A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.
The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
The subfamily of myosin proteins that are commonly found in muscle fibers. Myosin II is also involved a diverse array of cellular functions including cell division, transport within the GOLGI APPARATUS, and maintaining MICROVILLI structure.
Parts of the myosin molecule resulting from cleavage by proteolytic enzymes (PAPAIN; TRYPSIN; or CHYMOTRYPSIN) at well-localized regions. Study of these isolated fragments helps to delineate the functional roles of different parts of myosin. Two of the most common subfragments are myosin S-1 and myosin S-2. S-1 contains the heads of the heavy chains plus the light chains and S-2 contains part of the double-stranded, alpha-helical, heavy chain tail (myosin rod).
The smaller subunits of MYOSINS that bind near the head groups of MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS. The myosin light chains have a molecular weight of about 20 KDa and there are usually one essential and one regulatory pair of light chains associated with each heavy chain. Many myosin light chains that bind calcium are considered "calmodulin-like" proteins.
A subclass of myosin involved in organelle transport and membrane targeting. It is abundantly found in nervous tissue and neurosecretory cells. The heavy chains of myosin V contain unusually long neck domains that are believed to aid in translocating molecules over large distances.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A nonmuscle isoform of myosin type II found predominantly in platelets, lymphocytes, neutrophils and brush border enterocytes.
A subclass of myosins found generally associated with actin-rich membrane structures such as filopodia. Members of the myosin type I family are ubiquitously expressed in eukaryotes. The heavy chains of myosin type I lack coiled-coil forming sequences in their tails and therefore do not dimerize.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A nonmuscle isoform of myosin type II found predominantly in neuronal tissue.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Myosin type II isoforms found in cardiac muscle.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Specialized cells in the invertebrates that detect and transduce light. They are predominantly rhabdomeric with an array of photosensitive microvilli. Illumination depolarizes invertebrate photoreceptors by stimulating Na+ influx across the plasma membrane.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.
An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.
An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.
A protein complex of actin and MYOSINS occurring in muscle. It is the essential contractile substance of muscle.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).
A subclass of myosins originally found in the photoreceptor of DROSOPHILA. The heavy chains can occur as two alternatively spliced isoforms of 132 and 174 KDa. The amino terminal of myosin type III is highly unusual in that it contains a protein kinase domain which may be an important component of the visual process.
Myosin type II isoforms found in smooth muscle.
Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A proto-oncogene protein and member of the Wnt family of proteins. It is expressed in the caudal MIDBRAIN and is essential for proper development of the entire mid-/hindbrain region.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A layer of cells lining the fluid-filled cavity (blastocele) of a BLASTULA, usually developed from a fertilized insect, reptilian, or avian egg.
Myosin type II isoforms found in skeletal muscle.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).
A class of organic compounds containing four or more ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromatic.
A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects.
Prominent lobed neuropils found in ANNELIDA and all ARTHROPODS except crustaceans. They are thought to be involved in olfactory learning and memory.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
A phosphoprotein phosphatase that is specific for MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. It is composed of three subunits, which include a catalytic subunit, a myosin binding subunit, and a third subunit of unknown function.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Specialized organs adapted for the reception of stimuli by the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Isoforms of MYOSIN TYPE II, specifically found in the ventricular muscle of the HEART. Defects in the genes encoding ventricular myosins result in FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY.
Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A nutritional reservoir of fatty tissue found mainly in insects and amphibians.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
In invertebrate zoology, a lateral lobe of the FOREBRAIN in certain ARTHROPODS. In vertebrate zoology, either of the corpora bigemina of non-mammalian VERTEBRATES. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1329)
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .
A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A family of proteins that contain several 42-amino acid repeat domains and are homologous to the Drosophila armadillo protein. They bind to other proteins through their armadillo domains and play a variety of roles in the CELL including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, regulation of DESMOSOME assembly, and CELL ADHESION.
A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Light sensory organ in ARTHROPODS consisting of a large number of ommatidia, each functioning as an independent photoreceptor unit.
Slender tubular or hairlike excretory structures found in insects. They emerge from the alimentary canal between the mesenteron (midgut) and the proctodeum (hindgut).
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Hollow sacs of cells in LARVA that form adult structures in insects during BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Large woodland game BIRDS in the subfamily Meleagridinae, family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. Formerly they were considered a distinct family, Melegrididae.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysterone is the 20-hydroxylated ECDYSONE.
Activities designed to attract the attention or favors of another.
Color of the iris.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The normal length of time of an organism's life.
Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.
The portion of chromosome material that remains condensed and is transcriptionally inactive during INTERPHASE.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
Sexual activities of animals.
Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The movement of CYTOPLASM within a CELL. It serves as an internal transport system for moving essential substances throughout the cell, and in single-celled organisms, such as the AMOEBA, it is responsible for the movement (CELL MOVEMENT) of the entire cell.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.
Antennapedia homeodomain protein is a homeobox protein involved in limb patterning in ARTHROPODS. Mutations in the gene for the antennapedia homeodomain protein are associated with the conversion of antenna to leg or leg to antenna DROSOPHILA.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Genetic mechanisms that allow GENES to be expressed at a similar level irrespective of their GENE DOSAGE. This term is usually used in discussing genes that lie on the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Because the sex chromosomes are only partially homologous, there is a different copy number, i.e., dosage, of these genes in males vs. females. In DROSOPHILA, dosage compensation is accomplished by hypertranscription of genes located on the X CHROMOSOME. In mammals, dosage compensation of X chromosome genes is accomplished by random X CHROMOSOME INACTIVATION of one of the two X chromosomes in the female.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
A genus of ameboid protozoa. Characteristics include a vesicular nucleus and the formation of several lodopodia, one of which is dominant at a given time. Reproduction occurs asexually by binary fission.
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
A family of seven-pass transmembrane cell-surface proteins that combines with LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 or LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 to form receptors for WNT PROTEINS. Frizzled receptors often couple with HETEROTRIMERIC G PROTEINS and regulate the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY.
An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
"Type ID unconventional myosin controls left-right asymmetry in Drosophila". Nature. 440 (7085): 803-807. doi:10.1038/ ... Instead, cytoskeletal regulators such as Myo31DF, a type ID unconventional myosin, have been found to control left-right ... asymmetrical gut coiling in Drosophila melanogaster, and dextral (clockwise) and sinistral (counterclockwise) coiling of ...
"Planar polarization of the atypical myosin Dachs orients cell divisions in Drosophila". Genes & Development. 25 (2): 131-136. ... His lab has also had a major interest in the role of the Hippo pathway in mammals, including humans, where (unlike Drosophila) ... His laboratory also discovered that planar cell polarisation of the atypical myosin Dachs by the Fat and Dachsous cadherins is ... There he studied the role of the Hippo signaling pathway during Drosophila development. In 2007, Thompson was a visiting ...
Myosin VI, also known as MYO6, is a protein. It has been found in humans, mice, fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster), and ... "Entrez Gene: MYO6 myosin VI". Ewing RM, Chu P, Elisma F, Li H, Taylor P, Climie S, McBroom-Cerajewski L, Robinson MD, O'Connor ... Wells AL, Lin AW, Chen LQ, Safer D, Cain SM, Hasson T, Carragher BO, Milligan RA, Sweeney HL (Sep 1999). "Myosin VI is an actin ... Buss F, Kendrick-Jones J, Lionne C, Knight AE, Côté GP, Paul Luzio J (Dec 1998). "The localization of myosin VI at the golgi ...
"A human homologue of Drosophila kelch associates with myosin-VIIa in specialized adhesion junctions". Cell Motility and the ...
"Localization and requirement for Myosin II at the dorsal-ventral compartment boundary of the Drosophila wing". Dev Dyn. 235 (11 ... The D/V boundary is characterized by the presence of filamentous actin and mutations in Myosin-II heavy chain impairs D/V ... Similarly, both F-actin and Myosin-II are increased along the A/P boundary, accompanied by a decrease of Bazooka, which was ... Tabata T, Schwartz C, Gustavson E, Ali Z, Kornberg TB (1995). "Creating a Drosophila wing de novo, the role of engrailed, and ...
The interaction of myosin and anillin does not seem to serve in recruitment, but rather organization of myosin. In Drosophila, ... Depletion of anillin in Drosophila and humans leads to changes in the spatial and temporal stability of myosin during ... Anillin interacts directly with non-muscle myosin II and interacts indirectly with myosin via F-actin. Residues 142-254 (near ... The interaction of anillin and myosin is also dependent on phosphorylation of the myosin light chain. ...
Just as in muscle cells, myosin can contract different parts of the cytoplasm to change its shape or structure. Myosin-driven ... Drosophila and zebrafish. There are often periodic pulses of contraction in embryonic morphogenesis. A model called the cell ... model Reaction-diffusion system Neurulation Gastrulation Axon guidance Eye development Polycystic kidney disease 2 Drosophila ...
Drosophila nonmuscle myosin-2 actin activated ATPase no inhibition[31] Drosophila nonmuscle myosin-2 M466I mutation actin ... Myosin specificity[edit]. Blebbistatin is a potent inhibitor of nonmuscle myosin IIA and IIB, cardiac myosin, skeletal myosin ... nonmuscle myosin-2 oocyte cytokinesis effective at 300 μM[33] C. elegans nonmuscle myosin-2 acto-myosin colocalization ... myosin isoform or muscle type assay type IC50 Dictyostelium discoideum myosin II motor domain basal ATPase 2.96 ± 0.45 μM,[7] ...
In drosophila, Sti (Sticky, ortholog of Citron-K) localizes to the cleavage furrow via association of a predicted coiled-coil ... Straight AF, Field CM, Mitchison TJ (Jan 2005). "Anillin binds nonmuscle myosin II and regulates the contractile ring". ... Its fly (Drosophila) ortholog is called Sticky. the importance of different domains of citron-K in its localization at ... Similarly in Drosophila, RNAi knockdown of Citron-K results in a failure of cellular abscission. CIT is associated with ...
Holzbaur studies various motor proteins, including dyneins, myosins and kinesins. In the axons of neurons, these motor proteins ... She recognized that the cytoplasmic dynein-associated proteins closely resembled a Drosophila gene called Glued, which was ...
The misato protein contains an N-terminal misato segment II myosin-like domain and a central tubulin domain. GRCh38: Ensembl ... Miklos GL, Yamamoto M, Burns RG, Maleszka R (1997). "An essential cell division gene of Drosophila, absent from Saccharomyces, ... "Entrez Gene: MSTO1 misato homolog 1 (Drosophila)". Kimura M, Okano Y (April 2007). "Human Misato regulates mitochondrial ... encodes an unusual protein with tubulin-like and myosin-like peptide motifs". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94 (10): 5189-94. ...
High-throughput Mechanotransduction in Drosophila Embryos with Mesofluidics. Lab on a Chip 19: 1141-1152 (2019, cover). Egan, P ... Robust Mechanobiological Behavior Emerges in Heterogeneous Myosin Systems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 114 ...
Genomic representation of myosin motors: Fungi (yeast): 5 Plants (Arabidopsis): 17 Insects (Drosophila): 13 Mammals (human): 40 ... The first identified myosin, myosin II, is responsible for generating muscle contraction. Myosin II is an elongated protein ... Because myosin II is essential for muscle contraction, defects in muscular myosin predictably cause myopathies. Myosin is ... The myosin heads bind and hydrolyze ATP, which provides the energy to walk toward the plus end of an actin filament. Myosin II ...
... which inactivates MLCP and activates myosin. This will lead to the accumulation of activated myosin motor proteins, which bind ... When bound to GTP, Rho activates Rho-associated coiled-coil forming kinase (ROCK) and mammalian homologue of Drosophila ... Stress fibers are primarily composed of actin and myosin. Actin is a ~43kDa globular protein, and can polymerize to form long ... ROCK is a kinase that acts to phosphorylate MLCP (myosin-light-chain phosphatase), as well as the NMMII light chain, ...
2009). Myosin II dynamics are regulated by tension in intercalating cells. Dev Cell. 17, 736-743. Jennifer Zallen's Lab - Sloan ... Germ-band extension is a morphological process widely studied in Drosophila melanogaster in which the germ-band, which develops ... Thus, not only can Myosin II generate tension but it may also be up-regulated by tensile forces, creating a positive feedback ... In addition, there is evidence that mechanical tension is necessary and sufficient for the cortical localization of Myosin II. ...
This gene encodes a protein that is similar to a tumor suppressor in Drosophila. The protein is part of a cytoskeletal network ... gl maps to 17p11.2-12 and codes for a cytoskeletal protein that associates with nonmuscle myosin II heavy chain". Oncogene. 11 ... "Entrez Gene: LLGL1 lethal giant larvae homolog 1 (Drosophila)". Campbell HD, Fountain S, Young IG, et al. (1997). "Genomic ... 2004). "The human protein Hugl-1 substitutes for Drosophila lethal giant larvae tumour suppressor function in vivo". Oncogene. ...
There is also strong evidence that SCRIB may play a role in cancer progression because of its strong homology to the Drosophila ... and in the myosin II-actin cytoskeleton. The Scribble complex has been shown to promote basolateral membrane identity by ... SCRIB, also known as Scribble, SCRIBL, or Scribbled homolog (Drosophila), is a scaffold protein which in humans is encoded by ... It was originally isolated in Drosophila melanogaster in a pathway (also known as the Scribble complex) with DLGAP5 (Discs ...
To this end, he studies the Drosophila fly, a powerful model system for the study of development. The twentieth century was ... science ouverte » 2009 Bertet C, Sulak L, Lecuit T, « Myosin-dependent junction remodelling controls planar cell intercalation ... He is interested in the formation of the primordial tissue of the Drosophila embryo, a process called cellularization, and ... Proximal-distal axis formation in the Drosophila leg », Nature, 1997 jul 10;388(6638), p. 139-45 Lecuit T, Cohen SM, « Dpp ...
A study done on drosophila reported that an increase in PKA activity can affect short term memory. However, a decrease in PKA ... Protein kinase Signal transduction G protein-coupled receptor Serine/threonine-specific protein kinase Myosin light-chain ... Cyclic+AMP-Dependent+Protein+Kinases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Drosophila cAMP- ... myosin binding protein C, and potassium channels. This increases inotropy as well as lusitropy, increasing contraction force as ...
... III is a poorly understood member of the myosin family. It has been studied in vivo in the eyes of Drosophila, where it ... The Myosin Powerstroke Myosin Video A video of a moving myosin motor protein. Myosins at the US National Library of Medicine ... Myosin X is an unconventional myosin motor, which is functional as a dimer. The dimerization of myosin X is thought to be ... Myosin VI is thought to transport endocytic vesicles into the cell. Myosin VII is an unconventional myosin with two FERM ...
This recruitment leads to the repression of the MLC2v (Myosin Light Chain 2 v) and βMHC ( β-myosin heavy chain ) promoter. ... In drosophila the transcription factor Scalloped is involved in the development of the wing disc, survival and cell growth. ... Rindt H, Gulick J, Knotts S, Neumann J, Robbins J (March 1993). "In vivo analysis of the murine beta-myosin heavy chain gene ... Once this complex is formed, these two proteins can regulate the alpha-myosin heavy chain (α-MHC) gene expression. The four ...
Segments I and III are common to tubulins (INTERPRO), but segment II aligns with myosin heavy chain sequences from Drosophila ... A comparison of segment II with the vertebrate myosin heavy chains reveals that it is homologous to a myosin peptide in the ... The most significant sequence similarities to this 54-amino acid region are from a motif found in the heavy chains of myosins ... Segment II also contains heptad repeats which are characteristic of the myosin tail alpha-helical coiled-coils. Kimura M, Okano ...
Its fly (Drosophila) ortholog is called Sticky.[9][10] the importance of different domains of citron-K in its localization at ... Myosin-heavy-chain kinase (EC 2.7.11.7). *Aurora kinase *Aurora A kinase ... Similarly in Drosophila, RNAi knockdown of Citron-K results in a failure of cellular abscission.[17] CIT is associated with ... In drosophila, Sti (Sticky, ortholog of Citron-K) localizes to the cleavage furrow via association of a predicted coiled-coil ...
... "at the heart of Brand's current work on Drosophila neural stem cells. Because of the similarities between Drosophila and ... cell shape change and the control of myosin localization". Development. 132 (18): 4165-78. doi:10.1242/dev.01938. PMID 16123312 ... Using Drosophila as a model organism, and employing the most sophisticated and innovative live imaging techniques, she has ... Now the most highly cited paper in the Drosophila field, Brand had enormous difficulty in getting the paper published." Lancet ...
As the muscle is stretched, these bridges move tropomyosin to reveal myosin-actin binding sites. The muscle can only produce ... This setup is used by Drosophila to oscillate mechanosensory organs known as halteres. As long as neural stimulus turn the ... A study investigating the asynchronous power muscles in bumblebees with X-ray diffraction videos showed that actin and myosin ... Further work has shown bilateral calcium asymmetries in Drosophila. These results indicate that there is some level of neural ...
In Drosophila cells, Aurora B depletion disrupts chromosome structure and compaction. In these cells, the condensin complex ... Murata-Hori, M; Fumoto, K; Fukuta, Y; Iwasaki, T; Kikuchi, A; Tatsuka, M; Hosoya, H (2000). "Myosin II regulatory light chain ... Prigent C, Gill R, Trower M, Sanseau P (2001). "In silico cloning of a new protein kinase, Aik2, related to Drosophila Aurora ... The Aurora B complex is necessary for cytokinesis in vertebrates, C. elegans, Drosophila, and fission yeast. In various cell ...
Use of Bis-Tris propane has also been documented in an investigation of the MgATPase activity of the myosin subfragment 1 ... 2013). "Mitochondrial Free Ca2+ Levels and Their Effects on Energy Metabolism in Drosophila Motor Nerve Terminals". Biophys. J ... Bachouchi N, Garrigos M, Morel JE (1986). "MgATPase activity of myosin subfragment 1. The dimer is more active than the monomer ...
ROCK increases the activity of the motor protein myosin II by two different mechanisms: Firstly, phosphorylation of the myosin ... Drosophila) and chicken. Human ROCK1 has a molecular mass of 158 kDa and is a major downstream effector of the small GTPase ... myosin light chain). Due to this phosphorylation, the actin binding of myosin II and, thus, the contractility increases. Two ... Wang Y, Zheng XR, Riddick N, Bryden M, Baur W, Zhang X, Surks HK (February 2009). "ROCK isoform regulation of myosin ...
Myosin-10 also known as myosin heavy chain 10 or non-muscle myosin IIB (NM-IIB) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... "A human homologue of the Drosophila tumour suppressor gene l(2)gl maps to 17p11.2-12 and codes for a cytoskeletal protein that ... Non-muscle myosins are expressed in a wide variety of tissues, but NM-IIB is the only non-muscle myosin II isoform expressed in ... Adelstein RS, Conti MA (Aug 1975). "Phosphorylation of platelet myosin increases actin-activated myosin ATPase activity". ...
In Drosophila, cytonemes have been found in wing and eye imaginal discs, trachea, lymph glands and ovaries. They have also been ... Lehmann MJ, Sherer NM, Marks CB, Pypaert M, Mothes W (July 2005). "Actin- and myosin-driven movement of viruses along filopodia ... Cytonemes with a diameter of approximately 0.2 μm and as long as 80 μm have been observed in the Drosophila wing imaginal disc ... Tabata T, Schwartz C, Gustavson E, Ali Z, Kornberg TB (October 1995). "Creating a Drosophila wing de novo, the role of ...
"A millennial myosin census". 》Molecular Biology of the Cell》 12 (4): 780-94. doi:10.1091/mbc.12.4.780. PMC 32266. PMID ... "Identification of novel filament-forming proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Drosophila melanogaster". 》The Journal of ...
SAP97 is a mammalian MAGUK-family member protein that is similar to the Drosophila protein Dlg1 (the protein is alternatively ... Wu H, Nash JE, Zamorano P, Garner CC (Aug 2002). "Interaction of SAP97 with minus-end-directed actin motor myosin VI. ... Hanada T, Lin L, Chandy KG, Oh SS, Chishti AH (Oct 1997). "Human homologue of the Drosophila discs large tumor suppressor binds ... There is also a myosin VI binding site near n-terminal which may be involved in the internalization of AMPAR.[12][13] ...
Generation of pressure is dependent on formin-mediated F-actin nucleation[71] and Rho kinase (ROCK)-mediated myosin II ... Lilly MA, Duronio RJ (April 2005). "New insights into cell cycle control from the Drosophila endocycle". Oncogene. 24 (17): ... Rounding forces are driven by reorganization of F-actin and myosin (actomyosin) into a contractile homogeneous cell cortex that ... "Cdk1-dependent mitotic enrichment of cortical myosin II promotes cell rounding against confinement". Nature Cell Biology. 17 (2 ...
Disruption of myosin Vb interaction with Rab11 and Rab11-FIP2 blocks spine growth and AMPA receptor trafficking.[41] Therefore ... Wu H, Nash JE, Zamorano P, Garner CC (August 2002). "Interaction of SAP97 with minus-end-directed actin motor myosin VI. ... Drosophila Glutamate receptor IIA - The Interactive Fly. *v. *t. *e. Ion channel, cell surface receptor: ligand-gated ion ... SAP-97 and Myosin-VI, a motor protein, are bound as a complex to the C-terminus of AMPARs. Following phosphorylation by CaMKII ...
Walker, R. G.; Willingham, A. T.; Zuker, C. S. (2000). "A Drosophila mechanosensory transduction channel". Science. 287 (5461 ... Further studies have shown that the cellular mechanism of proprioception in plants involves myosin and actin, and seems to ... "Regulation of organ straightening and plant posture by an actin-myosin XI cytoskeleton". Nature Plants. 1 (4): 15031. doi ...
Thompson, Barry J. (2010). "Developmental control of cell growth and division in Drosophila". Current Opinion in Cell Biology. ... After entry into mitosis, cytokinesis factors such as myosin II are recruited to similar nodes; these nodes eventually condense ... Genetic studies of the fruit fly Drosophila have revealed several genes that are required for the formation of multinucleated ... Hafen, E. (2004). "Interplay Between Growth Factor and Nutrient Signaling: Lessons from Drosophila TOR". TOR. Current Topics in ...
Genetic studies of the fruit fly Drosophila have revealed several genes that are required for the formation of multinucleated ... After entry into mitosis, cytokinesis factors such as myosin II are recruited to similar nodes; these nodes eventually condense ... Drosophila) or by internalization of nutrient storage granules (yolk granules) by endocytosis (frogs). ... "A positive feedback loop between Dumbfounded and Rolling pebbles leads to myotube enlargement in Drosophila". J. Cell Biol ...
Contributes to vasodilation (phosphorylates, and thereby inactivates, Myosin light-chain kinase) hepatocyte. liver. * ... A study done on drosophila reported that an increase in PKA activity can effect short term memory. However, a decrease in PKA ... myosin binding protein C, and potassium channels. This increases inotropy as well as lusitropy, increasing contraction force as ... "Protein kinase A inhibits a consolidated form of memory in Drosophila". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 105 ...
MYO6: myosin VI. *PARK2: Parkinson disease (autosomal recessive, juvenile) 2, parkin. *PKHD1: polycystic kidney and hepatic ... EYA4: eyes absent homolog 4 (Drosophila). *HFE: hemochromatosis. *HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C: major histocompatibility complex (MHC), ...
... III is a poorly understood member of the myosin family. It has been studied in vivo in the eyes of Drosophila, where it ... Myosin XIIEdit. Myosin XIIIEdit. Myosin XIVEdit. This myosin group has been found in the Apicomplexa phylum.[37] The myosins ... Myosin XEdit. Myosin X is an unconventional myosin motor, which is functional as a dimer. The dimerization of myosin X is ... "Myosin". Merriam-Webster Dictionary.. *^ "myosin - definition of myosin in English from the Oxford dictionary". ...
Gillespie, P. G.; Cyr, J. L. (2004). "Myosin-1c, the hair cell's adaptation motor". Annual Review of Physiology. 66: 521-45. ... "Mitochondrial Free Ca2+ Levels and Their Effects on Energy Metabolism in Drosophila Motor Nerve Terminals". Biophys. J. 104 ...
Porodica protein kinezina-14, kao što je kod Drosophila melanogaster, nezaraznih bolesti, pupoljaka kvasaca KAR3 i Arabidopsis ... "Crystal structure of the kinesin motor domain reveals a structural similarity to myosin". Nature 380 (6574): 550-5. Bibcode ... "Cell cycle-dependent dynamics and regulation of mitotic kinesins in Drosophila S2 cells". Mol. Biol. Cell 16 (8): 3896-907. ...
Model organisms: Drosophila - Arabidopsis - Caenorhabditis elegans - mouse - Saccharomyces cerevisiae - Escherichia coli - ... Skeletal system - bone - cartilage - joint - muscle - tendon - actin - myosin - reflex. *Circulatory system - respiration - ...
XCAP-E and a Xenopus homolog of the Drosophila Barren protein". Cell. 89 (4): 511-21. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80233-0. PMID ...
Thus ERK1 and ERK2 both correspond to the Drosophila kinase rolled, JNK1, JNK2 and JNK3 are all orthologous to the gene basket ... Myosin-heavy-chain kinase (EC 2.7.11.7). *Aurora kinase *Aurora A kinase ... there are three p38-type kinases in Drosophila, Mpk2(p38a), p38b and p38c). The single ERK5 protein appears to fill a very ... in Drosophila. Although among the p38 group, p38 alpha and beta are clearly paralogous pairs, and so are p38 gamma and delta in ...
... myosin - N-formylmethionine - N-formylmethionine leucyl-phenylalanine - N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor - N-methylaspartate - N- ... Drosophila - drugs - dynorphin - eIF-2 - eIF-2 kinase - electrochemical potential - electron - electron capture - Electron ...
Drosophila)(6q23.2) FBXL4: F-box and leucine rich repeat protein 4 (6q16.1-q16.2) FEB5: febrile convulsions 5 HACE1: HECT ... myosin VI (6q14.1) OA3: ocular albinism 3 OPRM1: μ-opioid receptors (6q24-q25) OTSC7: otosclerosis 7 PLG: plasminogen (6q26) ...
It is thought that a network of filamentous actin in the yolk might constrict in a myosin-II dependent manner to close the ... "Coordinated cell-shape changes control epithelial movement in zebrafish and Drosophila". Development. 133 (14): 2671-81. doi: ...
... which activates myosin II directly by phosphorylation of the myosin light chain and also inhibits myosin phosphatase by ... certain Drosophila cell types are incapable of forming a cleavage furrow without the central spindle, whereas in both C. ... Besides actin and myosin II, the contractile ring contains the scaffolding protein anillin. Anillin binds to actin, myosin, ... The force for the contractile processes is generated by movements along actin by the motor protein myosin II. Myosin II uses ...
Drosophila Titin, also known as Kettin or sallimus (sls), is kinase-free. It has roles in the elasticity of both muscle and ... Titin is the third most abundant protein in muscle (after myosin and actin), and an adult human contains approximately 0.5 kg ... Drosophila projectin, officially known as bent (bt), is associated with lethality by failing to escape the egg in some ... Bennett PM, Gautel M (June 1996). "Titin domain patterns correlate with the axial disposition of myosin at the end of the thick ...
2005). "A novel scaffold protein, TANC, possibly a rat homolog of Drosophila rolling pebbles (rols), forms a multiprotein ... "Interaction of the postsynaptic density-95/guanylate kinase domain-associated protein complex with a light chain of myosin-V ... "Entrez Gene: DLGAP1 discs, large (Drosophila) homolog-associated protein 1". Hines RM, El-Husseini A (2006). "Mechanisms that ... "Interaction of the postsynaptic density-95/guanylate kinase domain-associated protein complex with a light chain of myosin-V ...
... myosin type iii MeSH D12.776.220.525.475.681 - myosin type iv MeSH D12.776.220.525.475.750 - myosin type v MeSH D12.776.220.525 ... drosophila MeSH D12.776.410.210.175.325 - groes protein MeSH D12.776.410.210.180.325 - groel protein MeSH D12.776.422.220. ... myosin type i MeSH D12.776.210.500.600.470 - myosin type ii MeSH D12.776.210.500.600.470.249 - cardiac myosins MeSH D12.776. ... myosin type i MeSH D12.776.220.525.475.475 - myosin type ii MeSH D12.776.220.525.475.475.124 - cardiac myosins MeSH D12.776. ...
Wang Y, Mijares M, Gall MD, Turan T, Javier A, Bornemann DJ, Manage K, Warrior R (November 2010). "Drosophila variable nurse ... "Arrest defective-1 controls tumor cell behavior by acetylating myosin light chain kinase". PLOS ONE. 4 (10): e7451. Bibcode: ...
Type ID unconventional myosin controls left-right asymmetry in Drosophila.. Spéder P1, Adám G, Noselli S. ... Here we identify the conserved type ID unconventional myosin 31DF gene (Myo31DF) as a unique situs inversus locus in Drosophila ...
Interaction with the myosin zip may be important for its function in scolopidial apical attachment (PubMed:27331610). During ... Unconventional myosins serve in intracellular movements: can function in cells as a single-molecule cargo transporter (PubMed: ... Myosins are actin-based motor molecules with ATPase activity (PubMed:16585515). ... "Dimerized Drosophila myosin VIIa: a processive motor.". Yang Y., Kovacs M., Sakamoto T., Zhang F., Kiehart D.P., Sellers J.R.. ...
The subfamily includes myosin VIIA, myosin VIIB, myosin VII (from species that do not have distinct myosin VIIA and myosin VIIB ... Myosin X and XV, like members of the myosin VII subfamily, include tails with one or more FERM domains. Flies have a myosin XV ... Fly myosin VIIA:. We cloned myosin VIIA from flies using a PCR strategy designed to recover unconventional myosins. We ... We generate a homology model for the structure of the ck/myosin VIIA head that indicates myosin VIIAs, like myosin IIs, have a ...
Constraints on intron evolution in the gene encoding the myosin alkali light chain in Drosophila.. B G Leicht, S V Muse, M ... Constraints on intron evolution in the gene encoding the myosin alkali light chain in Drosophila.. B G Leicht, S V Muse, M ... Constraints on intron evolution in the gene encoding the myosin alkali light chain in Drosophila.. B G Leicht, S V Muse, M ... Constraints on intron evolution in the gene encoding the myosin alkali light chain in Drosophila. ...
Myosin VI is only one of two myosins known to move toward the pointed (minus) end of the actin filament, whereas other myosins ... 2C ). In the second approach, myosin VI expression was inhibited by transfecting ES-2 cells with myosin VI siRNAs. Myosin VI ... Lessons from border cell migration in the Drosophila ovary: A role for myosin VI in dissemination of human ovarian cancer. ... Lessons from border cell migration in the Drosophila ovary: A role for myosin VI in dissemination of human ovarian cancer ...
... myosin light chain kinase activity, structural constituent of cytoskeleton, protein phosphorylation ... "Drosophila stretchin-MLCK is a novel member of the Titin/Myosin light chain kinase family.". Champagne M.B., Edwards K.A., ... "A single Drosophila melanogaster myosin light chain kinase gene produces multiple isoforms whose activities are differently ... "A single Drosophila melanogaster myosin light chain kinase gene produces multiple isoforms whose activities are differently ...
Dynamic changes in the distribution of cytoplasmic myosin during Drosophila embryogenesis. P.E. Young, T.C. Pesacreta, D.P. ... Dynamic changes in the distribution of cytoplasmic myosin during Drosophila embryogenesis. P.E. Young, T.C. Pesacreta, D.P. ... Dynamic changes in the distribution of cytoplasmic myosin during Drosophila embryogenesis. P.E. Young, T.C. Pesacreta, D.P. ... Dynamic changes in the distribution of cytoplasmic myosin during Drosophila embryogenesis Message Subject (Your Name) has sent ...
Drosophila melanogaster, skeletal muscle myosin II, an embryonic isoform, subfragment-1 ... The first X-ray crystal structure of an insect muscle myosin. ... The first X-ray crystal structure of an insect muscle myosin. ... Drosophila melanogaster, skeletal muscle myosin II, an embryonic isoform, subfragment-1. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb4QBD/pdb ...
The putative myosin domain of p174 is linked at the COOH-terminus to a tail which has some similarities to myosin-I tails. In ... Differential localizations of and requirements for the two Drosophila ninaC kinase/myosins in photoreceptor cells.. J A Porter ... Differential localizations of and requirements for the two Drosophila ninaC kinase/myosins in photoreceptor cells. ... This suggests that the p174 myosin-I type tail is the domain responsible for association with the rhabdomeres and that the ...
... myosin. In the absence of the dPix-Git complex, irregular myosin activation led to tissue disruption, however modest ... by studying mutants of the dPix-Git focal adhesion complex in Drosophila melanogaster egg chambers, a 3D model of tissue ... suppression of myosin activators rescued this defect. Remarkably, the dPix-Git complex is essential for egg chamber development ... Drosophila melanogaster Is the Subject Area "Drosophila melanogaster" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
Here, we have imaged the dynamics of green fluorescent protein-tagged myosin filaments, microtubules, and Kinesin-6 (which ... Dynamics of myosin, microtubules, and Kinesin-6 at the cortex during cytokinesis in Drosophila S2 cells J Cell Biol. 2009 Sep 7 ... While accumulating at the equator, myosin filaments disappear from the poles of the cell, a process that also requires Kinesin- ... The pattern of Kinesin-6 localization closely resembles where new myosin filaments appear at the cortex by de novo assembly. ...
Myosin II is not required for Drosophila tracheal branch elongation and cell intercalation ... Although cell intercalation is governed by Myosin II (MyoII)-dependent forces during tissue elongation in the Drosophila embryo ... Myosin II is not required for Drosophila tracheal branch elongation and cell intercalation ... Myosin II is not required for Drosophila tracheal branch elongation and cell intercalation ...
One of the myosins that regulates actin-rich membrane protrusions in Drosophila and vertebrates is Myosin VIIA (Myo7A) ( ... 2006). Drosophila myosin VIIA is a high duty ratio motor with a unique kinetic mechanism. J. Biol. Chem. 281, 7151-7160. doi: ... 2006). Dimerized Drosophila myosin VIIa: a processive motor. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5746-5751. doi:10.1073/pnas. ... 2005). Myosin VIIA defects, which underlie the Usher 1B syndrome in humans, lead to deafness in Drosophila. Curr. Biol. 15, 862 ...
Myosin II is not required for Drosophila tracheal branch elongation and cell intercalation ... Myosin II is not required for Drosophila tracheal branch elongation and cell intercalation ... Myosin II is not required for Drosophila tracheal branch elongation and cell intercalation ... Myosin II is not required for Drosophila tracheal branch elongation and cell intercalation ...
Myosin II is not required for Drosophila tracheal branch elongation and cell intercalation ZORA Maintenance. Maintenance: ... Download PDF Myosin II is not required for Drosophila tracheal branch elongation and cell intercalation. Item availability ... Although cell intercalation is governed by Myosin II (MyoII)-dependent forces during tissue elongation in the Drosophila embryo ... Although cell intercalation is governed by Myosin II (MyoII)-dependent forces during tissue elongation in the Drosophila embryo ...
Embryos Drosophila Invagination in Mechanical Signals Trigger Myosin II Redistribution and Mesoderm Nicolas Desprat 1 Willy ... Embryos Drosophila Invagination in Mechanical Signals Trigger Myosin II Redistribution and Mesoderm. Science Signaling, ...
Analysing Myosin II unipolar planar polarisation with high spatial and temporal resolution during Drosophila axis extension ... Quantifying Myosin II polarisation over time during Drosophila axis extension.. (A) sqhAX3; sqh-GFP; GAP43-mCherry embryos are ... C-C") Quantification of Myosin II bidirectional polarity. (C) Fourier quantification of Myosin II bipolarity, depicted here on ... The amplitude of Myosin II bipolarity is expressed as a proportion (Abbreviated as pp in all figures) of the mean Myosin II ...
We generate a homology model for the structure of the ck/myosin VIIA head that indicates myosin VIIAs, like myosin IIs, have a ... We demonstrate that mutations in crinkled (ck) disrupt the Drosophila myosin VIIA heavy chain. The ck/myoVIIA protein is ... In addition, we establish that the two myosin VIIA FERM repeats share high sequence similarity with only the first two ... suggesting that they compose a conserved myosin tail homology 7 (MyTH7) domain that may be an integral part of the FERM domain ...
Myo31DF encodes an unconventional myosin, Drosophila MyoIA (also referred to as MyoID in mammals; refs 3, 4), and is the first ... These two unconventional myosin I proteins may have antagonistic functions in left-right patterning. We suggest that the actin ... Although the formation of the anterior-posterior and dorsal-ventral axes in Drosophila is well understood, left-right asymmetry ... Overexpression of Myo61F, another myosin I (ref. 4), reverses the handedness of the embryonic gut, and its knockdown also ...
In Vivo Imaging of Hedgehog Transport in Drosophila Epithelia. Seijo, I., Guerrero, I. & Bischoff, M. 2015 Methods in Molecular ... Cytonemes are required for the establishment of a normal Hedgehog morphogen gradient in Drosophila epithelia. Bischoff, M., ... Lamellipodia-based migrations of larval epithelial cells are required for normal closure of the adult epidermis of Drosophila. ... University , Research portal , Research publications , Epidermal growth factor signalling controls Myosin II planar... ...
We used Drosophila as the model to investigate the in vivo consequences of human cMyBP-C mutations. We first produced ... We used Drosophila as the model to investigate the in vivo consequences of human cMyBP-C mutations. We first produced ... Mutations in the MYBPC3 gene encoding human cardiac myosin-binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) are associated with familial ... Mutations in the MYBPC3 gene encoding human cardiac myosin-binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) are associated with familial ...
... but they also influence the actin/myosin cytoskeleton. The Drosophila CP190 protein is nuclear in interphase, interacts with ... Myosin organization is disrupted in these embryos, but actin appears unaffected. Moreover, a constitutively activated form of ... Mitosis is not perturbed in these embryos, but they fail in axial expansion, an actin/myosin-dependent process that distributes ... suggesting that CP190 acts upstream of myosin activation. A CP190 mutant that cannot bind to MTs or centrosomes can rescue the ...
Here we identify the conserved type ID unconventional myosin 31DF gene (Myo31DF) as a unique situs inversus locus in Drosophila ...
title = "Roles of type I Myosins in Drosophila handedness",. abstract = "Although bilateral animals, including Drosophila, ... Taniguchi, K, Hozumi, S, Maeda, R, Okumura, T & Matsuno, K 2007, Roles of type I Myosins in Drosophila handedness, Fly, vol. ... Taniguchi K, Hozumi S, Maeda R, Okumura T, Matsuno K. Roles of type I Myosins in Drosophila handedness. Fly. 2007;1(5). ... Taniguchi, K., Hozumi, S., Maeda, R., Okumura, T., & Matsuno, K. (2007). Roles of type I Myosins in Drosophila handedness. Fly ...
title = "Roles of type I myosins in Drosophila handedness.",. abstract = "Although bilateral animals, including Drosophila, ... Roles of type I myosins in Drosophila handedness.. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Myosin Type I Medicine & Life ... Taniguchi K, Hozumi S, Maeda R, Okumura T, Matsuno K. Roles of type I myosins in Drosophila handedness. Fly. 2007 Sep;1(5):287- ... Taniguchi, K, Hozumi, S, Maeda, R, Okumura, T & Matsuno, K 2007, Roles of type I myosins in Drosophila handedness., Fly, vol ...
A resource on protein phosphatases, a key class of regulatory proteins. Includes genomic and evolutionary analyses (phosphatomes), classification, disease associationa and an extensive database of protein phosphatase genes.
... although there is general agreement in the naming of myosins I in vertebrates (Gillespie et al. 2001). The names used in ... An unconventional myosin in Drosophila reverses the default handedness in visceral organs. Nature. 2006;440:798-802.CrossRef ... Roles for Drosophila melanogaster myosin 1B in maintenance of enterocyte brush-border structure and resistance to the bacterial ... Spéder P, Ádám G, Noselli S. Type 1D unconventional myosin controls left-right asymmetry in Drosophila. Nature. 2006;440:803-7. ...
Myosin VI is the only myosin known to move towards the minus or pointed ends of actin filaments. Although Myosin VI has been ... Altogether these findings indicate that Myosin VI is important for proper synaptic function and morphology. Myosin VI may be ... in Drosophila melanogaster, is a unique member of the myosin superfamily of actin-based motor proteins. ... Our experiments on Drosophila third instar larvae revealed decreased locomotor activity, a decrease in NMJ length, a reduction ...
... has recently been linked to regulation of epithelial polarity in Drosophila. However, its role in tumorigenesis remains obscure ... Sds22/PP1 links epithelial integrity and tumor suppression via regulation of myosin II and JNK signaling Oncogene. 2011 Jul 21; ... In this study, using Drosophila imaginal tissue as an in vivo model system, we show that sds22 is a new potential tumor ... Mechanistically, we show that sds22 prevents cell invasion and metastasis by inhibiting myosin II and Jun N-terminal kinase ( ...
Essential light chain of Drosophila nonmuscle myosin II. ... Essential light chain of Drosophila nonmuscle myosin II. ... We have cloned and sequenced a cDNA encoding the essential (alkaline) light chain of nonmuscle myosin from Drosophila ... The gene encoding Drosophila nonmuscle essential light chain (Mlc-c) localizes to cytological position 5A6 and we discuss ... This completes the sequence of the three myosin subunits, two of which have been shown genetically to be required for ...
  • Type ID unconventional myosin controls left-right asymmetry in Drosophila. (nih.gov)
  • Here we identify the conserved type ID unconventional myosin 31DF gene (Myo31DF) as a unique situs inversus locus in Drosophila. (nih.gov)
  • The unconventional myosin CRINKLED and its mammalian orthologue MYO7A regulate caspases in their signalling roles. (semanticscholar.org)
  • These two unconventional myosin I proteins may have antagonistic functions in left-right patterning. (pasteur.fr)
  • Both calmodulin and the unconventional myosin Myr4 regulate membrane trafficking along the recycling pathway of MDCK cells. (springer.com)
  • Instead, cytoskeletal regulators such as Myo31DF, a type ID unconventional myosin, have been found to control left-right asymmetry in organ systems such as genitalia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our work centers on an unconventional myosin (myosin VIIA) encoded by crinkled a gene that is required for the formation of epidermal hairs and bristles. (duke.edu)
  • BACKGROUND: Myosin VIIA (MyoVIIA) is an unconventional myosin necessary for vertebrate audition [1]-[5]. (duke.edu)
  • 2018), A Conserved Role of the Unconventional Myosin 1. (xenbase.org)
  • A Conserved Role of the Unconventional Myosin 1d in Laterality Determination. (xenbase.org)
  • In Drosophila, which lacks both cilia and Nodal , the unconventional myosin ID ( myo1d ) gene controls dextral rotation of chiral organs [6, 7]. (xenbase.org)
  • The myosin superfamily consists of both conventional and unconventional myosins [ 10 , 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Found in various organelles, unconventional myosins are involved in RNA and protein transport, cellular movement, signal transduction, cellular morphology maintenance, and membrane trafficking [ 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The unconventional myosin Va is an actin-based motor protein that transports intracellular cargos and can bundle actin in vitro . (hindawi.com)
  • Our studies primarily have manipulated the function of an unconventional myosin, myosin VI, actin capping protein and a cytoplasmic actin isoform, Actin5C. (wustl.edu)
  • The remainder of the tail consists of a tandem repeat of myosin tail homology 4 (MyTH4) domains and partial four-point 1, ezrin, radixin, and moesin (FERM) domains (see below) that are separated by an SH3 subdomain and are thought to mediate dimerization and binding to other proteins or cargo. (genetics.org)
  • The ninaC gene encodes two retinal specific proteins (p132 and p174) consisting of a protein kinase domain joined to a domain homologous to the head region of the myosin heavy chain. (rupress.org)
  • In particular, myosin motor proteins, which bind to and travel along actin filaments, control multiple processes in microvilli and stereocilia. (biologists.org)
  • We suggest that the actin cytoskeleton and myosin I proteins may be crucial for generating left-right asymmetry in invertebrates. (pasteur.fr)
  • Myosin 1 is the largest of ∼35 different classes of proteins that comprise the myosin superfamily, a collection of actin-associated molecular motor proteins that use the energy from ATP. (springer.com)
  • Myosin I. Proteins Cell Reg. (springer.com)
  • We showed that two type I Myosin proteins play crucial roles in the manifestation of Drosophila handedness. (elsevier.com)
  • Drosophila comes of age as a model system for understanding the function of cytoskeletal proteins in cells, tissues, and organisms. (nih.gov)
  • In recent years, advances in imaging and genetic tools have led to Drosophila becoming one of the most effective systems for unlocking the subcellular functions of proteins (and particularly cytoskeletal proteins) in complex developmental settings. (nih.gov)
  • 3 ) reported a missense mutation, R403Q, in the β-cardiac myosin heavy chain gene (MYH7) in a cohort of HCM patients, and since then, hundreds of different mutations in not only myosin but also other sarcomeric proteins [for example, myosin binding protein-C (MyBP-C), troponin I, and cardiac actin] have been identified. (sciencemag.org)
  • As noted below, some myosin tail domains contain structural motifs found in other proteins (Fig. 2 ), but the functions for myosin tail domains are largely unknown. (sciencemag.org)
  • cDNAs corresponding to the tail region of 6 myosin genes were generated and incorporated into a vector to encode YFP-myosin tail fusion proteins lacking the motor domain. (springer.com)
  • All YFP-myosin-tail fusion proteins were targeted to small organelles ranging in size from 0.5 to 3.0 μm. (springer.com)
  • None of the 6 YFP-myosin tail fusions interacted with chloroplasts, and only one YFP-tail fusion appeared to sometimes co-localize with fluorescent proteins targeted to Golgi and mitochondria. (springer.com)
  • In fly, we are identifying gene products that are necessary for myosin function by genetically recovering second site non-complementing loci and biochemically recovering proteins that bind to myosin. (duke.edu)
  • To address these questions, we examined the sequence of steps involved during wound closure in MDCK cell sheets by using live-cell time-lapse imaging of the cell shape, myosin, and other associated proteins. (rupress.org)
  • They studied both how myosin and other proteins organize themselves over a period of time in diseased fruit flies. (healthcanal.com)
  • All myosins utilize energy from ATP hydrolysis to generate force for unidirectional movement along actin filaments and are regarded as the most essential proteins driving cellular migration [ 7 - 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Caenorhabditis elegans and Dictyostelium discoideum have a single myosin VII heavy chain gene (not distinct VIIA and VIIB forms). (genetics.org)
  • Constraints on intron evolution in the gene encoding the myosin alkali light chain in Drosophila. (genetics.org)
  • To distinguish the past action of evolutionary forces in introns known to have regulatory information, we examined nucleotide sequence variation at 991 sites in a random sample of 16 Drosophila melanogaster alleles of the gene encoding the myosin alkali light chain (Mlc1). (genetics.org)
  • The Drosophila planar polarity gene multiple wing hairs directly regulates the actin cytoskeleton. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Mutations in the MYBPC3 gene encoding human cardiac myosin-binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) are associated with familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC), but the molecular mechanisms involved are not fully understood. (oup.com)
  • Transient kinetic analysis of the 130-kDa myosin I (myr 1 gene product) from rat liver: a myosin I designed for maintenance of tension? (springer.com)
  • In this study, using Drosophila imaginal tissue as an in vivo model system, we show that sds22 is a new potential tumor suppressor gene in Drosophila. (nih.gov)
  • The gene encoding Drosophila nonmuscle essential light chain (Mlc-c) localizes to cytological position 5A6 and we discuss prospects for genetic analysis in this region. (duke.edu)
  • Mutations in the MYH9 gene, which encodes the nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA, have been recently reported in three syndromes that share the association of macrothrombocytopenia (MTCP) and leukocyte inclusions: the May-Hegglin anomaly and Sebastian and Fechtner syndromes. (asnjournals.org)
  • Indeed, mutations in the MYH9 gene, which encodes the nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA, were subsequently identified in patients affected with these diseases ( 9 - 11 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • We identify the gene dunk, which we show is transiently transcribed when cellularization starts and functions to maintain cortical myosin during the flow phase. (princeton.edu)
  • DmMyo20, the class XX myosin in Drosophila, is encoded by dachs, which functions as a crucial downstream component of the Fat signaling pathway, influencing growth, affinity, and gene expression during development. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Using microarray analyses, we find that myosin-X (Myo10) is a BMP target gene. (rupress.org)
  • Choi, K.-W. & Benzer, S. Rotation of photoreceptor clusters in the developing Drosophila eye requires the nemo gene. (nature.com)
  • De Lozanne, Disruption of the Dictyostelium myosin heavy chain gene by homologous recombination. (xenbase.org)
  • This was done through mutation of the gene for myosin in fruit flies. (healthcanal.com)
  • Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs) were first discovered in mammals and the horizon of insect FGF research opened up with the discovery of the first FGF receptor (FGFR) gene in Drosophila melanogaster , suggesting that FGF signalling is evolutionary conserved [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Over 100 years of Drosophila research generated a wide range of genetic tools helping to understand the biological function of gene networks in a developmental context. (mdpi.com)
  • Through live analysis of Drosophila renal tubule morphogenesis we show that tissue elongation results from polarised cell intercalations around the tubule circumference, producing convergent-extension tissue movements. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • This completes the sequence of the three myosin subunits, two of which have been shown genetically to be required for morphogenesis and cytokinesis (the heavy chain encoded by zipper and the regulatory light chain encoded by spaghetti squash). (duke.edu)
  • We investigated the cell behaviors that drive morphogenesis of the Drosophila follicular epithelium during expansion and elongation of early‐stage egg chambers. (embopress.org)
  • Utilizing molecular genetic and reverse genetic approaches in Drosophila, we have shown that conventional nonmuscle myosin is necessary for driving both cell division and post-mitotic cell shape changes for morphogenesis, and cellular locomotions. (duke.edu)
  • To date, our experiments identify ~30 loci that genetically interact with myosin and a kinase activity that phosphorylates myosin heavy chain and establish genetically, that the Rho signalling pathway is required in concert with nonmuscle myosin II for morphogenesis. (duke.edu)
  • We have again turned to Drosophila as a model system where we study the morphogenesis of epidermal hairs and sensory bristles. (duke.edu)
  • Centrosomes are the main microtubule (MT)-organizing centers in animal cells, but they also influence the actin/myosin cytoskeleton. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In cells, many vital processes involve myosin-driven motility that actively remodels the actin cytoskeleton and changes cell shape. (pnas.org)
  • Interestingly, similar dense condensates appear in cells during myosin-driven shape changes of the actin cytoskeleton. (pnas.org)
  • The physical mechanism of self-organization in the actin-myosin cytoskeleton remains unknown. (pnas.org)
  • Drosophila Rho-associated kinase (Drok) links Frizzled-mediated planar cell polarity signaling to the actin cytoskeleton. (nature.com)
  • Nonmuscle myosin II is an actin-based motor protein and is presumed to contract the actin cytoskeleton. (rupress.org)
  • We found that deleting components of the linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex in Drosophila melanogaster larval muscles abolishes the controlled and synchronized DNA endoreplication, typical of nuclei across myofibers, resulting in increased and variable DNA content in myonuclei of individual myofibers. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • One downstream target of C/EBP identified in Drosophila is focal adhesion kinase ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Differential localizations of and requirements for the two Drosophila ninaC kinase/myosins in photoreceptor cells. (rupress.org)
  • This suggests that the p174 myosin-I type tail is the domain responsible for association with the rhabdomeres and that the substrate for the p174 putative kinase may be a rhabdomeric protein important in photo-transduction. (rupress.org)
  • Mechanistically, we show that sds22 prevents cell invasion and metastasis by inhibiting myosin II and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity downstream of PP1. (nih.gov)
  • Rho-kinase activity was required for assembly of the myosin ring, and myosin II activity was required for contraction but not for basal membrane extension. (rupress.org)
  • As it contracted, the myosin ring moved toward the basal membrane with ZO-1 and Rho-kinase. (rupress.org)
  • To understand how cytokinesis is regulated during mitosis, we tested cyclin- p34cdc2 for myosin-II kinase activity, and investigated the mitotic-specific phosphorylation of myosin-II in lysates of Xenopus eggs. (xenbase.org)
  • Bengur, Sequence of the sites phosphorylated by protein kinase C in the smooth muscle myosin light chain. (xenbase.org)
  • Conti, Identification of the serine residue phosphorylated by protein kinase C in vertebrate nonmuscle myosin heavy chains. (xenbase.org)
  • Neuregulin infusion in rodents increases cardiac myosin light chain kinase (cMLCK) expression and cardiac myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) phosphorylation which may improve actin-myosin interactions for contraction. (jove.com)
  • The subfamily includes myosin VIIA, myosin VIIB, myosin VII (from species that do not have distinct myosin VIIA and myosin VIIB genes, see below and discussion ), myosin X, and myosin XV. (genetics.org)
  • Given the similarities at the molecular and behavioral levels between border cell migration and ovarian cancer progression, studying human homologs of other Drosophila genes that control border cell migration could provide new insight into the migratory behavior of ovarian cancer cells. (pnas.org)
  • Second, transcriptome analysis of transgenic IFM using nylon microarrays showed the remodelling of a transcriptional program involving 97 out of 3570 Drosophila genes. (oup.com)
  • In conclusion, we suggest that the combination of heterologous transgenesis and transcriptome analysis in Drosophila could be of great value as a way to glean insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying FHC and to propose potential candidate modifier genes. (oup.com)
  • Here, we show that during Drosophila cleavage, myosin recruitment to the cleavage furrows proceeds in temporally distinct phases of tension-driven cortical flow and direct recruitment, regulated by different zygotic genes. (princeton.edu)
  • While most components of this pathway were originally discovered using genetic screens in Drosophila , mammalian orthologs of those genes perform similar functions. (elifesciences.org)
  • The importance of myosins is illustrated by the identification of myosin genes as targets for disease-causing mutations. (sciencemag.org)
  • Previously, we used P -element mutagenesis and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping in Drosophila to identify candidate genes affecting resistance to starvation stress, and variation in resistance to starvation stress between the Oregon-R (Ore) and 2b strains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Seventeen myosin genes have been identified in the nuclear genome of Arabidopsis . (springer.com)
  • The myosin genes can be divided into two plant-specific subfamilies, class VIII with four members and class XI with 13 members. (springer.com)
  • Chimeric genes incorporating tail regions of myosin XI-5 (At MYA1), myosin XI-6 (At MYA2), myosin XI-8 (At XI-B), myosin XI-15 (At XI-I), myosin XI-16 (At XI-J) and myosin XI-17 (At XI-K) were expressed transiently. (springer.com)
  • There may actually be more than 13 myosin XIs present in the Arabidopsis cell, as myosin genes are quite large, with many exons and introns that might undergo alternative splicing. (springer.com)
  • Grant, Mammalian nonsarcomeric myosin regulatory light chains are encoded by two differentially regulated and linked genes. (xenbase.org)
  • In Drosophila , the htl and btl genes are expressed in distinct tissues and during different developmental times, thus providing independent models to investigate FGF signalling pathways in many different developmental processes. (mdpi.com)
  • It binds to A-band of thick filament of cardiac and skeletal muscle myosin as determined by indirect immunofluorescence on cryocuts, and indirect immunoperoxidase staining of Carnoy fixed tissues. (novusbio.com)
  • [1] [2] It is widely used in research to inhibit heart muscle myosin, non-muscle myosin II , and skeletal muscle myosin. (wikipedia.org)
  • alphaB-crystallin maintains skeletal muscle myosin enzymatic activity and prevents its aggregation under heat-shock stress. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Drosophila UNC-45 prevents heat-induced aggregation of skeletal muscle myosin and facilitates refolding of citrate synthase. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • In the preblastoderm embryo, myosin is localized to the egg cortex, sub-cortical arrays of inclusions, and, diffusely, the yolk-free periplasm. (biologists.org)
  • Although cell intercalation is governed by Myosin II (MyoII)-dependent forces during tissue elongation in the Drosophila embryo that lead to germ-band extension, it remained unclear whether MyoII plays a similar active role during tracheal branch elongation and intercalation. (biologists.org)
  • Mitosis is not perturbed in these embryos, but they fail in axial expansion, an actin/myosin-dependent process that distributes the nuclei along the anterior-to-posterior axis of the embryo. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In Drosophila, the cleavage of the syncytial blastoderm is initiated by an actomyosin network at the base of membrane furrows that invaginate from the surface of the embryo. (princeton.edu)
  • In the Drosophila embryo, the apical constrictions that internalize the mesoderm are controlled by the transcription factor Twist and require intact adherens junctions and a contractile acto-myosin network. (asm.org)
  • In the developing Drosophila embryo, the first dramatic defect resulting from failure in the proper formation of junctions is seen during the apical constrictions of the ventral cells of the blastoderm epithelium that lead to the invagination of the mesoderm ( 17 , 71 ). (asm.org)
  • Researchers have used the Drosophila embryo to model human disease mutations that affect myosin motor activity. (newswise.com)
  • Recent developmental studies of the musculoskeletal and proprioceptive units of the invertebrate Drosophila embryo, have revealed several common molecular and structural principles mediating the formation of each of these systems. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Most previous studies have been carried out in the Drosophila embryo or in adult flies, but the fruit fly larva also offers enormous research potential. (embl.de)
  • In this study, we found that myosin VI, a motor protein that regulates border cell migration, is abundantly expressed in high-grade ovarian carcinomas but not in normal ovary and ovarian cancers that behave indolently. (pnas.org)
  • Because border cells behave like cancer cells, we investigated whether myosin VI regulates ovarian cancer cell migration. (pnas.org)
  • The centrosomal protein CP190 regulates myosin function during early Drosophila development. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The Drosophila protocadherin Fat (Ft) regulates growth, planar cell polarity (PCP) and proximodistal patterning. (elifesciences.org)
  • A key downstream component of Ft signaling is the atypical myosin Dachs (D). Multiple regions of the intracellular domain of Ft have been implicated in regulating growth and PCP but how Ft regulates D is not known. (elifesciences.org)
  • Gaengel, K. & Mlodzik, M. Egfr signaling regulates ommatidial rotation and cell motility in the Drosophila eye via MAPK/Pnt signaling and the Ras effector Canoe/AF6. (nature.com)
  • Myosin II regulates complex cellular arrangement and epithelial architecture in Drosophila. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The NADPH metabolic network regulates human αB-crystallin cardiomyopathy and reductive stress in Drosophila melanogaster. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Mai 2005Epidermal growth factor receptor signalling regulates ommatidialrotation during Drosophila eye developmentReferees: Prof. Dr. Bernhard DobbersteinProf. (youscribe.com)
  • Geisbrecht and Montell ( 11 ) reported that the actin-based motor protein myosin VI is highly expressed in migrating border cells, and that depleting myosin VI from border cells severely retards their migration. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we have imaged the dynamics of green fluorescent protein-tagged myosin filaments, microtubules, and Kinesin-6 (which carries activators of Rho guanosine triphosphatase) at the cell cortex using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy in flattened Drosophila S2 cells. (nih.gov)
  • The Drosophila CP190 protein is nuclear in interphase, interacts with centrosomes during mitosis, and binds to MTs directly in vitro. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The Dictyostelium CARMIL protein links capping protein and the Arp2/3 complex to type I myosins through their SH3 domains. (springer.com)
  • Sds22, a regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), has recently been linked to regulation of epithelial polarity in Drosophila. (nih.gov)
  • The protein predicted from the cDNA matches partial amino acid sequence derived from essential light chain protein that copurifies with native nonmuscle myosin heavy chain. (duke.edu)
  • Drosophila myosin-XX functions as an actin-binding protein to facilitate the interaction between Zyx102 and actin. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Muscle contraction is driven by the motor protein myosin II, which pulls on and translates actin filaments ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Future work includes how these mutations affect protein interactions within the sarcomere that increase the availability of myosin heads participating in force production. (sciencemag.org)
  • show that in the fruit fly Drosophila , the Fat protein binds to another protein called Fbxl7. (elifesciences.org)
  • Grillo-Hill, B. K. and Wolff, T. (2009), Dynamic cell shapes and contacts in the developing Drosophila retina are regulated by the Ig cell adhesion protein hibris. (wiley.com)
  • An unrooted phylogenetic tree of the myosin superfamily based on head domain protein sequences. (sciencemag.org)
  • Currently, we are investigating how myosin elicits cell shape change and how its function is regulated through filament formation, phosphorylation, sub-cellular targeting and small GTP-binding protein function. (duke.edu)
  • We showed that conventional nonmuscle myosin (myosin II) provides key contractile forces in different tissues where the supramolecular complexes that incorporate this motor protein are distinct. (duke.edu)
  • The muscle disease Laing early-onset distal myopathy is caused by an inherited mutation in a muscle protein, myosin, that normally contributes to muscle contraction. (healthcanal.com)
  • Both myosin Va mRNA and protein expression significantly increased after BMP-2 administration and were inhibited by Erk1/2 inhibitor U0126. (hindawi.com)
  • A nanobody-based toolset to investigate the role of protein localization and dispersal in Drosophila. (uzh.ch)
  • Much of our current work is aimed at identifying molecules that cooperate with actin capping protein and myosin VI in a variety of cellular contexts to modulate actin structure formation and function. (wustl.edu)
  • Capping Protein and the Arp2/3 Complex Regulate Nonbundle Actin Filament Assembly to Indirectly Control Actin Bundle Positioning during Drosophila melanogaster Bristle Development. (wustl.edu)
  • A balance of capping protein and profilin functions is required to regulate actin polymerization in the Drosophila bristle. (wustl.edu)
  • A sensor for an insulin signal is shown in green, and myosin, a motor protein, in magenta. (embl.de)
  • Having recently shown that cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) is detectable in the serum after MI, we have proposed it as a potential biomarker for MI. (jove.com)
  • C-C" ) Quantification of Myosin II bidirectional polarity. (elifesciences.org)
  • C" ) Amplitude of Myosin II bidirectional polarity along the AP axis and over time, calculated using the Gaussian method. (elifesciences.org)
  • D ) Fourier quantification of Myosin II unidirectional polarity, shown on a movie frame 39 min after GBE onset. (elifesciences.org)
  • The length of the unipolar green vector represents the amplitude of polarity and its slope, the orientation of the polarity relative to the AP embryonic axis (see corresponding rosette in D' ). The vector either points towards the anterior or the posterior, depending which side of a given cell is enriched in Myosin II. (elifesciences.org)
  • D" ) Absolute amplitude of Myosin II unidirectional polarity along the AP axis and over time, calculated using the Gaussian method ( Figure 1-figure supplement 2 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • E ) Spatio-temporal map showing Myosin II bidirectional polarity for one representative movie (SG_4, Figure 1-figure supplement 1 and 3 ), as a function of the AP position in the field of view (x-axis, in µm) and time relative to the start of GBE (y-axis, in min). (elifesciences.org)
  • F ) Spatio-temporal map showing Myosin II unidirectional polarity for the same representative movie. (elifesciences.org)
  • dusky-like is required to maintain the integrity and planar cell polarity of hairs during the development of the Drosophila wing. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Time-lapse imaging at subcellular resolution shows that the acquisition of planar polarity leads to asymmetric pulsatile Myosin II accumulation in the basal, proximal cortex of tubule cells, resulting in repeated, transient shortening of their circumferential length. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • In this review, written for non-Drosophila experts, we will discuss critical technical advances that have enabled these cell biological insights, highlighting three examples of cytoskeletal discoveries that have arisen as a result: (1) regulation of Arp2/3 complex in myoblast fusion, (2) cooperation of the actin filament nucleators Spire and Cappuccino in establishment of oocyte polarity, and (3) coordination of supracellular myosin cables. (nih.gov)
  • His laboratory works on the molecular mechanisms of epithelial polarity, including both apical-basal polarity and planar cell polarity, using Drosophila melanogaster epithelial tissues as an experimental model system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mlodzik, M. Planar polarity in the Drosophila eye: a multifaceted view of signaling specificity and cross-talk. (nature.com)
  • Additional phenotypes pinpointed Wnt/planar cell polarity signaling and suggested that myo1d , like in Drosophila [8], acted in the context of the planar cell polarity pathway. (xenbase.org)
  • Each egg chamber in the Drosophila ovary is surrounded by a simple epithelium. (pnas.org)
  • To address this issue and explore the cooperation of the two main components of a microvillus, the central F-actin bundle and the enveloping plasma membrane, we investigated the expression and function of Myosin VIIA (Myo7A), which is encoded by crinkled ( ck ), and its interaction with cadherin Cad99C in the microvilli of the Drosophila follicular epithelium. (biologists.org)
  • We also found that the overexpression of Myosin61F (Myo61F), which encodes another type I Myosin in the hindgut epithelium reversed the hindgut handedness, suggesting that these two type I Myosins- Myo31DF and Myo61F-have antagonistic functions. (elsevier.com)
  • His laboratory also discovered that planar cell polarisation of the atypical myosin Dachs by the Fat and Dachsous cadherins is responsible for polarising tension at adherens junctions and thus influencing the orientation of cell shapes and cell divisions within the plane of the epithelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Planar division orientation is independent of cell shape cues and spindle‐orienting machinery Mud/Pins in the proliferating Drosophila follicular epithelium. (embopress.org)
  • The Drosophila tracheal system consists of an interconnected network of monolayered epithelial tubes that ensures oxygen transport in the larval and adult body. (biologists.org)
  • Mutants of Myosin31DF (Myo31DF), which encodes a type ID Myosin, showed reversed laterality of the embryonic and adult gut and testis. (elsevier.com)
  • Thompson's lab showed that synthesis and enzymatic remodelling of the ECM were crucial to the shaping of Drosophila melanogaster tissues, particularly for formation of the adult fly wings, legs and halteres during metamorphosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Locomotion in adult Drosophila depends on motor neurons that target a set of multifibered muscles in the appendages. (jneurosci.org)
  • Here, we describe the development of motor neurons in adult Drosophila , focusing on those that target the legs. (jneurosci.org)
  • Here, we use genetic methods in Drosophila to characterize the development of the adult leg motor neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • A mighty small heart: the cardiac proteome of adult Drosophila melanogaster . (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Here, we characterize a proliferating cellular compartment in the adult Drosophila midgut. (ebscohost.com)
  • The movie shows comprehensive set of mushroom body output neurons (MBONs) of adult Drosophila in the standard brain after image registration. (drosophila-images.org)
  • Here we describe a protocol for the fixation and the fluorescent labeling of particular myocardial elements from the hearts of dissected larvae and semi-intact adult Drosophila . (jove.com)
  • Additionally, we perform labeling of F-actin and α-actinin in myosin-GFP expressing adult flies and of α-actinin and pericardin, a type IV extracellular matrix collagen, in wild type adult hearts. (jove.com)
  • We demonstrate that mutations in crinkled ( ck ) disrupt the Drosophila myosin VIIA heavy chain. (genetics.org)
  • We used Drosophila as the model to investigate the in vivo consequences of human cMyBP-C mutations. (oup.com)
  • A CP190 mutant that cannot bind to MTs or centrosomes can rescue the lethality associated with Cp190 mutations, presumably because it retains its nuclear functions, but it cannot rescue the defects in myosin organization in embryos. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We hypothesize that these mutations affect the biomechanical properties of myosin, such as increasing its intrinsic force and/or its duty ratio and therefore the ensemble force of the sarcomere. (sciencemag.org)
  • Using recombinant human β-cardiac myosin, we characterize the molecular effects of three severe HCM-causing converter domain mutations: R719W, R723G, and G741R. (sciencemag.org)
  • These results indicate that the net biomechanical properties of human β-cardiac myosin carrying these converter domain mutations are very similar to those of wild type or are even slightly hypocontractile, leading us to consider an alternative mechanism for the clinically observed hypercontractility. (sciencemag.org)
  • It is estimated that missense mutations in the β-cardiac myosin heavy chain (MyHC) are responsible for ~40% of cases of genotype-positive HCM ( 4 , 5 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Through in vivo imaging and biophysical analysis, they demonstrated that engineering human MYH9-related disease mutations into Drosophila. (newswise.com)
  • Myosin transducer mutations differentially affect motor function, myofibril structure, and the performance of skeletal and cardiac muscles. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Immunocytochemistry/ Immunofluorescence: non-muscle Myosin IIA Antibody (4H3) [H00004627-M06] - Analysis of monoclonal antibody to MYH9 on HeLa cell. (novusbio.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: non-muscle Myosin IIA Antibody (4H3) [H00004627-M06] - Analysis of monoclonal antibody to MYH9 on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human ovarian cancer. (novusbio.com)
  • ELISA: non-muscle Myosin IIA Antibody (4H3) [H00004627-M06] - Detection limit for recombinant GST tagged MYH9 is approximately 0.03ng/ml as a capture antibody. (novusbio.com)
  • There are currently no images for Myosin Heavy Chain Antibody (NB300-284G). (novusbio.com)
  • Fujiwara, Fluorescent antibody localization of myosin in the cytoplasm, cleavage furrow, and mitotic spindle of human cells. (xenbase.org)
  • Immunocytochemistry/ Immunofluorescence - Anti-Myosin antibody [MAC 147] (ab51098) This image is courtesy of an Abreview by Julie Ni. (abcam.com)
  • Representative NMJs on ventral longitudinal muscles 6 and 7 from third instar Drosophila larvae of the control (A) and the jar loss of function mutant, jar 322 /Df(3R)crb87-5 (B). All images were acquired at the same magnification using a LSM510 confocal laser microscope. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Importantly, live imaging of muscle contraction in intact Drosophila larvae indicated altered distribution of Sarco/Endoplamic Reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) around the myonuclei of Ma2/d mutant larvae. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • This image is a composition of snap shots from a time lapse video of a closing wound in the epidermis of a Drosophila larvae. (embl.de)
  • Live imaging of insulin signalling and formation of a contractile cable during wound healing in Drosophila larvae. (embl.de)
  • Long-term in vivo imaging of Drosophila larvae. (embl.de)
  • Dramatic changes in the localization of conventional non-muscle myosin characterize early embryogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. (biologists.org)
  • The pattern of Kinesin-6 localization closely resembles where new myosin filaments appear at the cortex by de novo assembly. (nih.gov)
  • Differential localization and dynamics of class I myosins in the enterocyte microvillus. (springer.com)
  • We elucidated a role for myosin Va (MyoVa) to modulate the axonal localization and transport of ZBP1 in axons. (jneurosci.org)
  • We hypothesized that the prominent brain myosin MyoVa can modulate the axonal localization and transport of ZBP1. (jneurosci.org)
  • Despite this asymmetry (perhaps due to a tilting of the spindle), myosin localization occurs in a normal, symmetrical manner, and myosin clears from both poles. (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • Reports that in Drosophila cell division the orientation of the mitotic spindles and the localization of the Numb crescent follow a stereotyped pattern. (ebscohost.com)
  • 1993) and localization of myosins to growth cones (Rochlin et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Bement WM, Mooseker MS. TEDS rule: a molecular rationale for differential regulation of myosins by phosphorylation of the heavy chain head. (springer.com)
  • This highlights several conserved contacts among the myosin subunits that may be important for the structure and regulation of the myosin motor. (duke.edu)
  • Here we study how the collective action of myosin motors organizes actin filaments into contractile structures in a simplified model system devoid of biochemical regulation. (pnas.org)
  • Development regulation of vesicle transport in Drosophila embryos: forces and kinetics. (worldcat.org)
  • Cammarato A , Hatch V, Saide J, Craig R, Sparrow JC, Tobacman LS, Lehman W. Drosophila muscle regulation characterized by electron microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction of thin filament mutants. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Our studies using myosin VI focus on regulation of actin polymerization associated with actin-based motility and membrane remodeling involving myosin VI. (wustl.edu)
  • At the syncytial blastoderm stage, myosin is found within cytoskeletal caps associated with the somatic nuclei at the embryonic surface. (biologists.org)
  • Thus, CP190 has distinct nuclear and centrosomal functions, and it provides a crucial link between the centrosome/MT and actin/myosin cytoskeletal systems in early embryos. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These specific examples illustrate the unique power of Drosophila both to uncover new cytoskeletal structures and functions, and to place these discoveries in a broader in vivo context, providing insights that would have been impossible in a cell culture model or in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • Many of the cellular structures identified in Drosophila have clear counterparts in mammalian cells and tissues, and therefore elucidating cytoskeletal functions in Drosophila will be broadly applicable to other organisms. (nih.gov)
  • The relationship and function of myosin Va pertaining to cytoskeletal aspects, cellular morphology, filopodia motility, and neurite extension have been reported [ 13 - 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Studies in my lab address actin cytoskeletal roles in development of cell specializations and differentiated cell function/organization using Drosophila as a model system. (wustl.edu)
  • The Drosophila genome encodes only two FGFRs [Heartless (Htl) and Breathless (Btl)] and three FGF ligands (Pyramus (Pyr), Thisbe (Ths) and Branchless (Bnl)) that can combine into three functional interactions of FGFR/FGF-ligand pairs: Htl/Pyr, Htl/Ths and Btl/Bnl. (mdpi.com)
  • Blebbistatin inhibits myosin ATPase activity and this way acto-myosin based motility . (wikipedia.org)
  • Mirkovic, I. & Mlodzik, M. Cooperative activities of Drosophila DE-cadherin and DN-cadherin regulate the cell motility process of ommatidial rotation. (nature.com)
  • In vitro motility of native thin filaments from Drosophila indirect flight muscles reveals that the held-up 2 TnI mutation affects calcium activation. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • siRNA-mediated knockdown of myosin Va inhibited VSMC motility. (hindawi.com)
  • VSMC migration is dependent upon cellular motility, driven by cycles of actin polymerization, cellular adhesion, and actin-myosin contraction. (hindawi.com)
  • 1992), little or no information about the functional role of myosins in growth cone motility has emerged (cf Tanaka and Sabry, 1995). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In higher eukaryotes, nonmuscle myosin II (hereafter referred to as myosin) assembly and motor activity are controlled by the phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (MLC) at Thr18/Ser19 ( Ikebe and Hartshorne, 1985 ). (rupress.org)
  • 1992), Phosphorylation of myosin-II regulatory light c. (xenbase.org)
  • Berlot, Chemoattractant-elicited increases in myosin phosphorylation in Dictyostelium. (xenbase.org)
  • Craig, Light-chain phosphorylation controls the conformation of vertebrate non-muscle and smooth muscle myosin molecules. (xenbase.org)
  • Daniel, Evidence for a role of myosin phosphorylation in the initiation of the platelet shape change response. (xenbase.org)
  • Western blot and real-time PCR detected the expression of myosin Va and the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (Erk1/2). (hindawi.com)
  • We generate a homology model for the structure of the ck /myosin VIIA head that indicates myosin VIIAs, like myosin IIs, have a spectrin-like, SH3 subdomain fronting their N terminus. (genetics.org)
  • In addition, we establish that the two myosin VIIA FERM repeats share high sequence similarity with only the first two subdomains of the three-lobed structure that is typical of canonical FERM domains. (genetics.org)
  • In vertebrates, they play a key role in sensory perception: defects in myosin VIIA lead to deafness and blindness in humans, retinal defects and deafness in mice, and aberrant auditory and vestibular function in zebrafish. (genetics.org)
  • Moreover, the tissue-specific expression pattern of myosin VIIA correlates well with the phenotypes observed. (genetics.org)
  • Structurally, the myosin VIIA heavy chain is well conserved and the various domains provide for motor- and cargo-binding functions. (genetics.org)
  • The myosin VIIA tail begins with a short sequence predicted to form an alpha-helical coiled-coil that may contribute to dimerization. (genetics.org)
  • Myosin VIIA, important for human auditory function, is necessary for Drosophila auditory organ development. (duke.edu)
  • Although the formation of the anterior-posterior and dorsal-ventral axes in Drosophila is well understood, left-right asymmetry has not been extensively studied. (pasteur.fr)
  • Overexpression of Myo61F, another myosin I (ref. 4), reverses the handedness of the embryonic gut, and its knockdown also causes a left-right patterning defect. (pasteur.fr)
  • In 2007, Thompson was a visiting scientist at the Research Institute of Molecular Pathology in Vienna (Austria), where he worked in the laboratory of Dr Barry Dickson to perform a genome-wide in vivo RNAi screen in Drosophila. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drosophila myosin IB (Myo1B) is one of two class I myosins in the Drosophila genome. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • The class XX myosin is a member of the diverse myosin superfamily and exists in insects and several lower invertebrates. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In the past few years genetic, biochemical, and cytolocalization data have implicated members of the myosin superfamily of actin-based molecular motors in a variety of cellular functions including membrane trafficking, cell movements, and signal transduction. (sciencemag.org)
  • Over the past several years, evidence has emerged for the existence of a large superfamily of myosins. (sciencemag.org)
  • While accumulating at the equator, myosin filaments disappear from the poles of the cell, a process that also requires Kinesin-6 as well as possibly other signals that emanate from the elongating spindle. (nih.gov)
  • Actin-myosin II solutions remain disordered at high levels of ATP ( 12 ⇓ - 14 ) and generate dense condensates that appear internally unstructured if the ATP level is lowered or when the actin filaments are cross-linked ( 15 ⇓ ⇓ - 18 ). (pnas.org)
  • We describe a cryo-electron microscopy three-dimensional image reconstruction of relaxed myosin II-containing thick filaments from the flight muscle of the giant water bug Lethocerus indicus . (sciencemag.org)
  • When myosin polymerizes, the rods pack together to form thick filaments, which are bipolar in all striated muscles. (sciencemag.org)
  • Myosins are molecular motors that carry cargo on actin filaments in eukaryotic cells. (springer.com)
  • Hegan PS, Mermall V, Tilney LG, Mooseker MS. Roles for Drosophila melanogaster myosin 1B in maintenance of enterocyte brush-border structure and resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas entomophila . (springer.com)
  • The nomenclature of myosins I is confusing, although there is general agreement in the naming of myosins I in vertebrates (Gillespie et al. (springer.com)
  • During gastrulation, there is specific anti-myosin staining at the apical ends of those cells that change shape in regions of invagination. (biologists.org)
  • B ) Total fluorescence intensities for Myosin II at apical cell-cell interfaces over time. (elifesciences.org)
  • RhoGEF2 accumulates apically in mesodermal cells prior to constriction and is necessary for the apical accumulation of myosin and apical constriction ( 5 , 26 , 28 , 54 ). (asm.org)
  • Apical constriction is driven by a pulsatile apical myosin network in delaminating Drosophila neuroblasts. (amedeo.com)
  • They are not detected in embryos stained with anti-Drosophila muscle myosin antiserum or with preimmune serum. (biologists.org)
  • embryos are imaged ventrally by confocal microscopy with a 196 x 173 μm field of view, with cell membranes visualised in the red channel and Myosin II in the green channel. (elifesciences.org)
  • Myosin organization is disrupted in these embryos, but actin appears unaffected. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Moreover, a constitutively activated form of the myosin regulatory light chain can rescue the axial expansion defect in mutant embryos, suggesting that CP190 acts upstream of myosin activation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The absence of cMyBP-C in the t/t and the unphosphorylated cMyBP-C in the AllP{sub -t/t} both resulted in a shorter myosin cross-bridge lifetime when myosin isoform was controlled. (osti.gov)
  • Conversely, the myosin heads must disrupt their relaxed arrangement to drive contraction. (sciencemag.org)
  • During cellularization, myosin is concentrated around the furrow canals that form the leading margin of the plasma membrane as it plunges inward to package each somatic nucleus into a columnar epithelial cell. (biologists.org)
  • see the Perspective by Grill ) studied asymmetric cell divisions in the Q neuroblast lineage during C. elegans development and found that when the spindle was centred, myosin II accumulated at higher levels on the side of what will become the smaller daughter cell, giving rise to asymmetric myosin-based contractile forces acting on the membrane. (sciencemag.org)
  • The Drosophila orthologue of human GOLPH3 is required for contractile ring formation and membrane trafficking during cytokinesis. (genetics-gsa.org)
  • Strutt, H. & Strutt, D. EGF signaling and ommatidial rotation in the Drosophila eye. (nature.com)
  • Chou, Y.H. & Chien, C.T. Scabrous controls ommatidial rotation in the Drosophila compound eye. (nature.com)
  • Measurement of diffusional motion and stepping in actin-myosin interactions. (worldcat.org)
  • Electron tomography of cryofixed, isometrically contracting insect flight muscle reveals novel actin-myosin interactions. (duke.edu)
  • These distributions are observed with both whole immune serum and affinity-purified antibodies directed against Drosophila non-muscle myosin heavy chain. (biologists.org)
  • Purified cyclin- p34cdc2 phosphorylated the regulatory light chain of cytoplasmic and smooth muscle myosin-II in vitro on serine-1 or serine-2 and threonine-9, sites known to inhibit the actin-activated myosin ATPase activity of smooth muscle and nonmuscle myosin (Nishikawa, M., J. R. Sellers, R. S. Adelstein, and H. Hidaka. (xenbase.org)
  • Myosin VIIAs are part of a myosin subfamily that is conserved phylogenetically in metazoa and amoebozoa (Dictyostelium) but is lacking in sequenced fungal and plant species. (genetics.org)
  • Essential light chain of Drosophila nonmuscle myosin II. (duke.edu)
  • We have cloned and sequenced a cDNA encoding the essential (alkaline) light chain of nonmuscle myosin from Drosophila melanogaster. (duke.edu)
  • Investigation of nucleotide polymorphism at 991 sites in 16 randomly sampled alleles of myosin alkali light chain (Mlc1) in Drosophila melanogaster indicates that alternatively spliced exon 5 is flanked by introns 4 and 5. (readabstracts.com)
  • Moreover, we provide evidence that Dpp signaling controls the subcellular distribution of the activities of the small GTPase Rho1 and the regulatory light chain of non-muscle myosin II (MRLC). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Immediately upon wounding, actin and myosin II regulatory light chain accumulated at two locations: (1) in a ring adjacent to the tight junction that circumscribed the wound and (2) in fibers at the base of the cell in membranes extending over the wound site. (rupress.org)
  • Serine-1 or -2 of the regulatory light chain of Xenopus cytoplasmic myosin-II was also phosphorylated in Xenopus egg lysates stabilized in metaphase, but not in interphase. (xenbase.org)
  • Androcam is a tissue-specific light chain for myosin VI in the Drosophila testis. (wustl.edu)
  • The cells express two fluorescently labelled markers: a PIP3 sensor (green) and the myosin light chain (magenta). (embl.de)
  • Citron-K or its fly orthologue Sticky has been suggested to interact with several molecules in cytokinesis such as Kinesin-3 ( KIF14 ), [14] actin , myosin light chain , [15] and anillin . (wikipedia.org)
  • During normal development of the Drosophila ovary, a dynamic process called border cell migration occurs that resembles the migratory behavior of human ovarian cancer cells. (pnas.org)
  • For the last 100 years, Drosophila melanogaster has been a powerhouse genetic system for understanding mechanisms of inheritance, development, and behavior in animals. (nih.gov)
  • The Slam-dependent direct recruitment of myosin is sufficient to drive cleavage in the dunk mutant, and the subsequent development of the mutant is normal. (princeton.edu)
  • There he studied the role of the Hippo signaling pathway during Drosophila development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thompson's lab discovered several components of the Hippo signaling pathway in Drosophila melanogaster (including Kibra, Spectrins, Mask) and that this pathway functions to sense mechanical strain during development of epithelial cells in vivo, as well as to sense nutritional status via the hormonal Insulin/IGF-1 and PI3K-Akt pathway, in order to control cell proliferation, cellular morphology, and invasive cell migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • in The Development of Drosophila melanogaster (ed. (nature.com)
  • In snails, shells and inner organs coil asymmetrically, and in Drosophila, genitalia and hindgut undergo a chiral rotation during development. (xenbase.org)
  • Although immunolocalization can only suggest possible function, these myosin localizations and the coincident changes in cell morphology are consistent with a key role for non-muscle myosin in powering cellularization and gastrulation during embryogenesis. (biologists.org)
  • 4QBD: The first X-ray crystal structure of an insect muscle myosin. (rcsb.org)
  • The sequence is consistent with the presence of four helix-loop-helix domains seen in crystallographic structures of the striated muscle myosin light chains and their close relative, calmodulin. (duke.edu)
  • Observation of single stepwise motion of muscle Myosin-II molecules on actin using feedback and tweezers. (worldcat.org)
  • Forces on smooth muscle myosin and use of fluorescently labeled ATP with total internal reflection microscopy. (worldcat.org)
  • Thus, although Drosophila uses a lineage-based method to generate leg motor neurons, individual lineages are not dedicated to generate neurons that target a single leg segment or muscle type. (jneurosci.org)
  • The task at hand is to decipher how the multitude of myosins function at both the molecular and cellular level-a task facilitated by our understanding of myosin structure and function in muscle. (sciencemag.org)
  • To date, at least 13 structurally distinct classes ( 1 ) of myosin heavy chains have been identified in addition to the well-characterized myosins-II of muscle and nonmuscle cells (Figs. 1 and 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Alternative S2 hinge regions of the myosin rod differentially affect muscle function, myofibril dimensions and myosin tail length. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Interestingly, a molecular pathway triggered by the Neuregulin/Vein ligand-dependent activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway, which upregulates the early growth response (EGR)-like transcription factor Stripe, is utilized not only by the Drosophila muscle-tendon and proprioceptive organ-ectoderm attachment, but also by their vertebrate counterparts. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Amontillado is required for Drosophila Slit processing and for tendon-mediated muscle patterning. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • The Drosophila melanogaster dorsal vessel, or heart, is a tubular structure comprised of a single layer of contractile cardiomyocytes, pericardial cells that align along each side of the heart wall, supportive alary muscles and, in adults, a layer of ventral longitudinal muscle cells. (jove.com)
  • Drosophila melanogaster, the fruit fly, expresses both forms of striated muscle and benefits greatly from powerful genetic tools. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Expression of the inclusion body myopathy 3 mutation in Drosophila depresses myosin function and stability and recapitulates muscle inclusions and weakness. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Although bilateral animals, including Drosophila, appear to have left-right (LR) symmetry from the outside, their internal organs often show directional and stereotypical LR asymmetry. (elsevier.com)
  • We propose that the actin-based functions of type I Myosins play critical roles in generating LR asymmetry in invertebrates. (elsevier.com)
  • However, other types of asymmetric cell divisions (for example, in Drosophila neuroblasts) start with a centrally localized spindle. (sciencemag.org)
  • A global in vivo Drosophila RNAi screen identifies NOT3 as a conserved regulator of heart function. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Anderson BL, Boldogh I, Evangelista M, Boone C, Greene LA, Pon LA. The Src homology domain 3 (SH3) of a yeast type I myosin, Myo5p, binds to verprolin and is required for targeting to sites of actin polarization. (springer.com)
  • Wounded cells display similar phenomena, with accumulation of myosin foci at the wound border and fusion of these foci into a tight ring capable of constriction ( 23 ). (pnas.org)