oogenesis. (
  • Motility Screen Identifies Drosophila IGF-II mRNA-Binding Protein-Zipcode-Binding Protein Acting in Oogenesis and Synaptogenesis. (
  • We therefore began experiments using the GAL4-upstream activation sequence (UAS) system to direct expression of dCREB2-a and dCREB2-b to different regions of the Drosophila brain to define the neurons that require these molecules for their roles in LTM. (
  • Among his many accomplishments, Dr Young identified genes that affect the regulation of sleep in Drosophila , uncovering specific neurons whose activity promotes sleep. (
  • We show that Slit protein surrounds lamina glia, while the distal cell neurons in the lobula cortex express all three Drosophila Robos. (
  • In this study, key pacemaker neurons of the Drosophila brain were examined to determine whether the subcellular distribution of PER changes with the time of day. (
  • Dendrites require exact and well timed supply of protein substrates to distal areas to make sure the proper morphology and performance of neurons. (
  • On this examine, we investigated how Drosophila sensory neurons reply to the dysregulation of a disease-associated RBP, Ataxin -2 (ATX2), which ends up in dendritic defects. (
  • We discovered that ATX2 performs an important function in spacing dendritic branches for the optimum dendritic receptive fields in Drosophila class IV dendritic arborization (C4da) neurons, the place each expression degree and subcellular location of ATX2 contribute considerably to this impact. (
  • fragile X psychological retardation protein (FMRP), decreased in each cell our bodies and dendrites when neurons had been confronted with aberrant upregulation of ATX2. (
  • Beebe EN, Alessi JG, Kponou A, Meitzler C, Pikin A, Prelec K, Raparia D, Ritter J, Zajic V. Development of ion injection into the BNL test electron beam ion source using a prototype low energy beam transfer switchyard and a hollow cathode ion source (abstract). (
  • This form of dCREB is thought to activate changes in gene expression in response to intracellular elevations of cAMP and phosphorylation by protein kinase A (PKA). (
  • Molecular analyses show that rugose encodes a Drosophila A kinase anchor protein (DAKAP 550). (
  • The Drosophila cell shape regulator c-Jun N-terminal kinase also functions as a stress-activated protein kinase. (
  • The work in Dr. Strochlic's lab is broadly centered on understanding certain protein kinase-mediated cell signaling pathways in the context of normal development and tumorigenesis. (
  • Aberrations in Capicua (CIC) have lately been implicated as a adverse prognostic consider a mess of most cancers sorts by means of the derepression of targets downstream of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascade, similar to oncogenic E26 transformation-specific (ETS) transcription components. (
  • Though transcriptomic signatures of ATXN1L KO cell traces indicated upregulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, ERK exercise was discovered to contribute to CIC operate however not stability. (
  • Purified AIP binds to the C terminus of hsp90, and mutation of a conserved basic residue in the tetratricopeptide repeats of AIP (K266A, analogous to K97A in protein phosphatase 5) abolishes binding to hsp90. (
  • Background Mutation in S-phase cyclin A-associated protein rin the endoplasmic reticulum (SCAPER) have been found across ethnicities and have been shown to cause variable penetrance of an array of pathological traits, including intellectual disability, retinitis pigmentosa and ciliopathies. (
  • We show that the bHLH-PAS proteins Similar (Sima) and Tango (Tgo) function as HIF-alpha and HIF-beta homologues, respectively, and demonstrate a conserved mode of regulation for Sima by oxygen. (
  • To analyse conservation of this system of gene regulation between Drosophila and mammalian cells we constructed Ga14 fusions with a series of Drosophila basic-helix-loop-helix PAS (bHLH-PAS) proteins and tested for hypoxia inducibility in transfected Hep3B cells. (
  • We found that Ga14 functions with Similar (Sima) but not other Drosophila bHLH-PAS proteins showed inducible activity following exposure to stimuli which classically activate mammalian HIF-1:hypoxia, cobaltous ions, and desferrioxamine. (
  • Dr Young has devoted his life's work to exploring the ways in which circadian rhythms arise from interactions among certain genes and their proteins, which set up molecular oscillations. (
  • By sequencing the genomic insertion sites, determining splicing patterns downstream of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) exon, and analyzing expression patterns in the ovary and salivary gland, we found that 600-900 different genes are trapped in our collection. (
  • A core set of 244 lines trapped different identifiable protein isoforms, while insertions likely to act as GFP-enhancer traps were found in 256 additional genes. (
  • Hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a heterodimeric complex of two basic-helix-loop-helix proteins of the PAS family which is critical for oxygen-dependent expression of many mammalian genes. (
  • The researchers investigated the interactions between the transcription factor DAF-16 and the genes that regulate the production of an insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1-like) protein related to the development, reproduction, and aging in C. elegans. (
  • ttk is expressed as two proteins, p69 and p88, shown previously to bind to the regulatory regions of several segmentation genes. (
  • Consistent with previous proposals that the Ttk proteins are transcriptional repressors of segmentation genes, we detected ectopic or increased expression of the segment polarity gene engrailed in several ttk 1 larval tissues. (
  • Xiong, WC & Montell, C 1993, ' tramtrack is a transcriptional repressor required for cell fate determination in the Drosophila eye ', Genes & development , vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 1085-1096. (
  • The Ataxin -family protein ATXN1L has beforehand been reported to work together with CIC in each developmental and illness contexts to facilitate the repression of CIC goal genes and promote the post-translational stability of CIC. (
  • identified variants of genes encoding proteins for seminal fluid, copulation, stress and immune response, which are likely involved in gamete recognition and CFC. (
  • FMRP colocalizes with chic mRNA in dendritic granules and regulates its dendritic localization and protein expression. (
  • Sima protein, but not its mRNA, was upregulated in hypoxia. (
  • In this study, mRNA and protein expressions of these mitochondrial kinases were firstly examined in mouse ES cells, day 8 embryos, and 7-week-old adult mice. (
  • Drosophila species are ectothermic animals, and plasticity in thermal tolerance is crucial to them. (
  • Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA . (
  • Specific postcopulatory or prezygotic mechanisms relating to gametes may be at play and have been studied mainly in species with external fertilization such as the various dipteran species of Drosophila in the Caribbean. (
  • The Op-IAP protein from the baculovirus Orgyia pseudotsugata M nucleopolyhedrovirus (OpMNPV) is highly effective at inhibiting apoptosis triggered by a variety of different stimuli in lepidopteran cells as well as in several different mammalian cell types, suggesting that it functions at a highly conserved step in the apoptotic pathway. (
  • We describe the nucleotide sequence of a cDNA clone isolated from Drosophila Kc cells which encodes an amino acid sequence homologous to a 60S ribosomal protein from yeast (YL43) and rat (p23). (
  • NEDD4 controls the expression of GUCD1, a protein upregulated in proliferating liver cells. (
  • We also found that Sima protein accumulated in Drosophila SL2 cells following hypoxia. (
  • Cell fate determination in the Drosophila eye is mediated by inductive events between neighboring cells in the eye imaginai disc. (
  • ttk 1e11 , which appears to disrupt both Ttk proteins, was characterized by early embryonic arrest as well as transformation of ommatidial cells into nonommatidial cell types in mosaic flies. (
  • PIWI proteins, a subfamily of the ARGONAUTE/PIWI protein family, have been implicated in transcriptional and posttranscriptional gene regulation and transposon silencing mediated by small non-coding RNAs, especially piRNAs. (
  • In addition, the deletion in the Hsp67Bc gene caused more prominent up-regulation of Hsp70 following cold stress, suggesting the involvement of Hsp70 in compensation of the lack of the Hsp67Bc protein. (
  • Post-transcriptional regulation mediated by RNA-binding proteins plays an important role in neuronal dendrite morphogenesis by delivering on-site, on-demand protein synthesis. (
  • Instulator proteins are central to domain organization and gene regulation in the genome. (
  • Molecular genetic analysis of a highly evolutionarily conserved Drosophila JNK homologue, DJNK, has demonstrated that this molecule plays an essential developmental role in cell shape regulation. (
  • Regulation of the Drosophila bHLH-PAS protein Sima by hypoxia: functional evidence for homology with mammalian HIF-1 alpha. (
  • Regulation is mediated by the alpha subunit (HIF-1 alpha) and sequences from HIF-1 alpha can confer hypoxia-inducible activity on a Ga14 fusion protein. (
  • Together, our results show that Ubx targets developmental regulators via strongly clustered binding sites and allow us to hypothesize that regulation by Ubx might involve Polycomb group proteins to maintain specific regulatory states in cooperative or mutually exclusive fashion, an attractive model that combines two groups of proteins with prominent gene regulatory roles during animal development. (
  • The Drosophila gastrulation gene concertina encodes a G alpha-like protein. (
  • The cta gene has been cloned, and sequence analysis suggests that it encodes an alpha subunit of a G protein. (
  • PORCN , a member of the porcupine (PORC) gene family, encodes transmembrane endoplasmic reticulum proteins that target Wnt signaling proteins. (
  • Abrogation of the Drosophila Egl-9 prolyl hydroxylase homologue, CG1114, caused both stabilization and nuclear localization of Sima, indicating a central involvement in both processes. (
  • In Drosophila, gastrulation begins immediately upon cellularization of the blastoderm stage embryo with the formation of the ventral furrow and posterior midgut. (
  • BACKGROUND: Dorsal closure is a morphogenetic event that occurs during mid-embryogenesis in many insects including Drosophila, during which the ectoderm migrates on the extraembryonic amnioserosa to seal the embryo dorsally. (
  • Previously, the Elav-Hu family protein RNA-binding protein 9 (rbp9) has been reported important for germ cell differentiation in Drosophila ovary, but its mechanism of function is largely unknown. (
  • In all, this study will help better understand function of rbp9 in germ cell differentiation in Drosophila ovary, and may also provide insights in general germ cell development. (
  • This protein functions as a chemical signal that is essential for embryonic development. (
  • Since Wnt signaling proteins cannot be released without the PORCN protein, and Wnt signaling is important for normal embryonic development, the defects found in this disorder are related to lack of Wnt signaling. (
  • Wnt proteins are key regulators of embryonic development. (
  • The FlyBase database of the Drosophila genome projects and community literature. (
  • We used ectopic tethering of CHROMATOR (CHRIZ/CHRO) and dCTCF to pre-defined regions of the genome to dissect the influence of these proteins on local chromatin organization, to analyze their interaction with other key chromatin proteins and to evaluate the effects on transcription and replication. (
  • Multiple proteins are involved in the complete and accurate replication of the genome during S phase of the cell cycle. (
  • Assignment of Homology to Genome Sequences using a Library of Hidden Markov Models that Represent all Proteins of Known Structure. (
  • An RNAi screen in a novel model of oriented divisions identifies the actin capping protein Z β as an essential regulator of spindle orientation. (
  • Although these proteins are known to be required for germline development, their somatic function remains elusive. (
  • This protein is important for development of the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system), eyes, limbs, and many other parts of the body. (
  • In our lab, we are mapping the wiring diagram, with synaptic resolution, of the complete nervous system of the larval Drosophila . (
  • The SWISS-PROT protein sequence database and its supplement TrEMBL in 2000. (
  • An insertion or a deletion (indel) of one or several amino acids constitutes a substantial leap of a protein within the space of amino acid sequences, and it is unlikely that after such a leap the new sequence corresponds precisely to a fitness peak. (
  • Thus, one can expect an indel in the protein-coding sequence that gets fixed in a population to be followed by some number of adaptive amino acid substitutions, which move the new sequence towards a nearby fitness peak. (
  • The Drosophila protein shares an 86% identity over the first 22 amino acids with the yeast YL43 protein and a 60% identity over the entire length of the partial sequence available for this protein. (
  • Pioneering bioinformatic analysis using sequence data revealed that teneurins evolved from bacterial tyrosine-aspartate (YD)-repeat protein precursors. (
  • Hemagglutinin (HA) amino acid numbering was based on the mature HA protein sequence after removal of the signal peptide. (
  • Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding (CPEB) proteins are thought to contribute to the local protein synthesis that underlies long-term changes in synaptic efficacy, but a role has not been established for them in the formation of long-term behavioral memory. (
  • We show that Drosophila nephrocytes have a unique cytoplasmic cluster of F-actin, which is maintained by the microtubule cytoskeleton and Rho-GTPases. (
  • Embryos depleted of maternal PIWI proteins also exhibit chromatin organization abnormalities. (
  • In Drosophila, the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein 2 (dCREB2) has been reported to modulate the formation of long-term olfactory memory (LTM). (
  • This protein has been found to interact with syndecan binding protein ( syntenin ), which is required for IL5 mediated activation of the transcription factor SOX4 . (
  • An insertion triggers 1.03±0.75 amino acid substitutions within the protein region centred at the site of insertion, and a deletion triggers 4.77±1.03 substitutions within such a region. (
  • The DL43 cDNA is 320 nucleotides in length and predicts a protein of 76 amino acids and a calculated molecular mass of 8.9 kiloDaltons. (
  • Taken together, these findings indicate that (i) all CifA amino acids determined to be crucial in rescue are correspondingly crucial in CI, (ii) an additional set of CifA amino acids are uniquely important in CI, and (iii) CifB amino acids across the protein, rather than in one particular domain, are all crucial for CI. (
  • Two proteins, CifA and CifB, underlie the genetic basis of CI and rescue, but how amino acid sites across these proteins contribute to CI and/or rescue remain unknown. (
  • A number of actin-binding proteins, including spectrin, alpha-actinin and fimbrin, contain a 250 amino acid stretch called the actin binding domain (ABD). (
  • Proteins containing only a single amino terminal CH domain. (
  • Here, we show how the Drosophila fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), a conserved RNA-binding protein, limits dendrite branching to ensure proper neuronal function during larval sensory neuron development. (
  • Third, an in vivo Drosophila PD model will test the viability of this technique via a larval turning phenotype. (
  • Under the Two-by-One genetic model of CI, males expressing the two phage WO proteins CifA and CifB cause CI, and females expressing CifA rescue CI. (
  • We discuss how these findings advance an expanded view of Cif protein evolution and function, inform the mechanistic and biochemical bases of Cif-induced CI/rescue, and continue to substantiate the Two-by-One genetic model of CI. (
  • Extensive disruption of protein interactions by genetic variants across the allele frequency spectrum in human populations. (
  • We use molecular genetic techniques to study the function of neural circuits in Drosophila. (
  • Interestingly, Drosophila null mutants for the ubiquitously expressed ssp3 gene are viable and female fertile but male sterile. (
  • Whereas Rho activation by Rho-GTP exchange factor (GEF), RhoGEF2 is well known in actomyosin contractility during cytokinesis at the base of invaginating membranes in Drosophila cellularization, Rho inhibition by RhoGTPase activating proteins (GAP) remains to be studied. (
  • These results raise the intriguing possibility of a common feature between human and Drosophila meiosis. (
  • expressed in middle/late meiosis,IV" YDR525W 1 5 7 YDR525W "Ydr525wp,IV" YDR526C 1 5 8 YDR526C "Ydr526cp,IV" YER187W 1 5 9 YER187W "similar to killer toxin,V" YER188W 1 5 10 YER188W "Yer188wp,V" YER190W 1 5 11 YER190W "Yrf1-2p,V" YFL002C 1 5 12 YFL002C "ATP-dependent RNA helicase,VI" YFL002W-B 1 5 13 YFL002W-B "TyA gag protein. (
  • Networks that link cytoskeletal regulators and diaphragm proteins underpin filtration function in Drosophila nephrocytes. (
  • We used molecular markers to characterize a boundary within the optic lobe of the Drosophila brain and found that Slit and the Robo family of receptors, well-known regulators of axon guidance and neuronal migration, inhibit the mixing of adjacent cell populations in the developing optic lobe. (
  • Protein kinases are key regulators of signal transduction pathways that mediate cell growth, proliferation, and motility. (
  • Our results demonstrate that the Carnegie collection will be useful as a discovery tool in diverse areas of cell and developmental biology and suggest new strategies for greatly increasing the coverage of the Drosophila proteome with protein trap insertions. (
  • Our data thus demonstrate that a CPEB protein is important in long-term memory and map the molecular, spatial and temporal requirements for its function in memory formation. (
  • Recent research on small chaperone proteins suggests the possibility of a molecular switch, which, if modified, would greatly increase the protein's effectiveness and specificity in targeting misfolded alpha-synuclein. (
  • Most notably, protein kinases are frequently mutated in many human cancers and are often drivers of oncogenic signaling networks. (
  • XV" YOL105C 1 15 18 YOL105C "Putative integral membrane protein containing novel cysteine motif. (
  • Our study demonstrates the essential function of PIWI proteins in the first phase of somatic development. (
  • Synapse-specific, long-term facilitation of Aplysia sensory to motor synapses: a function for local protein synthesis in memory storage. (
  • Thus cytoskeletal components, Rho-GTPases and ND proteins work in concert to maintain the specialized nephrocyte architecture and function. (
  • We examine the function of these proteins in the visual system by isolating a novel allele of slit that preferentially disrupts visual system expression of Slit and by creating transgenic RNA interference flies to inhibit the function of each Drosophila Robo in a tissue-specific fashion. (
  • The expression and function of a ubiquitous protein, GUCD1, were characterized, it might have a role in regulating normal and abnormal cell growth in the liver. (
  • This suggests that APPL loss of function does not generally disrupt axonal transport but that APPL has a selective role in the effectiveness of retrograde transport of proteins it co-traffics with. (
  • Via the addition of a phosphate group, these enzymes control the activity, localization, and/or function of substrate proteins. (
  • The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) has been shown to interact with an immunophilin-like molecule known as AhR-interacting protein (AIP) and to enhance AhR function. (
  • The use of proteins with similar structure and identical function as the native chaperones means treatment with fewer adverse side-effects and much reduced toxicity. (
  • Lantz, V., Ambrosio, L. & Schedl, P. The Drosophila orb gene is predicted to encode sex-specific germline RNA-binding proteins and has localized transcripts in ovaries and early embryos. (
  • In the developing Drosophila eye, cell fate determination and pattern formation are directed by cell-cell interactions mediated by signal transduction cascades. (
  • Tudor domains are found in many organisms and have been implicated in protein-protein interactions in which methylated protein substrates bind to these domains. (
  • Figure 2: Targeted mutations in Drosophila orb2 disrupt long-term memory. (
  • While each protein is predicted to harbor three functional domains, there is no knowledge on how sites across these Cif domains, rather than in any one particular domain, contribute to CI and rescue. (
  • RK2, a glial-specific homeodomain protein required for embryonic nerve cord condensation and viability in Drosophila. (
  • We report the identification of RK2, a glial-specific homeodomain protein. (
  • Further, ND proteins Sns and Duf also localize to this cluster and regulate organization of the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton. (
  • Oskar protein recruits all of the components necessary for the establishment of posterior embryonic structures and of the germline. (
  • Forty percent of the proteome shows gradual slowdown in turnover with age, whereas only few proteins show increased turnover. (
  • Our laboratory studies the structures of membrane proteins important in homeostasis and signaling. (
  • We develop new tools in structural biology, namely MicroED as a new method for cryo EM, to facilitate the study of such membrane proteins to atomic resolution from vanishingly small crystals. (
  • We found that recombinant Op-IAP protein was not able to bind or directly inhibit the activity of the Drosophila caspases DRONC, DrICE, or DCP-1 in vitro. (
  • We show here that AIP associates with AhR homologues from mouse and fish, which can bind ligands such as dioxin, but nonligand binding homologues from Caenorhabditis elegans or Drosophila do not bind to AIP. (
  • In addition, the CH domain occurs also in a number of proteins not known to bind actin, a notable example being the vav protooncogene. (
  • The Drosophila period protein (PER) is a predominantly nuclear protein and a likely component of a circadian clock. (
  • Drosophila p38 MAPK communicates with BAG-3/starvin to control age-dependent protein homeostasis. (
  • Tight conservation of the HIF/prolyl hydroxylase system in Drosophila provides a new focus for understanding oxygen homeostasis in intact multicellular organisms. (
  • Several Tud domain proteins have been shown to interact with modified histones. (
  • Postsynaptic wls is required for the trafficking of fz2 through the fz2-interacting protein Grip. (
  • Lastly, we revealed that the PAM2 motif of ATX2, which mediates its interplay with poly(A)-binding protein (PABP), is probably mandatory for the lower of FMRP in sure neuronal stress situations. (