Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Specialized cells in the invertebrates that detect and transduce light. They are predominantly rhabdomeric with an array of photosensitive microvilli. Illumination depolarizes invertebrate photoreceptors by stimulating Na+ influx across the plasma membrane.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
A proto-oncogene protein and member of the Wnt family of proteins. It is expressed in the caudal MIDBRAIN and is essential for proper development of the entire mid-/hindbrain region.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects.
Prominent lobed neuropils found in ANNELIDA and all ARTHROPODS except crustaceans. They are thought to be involved in olfactory learning and memory.
A layer of cells lining the fluid-filled cavity (blastocele) of a BLASTULA, usually developed from a fertilized insect, reptilian, or avian egg.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Specialized organs adapted for the reception of stimuli by the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.
A nutritional reservoir of fatty tissue found mainly in insects and amphibians.
Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A family of proteins that contain several 42-amino acid repeat domains and are homologous to the Drosophila armadillo protein. They bind to other proteins through their armadillo domains and play a variety of roles in the CELL including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, regulation of DESMOSOME assembly, and CELL ADHESION.
In invertebrate zoology, a lateral lobe of the FOREBRAIN in certain ARTHROPODS. In vertebrate zoology, either of the corpora bigemina of non-mammalian VERTEBRATES. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1329)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
Slender tubular or hairlike excretory structures found in insects. They emerge from the alimentary canal between the mesenteron (midgut) and the proctodeum (hindgut).
Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).
Hollow sacs of cells in LARVA that form adult structures in insects during BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS.
Light sensory organ in ARTHROPODS consisting of a large number of ommatidia, each functioning as an independent photoreceptor unit.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysterone is the 20-hydroxylated ECDYSONE.
Activities designed to attract the attention or favors of another.
Color of the iris.
The normal length of time of an organism's life.
The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.
The portion of chromosome material that remains condensed and is transcriptionally inactive during INTERPHASE.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Sexual activities of animals.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.
Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.
Antennapedia homeodomain protein is a homeobox protein involved in limb patterning in ARTHROPODS. Mutations in the gene for the antennapedia homeodomain protein are associated with the conversion of antenna to leg or leg to antenna DROSOPHILA.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Genetic mechanisms that allow GENES to be expressed at a similar level irrespective of their GENE DOSAGE. This term is usually used in discussing genes that lie on the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Because the sex chromosomes are only partially homologous, there is a different copy number, i.e., dosage, of these genes in males vs. females. In DROSOPHILA, dosage compensation is accomplished by hypertranscription of genes located on the X CHROMOSOME. In mammals, dosage compensation of X chromosome genes is accomplished by random X CHROMOSOME INACTIVATION of one of the two X chromosomes in the female.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A family of seven-pass transmembrane cell-surface proteins that combines with LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 or LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 to form receptors for WNT PROTEINS. Frizzled receptors often couple with HETEROTRIMERIC G PROTEINS and regulate the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.
An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.
Circadian rhythm signaling proteins that influence circadian clock by interacting with other circadian regulatory proteins and transporting them into the CELL NUCLEUS.
Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
A multisubunit polycomb protein complex with affinity for CHROMATIN that contains methylated HISTONE H3. It contains an E3 ubiquitin ligase activity that is specific for HISTONE H2A and works in conjunction with POLYCOMB REPRESSIVE COMPLEX 2 to effect EPIGENETIC REPRESSION.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
The anatomical parts that make up an organism in the early stages of development.
A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
Fushi tarazu transcription factors were originally identified in DROSOPHILA. They are found throughout ARTHROPODS and play important roles in segmentation and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM development.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
A dense intricate feltwork of interwoven fine glial processes, fibrils, synaptic terminals, axons, and dendrites interspersed among the nerve cells in the gray matter of the central nervous system.
The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.
A family of intracellular tyrosine kinases that participate in the signaling cascade of cytokines by associating with specific CYTOKINE RECEPTORS. They act upon STAT TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS in signaling pathway referred to as the JAK/STAT pathway. The name Janus kinase refers to the fact the proteins have two phosphate-transferring domains.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.

Novel regulation of the homeotic gene Scr associated with a crustacean leg-to-maxilliped appendage transformation. (1/18666)

Homeotic genes are known to be involved in patterning morphological structures along the antero-posterior axis of insects and vertebrates. Because of their important roles in development, changes in the function and expression patterns of homeotic genes may have played a major role in the evolution of different body plans. For example, it has been proposed that during the evolution of several crustacean lineages, changes in the expression patterns of the homeotic genes Ultrabithorax and abdominal-A have played a role in transformation of the anterior thoracic appendages into mouthparts termed maxillipeds. This homeotic-like transformation is recapitulated at the late stages of the direct embryonic development of the crustacean Porcellio scaber (Oniscidea, Isopoda). Interestingly, this morphological change is associated with apparent novelties both in the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of the Porcellio scaber ortholog of the Drosophila homeotic gene, Sex combs reduced (Scr). Specifically, we find that Scr mRNA is present in the second maxillary segment and the first pair of thoracic legs (T1) in early embryos, whereas protein accumulates only in the second maxillae. In later stages, however, high levels of SCR appear in the T1 legs, which correlates temporally with the transformation of these appendages into maxillipeds. Our observations provide further insight into the process of the homeotic leg-to-maxilliped transformation in the evolution of crustaceans and suggest a novel regulatory mechanism for this process in this group of arthropods.  (+info)

Apontic binds the translational repressor Bruno and is implicated in regulation of oskar mRNA translation. (2/18666)

The product of the oskar gene directs posterior patterning in the Drosophila oocyte, where it must be deployed specifically at the posterior pole. Proper expression relies on the coordinated localization and translational control of the oskar mRNA. Translational repression prior to localization of the transcript is mediated, in part, by the Bruno protein, which binds to discrete sites in the 3' untranslated region of the oskar mRNA. To begin to understand how Bruno acts in translational repression, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify Bruno-interacting proteins. One interactor, described here, is the product of the apontic gene. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments lend biochemical support to the idea that Bruno and Apontic proteins physically interact in Drosophila. Genetic experiments using mutants defective in apontic and bruno reveal a functional interaction between these genes. Given this interaction, Apontic is likely to act together with Bruno in translational repression of oskar mRNA. Interestingly, Apontic, like Bruno, is an RNA-binding protein and specifically binds certain regions of the oskar mRNA 3' untranslated region.  (+info)

Stromal cells mediate retinoid-dependent functions essential for renal development. (3/18666)

The essential role of vitamin A and its metabolites, retinoids, in kidney development has been demonstrated in vitamin A deficiency and gene targeting studies. Retinoids signal via nuclear transcription factors belonging to the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) families. Inactivation of RARaplpha and RARbeta2 receptors together, but not singly, resulted in renal malformations, suggesting that within a given renal cell type, their concerted function is required for renal morphogenesis. At birth, RARalpha beta2(-) mutants displayed small kidneys, containing few ureteric bud branches, reduced numbers of nephrons and lacking the nephrogenic zone where new nephrons are continuously added. These observations have prompted us to investigate the role of RARalpha and RARbeta2 in renal development in detail. We have found that within the embryonic kidney, RARalpha and RARbeta2 are colocalized in stromal cells, but not in other renal cell types, suggesting that stromal cells mediate retinoid-dependent functions essential for renal development. Analysis of RARalpha beta2(-) mutant kidneys at embryonic stages revealed that nephrons were formed and revealed no changes in the intensity or distribution of molecular markers specific for different metanephric mesenchymal cell types. In contrast the development of the collecting duct system was greatly impaired in RARalpha beta2(-) mutant kidneys. Fewer ureteric bud branches were present, and ureteric bud ends were positioned abnormally, at a distance from the renal capsule. Analysis of genes important for ureteric bud morphogenesis revealed that the proto-oncogene c-ret was downregulated. Our results suggest that RARalpha and RARbeta2 are required for generating stromal cell signals that maintain c-ret expression in the embryonic kidney. Since c-ret signaling is required for ureteric bud morphogenesis, loss of c-ret expression is a likely cause of impaired ureteric bud branching in RARalpha beta2(-) mutants.  (+info)

The Drosophila kismet gene is related to chromatin-remodeling factors and is required for both segmentation and segment identity. (4/18666)

The Drosophila kismet gene was identified in a screen for dominant suppressors of Polycomb, a repressor of homeotic genes. Here we show that kismet mutations suppress the Polycomb mutant phenotype by blocking the ectopic transcription of homeotic genes. Loss of zygotic kismet function causes homeotic transformations similar to those associated with loss-of-function mutations in the homeotic genes Sex combs reduced and Abdominal-B. kismet is also required for proper larval body segmentation. Loss of maternal kismet function causes segmentation defects similar to those caused by mutations in the pair-rule gene even-skipped. The kismet gene encodes several large nuclear proteins that are ubiquitously expressed along the anterior-posterior axis. The Kismet proteins contain a domain conserved in the trithorax group protein Brahma and related chromatin-remodeling factors, providing further evidence that alterations in chromatin structure are required to maintain the spatially restricted patterns of homeotic gene transcription.  (+info)

Transcriptional repression by the Drosophila giant protein: cis element positioning provides an alternative means of interpreting an effector gradient. (5/18666)

Early developmental patterning of the Drosophila embryo is driven by the activities of a diverse set of maternally and zygotically derived transcription factors, including repressors encoded by gap genes such as Kruppel, knirps, giant and the mesoderm-specific snail. The mechanism of repression by gap transcription factors is not well understood at a molecular level. Initial characterization of these transcription factors suggests that they act as short-range repressors, interfering with the activity of enhancer or promoter elements 50 to 100 bp away. To better understand the molecular mechanism of short-range repression, we have investigated the properties of the Giant gap protein. We tested the ability of endogenous Giant to repress when bound close to the transcriptional initiation site and found that Giant effectively represses a heterologous promoter when binding sites are located at -55 bp with respect to the start of transcription. Consistent with its role as a short-range repressor, as the binding sites are moved to more distal locations, repression is diminished. Rather than exhibiting a sharp 'step-function' drop-off in activity, however, repression is progressively restricted to areas of highest Giant concentration. Less than a two-fold difference in Giant protein concentration is sufficient to determine a change in transcriptional status of a target gene. This effect demonstrates that Giant protein gradients can be differentially interpreted by target promoters, depending on the exact location of the Giant binding sites within the gene. Thus, in addition to binding site affinity and number, cis element positioning within a promoter can affect the response of a gene to a repressor gradient. We also demonstrate that a chimeric Gal4-Giant protein lacking the basic/zipper domain can specifically repress reporter genes, suggesting that the Giant effector domain is an autonomous repression domain.  (+info)

A Drosophila doublesex-related gene, terra, is involved in somitogenesis in vertebrates. (6/18666)

The Drosophila doublesex (dsx) gene encodes a transcription factor that mediates sex determination. We describe the characterization of a novel zebrafish zinc-finger gene, terra, which contains a DNA binding domain similar to that of the Drosophila dsx gene. However, unlike dsx, terra is transiently expressed in the presomitic mesoderm and newly formed somites. Expression of terra in presomitic mesoderm is restricted to cells that lack expression of MyoD. In vivo, terra expression is reduced by hedgehog but enhanced by BMP signals. Overexpression of terra induces rapid apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that a tight regulation of terra expression is required during embryogenesis. Terra has both human and mouse homologs and is specifically expressed in mouse somites. Taken together, our findings suggest that terra is a highly conserved protein that plays specific roles in early somitogenesis of vertebrates.  (+info)

Membrane-tethered Drosophila Armadillo cannot transduce Wingless signal on its own. (7/18666)

Drosophila Armadillo and its vertebrate homolog beta-catenin are key effectors of Wingless/Wnt signaling. In the current model, Wingless/Wnt signal stabilizes Armadillo/beta-catenin, which then accumulates in nuclei and binds TCF/LEF family proteins, forming bipartite transcription factors which activate transcription of Wingless/Wnt responsive genes. This model was recently challenged. Overexpression in Xenopus of membrane-tethered beta-catenin or its paralog plakoglobin activates Wnt signaling, suggesting that nuclear localization of Armadillo/beta-catenin is not essential for signaling. Tethered plakoglobin or beta-catenin might signal on their own or might act indirectly by elevating levels of endogenous beta-catenin. We tested these hypotheses in Drosophila by removing endogenous Armadillo. We generated a series of mutant Armadillo proteins with altered intracellular localizations, and expressed these in wild-type and armadillo mutant backgrounds. We found that membrane-tethered Armadillo cannot signal on its own; however it can function in adherens junctions. We also created mutant forms of Armadillo carrying heterologous nuclear localization or nuclear export signals. Although these signals alter the subcellular localization of Arm when overexpressed in Xenopus, in Drosophila they have little effect on localization and only subtle effects on signaling. This supports a model in which Armadillo's nuclear localization is key for signaling, but in which Armadillo intracellular localization is controlled by the availability and affinity of its binding partners.  (+info)

Sonic hedgehog signaling by the patched-smoothened receptor complex. (8/18666)

BACKGROUND: The Hedgehog (Hh) family of secreted proteins is involved in a number of developmental processes as well as in cancer. Genetic and biochemical data suggest that the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) receptor is composed of at least two proteins: the tumor suppressor protein Patched (Ptc) and the seven-transmembrane protein Smoothened (Smo). RESULTS: Using a biochemical assay for activation of the transcription factor Gli, a downstream component of the Hh pathway, we show here that Smo functions as the signaling component of the Shh receptor, and that this activity can be blocked by Ptc. The inhibition of Smo by Ptc can be relieved by the addition of Shh. Furthermore, oncogenic forms of Smo are insensitive to Ptc repression in this assay. Mapping of the Smo domains required for binding to Ptc and for signaling revealed that the Smo-Ptc interaction involves mainly the amino terminus of Smo, and that the third intracellular loop and the seventh transmembrane domain are required for signaling. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that Smo is the signaling component of a multicomponent Hh receptor complex and that Ptc is a ligand-regulated inhibitor of Smo. Different domains of Smo are involved in Ptc binding and activation of a Gli reporter construct. The latter requires the third intracellular loop and the seventh transmembrane domain of Smo, regions often involved in coupling to G proteins. No changes in the levels of cyclic AMP or calcium associated with such pathways could be detected following receptor activation, however.  (+info)

The Drosophila kismet gene was identified in a screen for dominant suppressors of Polycomb, a repressor of homeotic genes. Here we show that kismet mutations suppress the Polycomb mutant phenotype by blocking the ectopic transcription of homeotic genes. Loss of zygotic kismet function causes homeotic transformations similar to those associated with loss-of-function mutations in the homeotic genes Sex combs reduced and Abdominal-B. kismet is also required for proper larval body segmentation. Loss of maternal kismet function causes segmentation defects similar to those caused by mutations in the pair-rule gene even-skipped. The kismet gene encodes several large nuclear proteins that are ubiquitously expressed along the anterior-posterior axis. The Kismet proteins contain a domain conserved in the trithorax group protein Brahma and related chromatin-remodeling factors, providing further evidence that alterations in chromatin structure are required to maintain the spatially restricted patterns of ...
Insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) plays an important role as a systemic regulator of metabolism in multicellular organisms. Hyperinsulinemia, a high level of blood insulin, is often associated with impaired physiological conditions such as hypoglycemia, insulin resistance, and diabetes. However, due to the complex pathophysiology of hyperinsulinemia, the causative role of excess insulin/IGF signaling has remained elusive. To investigate the biological effects of a high level of insulin in metabolic homeostasis and physiology, we generated flies overexpressing Drosophila insulin-like peptide 2 (Dilp2), which has the highest potential of promoting tissue growth among the Ilp genes in Drosophila. In this model, a UAS-Dilp2 transgene was overexpressed under control of sd-Gal4 that drives expression predominantly in developing imaginal wing discs. Overexpression of Dilp2 caused semi-lethality, which was partially suppressed by mutations in the insulin receptor (InR) or Akt1, suggesting that dilp2
Recommended Readings:. Chekulaeva, M. and A. Ephrussi. 2004. Drosophila Development: RNA Interference Ab Ovo. Current Biology 14 (11): R428-R430. Hachet, O. and A. Ephrussi. 2001. Drosophila Y14 Shuttles to the Posterior of the Oocyte and is Required for Oskar mRNA Transport. Current Biology 11 (21): 1666-1674. Jambor, H., C. Brunel, and A. Ephrussi. 2011. Dimerization of Oskar 3′ UTRs Promotes Hitchhiking for RNA Localization in the Drosophila Oocyte. RNA 17 (12): 2049-2057. Krauss, J., S. López de Quinto, C. Nüsslein-Volhard, and A. Ephrussi. 2009. Myosin-V Regulates Oskar mRNA Localization in the Drosophila Oocyte. Current Biology 19 (12): 1058-1063. Vanzo, N., A. Oprins, D. Xanthakis, A. Ephrussi, and C. Rabouille. 2007. Stimulation of Endocytosis and Actin Dynamics by Oskar Polarizes the Drosophila Oocyte. Developmental Cell 12 (4): 543-555. Vanzo, N. F. and A. Ephrussi. 2002. Oskar Anchoring Restricts Pole Plasm Formation to the Posterior of the Drosophila Oocyte. ...
THE imaginal discs of the Drosophila larva have long served as a model system in which to understand the control of organ size. Imaginal discs are epithelial sacs that, following metamorphosis, will form much of the adult tissue. The primordia of these discs are set aside in the embryo as small groups of 20-50 cells that remain diploid while much of the rest of the animal becomes polyploid. Over the 4 days that span the three larval instars, these primordia proliferate by ∼1000-fold to approach their final size. The size of the imaginal disc at the initiation of pupation is a major determinant of the size of the adult organ following metamorphosis. This size is highly regular, reflecting the importance for appropriate physiology and functioning of, for example, the complex optics of the compound eye or the aerodynamics of the wing and haltere flight organs. Thus, tight developmental controls must exist to permit sufficient but not excessive growth of the imaginal discs.. Classic and ...
Background: The modulation of mRNA levels across tissues and time is key for the establishment and operation of the developmental programs that transform the fertilized egg into a fully formed embryo. Although the developmental mechanisms leading to differential mRNA synthesis are heavily investigated, comparatively little attention is given to the processes of mRNA degradation and how these relate to the molecular programs controlling development. Results: Here we combine timed collection of Drosophila embryos and unfertilized eggs with genome-wide microarray technology to determine the degradation patterns of all mRNAs present during early fruit fly development. Our work studies the kinetics of mRNA decay, the contributions of maternally and zygotically encoded factors to mRNA degradation, and the ways in which mRNA decay profiles relate to gene function, mRNA localization patterns, translation rates and protein turnover. We also detect cis-regulatory sequences enriched in transcripts with ...
The microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton is reorganized during myogenesis as individual myoblasts fuse into multinucleated myotubes. Although this reorganization has long been observed in cell culture, these findings have not been validated during development, and proteins that regulate this process are largely unknown. A novel postmitotic function has been identified for the cytokinesis proteins RacGAP50C (Tumbleweed) and Pavarotti as essential regulators of MT organization during Drosophila myogenesis. The localization of the MT nucleator gamma-tubulin changes from diffuse cytoplasmic staining in mononucleated myoblasts to discrete cytoplasmic puncta at the nuclear periphery in multinucleated myoblasts, and this change in localization depends on RacGAP50C. RacGAP50C and gamma-tubulin colocalize at perinuclear sites in myotubes, and in RacGAP50C mutants gamma-tubulin remains dispersed throughout the cytoplasm. Furthermore, the mislocalization of RacGAP50C in pavarotti mutants is sufficient to ...
We show that generation of holes in the Drosophila embryo can substitute for the Tsl protein in the activation of the Torso Receptor Tyrosine Kinase (RTK) and t
We studied transcription during the first 14 mitotic cycles of Drosophila development, by gel electrophoresis of RNA pulse-labeled in vivo. Synthesis of rRNA, tRNAs, 5S RNAs, snRNAs, poly(A)+ RNAs, and histone mRNAs is first detectable during cycle 11 or 12. Histone genes are transcribed during S ph …
In this study, we demonstrate that Dscam endodomain variants are dynamically and differentially expressed in the developing Drosophila CNS. This conclusion derives from: (1) the analysis of Dscam transcript compositions by RT-PCR, (2) the localization of specific Dscam endodomains by depleting the alternatives via RNAi against exon 19, exon 23, or the unique exon-exon junctions derived from skipping of exon 19 or exon 23 (Fig. 2), and (3) the direct visualization of Dscam+19 using Ab19 as opposed to labeling all the Dscam isoforms with Ab18 (Fig. 3). Postembryonic neuronal morphogenesis uses Dscam variants lacking exons 19 and 23 (Fig. 4C), while Dscam+19 plays a more important role in the wiring of embryonic neural tracts (Fig. 4F). Skipping exon 19 prevents accumulation of Dscams in neuronal cell bodies, implicating a mechanism for regulating Dscam protein targeting by the alternative splicing of exon 19 (Figs. 6, 7). In addition, exon 23 is dispensable for most Dscam-dependent neuronal ...
Compartments are units of cell lineage that subdivide territories with different developmental potential. In Drosophila, the wing and haltere discs are subdivided into anterior and posterior (A/P) compartments, which require the activity of Hedgehog, and into dorsal and ventral (D/V) compartments, n …
The tubular epithelium of the Drosophila tracheal system forms a network with a stereotyped pattern consisting of cells and branches with distinct identity. The tracheal primordium undergoes primary branching induced by the FGF homolog Branchless, differentiates cells with specialized functions such as fusion cells, which perform target recognition and adhesion during branch fusion, and extends branches toward specific targets. Specification of a unique identity for each primary branch is essential for directed migration, as a defect in either the EGFR or the Dpp pathway leads to a loss of branch identity and the misguidance of tracheal cell migration. Here, we investigate the role of Wingless signaling in the specification of cell and branch identity in the tracheal system. Wingless and its intracellular signal transducer, Armadillo, have multiple functions, including specifying the dorsal trunk through activation of Spalt expression and inducing differentiation of fusion cells in all fusion ...
Signaling through the Hippo-Salvador-Warts (Wts) kinase cascade inhibits cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis by preventing nuclear accumulation of the transcriptional coactivator Yorkie (Yki in the fruit fly) or Yap (in vertebrates). Hippo-dependent phosphorylation of Yki by Wts prevents nuclear accumulation of Yki. In the nucleus, Yki cooperates with its partner Scalloped to promote expression of several target genes that inhibit apoptosis and promote mitosis. Two studies report that the serine-threonine kinase homeodomain-interacting protein kinase (Hipk) promotes Yki activity. Studies by Chen and Verheyen and by Poon et al. both demonstrate that, like overexpresison of yki or knockdown of wts, overexpresison of hipk in fly imaginal discs caused excessive cell proliferation, leading to tissue overgrowth, and stimulation of endogenous Yki transcriptional targets and reporter constructs. Reducing Hipk activity by mutation or RNA interference (RNAi) reduced both tissue size and expression ...
The Hippo pathway controls metazoan organ growth by regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis. Many components have been identified, but our knowledge of the composition and structure of this pathway is still incomplete. Using existing pathway components as baits, we generated by mass spectrometry a high-confidence Drosophila Hippo protein-protein interaction network (Hippo-PPIN) consisting of 153 proteins and 204 interactions. Depletion of 67% of the proteins by RNAi regulated the transcriptional coactivator Yorkie (Yki) either positively or negatively. We selected for further characterization a new member of the alpha-arrestin family, Leash, and show that it promotes degradation of Yki through the lysosomal pathway. Given the importance of the Hippo pathway in tumor development, the Hippo-PPIN will contribute to our understanding of this network in both normal growth and cancer.. ...
Wounding, apoptosis, or infection can trigger a proliferative response in neighboring cells to replace damaged tissue. Studies in Drosophila have implicated c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK)-dependent activation of Yorkie (Yki) as essential to regeneration-associated growth, as well as growth associated with neoplastic tumors. Yki is a transcriptional coactivator that is inhibited by Hippo signaling, a conserved pathway that regulates growth. We identified a conserved mechanism by which JNK regulated Hippo signaling. Genetic studies in Drosophila identified Jub (also known as Ajuba LIM protein) as required for JNK-mediated activation of Yki and showed that Jub contributed to wing regeneration after wounding and to tumor growth. Biochemical studies revealed that JNK promoted the phosphorylation of Ajuba family proteins in both Drosophila and mammalian cells. Binding studies in mammalian cells indicated that JNK increased binding between the Ajuba family proteins LIMD1 or WTIP and LATS1, a kinase ...
Benign tumors accumulate mutations that enable them to progress to malignancy and metastasis. Although Yki overexpression promotes cell proliferation and inhibits apoptosis, Yki expression does not normally lead to the formation of malignant tumors in the Drosophila wing epithelia. Our findings show that inactivation of the BAP complex in discs expressing Yki results in the formation of giant larvae, a phenomenon characteristic of larvae with neoplastic tumors. The overgrown imaginal discs in these animals exhibit features of malignant transformation, including loss of epithelial polarity and expression of the proinvasive marker Mmp1. Moreover, when transplanted to a normal host, fragments of these discs produced tumors that grew and spread to kill the host.. The tumor suppressive role of the BAP complex appears to be context dependent. Overexpression of EGFR and Yki each results in tissue hyperplasia. Yki regulates cell proliferation and represses apoptosis by regulating target genes, including ...
The dorsoventral pattern of the Drosophila embryo is mediated by a gradient of nuclear localization of the dorsal protein which acts as amorphogen. Establishment of the nuclear concentration gradient of dorsal protein requires the activities of the 10 maternal dorsal group genes whose function results in the positive regulation of the nuclear uptake of the dorsal protein. Here we show that in contrast to the dorsal group genes, the maternal gene cactus acts as a negative regulator of the nuclear localization of the dorsal protein. While loss of function mutations of any of the dorsal group genes lead to dorsalized embryos, loss of cactusfunction results in a ventralization of the body pattern. Progressive loss of maternal cactus activity causes progressive loss of dorsal pattern elements accompanied by the expansion of ventrolateral and ventral anlagen. However, embryos still retain dorsoventral polarity, even if derived from germline clones using the strongest available, zygotic lethal cactus ...
Increasing evidence implicates the Hippo signalling pathway as a major mediator of contact inhibition of growth. In agreement with this model, genetic analysis in Drosophila and mice showed that this pathway restrains cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis to limit organ size and suppress tumorigenesis [[83],[84],[85]]. The core kinase cascade of this pathway-Hippo (MST1/2)-Salvador (WW45)-Warts (Lats1/2)-has been well characterized in Drosophila and is conserved in mammals, whereas its upstream regulation, which is rather complex, seems to have diverged after the separation of arthropods and chordates. In Drosophila, the atypical cadherin Fat and the apical polarity protein Crumbs activate the core kinase cascade through the FERM domain protein Expanded [[84],[86]]. Interestingly, genetic epistasis experiments showed that Merlin cooperates with Expanded to activate the Hippo pathway in the fly [[32]]. Mammalian cells lack a clear functional homologue of Fat [[87],[88]]. A recent study ...
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The Hippo pathway inactivates genes involved in organ size and when aberrant, can lead to cancer. To control organ size, the Hippo pathway inhibits Yorkie (Yki), a transcriptional coactivator that works with Scalloped (Sd), a DNA binding protein. When active, Yki translocates into the nucleus and initiates transcription. Conversely, when inactive, Yki remains in the cytoplasm. However, my work shows that cytoplasmic, inactive Yki interacts with other proteins in the Hippo pathway by recruiting them to the plasma membrane. Accordingly, this study challenges the notion that cytoplasmic Yki is inactive and instead, may play a dual role in the Hippo pathway.
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An exceptionally soft and smooth but also robust lightweight tartan - in our view the worlds finest. It will be woven to order for you, using traditional methods, by the worlds last artisan tartan weaving mill, deep in the Scottish Borders. Its an
Once upon a time, there was an excellent Italian tenor named Luciano Pavarotti.He didnt have the biggest voice in the world, or the sweetest. He didnt make the most dramatic of sounds, or the most
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Hi, I have a 7 yr old yorkie who I am concerned about but Im not sure if I have just been googling too much :) She currently weighs 8.5 down from 9.5 recently and 10 overall. We have been adamen...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transcription control of a gene for Drosophila transcription factor, DREF by DRE and cis-elements conserved between Drosophila melanogaster and virilis. AU - Kwon, Eunjeong. AU - Seto, Hirokazu. AU - Hirose, Fumiko. AU - Ohshima, Nobuko. AU - Takahashi, Yasuhiko. AU - Nishida, Yasuyoshi. AU - Yamaguchi, Masamitsu. PY - 2003/5/8. Y1 - 2003/5/8. N2 - A DNA replication-related element (DRE)-binding factor (DREF) has been revealed to be an important transcription factor for activating promoters of cell proliferation and differentiation related genes. The amino acid sequences of DREF are conserved in evolutionary separate Drosophila species, Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) and Drosophila virilis (Dv) in three regions. In the present study, evidence was obtained that there are several highly conserved regions in the 5′ flanking region between the DmDREF and DvDREF genes. Band mobility shift assays using oligonucleotides corresponding to these conserved regions revealed that specific ...
We propose that the six genes previously classified as Polycomb group genes in which loss-of-function or antimorphic mutations show intergenic noncomplementation with mutations in trithorax group genes and increase the penetrance caused by double heterozygosis of mutations in trithorax group genes belong in a distinct group (Table 6). We propose that this group be called the ETP (Enhancers of trithorax and Polycomb mutations) group. Loss-of-function mutations in this group of genes enhance the dominant phenotype caused by Polycomb mutations like mutations in Polycomb group genes but also enhance the phenotype caused by heterozygosity for double mutations in trithorax group genes such as ash1VF101 trxb11 and brm2 trxe2 like mutations in trithorax group genes. Jürgens (1985) estimated that there were ∼40 genes in the Polycomb group based on the enhancement of the Polycomb mutant phenotype by a sample of deficiencies. We suggest that this number may be an overestimate. Many of the genes in which ...
Previous experiments have shown two germline stem cell genes, bam and bgcn, to be under strong positive selection in Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans (Bauer DuMont et al. 2007). This prompted the question of whether the same pattern of selection observed in these two species was present in the germline stem cell genes of other Drosophila lineages? The Aquadro Lab has been sequencing many germline stem cell genes in Drosophila species, and the answer to this question so far has been that some lineages show strong positive selection and some do not. This observation led the Aquadro Lab to begin to test hypotheses about the driver - or drivers - of the positive selection in the germline stem cell genes across some Drosophila lineages. One hypothesis proposed by Bauer DuMont et al. (2007) is that coevolution with pathogens such as the reproductive parasite, Wolbachia pipientis, infecting the germline could be driving this observed selection. This project looked for signs of selection ...
Cell adhesion molecule that plays a role in neuronal self-avoidance. Promotes repulsion between specific neuronal processes of either the same cell or the same subtype of cells. Mediates within retinal amacrine and ganglion cell subtypes both isoneuronal self-avoidance for creating an orderly dendritic arborization and heteroneuronal self-avoidance to maintain the mosaic spacing between amacrine and ganglion cell bodies (PubMed:10925149). Receptor for netrin required for axon guidance independently of and in collaboration with the receptor DCC. In spinal chord development plays a role in guiding commissural axons projection and pathfinding across the ventral midline to reach the floor plate upon ligand binding (PubMed:18585357, PubMed:19196994). Enhances netrin-induced phosphorylation of PAK1 and FYN (PubMed:15169762). Mediates intracellular signaling by stimulating the activation of MAPK8 and MAP kinase p38 (PubMed:18585357, PubMed:19196994). Adhesion molecule that promotes lamina-specific ...
Decapentaplegic (Dpp) is one of the best characterized morphogens, required for dorso-ventral patterning of the Drosophila embryo and for anterior-posterior (A/P) patterning of the wing imaginal disc. In the larval wing pouch, the Dpp target gene optomotor-blind (omb) is generally assumed to be expressed in a step function above a certain threshold of Dpp signaling activity. We show that the transcription factor Omb forms, in fact, a symmetrical gradient on both sides of the A/P compartment boundary. Disruptions of the Omb gradient lead to a re-organization of the epithelial cytoskeleton and to a retraction of cells toward the basal membrane suggesting that the Omb gradient is required for correct epithelial morphology. Moreover, by analysing the shape of omb gain- and loss-of-function clones, we find that Omb promotes cell sorting along the A/P axis in a concentration-dependent manner. Our findings show that Omb distribution in the wing imaginal disc is described by a gradient rather than a step
A protein encoded by a gene in band 22 of the long arm of human chromosome 21. The gene contains multiple exons which allow multiple mRNAs to be transcribed by alternative splicing (q.v.). The transcripts are differentially expressed in different substructures of the adult brain. The DSCAM is a member of the immunoglobulin domain superfamily (q.v.). These isoforms may be involved in the patterning of neural networks by selective adhesions between axons. See innate immunity. ...
Kitagawa M., Oyama T., Kawashima T., Yedvobnick B., Kumar A., Matsuno K., Harigaya K.. Mastermind (Mam) has been implicated as an important positive regulator of the Notch signaling pathway by genetic studies using Drosophila melanogaster. Here we describe a biochemical mechanism of action of Mam within the Notch signaling pathway. Expression of a human sequence related to Drosophila Mam (hMam-1) in mammalian cells augments induction of Hairy Enhancer of split (HES) promoters by Notch signaling. hMam-1 stabilizes and participates in the DNA binding complex of the intracellular domain of human Notch1 and a CSL protein. Truncated versions of hMam-1 that can maintain an association with the complex behave in a dominant negative fashion and depress transactivation. Furthermore, Drosophila Mam forms a similar complex with the intracellular domain of Drosophila Notch and Drosophila CSL protein during activation of Enhancer of split, the Drosophila counterpart of HES. These results indicate that Mam is ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Mutations that alter the timing and pattern of cubitus interruptus gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster. AU - Slusarski, D. C.. AU - Motzny, C. K.. AU - Holmgren, R.. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - The cubitus interruptus (ci) gene is a member of the Drosophila segment polarity gene family and encodes a protein with a zinc finger domain homologous to the vertebrate Gli genes and the nematode tra-1 gene. Three classes of existing mutations in the ci locus alter the regulation of ci expression and can be used to examine ci function during development. The first class of ci mutations causes interruptions in wing veins four and five due to inappropriate expression of the ci product in the posterior compartment of imaginal discs. The second class of mutations eliminates ci protein early in embryogenesis and causes the deletion of structures that are derived from the region including and adjacent to the engrailed expressing cells. The third class of mutations eliminates ci ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The actin-binding protein Lasp promotes Oskar accumulation at the posterior pole of the Drosophila embryo. AU - Suyama, Ritsuko. AU - Jenny, Andreas. AU - Curado, Silvia. AU - Pellis-van Berkel, Wendy. AU - Ephrussi, Anne. PY - 2009/4/14. Y1 - 2009/4/14. N2 - During Drosophila oogenesis, oskar mRNA is transported to the posterior pole of the oocyte, where it is locally translated and induces germ-plasm assembly. Oskar protein recruits all of the components necessary for the establishment of posterior embryonic structures and of the germline. Tight localization of Oskar is essential, as its ectopic expression causes severe patterning defects. Here, we show that the Drosophila homolog of mammalian Lasp1 protein, an actin-binding protein previously implicated in cell migration in vertebrate cell culture, contributes to the accumulation of Oskar protein at the posterior pole of the embryo. The reduced number of primordial germ cells in embryos derived from lasp mutant females can be ...
In all Metazoa, transcription is inactive during the first mitotic cycles after fertilisation. In Drosophila melanogaster, Zygotic Genome Activation (ZGA) occurs in two waves, starting respectively at mitotic cycles 8 (approximately 60 genes) and 14 (over a thousand genes). The regulatory mechanisms underlying these drastic transcriptional changes remain largely unknown. We developed an original gene clustering method based on discretized transition profiles, and applied it to datasets from three landmark early embryonic transcriptome studies. We identified 417 genes significantly up-regulated during ZGA. De novo motif discovery returned nine motifs over-represented in their non-coding sequences (upstream, introns, UTR), three of which correspond to previously known transcription factors: Zelda, Tramtrack and Trithorax-like (Trl). The nine discovered motifs were combined to scan ZGA-associated regions and predict about 1300 putative cis-regulatory modules. The fact that Trl is known to act as chromatin
Author Summary Morphogens are signaling molecules that trigger specific responses in cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The formation of morphogen gradients is essential for the patterning of tissues and organs. Decapentaplegic (Dpp) is the Drosophila homolog of the bone morphogenic proteins in vertebrates and forms a morphogen gradient along the anterior-posterior axis of the Drosophila wing imaginal disc, a single-cell layered epithelium. Dpp determines the growth and final size of the wing disc and serves as an ideal model system to study gradient formation. Despite extensive studies the mechanism by which morphogen gradients are established remains controversial. In the case of Dpp two mechanisms have been postulated, namely extracellular diffusion and receptor-mediated transcytosis. In the first model Dpp is suggested to move by diffusion through the extracellular matrix of a tissue, whereas in the latter model Dpp is transported through the cells by receptor-mediated uptake and re
TY - JOUR. T1 - JAK/STAT and the GATA factor Pannier control hemocyte maturation and differentiation in Drosophila. AU - Minakhina, Svetlana. AU - Tan, William. AU - Steward, Ruth. PY - 2011/1/1. Y1 - 2011/1/1. N2 - The lymph gland is the major site of hematopoiesis in Drosophila. During late larval stages three types of hemocytes are produced, plasmatocytes, crystal cells, and lamellocytes, and their differentiation is tightly controlled by conserved factors and signaling pathways. JAK/STAT is one of these pathways which have essential roles in vertebrate and fly hematopoiesis. We show that Stat has opposing cell-autonomous and non-autonomous functions in hemocyte differentiation. Using a clonal approach we established that loss of Stat in a set of prohemocytes in the cortical zone induces plasmatocyte maturation in adjacent hemocytes. Hemocytes lacking Stat fail to differentiate into plasmatocytes, indicating that Stat positively and cell-autonomously controls plasmatocyte differentiation. We ...
In Drosophila embryos, checkpoints maintain genome stability by delaying cell cycle progression that allows time for damage repair or to complete DNA synthesis. Drosophila MOF, a member of MYST histone acetyl transferase is an essential component of male X hyperactivation process. Until recently its involvement in G2/M cell cycle arrest and defects in ionizing radiation induced DNA damage pathways was not well established. Drosophila MOF is highly expressed during early embryogenesis. In the present study we show that haplo-insufficiency of maternal MOF leads to spontaneous mitotic defects like mitotic asynchrony, mitotic catastrophe and chromatid bridges in the syncytial embryos. Such abnormal nuclei are eliminated and digested in the yolk tissues by nuclear fall out mechanism. MOF negatively regulates Drosophila checkpoint kinase 2 tumor suppressor homologue. In response to DNA damage the checkpoint gene Chk2 (Drosophila mnk) is activated in the mof mutants, there by causing centrosomal inactivation
Monoclonal antibodies were prepared against a 46,000 mol wt major cytoplasmic protein from Drosophila melanogaster Kc cells. These antibodies reacted with the 46,000 and a 40,000 mol wt protein from Kc cells. Some antibodies showed cross-reaction with 55,000 (vimentin) and 52,000 mol wt (desmin) proteins from baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells that form intermediate sized filaments in vertebrate cells. In indirect immunofluorescence, the group of cross reacting antibodies stained a filamentous meshwork in the cytoplasm of vertebrate cells. In Kc cells the fluorescence seemed to be localized in a filamentous meshwork that became more obvious after the cells had flattened out on a surface. These cytoskeletal structures are heat-labile; the proteins in Kc or BHK cells rearrange after a brief heat shock, forming juxtanuclear cap structures.
Smaug is an RNA-binding protein that induces the degradation and represses the translation of mRNAs in the early Drosophila embryo. Smaug has two identified direct target mRNAs that it differentially regulates: nanos and Hsp83. Smaug represses the translation of nanos mRNA but has only a modest effect on its stability, whereas it destabilizes Hsp83 mRNA but has no detectable effect on Hsp83 translation. Smaug is required to destabilize more than one thousand mRNAs in the early embryo, but whether these transcripts represent direct targets of Smaug is unclear and the extent of Smaug-mediated translational repression is unknown. To gain a panoramic view of Smaug function in the early embryo, we identified mRNAs that are bound to Smaug using RNA co-immunoprecipitation followed by hybridization to DNA microarrays. We also identified mRNAs that are translationally repressed by Smaug using polysome gradients and microarrays. Comparison of the bound mRNAs to those that are translationally repressed by Smaug
Cyclin Y is a highly conserved member of the Cyclin superfamily of proteins. In Drosophila the Cyclin Y gene (CycY) is required for progression through several stages of development but the specific pathways that Cyclin Y belongs to and that account for its requirement are not known. Studies in human and Drosophila cell lines have shown that membrane-localized Cyclin Y is required for phosphorylation of the wingless/Wnt co-receptor, arrow/LRP6, and for full activation of the canonical wingless/Wnt pathway. CycY null Drosophila, however, do not phenocopy loss-of-function mutations in canonical wingless pathway genes, suggesting that Cyclin Y may have additional roles outside the wingless pathway in vivo. To identify roles for Cyclin Y in Drosophila I used RNAi to knock down CycY expression in 31 distinct tissue patterns. The screen revealed that expression of the CycY shRNA in specific tissue patterns causes larval lethality and other developmental defects. Knockdown of CycY but not arrow in imaginal
N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most common internal modification of eukaryotic messenger RNA (mRNA) and is decoded by YTH domain proteins1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. The mammalian mRNA m6A methylosome is a complex of nuclear proteins that includes METTL3 (methyltransferase-like 3), METTL14, WTAP (Wilms tumour 1-associated protein) and KIAA1429. Drosophila has corresponding homologues named Ime4 and KAR4 (Inducer of meiosis 4 and Karyogamy protein 4), and Female-lethal (2)d (Fl(2)d) and Virilizer (Vir)8, 9, 10, 11, 12. In Drosophila, fl(2)d and vir are required for sex-dependent regulation of alternative splicing of the sex determination factor Sex lethal (Sxl)13. However, the functions of m6A in introns in the regulation of alternative splicing remain uncertain3. Here we show that m6A is absent in the mRNA of Drosophila lacking Ime4. In contrast to mouse and plant knockout models5, 7, 14, Drosophila Ime4-null mutants remain viable, though flightless, and show a sex bias towards maleness. This is ...
Binding of pumilio to maternal hunchback mRNA is required for posterior patterning in Drosophila embryos. Developmental regulation of vesicle transport in Drosophila embryos: forces and kinetics
The JAK/STAT pathway is an essential signalling cascade required for multiple processes during development and for adult homeostasis. A key question in understanding this pathway is how it is regulated in different cell contexts. Here we have examined how endocytic processing contributes to signalling by the single cytokine receptor, Domeless, in Drosophila melanogaster cells. We identify an evolutionarily conserved di-Leu motif that is required for Domeless internalisation and show that endocytosis is required for activation of a subset of Domeless targets. Our data indicate that endocytosis both qualitatively and quantitatively regulates Domeless signalling. STAT92E, the single STAT transcription factor in Drosophila, appears to be the target of endocytic regulation and our studies show that phosphorylation of STAT92E on Tyr704, while necessary, is not always sufficient for target transcription. Finally, we identify a conserved residue, Thr702, which is essential for Tyr704 phosphorylation. ...
Mating rate is a major determinant of female lifespan and fitness, and is predicted to optimize at an intermediate level, beyond which superfluous matings are costly. In female Drosophila melanogaster, nutrition is a key regulator of mating rate but the underlying mechanism is unknown. The evolutionarily conserved insulin/insulin-like growth factor-like signalling (IIS) pathway is responsive to nutrition, and regulates development, metabolism, stress resistance, fecundity and lifespan. Here we show that inhibition of IIS, by ablation of Drosophila insulin-like peptide (DILP)-producing median neurosecretory cells, knockout of dilp2, dilp3 or dilp5 genes, expression of a dominant-negative DILP-receptor (InR) transgene or knockout of Lnk, results in reduced female remating rates. IIS-mediated regulation of female remating can occur independent of virgin receptivity, developmental defects, reduced body size or fecundity, and the receipt of the female receptivity-inhibiting male sex peptide. Our ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - DCtBP mediates transcriptional repression by Knirps, Kruppel and Snail in the Drosophila embryo. AU - Nibu, Yutaka. AU - Zhang, Hailan. AU - Bajor, Ewa. AU - Barolo, Scott. AU - Small, Stephen. AU - Levine, Michael. PY - 1998/12/1. Y1 - 1998/12/1. N2 - The pre-cellular Drosophila embryo contains 10 well characterized sequence-specific transcriptional repressors, which represent a broad spectrum of DNA-binding proteins. Previous studies have shown that two of the repressors, Hairy and Dorsal, recruit a common co-repressor protein, Groucho. Here we present evidence that three different repressors, Knirps, Kruppel and Snail, recruit a different co-repressor, dCtBP. Mutant embryos containing diminished levels of maternal dCtBP products exhibit both segmentation and dorsoventral patterning defects, which can be attributed to loss of Kruppel, Knirps and Snail activity. In contrast, the Dorsal and Hairy repressors retain at least some activity in dCtBP mutant embryos, dCtBP interacts ...
In multicellular organisms all cells in one individual have an identical genotype, and yet their bodies consist of many and very different tissues and thus many different cell types. Somehow there must be a difference in how genes are interpreted. So, there must be signals that tell the genes when and where to be active and inactive, respectively. In some instances a specific an expression pattern (active or inactive) is epigenetic; it is established and maintained throughout multiple rounds of cell divisions. In the developing Drosophila embryo, the proper expression pattern of e.g. the homeotic genes Abd-B and Ubx is to be kept active in the posterior part and silenced in the anterior. Properly silenced homeotic genes are crucial for the correct segmentation pattern of the fly and the Polycomb group (Pc-G) proteins are vital for maintaining this type of stable repression.. As part of this thesis, Suppressor of zeste 12 (Su(z)12) is characterized as a Drosophila Pc-G gene. Mutations in the gene ...
Remarkably, a motif corresponding to the Tramtrack (TTK) binding motif was discovered with the de novo approach. TTK is a maternal repressor, which is progressively titrated as the NC ratio increases during early mitotic cycles, thereby releasing the expression of zygotic genes [5]. Surprisingly, the TTK binding motif is found over-represented in the sequences of pre-cellular activated blastoderm genes and of the genes with the discrete signature Lu u s D s s H , but not in the sequences of genes known to depend on the NC ratio, which might be explained by the intervention of some other factors in this mechanism [5].. The TTK protein has been reported to physically interact with TRL proteins and to repress TRL-mediated even-skipped activation [20]. TTK could act either directly by binding DNA and repressing the transcription of specific target genes, or indirectly by repressing an activator such as Trl. Interestingly, the TTK motif is significantly under-represented (sig = 5) in upstream ...
Looking for online definition of Big Brain in the Medical Dictionary? Big Brain explanation free. What is Big Brain? Meaning of Big Brain medical term. What does Big Brain mean?
Background: The family of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases (JNK) plays important roles in embryonic development and in cellular responses to stress. Toxic metals and their compounds are potent activators of JNK in mammalian cells. The mechanism of mammalian JNK activation by cadmium and sodium arsenite involves toxicant-induced oxidative stress. The study of mammalian signaling pathways to JNK is complicated by the significant degree of redundancy among upstream JNK regulators, especially at the level of JNK kinase kinases (JNKKK). Results: Using Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells, we demonstrate here that cadmium and arsenite activate Drosophila JNK (D-JNK) via oxidative stress as well, thus providing a simpler model system to study JNK signaling. To elucidate the signaling pathways that lead to activation of D-JNK in response to cadmium or arsenite, we employed RNA interference (RNAi) to knock down thirteen upstream regulators of D-JNK, either singly or in combinations of up to seven at a time. Conclusion: D
Acar, M., et al. (2006). Senseless physically interacts with proneural proteins and functions as a transcriptional co-activator. Development 133: 1979-1989. PubMed ID: 16624856 Alifragis, P., et al. (1997). A network of interacting transcriptional regulators involved in Drosophila neural fate specification revealed by the yeast two-hybrid system. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 94(24): 13099-13104. PubMed ID: 9371806 Bardin, A. J., et al. (2010). Transcriptional control of stem cell maintenance in the Drosophila intestine. Development 137(5): 705-14. PubMed ID: 20147375 Barndt, R. J., Dai, M. and Zhuang, Y. (2000). Functions of E2A-HEB heterodimers in T-cell development revealed by a dominant negative mutation of HEB. Mol. Cell Biol. 20: 6677-6685. PubMed ID: 10958665 Brown, N. L., et al. (1996). daughterless is required for Drosophila photoreceptor cell determination, eye morphogenesis, and cell cycle progression. Dev. Biol. 179: 65-78. PubMed ID: 8873754 Buszczak, M., Paterno, S. and Spradling, A. C. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Activation of a meiotic checkpoint regulates translation of Gurken during Drosophila oogenesis. AU - Ghabrial, Amin. AU - Schüpbach, Trudi. N1 - Funding Information: ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We thank K. McKim, J. Sekelsky, S. Hawley, S. Wayson and R. Ray for mutant stocks and helpful discussions; C. VanBuskirk for sharing anti-Grk monoclonal antibodies; I. Clark for Vasa reagents and advice on Vasa westerns; G. Shanower, G. Deshpande and P. Schedl for their advice; and E. Wieschaus, L. Nilson, C. VanBuskirk and A. Norvell for comments on the manuscript. This work was supported by the US Public Health Service grant PO1 CA 41086 and the HHMI. Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to T.S.. PY - 1999/10. Y1 - 1999/10. N2 - The genes okra and spindle-B act during meiosis in Drosophila to repair double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) associated with meiotic recombination. Unexpectedly, mutations in these genes cause dorsoventral patterning defects during oogenesis. These ...
Polyamine transport is elevated in many tumor types, suggesting that toxic polyamine-drug conjugates could be targeted to cancer cells via the polyamine transporter (PAT). We have previously reported the use of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and its PAT-deficient mutant cell line, CHO-MG, to screen anthracene-polyamine conjugates for their PAT-selective targeting ability. We report here a novel Drosophila-based model for screening anthracene-polyamine conjugates in a developing and intact epithelium (Drosophila imaginal discs), wherein cell-cell adhesion properties are maintained. Data from the Drosophila assay are consistent with previous results in CHO cells, indicating that the Drosophila epithelium has a PAT with vertebrate-like characteristics. This assay will be of use to medicinal chemists interested in screening drugs that use PAT for cellular entry, and it offers the possibility of genetic dissection of the polyamine transport process, including identification of a Drosophila PAT.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular cloning of the Drosophila melanogaster gene χ5 dm encoding a 20S proteasome χ-type subunit. AU - Zaiss, Dietmar. AU - Belote, John M.. N1 - Funding Information: We would like to thank Dr Russ Finley for the pJG4-5 cDNA library and Dr Kerrie-Ann Smyth for providing the salivary gland chromosome squashes for the in situ hybridization experiment, Evan Katz for carrying out the reduced stringency hybridization screen, and Xiaoqing Yuan for mapping Pros29 (a3_dm). We would also like to thank Jing Ma, Mary Miller and Kerrie-Ann Smyth for their helpful comments on the manuscript. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. MCB-9506885. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.. PY - 1997/11/12. Y1 - 1997/11/12. N2 - Proteasomes are large, multisubunit particles that act as the ...
Zhu LJ, Christensen RG, Kazemian M, Hull CJ, Enuameh MS, Basciotta MD, Brasefield JA, Zhu C, Asriyan Y, Lapointe DS, Sinha S, Wolfe SA, Brodsky MH. FlyFactorSurvey: a database of Drosophila transcription factor binding specificities determined using the bacterial one-hybrid system. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39(Database issue):D111-7 ...
The human c-myc proto-oncogene, implicated in the control of many cellular processes including cell growth and apoptosis, encodes three isoforms which differ in their N-terminal region. The functions of these isoforms have never been addressed in vivo. Here, we used Drosophila melanogaster to examine their functions in a fully integrated system. First, we established that the human c-Myc protein can rescue lethal mutations of the Drosophila myc ortholog, dmyc, demonstrating the biological relevance of this model. Then, we characterized a new lethal dmyc insertion allele, which permits expression of human c-Myc in place of dMyc and used it to compare physiological activities of these isoforms in whole-organism rescue, transcription, cell growth, and apoptosis. These isoforms differ both quantitatively and qualitatively. Most remarkably, while the small c-MycS form truncated for much of its N-terminal trans-activation domain efficiently rescued viability and cell growth, it did not induce ...
An in vivo screen of 86 RNAi lines, representing the majority of annotated Drosophila phosphatases/regulators, for altered activity rhythms was carried out. The screen identified a total of 19 candidate genes (Table 1) that altered clock function upon RNAi knockdown in Drosophila clock cells. Further genetic validation of one candidate showed that the RPTP Lar is required for the development of axonal projections from circadian pacemaker neurons that support rhythmic activity in constant darkness but not during light:dark cycles (Agrawal and Hardin 2016).. As expected, a majority of these candidates were not validated upon further analysis of independent genetic reagents (Table 2). However, these reagents consisted of additional P element inserts, where the P element insertion site may not interfere with gene function, or strains that could be used for overexpression, which also may not impact the function of a protein that is already at saturating levels. Therefore, a lack of validation with P ...
Receptors for Wingless and other signalling molecules of the Wnt gene family have yet to be identified. We show here that cultured Drosophila cells transfected with a novel member of the frizzled gene family in Drosophila, Dfz2, respond to added Wingless protein by elevating the level of the Armadillo protein. Moreover, Wingless binds to Drosophila or human cells expressing Dfz2. These data demonstrate that Dfz2 functions as a Wingless receptor, and they imply, in general, that Frizzled proteins are receptors for the Wnt signalling molecules ...
Applications are invited for a postdoc position and a full-time technician = position in Drosophila epigenetics research laboratory of Dr. Tulin at the = Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA. Both positions planned for at = least three years, with possible renewal. The successful applicants will = use Drosophila model system to study epigenetics of development and = cancer. The primary research focus of Dr. Tulin=92s lab is on = fundamentals of chromatin reprogramming and RNA fate regulation during = normal development and carcinogenics, as well as on translating = fundamental research for clinical applications in oncology. Projects in = Dr. Tulin=92s lab cover the molecular mechanisms of the chromatin = remodeling and regulation of gene expression and employ Drosophila model = and in vitro assays as well as human cells, mouse models. Applicants for the postdoctoral position should have a Ph.D. in molecular = biology, molecular genetics, biochemistry, or a related field and 0-3 = years of ...
Circularization was recently recognized to broadly expand transcriptome complexity. Here, we exploit massive Drosophila total RNA-sequencing data, |5 billion paired-end reads from |100 libraries covering diverse developmental stages, tissues, and cultured cells, to rigorously annotate |2,500 fruit fly circular RNAs. These mostly derive from back-splicing of protein-coding genes and lack poly(A) tails, and the circularization of hundreds of genes is conserved across multiple Drosophila species. We elucidate structural and sequence properties of Drosophila circular RNAs, which exhibit commonalities and distinctions from mammalian circles. Notably, Drosophila circular RNAs harbor |1,000 well-conserved canonical miRNA seed matches, especially within coding regions, and coding conserved miRNA sites reside preferentially within circularized exons. Finally, we analyze the developmental and tissue specificity of circular RNAs and note their preferred derivation from neural genes and enhanced accumulation in
The proneural protein Atonal (Ato) is responsible for the development of Drosophila's R8 photoreceptors. However, it does not ... Proneural proteins bind DNA as heterodimeric complexes that are formed by bHLH proteins or E proteins. Because ... Although proneural proteins are responsible for trigger neurogenesis, different proteins are required for different neural and/ ... "Lateral inhibition mediated by the Drosophila neurogenic gene delta is enhanced by proneural proteins". Proceedings of the ...
Presgraves DC (September 2005). "Recombination enhances protein adaptation in Drosophila melanogaster". Current Biology. Cell ...
Hubby, J. L. Protein Differences in Drosophila. I. Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1963, 48 (6): 871-879. PMC 1210521. PMID ... 不同物種帶有不同數量的基因,以不同的模式散布在其基因體內。有些物種,如大多數細菌、Drosophila屬果蠅、擬南芥的基因體特別緊湊,非編碼DNA較少。相較之下,哺乳動物和玉米的基因體則有大量的重複序列、較長的內含子以及
Interactions with proteins. All the functions of DNA depend on interactions with proteins. These protein interactions can be ... Koltzoff N (October 1934). "The structure of the chromosomes in the salivary glands of Drosophila". Science. 80 (2075): 312-13 ... Structural proteins that bind DNA are well-understood examples of non-specific DNA-protein interactions. Within chromosomes, ... A distinct group of DNA-binding proteins is the DNA-binding proteins that specifically bind single-stranded DNA. In humans, ...
Paired box protein Pax-6, also known as aniridia type II protein (AN2) or oculorhombin, is a protein that in humans is encoded ... Of the four Drosophila Pax6 orthologues, it is thought that the eyeless (ey) and twin of eyeless (toy) gene products share ... protein binding. • DNA binding. • sequence-specific DNA binding. • ubiquitin-protein transferase activity. • transcriptional ... protein kinase binding. • ubiquitin protein ligase binding. • histone acetyltransferase binding. • transcription regulatory ...
Adaptive Protein Evolution and Regulatory Divergence in Drosophila. Mol Biol Evol. 2006 Mar 14 ...
"Hearing in Drosophila requires TilB, a conserved protein associated with ciliary motility". Genetics. 185: 177-88. doi:10.1534 ... Nematode sperm is thought to be the only eukaryotic cell without the globular protein G-actin. ...
... (gene), a gene in Drosophila melanogaster that encodes the CYCLE protein ...
Medzhitov R, Preston-Hurlburt P, Janeway CA (July 1997). "A human homologue of the Drosophila Toll protein signals activation ... essential adapter proteins in TLR signaling), they were still able to induce inflammatory responses, increase T cell activation ...
Adler PN, Conover S, Vinson CR (1989). "A Drosophila tissue polarity locus encodes a protein containing seven potential ... Frizzled is a family of G protein-coupled receptor proteins[2] that serves as receptors in the Wnt signaling pathway and other ... Frizzled proteins include cysteine-rich domain that is conserved in diverse proteins, including several receptor tyrosine ... Fz produces an mRNA that encodes an integral membrane protein with 7 putative transmembrane (TM) domains. This protein should ...
Proteins also play a large role in the cryoprotective compounds that increase ability to survive the cold hardening process and ... The Drosophila melanogaster (common fruit fly) is a frequently experimented insect involving cold hardening. A proven example ... Glycogen phosphorylase(GlyP) has been a key protein found during testing to increase in comparison to a controlled group not ... Antifreeze protein Cryobiology Cryopreservation Thorsen, Stig Morten; Höglind, Mats (2010-12-15). "Modelling cold hardening and ...
Zelhof AC, Bao H, Hardy RW, Razzaq A, Zhang B, Doe CQ (December 2001). "Drosophila Amphiphysin is implicated in protein ... a protein similar to the yeast proteins, Rvs167 and Rvs161". FEBS Letters. 351 (1): 73-9. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(94)00826-4. ... "Drosophila Amphiphysin is a post-synaptic protein required for normal locomotion but not endocytosis". Traffic. 2 (11): 839-50 ... protein binding. • phospholipid binding. Cellular component. • actin cytoskeleton. • cytoplasm. • cell junction. • synapse. • ...
Presgraves, Daven C. Recombination Enhances Protein Adaptation in Drosophila melanogaster. Current Biology (Cambridge, MA: Cell ... Amount of Variation and Degree of Heterozygosity in Natural Populations of Drosophila Pseudoobscura. Genetics. 1966, 54 (2): ...
Analyse eines Mosaikindividuums bei Drosophila melanogaster. Bio. Zentr. 51, 194-199. *^ Stern C. 1936. "Somatic crossing-over ... The resulting BLM protein is defective. the defect in RecQ an helicase facilitates the defective unwinding of DNA during ... It was first discovered by Curt Stern in Drosophila in 1936. The amount of tissue which is mosaic depends on where in the tree ... In 1929, Alfred Sturtevant studied mosaicism in Drosophila.[6] A few years later, In the 1930s, Curt Stern demonstrated that ...
2001-04-06). "Extension of Life-Span by Loss of CHICO, a Drosophila Insulin Receptor Substrate Protein". Science. 292 (5514): ...
Protein and RNA synthesis induced by heat treatment in Drosophila melanogaster tissue culture cells (1976). ... McKenzie, Susan Lee Lindquist (1976). Protein and RNA synthesis induced by heat treatment in Drosophila melanogaster tissue ... Lindquist pioneered the use of yeast as a model system to study how heat shock proteins regulate gene expression and protein ... particularly the protein folding problem[3][6] within a family of molecules known as heat-shock proteins,[7][8] and prions.[9] ...
Zhu X, Sen J, Stevens L, Goltz JS, Stein D (Sep 2005). "Drosophila pipe protein activity in the ovary and the embryonic ... "1aqy Summary". Protein Data Bank in Europe Bringing Structure to Biology. The European Bioinformatics Institute. Retrieved 11 ... A prominent kinase is cyclin-dependent kinase (or CDK), which comprises a sub-family of protein kinases. As their name implies ... Sen J, Goltz JS, Stevens L, Stein D (Nov 1998). "Spatially restricted expression of pipe in the Drosophila egg chamber defines ...
protein kinase activity. • PDZ domain binding. • SH3 domain binding. • scaffold protein binding. • metal ion binding. • kinase ... Its fly (Drosophila) ortholog is called Sticky.[9][10] the importance of different domains of citron-K in its localization at ... protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • GO:0001948 protein binding. • ATP binding. • Rho GTPase binding. ... Receptor protein serine/threonine kinase (EC *Bone morphogenetic protein receptors *BMPR1 ...
ADF/cofilin proteins are inactivated by kinases such as LIM domain kinase-1 (LIMK1; MIM 601329). The SSH family appears to play ... "Entrez Gene: SSH1 slingshot homolog 1 (Drosophila)". Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and ... For the SSH-1 protocol, see Secure Shell#Version 1.x Protein phosphatase Slingshot homolog 1 is an enzyme that in humans is ... The complete sequences of 150 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Res. 7 (1): 65-73. doi: ...
Media related to Proto-oncogene proteins at Wikimedia Commons. *Drosophila Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressors - The Interactive ... An increase in the amount of a certain protein (protein concentration), caused by *an increase of protein expression (through ... half of the protein). The unregulated expression of this protein activates other proteins that are involved in cell cycle and ... Receptor kinases add phosphate groups to receptor proteins at the surface of the cell (which receives protein signals from ...
... mediated by Drosophila melanogaster thiamine pyrophosphate carrier protein (DmTpc1)". j.jinorgbio. 130: 1172. doi:10.1016/j. ... This membrane protein-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Mitochondrial thiamine pyrophosphate carrier is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC25A19 gene.[5][6][7] ... 2010). "The biochemical properties of the mitochondrial thiamine pyrophosphate carrier from Drosophila melanogaster". FEBS J. ...
TEAD proteins were notably found in Drosophila (Scalloped), C. elegans (egl -44), S. Cerevisiae and A. nidulans. TEAD2 has been ... the TEA domain protein ABAA regulates the differentiation of conidiophores. In drosophila the transcription factor Scalloped is ... and all TEAD proteins was demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. In both cases the interaction of the proteins leads to ... TEAD proteins and MEF2 (myocyte enhancer factor 2) interact physically. The binding of MEF2 on the DNA induces and potentiates ...
Wnt-protein binding. • protein binding. • protein kinase binding. • ubiquitin protein ligase binding. • transmembrane signaling ... "A large family of putative transmembrane receptors homologous to the product of the Drosophila tissue polarity gene frizzled". ... gene family encode 7-transmembrane domain proteins that are receptors for Wnt signaling proteins. The FZD5 protein is believed ... G-protein coupled receptor activity. Cellular component. • clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane. • Golgi apparatus. • ...
"Drumstick is a zinc finger protein that antagonizes Lines to control patterning and morphogenesis of the Drosophila hindgut". ... protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • protein binding. • protein kinase binding. • RNA polymerase II transcription factor ... Protein odd-skipped-related 1 is a transcription factor that in humans is encoded by the OSR1 gene.[5][6][7] The OSR1 and OSR2 ... OSR1 and OSR2 are homologous to the Odd-skipped class transcription factors in Drosophila, encoded by odd,[5] bowl, sob[9] and ...
Presgraves DC (september 2005). "Recombination enhances protein adaptation in Drosophila melanogaster". Curr. Biol. 15 (18): ...
... homology to RNA-binding proteins, U1 70K, and Drosophila splicing regulators". Cell. 66 (2): 383-94. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(91) ... C1QBP has been shown to interact with Protein kinase D1,[10] BAT2,[11] PRKCD,[10] PKC alpha[10] and Protein kinase Mζ.[10] ... a protein co-purified with splicing factor SF2. Hyaluronic acid-binding protein as P-32 protein, co-purified with splicing ... protein binding. • hyaluronic acid binding. • kininogen binding. • mitochondrial ribosome binding. • mRNA binding. • protein ...
Other proteins that can be both oxidized and reduced by superoxide (e.g., hemoglobin) have weak SOD-like activity. Genetic ... In model organisms (yeast, the fruit fly Drosophila, and mice), genetically knocking out CuZnSOD shortens lifespan and ... The binding of O2 by reduced (Fe2+)heme proteins involves formation of Fe(III) superoxide complex.[10] ... except perhaps in Drosophila).[9] The most widely accepted view is that oxidative damage (resulting from multiple causes, ...
Driever, Wolfgang; Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane (July 1988). "A gradient of bicoid protein in Drosophila embryos". Cell. 54 (1 ... Main article: Drosophila embryogenesis. Drosophila melanogaster, a fruit fly, is a model organism in biology on which much ... This protein is absent or reduced in embryonic extracts of nine of the 11 bcd alleles. The protein is concentrated in the ... transcribed from the genes that encode bicoid protein and nanos protein.[3][4] These mRNA molecules are stored to be used later ...
... or unc-112-related protein 2 (URP2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FERMT3 gene. The kindlin family of proteins, ... Drosophila)". Weinstein EJ, Bourner M, Head R, Zakeri H, Bauer C, Mazzarella R (April 2003). "URP1: a member of a novel family ... The FERMT3 protein has a key role in the regulation of hemostasis and thrombosis. This protein may also help maintain the ... Wang L, Deng W, Shi T, Ma D (2008). "URP2SF, a FERM and PH domain containing protein, regulates NF-kappaB and apoptosis". ...
It is a process where from a single gene a large number of variant proteins can be assembled. One particular Drosophila gene ( ... such as protein or RNA. The basic idea is that DNA is transcribed into RNA, which is then translated into proteins. Proteins ... The most important example of maternal effect is in Drosophila melanogaster. The protein product maternal-effect genes activate ... Hox genes are a complex of genes whose proteins bind to the regulatory regions of target genes. The target genes then activate ...
... non-protein-coding genes, and chromosomal structural elements) under selection for biological function.. " Mouse Genome ... Drosophila melanogaster. 黑腹果蠅 180,000,000 13,350 Oryza sativa. 亞洲稻 466,000,000 45,000-55,000 ... This proportion is much higher than can be explained by protein-coding sequences alone, implying that the genome contains many ...
Why "Flyguy649"? Although I have an interest in aviation, "Fly" refers to the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. I used be a ... Truth be told, it's the size (in amino acids) of a protein I once studied. Yes, a bit geeky. ...
... annotated collection of all publicly available nucleotide sequences and their protein translations. It is produced and ... Drosophila melanogaster 1.11996522×10. ^. 9 Pan troglodytes 1.008323292×10. ^. 9 Arabidopsis thaliana 1.144226616×10. ^. 9 ...
... protein ligase and promotes the degradation of the synaptic vesicle-associated protein, CDCrel-1". Proceedings of the National ... McKie JM، Sutherland HF، Harvey E، Kim UJ، Scambler PJ (November 1997). "A human gene similar to Drosophila melanogaster peanut ... Caltagarone J، Rhodes J، Honer WG، Bowser R (August 1998). "Localization of a novel septin protein, hCDCrel-1, in neurons of ... Hsu SC، Hazuka CD، Roth R، Foletti DL، Heuser J، Scheller RH (June 1998). "Subunit composition, protein interactions, and ...
"A structural perspective on protein-protein interactions" (PDF). Current Opinion in Structural Biology 14. Páxs. 313-324. ... Aliñamento estrutural de tiorredoxinas do ser humano e da mosca Drosophila melanogaster. As proteínas móstranse como fitas, coa ... "Protein Engineering 7 (7). ISSN 1741-0134, Páxs. 841-848.. *↑ 70,0 70,1 Thompson, J. D.; et al. (1994). "CLUSTAL W: improving ... 2005). Bioinformatics: A Practical Guide to the Analysis of Genes and Proteins (en inglés) (third edition ed.). Wiley. ISBN 0- ...
protein processing. • protein maturation. • myeloid dendritic cell differentiation. • autophagy. • protein glycosylation. • ... In the prenilin 1 null mutant drosophila, Notch signaling is abolished and it displays a notch-like lethal phenotype.[18] ... positive regulation of protein kinase activity. • T cell activation involved in immune response. • cellular protein metabolic ... positive regulation of protein binding. • positive regulation of protein import into nucleus, translocation. • Notch receptor ...
The rest of the genome encodes structural proteins at the 5' end and non-structural proteins at the 3' end in a single ... Another virus is Nora virus from Drosophila melanogaster. This latter virus awaits further classification. Picornavirales VPg ... The 1A, 1B, 1C, and 1D proteins are the capsid proteins VP4, VP2, VP3, and VP1, respectively.Virus-coded proteases perform the ... VPg may also play an important role in specific recognition of viral genome by movement protein (MP). Movement proteins are non ...
Pryfed: Drosophila melanogaster (pry ffrwythau), Anopheles gambiae (mosgito), Aedes aegypti (mosgito). *Abwydod: Caenorhabditis ... Opsiwn arall yw anodiad awtomatig - defnyddio pŵer cyfrifiadurol i gymharu dilyniannau protein a DNA. ...
Doubletime mutations in Drosophila alter the phosphorylation and degradation of PER protein. This affects the regularity in ... "The Drosophila Clock Gene double-time Encodes a Protein Closely Related to Human Casein Kinase Iε" (PDF). Cell. 94 (1): 97-107 ... "Regulation of nuclear entry of the Drosophila clock proteins period and timeless" (PDF). Neuron. 17 (5): 808-810. doi:10.1016/ ... "double-time Is a Novel Drosophila Clock Gene that Regulates PERIOD Protein Accumulation" (PDF). Cell. 94 (1): 83-95. doi: ...
DNA promoter sequences in Drosophila, mammalian, and viral genes.[8][2] The TATA box was found in protein coding genes ... TATA-binding protein (TBP) can be recruited in two ways, by SAGA, a cofactor for RNA polymerase II, or by TFIID.[11] When ... "TATA-binding protein recognition and bending of a consensus promoter are protein species dependent". Biochemistry. 47 (27): ... The TATA-binding protein (TBP) could also be targeted by viruses as a means of viral transcription.[6] ...
Hide beetles are the only beetle with the enzymes necessary for breaking down keratin, a protein component of hair. ... Three genes were measured in an experiment with Drosophila melanogaster: bicoid (bcd), slalom (sll), and chitin synthase (cs). ...
Hubby, J. L. Protein Differences in Drosophila. I. Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1963, 48 (6): 871-879. PMC 1210521. PMID ... 不同物種帶有不同數量的基因,以不同的模式散布在其基因體內。有些物種,如大多數細菌、Drosophila屬果蠅、擬南芥的基因體特別緊湊,非編碼DNA較少。相較之下,哺乳動物和玉米的基因體則有大量的重複序列、較長的內含子以及
Driever, Wolfgang; Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane (July 1988). "A gradient of bicoid protein in Drosophila embryos". Cell. 54 (1 ... Main article: Drosophila embryogenesis. Drosophila melanogaster, a fruit fly, is a model organism in biology on which much ... This protein is absent or reduced in embryonic extracts of nine of the 11 bcd alleles. The protein is concentrated in the ... transcribed from the genes that encode bicoid protein and nanos protein.[3][4] These mRNA molecules are stored to be used later ...
... identified a protein that later became known as superoxide dismutase as an indophenol oxidase by protein analysis of starch ... Drosophila lacking SOD1 have a dramatically shortened lifespan, whereas flies lacking SOD2 die before birth. ... SOD1 is an extremely stable protein. In the holo form (both copper and zinc bound) the melting point is , 90 °C. In the apo ... However, in the chronic stage, SOD does not seem to be sufficient and tends to decrease due to the destruction of proteins from ...
Jacob F; Monod J (June 1961). "Genetic regulatory mechanisms in the synthesis of proteins". J Mol Biol. 3 (3): 318-56. doi: ... Adams, M. D. (24 March 2000). "The Genome Sequence of Drosophila melanogaster". Science 287 (5461): 2185-2195. Bibcode:2000Sci ... Wu, DD; Irwin, DM; Zhang, YP (November 2011). "De novo origin of human protein-coding genes.". PLOS Genetics 7 (11): e1002379. ... Hershey, AD; Chase, M (1952). "Independent functions of viral protein and nucleic acid in growth of bacteriophage". The Journal ...
Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network. „Nature". 437 (7062), s. 1173-8, 2005. DOI: ... Drosophila dacapo - The Interactive Fly. Zapoznaj się z zastrzeżeniami dotyczącymi pojęć medycznych i pokrewnych w Wikipedii. ... a b Ono T, Kitaura H, Ugai H, Murata T, Yokoyama KK, Iguchi-Ariga SM, Ariga H. TOK-1, a novel p21Cip1-binding protein that ... Regulation of cyclin A-Cdk2 by SCF component Skp1 and F-box protein Skp2. „Mol. Cell. Biol.". 19 (1), s. 635-45, 1999. PMID: ...
Another feature that sets S. coleoptrata apart from other centipedes is that their hemolymph was found to contain proteins for ... They were shown to be able to visually distinguish between different mutations of Drosophila melanogaster.[10] How this ability ...
The rearing of one larva requires 125-187.5 mg pollen or 25-37.5 mg protein for proper development.[31] Dietary proteins are ... Adult worker honey bees consume 3.4-4.3 mg of pollen per day to meet a dry matter requirement of 66-74% protein.[31] ... In the hive, pollen is used as a protein source necessary during brood-rearing. In certain environments, excess pollen can be ... Pollen is the only natural protein source for honey bees. ... which produce the protein-rich royal jelly needed by the queen ...
R. L. Wysong (1976). "5: Origin of Proteins". The Creation-evolution Controversy (implications, Methodology and Survey of ... atheist Thomas Hunt Morgan was developing the chromosome theory of heredity by examining his swarm of mutated Drosophila (fruit ... for their studies of the structures of hemoglobin and globular proteins.[269] ... awarded the 2001 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine along with Leland Hartwell and Tim Hunt for their discoveries of protein ...
There are a number of ALS genes that encode for RNA-binding proteins. The first to be discovered was TDP-43 protein,[35] a ... Drosophila melanogaster (the common fruit fly), Danio rerio (the zebrafish), Mus musculus (the house mouse), and Rattus ... Mutant SOD1 protein forms intracellular aggregations that inhibit protein degradation. Cytoplasmic aggregations of wild-type ( ... Once these mutant RNA-binding proteins are misfolded and aggregated, they may be able to misfold normal protein both within and ...
The calculated protein efficiency ratio is low, with 1.69 for locust protein compared to 2.5 for standard casein.[81] A serving ... Drosophila) and the housefly (Musca), are applicable to all insects.[50][51] It is a suitable school laboratory animal because ... Locusts yield about five times more edible protein per unit of fodder than cattle, and produce lower levels of greenhouse gases ... Smil, V. (2002). "Worldwide transformation of diets, burdens of meat production and opportunities for novel food proteins". ...
"Identification of novel filament-forming proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Drosophila melanogaster". 》The Journal of ... Hunter T (January 1995). "Protein kinases and phosphatases: the yin and yang of protein phosphorylation and signaling". 》Cell》 ... Protein structure and function》. London: New Science. 27쪽. ISBN 978-1405119221. .. ... Anfinsen CB (July 1973). "Principles that govern the folding of protein chains". 》Science》 181 (4096): 223-30. Bibcode:1973Sci ...
The UBQLN2 gene encodes the protein ubiquilin 2 which is responsible for controlling the degradation of ubiquitinated proteins ... Tested on: mouse (M), only mouse cells (MC), human (H), Drosophila (D), rat (R). Successful treatment: yes (y), yes but with ... As that gene's name suggests, BACE1 is an enzymatic protein that cleaves the Amyloid Precursor Protein into the insoluble ... Mutations in UBQLN2 interfere with protein degradation resulting in neurodegeneration through abnormal protein aggregation.[52] ...
... while a single ancestral member is found in Drosophila.[7] Evolutionary divergence of the CAS proteins family members is ... "Entrez Gene: Cas scaffolding protein family member 4".. *^ a b Tikhmyanova N, Little JL, Golemis EA (April 2010). "CAS proteins ... Cas scaffolding protein family member 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CASS4 gene.[5] ... Protein family[edit]. In vertebrates, the CAS protein family contains four members: p130Cas/BCAR1, NEDD9/HEF1, EFS and CASS4. ...
... anchored proteins: GPI-anchored proteins in liposomes and cells show similar behavior". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... PA plays very important role in Phototransduction in Drosophila[9]. The first three roles are not mutually exclusive. For ... P, Raghu (August 2012). "Lipid signaling in Drosophila photoreceptors". Biochim Biophys Acta. 1821 (8): 1154-1165. doi:10.1016/ ... The roles of lysoPA, PA, and DAG in promoting membrane curvature do not preclude a role in recruiting proteins to the membrane ...
Cyclorrhaphans, including Drosophila, use (3S)-3-hydroxyretinal.[15][16]Firefly squid have been found to use (4R)-4- ... Opsins are proteins and the retinal-binding visual pigments found in the photoreceptor cells in the retinas of eyes. An opsin ... An opsin protein surrounds a molecule of retinal, awaiting detection of a photon. Once retinal captures a photon, retinal's ... Opsins are prototypical G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs).[13] Bovine rhodopsin, the opsin of the rod cells of cattle, was ...
Experimental selection for Drosophila survival in extremely low O(2) environment". PLOS ONE. 2: e490. mai 2007. doi:10.1371/ ... In the light of directed evolution: pathways of adaptive protein evolution". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of ... Experimental selection of hypoxia-tolerant Drosophila melanogaster". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 108: 2349-54. 2011. . doi: ... Artificial selection on a fitness component in Drosophila melanogaster". Evolution. 38 (3): 516-526. doi:10.2307/2408701. JSTOR ...
Such groups include monotremes, Drosophila, some other insects, some fish, some reptiles, and some plants. In Drosophila ... So CCDS's gene number prediction represents a lower bound on the total number of human protein-coding genes.[49] ... There are some species of Drosophila in which X0 males are both viable and fertile.[citation needed] ... at least 72 of which code for proteins.[5] Traits that are inherited via the Y chromosome are called Y-linked traits, or ...
... Wojciech J. Stec and Martin P. Zeidler MRC Centre for Developmental and Biomedical Genetics and ... Wojciech J. Stec and Martin P. Zeidler, "Drosophila SOCS Proteins," Journal of Signal Transduction, vol. 2011, Article ID ...
Reversible protein modification-demodification in bacterial membranes has been shown to be an important mechanism for the ... Thammana P. (1980) Phosphorylated Proteins in Drosophila Membranes. In: Siddiqi O., Babu P., Hall L.M., Hall J.C. (eds) ... 2-4 We have explored the possibility of in vitro phosphorylation of proteins in membrane preparations obtained from Drosophila ... 3 Greengard and coworkers have shown that phosphorylation of a set of synaptic membrane proteins, collectively known as protein ...
Temporal phosphorylation of the Drosophila period protein. I Edery, L J Zwiebel, M E Dembinska, and M Rosbash ... We report here that per protein (PER) undergoes daily oscillations in apparent molecular mass as well as abundance. The ... We suggest that the phosphorylation status of PER is an important determinant in the Drosophila clocks time-keeping mechanism. ... The period gene (per) is required for Drosophila melanogaster to manifest circadian (congruent to 24 hr) rhythms. ...
Evolution of protein-coding genes in Drosophila.. Larracuente AM1, Sackton TB, Greenberg AJ, Wong A, Singh ND, Sturgill D, ... We use the Drosophila genomic data to distinguish between factors that increase the strength of purifying selection on proteins ... We confirm the importance of translational selection in shaping protein evolution in Drosophila and show that factors such as ... The recently sequenced 12 Drosophila genomes provide a unique opportunity to shed light on these unresolved issues. Here, we ...
Taking advantage of the available protein structure of ADH in Drosophila species in the Protein Data Bank, we first mapped the ... Evolving protein functional diversity in new genes of Drosophila. Jianming Zhang, Antony M. Dean, Frédéric Brunet, Manyuan Long ... Evolving protein functional diversity in new genes of Drosophila. Jianming Zhang, Antony M. Dean, Frédéric Brunet, Manyuan Long ... Evolving protein functional diversity in new genes of Drosophila. Jianming Zhang, Antony M. Dean, Frédéric Brunet, and Manyuan ...
Osbp Oxysterol binding protein [Drosophila melanogaster] Osbp Oxysterol binding protein [Drosophila melanogaster]. Gene ID: ... protein coding. RNA name oxysterol binding protein. RefSeq status. REVIEWED. Organism. Drosophila melanogaster (old-lineage: ... mRNA and Protein(s) * NM_057923.4 → NP_477271.1 oxysterol binding protein [Drosophila melanogaster] ... General protein information Go to the top of the page Help Preferred Names. oxysterol binding protein. Names. CG6708-PA. Osbp- ...
Five populations of Drosophila melanogasterthat had been selected for postponed aging were compared with five control ... populations using two-dimensional protein gel electrophoresis. The goals of the... ... Aging results in an unusual expression ofDrosophila heat shock proteins. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 85: 4099-4103.PubMedGoogle ... Biochemic phylogenies ofDrosophila: protein differences detected by two-dimensional electrohoresis. Genetica 61: 55-63.Google ...
... Nguyen Trong Tue,1,2,3 Kouhei Shimaji,1,2 Naoki Tanaka,4 and ... We tested the ability of αB-crystallin to suppress the aggregation of a polyQ protein and α-synuclein in Drosophila. We found ... To examine the effect of αB-crystallin protein on polyQ-induced neurodegeneration in Drosophila, we crossed gmr-Q92 fly lines ... Small heat-shock proteins, such as αB-crystallin, act as chaperones to prevent protein aggregation and play a key role in the ...
1999 Interactions between coiled-coil proteins: Drosophila lamin Dm0 binds to the Bicaudal-D protein. Eur. J. Cell Biol. 78: ... In most of these proteins, the coiled-coil domains are flanked by protein domains that control the proteins distribution or ... it appears that the coiling of the protein occurs along the entire length of the protein, and the protein may form a rod. ... 1992 The Drosophila orb gene is predicted to encode sex-specific germline RNA-binding proteins and has localized transcripts in ...
... association of motor and other proteins with vesicles, and docking and fusion of vesicles at defined locations. In vertebrates ... Rab proteins are small GTPases that play important roles in transport of vesicle cargo and recruitment, ... and constitutively active forms of 31 Drosophila Rab proteins. We describe Drosophila Rab expression patterns during ... Thirty-one flavors of Drosophila rab proteins Genetics. 2007 Jun;176(2):1307-22. doi: 10.1534/genetics.106.066761. Epub 2007 ...
wingless (wg, DWnt-1) protein, a putative signaling molecule, is expressed only in prospective ventral cells in each of the … ... The adult appendages of Drosophila are formed from imaginal discs, sheets of epithelial cells that proliferate during larval ... Organizing activity of wingless protein in Drosophila Cell. 1993 Feb 26;72(4):527-40. doi: 10.1016/0092-8674(93)90072-x. ... wingless (wg, DWnt-1) protein, a putative signaling molecule, is expressed only in prospective ventral cells in each of the leg ...
Drosophila melanogaster males transfer seminal fluid proteins along with sperm during mating. Among these proteins, ACPs (Ac ... Coleman, S., B. Drahn, G. Petersen, J. Stolorov and K. Kraus, 1995 A Drosophila male accessory gland protein that is a member ... 1980 Proteins of the Drosophila melanogaster male reproductive system: two-dimensional gel patterns of proteins synthesized in ... Ravi Ram, K., S. Ji and M. F. Wolfner, 2005 Fates and targets of male accessory gland proteins in mated female Drosophila ...
Protein Equilibration Through Somatic Ring Canals in Drosophila Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... In Drosophila, some cells maintain direct cytoplasmic connections with their siblings by intercellular bridges known as ring ... clone boundaries and enable the equilibration of protein between transcriptionally mosaic follicle cells in the Drosophila ... Although intercellular bridges resulting from incomplete cytokinesis were discovered in somatic Drosophila tissues decades ago ...
... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Pfam protein domain database. More...Pfami. View protein in Pfam. PF11704, Folliculin, 1 hit. PF16692, Folliculin_C, 1 hit ... Protein-protein interaction databases. STRINGi. 7227.FBpp0076545. Protocols and materials databases. The DNASU plasmid ... Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites. More...InterProi. View protein in InterPro. IPR037521, ...
... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... View protein in InterPro. IPR000571, Znf_CCCH. IPR036855, Znf_CCCH_sf. Pfami. View protein in Pfam. PF00642, zf-CCCH, 2 ... Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites. More...InterProi. View protein in InterPro. IPR000571, ... Simple Modular Architecture Research Tool; a protein domain database. More...SMARTi. View protein in SMART. SM00356, ZnF_C3H1 ...
Interacts with other neurogenic proteins in the specification of the neuroblast versus epidermoblast cell fate. ... Drosophila ananassae (Fruit fly). Drosophila rhopaloa (Fruit fly). Drosophila yakuba (Fruit fly). Drosophila erecta (Fruit fly) ... Drosophila yakuba (Fruit fly). Drosophila simulans (Fruit fly). Drosophila erecta (Fruit fly). Drosophila biarmipes (Fruit fly) ... Drosophila serrata (Fruit fly). Drosophila kikkawai (Fruit fly). Drosophila ananassae (Fruit fly). Drosophila rhopaloa (Fruit ...
Confidence scores for protein-protein interactions (A) Drosophila protein-protein interactions have been binned according to ... Statistical properties of the refined Drosophila interaction map. The high-confidence Drosophila protein-protein interactions ... Drosophila proteins with sequence similarity to human disease proteins are denoted by a star outline (according to the ... A) Protein family/human disease ortholog view. Proteins are color-coded according to protein family as annotated by the Gene ...
... we identified odorant binding protein 69a (Obp69a) as a new player in the machinery that promotes behavioral plasticity to the ... we used Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism to explore a basic question in neuroscience: why do different individuals ...
In addition to its role in many cellular processes, Capping Protein acts as a main tumor suppressor module in Drosophila and in ... Overexpressing capping protein α and β decreases both F-actin levels and tissue growth, while expressing forms of Capping ... In addition, overexpressing one of the subunit in tissues knocked-down for the other increases the mRNA and protein levels of ... Protein that have dominant negative effects on F-actin promote tissue growth. Both subunits regulate each others protein ...
cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) signaling plays an important role in sleep in Drosophila (Hendricks et al., 2001; Joiner et ... Because protein kinase A (PKA) is a putative target of octopamine signaling and is also implicated in Drosophila sleep, we ... Many G-protein-coupled receptors in Drosophila display activity that allows their bona fide classification as octopamine ... Octopamine Regulates Sleep in Drosophila through Protein Kinase A-Dependent Mechanisms. Amanda Crocker and Amita Sehgal ...
"Drosophila Proteins" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Drosophila Proteins" was a major or minor ... Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied ... "Drosophila Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Drosophila Proteins" by people in Profiles. ...
Centrosomal protein 190kD *cp309 (also known as pericentrin-like protein) *gamma-tubulin ring protein 84 *Microtubule- ... Drosophila sensory cilia lacking MKS-proteins exhibit striking defects in development but only subtle defects in adults. Cilia ... protein. It seems unlikely that Rootletin is the centrosome linker protein in Drosophila because it is not expressed generally ... Time-lapse live-cell imaging reveals dual function of Oseg4, Drosophila WDR35, in ciliary protein trafficking. Cilia are highly ...
John Ringo, Becky Talyn, and Michael Brannan "Effects of Precocene and Low Protein Diet on Reproductive Behavior in Drosophila ... John Ringo, Becky Talyn, Michael Brannan "Effects of Precocene and Low Protein Diet on Reproductive Behavior in Drosophila ... Effects of Precocene and Low Protein Diet on Reproductive Behavior in Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae). ... Protein deprivation severely reduced ovarian volume and lowered primary receptivity in 3-d-old flies. Protein-starved females ...
Signaling at A-Kinase Anchoring Proteins Organizes Anesthesia-Sensitive Memory in Drosophila. Martin Schwaerzel, Andrea Jaeckel ... Signaling at A-Kinase Anchoring Proteins Organizes Anesthesia-Sensitive Memory in Drosophila ... Signaling at A-Kinase Anchoring Proteins Organizes Anesthesia-Sensitive Memory in Drosophila ... Signaling at A-Kinase Anchoring Proteins Organizes Anesthesia-Sensitive Memory in Drosophila ...
... ,anti-Yan 8B12H9, ... Mouse Anti-Drosophila Yan Drosophila protein Antibody, Unconjugated from Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank. ... Mouse Anti-Protein S Monoclonal Antibody, Unconjugated, Clone HYB 232-02 from Abcam. 3. Mouse Anti-Mouse Glutathione S- ...
... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Pfam protein domain database. More...Pfami. View protein in Pfam. PF00107, ADH_zinc_N, 1 hit. PF08659, KR, 1 hit. PF00550 ... Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites. More...InterProi. View protein in InterPro. IPR029058, ... tr,Q8MR70,Q8MR70_DROME Oleoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] hydrolase (Fragment) OS=Drosophila melanogaster OX=7227 GN=FASN2 PE=2 SV=1 ...
Editing at this site results in a serine to glycine change in the translated protein and has been shown to reduce editing ... This region of the protein is highly conserved throughout the ADARs and sequence comparisons with human ADAR2 at the DNA level ...
... isolated from Drosophila; amino acid sequence in first source; do not confuse with PPL gene product; GenBank AF203725 ... Drosophila pumpless protein: homologous to subunit H of the glycine cleavage system; ... Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins*Proteins: 90489*Insect Proteins: 4*Drosophila Proteins: 5*Drosophila pumpless protein ... Drosophila pumpless protein. Subscribe to New Research on Drosophila pumpless protein homologous to subunit H of the glycine ...
Drosophila neuromusculin protein: expressed in the PNS, few CNS neurons & most embryonic cells; member of the immunoglobulin ... Drosophila neuromusculin protein. Subscribe to New Research on Drosophila neuromusculin protein expressed in the PNS, few CNS ... Membrane Proteins: 5300*Membrane Glycoproteins: 1848*Cell Adhesion Molecules: 1915*Drosophila neuromusculin protein ... Proteins: 90489*Glycoproteins: 18176*Membrane Glycoproteins: 1848*Cell Adhesion Molecules: 1915*Drosophila neuromusculin ...
Bidirectional Regulation of Amyloid Precursor Protein-Induced Memory Defects by Nebula/DSCR1: A Prot… ... Calcineurin and its regulator sra/DSCR1 are essential for sleep in Drosophila. ...
  • T.R. Venkatesh, S. Zingde and K.S. Krishnan, Isolation and characterization of membranes from Drosophila melanogaster ,this volume. (
  • The period gene (per) is required for Drosophila melanogaster to manifest circadian (congruent to 24 hr) rhythms. (
  • A molecular characterization of the homologous genomic region in Drosophila melanogaster revealed that ynd is a gene duplicate of another related gene that is expressed specifically in testis, Yellow emperor ( Ymp ) ( 6 - 8 ). (
  • Five populations of Drosophila melanogaster that had been selected for postponed aging were compared with five control populations using two-dimensional protein gel electrophoresis. (
  • Identification of mitochondrial proteins on two-dimensional electrophoresis gels of extracts of adult Drosophila melanogaster . (
  • Age-dependent changes in proteins of Drosophila melanogaster . (
  • Quantitative genetic analysis of postponed aging in Drosophila melanogaster , p. 66-87 in Genetic effects on aging II, edited by D. A. Harrison. (
  • Quantitative genetics of postponed aging in Drosophila melanogaster I. Analysis of outbred populations. (
  • Further studies of the South Amherst population of Drosophila melanogaster . (
  • Estimating the number of genetic elements that defer senescence in Drosophila melanogaster . (
  • The genetic basis of adaptation to selection for longevity in Drosophila melanogaster . (
  • Drosophila melanogaster males transfer seminal fluid proteins along with sperm during mating. (
  • Of 57 new candidate Acp genes previously reported in D. melanogaster , 34 conform to our more stringent criteria for encoding putative male accessory gland extracellular proteins, thus bringing the total number of ACPs identified to 52 (34 plus 18 previously identified). (
  • The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development. (
  • John Ringo , Becky Talyn , and Michael Brannan "Effects of Precocene and Low Protein Diet on Reproductive Behavior in Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae)," Annals of the Entomological Society of America 98(4), 601-607, (1 July 2005). (
  • In preparation for clinical trials, a full-length PfRH5 protein vaccine called "RH5.1" was produced as a soluble product under cGMP using the ExpreS 2 platform (based on a Drosophila melanogaster S2 stable cell line system). (
  • We applied label-free quantitative proteomics to Drosophila melanogaster male reproductive tissue - where Sfps are unprocessed, and highly abundant - and quantified Sfps before and immediately after mating, to infer those transferred during copulation. (
  • Synthetic peptide corresponding to Fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) Forkhead box protein O (N terminal). (
  • In this thesis, I investigate the molecular evolution of reproductive proteins in the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster, focusing on a class of ejaculate proteins known as accessory gland proteins (?Acps? (
  • In the salivary glands of Drosophila melanogaster , 8-10 discrete rounds of S phases occur during embryonic and larval periods to produce polytene chromosomes ( Rudkin, 1972 ). (
  • We have chosen to search for mitotic regulators in Drosophila melanogaster , which offers the possibility of studying the effects of mitotic mutations within the intact cell. (
  • Addgene: Genome-wide analysis of mRNAs regulated by Drosha and Argonaute proteins in Drosophila melanogaster. (
  • The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster represents a key model organism for analyzing how neuronal circuits regulate behavior. (
  • Drosophila melanogaster offers the advantage that transgenes can be easily expressed in neuronal subpopulations, e.g., in intrinsic mushroom body neurons (Kenyon cells). (
  • Homologues of many of these genes have been identified in Saccharomyces pombe, Drosophila melanogaster, Xenopus laevis, Mus musculus and Homo sapiens (reviewed by Musacchio and Hardwick, 2002 ). (
  • Here we applied a modified version of the HiChIP protocol to retrieve the significant contacts mediated by architectural protein CP190 in D. melanogaster cells. (
  • Here we describe the characterization of a putative SET-domain gene in Drosophila melanogaster, G9a. (
  • As the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster expresses Tau proteins (dTau) that are homologous to hTau, we aimed to better comprehend dTau functions by generating a specific tau knock-out (KO) fly line using homologous recombination. (
  • Here we examined whether genetic manipulations of APP-like (APPL) protein cleavage in Drosophila melanogaster affect rest-activity rhythms and core circadian clock function in this model organism. (
  • The Drosophila melanogaster gypsy transposable element encodes putative gene products homologous to retroviral proteins. (
  • We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the gypsy element present at the forked locus of Drosophila melanogaster in the f1 allele. (
  • Whereas three PKD isoforms are known in mammals, Drosophila melanogaster contains a single PKD homolog. (
  • The D. melanogaster genome has two genes, CG18584 and CG6589, which encode SUN domain proteins. (
  • Comparative analysis of the sequence and structure of two Drosophila melanogaster genes encoding vitelline membrane proteins. (
  • The Trithorax group (TrxG) proteins and the Polycomb group (PcG) proteins, originally identified in Drosophila melanogaster but present in all higher eukaryotes, cooperate to sustain gene expression states by establishing and organizing information contained in the chromatin template. (
  • The model organism Drosophila melanogaster was used for this study because of their quantifiable response to noxious stimuli and the powerful tools available for genetic manipulations. (
  • Identification of cellular factors that recognize UV-damaged DNA in Drosophila melanogaster. (
  • Publications] T. Todo et al: 'Identification of cellular factors that recognize UV-damaged DNA in Drosophila melanogaster' Mutation Research. (
  • Publications] Takeshi toda and Haruko Ryo: 'Identification of cellular factors that recognize UVーdamaged DNA in Drosophila melanogaster' Mutation Research. (
  • The Sex-lethal (Sxl) protein of Drosophila melanogaster regulates alternative splicing of the transformer (tra) mRNA precursor by binding to the tra polypyrimidine tract in the sex determination cascade. (
  • In Drosophila melanogaster the foraging (for) gene is a polymorphic trait that underlies differences in food-seeking behaviors. (
  • The Rover and Sitter alleles are located within the 24A3-5 region of the Drosophila melanogaster polytene chromosome, a region which contains the PKG d2g gene. (
  • Evolution of protein-coding genes in Drosophila. (
  • Studies of recently evolved chimeric genes permit direct investigation of the origin of new protein functions before they become obscured by subsequent evolution. (
  • The phenotypes of both mutants clearly indicate that the genes are involved in the localization of determinants in the form of mRNA and protein. (
  • We have begun a systematic genetic study of the 33 Rab genes in Drosophila. (
  • This comprehensive set of Acp genes allows us to dissect the patterns of evolutionary change in a suite of proteins from a single male-specific reproductive tissue. (
  • Drosophila and organisms other than vertebrates have single genes encoding capping protein α (cpa) or β (cpb) . (
  • Bettencourt B, Kim I, Hoffmann A, Feder M. Response to natural and laboratory selection at the Drosophila hsp70 genes. (
  • The Drosophila germ-cell lineage has emerged as a remarkable system for identifying genes required for changes in cell fate from stem cells into more specialized cells. (
  • The characterization of maternal-effect mutants of Drosophila is a powerful route towards the identification of such genes. (
  • The proteins encoded by such genes may have either regulatory roles or be part of the structural components of the mitotic apparatus. (
  • Emc can be considered a negative feedback regulator of Da, and some E- and ID- protein genes regulate one another similarly in mammalian cells ( Bhattacharya and Baker, 2011 ). (
  • The Polycomb group (Pc-G) genes are essential for maintaining the proper spatially restricted expression pattern of the homeotic loci during Drosophila development. (
  • We show here that the proteins encoded by bmi-1 and the Pc-G genes Polycomb (Pc) and Psc as well as Su(z)2 mediate repression in mammalian cells when targeted to a promoter by LexA in a cotransfection system. (
  • Genes encoding mammalian homologues of the Drosophila suppressor of PEV Su(var)3-9 were the first shown to encode proteins with histone lysine methyl-transferase (HKMT) activity. (
  • A hallmark signature of this class of proteins is the evolutionary conserved SET-domain found in numerous chromatin regulators, and was named for its occurrence in genes encoding three such regulators in Drosophila, namely Su(var)3-9, E(z) and trithorax. (
  • It is not well understood, however, whether Shh signalling also controls the activities of Gli proteins post-translationally and whether these activities have activating or repressing effects on target genes in vivo. (
  • Arm forms a complex with the DNA-binding protein, dTCF, to alter expression of Wg-responsive genes. (
  • A generally accepted model suggests that TrxG proteins contribute to maintenance of transcription by protecting genes from inappropriate Polycomb group (PcG)-mediated silencing, instead of directly promoting transcription. (
  • These findings highlight that insulator proteins are versatile transcriptional regulators, suggesting that tissue specific contributions to transcription result from direct regulation of individual genes. (
  • Two putative light-sensitive ion channels have been isolated from Drosophila , encoded by the transient-receptor-potential ( trp ) and transient-receptor-potential-like ( trpl ) genes. (
  • A general feature of these polyQ disease genes is aberrant expansion of their CAG trinucleotide repeats, leading to polyQ expansion in the encoded proteins, which then form protein aggregates in various types of tissues (2). (
  • The abbreviation refers to the homologies to the Caenorhabditis elegans SMA ("small" worm phenotype) and MAD family ("Mothers Against Decapentaplegic") of genes in Drosophila. (
  • A similar screen done in the Caenorhabditis elegans protein SMA (from gene sma for small body size) revealed three genes, Sma-2, Sma-3, and Sma-4, that had similar mutant phenotypes to those of the TGF-B like receptor Daf-4. (
  • 2018-05-02 00:00:00 Abstract Expansion of poly-glutamine (polyQ) stretches in several proteins has been linked to neurodegenerative diseases. (
  • Furthermore, Ter 94, the Drosophila homolog of the myeloid leukemia factor 1, and heat-shock-transcription-factor-1 (HSF1-) activating compounds are also reported to have a dominant role in suppressing polyQ aggregation [ 7 - 9 ]. (
  • Plasmodium falciparum reticulocyte-binding protein homolog 5 (PfRH5) is a leading asexual blood-stage vaccine candidate for malaria. (
  • 2 The most advanced of these candidates is the P. falciparum reticulocyte-binding protein homolog 5 (PfRH5). (
  • A proteomic screen for MSL-interacting proteins identified UpSET, the Drosophila homolog of yeast SET3 and mammalian MLL5. (
  • Imp-L2, a putative homolog of vertebrate IGF-binding protein 7, counteracts insulin signaling in Drosophila and is essential for starvation resistance. (
  • Anti- FZR1 (Fizzy-Related Protein Homolog, Fizzy/Cell Division Cycle 20 Related 1 (Drosophila)) by USBiological, Cat. (
  • The goals of the study were to identify specific proteins associated with postponed aging and to survey the population genetics of the response to selection. (
  • In Genetics and Biology of Drosophila vol 2B, M Asburner, TRF Wright, eds. (
  • Only 3 SOCS-like proteins are encoded by the Drosophila genome, and despite this low complexity, Drosophila SOCS proteins share many similarities to their human homologues. (
  • These mutant embryos exhibit fragmented or decondensed nuclei and accumulate higher levels of SUMO-conjugated proteins, suggesting a role for Dgrn in genome stability. (
  • A recently published method uses in situ Hi-C followed by chromatin immunoprecipitation (HiChIP) to enrich the overall yield of significant genome-wide interactions mediated by a specific protein. (
  • Genome-wide analysis of SR-dependent splicing by RNA-seq, reveals that SR proteins are required for the regulation of many types of alternative splicing events, and can act as positive or negative regulators of splice site choice depending on their binding location on the target RNA. (
  • We investigated this interface at the genome level, uncovering a widespread co-localization of both proteins at promoters and PcG-bound intergenic elements. (
  • Our genome-wide studies have identified thousands of endogenous non- gypsy Su(Hw) binding sites (SBSs) in Drosophila genome, constitutively occupied throughout development. (
  • 1 Central to ongoing efforts to develop highly effective vaccines against malaria infection, disease, or transmission is the production of recombinant proteins for use as subunit vaccines. (
  • The concentration of our recombinant proteins is measured using the absorbance at 280nm. (
  • Human Tau (hTau) is a highly soluble and natively unfolded protein that binds to microtubules within neurons. (
  • We show that the increased β-cleavage of endogenous APPL by the β-secretase (dBACE) severely disrupts circadian behavior and leads to reduced expression of clock protein PER in central clock neurons of aging flies. (
  • In the Drosophila brain, SLOB57/51 proteins are expressed especially prominently in insulin producing neurons of the pars intercerebralis, while SLOB71/65 proteins are enriched in the lateral neurons that participate in the generation of circadian rhythms. (
  • The effects of polyQ-expanded proteins on neurons have been extensively studied, but their effects on glia remain unclear. (
  • Although these polyQ-expanded proteins are widely expressed and form aggregates in neurons and glia in both human and mouse models (5-7), most studies have focused on neurons. (
  • Because protein kinase A (PKA) is a putative target of octopamine signaling and is also implicated in Drosophila sleep, we investigated its role in the effects of octopamine on sleep. (
  • Feeding octopamine to flies leads to a protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent decrease in total sleep, whereas removal of octopamine from the food is followed by a sleep rebound. (
  • Nst was required for mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling downstream of FGF but not MAPK signaling activated by epidermal growth factor. (
  • showed that fruit flies defective in the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway exhibited reduced protein O-GlcNAcylation and were specifically defective in activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase downstream of fibroblast growth factor (FGF), but not downstream of other receptor tyrosine kinases. (
  • Ayme-Southgate A, Southgate R, Saide J, Benian G, Pardue ML. Both synchronous and asynchronous muscle isoforms of projectin (the Drosophila bent locus product) contain functional kinase domains. (
  • Polarity of many cell types is controlled by a protein complex consisting of Bazooka/PAR-3 (Baz), PAR-6 and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC). (
  • aPKC is the main signaling component of this complex that functions by phosphorylating downstream targets, while the PDZ domain proteins Baz and PAR-6 control the subcellular localization and kinase activity of aPKC. (
  • We identified seven gene products required for the Attacin response in vitro, including two novel Imd pathway components: inhibitor of apoptosis 2 (Iap2) and transforming growth factor-activated kinase 1 (TAK1)-binding protein (TAB). (
  • Members of the Protein Kinase D (PKD) family are involved in numerous cellular processes in mammals, including cell survival after oxidative stress, polarized transport of Golgi vesicles, as well as cell migration and invasion. (
  • Protein Kinase D (PKD) isoforms are serine/threonine kinases of the Protein Kinase C family typified by a long N-terminal regulatory region followed by a catalytic kinase domain ( Figure 1A ). (
  • Based on sequence similarity of the kinase domain, PKD has been classified as member of the Ca 2+ /Calmodulin-dependent serine/threonine protein kinases (CAMK) ( Fu and Rubin 2011 , Cobbaut and Van Lint 2018 ). (
  • The protein is subdivided in a regulatory and a catalytic kinase domain (KD). (
  • Phosphorylation of a serine residue within a peptide encompassing CBS-1 by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) abolishes calmodulin binding, and phosphorylation of the adjacent serine by protein kinase C appears to modulate this phosphorylation by PKA. (
  • To begin elucidating the functions of the protein in signaling and its potential role in developmental processes, we characterized mutant and overexpression SRm160 phenotypes in Drosophila and their interactions with the locus encoding the LAMMER protein kinase, Doa. (
  • cGMP-dependent protein kinase or protein kinase G (PKG) is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that is activated by cGMP. (
  • 1,2 Phosphorylation of membrane proteins in the mammalian system is a well-documented phenomenon. (
  • 3 Greengard and coworkers have shown that phosphorylation of a set of synaptic membrane proteins, collectively known as protein I is stimulated specifically in response to cAMP and calcium. (
  • 2-4 We have explored the possibility of in vitro phosphorylation of proteins in membrane preparations obtained from Drosophila fly heads. (
  • W.B. Huttner and P. Greengard, Multiple phosphorylation sites in protein I and their differential regulation by cyclic AMP and calcium, Proc. (
  • We suggest that the phosphorylation status of PER is an important determinant in the Drosophila clock's time-keeping mechanism. (
  • Modification of proteins by O-linked β- N -acetylglucosamine ( O -GlcNAc) is a reversible posttranslational modification that occurs on cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins and, like phosphorylation, appears to serve a regulatory function. (
  • To study the effect of tension we analysed the kinetochore localization of spindle checkpoint proteins in relation to tension-sensitive kinetochore phosphorylation recognised by the 3F3/2 antibody. (
  • Characterization of the protein following formulation in the adjuvant system AS01 B showed that RH5.1 is stable in the timeframe needed for clinical vaccine administration, and that there was no discernible impact on the liposomal formulation of AS01 B following addition of RH5.1. (
  • Characterization of the Drosophila SLOWPOKE binding protein (SLOB) pro" by Amanda L. Sheldon, Lauren Manderfield et al. (
  • The gene encodes a protein that is highly similar to rat dynamin, 69% of the amino-acid sequence is identical. (
  • The gene encodes a protein of 1637 amino acids with similar domain architecture as the mammalian homologue of same name. (
  • This gene encodes a protein with multiple PDZ domains. (
  • Transcriptional repression by Drosophila and mammalian Polycomb group proteins in transfected mammalian cells. (
  • Although its biochemical functions have been extensively described, its genetic interactions and potential participation in signaling pathways remain largely unknown, despite the fact that it is highly phosphorylated in both mammalian cells and Drosophila. (
  • In addition, polytene chromosomes, because of their immense size, allow a visual examination of protein-chromatin interactions in interphase, in the absence of chromatin condensation. (
  • In this dissertation I explore how identifying protein-protein interactions on chromatin reveals insights into these unanswered questions critical to chromatin biology. (
  • Moreover, we validated light-induced co-clustering assays to assess protein-protein interactions in S2 cells. (
  • In conclusion, GFP-based LARIAT is a versatile tool to answer different biological questions, since it enables probing of dynamic processes and protein-protein interactions with high spatiotemporal resolution in Drosophila S2 cells. (
  • Ando-Kuri M., Rivera I.S.M., Rowley M.J., Corces V.G. (2018) Analysis of Chromatin Interactions Mediated by Specific Architectural Proteins in Drosophila Cells. (
  • Recent advancements in genetically encoded light-sensitive protein systems, also known as optogenetic systems, have stemmed from the many benefits of using blue light stimuli to selectively initiate protein-protein interactions. (
  • Such benefits include the non-invasive nature of light, the precision of the stimulus, and the reversibility of the protein-protein interactions in the dark. (
  • L3MBTL3 has direct interactions with proteins and molecules. (
  • DopEcR in the brain is known to affect behavior through interactions with the Drosophila Epidermal growth factor receptor (Egfr), referred to as dEGFR. (
  • PDZ domains mediate protein-protein interactions, and proteins with multiple PDZ domains often organize multimeric complexes at the plasma membrane. (
  • Other known or paralogous interactions include, Cdc2c-dap, Cdc2-twe, and the interactions of Cdc2 and Cdc2c with CG9790, a Cks1-like protein. (
  • Interactions are colored if they involve proteins contacting two Cdks (red), three Cdks (blue), or five Cdks (green). (
  • Publications] I.Kim: 'NMR analysis of the hydrogen bonding interactions of the RNA-binding domains of the D.Sex-lethal protein with target RNA fragmentswith site specific[3-15N]uridines' Nucleic Acids Research. (
  • Here, we implicate Drosophila Activating transcription factor 3 (Atf3), the single ortholog of human ATF3 and JDP2 bZIP proteins, in abdominal morphogenesis. (
  • Indeed, both asymmetric cell division and neurite morphogenesis are often achieved by mechanisms that generate asymmetric protein distributions, including post-transcriptional gene regulatory mechanisms such as the transport of translationally silent messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and local translation of mRNAs within neurites. (
  • Here, we show that the secreted Imaginal morphogenesis protein-Late 2 (Imp-L2) binds Drosophila insulin-like peptide 2 (Dilp2) and inhibits growth non-autonomously. (
  • The ability to drive Rho1 to the membrane at specific stages of development will generate a better understanding of the effects of altering cytoskeletal function during Drosophila morphogenesis and thereby give insight into wound healing and tissue regeneration processes in vertebrates. (
  • Microtubule-severing protein Katanin regulates neuromuscular junction development and dendritic elaboration in Drosophila. (
  • The tumor suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) negatively regulates Wingless (Wg)/Wnt signal transduction by helping target the Wnt effector β-catenin or its Drosophila homologue Armadillo (Arm) for destruction. (
  • Drosophila APC (dAPC) negatively regulates Arm signaling, but only in a limited set of tissues. (
  • The Rel proteins Dorsal and DIF (Dorsal-related immunity factor) are possible candidates for the transactivating protein in the Toll pathway that directly regulates the drosomycin gene. (
  • The adult appendages of Drosophila are formed from imaginal discs, sheets of epithelial cells that proliferate during larval development and differentiate during metamorphosis. (
  • Interaction between Drosophila bZIP proteins Atf3 and Jun prevents replacement of epithelial cells during metamorphosis. (
  • This protein localizes to tight junctions and to the apical membrane of epithelial cells. (
  • The α B-crystallin protein is found to be overexpressed in many neurological diseases, and mutations in α A- or α B-crystallin can cause cataracts and myopathy [ 11 ]. (
  • The Bic-D protein contains four well-defined heptad repeat domains characteristic of intermediate filament proteins, and several of the mutations in Bic-D map to these conserved domains. (
  • p>Describes annotations that are concluded from looking at variations or changes in a gene product such as mutations or abnormal levels and includes techniques such as knockouts, overexpression, anti-sense experiments and use of specific protein inhibitors. (
  • In vitro analyses of chicken and budding yeast CP revealed that deletions or point mutations in either the α or β tentacles do not affect protein stability but reduce the capping affinity, while a complete removal of both tentacles fully abrogates the actin-binding activity [12] , [20] . (
  • To dissect the in vivo functions of Katanin, we generated mutations in Drosophila Katanin 60 and manipulated its expression in a tissue-specific manner. (
  • Females with dorsal levels roughly twice that of wild-type produced normal embryos, while a higher level of dorsal protein resulted in phenotypes similar to those observed for loss-of-function cactus mutations. (
  • RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play an integral role in splicing and post-transcriptional gene regulation, and mutations in RBPs have been linked with multiple neurological disorders including autism, dementia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), Fragile X syndrome (FXS), and X-linked intellectual disability disorder. (
  • We report a method for generating Drosophila germline mutants effectively via injection of the complex of the purified Cas9 protein, tracrRNA, and gene-specific crRNAs, which may reduce delayed mutations because of the transient activity of the Cas9 protein, combined with the simple mutation detection in GO founders by the T7E1 assay. (
  • Des mutations dans le gène drosophilien lethal giant discs (lgd), provoque une prolifération cellulaire en perturbant l'endocytose de Notch. (
  • Mutations in the Drosophila gene lethal giant discs (lgd), causes cellular overgrowth by perturbing Notch endocytosis. (
  • Mutations affecting the Nudel protein, one of the maternal gene products involved in development, produce an abnormal dorsal-ventral polarity in an embryo or an embryo with aberrant eggshell structure, depending on the position of the mutation within the protein. (
  • In fungi, C. elegans, D. discoideum and vertebrates, these proteins are required not only for nuclear positioning, but also for maintaining the connection of the nucleus to the MTOC, for centrosomal duplication, for homologous pairing of chromosomes in meiosis, for distribution of nuclear pore complexes and for connecting the centrosome to chromatin to ensure genomic stability. (
  • A Drosophila homologue of oxysterol binding protein (OSBP)--implications for the role of OSBP. (
  • H uman β-catenin (βcat) 1 and its Drosophila homologue Armadillo (Arm) are key effectors of the conserved Wingless (Wg)/Wnt signal transduction pathway (for review see Gumbiner 1998 ). (
  • After purification we have determined the enzymatic activity of each factor.Factor 2 is a Drosophila homologue of photolyase (which photoreactivate CPDs). (
  • Here we review our current understanding of Drosophila SOCS proteins, their roles in vivo, and future approaches to elucidating their functions. (
  • Alpha-crystallins ( α -crystallins) are major protein components of the vertebrate eye lens. (
  • Most of the fly proteins are clearly related to specific vertebrate proteins. (
  • Hu DH, Kimura S, Maruyama K. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis of connectin-like high molecular weight proteins of various types of vertebrate and invertebrate muscles. (
  • A) Schematic diagrams of vertebrate and Drosophila APC proteins. (
  • The Drosophila BBB is formed by an apical layer of extracellular matrix, followed by a neural lamella, the perineurial glia (PG) and the basal subperineurial glia (SPG) with septate junctions (SJs, the insect equivalent of vertebrate tight junctions) between SPGs (32,33). (
  • Dynamics of activating and repressive histone modifications in Drosophila neural stem cell lineages and brain tumors. (
  • Several disparate groups of regulatory proteins alter chromatin state through post-translational modification of histone proteins, nucleosome remodeling, and higher order chromatin structure in order to affect gene expression. (
  • Here we report a physical and functional interaction in Drosophila between two members of the TrxG, the histone methyltransferase ASH1 and the bromodomain and extraterminal family protein FSH. (
  • Aging results in an unusual expression of Drosophila heat shock proteins. (
  • Small heat-shock proteins, such as α B-crystallin, act as chaperones to prevent protein aggregation and play a key role in the prevention of such protein disorganisation diseases. (
  • These nuclear membrane proteins interact with the motors, the nuclear lamina and each other to effect nuclear migration and positioning. (
  • Previous studies have indicated that QBP1 (polyQ binding peptide 1) binds to the expanded polyQ stretch and inhibits aggregate formation of the expanded polyQ protein in vitro [ 5 , 6 ]. (
  • A role for the Orbit protein in regulating microtubule behavior in mitosis is suggested by its association with microtubules throughout the spindle at all mitotic stages, by its copurification with microtubules from embryonic extracts, and by the finding that the Orbit protein directly binds to MAP-free microtubules in a GTP-dependent manner. (
  • It is thought to be a protein scaffold that binds numerous protein partners at distinct sites along its length (see Fig. 1 ) (for review see Polakis 1999 ). (
  • SLO binding protein (SLOB) binds to and modulates SLO activity. (
  • The cDNA encoding the Trpl protein was initially isolated on the basis that the expressed protein binds calmodulin. (
  • This result provides the first insight into the mechanism by which a protein binds specifically to a cognate RNA that has no intramolecular base pairs. (
  • wingless (wg, DWnt-1) protein, a putative signaling molecule, is expressed only in prospective ventral cells in each of the leg discs. (
  • This transposable element is 7,469 base pairs long and encodes three putative protein products. (
  • The second one encodes a putative protein which shows extensive amino acid homology to retroviral proteins, including gag-specific protease, reverse transcriptase, and DNA endonuclease. (
  • As the amino-terminal RBD (RBD1) of the Sxl protein exhibits low sequence homology to the typical RBDs, paticularly at the putative functional residues, it was difficult to unambiguously locate the RNP1 and RNP2 motifs. (
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (
  • Among many MT regulators, katanin was the first identified MT-severing protein, but its neuronal functions have not yet been examined in a multicellular organism. (
  • Here we demonstrate a novel role for octopamine in the regulation of sleep and wake in Drosophila . (
  • Da is required for Emc protein expression, which has been thought to reflect transcriptional regulation ( Bhattacharya and Baker, 2011 ). (
  • Sequence of unusually large protein implicated in regulation of myosin activity in C . elegans. (
  • We tested an oligomerizing version of the CRY2 component as a tool for the negative regulation of targeted proteins in Drosophila. (
  • Previous analyses using overexpression and RNAi studies indicated likewise multi-facetted roles for Drosophila PKD, including the regulation of secretory transport and actin-cytoskeletal dynamics. (
  • The SR proteins are a well-conserved class of RNA-binding proteins that have an essential role in the regulation of splice site selection, and have also been implicated as key regulators during other stages of RNA metabolism. (
  • In addition, a vast majority of regulated targets require multiple SR protein members for regulation. (
  • This comprehensive analysis reveals position-dependent RNA splicing maps, in vivo consensus binding motifs, and a high level of cross- and coordinated regulation of alternative splicing by the SR protein family. (
  • In an attempt to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms that control fiber diversity in any given muscle, we have focused our attention on the transcriptional regulation of the Drosophila Troponin T gene. (
  • The linker region between MH1 and MH2 is not just a connector, but also plays a role in protein function and regulation. (
  • We use the Drosophila genomic data to distinguish between factors that increase the strength of purifying selection on proteins and factors that affect the amount of positive selection experienced by proteins. (
  • Seminal fluid proteins (Sfps) 1 are typically produced in specialized secretory glands in males (such as the accessory glands in insects, and the prostate, seminal vesicles, bulbourethral glands and ampullary glands in mammals), and are transferred to females during copulation. (
  • In mammals, insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) bind IGFs with high affinity and modulate their mitogenic, anti-apoptotic and metabolic actions, but no functional homologs have been identified in invertebrates so far. (
  • One group of proteins that represent important physiological regulators of both EGFR and JAK/STAT signalling is the members of the SOCS family. (
  • I also investigate the molecular evolution of a class of Acps and female reproductive tract proteins that (I argue) are particularly likely to undergo co-evolution between males and females, namely proteolysis regulators and targets of proteolysis. (
  • Proneural bHLH proteins are transcriptional regulators of neural fate specification. (
  • Rab proteins are small GTPases that play important roles in transport of vesicle cargo and recruitment, association of motor and other proteins with vesicles, and docking and fusion of vesicles at defined locations. (
  • Recent studies of the functions of certain Rab proteins have revealed specific roles in mediating developmental signal transduction. (
  • These seminal fluid proteins (Sfps) play crucial roles in reproduction, such as supporting sperm function, and particularly in insects, modifying female physiology and behaviour. (
  • Klaroid and Dspag4 thus have cellular roles typical for SUN domain proteins, and Dspag4 is unique in that its function is to attach nuclei to centrioles exclusively in maturing spermatids in the male germline. (
  • Prominent among them is the conserved chromatin reader PHD finger protein 7 (Phf7). (
  • The stoned locus of Drosophila produces a dicistronic transcript and encodes two proteins, stoned-A (STNA) and stoned-B (STNB). (
  • In: Siddiqi O., Babu P., Hall L.M., Hall J.C. (eds) Development and Neurobiology of Drosophila. (
  • Manu -, Ludwig M, Kreitman M. Sex-specific pattern formation during early Drosophila development. (
  • Our data thus identify Atf3 as a new functional partner of Drosophila Jun during development. (
  • The morphology and development of the Drosophila muscular system. (
  • One specific optogenetic system from Arabidopsis thaliana, the CRY2/CIB module, offers a powerful genetically encoded mechanism by which to study the role of proteins in a tissue-specific manner during various stages of development. (
  • In Drosophila , the function of the PAR-3-PAR-6-aPKC complex in epithelial development has been studied in the embryonic ectoderm and in the somatic follicle epithelium of the ovary. (
  • Understanding how RNA-binding proteins control the splicing code is fundamental to understanding organismal development and disease. (
  • This gene encodes an elav family factor RNA binding protein 9 (Rbp9), and Su(Hw)-mediated repression of Rbp9 is required at a specific stage of germline development. (
  • These proteins are particularly important during embryonic development. (
  • The interaction between Zic and Gli family proteins are significant for molecular antagonistic and synergistic factors in development. (
  • The increasing amount of one portion of protein Nudel, which has a function as an enzyme, does not affect the determination of DV axis or development of eggshell structure. (
  • Smads (or SMADs) comprise a family of structurally similar proteins that are the main signal transducers for receptors of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-B) superfamily, which are critically important for regulating cell development and growth. (
  • We confirm the importance of translational selection in shaping protein evolution in Drosophila and show that factors such as tissue bias in expression, gene essentiality, intron number, and recombination rate also contribute to evolutionary rate variation among proteins. (
  • Two-dimensional analysis of serum and tissue proteins: multiple isoelectric focusing. (
  • Although intercellular bridges resulting from incomplete cytokinesis were discovered in somatic Drosophila tissues decades ago, the impact of these structures on intercellular communication and tissue biology is largely unknown. (
  • Our work illustrates the lack of cytoplasmic autonomy in these tissues and suggests a role for somatic ring canals in promoting homogeneous protein expression within the tissue. (
  • Overexpressing capping protein α and β decreases both F-actin levels and tissue growth, while expressing forms of Capping Protein that have dominant negative effects on F-actin promote tissue growth. (
  • Analyses of mutants, antibody microinjection in tissue culture cells and expression of truncated proteins with a dominant negative phenotype, have shown that inhibition of a single protein inactivates the checkpoint (reviewed by Amon, 1999 ), allowing for sister chromatid separation in the absence of microtubules. (
  • Pre-mRNA splicing is typically regulated by RNA-binding proteins that recognize cis-acting RNA elements, and either activate or repress splicing of adjacent exons in a temporal, and tissue specific, manner. (
  • In cancerous tissue, the ZIC1 protein is often found in medulloblastomas. (
  • Drosophila projectin: Relatedness to titin and twitchin and correlation with lethal (4) 102CDa and bent-dominant mutants. (
  • Here, we used an alternative approach in which the in vitro pre-formed ribonucleoprotein complex of the purified Cas9 protein, in vitro transcribed tracrRNA, and target gene-specific crRNAs was injected into the Drosophila embryos to knockout the gene of interest and validated the mutation-inducing efficiency based on the T7 endonuclease I (T7E1) assay in G0 founders and F1 mutants. (
  • The deletion generated in the mutants starts within codon 91, and hence affects all relevant domains of the PKD protein. (
  • Smads were first discovered in Drosophila, in which they are known as mothers against dpp (Mad), through a genetic screen for dominant enhancers of decapentaplegic (dpp), the Drosophila version of TGF-B. Studies found that Mad null mutants showed similar phenotypes to dpp mutants, suggesting that Mad played an important role in some aspect of the dpp signaling pathway. (
  • 1 It has been suggested that the protein modification mechanisms might have wider functional implications and might form the basis for an understanding of complex phenomena such as information storage and retrieval. (
  • The mechanism by which protein functional diversity expands is an important evolutionary issue. (
  • These data suggest that protein functional diversity can expand rapidly under the joint forces of exon shuffling, gene duplication, and natural selection. (
  • To test the functional importance of the heptad repeat domains in Bic-D, and to further understand its function, we have undertaken a structure-function analysis of the Bic-D protein. (
  • In addition to the applications listed above we expect the protein to work for functional studies as well. (
  • As the protein has not been tested for functional studies yet we cannot offer a gurantee though. (
  • Understanding biological functions of 14-3-3 proteins has been limited by the functional redundancy of conserved isotypes. (
  • Altogether, our results indicate that the absence of dTau proteins has no major functional impact on flies, and suggests that our tau KO strain is a relevant model to further investigate the role of dTau proteins in vivo, thereby giving additional insights into hTau functions. (
  • This result suggests a functional redundancy between both Rel proteins in the control of drosomycin gene expression in the larvae of Drosophila. (
  • We observed that the specific removal of endogenous dTau proteins did not lead to overt, macroscopic phenotypes in flies. (
  • Available information about sex-biased phenotypes in Drosophila tumors in organs with nonreproductive function is limited to nonmalignant, genetically induced hyperplastic tumors induced by altering Notch ( N ) or APC-ras signaling in the adult midgut ( 17 ) and natural hyperplasia formed in the aging gut ( 13 ), which are more frequent in females. (
  • Bic-D and Egl proteins are found in a complex ( M ach and L ehmann 1997 ) and are likely to function together, but how they do it remains to be elucidated. (
  • The data support a model that bivalency, a poised state observed in mammalian stem cells, may be critical, perhaps transiently, in the developing Drosophila embryo. (
  • The maternal-effect gene dorsal encodes the ventral morphogen that is essential for elaboration of ventral and ventrolateral fates in the Drosophila embryo. (
  • In addition to its role in many cellular processes, Capping Protein acts as a main tumor suppressor module in Drosophila and in humans, in part, by restricting the activity of Yorkie/YAP/TAZ oncogenes. (
  • Imp-L2, the first functionally characterized insulin-binding protein in invertebrates, serves as a nutritionally controlled suppressor of insulin-mediated growth in Drosophila. (
  • Given that Imp-L2 and the human tumor suppressor IGFBP-7 show sequence homology in their carboxy-terminal immunoglobulin-like domains, we suggest that their common precursor was an ancestral insulin-binding protein. (
  • The Drosophila Suppressor of Hairy-wing [Su(Hw)] protein is a multi-zinc finger DNA binding factor required for the gypsy insulator function. (
  • IN early Drosophila oogenesis, a series of highly controlled divisions initiate the developmental pathway that leads to the formation of an oocyte ( S pradling 1993 ). (
  • We identified the adaptor protein Downstream of FGF receptor (Dof), which interacts with the FGF receptor, as the relevant target for O-GlcNAcylation in the FGF pathway, suggesting that protein O-GlcNAcylation of the activated receptor complex is essential for FGF signal transduction. (
  • Deficiency in the enzymes that control protein O-GlcNAcylation or in the biosynthetic pathways, such as the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway, that produce the precursors required for this modification cause developmental defects. (
  • We show that Dgrn interacts with the Notch signaling pathway by it antagonizing the activity of E(spl)-C proteins. (
  • The Imd signaling cascade, similar to the mammalian TNF-receptor pathway, controls antimicrobial peptide expression in Drosophila. (
  • We performed a large-scale RNAi screen to identify novel components of the Imd pathway in Drosophila S2 cells. (
  • This Drosophila renal disease model reveals a novel signaling pathway through which steroids may modulate mammalian fibrosis through potential orthologs of DopEcR. (
  • Also, other proteins which involved in the same pathway with INADL were listed below. (
  • Expression of the gene encoding the antifungal peptide Drosomycin in Drosophila adults is controlled by the Toll signaling pathway. (
  • We expressed JGW proteins in a microbial expression system and, after purification, investigated their enzymatic properties. (
  • Disorganisation and aggregation of proteins containing expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) repeats, or ectopic expression of α -synuclein, underlie neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's, Parkinson, Huntington, Creutzfeldt diseases. (
  • It was demonstrated in earlier studies in human cells that targeted expression of proteins with an expanded polyQ repeat led to nuclear inclusion formation followed by late-onset cell degeneration. (
  • We report here the creation of a set of transgenic fly lines that allow spatially and temporally regulated expression of Drosophila Rab proteins. (
  • We describe Drosophila Rab expression patterns during embryogenesis, the subcellular localization of some Rab proteins, and comparisons of the localization of wild-type, dominant-negative, and constitutively active forms of selected Rab proteins. (
  • We also identified 42 more candidates that are likely Sfps based on their abundance, known expression and predicted characteristics, and revealed that four proteins previously identified as Sfps are at best minor contributors to the ejaculate. (
  • The Male-Specific Lethal complex is the dosage compensation complex in Drosophila, which upregulates gene expression on the male X chromosome approximately two-fold. (
  • In the unlikely event that the protein cannot be expressed or purified we do not charge anything (other companies might charge you for any performed steps in the expression process for custom-made proteins, e.g. fees might apply for the expression plasmid, the first expression experiments or purification optimization). (
  • Together with previous studies of the timing of bam mRNA and protein expression and the state of arrest in bam mutant cells, these data implicate Bam as a direct regulator of the switch from stem cell to cystoblast. (
  • The transgenes expressed are fluorescence reporters to analyze neuroanatomical aspects of the mushroom body, proteins to restrict ectopic gene expression to mushroom bodies, or fluorescent sensors to monitor physiological parameters of neuronal activity of Kenyon cells. (
  • The early expression of myofibrillar proteins in round postmitotic myoblasts of embryonic skeletal muscle. (
  • Alternative pre-mRNA splicing is a powerful mechanism that is exploited by higher eukaryotes to diversify their proteomes, and to differentially regulate the expression, function, and localization of mRNA and proteins. (
  • Genetic and molecular analyses have indicated that Trithorax group (TrxG) proteins are critical for the long-term maintenance of active gene expression states in many organisms. (
  • We found that expression of distinct polyQ proteins exclusively in all glia or specifically in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-retina barrier (BRB) glia caused cell-autonomous impairment of BBB/BRB integrity, suggesting that BBB/BRB glia are most vulnerable to polyQ-expanded proteins. (
  • In Drosophila, targeted expression of polyQ disease-associated proteins in glia can cause degeneration of the nervous system and reduced lifespan (19-24). (
  • Neuronal expression of both Htt and Atxn3 with long polyQ stretches has been used to establish models of Drosophila neurodegeneration (29,30), and mutant Htt has been expressed in glia to study its effect on neurodegeneration (21-23). (
  • This protein is mainly found within the CNS and has high levels of expression in the cerebellum. (
  • Our transgenic studies indicate that only the C-terminal heptad repeat deletion results in a protein that has lost zygotic and ovarian functions. (
  • The high evolutionary conservation and low redundancy of Drosophila Rab proteins make these transgenic lines a useful tool kit for investigating Rab functions in vivo. (
  • Well-characterized examples of such epithelial morphogenetic events have been provided by studies in Drosophila, and include embryonic dorsal closure, formation of the adult thorax and wound healing. (
  • Reversible protein modification-demodification in bacterial membranes has been shown to be an important mechanism for the adaptive behavior of bacteria in response to chemosensory stimuli. (
  • Sleep can be monitored through electroencephalograms and electromyograms, but, when such electrophysiological recordings are technically difficult, as in the case of Drosophila , it is monitored through analysis of behavior. (
  • We examined the behavior of MCM proteins in endoreplicating larval salivary glands, to determine whether oscillation of MCM-chromosome localization occurs in conjunction with passage through an endocycle S phase. (
  • Instead, these hormones require a cardiomyocyte-associated G-protein-coupled receptor, Dopamine-EcR (DopEcR), a membrane-associated receptor previously characterized in the fly brain to affect behavior. (
  • The formation of intranuclear inclusions of polyQ-containing proteins in the brain is one of the pathological features of these diseases. (
  • D.H. MacLennan, C.C. Yip, G.H. Iles and P. Seeman, Isolation of sarcoplasmic reticulum proteins, Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology, 32: 469 (1972). (
  • Drosophila Schneider 2 (S2) cells are a simple and powerful system commonly used in cell biology because they are well suited for high resolution microscopy and RNAi-mediated depletion. (
  • This review focuses on the works of the authors in the context of outstanding international achievements in the rapidly evolving research area, the biology of piRNA and the functions of the Piwi protein. (
  • In this regard, merozoite proteins involved in RBC invasion have traditionally been targeted via the induction of growth inhibitory antibodies, 3 however historical candidate antigens have suffered from substantial levels of polymorphism and redundancy, leading to non-protective or strain-specific vaccine-induced antibody responses. (
  • Thus, the very similar chaperone activities of the two proteins, uncovered through in vitro analysis, diverge in vivo in specific signal transduction pathways. (
  • The combined usage of the purified Cas9 protein and the T7E1 assay can help to validate candidate crRNAs for injection to choose efficient crRNAs in vitro and in vivo . (
  • We found that nesthocker ( nst ) encodes a phosphoacetylglucosamine mutase and that nst mutant embryos exhibited low amounts of intracellular uridine 5′-diphosphate- N -acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc), which disrupted protein O-GlcNAcylation. (
  • The dorsal protein is cytoplasmic in early embryos, possibly because of a direct interaction with cactus. (
  • Remarkably, SRm160 protein was concentrated in the nuclei of precellular embryos but was very rapidly excluded from nuclei or degraded coincident with cellularization. (
  • Osswald M, Santos AF, Morais-de-Sá E. Light-Induced Protein Clustering for Optogenetic Interference and Protein Interaction Analysis in Drosophila S2 Cells. (
  • Altogether, our results suggest that spindle checkpoint proteins sense distinct aspects of kinetochore interaction with the spindle, with Mad2 and Bub1 monitoring microtubule occupancy while BubR1 and Bub3 monitor tension across attached kinetochores. (
  • The STNB protein has also been shown to interact with synaptic vesicles via synaptogamin-I. We initiated an investigation of the possible interaction of DAP-160 (dynamin-associated protein of 160 kDa), a Drosophila member of the intersectin family, with the STNB protein. (
  • Finally, we show that immunoprecipitation of STNB from fly head extracts co-precipitates with DAP-160, and we conclude that the interaction of the STNB protein with both synaptotagmin I and DAP-160 may regulate synaptic vesicle recycling by recruiting dynamin to a pre-fission complex. (
  • Specifically, R-Smads are phosphorylated in the nucleus at the linker domain by CDK8 and 9, and these phosphorylations modulate the interaction of Smad proteins with transcriptional activators and repressors. (
  • To test the role of wg, we have generated randomly positioned clones of cells that express wg protein constitutively. (
  • In Drosophila , some cells maintain direct cytoplasmic connections with their siblings by intercellular bridges known as ring canals that arise from mitotic cleavage furrows. (
  • In ovarian follicle cells and imaginal discs, McLean and Cooley (p. 1445 , published online 23 May) found that ring canals allowed diffusion of cytoplasmic proteins between cells and across mitotic clone boundaries, which may suggest a role in compensating for transcriptional variation between cells. (
  • In this work, we demonstrate that the ~250-nanometer-diameter somatic ring canals permit diffusion of cytoplasmic contents between connected cells and across mitotic clone boundaries and enable the equilibration of protein between transcriptionally mosaic follicle cells in the Drosophila ovary. (
  • Haploid cells that lack Erv14p are viable but display a modest defect in bud site selection because a transmembrane secretory protein, Axl2p, is not efficiently delivered to the cell surface. (
  • In endocycles of Drosophila salivary gland cells, successive S phases take place in the absence of mitosis. (
  • In this research study, we report the adaptation of an optogenetic tool to Drosophila S2 cells. (
  • Mouse Pelo Protein (raised in Insect Cells) purified by multi-step, protein-specific process to ensure crystallization grade. (
  • Daughterless level sets Emc protein levels in most cells, apparently by stabilizing Emc in heterodimers. (
  • Using single-nucleotide resolution UV cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (iCLIP), we define the specific RNA-binding maps of the entire family of SR proteins in the transcriptome of Drosophila S2 cells. (
  • In Drosophila, the existence of follicle cells surrounding the egg during its formation, which provide nutrition and genetic materials to an egg, generates asymmetrical egg shape. (
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (
  • This region of the protein is highly conserved throughout the ADARs and sequence comparisons with human ADAR2 at the DNA level show it has the potential to be edited at the same site as dADAR. (
  • section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. (
  • One of these polypeptides, termed Erv14p (ER-vesicle protein of 14 kD), corresponds to an open reading frame on yeast chromosome VII that is predicted to encode an integral membrane protein and shares sequence identity with the Drosophila cornichon gene product. (
  • The RNA is characteristically extended and bound in this cleft, where the UGUUUUUUU sequence is specifically recognised by the protein. (
  • These fusion proteins repress activator function by as much as 30-fold, and the effect on different activation domains is distinct for each Pc-G protein. (
  • We find that SR proteins bind a distinct, but functionally diverse, class of RNAs that includes mRNAs, both constitutive and alternatively spliced, as well as non-coding RNAs. (
  • In vivo , a truncated form of Drosophila cpa deleted of the C-terminal 28 amino acids has no effect on F-actin when expressed alone but promotes F-actin accumulation when co-expressed with full length cpb [21] . (
  • In addition, overexpressing one of the subunit in tissues knocked-down for the other increases the mRNA and protein levels of the subunit knocked-down and compensates for its loss. (
  • Localization of the Bicaudal-D (Bic-D) protein to the presumptive oocyte is required for the accumulation of Bic-D and other mRNAs to the pro-oocyte. (
  • We evaluated clustering kinetics in response to light for different LARIAT modules, and showed the ability of GFP-LARIAT to inactivate the mitotic protein Mps1 and to disrupt the membrane localization of the polarity regulator Lethal Giant Larvae (Lgl). (
  • Here, we analyse how the kinetochore localization of the Drosophila spindle checkpoint proteins Bub1, Mad2, Bub3 and BubR1, behave in response to alterations in microtubule binding or tension. (
  • Creative BioMart supplied nearly all the proteins listed, you can search them on our site. (
  • P.H. O'Farrell, High resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins, J. Biol. (
  • Publications] M.Inoue: 'A Characteristic Arrangement of Aromatic Amino Acid Residues in the Solution Structure of the Amino-terminal RNA-binding Domain of Drosophila Sex-lethal' J.Mol.Biol.272. (
  • Temperature-sensitive paralysis is the most striking defect of adult Drosophila carrying the shibire mutation. (
  • Drosophila can be used to experimentally induce a wide range of tumors that affect a variety of organs in both adult flies and developing larvae ( 11 ). (
  • Specifically, we show that increased production of the endogenous Drosophila Amyloid Intracellular Domain (dAICD) caused disruption of circadian rest-activity rhythms, while flies overexpressing endogenous APPL maintained stronger circadian rhythms during aging. (
  • We generated fluorescent protein-tagged wild-type, dominant-negative, and constitutively active forms of 31 Drosophila Rab proteins. (
  • The recently sequenced 12 Drosophila genomes provide a unique opportunity to shed light on these unresolved issues. (
  • Wright, E.G. Drosophila as a Model for Assessing the Function of RNA-Binding Proteins during Neurogenesis and Neurological Disease. (
  • Reflecting this post-translational control through protein stability, uniform emc transcription is sufficient for almost normal patterns of neurogenesis. (
  • Found in several African Drosophila species, jingwei ( jgw ), a recently evolved gene with a domain derived from the still extant short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) through retroposition, provides an opportunity to examine this previously undescribed process directly. (
  • Jingwei ( jgw ) is a young chimeric processed gene that first arose 2.5 million years ago in the common ancestor of two African Drosophila species, Drosophila yakuba and Drosophila teissieri ( 6 - 8 ). (
  • Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. (
  • Llopart A, Lachaise D, Coyne J. Multilocus analysis of introgression between two sympatric sister species of Drosophila: Drosophila yakuba and D. santomea. (
  • Variation in Emc levels may be responsible for all spatial distinctions in Da levels, because in the absence of emc Da levels are both high and uniform in all Drosophila tissues yet examined ( Bhattacharya and Baker, 2011 ). (
  • While causes of AD pathology are debated, a large body of evidence suggests that increased cleavage of Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) producing the neurotoxic Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide plays a fundamental role in AD pathogenesis. (
  • Using both fusion proteins and a synthetic peptide, we now show that two calmodulin-binding sites are present in the C-terminal domain of the Trpl protein, CBS-1 and CBS-2. (