A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.
Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.
Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Color of the iris.
Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Slender tubular or hairlike excretory structures found in insects. They emerge from the alimentary canal between the mesenteron (midgut) and the proctodeum (hindgut).
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Specialized cells in the invertebrates that detect and transduce light. They are predominantly rhabdomeric with an array of photosensitive microvilli. Illumination depolarizes invertebrate photoreceptors by stimulating Na+ influx across the plasma membrane.
The portion of chromosome material that remains condensed and is transcriptionally inactive during INTERPHASE.
The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).
Sexual activities of animals.
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
The normal length of time of an organism's life.
Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.
A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysterone is the 20-hydroxylated ECDYSONE.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Activities designed to attract the attention or favors of another.
A layer of cells lining the fluid-filled cavity (blastocele) of a BLASTULA, usually developed from a fertilized insect, reptilian, or avian egg.
A nutritional reservoir of fatty tissue found mainly in insects and amphibians.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.
Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.
The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Specialized organs adapted for the reception of stimuli by the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.
A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
An antineoplastic agent with alkylating properties. It also acts as a mutagen by damaging DNA and is used experimentally for that effect.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A number of syndromes with defective gonadal developments such as streak GONADS and dysgenetic testes or ovaries. The spectrum of gonadal and sexual abnormalities is reflected in their varied sex chromosome (SEX CHROMOSOMES) constitution as shown by the karyotypes of 45,X monosomy (TURNER SYNDROME); 46,XX (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, 46XX); 46,XY (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, 46,XY); and sex chromosome MOSAICISM; (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, MIXED). Their phenotypes range from female, through ambiguous, to male. This concept includes gonadal agenesis.
The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.
A proto-oncogene protein and member of the Wnt family of proteins. It is expressed in the caudal MIDBRAIN and is essential for proper development of the entire mid-/hindbrain region.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Hollow sacs of cells in LARVA that form adult structures in insects during BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS.
In invertebrate zoology, a lateral lobe of the FOREBRAIN in certain ARTHROPODS. In vertebrate zoology, either of the corpora bigemina of non-mammalian VERTEBRATES. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1329)
Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.
Chromosome regions that are loosely packaged and more accessible to RNA polymerases than HETEROCHROMATIN. These regions also stain differentially in CHROMOSOME BANDING preparations.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.
Prominent lobed neuropils found in ANNELIDA and all ARTHROPODS except crustaceans. They are thought to be involved in olfactory learning and memory.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.
Genetic mechanisms that allow GENES to be expressed at a similar level irrespective of their GENE DOSAGE. This term is usually used in discussing genes that lie on the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Because the sex chromosomes are only partially homologous, there is a different copy number, i.e., dosage, of these genes in males vs. females. In DROSOPHILA, dosage compensation is accomplished by hypertranscription of genes located on the X CHROMOSOME. In mammals, dosage compensation of X chromosome genes is accomplished by random X CHROMOSOME INACTIVATION of one of the two X chromosomes in the female.
The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.
An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.
The reciprocal exchange of segments at corresponding positions along pairs of homologous CHROMOSOMES by symmetrical breakage and crosswise rejoining forming cross-over sites (HOLLIDAY JUNCTIONS) that are resolved during CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION. Crossing-over typically occurs during MEIOSIS but it may also occur in the absence of meiosis, for example, with bacterial chromosomes, organelle chromosomes, or somatic cell nuclear chromosomes.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
One of the AROMATIC-L-AMINO-ACID DECARBOXYLASES, this enzyme is responsible for the conversion of DOPA to DOPAMINE. It is of clinical importance in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.
A genus of bacteria comprised of a heterogenous group of gram-negative small rods and coccoid forms associated with arthropods. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 1, 1984)
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
Proteins which are found in eggs (OVA) from any species.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A family of the order DIPTERA. These flies are generally found around decaying vegetation and fruit. Several species, because of their short life span, giant salivary gland chromosomes, and ease of culturing, have been used extensively in studies of heredity.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A genus of small beetles of the family Tenebrionidae; T. confusum is the "confused flour beetle".
Enzymes that recombine DNA segments by a process which involves the formation of a synapse between two DNA helices, the cleavage of single strands from each DNA helix and the ligation of a DNA strand from one DNA helix to the other. The resulting DNA structure is called a Holliday junction which can be resolved by DNA REPLICATION or by HOLLIDAY JUNCTION RESOLVASES.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
A dense intricate feltwork of interwoven fine glial processes, fibrils, synaptic terminals, axons, and dendrites interspersed among the nerve cells in the gray matter of the central nervous system.
Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Pheromones that elicit sexual attraction or mating behavior usually in members of the opposite sex in the same species.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Circadian rhythm signaling proteins that influence circadian clock by interacting with other circadian regulatory proteins and transporting them into the CELL NUCLEUS.
Light sensory organ in ARTHROPODS consisting of a large number of ommatidia, each functioning as an independent photoreceptor unit.
Antennapedia homeodomain protein is a homeobox protein involved in limb patterning in ARTHROPODS. Mutations in the gene for the antennapedia homeodomain protein are associated with the conversion of antenna to leg or leg to antenna DROSOPHILA.
Proteins, usually projecting from the cilia of olfactory receptor neurons, that specifically bind odorant molecules and trigger responses in the neurons. The large number of different odorant receptors appears to arise from several gene families or subfamilies rather than from DNA rearrangement.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Sexual union of a male and a female in non-human species.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.
Steroids that bring about MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysteroids include the endogenous insect hormones (ECDYSONE and ECDYSTERONE) and the insect-molting hormones found in plants, the phytoecdysteroids. Phytoecdysteroids are natural insecticides.
The parts of the gene sequence that carry out the different functions of the GENES.
Genes that are located on the X CHROMOSOME.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
A family of proteins that contain several 42-amino acid repeat domains and are homologous to the Drosophila armadillo protein. They bind to other proteins through their armadillo domains and play a variety of roles in the CELL including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, regulation of DESMOSOME assembly, and CELL ADHESION.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
A multisubunit polycomb protein complex with affinity for CHROMATIN that contains methylated HISTONE H3. It contains an E3 ubiquitin ligase activity that is specific for HISTONE H2A and works in conjunction with POLYCOMB REPRESSIVE COMPLEX 2 to effect EPIGENETIC REPRESSION.
The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.
The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of XANTHINE in the presence of NAD+ to form URIC ACID and NADH. It acts also on a variety of other purines and aldehydes.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.
Validation of the SEX of an individual by inspection of the GONADS and/or by genetic tests.
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
An alpha-adrenergic sympathomimetic amine, biosynthesized from tyramine in the CNS and platelets and also in invertebrate nervous systems. It is used to treat hypotension and as a cardiotonic. The natural D(-) form is more potent than the L(+) form in producing cardiovascular adrenergic responses. It is also a neurotransmitter in some invertebrates.
Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.
A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.

A quantitative three-dimensional model of the Drosophila optic lobes. (1/16925)

A big step in the neurobiology of Drosophila would be to establish a standard for brain anatomy to which to relate morphological, developmental and genetic data. We propose that only an average brain and its variance would be a biologically meaningful reference and have developed an averaging procedure. Here, we present a brief outline of this method and apply it to the optic lobes of Drosophila melanogaster wild-type Canton S. Whole adult brains are stained with a fluorescent neuropil marker and scanned with the confocal microscope. The resulting three-dimensional data sets are automatically aligned into a common coordinate system and intensity averages calculated. We use effect-size maps for the fast detection of differences between averages. For morphometric analysis, neuropil structures are labelled and superimposed to give a three-dimensional probabilistic map. In the present study, the method was applied to 66 optic lobes. We found their size, shape and position to be highly conserved between animals. Similarity was even higher between left and right optic lobes of the same animal. Sex differences were more pronounced. Female optic lobes were 6% larger than those of males. This value corresponds well with the higher number of ommatidia in females. As females have their additional ommatidia dorsally and ventrally, the additional neuropil in the medulla, lobula and lobula plate, accordingly, was found preferentially at these locations. For males, additional neuropil was found only at the posterior margin of the lobula. This finding supports the notion of male-specific neural processing in the lobula as described for muscid and calliphorid flies.  (+info)

Alzheimer's disease: clues from flies and worms. (2/16925)

Presenilin mutations give rise to familial Alzheimer's disease and result in elevated production of amyloid beta peptide. Recent evidence that presenilins act in developmental signalling pathways may be the key to understanding how senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and apoptosis are all biochemically linked.  (+info)

Insect evolution: Redesigning the fruitfly. (3/16925)

Homeotic mutations in Drosophila can result in dramatic phenotypes that suggest the possibility for rapid morphological evolution, but dissection of the genetic pathway downstream of Ultrabithorax is beginning to reveal how wing morphology may have evolved by more gradual transformations.  (+info)

Deletion analysis of the Drosophila Inscuteable protein reveals domains for cortical localization and asymmetric localization. (4/16925)

The Drosophila Inscuteable protein acts as a key regulator of asymmetric cell division during the development of the nervous system [1] [2]. In neuroblasts, Inscuteable localizes into an apical cortical crescent during late interphase and most of mitosis. During mitosis, Inscuteable is required for the correct apical-basal orientation of the mitotic spindle and for the asymmetric segregation of the proteins Numb [3] [4] [5], Prospero [5] [6] [7] and Miranda [8] [9] into the basal daughter cell. When Inscuteable is ectopically expressed in epidermal cells, which normally orient their mitotic spindle parallel to the embryo surface, these cells reorient their mitotic spindle and divide perpendicularly to the surface [1]. Like the Inscuteable protein, the inscuteable RNA is asymmetrically localized [10]. We show here that inscuteable RNA localization is not required for Inscuteable protein localization. We found that a central 364 amino acid domain - the Inscuteable asymmetry domain - was necessary and sufficient for Inscuteable localization and function. Within this domain, a separate 100 amino acid region was required for asymmetric localization along the cortex, whereas a 158 amino acid region directed localization to the cell cortex. The same 158 amino acid fragment could localize asymmetrically when coexpressed with the full-length protein, however, and could bind to Inscuteable in vitro, suggesting that this domain may be involved in the self-association of Inscuteable in vivo.  (+info)

Why are there so few resistance-associated mutations in insecticide target genes? (5/16925)

The genes encoding the three major targets of conventional insecticides are: Rdl, which encodes a gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit (RDL); para, which encodes a voltage-gated sodium channel (PARA); and Ace, which encodes insect acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Interestingly, despite the complexity of the encoded receptors or enzymes, very few amino acid residues are replaced in different resistant insects: one within RDL, two within PARA and three or more within AChE. Here we examine the possible reasons underlying this extreme conservation by looking at the aspects of receptor and/or enzyme function that may constrain replacements to such a limited number of residues.  (+info)

Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and insecticide resistance in insects. (6/16925)

Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are involved in many cases of resistance of insects to insecticides. Resistance has long been associated with an increase in monooxygenase activities and with an increase in cytochrome P450 content. However, this increase does not always account for all of the resistance. In Drosophila melanogaster, we have shown that the overproduction of cytochrome P450 can be lost by the fly without a corresponding complete loss of resistance. These results prompted the sequencing of a cytochrome P450 candidate for resistance in resistant and susceptible flies. Several mutations leading to amino-acid substitutions have been detected in the P450 gene CYP6A2 of a resistant strain. The location of these mutations in a model of the 3D structure of the CYP6A2 protein suggested that some of them may be important for enzyme activity of this molecule. This has been verified by heterologous expression of wild-type and mutated cDNA in Escherichia coli. When other resistance mechanisms are considered, relatively few genetic mutations are involved in insecticide resistance, and this has led to an optimistic view of the management of resistance. Our observations compel us to survey in more detail the genetic diversity of cytochrome P450 genes and alleles involved in resistance.  (+info)

Control of growth and differentiation by Drosophila RasGAP, a homolog of p120 Ras-GTPase-activating protein. (7/16925)

Mammalian Ras GTPase-activating protein (GAP), p120 Ras-GAP, has been implicated as both a downregulator and effector of Ras proteins, but its precise role in Ras-mediated signal transduction pathways is unclear. To begin a genetic analysis of the role of p120 Ras-GAP we identified a homolog from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster through its ability to complement the sterility of a Schizosaccharomyces pombe (fission yeast) gap1 mutant strain. Like its mammalian homolog, Drosophila RasGAP stimulated the intrinsic GTPase activity of normal mammalian H-Ras but not that of the oncogenic Val12 mutant. RasGAP was tyrosine phosphorylated in embryos and its Src homology 2 (SH2) domains could bind in vitro to a small number of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins expressed at various developmental stages. Ectopic expression of RasGAP in the wing imaginal disc reduced the size of the adult wing by up to 45% and suppressed ectopic wing vein formation caused by expression of activated forms of Breathless and Heartless, two Drosophila receptor tyrosine kinases of the fibroblast growth factor receptor family. The in vivo effects of RasGAP overexpression required intact SH2 domains, indicating that intracellular localization of RasGAP through SH2-phosphotyrosine interactions is important for its activity. These results show that RasGAP can function as an inhibitor of signaling pathways mediated by Ras and receptor tyrosine kinases in vivo. Genetic interactions, however, suggested a Ras-independent role for RasGAP in the regulation of growth. The system described here should enable genetic screens to be performed to identify regulators and effectors of p120 Ras-GAP.  (+info)

A human sequence homologue of Staufen is an RNA-binding protein that is associated with polysomes and localizes to the rough endoplasmic reticulum. (8/16925)

In the course of a two-hybrid screen with the NS1 protein of influenza virus, a human clone capable of coding for a protein with high homology to the Staufen protein from Drosophila melanogaster (dmStaufen) was identified. With these sequences used as a probe, cDNAs were isolated from a lambda cDNA library. The encoded protein (hStaufen-like) contained four double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-binding domains with 55% similarity and 38% identity to those of dmStaufen, including identity at all residues involved in RNA binding. A recombinant protein containing all dsRNA-binding domains was expressed in Escherichia coli as a His-tagged polypeptide. It showed dsRNA binding activity in vitro, with an apparent Kd of 10(-9) M. Using a specific antibody, we detected in human cells a major form of the hStaufen-like protein with an apparent molecular mass of 60 to 65 kDa. The intracellular localization of hStaufen-like protein was investigated by immunofluorescence using a series of markers for the cell compartments. Colocalization was observed with the rough endoplasmic reticulum but not with endosomes, cytoskeleton, or Golgi apparatus. Furthermore, sedimentation analyses indicated that hStaufen-like protein associates with polysomes. These results are discussed in relation to the possible functions of the protein.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Evolution of the LINE-like I element in the Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup. AU - Sezutsu, Hideki. AU - Nitasaka, Eiji. AU - Yamazaki, Tsuneyuki. PY - 1995/3/1. Y1 - 1995/3/1. N2 - LINE-like retrotransposons, the so-called I elements, control the system of I-R (inducer-reactive) hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. I elements are present in many Drosophila species. It has been suggested that active, complete I elements, located at different sites on the chromosomes, invaded natural populations of D. melanogaster recently (1920-1970). But old strains lacking active I elements have only defective I elements located in the chromocenter. We have cloned I elements from D. melanogaster and the melanogaster subgroup. In D. melanogaster, the nucleotide sequences of chromocentral I elements differed from those on chromosome arms by as much as 7%. All the I elements of D. mauritiana and D. sechellia are more closely related to the chromosomal I elements of D. melanogaster ...
Van Der Straten, A., Johansen, H., Sweet, R., & Rosenberg, M. (1987). Efficient expression of foreign genes in cultured drosophila melanogaster cells using hygromycin B selection. In Y. Kuroda, E. Kurstak, & K. Maramorosch (Eds.), Invertebrate and Fish Tissue Culture: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Invertebrate and Fish Tissue Culture, Japan (pp. 131-134). New York, NY: Springer Verlag ...
The current analysis of transposon elements (TE) in Drosophila melanogaster at Evolution Canyon, (EC), Israel, is based on data and analysis done by our collaborators (Drs. J. Gonzalez, J. Martinez and W. Makalowski, this issue). They estimated the frequencies of 28 TEs (transposon elements) in fruit flies (D. melanogaster) from the ecologically tropic, hot, and dry south-facing slope (SFS) or
3.0.CO;2-T, The Genomic Basis of Postponed Senescence in Drosophila melanogaster, Evidence for premature aging in a Drosophila model of Werner syndrome, Drosophila mate copying correlates with atmospheric pressure in a speed learning situation, Male fruit flies learn to avoid interspecific courtship, Sexual experience enhances Drosophila melanogaster male mating behavior and success, tinman and bagpipe: two homeo box genes that determine cell fates in the dorsal mesoderm of Drosophila, The structure and evolution of cis-regulatory regions: the shavenbaby story, Drosophila melanogaster alcohol dehydrogenase: mechanism of aldehyde oxidation and dismutation, The influence of Adh function on ethanol preference and tolerance in adult Drosophila melanogaster, Genetics and genomics of alcohol responses in Drosophila, Ecological Niche Difference Associated with Varied Ethanol Tolerance between Drosophila suzukii and Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae), Deletion of a ...
Drosophila melanogaster Adult enhancer factor 1 (Aef1) datasheet and description hight quality product and Backed by our Guarantee
Locale, Genomes and Genes, Scientific Experts, Publications, Species, Research Topics about Experts and Doctors on drosophila melanogaster in New York, United States
Abstract: Currently, there are significant gaps in understanding of the regulatory mechanisms involved in nociceptor sensitivity. Dysregulated nociceptor sensitivity is the likely pathogenesis in many types of chronic pain, a disease that ails over 100 million people in the United States alone. To improve current chronic pain therapies, it is essential to define the regulatory mechanisms responsible for nociception. The goal of this study was to characterize how genes classically involved in RNA processing and translation regulate nociceptor sensitivity. The model organism Drosophila melanogaster was used for this study because of their quantifiable response to noxious stimuli and the powerful tools available for genetic manipulations. My results suggest that eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs) and components of the exon junction complex (EJC) control nociceptor sensitivity by regulating RNA processing and translation, suggesting a major role for RNA metabolism and translation in controlling ...
An artificial selection on positive and negative phototaxis of eyeless (ey) Drosophila melanogaster line was carried out. Expression of the ey trait in imago was estimating during the selection. The fitness of the + and selected lines was evaluated by such components as heat resistance, life span, fertility of flies. The genetic analysis of phototaxis inheritance was carried out. It was found that phototaxis selection results in changes of fertility whereas it doesn t affect other indices of fitness to environmental conditions as well as the ey expression. The main polygenic systems of phototaxis inheritance are located in chromosome 2 and chromosome 3.. ...
We have used flow visualizations and instantaneous force measurements of tethered fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) to study the dynamics of force generation during flight. During each complete stroke cycle, the flies generate one single vortex loop consisting of vorticity shed during the downstroke and ventral flip. This gross pattern of wake structure in Drosophila is similar to those described for hovering birds and some other insects. The wake structure differed from those previously described, however, in that the vortex filaments shed during ventral stroke reversal did not fuse to complete a circular ring, but rather attached temporarily to the body to complete an inverted heart-shaped vortex loop. The attached ventral filaments of the loop subsequently slide along the length of the body and eventually fuse at the tip of the abdomen. We found no evidence for the shedding of wing-tip vorticity during the upstroke, and argue that this is due to an extreme form of the Wagner effect acting ...
Dedicated to the memory of George Lefevre in recognition of his exhaustive cytogenetic analysis of the X chromosome, |b|The Genome of Drosophila melanogaster|/b| is the complete compendium of what is known about the genes and chromosomes of this widely used model organism. The volume is an up-to-date revision of Lindsley and Grells 1968 work, Genetic Variations of Drosophila melanogaster. The new edition contains complete descriptions of normal and mutant genes including phenotypic, cytological, molecular, and bibliographic information. In addition, it describes thousands of recorded chromosome rearrangements used in research on Drosophila. This handbook and its accompanying polytene chromosome maps, are sturdily bound into the book as foldouts and available as a separate set, are essential research tools for the Drosophila community.|br||br|Key Features |br|* Describes phenotype, cytology, and molecular biology of all recorded genes of Drosophila melanogaster, plus references to the literature|br
Patients surviving sepsis demonstrate sustained inflammation, which has been associated with long-term complications. One of the main mechanisms behind sustained inflammation is a metabolic switch in parenchymal and immune cells, thus understanding metabolic alterations after sepsis may provide important insights to the pathophysiology of sepsis recovery. In this study, we explored metabolomics in a novel Drosophila melanogaster model of surviving sepsis using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), to determine metabolite profiles. We used a model of percutaneous infection in Drosophila melanogaster to mimic sepsis. We had three experimental groups: sepsis survivors (infected with Staphylococcus aureus and treated with oral linezolid), sham (pricked with an aseptic needle), and unmanipulated (positive control). We performed metabolic measurements seven days after sepsis. We then implemented metabolites detected in NMR spectra into the MetExplore web server in order to identify the metabolic pathway
The JAK/STAT pathway is an essential signalling cascade required for multiple processes during development and for adult homeostasis. A key question in understanding this pathway is how it is regulated in different cell contexts. Here we have examined how endocytic processing contributes to signalling by the single cytokine receptor, Domeless, in Drosophila melanogaster cells. We identify an evolutionarily conserved di-Leu motif that is required for Domeless internalisation and show that endocytosis is required for activation of a subset of Domeless targets. Our data indicate that endocytosis both qualitatively and quantitatively regulates Domeless signalling. STAT92E, the single STAT transcription factor in Drosophila, appears to be the target of endocytic regulation and our studies show that phosphorylation of STAT92E on Tyr704, while necessary, is not always sufficient for target transcription. Finally, we identify a conserved residue, Thr702, which is essential for Tyr704 phosphorylation. ...
Humanised fruit fly models are transgenic Drosophila melanogaster strains expressing human genes. Specifically, we study the characteristics of fly models expressing human genes involved in neurological disorders such as Alzheimers and Parkinsons Diseases (AD and PD). Interestingly, these Drosophila neurodegenerative disease models show a high degree of conservation in the fundamental biological pathways and in the molecular, genetic and pathophysiological aspects of neurodegenerative human diseases. These characteristics explain why Drosophila models have paved the way for the development of initial fast screening for potential drug candidates in vivo, and represent also a promising tool for biomedical research in neuroscience ...
Localizing genes that are subject to recent positive selection is a major goal of evolutionary biology. In the model organism Drosophila melanogaster many attempts have been made in recent years to identify such genes by conducting so-called genome scans of selection. These analyses consisted in typing a large number of genetic markers along the genomes of a sample of individuals and then identifying those loci that harbor patterns of genetic variation, which are compatible with the ones generated by a selective sweep. In this study we conduct an in-depth analysis of a genomic region located on the X chromosome of D. melanogaster that was identified as a potential target of recent positive selection by a previous genome scan of selection. To this end we re-sequenced 20 kilobases around the Flotillin-2 gene (Flo-2) and conducted a detailed analysis of the allele frequencies and linkage disequilibria observed in this new dataset. The results of this analysis reveal eight genetic novelties that are ...
Article: Moran CN & Kyriacou CP (2009) Functional neurogenetics of the courtship song of male Drosophila melanogaster. Cortex, 45 (1), pp. 18-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2008.05.010
Author Summary Organisms such as the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster have long been used as model systems to understand complex aspects of human biology. Work on Drosophila antimicrobial immunity has led to identification of mechanisms underlying human innate immunity, such as the use of Toll-like receptors for recognizing antigen and initiating humoral immune responses. Flies and humans are also infected by larger parasites against which they mount immune blood-cell based responses, but the genetic basis for cellular immunity is poorly characterized. In nature, flies are often infected by parasitoid wasps that lay their eggs in fly larvae, inducing a cellular immune response in the flies. Fly blood cells surround the wasp egg and form a tightly connected capsule leading to death of the egg in a process called encapsulation, which is similar to human granuloma formation. In this study we identified eight new genes that are important for encapsulation. These genes are part of the N-glycosylation pathway
When Drosophila melanogaster embryos initiate zygotic transcription around mitotic cycle 10, the dose-sensitive expression of specialized genes on the X chromosome triggers a sex-determination cascade that, among other things, compensates for differences in sex chromosome dose by hypertranscribing t …
Assembly/Alignment/Annotation of 12 related Drosophila species: »Assembly/Alignment/Annotation, LBNL, USA BDGP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Project: »Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project, University of California, Berkeley, USA Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project (BDGP): »BDGP, University of California, Berkeley, USA BDTNP, ChIP/chip in vivo DNA binding data: »Berkeley Drosophila Transcription Network Project, University of California, Berkeley, USA CluSTr protein sequence similarity analysis of Drosophila: »CluSTr proteome analysis, EBI, UK D. pseudoobscura genome project: »Human Genome Sequencing Center, Baylor College of Medicine, USA D. simulans genome project: »Genome Sequencing Center, Washington University, USA D. yakuba genome project: »Genome Sequencing Center, Washington University, USA D.melanogaster UCSC Genome Browser Gateway: »University of California, Santa Cruz, USA DDBJ, the DNA Data Bank of Japan: »DDBJ, National Institute of Genetics, Mishima, Japan DNase I ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The M/SAR elements of the bithorax complex in Drosophila melanogaster. AU - Boykova, T. V.. AU - Orlando, V.. AU - Lupo, R.. AU - Bogachev, S. S.. PY - 2005/11. Y1 - 2005/11. N2 - The bithorax (BX) complex of Drosophila is a complex polygenic region with a multifactorial system of regulation. One of the levels of the regulatory system of the BX complex is its association with the nuclear skeleton structures through a specific interaction of the M/SAR DNA with the nuclear matrix proteins. In the present work, M/SAR elements were mapped on the molecular-genetic map of the region. All of the elements examined were found to colocalize with regulatory elements and form clusters that restrict/bracket the genetically active domains. All M/SAR DNA revealed was shown to bins specifically to the purified Drosophila melanogaster lamin.. AB - The bithorax (BX) complex of Drosophila is a complex polygenic region with a multifactorial system of regulation. One of the levels of the regulatory ...
Ring canals in the female germline of Drosophila melanogaster are supported by a robust filamentous actin (F-actin) cytoskeleton, setting them apart from ring canals in other species and tissues. Previous work has identified components required for the expansion of the ring canal actin cytoskeleton, but has not identified the proteins responsible for F-actin recruitment or accumulation. Using a combination of CRISPR-Cas9 mediated mutagenesis and UAS-Gal4 overexpression, we show that HtsRC-a component specific to female germline ring canals-is both necessary and sufficient to drive F-actin accumulation. Absence of HtsRC in the germline resulted in ring canals lacking inner rim F-actin, while overexpression of HtsRC led to larger ring canals. HtsRC functions in combination with Filamin to recruit F-actin to ectopic actin structures in somatic follicle cells. Finally, we present findings that indicate that HtsRC expression and robust female germline ring canal expansion are important for high ...
To what extent is adaptive evolution over short timescales repeatable? To address this question, we studied the performance of crosses between replicate Drosophila melanogaster lines previously subject to selection for improved learning response in the context of oviposition substrate choice. Of the 10 pairwise F1 crosses among the five selection lines, four performed in the original learning assay similarly to the parental lines, whereas the remaining six showed learning scores significantly below the average of the parental lines. In particular, four F1 crosses (three involving the same line) showed no detectable learning, on a par with unselected control lines. This indicates that the response to selection in some lines involved allelic substitutions at different loci. Additional assays of crosses between two selection lines indicated that the loss of performance in hybrids generalized to another type of learning assay, and held for both short- and long-term memory. Joint analysis of first- and
Seminal fluid contains some of the fastest evolving proteins currently known. These seminal fluid proteins (Sfps) play crucial roles in reproduction, such as supporting sperm function, and particularly in insects, modifying female physiology and behaviour. Identification of Sfps in small animals is challenging, and often relies on samples taken from the female reproductive tract after mating. A key pitfall of this method is that it might miss Sfps that are of low abundance due to dilution in the female derived sample or rapid processing in females. Here we present a new and complementary method, which provides added sensitivity to Sfp identification. We applied label-free quantitative proteomics to Drosophila melanogaster male reproductive tissue, where Sfps are unprocessed, and highly abundant, and quantified Sfps before and immediately after mating, to infer those transferred during copulation. We also analysed female reproductive tracts immediately before and after copulation to confirm the presence
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Biochemical phylogeny of the eight species in the Drosophila melanogaster subgroup, including D. sechellia and D. orena. by M L Cariou
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular cloning of the Drosophila melanogaster gene χ5 dm encoding a 20S proteasome χ-type subunit. AU - Zaiss, Dietmar. AU - Belote, John M.. N1 - Funding Information: We would like to thank Dr Russ Finley for the pJG4-5 cDNA library and Dr Kerrie-Ann Smyth for providing the salivary gland chromosome squashes for the in situ hybridization experiment, Evan Katz for carrying out the reduced stringency hybridization screen, and Xiaoqing Yuan for mapping Pros29 (a3_dm). We would also like to thank Jing Ma, Mary Miller and Kerrie-Ann Smyth for their helpful comments on the manuscript. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. MCB-9506885. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.. PY - 1997/11/12. Y1 - 1997/11/12. N2 - Proteasomes are large, multisubunit particles that act as the ...
Calcium signaling are conserved from invertebrates to vertebrates and plays critical roles in many molecular mechanisms of embryogenesis and postnatal development. As a critical component of the signaling pathway, the RyR medicated calcium-induced calcium release signaling system, has been well studied along with their regulator FK506-binding protein 12 (FKBP12/Calstabin). Lack of FKBP12 is known to result in lethal cardiac dysfunction in mouse. However, precisely how FKBP12 is regulated and effects calcium signaling in Drosophila melanogaster remains largely unknown. In this study, we identified both temporal and localization changes in expression of DmFKBP12, a translational and transcriptional regulator of Drosophila RyR (DmRyR) and FKBP12, through embryonic development. DmFKBP12 is first expressed at the syncytial blastoderm stage and undergoes increased expression during the cellular blastoderm and early gastrulation stages. At late gastrulation, DmFKBP12 expression begins to decline until it
Drosophila melanogaster, the common fruit fly, has been used as a model organism in both medical and scientific research for over a century. Work by Thomas Hunt Morgan (1866-1945) and his students at Columbia University at the beginning of the twentieth century led to great discoveries such as sex-linked inheritance and that ionising radiation causes mutations in genes. However, the use of Drosophila was not limited to genetic research. Experimentation with this model organism has also led to discoveries in neuroscience and neurodevelopment, including the basis of circadian rhythms. Its complex nervous system, conserved neurological function, and human disease-related loci allow Drosophila to be an ideal model organism for the study of neurodegenerative disease, for which it is used today, aiding research into diseases such as Alzheimers and Parkinsons, which are becoming more prevalent in todays ageing population.. Keywords Drosophila melanogaster, Thomas Hunt Morgan, Alfred Henry ...
Background. The calcium-imaging technique allows us to record movies of brain activity in the antennal lobe of the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster, a brain compartment dedicated to information about odors. Signal processing, e.g. with source separation techniques, can be slow on the large movie datasets.,br /,Method. We have developed an approximate Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for fast dimensionality reduction. The method samples relevant pixels from the movies, such that PCA can be performed on a smaller matrix. Utilising a priori knowledge about the nature of the data, we minimise the risk of missing important pixels.,br /,Results. Our method allows for fast approximate computation of PCA with adaptive resolution and running time. Utilising a priori knowledge about the data enables us to concentrate more biological signals in a small pixel sample than a general sampling method based on vector norms.,br /,Conclusions. Fast dimensionality reduction with approximate PCA removes a ...
1. The optomotor control of orientation and locomotion in the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster requires the conveyance of information from distinct movement detectors in the visual system to distinct movement effectors in the motor system. Abnormalities of the optomotor control system have been found occasionally in Drosophila.. 2. The abnormal flies can be isolated from population samples by appropriate fractionation according to the magnitude and the sign of the optomotor responses. A cyclically operating machine was used to fractionate two inbred strains, w+ and wα, which possess different alleles on the white-locus of their X-chromosomes.. 3. Movements of an artificial visual environment elicit similar orientation-control responses, but antagonistic locomotion-control responses in the two strains. The responses depend on various parameters and may even change with habituation to the stimulus. However, the application of selection pressure through eight generations has little if any effect ...
A BioProject is a collection of biological data related to a single initiative, originating from a single organization or from a consortium. A BioProject record provides users a single place to find links to the diverse data types generated for that project
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification and genetic localization of mRNAs from ovarian follicle cells of Drosophila melanogaster. AU - Spradling, Allan C.. AU - Mahowald, Anthony P.. PY - 1979. Y1 - 1979. N2 - RNA synthesis in ovarian follicles of Drosophila melanogaster was studied by methods which eliminate experimentally induced alterations in gene expression. Gel electrophoresis of follicular RNA, labeled after injection of precursors into females, revealed qualitative and quantitative differences in synthesis during the course of oogenesis. A highly heterogeneous group of poly(A)-containing RNAs is produced during much of the course of follicular development. However, post-vitellogenic stages synthesize a small number of stage-specific poly(A)-containing RNAs. During this period, RNA synthesis is known to take place primarily in the follicle cells, which are engaged in the production of the endochorion and exochorion. Two intense bands of nonmitochondrial poly(A)+ RNA are labeled between stage 11 ...
P-13. Transcription Profiling of Cell Death in Drosophila Melanogaster. S. Chittaranjan, E. Garland, D. Freeman, S. Jones, M. Marra, and S. Gorski, Genome Sequence Centre BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, CANADA. Programmed Cell death - PCD - is a highly conserved and genetically controlled event that plays important roles in animal development, homeostasis and disease. We are employing a genomics approach, using EST and SAGE, to identify new PCD genes that are transciptionally regulated in the salivary glands - SGs - of Drosophila. We constructed a SG-specific cDNA library and SG-miniSAGE libraries from three consecutive developmental stages leading up to PCD.5461 high quality 3 ESTs from our SG cDNA library were used to perform BLAST analysis against Drosophila predicted genes and genomic sequence from the Drosophila Genome Project. The majority of the ESTs matched known or predicted genes in Drosophila including a number of ecdysone-induced genes and known PCD genes. We also identified a ...
JURNAL DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER PDF - geotaxis (Hi5) strains of Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) differ in Keywords: gene-pleiotropy; Drosophila; geotaxis; circadian; cry; Pdf; tau. During
Drosophila Melanogaster, the common fruit fly, is a model organism which has been extensively used in entymological research. It is one of the most studied organisms in biological research, particularly in genetics and developmental biology. When its not being used for scientific research, D. melanogaster is a common pest in homes, restaurants, and anywhere else that serves food. They are not to be confused with Tephritidae flys (also known as fruit flys). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drosophila_melanogaster
The natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans were compared for their genetic structure. A total of 114 gene-protein loci were studied in four mainland (from Europe and Africa) and an island (Seychelle) populations of D. simulans and the results were compared with those obtained on the same set of homologous loci in fifteen worldwide populations of D. melanogaster. The main results are as follows: (1) D. melanogaster shows a significantly higher proportion of loci polymorphic than D. simulans (52% vs. 39%, P , 0.05), (2) both species have similar mean heterozygosity and mean number of alleles per locus, (3) the two species share some highly polymorphic loci but they do not share loci that show high geographic differentiation, and (4) D. simulans shows significantly less geographic differentiation than D. melanogaster. The differences in genetic differentiation between the two species are limited to loci located on the X and second chromosomes only; loci on the third ...
The main goal of this thesis was to develop demographic models of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster using Approximate Bayesian Computation and Next Generation Sequencing Data. These models were used to reconstruct the history of African, European, and North American populations. Chapter 1 deals with the demographic history of North American D. melanogaster. This project was motivated by the release of full-genome sequences of a North American population, which showed greater diversity than European D. melanogaster although the introduction of the fruit fly to North America dates back to only �200 years ago. Here, we tested di�erent demographic models involving populations of Zimbabwe, The Netherlands, and North Carolina (North America). Among the tested models we included variants with and without migration, as well as a model involving admixture between the population of Africa and Europe that generated the population of North America. We found that the admixture model �ts best the ...
Satellite DNA can make up a substantial fraction of eukaryotic genomes and has roles in genome structure and chromosome segregation. The rapid evolution of satellite DNA can contribute to genomic instability and genetic incompatibilities between species. Despite its ubiquity and its contribution to genome evolution, we currently know little about the dynamics of satellite DNA evolution. The Responder (Rsp) satellite DNA family is found in the pericentric heterochromatin of chromosome 2 of Drosophila melanogaster. Rsp is well-known for being the target of Segregation Distorter (SD) an autosomal meiotic drive system in D. melanogaster. I present an evolutionary genetic analysis of the Rsp family of repeats in D. melanogaster and its closely-related species in the melanogaster group (D. simulans, D. sechellia, D. mauritiana, D. erecta, and D. yakuba) using a combination of available BAC sequences, whole genome shotgun Sanger reads, Illumina short read deep sequencing, and fluorescence in situ hybridization
Neonicotinoids are the most widely used insecticides in the world and are implicated in the widespread population declines of insects including pollinators. Neonicotinoids target nicotinic acetylcholine receptors which are expressed throughout the insect central nervous system, causing a wide range of sub-lethal effects on non-target insects. Here, we review the potential of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to model the sub-lethal effects of neonicotinoids on pollinators, by utilizing its well-established assays that allow rapid identification and mechanistic characterization of these effects. We compare studies on the effects of neonicotinoids on lethality, reproduction, locomotion, immunity, learning, circadian rhythms and sleep in D. melanogaster and a range of pollinators. We also highlight how the genetic tools available in D. melanogaster, such as GAL4/UAS targeted transgene expression system combined with RNAi lines to any gene in the genome including the different nicotinic acetylcholine
Insects possess a rhythmically active tubular heart that shows remarkable similarity to the mammalian heart despite differing in gross structure. Studies in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, have demonstrated remarkable molecular and developmental similarities between the two. Key genes in heart development are homologous between insects and mammals (e.g. tinman), as are key components of cardiac myocyte physiology, including ion channels, pumps and exchangers.. Consequently, studies of the Drosophila heart can provide invaluable insights into the functioning of the mammalian hearts but little of this potential has been realised. Investigations of the Drosophila heart have focussed almost exclusively on the output of the larval heart measured through the electrocardiogram (ECG), ignoring the cellular level. Yet, heart cells are capable of showing substantial plasticity and redundancy so knowing the overall output is insufficient to characterise the impact of changes in molecular networks ...
Insects possess a rhythmically active tubular heart that shows remarkable similarity to the mammalian heart despite differing in gross structure. Studies in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, have demonstrated remarkable molecular and developmental similarities between the two. Key genes in heart development are homologous between insects and mammals (e.g. tinman), as are key components of cardiac myocyte physiology, including ion channels, pumps and exchangers.. Consequently, studies of the Drosophila heart can provide invaluable insights into the functioning of the mammalian hearts but little of this potential has been realised. Investigations of the Drosophila heart have focussed almost exclusively on the output of the larval heart measured through the electrocardiogram (ECG), ignoring the cellular level. Yet, heart cells are capable of showing substantial plasticity and redundancy so knowing the overall output is insufficient to characterise the impact of changes in molecular networks ...
One of the key tenets of life-history theory is that reproduction and survival are linked and that they trade-off with each other. When dietary resources are limited, reduced reproduction with a concomitant increase in survival is commonly observed. It is often hypothesized that this dietary restriction effect results from strategically reduced investment in reproduction in favor of somatic maintenance to survive starvation periods until resources become plentiful again. We used experimental evolution to test this waiting-for-the-good-times hypothesis, which predicts that selection under sustained dietary restriction will favor increased investment in reproduction at the cost of survival because good-times never come. We assayed fecundity and survival of female Drosophila melanogaster fruit flies that had evolved for 50 generations on three different diets varying in protein content-low (classic dietary restriction diet), standard, and high-in a full-factorial design. High-diet females ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The relation between recombination rate and patterns of molecular evolution and variation in Drosophila melanogaster. AU - Campos, José L. AU - Halligan, Daniel L. AU - Haddrill, Penelope R. AU - Charlesworth, Brian. PY - 2014/4. Y1 - 2014/4. N2 - Genetic recombination associated with sexual reproduction increases the efficiency of natural selection by reducing the strength of Hill-Robertson interference. Such interference can be caused either by selective sweeps of positively selected alleles or by background selection (BGS) against deleterious mutations. Its consequences can be studied by comparing patterns of molecular evolution and variation in genomic regions with different rates of crossing over. We carried out a comprehensive study of the benefits of recombination in Drosophila melanogaster, both by contrasting five independent genomic regions that lack crossing over with the rest of the genome and by comparing regions with different rates of crossing over, using data on ...
Monoclonal antibodies were prepared against a 46,000 mol wt major cytoplasmic protein from Drosophila melanogaster Kc cells. These antibodies reacted with the 46,000 and a 40,000 mol wt protein from Kc cells. Some antibodies showed cross-reaction with 55,000 (vimentin) and 52,000 mol wt (desmin) proteins from baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells that form intermediate sized filaments in vertebrate cells. In indirect immunofluorescence, the group of cross reacting antibodies stained a filamentous meshwork in the cytoplasm of vertebrate cells. In Kc cells the fluorescence seemed to be localized in a filamentous meshwork that became more obvious after the cells had flattened out on a surface. These cytoskeletal structures are heat-labile; the proteins in Kc or BHK cells rearrange after a brief heat shock, forming juxtanuclear cap structures.
This pre miRNA sequence is 68 nucleotides long and is found in Drosophila melanogaster. Annotated by 4 databases (RefSeq, FlyBase, miRBase, ENA). Described in 18 papers. Has a conserved secondary structure or a structured region. Matches 1 Rfam family (mir-2, RF00047). Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) microRNA dme-mir-13b precursor (dme-mir-13b-1) sequence is a product of mir-13b-1 precursor RNA, 13b-1 precursor RN, mir-13b-1, 13b-1 precursor RNA, FBgn0262367, mir-13b-1 precurso, dme-mir-13b-1 precursor, mir-13b-1 precursor genes.
TY - CHAP. T1 - Promoter Structures Conserved between Homo Sapiens, Mus Musculus and Drosophila Melanogaster. AU - Jankovic, Boris R.. AU - Archer, John A.C.. AU - Chowdhary, Rajesh. AU - Schaefer, Ulf. AU - Bajic, Vladimir B.. N1 - KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2020-10-01. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - Some of the key processes in living organisms remain essentially unchanged even in evolutionarily very distant species. Transcriptional regulation is one such fundamental process that is essential for cell survival. Transcriptional control exerts great part of its effects at the level of transcription initiation mediated through protein-DNA interactions mainly at promoters but also at other control regions. In this chapter, the authors identify conserved families of motifs of promoter regulatory structures between Homo sapiens, Mus musculus and Drosophila melanogaster. By a promoter regulatory structure they consider here a combination of motifs from identified motif families. Conservation of ...
A transposon based on the transposable element Minos from Drosophila hydei was introduced into the genome of Drosophila melanogaster using transformation mediated by the Minos transposase. The transposon carries a wild-type version of the white gene (w) of Drosophila inserted into the second exon of Minos. Transformation was obtained by injecting the transposon into preblastoderm embryos that were expressing transposase either from a Hsp70-Minos fusion inserted into the genome via P-element-mediated transformation or from a coinjected plasmid carrying the Hsp70-Minos fusion. Between 1% and 6% of the fertile injected individuals gave transformed progeny. Four of the insertions were cloned and the DNA sequences flanking the transposon ends were determined. The empty sites corresponding to three of the insertions were amplified from the recipient strain by PCR, cloned, and sequenced. In all cases, the transposon has inserted into a TA dinucleotide and has created the characteristic TA target site ...
Recent analysis of the human and mouse genomes has shown that a substantial proportion of protein coding genes and cis-regulatory elements contain transposable element (TE) sequences, implicating TE domestication as a mechanism for the origin of genetic novelty. To understand the general role of TE domestication in eukaryotic genome evolution, it is important to assess the acquisition of functional TE sequences by host genomes in a variety of different species, and to understand in greater depth the population dynamics of these mutational events. Using an in silico screen for host genes that contain TE sequences, we identified a set of 63 mature chimeric transcripts supported by expressed sequence tag (EST) evidence in the Drosophila melanogaster genome. We found a paucity of chimeric TEs relative to expectations derived from non-chimeric TEs, indicating that the majority (~80%) of TEs that generate chimeric transcripts are deleterious and are not observed in the genome sequence. Using a pooled-PCR
TY - JOUR. T1 - Temporal and spatial transcriptional profiles of aging in Drosophila melanogaster. AU - Zhan, Ming. AU - Yamaza, Haruyoshi. AU - Sun, Yu. AU - Sinclair, Jason. AU - Li, Huai. AU - Zou, Sige. PY - 2007. Y1 - 2007. N2 - Temporal and tissue-specific alterations in gene expression have profound effects on aging of multicellular organisms. However, much remains unknown about the patterns of molecular changes in different tissues and how different tissues interact with each other during aging. Previous genomic studies on invertebrate aging mostly utilized the whole body or body parts and limited age-points, and failed to address tissue-specific aging. Here we measured genome-wide expression profiles of aging in Drosophila melanogaster for seven tissues representing nervous, muscular, digestive, renal, reproductive, and storage systems at six adult ages. In each tissue, we identified hundreds of age-related genes exhibiting significant changes of transcript levels with age. The ...
Dimitris J. Panagopoulos, (2012): Gametogénesis, desarrollo embrionario y post-embrionario de Drosophila melanogaster, como un sistema modelo para la Evaluación de la Radiación y Genotoxicidad ambiental, en M. Spindler-Barth (Ed), Drosophila melanogaster : Ciclo de la Vida, Genética y Desarrollo, Nova Science Publishers, Nueva York, EE.UU.. Los experimentos Drosophila de Panagopoulos et al (2007: Muerte celular inducida por GSM 900 MHz y DCS 1800MHz radiación de telefonía móvil, Mutation Research, 626, 69 - 78.) fueron los primeros en mostrar daño en el ADN después de la exposición en vivo a la radiación del teléfono móvil GSM verdadero sólo unos pocos minutos al día durante unos días. Estos experimentos mostraron que la radiación GSM es aún más genotóxico que previamente arrojaron factores genotóxicos como los productos químicos, la privación de alimentos, y el calor. También explicaron la gran disminución de la reproducción (hasta 60%) del mismo animal ...
Background In Drosophila melanogaster, the male seminal fluid contains proteins that are important for reproductive success. Many of these proteins are synthesised by the male accessory glands and are secreted into the accessory gland lumen, where they are stored until required. Previous studies on the identification of Drosophila accessory gland products have largely focused on characterisation of male-specific accessory gland cDNAs from D. melanogaster and, more recently, Drosophila simulans. In the present study, we have used a proteomics approach without any sex bias to identify proteins in D. melanogaster accessory gland secretions. Results Thirteen secreted accessory gland proteins, including seven new accessory gland proteins, were identified by 2D-gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry of tryptic fragments. They included protein-folding and stress-response proteins, a hormone, a lipase, a serpin, a cysteine-rich protein and two peptidases, a pro-enzyme form of a cathepsin ...
In contrast to male genitalia that typically exhibit patterns of rapid and divergent evolution among internally fertilizing animals, female genitalia have been less well studied and are generally thought to evolve slowly among closely-related species. As a result, few cases of male-female genital coevolution have been documented. In Drosophila, female copulatory structures have been claimed to be mostly invariant compared to male structures. Here, we re-examined male and female genitalia in the nine species of the D. melanogaster subgroup. We describe several new species-specific female genital structures that appear to coevolve with male genital structures, and provide evidence that the coevolving structures contact each other during copulation. Several female structures might be defensive shields against apparently harmful male structures, such as cercal teeth, phallic hooks and spines. Evidence for male-female morphological coevolution in Drosophila has previously been shown at the post-copulatory
TY - JOUR. T1 - Biochemical comparison of arginine kinase allozymes in Drosophila melanogaster. AU - Chien, Yi-Chih. AU - Collier, Glen E.. PY - 1997/10/1. Y1 - 1997/10/1. N2 - Biochemical comparison of arginine kinase allozymes in Drosophila melanogaster. Zoological Studies 36(4): 277-287. ARKB is a rare arginine kinase allozyme found in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster. To test whether the rarity of this allozyme could be due to its biochemical impairment relative to the common allozyme, biochemical properties such as catalytic efficiency and conformational stability of the rare (ARKB) and the common (ARKA) allozymes were compared in this study. Both allozymes were purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation, DEAE-ion-exchange column, Blue-Sepharose, and S-300 gel filtration, to yield a single coomassie-blue band on SDS-polyacrylamide gels. ARKA has a higher Vmax or Vmax/Km than ARKB at 18 or 29 °C, but there are no differences at 24 °C. In general, ARKA is catalytically more ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sequences of two cDNAs encoding silkworm homologues of Drosophila melanogaster squid gene. AU - Li, Feng Qian. AU - Sun, Guan Cheng. AU - Ueda, Hitoshi. AU - Hirose, Susumu. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - The squid (sqd) gene of Drosophila melanogaster encodes a few isoforms of a heterogeneous nuclear (hn) RNA-binding protein. We isolated two types of cDNAs coding for homologues of the Sqd protein from the silkworm Bombyx mori. The two predicted amino acid (aa) sequences are identical up to aa 280 and then diverge. The silkworm and fruit fly proteins share 80% homology in the RNA-binding motif region. These cDNAs detect 2.0-, 1.8- and 1-kb mRNAs in the middle and posterior silk glands.. AB - The squid (sqd) gene of Drosophila melanogaster encodes a few isoforms of a heterogeneous nuclear (hn) RNA-binding protein. We isolated two types of cDNAs coding for homologues of the Sqd protein from the silkworm Bombyx mori. The two predicted amino acid (aa) sequences are identical up to aa 280 ...
Modification of offspring sex ratios in response to parental quality is predicted when the long-term fitness returns of sons and daughters differ. One factor that may influence a mothers sex allocation decision is the quality (or attractiveness) of her mate. We investigated whether the sex ratios of offspring produced by female Drosophila melanogaster are biased with respect to the age of the males to which they are mated, and whether there is an adaptive basis for this phenomenon. We found that females mated to old males (13 d post-eclosion) initially produced a greater proportion of daughters than did females mated to young males (1 d post-eclosion). This pattern does not appear to be due to a systematic difference in the numbers or mortality of the X- and Y-bearing sperm originating from old and young fathers, as the overall sex ratios of all offspring produced from a single copulation did not differ between broods fathered by the two types of males. The sons of older males fared worse in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The genotoxicity of uva irradiation in drosophila melanogaster and the synergistic action of 8-methoxypsoralen and uva. AU - Negishi, Tomoe. AU - Tanabe, Fujimi. AU - Hayatsu, Hikoya. PY - 1992/8/1. Y1 - 1992/8/1. N2 - To study the genotoxicity of near-ultraviolet Light (UVA) on a whole body, Drosophila melanogaster larvae were irradiated with UVA and the emerging flies were examined for the mutant wing spot formation. The genotoxicity of UVA was also assayed with the in vivo DNA-repair test using males with repair-deficiency at the mei-9 and mei-41 locus and the matching repair-proficient females. Third-instar larvae were placed in a plastic Petri dish, which was covered with soft glass, and irradiated with black light at 4-5 W/m2. This irradiation resulted in an increase in mutant wing-hair spots. After a 15 h irradiation (̃240 kJ/m2, the mutant clone frequencies found in the adult flies (spots/wing) were: 1.68 for the small single spots, 0.38 for the large single spots and ...
The wing blade of Drosophila melanogaster is composed of dorsal and ventral surfaces covered with hairs and rows of morphologically distinct bristles round the margin. The mutant shaggy causes a complete transformation of hairs into bristles over the entire wing surfaces. Clones of mutant bristles have a tendency to line up into straight bristle rows. Clones are straight and orderly near the wing margin but form bundles and vesicles when a long distance from the margin. Furthermore the bristle cells move distally along the future wing blade in the general direction of the margin. From these studies, we postulate the existence of a gradient of cell affinities for bristle cells that is maximal at the dorsoventral wing margin and decreases with distance away from it. The bristle clones also move onto the wing veins and often induce the formation of new veins in the surrounding shaggy+ cells. These new veins run from the clone and join up to existing veins. We conclude that there is a close ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - On the analysis and interpretation of late-life fecundity in Drosophila melanogaster. AU - Curtsinger, James W.. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Copyright: Copyright 2015 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2015/12/1. Y1 - 2015/12/1. N2 - Late-life plateaus have been described in both cohort and individual trajectories of fecundity in Drosophila melanogaster females. Here I examine life history data recently analyzed by Le Bourg and Moreau (2014) and show that non-linearity in the cohort trajectory of fecundity is largely explained by heterogeneity in the duration of reproductive life spans. A model specifying linear post-peak decline of fecundity in individual flies provides a better fit to the data than one that combines linear decline with late-life fecundity plateaus. Using repeated measures analysis of variance, I show that age-dependent trends in individual fecundity are mostly linear, while among the most longevous individuals up to 20% of the ...
var b=document.getElementsByTagName(script)[0]; Introduction. Drosophila melanogaster is a species of fly (the taxonomic order Diptera) in the family Drosophilidae. In any case, the absence of a clear effect of the genetic duplication on sensitivity to a known channel inhibitor renders uninformative the failure of this manipulation to alter halothane potency. Authors provide evidence that in the Drosophila Shaker voltage-gated K (+) channels the S3 domain acts as an extracellular hydrophobic stabilizer for the S4 domain biasing the gating chemical equilibrium toward the open state. 1985 Sep; 2 (4):253-271. With recently developed genetic and molecular techniques the Drosophila melanogaster (D.m.) Thank you for sharing this Genetics article. Gene #3 1. The IA potassium channel is encoded by the Shaker (Sh) locus on the X chromosome of D.m. This shaking phenotype has been described previously in D. melanogaster by CATSCH (1944) who localized the dominant gene at 58 on the X-chromosome and ...
Cell division in the Malpighian tubules of Drosophila melanogaster depends on the presence of a specialised cell at the tip of each tubule (Skaer, H. le B (1989) Nature 342, 566-569). Here we show that cell division also depends on the normal expression of the segment polarity gene, wingless. The pattern of wingless RNA and protein in developing tubules is consistent with a requirement for wingless for cell division. Analysis of the temporal requirement for wingless using a temperature- sensitive allele confirms that the normal expression of wingless is necessary during cell proliferation in the Malpighian tubules. Over-expression of the gene, induced in a stock containing the wg gene under the control of a heat-shock promoter, results in supernumerary cells in the tubules. We discuss the role of wingless in the cell interactions that govern cell division in the Malpighian tubules.. ...
Seminal fluid contains some of the fastest evolving proteins currently known. These seminal fluid proteins (Sfps) play crucial roles in reproduction, such as supporting sperm function, and particularly in insects, modifying female physiology and behavior. Identification of Sfps in small animals is challenging, and often relies on samples taken from the female reproductive tract after mating. A key pitfall of this method is that it might miss Sfps that are of low abundance because of dilution in the female-derived sample or rapid processing in females. Here we present a new and complementary method, which provides added sensitivity to Sfp identification. We applied label-free quantitative proteomics to Drosophila melanogaster, male reproductive tissue - where Sfps are unprocessed, and highly abundant - and quantified Sfps before and immediately after mating, to infer those transferred during copulation. We also analyzed female reproductive tracts immediately before and after copulation to confirm the
The identification of a DNA variant in pyridoxal kinase (Pdxk) associated with increased risk to Parkinson disease (PD) gene led us to study the inhibition of this gene in the Dopa decarboxylase (Ddc)-expressing neurons of the well-studied model organism Drosophila melanogaster. The multitude of biological functions attributable to the vitamers catalysed by this kinase reveal an overabundance of possible links to PD, that include dopamine synthesis, antioxidant activity and mitochondrial function. Drosophila possesses a single homologue of Pdxk and we used RNA interference to inhibit the activity of this kinase in the Ddc-Gal4-expressing neurons. We further investigated any association between this enhanced disease risk gene with the established PD model induced by expression of α-synuclein in the same neurons. We relied on the pro-survival functions of Buffy, an anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 homologue, to rescue the Pdxk-induced phenotypes. To drive the expression of Pdxk RNA interference in DA neurons of
The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is a principal model organism in metazoan genetics and molecular biology. Here, we describe a BAC-based physical map of chromosomes 2 and 3 constructed as part of the effort to determine the D. melanogaster genome sequence (1). There are five chromosomes (X, 2,3, 4, and Y), and the second and third together account for ∼97 Mb of the ∼120-Mb euchromatic portion of the genome. Several clone-based physical maps have been described previously. Low-resolution yeast artificial chromosome maps of the genome have been produced by polytene chromosome in situ hybridization (2), and cosmid maps of regions of theX chromosome have been made by STS content and fingerprint mapping (3). The most complete previous map is the P1-based map by Kimmerly et al. (4) [also see (5)], constructed by polymerase chain reaction-based STS content mapping and polytene chromosome in situ hybridization. On chromosomes 2 and 3, it comprises 348 sets of contiguously overlapping clones ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparative CYP‐omic analysis between the DDT‐susceptible and ‐resistant Drosophila melanogaster strains 91‐C and 91‐R. AU - Seong, Keon Mook. AU - Coates, Brad S.. AU - Berenbaum, May R. AU - Clark, John M.. AU - Pittendrigh, Barry R.. PY - 2018/11. Y1 - 2018/11. N2 - BACKGROUND: Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) are involved in the biosynthesis of endogenous intracellular compounds and the metabolism of xenobiotics, including chemical insecticides. We investigated the structural and expression level variance across all P450 genes with respect to the evolution of insecticide resistance under multigenerational dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) selection. RESULTS: RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) and reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) indicated that the transcript levels of seven P450 genes were significantly up-regulated and three P450 genes were down-regulated in the DDT-resistant strain 91-R, as compared to the control strain 91-C. ...
Read Inhibition of DD2R gene expression in the corpus allatum activates alkaline phosphatase in female Drosophila melanogaster, Russian Journal of Genetics on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Drosophila males were fumigated with gaseous hydrogen fluoride in two series of experiments. In Series I, wild type Oregon-R males were treated by continuous flow of HF for 10 hours. In Series II, dp+/+b males were treated at a steady state level of HF for 9 hours. Treated and control males were crossed individually to virgin females of the genotype Pm dp b/Cy. The genetic analyses of the test generations of both series showed that homozygosity for one of the second chromosomes from a treated male resulted in a reduction in viability of the individuals which ranged from subvital to complete lethality. The viability of the controls and the heterozygous sibs was normal. These individuals of abnormal phenotypes were observed in the segregating generations. None of the crosses conducted to determine the mode of inheritance of these abnormal flies were successful. These limited studies indicate that HF may act as a mutagenic agent.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterisation of a bis(5-nucleosyl)-tetraphosphatase (asymmetrical) from Drosophila melanogaster. AU - Winward, Lucinda. AU - Whitfield, William G. F.. AU - Woodman, Timothy J. AU - McLennan, Alexander G.. AU - Safrany, Stephen T.. PY - 2007. Y1 - 2007. N2 - The intracellular functions of diadenosine polyphosphates are still poorly defined. To understand these better, we have expressed and characterized a heat stable, 16.6kDa Nudix hydrolase (Apf) that specifically metabolizes these nucleotides from a Drosophila melanogaster cDNA. Apf always produces an NTP product, with substrate preference depending on pH and divalent ion (Zn(2+) or Mg(2+)). For example, diadenosine tetraphosphate is hydrolysed to ATP and AMP with K(m), k(cat) and k(cat)/K(m) values 9microM, 43s(-1) and 4.8microM(-1)s(-1) (pH 6.5, 0.1mMZn(2+)) and 12microM, 13s(-1) and 1.1microM(-1)s(-1) (pH 7.5, 20mMMg(2+)), respectively. However, diadenosine hexaphosphate is efficiently hydrolysed to ATP only at pH 7.5 ...
To identify genes differentially expressed in the fatbody of Drosphila melanogaster bigmax mutants, a loss-of-function allele was generated by P-element mobilization. Mutant and wildtype first instar larvae were raised on two different sources of food, control and high-sugar media. When the animals reached the wandering third instar stage, animals were sacrificed and their fat bodies dissected. Total RNA was extracted, labeled fluorescently and hybridized competitively to Agilents 4x44K Drosophila Gene Expression Microarrays. On each array, three different samples were analyzed: 1. wildtype animals raised on control food, 2. wildtype animals raised on high-sugar food and 3. bigmax mutant animals raised on high-sugar food.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Loss of Pol32 in Drosophila melanogaster causes chromosome instability and suppresses variegation. AU - Tritto, Patrizia. AU - Palumbo, Valeria. AU - Micale, Lucia. AU - Marzulli, Marco. AU - Bozzetti, Maria Pia. AU - Specchia, Valeria. AU - Palumbo, Gioacchino. AU - Pimpinelli, Sergio. AU - Berloco, Maria. PY - 2015/3/31. Y1 - 2015/3/31. N2 - Pol32 is an accessory subunit of the replicative DNA Polymerase δ and of the translesion Polymerase ζ. Pol32 is involved in DNA replication, recombination and repair. Pol32 s participation in high- and low-fidelity processes, together with the phenotypes arising from its disruption, imply multiple roles for this subunit within eukaryotic cells, not all of which have been fully elucidated. Using pol32 null mutants and two partial loss-of-function alleles pol32rd1 and pol32rds in Drosophila melanogaster, we show that Pol32 plays an essential role in promoting genome stability. Pol32 is essential to ensure DNA replication in early ...
While the genomes of hundreds of organisms have been sequenced and good approaches exist for finding protein encoding genes, an important remaining challenge is predicting the functions of the large fraction of genes for which there is no annotation. Large gene expression datasets from microarray experiments already exist and many of these can be used to help assign potential functions to these genes. We have applied Support Vector Machines (SVM), a sigmoid fitting function and a stratified cross‐validation approach to analyze a large microarray experiment dataset from Drosophila melanogaster in order to predict possible functions for previously un‐annotated genes. A total of approximately 5043 different genes, or about one‐third of the predicted genes in the D. melanogaster genome, are represented in the dataset and 1854 (or 37%) of these genes are un‐annotated. 39 Gene Ontology Biological Process (GO‐BP) categories were found with precision value equal or larger than 0.75, when recall was
Background Quantitative differences between individuals stem from a combination of genetic and environmental factors, with the heritable variation being shaped by evolutionary forces. Drosophila wing shape has emerged as an attractive system for genetic dissection of multi-dimensional traits. We utilize several experimental genetic methods to validation of the contribution of several polymorphisms in the Epidermal growth factor receptor (Egfr) gene to wing shape and size, that were previously mapped in populations of Drosophila melanogaster from North Carolina (NC) and California (CA). This re-evaluation utilized different genetic testcrosses to generate heterozygous individuals with a variety of genetic backgrounds as well as sampling of new alleles from Kenyan stocks. Results Only one variant, in the Egfr promoter, had replicable effects in all new experiments. However, expanded genotyping of the initial sample of inbred lines rendered the association non-significant in the CA population, ...
Sex-determining cascades are supposed to have evolved in a retrograde manner from bottom to top. Wilkins 1995 hypothesis finds support from our comparative studies in Drosophila melanogaster and Musca domestica, two dipteran species that separated some 120 million years ago. The sex-determining cascades in these flies differ at the level of the primary sex-determining signal and their targets, Sxl in Drosophila and F in Musca. Here we present evidence that they converge at the level of the terminal regulator, doublesex ( dsx), which conveys the selected sexual fate to the differentiation genes. The dsx homologue in Musca, Md-dsx, encodes male-specific (MdDSX(M)) and female-specific (MdDSX(F)) protein variants which correspond in structure to those in Drosophila. Sex-specific regulation of Md-dsx is controlled by the switch gene F via a splicing mechanism that is similar but in some relevant aspects different from that in Drosophila. MdDSX(F) expression can activate the vitellogenin genes in ...
Hot water extract of chlorella (WEC) increased the lifespan of superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1 mutant adults of Drosophila melanogaster in a dose dependent manner (200-800 µg/mL). Compounds in WEC were successively fractionated by solid phase extraction using a Sep-Pak C18 cartridge and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Amino compounds in SEC fractions were derivatized with. 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxylsuccinimidyl carbamate and analyzed by reversed phased-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Phenylalanine, phenethylamine, isopentylamine, and 2-methylbutylamine were identified in the SEC fraction, which increased the lifespan of the D. melanogaster mutant adults. Phenethylamine, at very low doses (6-60 ng/g of diet) that roughly corresponded to those of phenethylamine in WEC (200-800 μg/mL), increased the lifespan of the D. melanogaster adults, while isopentylamine did not exert the lifespan elongation activity. Since phenethylamine did not show SOD-like activity, it did not increase ...
Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides irreversibly inhibit acetylcholinesterase causing death of insects. Resistance-modified acetylcholinesterases(AChEs) have been described in many insect species and sequencing of their genes allowed several point mutations to be described. However, their relative frequency and their cartography had not yet been addressed. To analyze the most frequent mutations providing insecticide resistance in Drosophila melanogaster acetylcholinesterase, the Ace gene was cloned and sequenced in several strains harvested from different parts of the world. Sequence comparison revealed four widespread mutations, I161V, G265A, F330Y and G368A. We confirm here that mutations are found either isolated or in combination in the same protein and we show that most natural populations are heterogeneous, composed of a mixture of different alleles. In vitro expression of mutated proteins showed that combining mutations in the same protein has two consequences: it increases resistance
abstract = {Drosophila C virus (DCV) is a positive-sense RNA virus belonging to the Dicistroviridae family. This natural pathogen of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster is commonly used to investigate antiviral host defense in flies, which involves both RNA interference and inducible responses. Although lethality is used routinely as a readout for the efficiency of the antiviral immune response in these studies, virus-induced pathologies in flies still are poorly understood. Here, we characterize the pathogenesis associated with systemic DCV infection. Comparison of the transcriptome of flies infected with DCV or two other positive-sense RNA viruses, Flock House virus and Sindbis virus, reveals that DCV infection, unlike those of the other two viruses, represses the expression of a large number of genes. Several of these genes are expressed specifically in the midgut and also are repressed by starvation. We show that systemic DCV infection triggers a nutritional stress in Drosophila which ...
Heartbeat patterns were monitored in the living bodies of decapitated adult flies using several electrocardiographic methods (pulse-light optocardiography, thermocardiography, strain-gauge cardiography). Unlike other insect species, in which t...
Author(s): Devineni, Anita | Advisor(s): Heberlein, Ulrike | Abstract: Ethanol is one of the most widely used and abused drugs in the world. Ethanol consumption produces short-term changes in behavior as well as long-term adaptations that can lead to addiction. The mechanisms underlying both acute and chronic responses to ethanol are still not fully understood. Human and rodent studies have suggested that acute ethanol sensitivity may be related to risk of alcohol abuse, and that the same genes often regulate both types of behavior. In this thesis I have used the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a model to study the genetic and neural mechanisms underlying ethanol-induced behavior. In Chapter 2, I show that flies prefer to consume food containing ethanol and that this ethanol preference may represent a new model for studying addiction-related behavior. In Chapter 3, I examine the relationships between acute ethanol sensitivity, ethanol tolerance, and ethanol consumption preference by measuring these
Single optical section through the whole gut of a Drosophila melanogaster larva expressing a reporter for Notch signaling pathway activity (green), and stained with cytoskeletal (red) and nuclear (blue) markers ...
Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) expressed on the surface of endothelial cells is responsible for the last step in the synthesis of circulating angiotensin II and the inactivation of bradykinin. Mammalian ACE is also expressed in the prostate with other components of the renin-angiotensin system, and in developing spermatids, where the peptidase activity is known to be critical for normal sperm function. The importance of an ACE gene to male fertility has also been demonstrated in Drosophila melanogaster, where Ance is expressed in spermatids, and hypomorphic alleles of Ance cause a defect in spermiogenesis. Here we show that ANCE, which shares many enzymatic properties with mammalian ACE, is also a product of the male accessory gland of D. melanogaster. It is expressed in the secondary cells and is associated with the electron dense granule within the large vesicles of these cells. ACE proteolytic activity is lost from the accessory glands during mating, consistent with transfer to the ...
Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster). Drosophila is a genus of fly from the family Drosophilidae. The species Drosophila melanogaster is known as the common fruit fly or vinegar fly. Drosophila melanogaster is widely used for biological research in studies of genetics, physiology, microbial pathogenesis, and evolution. This fly can be an agricultural or household pest. Magnification: x7. 5 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C032/3786
During courtship, the male Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera, Drosophilidae) produces two kinds of acoustic signals by wing vibration toward the female: the pulse song and the sine song. In order to examine the roles of these two signals, different signals were broadcast to single pairs of flies in which the males were muted by wing cutting). We used a complete song including both the pulse and the sine components, recorded during a successful courtship, to prepare different signals to play back to the flies. Thus, the natural pattern of sound emission was preserved. A preliminary experiment showed that the broadcasting of a natural complete song restored to wingless males a court- ship success comparable to that of normal winged males. A second experiment compared the effects of pulse song and sine song. The pulse song alone was sufficient to stimulate the mating between a wingless male and a virgin female. The sine song had lower effects. In a third experiment, we demonstrated that the ...
There are thousands of different species of flies. Larvae feed not on the vegetable matter itself, but on the yeasts and microorganisms present on the decaying breeding substrate. All that is needed for development is a moist film of fermenting material. The Hawaiian species of Drosophila (estimated to be more than 500, with roughly 380 species described) are sometimes recognized as a separate genus or subgenus, Idiomyia,[3][47] but this is not widely accepted. About 250 species are part of the genus Scaptomyza, which arose from the Hawaiian Drosophila and later recolonized continental areas. They are particularly fond of bananas among fruits. [24], The following section is based on the following Drosophila species: Drosophila serrata, Drosophila pseudoobscura, Drosophila melanogaster, and Drosophila neotestacea. [9] A few species have switched to being parasites or predators. The term Drosophila, meaning dew-loving, is a modern scientific Latin adaptation from Greek words δρόσος, ...
Fungi are implicated in poor indoor air quality and may pose a potential risk factor for building/mold related illnesses. Fungi emit numerous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as alcohols, esters, ethers, ketones, aldehydes, terpenoids, thiols, and their derivatives. The toxicity profile of these VOCs has never been explored in a model organism, which could enable the performance of high throughput toxicological assays and lead to a better understanding of the mechanism of toxicity. We have established a reductionist Drosophila melanogaster model to evaluate the toxicity of fungal VOCs. In this report, we assessed the toxicity of fungal VOCs emitted from living cultures of species in the genera, Trichoderma, Aspergillus, and Penicillium and observed a detrimental effect on larval survival. We then used chemical standards of selected fungal VOCs to assess their toxicity on larval and adult Drosophila. We compared the survival of adult flies exposed to these fungal VOCs with known industrial toxic ...
The ability of olfactory neurons to locate food sources underlies survival in most species of the animal kingdom. This ability of olfactory neurons to process environmental information is often modulated by the animals internal state such as hunger. The peripheral end of the olfactory circuit consists of first order olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), that synapse onto the second order projection neurons (PNs), and regulatory local neurons (LNs) that innervate ORNs and PNs. While a considerable amount of information has been generated, in various animal systems, regarding sensory neuron responses to food odorants and modulation of these responses by hunger, much less is known about the extent of modulation that exists among individual sensory neurons and its impact on driving behavioral output. We hypothesized that starvation differentially alters the sensitivity of individual first-order Olfactory Receptor Neurons (ORNs). To test this hypothesis, we exposed starved or non-starved third instar ...
Rhodopsins are the major photopigments in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Drosophila express six well-characterized Rhodopsins (Rh1-Rh6) with distinct absorption maxima and expression pattern. In 2000, when the Drosophila genome was published, a novel Rhodopsin gene was discovered: Rhodopsin 7 (Rh7). Rh7 is highly conserved among the Drosophila genus and is also found in other arthropods. Phylogenetic trees based on protein sequences suggest that the seven Drosophila Rhodopsins cluster in three different groups. While Rh1, Rh2 and Rh6 form a
My primary research interests are understanding the relationships of gene structure and expression during development. Using the model organism Drosophila melanogaster with which to study the genes and proteins controlling pyrimidine levels in cells, two separate and very interesting projects have emerged in recent years and are current objectives of research in my lab.. Pyrimidine degradation and neurogenesis animals. In animals, a family of structurally similar proteins have evolved from a single protein found in prokaryotes and simpler eukaryotes. The animal dihydropyrimidinase (DHP) protein carries out the ancestral enzymatic role in pydrimidine degradation, whereas the collapsin response mediator protein(s) (CRMP) mediates neuronal growth cone collapse during central nervous system development. How these protein variants evolved and the exact role of CRMP in the establishment of neuronal circuitry are poorly understood. Vertebrates have a multi-gene family that generates the distinctive ...
The fruit fly or Drosophila melanogaster has been used as a promising model organism in genetics, developmental and behavioral studies as well as in the fields of neuroscience, pharmacology, and toxicology. Not only all the developmental stages of Drosophila, including embryonic, larval, and adulthood stages, have been used in experimental in vivo biology, but also the organs, tissues, and cells extracted from this model have found applications in in vitro assays. However, the manual manipulation, cellular investigation and behavioral phenotyping techniques utilized in conventional Drosophila-based in vivo and in vitro assays are mostly time-consuming, labor-intensive, and low in throughput. Moreover, stimulation of the organism with external biological, chemical, or physical signals requires precision in signal delivery, while quantification of neural and behavioral phenotypes necessitates optical and physical accessibility to Drosophila. Recently, microfluidic and lab-on-a-chip devices have ...
Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene, also known as BTEX, are released into environmental media by petroleum product exploratory and exploitative activities and are harmful to humans and animals. Testing the effects of these chemicals on a significantly large scale requires an inexpensive, rapidly developing model organism such as Drosophila melanogaster. In this study, the toxicological profile of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p-xylene, m-xylene, and o-xylene in D. melanogaster was evaluated. Adult animals were monitored for acute toxicity effects. Similarly, first instar larvae reared separately on the same compounds were monitored for the ability to develop into adult flies (eclosion). Further, the impact of fixed concentrations of benzene and xylene on apoptosis and mitosis were investigated in adult progenitor tissues found in third instar larvae. Toluene is the most toxic to adult flies with an LC50 of 0.166 mM, while a significant and dose-dependent decrease in fly eclosion was observed
Background Parkinson disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder presenting with symptoms of resting tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity, postural instability and additional severe cognitive impairment over time. These symptoms arise from a decrease of available dopamine in the striatum of the brain resulting from the breakdown and death of dopaminergic (DA) neurons. A process implicated in the destruction of these neurons is mitochondrial breakdown and impairment. Upkeep and repair of mitochondria involves a number of complex and key components including Pink1, Parkin, and the PGC family of genes. PGC-1α has been characterized as a regulator of mitochondria biogenesis, insulin receptor signalling and energy metabolism, mutation of this gene has been linked to early onset forms of PD. The mammalian PGC family consists of three partially redundant genes making the study of full or partial loss of function difficult. The sole Drosophila melanogaster homologue of this gene family, spargel ...
The fruitless (fru) gene is a member of the Drosophila melanogaster somatic sex determination genetic pathway. Although it has been hypothesized that the primary function of fru is to regulate a genetic hierarchy specifying development of adult male courtship behavior, genes acting downstream of fru …
The ability to identify nutrient-rich food and avoid toxic substances is essential for an animals survival. Although olfaction and vision contribute to food detection, the gustatory system acts as a final checkpoint control for food acceptance or rejection. The vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster tastes many of the same stimuli as mammals and provides an excellent model system for comparative studies of taste detection. The relative simplicity of the fly brain and behaviors, along with the molecular genetic and functional approaches available in this system, allow the examination of gustatory neural circuits from sensory input to motor output. This review discusses the molecules and cells that detect taste compounds in the periphery and the circuits that process taste information in the brain. These studies are providing insight into how the detection of taste compounds regulates feeding decisions.. PMID: 29324046 [PubMed - in process]. ...
The standard view of adaptation to larval crowding in fruitflies, built on results from 25 years of multiple experimental evolution studies on Drosophila melanogaster, was that enhanced competitive ability evolves primarily through increased larval feeding and foraging rate, and increased larval tolerance to nitrogenous wastes, at the cost of efficiency of food conversion to biomass. These results were at odds from the predictions of classical K-selection theory, notably the expectation that selection at high density should result in the increase of efficiency of conversion of food to biomass, and were better interpreted through the lens of α-selection. We show here that populations of D. ananassae and D. n. nasuta subjected to extreme larval crowding evolve greater competitive ability and pre-adult survivorship at high density, primarily through a combination of reduced larval duration, faster attainment of minimum critical size for pupation, greater time efficiency of food conversion to ...
Fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) on old fruit. D. melanogaster is a small, common fly found near unripe and rotted fruit. It has been in use for over a century to study genetics. Nobel Laureate Thomas Hunt Morgan was the pre-eminent biologist studying Drosophila early in the 1900s. Morgan was the first to discover sex-linkage and genetic recombination, which placed the small fly in the forefront of genetic research. Due to its small size, ease of culture and short generation time, geneticists have been using Drosophila ever since. It is one of the few organisms whose entire genome is known, and many genes have been identified and numerous mutuations produced during the research. - Stock Video Clip K003/2041
Main article: Drosophila embryogenesis. Drosophila melanogaster, a fruit fly, is a model organism in biology on which much ... Drosophila melanogaster larvae contained in lab apparatus to be used for experiments in genetics and embryology ... Evidence available to date, primarily from the study of Drosophila melanogaster, indicates that homeotic genes act to control ... "Genetic and Cytological Examination of the Phenomena of Primary Non-Disjunction in Drosophila melanogaster". Genetics. 5 (5): ...
Konopka RJ, Benzer S (September 1971). "Clock mutants of Drosophila melanogaster". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... Veleri S, Wülbeck C (May 2004). "Unique self-sustaining circadian oscillators within the brain of Drosophila melanogaster". ... Dubowy C, Sehgal A (April 2017). "Drosophila melanogaster". Genetics. 205 (4): 1373-1397. doi:10.1534/genetics.115.185157. PMC ... arrhythmic Drosophila melanogaster". Cell. 39 (2 Pt 1): 369-76. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(84)90015-1. PMID 6094014. Bargiello TA, ...
Drosophila melanogaster)". Synonyms used in this way may not always meet the strict definitions of the term "synonym" in the ... much advertised name change should go through and the scientific name of the fruit fly were changed to Sophophora melanogaster ...
Drosophila melanogaster, 1998; Mus musculus, 2002; Xenopus laevis, 2002.) So far, three different transcription variants (TVs) ... Kloss B, Price JL, Saez L, Blau J, Rothenfluh A, Wesley CS, Young MW (July 1998). "The Drosophila clock gene double-time ... a neuronal cell model as well as in a Drosophila model resulted in prevention of neurotoxicity and consequently to rescue of ... "Hedgehog-regulated atypical PKC promotes phosphorylation and activation of Smoothened and Cubitus interruptus in Drosophila". ...
Drosophila melanogaster - body size; altitude Menidia menidia - growth; latitude Lithobates clamitans - developmental rate; ... Levins first used the term when describing patterns of body size across an altitudinal gradient in populations of Drosophila, ... Levins, Richard = (1969). "Thermal Acclimation and Heat Resistance in Drosophila Species". The American Naturalist. 103 (933): ...
Drosophila melanogaster) • Red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) Crustacea • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex) Chelicerata • ...
Morgan discovered the attached-X and ring chromosomes in Drosophila melanogaster. Normal Drosophila X-chromosomes have one ... Non-criss-cross inheritance in Drosophila melanogaster. Biol. Bull. 42:267-274. Morgan, L. V. 1925. Polyploidy in Drosophila ... Composites of Drosophila melanogaster. Carnegie Inst. of Wash. Publ. No. 399: 225-296. Morgan, L. V. 1931. Proof that bar ... Origin of attached-X chromosomes in Drosophila melanogaster and the occurrence of non-disjunction of X's in the male. Amer. ...
Drosophila melanogaster. Harmful. insects. Crop pests. *Aphid. *Boll weevil. *Colorado potato beetle ...
Drosophila melanogaster. Harmful. insects. Crop pests. *Aphid. *Boll weevil. *Colorado potato beetle ...
The ease of culturing houseflies, and the relative ease of handling them when compared to the fruit fly Drosophila, have made ...
Drosophila melanogaster. Harmful. insects. Crop pests. *Aphid. *Boll weevil. *Colorado potato beetle ...
Drosophila melanogaster. Harmful. insects. Crop pests. *Aphid. *Boll weevil. *Colorado potato beetle ...
Drosophila melanogaster. Harmful. insects. Crop pests. *Aphid. *Boll weevil. *Colorado potato beetle ...
Drosophila melanogaster. Harmful. insects. Crop pests. *Aphid. *Boll weevil. *Colorado potato beetle ...
Fruit fly: Drosophila melanogaster.[39] Good embryo supply. Well developed genetics.. *Nematode: Caenorhabditis elegans.[40] ... St Johnston D (2002). "The art and design of genetic screens: Drosophila melanogaster". Nat Rev Genet. 3 (3): 176-188. doi: ... In Bate and Martinez-Arias (eds.), The Development of Drosophila melanogaster, Cold Spring Harbor Press ... which generate the adult body parts of the fly Drosophila melanogaster.[26][27] ...
Drosophila melanogaster. Harmful. insects. Crop pests. *Aphid. *Boll weevil. *Colorado potato beetle ...
Drosophila melanogaster) 8 6 autosomal and 2 allosomic (sex) [13] Macrostomum lignano. (Macrostomum lignano) 8 [14] ... "Drosophila Genome Project". National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved 2009-04-14.. ...
Drosophila melanogaster larvae respond to acids[50] and menthol[51] with a stereotyped nociceptive rolling response, identical ... Drosophila[edit]. A fly-controlled heat-box has been designed to study operant conditioning in several studies of Drosophila.[ ... Tully, T.; Quinn, W.G. (1985). "Classical conditioning and retention in normal and mutant Drosophila melanogaster". Journal of ... Wustmann, G.; Rein, K.; Wolf, R.; Heisenberg, M. (1996). "A new paradigm for operant conditioning of Drosophila melanogaster". ...
Konopka, RJ; Benzer, S (1971). "Clock Mutants of Drosophila melanogaster". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 68 (9): 2112-2116. ... Studies done on Drosophila, also show that most neuropil regions of the brain are continuously reorganized throughout life in ... ISBN 978-3-7643-5076-5. "Flybrain: An online atlas and database of the drosophila nervous system". Archived from the original ... In spite of the large evolutionary distance between insects and mammals, many aspects of Drosophila neurogenetics have been ...
Multiple studies have been conducted concerning transgenesis in Drosophila melanogaster, the fruit fly. This organism has been ... "Transgenesis upgrades for Drosophila melanogaster". Development. 134 (20): 3571-3584. doi:10.1242/dev.005686. PMID 17905790. ... The most practiced method used thus far to insert transgenes into the Drosophila genome utilizes P elements. The transposable P ... The transfer of transgenes into the Drosophila genome has been performed using various techniques, including P element, Cre- ...
Drosophila melanogaster has naturally occurring variation in Thr-Gly repeats, occurring along a latitude cline. Flies with 17 ... Period (per) is a gene located on the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. Oscillations in levels of both per transcript ... per has been shown to be necessary and sufficient for long-term memory (LTM) formation in Drosophila melanogaster. per mutants ... Konopka RJ, Benzer S (September 1971). "Clock mutants of Drosophila melanogaster". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 68 (9): 2112-6 ...
The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is studied, again, because it is easy to grow for an animal, has various visible ... From 1910 to 1927, Thomas Hunt Morgan's work with the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster identified chromosomes as the vector of ... James H. Sang (2001). "Drosophila melanogaster: The Fruit Fly". In Eric C. R. Reeve (ed.). Encyclopedia of genetics. USA: ... Among invertebrates, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is famous as the subject of genetics experiments by Thomas Hunt ...
The gene is located at 3-26 of the Drosophila melanogaster genome. It is named faint little ball because when the gene is ... Expression of the flb gene can be seen as early as four hours into the development of Drosophila melanogaster. At four hours ... Lindsley DL, Zimm GG (2012-12-02). The Genome of Drosophila melanogaster. Academic Press. ISBN 9780323139847. Raz E, Shilo BZ ( ... Faint little ball (flb) is a Drosophila gene that encodes the Drosophila epidermal growth factor receptor (DER) homolog. The ...
Drosophila melanogaster is a popular experimental animal because it is easily cultured en masse from the wild, has a short ... Konopka, RJ; Benzer, S (1971). "Clock Mutants of Drosophila melanogaster". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 68 (9): 2112-6. ... "Atlas of the Drosophila Brain". Archived from the original on 2011-07-16. Retrieved 2011-03-24. "WormBook: The online review of ... Drosophila is being used as a genetic model for several human neurological diseases including the neurodegenerative disorders ...
Sang, James H. (2001). "Drosophila melanogaster: The Fruit Fly". In Reeve, Eric C.R. (ed.). Encyclopedia of genetics. USA: ... Model organisms for developmental biology include the round worm Caenorhabditis elegans, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster ...
Kidd S, Kelley MR, Young MW (September 1986). "Sequence of the notch locus of Drosophila melanogaster: relationship of the ... Kidd S, Lockett TJ, Young MW (September 1983). "The Notch locus of Drosophila melanogaster". Cell. 34 (2): 421-33. doi:10.1016/ ... Lindsley DL, Zimm GG (2012-12-02). The Genome of Drosophila Melanogaster. Academic Press. ISBN 9780323139847. Metz CW, Bridges ... Poulson DF (March 1937). "Chromosomal Deficiencies and the Embryonic Development of Drosophila Melanogaster". Proceedings of ...
"Nuclear architecture in drosophila melanogaster /". ResearchGate. Retrieved 2019-01-08. Hawley, R. Scott (April 2011). "The ... She completed her dissertation, called Nuclear Architecture in Drosophila melanogaster, documenting this work in 1996. Her ... using the fly Drosophila as a model organism. Specifically, she used (FISH) to monitor the chromosomal position of regions of ... which recognizes the most outstanding dissertation in the area of Drosophila genetics and biology. For her postdoctoral ...
Konopka, RJ; Benzer, Seymour (1971). "Clock Mutants of Drosophila melanogaster". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... In Drosophila, CRY1 and CRY2 bind to TIM, a circadian gene that is a component of the transcription-translation negative ... Clock - The clock gene in Drosophila encodes for the CLOCK protein and forms a heterodimer with the protein CYCLE in order to ... Per - The per gene is a clock gene that encodes for the PER protein in Drosophila. The protein levels and transcription rates ...
Capuano F, Mülleder M, Kok R, Blom HJ, Ralser M (April 2014). "Cytosine DNA methylation is found in Drosophila melanogaster but ... Lyko F, Ramsahoye BH, Jaenisch R (November 2000). "DNA methylation in Drosophila melanogaster". Nature. 408 (6812): 538-40. doi ... Sensitive methods applied to Drosophila DNA Suggest levels in the range of 0.1-0.3% of total cytosine. This low level of ... the function of DNA methylation is gene regulation via alternative splicing DNA methylation levels in Drosophila melanogaster ...
Drosophila melanogaster. 黑腹果蠅 180,000,000 13,350 Oryza sativa. 亞洲稻 466,000,000 45,000-55,000 ...
Why "Flyguy649"? Although I have an interest in aviation, "Fly" refers to the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. I used be a ...
Drosophila melanogaster 1.11996522×10. ^. 9 Pan troglodytes 1.008323292×10. ^. 9 Arabidopsis thaliana 1.144226616×10. ^. 9 ...
McKie JM، Sutherland HF، Harvey E، Kim UJ، Scambler PJ (November 1997). "A human gene similar to Drosophila melanogaster peanut ...
... mate preference for brothers over unrelated males in Drosophila melanogaster". PLOS ONE. 7 (12): e51293. doi:10.1371/journal. ... "Gene-Expression Changes Caused by Inbreeding Protect Against Inbreeding Depression in Drosophila". Genetics. 192 (1): 161-72. ...
Aliñamento estrutural de tiorredoxinas do ser humano e da mosca Drosophila melanogaster. As proteínas móstranse como fitas, coa ... e o da mosca Drosophila melanogaster (180 Mbp).[81] Despois do borrador operativo da secuencia de ADN do xenoma humano feita en ... "The Genome Sequence of Drosophila melanogaster". Science 287 (5461). Páxs. 2185-2195.. ...
Another virus is Nora virus from Drosophila melanogaster. This latter virus awaits further classification. Picornavirales VPg ... Drosophila C virus, Rhopalosiphum padi virus, and Himetobi P virus. Several have been placed in a separate family-the ...
Pryfed: Drosophila melanogaster (pry ffrwythau), Anopheles gambiae (mosgito), Aedes aegypti (mosgito). *Abwydod: Caenorhabditis ...
... over three decades to research studying genetically controlled patterns of sleep and wakefulness within Drosophila melanogaster ... further investigated the circadian period gene in Drosophila. They constructed segments of recombinant Drosophila DNA, ... Doubletime mutations in Drosophila alter the phosphorylation and degradation of PER protein. This affects the regularity in ... Michael Young describes his work with Drosophila genes and specific mutations that produce changes in the sleep-wake cycle. ...
Lifton RP, Goldberg ML, Karp RW, Hogness DS (1978). "The organization of the histone genes in Drosophila melanogaster: ... The DPE has been identified in three Drosophila TATA-less promoters and in the TATA-less human IRF-1 promoter.[10] ... In specific cell types or on specific promoters TBP can be replaced by one of several TBP-related factors (TRF1 in Drosophila, ... Most research on the TATA box has been conducted on yeast, human, and Drosophila genomes, however, similar elements have been ...
The common fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has been the subject of much research ...
Drosophila melanogaster) dins una mena de saquet amagat dins las antenas de l'insècte. Un organ subís una desformacion mecanica ...
Three genes were measured in an experiment with Drosophila melanogaster: bicoid (bcd), slalom (sll), and chitin synthase (cs). ...
Hubby, J. L. Protein Differences in Drosophila. I. Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1963, 48 (6): 871-879. PMC 1210521. PMID ... 不同物種帶有不同數量的基因,以不同的模式散布在其基因體內。有些物種,如大多數細菌、Drosophila屬果蠅、擬南芥的基因體特別緊湊,非編碼DNA較少。相較之下,哺乳動物和玉米的基因體則有
Main article: Drosophila embryogenesis. Drosophila melanogaster, a fruit fly, is a model organism in biology on which much ... Drosophila melanogaster larvae contained in lab apparatus to be used for experiments in genetics and embryology ... Evidence available to date, primarily from the study of Drosophila melanogaster, indicates that homeotic genes act to control ... "Genetic and Cytological Examination of the Phenomena of Primary Non-Disjunction in Drosophila melanogaster". Genetics. 5 (5): ...
Adams, M. D. (24 March 2000). "The Genome Sequence of Drosophila melanogaster". Science 287 (5461): 2185-2195. Bibcode:2000Sci ...
Analyse eines Mosaikindividuums bei Drosophila melanogaster. Bio. Zentr. 51, 194-199. *^ Stern C. 1936. "Somatic crossing-over ... FRT sites have been inserted transgenically near the centromere of each chromosome arm of Drosophila melanogaster. The FLP gene ... "The site of function of the Y chromosome in Drosophila melanogaster males". Molecular and. General Genetics. 165: 221. doi: ... In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, where a fly possessing two X chromosomes is a female and a fly possessing a single X ...
They were shown to be able to visually distinguish between different mutations of Drosophila melanogaster.[10] How this ability ...
Drosophila melanogaster (the common fruit fly), Danio rerio (the zebrafish), Mus musculus (the house mouse), and Rattus ...
"Identification of novel filament-forming proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Drosophila melanogaster". 》The Journal of ...
Uysal, H., Bahçeci, Z. (1997). The Effects of Lead Nitrate on the Development of Drosophila Melanogaster, Turkish Journal of ... Vinska mušica vrste Drosophila kreuh je dvokrilec, ki predstavlja enega najbolj razširjenih organizmov na svetu. V znanosti je ...
"The metabolic pathway of visual pigment chromophore formation in Drosophila melanogaster: All-trans (3S)-3-hydroxyretinal is ... Cyclorrhaphans, including Drosophila, use (3S)-3-hydroxyretinal.[15][16]Firefly squid have been found to use (4R)-4- ... RPE65 isomerohydrolases are homologous with beta-carotene monooxygenases;[6] the homologous ninaB enzyme in Drosophila has both ... "Dissection of the pathway required for generation of vitamin A and for Drosophila phototransduction". Journal of Cell Biology ...
Experimental selection of hypoxia-tolerant Drosophila melanogaster". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 108: 2349-54. 2011. . doi: ... Artificial selection on a fitness component in Drosophila melanogaster". Evolution. 38 (3): 516-526. doi:10.2307/2408701. JSTOR ... Genomic basis of aging and life-history evolution in Drosophila melanogaster". Evolution. 66: 3390-403. 2012. . doi:10.1111/j. ... Marden, JH; Wolf, MR; Weber, KE (noiembrie 1997). „Aerial performance of Drosophila melanogaster from populations selected for ...
... which includes the highly studied Drosophila melanogaster) which has two embryonic cuticles, most likely due to secondary loss ... Compared to many other sequences, the level of conservation is high, even between B. germanica and D. melanogaster, a highly ... melanogaster and in the beetle Tribolium castaneum) has been used to compare hemimetabolan and holometabolan metamorphosis. ...
In Drosophila melanogaster, the Y chromosome does not trigger male development. Instead, sex is determined by the number of X ... The D. melanogaster Y chromosome does contain genes necessary for male fertility. So XXY D. melanogaster are female, and D. ... melanogaster with a single X (X0), are male but sterile. There are some species of Drosophila in which X0 males are both viable ... Such groups include monotremes, Drosophila, some other insects, some fish, some reptiles, and some plants. ...
"High-resolution crystal structures of Drosophila melanogaster angiotensin-converting enzyme in complex with novel inhibitors ...
Roos C, Kolmer M, Mattila P, Renkonen R (2002). "Composition of Drosophila melanogaster proteome involved in fucosylated glycan ...
... and Drosophila melanogaster (MI0000374). microRNAs have been implicated in human cancer in a number of studies. It has been ... "Temporal regulation of microRNA expression in Drosophila melanogaster mediated by hormonal signals and broad-Complex gene ... miR-9 has been identified in Drosophila (MI0000129), mouse (MI0000720) and human (MI0000466), and the related miR-79 in C. ...
"Genetic Characterization of ms (3) MI, A Paternal Effect Gene of Drosophila melanogaster". GENETICS, May 1, 1995 vol. 140 no. 1 ... Uuringute käigus on leitud, et näiteks äädikakärbse (Drosophila melanogaster) puhul võib emamõju varajases embrüogeneesis ... "The role of localization of bicoid RNA in organizing the anterior pattern of the Drosophila embryo.". EMBO J., 1988 Jun; 7(6): ... Sellise geeni näiteks on Drosophila selgmine geen dl. Kui emane äädikakärbes kannab kahte selle geeni retsessiivset vormi, siis ...
Drosophila melanogaster also have a propensity to fly towards light. If you culture the flies in a tube it is easily noticable ... Drosophila melanogaster lives in a wide range of habitats. Native habitats include those in the tropical regions of the Old ... Drosophila melanogaster has been known to over winter in storage facilites, where it can consume/ruin vast quatities of food. ... Drosophila melanogaster has been studied in genetic research laboratories for almost a century. Because the fruit fly has a ...
Wikispecies has information related to Drosophila melanogaster. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Drosophila melanogaster. ... Scholia has a topic profile for Drosophila melanogaster.. *. "A quick and simple introduction to Drosophila melanogaster". ... "Bloomington Drosophila Stock Center" - collects, maintains and distributes Drosophila melanogaster strains for research ... "Drosophila Virtual Library.. *"Drosophila Genomics Resource Center" - collects, maintains and distributes Drosophila DNA clones ...
Clock Mutants of Drosophila melanogaster. Ronald J. Konopka and Seymour Benzer. PNAS September 1, 1971 68 (9) 2112-2116; https ... Central Regulation of Locomotor Behavior of Drosophila melanogaster Depends on a CASK Isoform Containing CaMK-Like and L27 ... Selection on the timing of adult emergence results in altered circadian clocks in fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster ... Comparative Analysis of Pdf-Mediated Circadian Behaviors Between Drosophila melanogaster and D. virilis ...
Clock Mutants of Drosophila melanogaster. Ronald J. Konopka and Seymour Benzer. PNAS September 1, 1971 68 (9) 2112-2116; https ...
... Anima80 anima80 at aol.com Tue Oct 6 23:46:23 EST 1998 *Previous message: Local Hop and IPCR ...
Drosophila melanogaster DGRP-849. BioProject. PRJNA36679 Drosophila melanogaster strain:mixed. Retrieve all samples from this ... Drosophila; Sophophora; melanogaster group; melanogaster subgroup. Attributes. strain. DGRP-849 ... Generic sample from Drosophila melanogaster. Identifiers. BioSample: SAMN01057325; Sample name: 849; SRA: SRS346742. Organism. ... Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly). cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Opisthokonta; Metazoa; Eumetazoa; Bilateria; Protostomia; ...
Your basket is currently empty. i ,p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the basket to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later.,p>,a href=/help/basket target=_top>More...,/a>,/p> ...
Schultz, J., 1929, The Minute reaction in the development of Drosophila melanogaster, Genetics, 14: 366.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Procunier, J.D., and Tartof, K., 1975, Genetic analysis of the 5S RNA genes in Drosophila melanogaster, Genetics, 81: 515. ... Dunn, R.J., 1977, Studies on transfer RNA and transfer RNA genes in Drosophila melanogaster, Ph.D. Thesis, The University of ... Duttagupta A.K., Shellenbarger D.L. (1980) Genetics of Minute Locus in Drosophila Melanogaster. In: Siddiqi O., Babu P., Hall L ...
Phosphoproteome analysis of Drosophila melanogaster embryos.. Zhai B1, Villén J, Beausoleil SA, Mintseris J, Gygi SP. ... A) The 0-24 h old D. melanogaster w118 embryos were lysed and directly digested with trypsin. Tryptic peptides were desalted ... Yorkie (Yki) is hyperphosphorylated in Drosophila embryos. The arrows in the figure represent what is known about the pathway ... B) MS/MS spectra from 24 analyses (duplicates for each sample) were searched against a composite target-decoy Drosophila ...
Triacylglycerol Metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster. View ORCID ProfileChristoph Heier and View ORCID ProfileRonald P. ... Triacylglycerol Metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster. View ORCID ProfileChristoph Heier and View ORCID ProfileRonald P. ... Triacylglycerol Metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster. View ORCID ProfileChristoph Heier and View ORCID ProfileRonald P. ... Here, we review the metabolism of TAG in the Drosophila model system. Recently, the fruit fly has attracted renewed attention ...
"The genome sequence of Drosophila melanogaster.". Adams M.D., Celniker S.E., Holt R.A., Evans C.A., Gocayne J.D., Amanatides P. ... "Annotation of the Drosophila melanogaster euchromatic genome: a systematic review.". Misra S., Crosby M.A., Mungall C.J., ... Drosophila melanogaster is a fruit fly and the most studied species from the family Drosophilidae. It has been used as a model ... "The Release 5.1 annotation of Drosophila melanogaster heterochromatin.". Smith C.D., Shu S., Mungall C.J., Karpen G.H.. Science ...
... position effect variegation mutant as a reporter system to investigate the possibility of imprinting in Drosophila melanogaster ... Genomic imprinting of chromatin in Drosophila melanogaster Genetica. 1996 Jan;97(1):33-7. doi: 10.1007/BF00132578. ... position effect variegation mutant as a reporter system to investigate the possibility of imprinting in Drosophila melanogaster ...
Barcode data: Drosophila melanogaster. The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available ...
... of the predicted Drosophila melanogaster proteome by detecting 9,124 proteins from 498,000 redundant and 72,281 distinct ... We also present experimentally identified proteotypic peptides matching ∼50% of D. melanogaster gene models. This library of ... The Drosophila melanogaster proteome based on Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project (BDGP) release 3.2. (DOC 27 kb) ... Brunner, E., Ahrens, C., Mohanty, S. et al. A high-quality catalog of the Drosophila melanogaster proteome. Nat Biotechnol 25, ...
The Drosophila melanogaster species group belongs to the subgenus Sophophora and contains 10 subgroups. The phylogeny in this ... questioning the Drosophila melanogaster species group boundaries. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research ... melanogaster species subgroup D. rhopaloa species subgroup D. suzukii species subgroup D. takahashii species subgroup Bächli, G ...
Billeter J-C, Levine JD (2013) Who is he and what is he to you? Recognition in Drosophila melanogaster. Curr Opin Neurobiol 23: ... Liu H, Kubli E (2003) Sex-peptide is the molecular basis of the sperm effect in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA ... Antony C, Jallon J-M (1982) The chemical basis for sex recognition in Drosophila melanogaster. J Insect Physiol 28:873-880 ... Chapman T, Liddle LF, Kalb JM et al (1995) Cost of mating in Drosophila melanogaster females is mediated by male accessory ...
... Salah-Eddin A. Araj,1 Nida M. Salem,1 Ihab ... and adults of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Nanoparticles of silver and sulfur were synthesized through reducing, ... melanogaster. Results showed that silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were highly effective on larvae, pupae, and adults mortality ...
Five bivariate distributions of wing dimensions of Drosophila melanogaster were measured, in flies 1) subjected to four defined ...
... GMUS-PD-0293 $15.95 ... All about Fruit Fly (Drosophila melanogaster). FACTS: The common fruit fly was elevated to iconic laboratory status in 1901 by ... Drosophila comes from Greek roots "drosos" and "philos", meaning dew-loving. Melanogaster comes from Greek roots "melas" and " ... Thomas Hunt Morgan was the first to discover the unique chromosomal inheritance patterns of Drosophila melanogaster in 1910, ...
... Peptides. 2001 Feb;22(2):241-54. doi: 10.1016/s0196 ... The Drosophila Genome Sequencing Project has important implications for the future of neurobiological research. This paper ... In addition, the state-of-the-art of Drosophila peptide research is reviewed. ...
... Male Drosophila melanogaster Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum ... Drosophila melanogaster. Meigen, 1830[1] Drosophila melanogaster (from the Greek for black-bellied dew-lover) is a two-winged ... Ashburner M, Thompson JN (1978). The laboratory culture of Drosophila. In: The genetics and biology of Drosophila. (Ashburner M ... Adams MD, Celniker SE, Holt RA, et al (2000). "The genome sequence of Drosophila melanogaster". Science 287 (5461): 2185-95. ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Science.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
The ability to genetically transform and modify Drosophila melanogaster was originally made possible through the use of ... Drosophila melanogaster Germ‐line Transformation. Peter W Atkinson, University of California, Riverside, California, USA ... Metaxakis A, Oehler S, Klinakis A and Savakis B (2005) Minos as a genetic and genomic tool in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics ... The ability to genetically transform and modify Drosophila melanogaster was originally made possible through the use of ...
Let us give some thought to the Y chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster, that engaging fly which is the bond-servant of ...
The fly Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most intensively studied organisms in biology and serves as a model system for ... 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; ACCURACY; BIOLOGY; CHROMOSOMES; DROSOPHILA; FUNCTIONALS; GENES; NUCLEOTIDES; GENOME DNA SEQUENCE ... 120-megabase euchromatic portion of the Drosophila genome using a whole-genome shotgun sequencing strategy supported by ...
Drosophila melanogaster. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: dUTPase, BcDNA.LD08534, CG4584, Dmel_CG4584, anon-SAGE:Wang-077, BcDNA: ...
Drosophila melanogaster. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: Ace, CG17907. EC: ... Here, we present updated crystal structures of Drosophila melanogaster acetylcholinesterase ( Dm AChE) originally published in ... Three-dimensional structures of Drosophila melanogaster acetylcholinesterase and of its complexes with two potent inhibitors.. ...
Adaptation to Chronic Nutritional Stress Leads to Reduced Dependence on Microbiota in Drosophila melanogaster Berra Erkosar, ... Paternal Grandmother Age Affects the Strength of Wolbachia-Induced Cytoplasmic Incompatibility in Drosophila melanogaster ...
Ecdysone, the major steroid hormone ofDrosophila melanogaster, is known for its role in development and reproduction. Flies ...
  • Starting with Charles W. Woodworth 's proposal of the use of this species as a model organism , D. melanogaster continues to be widely used for biological research in genetics , physiology , microbial pathogenesis , and life history evolution . (wikipedia.org)
  • D. melanogaster is typically used in research owing to its rapid life cycle, relatively simple genetics with only four pairs of chromosomes , and large number of offspring per generation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Duttagupta A.K., Shellenbarger D.L. (1980) Genetics of Minute Locus in Drosophila Melanogaster . (springer.com)
  • Drosophila melanogaster is the most studied organism in biological research, particularly in genetics and developmental biology. (bionity.com)
  • Let us give some thought to the Y chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster , that engaging fly which is the bond-servant of genetics. (evolutionnews.org)
  • Drosophila melanogaster is a highly attractive model system for the study of numerous biological questions pertaining to development, genetics, cell biology, neuroscience and disease. (biologists.org)
  • The cornerstone experimental animal in the study of cellular and molecular genetics for over 50 years has been the ubiquitous fruit fly ( Drosophila melanogaster ). (fsu.edu)
  • This study reveals the strength of D. Melanogaster genetics as an accessible approach to study BTEX compounds. (frontiersin.org)
  • As reported in Drosophila melanogaster: A Promising System for Neurobiology Research article, Last century has witnessed the emergence of Drosophila melanogaster as a premier experimental model organism and its exceptional contribution in field of genetics. (omicsonline.org)
  • Duvernell D, Eanes W. Contrasting molecular population genetics of four hexokinases in Drosophila melanogaster, D. simulans and D. yakuba. (labome.org)
  • Within a few years of the rediscovery of Mendel's rules in 1900, Drosophila melanogaster (the so-called fruit fly) became a favorite "model" organism for genetics research. (biology-pages.info)
  • The scientific name Drosophila actually means "lover of dew", implying that this species requires moist environments. (animaldiversity.org)
  • As in all insect species Drosophila melanogaster lays eggs. (animaldiversity.org)
  • Drosophila melanogaster is a species of fly (the taxonomic order Diptera) in the family Drosophilidae . (wikipedia.org)
  • [10] The developmental period for D. melanogaster varies with temperature, as with many ectothermic species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drosophila melanogaster is a fruit fly and the most studied species from the family Drosophilidae. (uniprot.org)
  • The Drosophila melanogaster species group belongs to the subgenus Sophophora and contains 10 subgroups. (wikipedia.org)
  • Species subgroups: D. denticulata species subgroup D. elegans species subgroup D. eugracilis species subgroup D. ficusphila species subgroup D. flavohirta species subgroup D. longissima species subgroup D. melanogaster species subgroup D. rhopaloa species subgroup D. suzukii species subgroup D. takahashii species subgroup Bächli, G. (1999-2010). (wikipedia.org)
  • A phylogeny of Drosophilidae using the Amyrel gene: questioning the Drosophila melanogaster species group boundaries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Species-specific cuticular hydrocarbons displayed on female Drosophila as they mature are sensed by males and act as pheromones to stimulate mating by conspecific males and inhibit heterospecific mating. (springer.com)
  • In Hawaii, many of the 1,000 or so native Drosophila species are declining due to habitat destruction and introduction of non-natives. (fsu.edu)
  • Other species of flies bearing the common name "fruit fly", such as the Mediterranean fruit fly or Mexican fruit fly, are also agricultural pests, but are not closely related to Drosophila . (fsu.edu)
  • Despite the widespread occurrence of these differences in more than one Drosophila species, the actual selective mechanisms controlling the genetic basis of such variation are not fully understood. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 2009. "Cross-Species RNAi Rescue Platform inDrosophila Melanogaster. (harvard.edu)
  • Finally, we found that spectrin is capable of adopting a similar periodic organization in neurons of a variety of animal species, including Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila, Gallus gallus, Mus musculus, and Homo sapiens. (labome.org)
  • Drosophila mature through complete metamorphosis, as do all members of the order Diptera . (animaldiversity.org)
  • Drosophila melanogaster (from the Greek for black-bellied dew-lover ) is a two-winged insect that belongs to the Diptera, the order of the flies. (bionity.com)
  • Dunn, R.J., 1977, Studies on transfer RNA and transfer RNA genes in Drosophila melanogaster , Ph.D. Thesis, The University of British Columbia. (springer.com)
  • Willoughby L, Batterham P, Daborn P. Piperonyl butoxide induces the expression of cytochrome P450 and glutathione S-transferase genes in Drosophila melanogaster. (labome.org)
  • Organization of the Ferritin Genes in Drosophila melanogaster. (ebscohost.com)
  • We highlight studies that exploited computational tools and the genetic accessibility and rich social life of Drosophila melanogaster to reveal molecular and neuronal determinants of social networks and collective behavior. (biologists.org)
  • This monograph, written by the most distinguished workers in the field, is the most authoritative and comprehensive synthesis of Drosophila developmental biology available and emphasizes the insights gained by molecular and genetic analysis. (cshlpress.com)
  • Mutants are described at the molecular level after having been characterized by classical genetic techniques in Drosophila melanogaster, therefore tying together the molecular studies with previous work in mutagenesis. (osti.gov)
  • The Cy mutation is the most commonly used dominant marker for the second chromosome balancers in Drosophila melanogaster, but little is known about molecular mechanism underlying the Cy phenotype. (ebscohost.com)
  • The Drosophila melanogaster complete genome sequence was published in 2000. (uniprot.org)
  • The genome sequence of Drosophila melanogaster. (osti.gov)
  • The genome sequence will greatly accelerate the progress of the 5,000 scientists for whom Drosophila is already a major research tool," said Dr. Rubin. (genome.gov)
  • Early nuclear divisions and migration during Drosophila embryogenesis. (els.net)
  • During the first three hours of Drosophila embryogenesis, two conserved signaling pathways act to pattern the dorsal-ventral (DV) axis: the Dorsal pathway and the Dpp pathway. (aiche.org)
  • As an important step towards understanding the systems biology of a complex eukaryote, we cataloged 63% of the predicted Drosophila melanogaster proteome by detecting 9,124 proteins from 498,000 redundant and 72,281 distinct peptide identifications. (nature.com)
  • Adams EM, Wolfner MF (2007) Seminal proteins but not sperm induce morphological changes in the Drosophila melanogaster female reproductive tract during sperm storage. (springer.com)
  • Here, heterozygous mutant and overexpression ferritin strains of Drosophila melanogaster were subjected to dietary iron manipulations to study the dynamics of iron partition between ferritin and other proteins . (rsc.org)
  • In temperate regions where human activities have introduced Drosophila melanogaster , these flies seek shelter in colder winter months. (animaldiversity.org)
  • Like other flies, Drosophila melanogaster has a single pair of wings that form from the middle segment of its thorax. (animaldiversity.org)
  • Volatile chemicals derived from fruit, yeast growing on the fruit, and flies already present on the fruit attract Drosophila , concentrating flies at food sites, where they will also mate. (springer.com)
  • Five bivariate distributions of wing dimensions of Drosophila melanogaster were measured, in flies 1) subjected to four defined environmental regimes during development, 2) taken directly from nature in seven U.S. states, 3) selected in ten populations for change in wing form, and 4) sampled from 21 long inbred wild-type lines. (genetics.org)
  • By studying Drosophila melanogaster, starting with a parent group we crossed a variety of flies and observe the characteristics of the F1 generation. (educationindex.com)
  • These new approaches will greatly facilitate the structure-function analyses of Drosophila genes, will enhance the ease and speed with which flies can be manipulated, and should advance our understanding of biological processes during normal development and disease. (biologists.org)
  • The results revealed significant increase in life span of Drosophila flies on exposure to both the plant products, more efficiently by C. Longa than by E. officinalis . (hindawi.com)
  • In order to understand whether the increase in lifespan was due to high-antioxidant properties of these medicinal plants, we performed enzymatic assays to assess the SOD and catalase activities in case of both treated and control Drosophila flies. (hindawi.com)
  • Results: We used DNA microarray analysis to identify bursicon-regulated genes in neck-ligated flies (Drosophila melanogaster) that received recombinant bursicon (r-bursicon). (ebscohost.com)
  • We developed transgenic flies expressing a light-gated cation channel, channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), specifically in their hearts and demonstrated successful optogenetic pacing of ChR2-expressing Drosophila at different developmental stages, including the larva, pupa, and adult stages. (sciencemag.org)
  • The experiment conducted used drosophila or fruit flies to test certain crosses such as a sepia female drosophila x wild male drosophila, a white female drosophila x wild male drosophila, and red/vestigial female drosophila x sepia/normal male drosophila. (ukessays.com)
  • Can the fitness of deletion mutants in a murine model be predicted by their virulence in Drosophila melanogaster ? (biologists.org)
  • Part III of this project consists of inducing mutants with tritiated water at the Adh locus in D. melanogaster. (osti.gov)
  • Since the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster , is extraordinarily tolerant to O 2 deprivation, we have performed a genetic screen in the Drosophila to search for loss-of-function mutants that are sensitive to low O 2 . (jci.org)
  • Apger-McGlaughon J, Wolfner MF (2013) Post-mating change in excretion by mated Drosophila melanogaster females is a long-term response that depends on sex peptide and sperm. (springer.com)
  • Avila FW, Mattei AL, Wolfner MF (2015b) Sex peptide receptor is required for the release of stored sperm by mated Drosophila melanogaster females. (springer.com)
  • We have examined the embryonic development of an identified neuromuscular junction (NMJ) of Drosophila melanogaster using whole- cell patch-clamp and a variety of physiological and morphological techniques. (jneurosci.org)
  • The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster offers the most powerful means of studying embryonic development in eukaryotes. (cshlpress.com)
  • B) MS/MS spectra from 24 analyses (duplicates for each sample) were searched against a composite target-decoy Drosophila protein database. (nih.gov)
  • A protein interaction map of Drosophila melanogaster . (nature.com)
  • Avila FW, Cohen AB, Ameerudeen FS et al (2015a) Retention of ejaculate by Drosophila melanogaster females requires the male-derived mating plug protein PEBme. (springer.com)
  • The image shows mitotic metaphase (upper) and anaphase (lower) in Drosophila tissue culture cells immunostained for the microtubule severing protein katanin (green), microtubules (red) and kinetochores/chromosomes (blue). (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • The role of membrane recycling has been analysed in Drosophila by characterising the distribution of a clathrin coat protein throughout development. (bl.uk)
  • In this study, we demonstrate that CASK- β , a Drosophila scaffolding protein orthologous to mammalian CASK, regulates motor initiation by facilitating transmitter release specifically in dopaminergic cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Further, three-dimensional maps of the ferritin protein shell and iron core were obtained from single particle transmission electron microscopy imaging and confirmed the similarity between Drosophila and Trichoplusia ferritin structures. (rsc.org)
  • Miklos, G.L.G., 1972, The effects of Minute loci and the possible involvement of transfer-RNA in sex chromosome non-disjuction in the Drosophila melanogaster male, Molec. (springer.com)
  • We have determined the nucleotide sequence of nearly all of the {approximately}120-megabase euchromatic portion of the Drosophila genome using a whole-genome shotgun sequencing strategy supported by extensive clone-based sequence and a high-quality bacterial artificial chromosome physical map. (osti.gov)
  • Simple Quantitative PCR Approach to Reveal Naturally Occurring and Mutation-Induced Repetitive Sequence Variation on the Drosophila Y Chromosome. (ebscohost.com)
  • A Deletion is Associated with Cy Mutant Chromosome in Drosophila melanogaster. (ebscohost.com)
  • Furthermore, drosophila are diploid organisms which means that their chromosomes are arranged in homologous pairs and for a simple phenotypic trait, there will be two copies of the gene (one on each chromosome). (ukessays.com)
  • Burke R, Commons E, Camakaris J. Expression and localisation of the essential copper transporter DmATP7 in Drosophila neuronal and intestinal tissues. (labome.org)
  • In Drosophila melanogaster , exposure of females to low temperature and shortened photoperiod can induce the expression of reproductive quiescence or diapause. (bioone.org)
  • Members of the genus Spiroplasma associated with distantly related Drosophila hosts are known to engage in either reproductive parasitism (i.e., male killing) or defense against natural enemies (the parasitic wasp Leptopilina heterotoma and a nematode). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • We applied label-free quantitative proteomics to Drosophila melanogaster male reproductive tissue - where Sfps are unprocessed, and highly abundant - and quantified Sfps before and immediately after mating, to infer those transferred during copulation. (mcponline.org)
  • The fly Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most intensively studied organisms in biology and serves as a model system for the investigation of many developmental and cellular processes common to higher eukaryotes, including humans. (osti.gov)
  • The genome similarity and presence of highly conserved metabolic pathways with eukaryotes including human make Drosophila one of the best model organisms for investigating various genetic and metabolic pathways to avail the ground level understanding on various gene-environment interactions and their relation to aging process [ 24 , 25 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Mutations induced at the alcohol dehydrogenase locus (Adh) in Drosophila melanogaster were first characterized by genetic complementation tests to determine if a multi-locus deletion has occurred. (osti.gov)
  • In Drosophila , quantitative analysis of subtle effects of new mutations have revealed large numbers of novel loci affecting quantitative traits 4 , as have high resolution maps of segregating quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in Drosophila 4 and mice 5 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Bibikova M, Golic M, Golic KG and Carroll D (2002) Targeted chromosomal cleavage and mutagenesis in Drosophila using zinc‐finger nucleases. (els.net)
  • Phosphoproteome analysis of Drosophila melanogaster embryos. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we used a well-established phosphopeptide enrichment and identification strategy including the combination of strong cation exchange chromatography, immobilized metal affinity chromatography, and high-accuracy mass spectrometry instrumentation to study phosphorylation in developing Drosophila embryos. (nih.gov)
  • Schematic illustration of the strategy for large-scale phosphorylation site identification from Drosophila embryos. (nih.gov)
  • A) The 0-24 h old D. melanogaster w 118 embryos were lysed and directly digested with trypsin. (nih.gov)
  • The Notch signaling pathway (NGS) is a major signal transduction pathway, which regulates the development of the nervous system as well as axonal outgrowth in the embryos of Drosophila melanogaster. (osu.edu)
  • Dear Fly researchers, We have some Agilent Gene expression D.melanogaster (8*15K) microarrays. (bio.net)
  • Genotypic Technology, India's first Agilent Certified Service Provider Company is pleased to announce special year end attractive price options for ready to use D.melanogaster gene expression arrays. (bio.net)
  • Therefore, feedback through the Dpp signaling network is a prime candidate for enhancing the robustness of patterning of DV gene expression, as shown in (C). These interactions between the NF-κB and BMP signaling pathways may be necessary to ensure robust gene expression in the developing Drosophila embryo. (aiche.org)
  • A male-killing strain of Spiroplasma (strain Melanogaster Sex Ratio Organism (MSRO)) co-occurs with Wolbachia (strain wMel) in certain wild populations of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • We examined the effects of Spiroplasma MSRO and Wolbachia wMel on Drosophila survival against parasitism by two common wasps, Leptopilina heterotoma and Leptopilina boulardi, that differ in their host ranges and host evasion strategies. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Carrington L, Hoffmann A, Weeks A. Monitoring long-term evolutionary changes following Wolbachia introduction into a novel host: the Wolbachia popcorn infection in Drosophila simulans. (labome.org)
  • As a consequence, the genetic toolbox of Drosophila geneticists have considerably expanded and will have a dramatic impact on our ability to understand genetic pathways in this insect. (els.net)
  • In Drosophila , the neuromotor pathways underlying flight speed control may be suitably explored by applying advanced genetic techniques, for which our data can serve as a baseline. (biologists.org)
  • We used a Drosophila melanogaster model to understand how imidacloprid (a common neonicotinoid) interferes with two innate immune pathways-Duox and Imd. (asm.org)
  • Under optimal growth conditions at 25 °C (77 °F), the D. melanogaster lifespan is about 50 days from egg to death. (wikipedia.org)
  • The D. melanogaster lifespan is about 30 days at 29 °C (84 °F). (bionity.com)
  • The organization of two closely clustered genes, Fer1HCH and Fer2LCH, encoding the heavy-chain homolog (HCH) and the light-chain homolog (LCH) subunits of Drosophila melanogaster ferritin are reported here. (ebscohost.com)
  • Purified Drosophila ferritin also contained small amounts of zinc and manganese. (rsc.org)
  • Even in a model system as well studied as the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, the function of the vast majority of genes, and the mechanisms by which they give rise to such diversity, remains unknown. (bl.uk)
  • The recent completion of the Drosophila melanogaster genomic sequence to high quality, and the availability of a greatly expanded set of Drosophila cDNA sequences, afforded FlyBase the opportunity to significantly improve genomic annotations. (harvard.edu)
  • In our screening program, laboratory trials were conducted to determine the effectiveness of five sources of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) and sulfur nanoparticles (S NPs) on larval, pupal, and adults of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster . (hindawi.com)
  • Monitoring heart function in larval Drosophila melanogaster for physiological studies. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We present various methods to record cardiac function in the larval Drosophila. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The larval heart preparation provides an additional model besides the Drosophila skeletal NMJ to investigate the role of intracellular calcium regulation on cellular function. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Demerec 1950) The natural range of D. melanogaster is throughout the Old World tropics. (animaldiversity.org)
  • Generating transgenic D. melanogaster . (els.net)
  • The sensory and genetic bases of incipient speciation between strains of Drosophila melanogaster from Zimbabwe and those from elsewhere are unknown. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Although Drosophila melanogaster has a global distribution, several strains found in some geographic areas show non-random mating indicating partial sexual isolation 3 , 4 , 5 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Several D. melanogaster natural strains vary in their cuticular hydrocarbons (CHs), some of which play a pheromonal role 8 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Hi everyone, I need to study the phylogeny of Drosophila melanogaster, Drosophila pseudobscura, Anopheles gambiae, Tribolium castaneum, Bombyx mori, Apis mellifera and Acyrthosiphon pisum in my research. (biology-online.org)
  • Golic KG and Lindquist S (1989) The FLP recombinase of yeast catalyzes site‐specific recombination in the Drosophila genome. (els.net)
  • We have therefore developed a general RNAi rescue approach for Drosophila that employs Cre/loxP-mediated recombination to rapidly retrofit existing fosmid clones into rescue constructs. (harvard.edu)
  • Bernstein R, DeJong J, Roeder R. Characterization of the highly conserved TFIIA small subunit from Drosophila melanogaster. (labome.org)
  • Arienti M, Antony C, Wicker-Thomas C et al (2010) Ontogeny of Drosophila melanogaster female sex-appeal and cuticular hydrocarbons. (springer.com)
  • Movie of metaphase through the onset of cytokinesis in Drosophila S2 cells expressing GFP-tubulin. (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • Chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster as they appear at metaphase of mitosis. (biology-pages.info)
  • In: Siddiqi O., Babu P., Hall L.M., Hall J.C. (eds) Development and Neurobiology of Drosophila. (springer.com)
  • Thermal fluctuations during development in Drosophila melanogaster lead to detrimental cold and beneficial heat acclimation responses, while thermal fluctuations induce little acclimation response during adult exposure. (biologists.org)
  • RESULTS: In our work, we investigated several life history traits (body size, duration of development, preadult survival, longevity and productivity) in two tropical and two temperate natural populations of D. melanogaster recently collected, and in a temperate population maintained for twelve years at the constant temperature of 18 degrees C in the laboratory. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We have reported the development of a feeding method for exposing male D. melanogaster to tritiated water that would give a range in dose from 6.66 Gy to 26.64 Gy. (osti.gov)
  • 2011) The Drosophila gene disruption project: progress using transposons with distinctive site specificities. (els.net)
  • Due to its small size, ease of culture and short generation time, geneticists have been using Drosophila ever since. (wikipedia.org)
  • A high-speed and ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence microscopy imaging system that is capable of providing images at a rate of 130 frames/s with axial and transverse resolutions of 1.5 and 3.9 μm, respectively, was used to noninvasively monitor Drosophila cardiac function and its response to pacing stimulation. (sciencemag.org)