Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Genome, Insect: The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.Genes, Lethal: Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.WingCrosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Pupa: An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.Insect Hormones: Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Eye Color: Color of the iris.Chromosomes, Insect: Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Malpighian Tubules: Slender tubular or hairlike excretory structures found in insects. They emerge from the alimentary canal between the mesenteron (midgut) and the proctodeum (hindgut).Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Photoreceptor Cells, Invertebrate: Specialized cells in the invertebrates that detect and transduce light. They are predominantly rhabdomeric with an array of photosensitive microvilli. Illumination depolarizes invertebrate photoreceptors by stimulating Na+ influx across the plasma membrane.Heterochromatin: The portion of chromosome material that remains condensed and is transcriptionally inactive during INTERPHASE.Oogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Ecdysone: A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Longevity: The normal length of time of an organism's life.Metamorphosis, Biological: Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.Ecdysterone: A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysterone is the 20-hydroxylated ECDYSONE.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Sex Chromosomes: The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Courtship: Activities designed to attract the attention or favors of another.Blastoderm: A layer of cells lining the fluid-filled cavity (blastocele) of a BLASTULA, usually developed from a fertilized insect, reptilian, or avian egg.Fat Body: A nutritional reservoir of fatty tissue found mainly in insects and amphibians.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Retroelements: Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.Salivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Y Chromosome: The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.Flight, Animal: The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Sense Organs: Specialized organs adapted for the reception of stimuli by the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Chromosome Inversion: An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.Alcohol Dehydrogenase: A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Ethyl Methanesulfonate: An antineoplastic agent with alkylating properties. It also acts as a mutagen by damaging DNA and is used experimentally for that effect.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Genes, Homeobox: Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Gonadal Dysgenesis: A number of syndromes with defective gonadal developments such as streak GONADS and dysgenetic testes or ovaries. The spectrum of gonadal and sexual abnormalities is reflected in their varied sex chromosome (SEX CHROMOSOMES) constitution as shown by the karyotypes of 45,X monosomy (TURNER SYNDROME); 46,XX (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, 46XX); 46,XY (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, 46,XY); and sex chromosome MOSAICISM; (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, MIXED). Their phenotypes range from female, through ambiguous, to male. This concept includes gonadal agenesis.Hemolymph: The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.Wnt1 Protein: A proto-oncogene protein and member of the Wnt family of proteins. It is expressed in the caudal MIDBRAIN and is essential for proper development of the entire mid-/hindbrain region.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Imaginal Discs: Hollow sacs of cells in LARVA that form adult structures in insects during BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS.Optic Lobe, Nonmammalian: In invertebrate zoology, a lateral lobe of the FOREBRAIN in certain ARTHROPODS. In vertebrate zoology, either of the corpora bigemina of non-mammalian VERTEBRATES. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1329)Hemocytes: Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Mosaicism: The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.Euchromatin: Chromosome regions that are loosely packaged and more accessible to RNA polymerases than HETEROCHROMATIN. These regions also stain differentially in CHROMOSOME BANDING preparations.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Receptors, Notch: A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Thorax: The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Polytene Chromosomes: Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.Mushroom Bodies: Prominent lobed neuropils found in ANNELIDA and all ARTHROPODS except crustaceans. They are thought to be involved in olfactory learning and memory.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Dosage Compensation, Genetic: Genetic mechanisms that allow GENES to be expressed at a similar level irrespective of their GENE DOSAGE. This term is usually used in discussing genes that lie on the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Because the sex chromosomes are only partially homologous, there is a different copy number, i.e., dosage, of these genes in males vs. females. In DROSOPHILA, dosage compensation is accomplished by hypertranscription of genes located on the X CHROMOSOME. In mammals, dosage compensation of X chromosome genes is accomplished by random X CHROMOSOME INACTIVATION of one of the two X chromosomes in the female.Germ Cells: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Juvenile Hormones: Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.Diptera: An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).Genes, Dominant: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.Crossing Over, Genetic: The reciprocal exchange of segments at corresponding positions along pairs of homologous CHROMOSOMES by symmetrical breakage and crosswise rejoining forming cross-over sites (HOLLIDAY JUNCTIONS) that are resolved during CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION. Crossing-over typically occurs during MEIOSIS but it may also occur in the absence of meiosis, for example, with bacterial chromosomes, organelle chromosomes, or somatic cell nuclear chromosomes.Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Dopa Decarboxylase: One of the AROMATIC-L-AMINO-ACID DECARBOXYLASES, this enzyme is responsible for the conversion of DOPA to DOPAMINE. It is of clinical importance in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.Wolbachia: A genus of bacteria comprised of a heterogenous group of gram-negative small rods and coccoid forms associated with arthropods. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 1, 1984)Eye ProteinsSmell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.Suppression, Genetic: Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Egg Proteins: Proteins which are found in eggs (OVA) from any species.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Epistasis, Genetic: A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.Genes, Recessive: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Drosophilidae: A family of the order DIPTERA. These flies are generally found around decaying vegetation and fruit. Several species, because of their short life span, giant salivary gland chromosomes, and ease of culturing, have been used extensively in studies of heredity.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Tribolium: A genus of small beetles of the family Tenebrionidae; T. confusum is the "confused flour beetle".Glycerolphosphate DehydrogenaseTransposases: Enzymes that recombine DNA segments by a process which involves the formation of a synapse between two DNA helices, the cleavage of single strands from each DNA helix and the ligation of a DNA strand from one DNA helix to the other. The resulting DNA structure is called a Holliday junction which can be resolved by DNA REPLICATION or by HOLLIDAY JUNCTION RESOLVASES.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Nerve Tissue ProteinsNeuropil: A dense intricate feltwork of interwoven fine glial processes, fibrils, synaptic terminals, axons, and dendrites interspersed among the nerve cells in the gray matter of the central nervous system.Heat-Shock Proteins: Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Sex Attractants: Pheromones that elicit sexual attraction or mating behavior usually in members of the opposite sex in the same species.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Period Circadian Proteins: Circadian rhythm signaling proteins that influence circadian clock by interacting with other circadian regulatory proteins and transporting them into the CELL NUCLEUS.Compound Eye, Arthropod: Light sensory organ in ARTHROPODS consisting of a large number of ommatidia, each functioning as an independent photoreceptor unit.Antennapedia Homeodomain Protein: Antennapedia homeodomain protein is a homeobox protein involved in limb patterning in ARTHROPODS. Mutations in the gene for the antennapedia homeodomain protein are associated with the conversion of antenna to leg or leg to antenna DROSOPHILA.Receptors, Odorant: Proteins, usually projecting from the cilia of olfactory receptor neurons, that specifically bind odorant molecules and trigger responses in the neurons. The large number of different odorant receptors appears to arise from several gene families or subfamilies rather than from DNA rearrangement.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Head: The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Copulation: Sexual union of a male and a female in non-human species.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Inbreeding: The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.Ecdysteroids: Steroids that bring about MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysteroids include the endogenous insect hormones (ECDYSONE and ECDYSTERONE) and the insect-molting hormones found in plants, the phytoecdysteroids. Phytoecdysteroids are natural insecticides.Gene Components: The parts of the gene sequence that carry out the different functions of the GENES.Genes, X-Linked: Genes that are located on the X CHROMOSOME.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Armadillo Domain Proteins: A family of proteins that contain several 42-amino acid repeat domains and are homologous to the Drosophila armadillo protein. They bind to other proteins through their armadillo domains and play a variety of roles in the CELL including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, regulation of DESMOSOME assembly, and CELL ADHESION.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Polycomb Repressive Complex 1: A multisubunit polycomb protein complex with affinity for CHROMATIN that contains methylated HISTONE H3. It contains an E3 ubiquitin ligase activity that is specific for HISTONE H2A and works in conjunction with POLYCOMB REPRESSIVE COMPLEX 2 to effect EPIGENETIC REPRESSION.Nondisjunction, Genetic: The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.Spermatogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Xanthine Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of XANTHINE in the presence of NAD+ to form URIC ACID and NADH. It acts also on a variety of other purines and aldehydes.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Animal Structures: Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Pigmentation: Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.Sex Determination Analysis: Validation of the SEX of an individual by inspection of the GONADS and/or by genetic tests.Gene Duplication: Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.Octopamine: An alpha-adrenergic sympathomimetic amine, biosynthesized from tyramine in the CNS and platelets and also in invertebrate nervous systems. It is used to treat hypotension and as a cardiotonic. The natural D(-) form is more potent than the L(+) form in producing cardiovascular adrenergic responses. It is also a neurotransmitter in some invertebrates.Spermatocytes: Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.Chromosome Walking: A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Alternative Splicing: A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.

A quantitative three-dimensional model of the Drosophila optic lobes. (1/16925)

A big step in the neurobiology of Drosophila would be to establish a standard for brain anatomy to which to relate morphological, developmental and genetic data. We propose that only an average brain and its variance would be a biologically meaningful reference and have developed an averaging procedure. Here, we present a brief outline of this method and apply it to the optic lobes of Drosophila melanogaster wild-type Canton S. Whole adult brains are stained with a fluorescent neuropil marker and scanned with the confocal microscope. The resulting three-dimensional data sets are automatically aligned into a common coordinate system and intensity averages calculated. We use effect-size maps for the fast detection of differences between averages. For morphometric analysis, neuropil structures are labelled and superimposed to give a three-dimensional probabilistic map. In the present study, the method was applied to 66 optic lobes. We found their size, shape and position to be highly conserved between animals. Similarity was even higher between left and right optic lobes of the same animal. Sex differences were more pronounced. Female optic lobes were 6% larger than those of males. This value corresponds well with the higher number of ommatidia in females. As females have their additional ommatidia dorsally and ventrally, the additional neuropil in the medulla, lobula and lobula plate, accordingly, was found preferentially at these locations. For males, additional neuropil was found only at the posterior margin of the lobula. This finding supports the notion of male-specific neural processing in the lobula as described for muscid and calliphorid flies.  (+info)

Alzheimer's disease: clues from flies and worms. (2/16925)

Presenilin mutations give rise to familial Alzheimer's disease and result in elevated production of amyloid beta peptide. Recent evidence that presenilins act in developmental signalling pathways may be the key to understanding how senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and apoptosis are all biochemically linked.  (+info)

Insect evolution: Redesigning the fruitfly. (3/16925)

Homeotic mutations in Drosophila can result in dramatic phenotypes that suggest the possibility for rapid morphological evolution, but dissection of the genetic pathway downstream of Ultrabithorax is beginning to reveal how wing morphology may have evolved by more gradual transformations.  (+info)

Deletion analysis of the Drosophila Inscuteable protein reveals domains for cortical localization and asymmetric localization. (4/16925)

The Drosophila Inscuteable protein acts as a key regulator of asymmetric cell division during the development of the nervous system [1] [2]. In neuroblasts, Inscuteable localizes into an apical cortical crescent during late interphase and most of mitosis. During mitosis, Inscuteable is required for the correct apical-basal orientation of the mitotic spindle and for the asymmetric segregation of the proteins Numb [3] [4] [5], Prospero [5] [6] [7] and Miranda [8] [9] into the basal daughter cell. When Inscuteable is ectopically expressed in epidermal cells, which normally orient their mitotic spindle parallel to the embryo surface, these cells reorient their mitotic spindle and divide perpendicularly to the surface [1]. Like the Inscuteable protein, the inscuteable RNA is asymmetrically localized [10]. We show here that inscuteable RNA localization is not required for Inscuteable protein localization. We found that a central 364 amino acid domain - the Inscuteable asymmetry domain - was necessary and sufficient for Inscuteable localization and function. Within this domain, a separate 100 amino acid region was required for asymmetric localization along the cortex, whereas a 158 amino acid region directed localization to the cell cortex. The same 158 amino acid fragment could localize asymmetrically when coexpressed with the full-length protein, however, and could bind to Inscuteable in vitro, suggesting that this domain may be involved in the self-association of Inscuteable in vivo.  (+info)

Why are there so few resistance-associated mutations in insecticide target genes? (5/16925)

The genes encoding the three major targets of conventional insecticides are: Rdl, which encodes a gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit (RDL); para, which encodes a voltage-gated sodium channel (PARA); and Ace, which encodes insect acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Interestingly, despite the complexity of the encoded receptors or enzymes, very few amino acid residues are replaced in different resistant insects: one within RDL, two within PARA and three or more within AChE. Here we examine the possible reasons underlying this extreme conservation by looking at the aspects of receptor and/or enzyme function that may constrain replacements to such a limited number of residues.  (+info)

Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and insecticide resistance in insects. (6/16925)

Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are involved in many cases of resistance of insects to insecticides. Resistance has long been associated with an increase in monooxygenase activities and with an increase in cytochrome P450 content. However, this increase does not always account for all of the resistance. In Drosophila melanogaster, we have shown that the overproduction of cytochrome P450 can be lost by the fly without a corresponding complete loss of resistance. These results prompted the sequencing of a cytochrome P450 candidate for resistance in resistant and susceptible flies. Several mutations leading to amino-acid substitutions have been detected in the P450 gene CYP6A2 of a resistant strain. The location of these mutations in a model of the 3D structure of the CYP6A2 protein suggested that some of them may be important for enzyme activity of this molecule. This has been verified by heterologous expression of wild-type and mutated cDNA in Escherichia coli. When other resistance mechanisms are considered, relatively few genetic mutations are involved in insecticide resistance, and this has led to an optimistic view of the management of resistance. Our observations compel us to survey in more detail the genetic diversity of cytochrome P450 genes and alleles involved in resistance.  (+info)

Control of growth and differentiation by Drosophila RasGAP, a homolog of p120 Ras-GTPase-activating protein. (7/16925)

Mammalian Ras GTPase-activating protein (GAP), p120 Ras-GAP, has been implicated as both a downregulator and effector of Ras proteins, but its precise role in Ras-mediated signal transduction pathways is unclear. To begin a genetic analysis of the role of p120 Ras-GAP we identified a homolog from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster through its ability to complement the sterility of a Schizosaccharomyces pombe (fission yeast) gap1 mutant strain. Like its mammalian homolog, Drosophila RasGAP stimulated the intrinsic GTPase activity of normal mammalian H-Ras but not that of the oncogenic Val12 mutant. RasGAP was tyrosine phosphorylated in embryos and its Src homology 2 (SH2) domains could bind in vitro to a small number of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins expressed at various developmental stages. Ectopic expression of RasGAP in the wing imaginal disc reduced the size of the adult wing by up to 45% and suppressed ectopic wing vein formation caused by expression of activated forms of Breathless and Heartless, two Drosophila receptor tyrosine kinases of the fibroblast growth factor receptor family. The in vivo effects of RasGAP overexpression required intact SH2 domains, indicating that intracellular localization of RasGAP through SH2-phosphotyrosine interactions is important for its activity. These results show that RasGAP can function as an inhibitor of signaling pathways mediated by Ras and receptor tyrosine kinases in vivo. Genetic interactions, however, suggested a Ras-independent role for RasGAP in the regulation of growth. The system described here should enable genetic screens to be performed to identify regulators and effectors of p120 Ras-GAP.  (+info)

A human sequence homologue of Staufen is an RNA-binding protein that is associated with polysomes and localizes to the rough endoplasmic reticulum. (8/16925)

In the course of a two-hybrid screen with the NS1 protein of influenza virus, a human clone capable of coding for a protein with high homology to the Staufen protein from Drosophila melanogaster (dmStaufen) was identified. With these sequences used as a probe, cDNAs were isolated from a lambda cDNA library. The encoded protein (hStaufen-like) contained four double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-binding domains with 55% similarity and 38% identity to those of dmStaufen, including identity at all residues involved in RNA binding. A recombinant protein containing all dsRNA-binding domains was expressed in Escherichia coli as a His-tagged polypeptide. It showed dsRNA binding activity in vitro, with an apparent Kd of 10(-9) M. Using a specific antibody, we detected in human cells a major form of the hStaufen-like protein with an apparent molecular mass of 60 to 65 kDa. The intracellular localization of hStaufen-like protein was investigated by immunofluorescence using a series of markers for the cell compartments. Colocalization was observed with the rough endoplasmic reticulum but not with endosomes, cytoskeleton, or Golgi apparatus. Furthermore, sedimentation analyses indicated that hStaufen-like protein associates with polysomes. These results are discussed in relation to the possible functions of the protein.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Evolution of the LINE-like I element in the Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup. AU - Sezutsu, Hideki. AU - Nitasaka, Eiji. AU - Yamazaki, Tsuneyuki. PY - 1995/3/1. Y1 - 1995/3/1. N2 - LINE-like retrotransposons, the so-called I elements, control the system of I-R (inducer-reactive) hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. I elements are present in many Drosophila species. It has been suggested that active, complete I elements, located at different sites on the chromosomes, invaded natural populations of D. melanogaster recently (1920-1970). But old strains lacking active I elements have only defective I elements located in the chromocenter. We have cloned I elements from D. melanogaster and the melanogaster subgroup. In D. melanogaster, the nucleotide sequences of chromocentral I elements differed from those on chromosome arms by as much as 7%. All the I elements of D. mauritiana and D. sechellia are more closely related to the chromosomal I elements of D. melanogaster ...
Van Der Straten, A., Johansen, H., Sweet, R., & Rosenberg, M. (1987). Efficient expression of foreign genes in cultured drosophila melanogaster cells using hygromycin B selection. In Y. Kuroda, E. Kurstak, & K. Maramorosch (Eds.), Invertebrate and Fish Tissue Culture: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Invertebrate and Fish Tissue Culture, Japan (pp. 131-134). New York, NY: Springer Verlag ...
Drosophila melanogaster Adult enhancer factor 1 (Aef1) datasheet and description hight quality product and Backed by our Guarantee
Locale, Genomes and Genes, Scientific Experts, Publications, Species, Research Topics about Experts and Doctors on drosophila melanogaster in New York, United States
Abstract: Currently, there are significant gaps in understanding of the regulatory mechanisms involved in nociceptor sensitivity. Dysregulated nociceptor sensitivity is the likely pathogenesis in many types of chronic pain, a disease that ails over 100 million people in the United States alone. To improve current chronic pain therapies, it is essential to define the regulatory mechanisms responsible for nociception. The goal of this study was to characterize how genes classically involved in RNA processing and translation regulate nociceptor sensitivity. The model organism Drosophila melanogaster was used for this study because of their quantifiable response to noxious stimuli and the powerful tools available for genetic manipulations. My results suggest that eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs) and components of the exon junction complex (EJC) control nociceptor sensitivity by regulating RNA processing and translation, suggesting a major role for RNA metabolism and translation in controlling ...
We have used flow visualizations and instantaneous force measurements of tethered fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) to study the dynamics of force generation during flight. During each complete stroke cycle, the flies generate one single vortex loop consisting of vorticity shed during the downstroke and ventral flip. This gross pattern of wake structure in Drosophila is similar to those described for hovering birds and some other insects. The wake structure differed from those previously described, however, in that the vortex filaments shed during ventral stroke reversal did not fuse to complete a circular ring, but rather attached temporarily to the body to complete an inverted heart-shaped vortex loop. The attached ventral filaments of the loop subsequently slide along the length of the body and eventually fuse at the tip of the abdomen. We found no evidence for the shedding of wing-tip vorticity during the upstroke, and argue that this is due to an extreme form of the Wagner effect acting ...
Humanised fruit fly models are transgenic Drosophila melanogaster strains expressing human genes. Specifically, we study the characteristics of fly models expressing human genes involved in neurological disorders such as Alzheimers and Parkinsons Diseases (AD and PD). Interestingly, these Drosophila neurodegenerative disease models show a high degree of conservation in the fundamental biological pathways and in the molecular, genetic and pathophysiological aspects of neurodegenerative human diseases. These characteristics explain why Drosophila models have paved the way for the development of initial fast screening for potential drug candidates in vivo, and represent also a promising tool for biomedical research in neuroscience ...
Author Summary Organisms such as the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster have long been used as model systems to understand complex aspects of human biology. Work on Drosophila antimicrobial immunity has led to identification of mechanisms underlying human innate immunity, such as the use of Toll-like receptors for recognizing antigen and initiating humoral immune responses. Flies and humans are also infected by larger parasites against which they mount immune blood-cell based responses, but the genetic basis for cellular immunity is poorly characterized. In nature, flies are often infected by parasitoid wasps that lay their eggs in fly larvae, inducing a cellular immune response in the flies. Fly blood cells surround the wasp egg and form a tightly connected capsule leading to death of the egg in a process called encapsulation, which is similar to human granuloma formation. In this study we identified eight new genes that are important for encapsulation. These genes are part of the N-glycosylation pathway
Assembly/Alignment/Annotation of 12 related Drosophila species: »Assembly/Alignment/Annotation, LBNL, USA BDGP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Project: »Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project, University of California, Berkeley, USA Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project (BDGP): »BDGP, University of California, Berkeley, USA BDTNP, ChIP/chip in vivo DNA binding data: »Berkeley Drosophila Transcription Network Project, University of California, Berkeley, USA CluSTr protein sequence similarity analysis of Drosophila: »CluSTr proteome analysis, EBI, UK D. pseudoobscura genome project: »Human Genome Sequencing Center, Baylor College of Medicine, USA D. simulans genome project: »Genome Sequencing Center, Washington University, USA D. yakuba genome project: »Genome Sequencing Center, Washington University, USA D.melanogaster UCSC Genome Browser Gateway: »University of California, Santa Cruz, USA DDBJ, the DNA Data Bank of Japan: »DDBJ, National Institute of Genetics, Mishima, Japan DNase I ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The M/SAR elements of the bithorax complex in Drosophila melanogaster. AU - Boykova, T. V.. AU - Orlando, V.. AU - Lupo, R.. AU - Bogachev, S. S.. PY - 2005/11. Y1 - 2005/11. N2 - The bithorax (BX) complex of Drosophila is a complex polygenic region with a multifactorial system of regulation. One of the levels of the regulatory system of the BX complex is its association with the nuclear skeleton structures through a specific interaction of the M/SAR DNA with the nuclear matrix proteins. In the present work, M/SAR elements were mapped on the molecular-genetic map of the region. All of the elements examined were found to colocalize with regulatory elements and form clusters that restrict/bracket the genetically active domains. All M/SAR DNA revealed was shown to bins specifically to the purified Drosophila melanogaster lamin.. AB - The bithorax (BX) complex of Drosophila is a complex polygenic region with a multifactorial system of regulation. One of the levels of the regulatory ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Biochemical phylogeny of the eight species in the Drosophila melanogaster subgroup, including D. sechellia and D. orena. by M L Cariou
Calcium signaling are conserved from invertebrates to vertebrates and plays critical roles in many molecular mechanisms of embryogenesis and postnatal development. As a critical component of the signaling pathway, the RyR medicated calcium-induced calcium release signaling system, has been well studied along with their regulator FK506-binding protein 12 (FKBP12/Calstabin). Lack of FKBP12 is known to result in lethal cardiac dysfunction in mouse. However, precisely how FKBP12 is regulated and effects calcium signaling in Drosophila melanogaster remains largely unknown. In this study, we identified both temporal and localization changes in expression of DmFKBP12, a translational and transcriptional regulator of Drosophila RyR (DmRyR) and FKBP12, through embryonic development. DmFKBP12 is first expressed at the syncytial blastoderm stage and undergoes increased expression during the cellular blastoderm and early gastrulation stages. At late gastrulation, DmFKBP12 expression begins to decline until it
Background. The calcium-imaging technique allows us to record movies of brain activity in the antennal lobe of the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster, a brain compartment dedicated to information about odors. Signal processing, e.g. with source separation techniques, can be slow on the large movie datasets.,br /,Method. We have developed an approximate Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for fast dimensionality reduction. The method samples relevant pixels from the movies, such that PCA can be performed on a smaller matrix. Utilising a priori knowledge about the nature of the data, we minimise the risk of missing important pixels.,br /,Results. Our method allows for fast approximate computation of PCA with adaptive resolution and running time. Utilising a priori knowledge about the data enables us to concentrate more biological signals in a small pixel sample than a general sampling method based on vector norms.,br /,Conclusions. Fast dimensionality reduction with approximate PCA removes a ...
1. The optomotor control of orientation and locomotion in the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster requires the conveyance of information from distinct movement detectors in the visual system to distinct movement effectors in the motor system. Abnormalities of the optomotor control system have been found occasionally in Drosophila.. 2. The abnormal flies can be isolated from population samples by appropriate fractionation according to the magnitude and the sign of the optomotor responses. A cyclically operating machine was used to fractionate two inbred strains, w+ and wα, which possess different alleles on the white-locus of their X-chromosomes.. 3. Movements of an artificial visual environment elicit similar orientation-control responses, but antagonistic locomotion-control responses in the two strains. The responses depend on various parameters and may even change with habituation to the stimulus. However, the application of selection pressure through eight generations has little if any effect ...
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P-13. Transcription Profiling of Cell Death in Drosophila Melanogaster. S. Chittaranjan, E. Garland, D. Freeman, S. Jones, M. Marra, and S. Gorski, Genome Sequence Centre BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, CANADA. Programmed Cell death - PCD - is a highly conserved and genetically controlled event that plays important roles in animal development, homeostasis and disease. We are employing a genomics approach, using EST and SAGE, to identify new PCD genes that are transciptionally regulated in the salivary glands - SGs - of Drosophila. We constructed a SG-specific cDNA library and SG-miniSAGE libraries from three consecutive developmental stages leading up to PCD.5461 high quality 3 ESTs from our SG cDNA library were used to perform BLAST analysis against Drosophila predicted genes and genomic sequence from the Drosophila Genome Project. The majority of the ESTs matched known or predicted genes in Drosophila including a number of ecdysone-induced genes and known PCD genes. We also identified a ...
... - geotaxis (Hi5) strains of Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) differ in Keywords: gene-pleiotropy; Drosophila; geotaxis; circadian; cry; Pdf; tau. During
Drosophila Melanogaster, the common fruit fly, is a model organism which has been extensively used in entymological research. It is one of the most studied organisms in biological research, particularly in genetics and developmental biology. When its not being used for scientific research, D. melanogaster is a common pest in homes, restaurants, and anywhere else that serves food. They are not to be confused with Tephritidae flys (also known as fruit flys). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drosophila_melanogaster
Satellite DNA can make up a substantial fraction of eukaryotic genomes and has roles in genome structure and chromosome segregation. The rapid evolution of satellite DNA can contribute to genomic instability and genetic incompatibilities between species. Despite its ubiquity and its contribution to genome evolution, we currently know little about the dynamics of satellite DNA evolution. The Responder (Rsp) satellite DNA family is found in the pericentric heterochromatin of chromosome 2 of Drosophila melanogaster. Rsp is well-known for being the target of Segregation Distorter (SD) an autosomal meiotic drive system in D. melanogaster. I present an evolutionary genetic analysis of the Rsp family of repeats in D. melanogaster and its closely-related species in the melanogaster group (D. simulans, D. sechellia, D. mauritiana, D. erecta, and D. yakuba) using a combination of available BAC sequences, whole genome shotgun Sanger reads, Illumina short read deep sequencing, and fluorescence in situ hybridization
Insects possess a rhythmically active tubular heart that shows remarkable similarity to the mammalian heart despite differing in gross structure. Studies in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, have demonstrated remarkable molecular and developmental similarities between the two. Key genes in heart development are homologous between insects and mammals (e.g. tinman), as are key components of cardiac myocyte physiology, including ion channels, pumps and exchangers.. Consequently, studies of the Drosophila heart can provide invaluable insights into the functioning of the mammalian hearts but little of this potential has been realised. Investigations of the Drosophila heart have focussed almost exclusively on the output of the larval heart measured through the electrocardiogram (ECG), ignoring the cellular level. Yet, heart cells are capable of showing substantial plasticity and redundancy so knowing the overall output is insufficient to characterise the impact of changes in molecular networks ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The relation between recombination rate and patterns of molecular evolution and variation in Drosophila melanogaster. AU - Campos, José L. AU - Halligan, Daniel L. AU - Haddrill, Penelope R. AU - Charlesworth, Brian. PY - 2014/4. Y1 - 2014/4. N2 - Genetic recombination associated with sexual reproduction increases the efficiency of natural selection by reducing the strength of Hill-Robertson interference. Such interference can be caused either by selective sweeps of positively selected alleles or by background selection (BGS) against deleterious mutations. Its consequences can be studied by comparing patterns of molecular evolution and variation in genomic regions with different rates of crossing over. We carried out a comprehensive study of the benefits of recombination in Drosophila melanogaster, both by contrasting five independent genomic regions that lack crossing over with the rest of the genome and by comparing regions with different rates of crossing over, using data on ...
Monoclonal antibodies were prepared against a 46,000 mol wt major cytoplasmic protein from Drosophila melanogaster Kc cells. These antibodies reacted with the 46,000 and a 40,000 mol wt protein from Kc cells. Some antibodies showed cross-reaction with 55,000 (vimentin) and 52,000 mol wt (desmin) proteins from baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells that form intermediate sized filaments in vertebrate cells. In indirect immunofluorescence, the group of cross reacting antibodies stained a filamentous meshwork in the cytoplasm of vertebrate cells. In Kc cells the fluorescence seemed to be localized in a filamentous meshwork that became more obvious after the cells had flattened out on a surface. These cytoskeletal structures are heat-labile; the proteins in Kc or BHK cells rearrange after a brief heat shock, forming juxtanuclear cap structures.
Dimitris J. Panagopoulos, (2012): Gametogénesis, desarrollo embrionario y post-embrionario de Drosophila melanogaster, como un sistema modelo para la Evaluación de la Radiación y Genotoxicidad ambiental, en M. Spindler-Barth (Ed), Drosophila melanogaster : Ciclo de la Vida, Genética y Desarrollo, Nova Science Publishers, Nueva York, EE.UU.. Los experimentos Drosophila de Panagopoulos et al (2007: Muerte celular inducida por GSM 900 MHz y DCS 1800MHz radiación de telefonía móvil, Mutation Research, 626, 69 - 78.) fueron los primeros en mostrar daño en el ADN después de la exposición en vivo a la radiación del teléfono móvil GSM verdadero sólo unos pocos minutos al día durante unos días. Estos experimentos mostraron que la radiación GSM es aún más genotóxico que previamente arrojaron factores genotóxicos como los productos químicos, la privación de alimentos, y el calor. También explicaron la gran disminución de la reproducción (hasta 60%) del mismo animal ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Quantifying interactions within the NADP(H) enzyme network in Drosophila melanogaster. AU - Merritt, Thomas J S. AU - Kuczynski, Caitlin. AU - Sezgin, Efe. AU - Zhu, Chen Tseh. AU - Kumagai, Seiji. AU - Eanes, Walter F.. PY - 2009/6. Y1 - 2009/6. N2 - In this report, we use synthetic, activity-variant alleles in Drosophila melanogaster to quantify interactions across the enzyme network that reduces nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) to NADPH. We examine the effects of large-scale variation in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) or glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity in a single genetic background and of smaller-scale variation in IDH, G6PD, and malic enzyme across 10 different genetic backgrounds. We find significant interactions among all three enzymes in adults; changes in the activity of any one source of a reduced cofactor generally result in changes in the other two, although the magnitude and directionality of change differs depending on the gene ...
Several pH-dependent low-spin ferric haem forms are identified in a frozen solution of the ferric 121CysSer mutant of Drosophila melanogaster haemoglobin (DmHb1*) using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques. Different forms with EPR parameters typical of bis-histidine coordinated haem iron centers were observed. Strong pH-dependent changes in the EPR signatures were observed related to changes in the haem pocket. The pulsed EPR data indicate that both the distal and proximal histidine exhibit a large libration around the FeNHis axis. The resonance Raman spectra of the CO-ligated ferrous form of Drosophila melanogaster haemoglobin are typical of an open conformation, with little stabilization of the CO ligand by the surrounding amino-acid residues. The EPR data of the cyanide-ligated ferric DmHb1* indicates a close similarity with cyanide-ligated ferric myoglobin. The structural characteristics of DmHb1* are found to clearly differ from those of other bis-histidine-coordinated globins. ...
Precise estimates of costs and benefits, the fitness economics, of mating are of key importance in understanding how selection shapes the coevolution of male and female mating traits. However, fitness is difficult to define and quantify. Here, we used a novel application of an established analytical technique to calculate individual- and population-based estimates of fitness-including those sensitive to the timing of reproduction-to measure the effects on females of increased exposure to males. Drosophila melanogaster females were exposed to high and low frequencies of contact with males, and life-history traits for each individual female were recorded. We then compared different fitness estimates to determine which of them best described the changes in life histories. We predicted that rate-sensitive estimates would be more accurate, as mating influences the rate of offspring production in this species. The results supported this prediction. Increased exposure to males led to significantly ...
Met N-vinylpyrrolidon-(2) of 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidon is geen mutagene werking gevonden met Klebsiella pneumoniae bij 5 ml/l of minder. Met Salmonella typhimurium TA 100 is geen mutagene werking gevonden bij 10 mul of minder per selectieplaat en evenmin met Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 bij 50 mul of minder per selectieplaat. Het onderzoek met beide Salmonella stammen is zowel met als zonder metabolische activering verricht. Met Drosophila melanogaster is met N-vinylpyrrolidon-2 (injectie van 0,2 mul van een 75 of 50 mmol/l oplossing) geen mutagene werking gevonden. Met L5178Y muize-lymfoomcellen is bij 8 mul/ml of minder zonder metabolische activering en bij 6 mul/ml met metabolische activering geen mutagene werking gevonden. Bij hogere concentraties dan de bovengenoemde heeft N-vinylpyrrolidon een groeiremmende werking op microorganismen of een toxische werking bij Drosophila melanogaster en muize-lymfoomcellen. N-vinylpyrrolidon is een stof die negatief is in testen voor genmutaties.,br ...
Definition of Drosophila melanogaster with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
Motivation: The highly coordinated expression of thousands of genes in an organism is regulated by the concerted action of transcription factors, chromatin proteins and epigenetic mechanisms. High-throughput experimental data for genome wide in vivo protein-DNA interactions and epigenetic marks are becoming available from large projects, such as the model organism ENCyclopedia Of DNA Elements (modENCODE) and from individual labs. Dissemination and visualization of these datasets in an explorable form is an important challenge.. Results: To support research on Drosophila melanogaster transcription regulation and make the genome wide in vivo protein-DNA interactions data available to the scientific community as a whole, we have developed a system called Flynet. Currently, Flynet contains 101 datasets for 38 transcription factors and chromatin regulator proteins in different experimental conditions. These factors exhibit different types of binding profiles ranging from sharp localized peaks to ...
The neurogenic genes of Drosophila melanogaster are involved in the decision of ectodermal cells to take on a neural or an epidermal fate. We present evidence in support of the notion that six of the neurogenic genes are functionally related. We studied the phenotype of embryos lacking one of the neurogenic genes in the presence of an increased dosage of the wild-type allele of another neurogenic gene. Our analysis also included the Hairless locus, whose function is related to that of the neurogenic genes, as well as to many other genes. The effects observed were asymmetric in that triploidy for a given gene modified the phenotype of loss of the function of another gene, but triploidy of the latter gene did not modify the phenotype of loss of the function of the former gene. These asymmetries allowed us to establish a polarity of gene interactions, as well as to order the genes according to the assumed ability of some of them to modify the activity of others. In this sequence, almondex is the ...
Drosophila melanogaster often shows correlations between latitude and phenotypic or genetic variation on different continents, which suggests local adaptation with respect to a heterogeneous environment. Previous phenotypic analyses of latitudinal clines have investigated mainly physiological, morphological, or life-history traits. Here, we studied latitudinal variation in sleep in D. melanogaster populations from North and Central America. In parallel, we used RNA-seq to identify interpopulation gene expression differences. We found that in D. melanogaster the average nighttime sleep bout duration exhibits a latitudinal cline such that sleep bouts of equatorial populations are roughly twice as long as those of temperate populations. Interestingly, this pattern of latitudinal variation is not observed for any daytime measure of activity or sleep. We also found evidence for geographic variation for sunrise anticipation. Our RNA-seq experiment carried out on heads from a low and high
The goals of the Drosophila Genome Center are to finish the sequence of the euchromatic genome of Drosophila melanogaster to high quality and to generate and maintain biological annotations of this sequence. In addition to genomic sequencing, the BDGP is 1) producing gene disruptions using P element-mediated mutagenesis on a scale unprecedented in metazoans; 2) characterizing the sequence and expression of cDNAs; and 3) developing informatics tools that support the experimental process, identify features of DNA sequence, and allow us to present up-to-date information about the annotated sequence to the research community. [Information of the supplier ...
Protocol for performing ATAC-seq on nuclei isolated from Drosophila melanogaster stage 5 embryos that were flash frozen and then cut in half along the anterior-posterior midline....
We describe a collection of P-element insertions that have considerable utility for generating custom chromosomal aberrations in Drosophila melanogaster. We have mobilized a pair of engineered P elements, p[RS3] and p[RS5], to collect 3243 lines unambiguously mapped to the Drosophila genome sequence. The collection contains, on average, an element every 35 kb. We demonstrate the utility of the collection for generating custom chromosomal deletions that have their end points mapped, with base-pair resolution, to the genome sequence. The collection was generated in an isogenic strain, thus affording a uniform background for screens where sensitivity to genetic background is high. The entire collection, along with a computational and genetic toolbox for designing and generating custom deletions, is publicly available. Using the collection it is theoretically possible to generate ,12,000 deletions between 1 bp and 1 Mb in size by simple eye color selection. In addition, a further 37,000 deletions, ...
A pair of muscles span the fifth abdominal segment of male but not female Drosophila melanogaster adults. To establish whether genes involved in the development of other sexually dimorphic tissues controlled the differentiation of sex-specific muscles, flies mutant for five known sex-determining genes were examined for the occurrence of male-specific abdominal muscles. Female flies mutant for alleles of Sex-lethal, defective in sex determination, or null alleles of transformer or transformer-2 are converted into phenotypic males that formed male-specific abdominal muscles. Both male and female flies, when mutant for null alleles of doublesex, develop as nearly identical intersexes in other somatic characteristics. Male doublesex flies produced the male-specific muscles, whereas female doublesex flies lacked them. Female flies, even when they inappropriately expressed the male-specific form of doublesex mRNA, failed to produce the male-specific muscles. Therefore, the wild-type products of the ...
Author Summary Environmental conditions can strongly modulate the phenotype produced by a particular genotype. This process, called phenotypic plasticity, has major implications in medicine and agricultural sciences, and is thought to facilitate evolution. Phenotypic plasticity is observed in many animals and plants but its mechanisms are only partially understood. As a model of phenotypic plasticity, we study the effect of temperature on female abdominal pigmentation in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Here we show that temperature affects female abdominal pigmentation by modulating the expression of tan (t), a gene involved in melanin production, in female abdominal epidermis. This effect is mediated at least partly by a particular regulatory sequence of t, the t_MSE enhancer. However we detected no modulation of chromatin structure of t_MSE by temperature. By contrast, the level of the active chromatin mark H3K4me3 on the t promoter is strongly increased at lower temperature. We show that the
We are interested in the relationship between cellular lipid metabolism and organismal aging. To mechanistically understand this relationship, we utilize the model organism Drosophila melanogaster (the fruit fly).. Recent studies revealed a connection between the fruit fly gene snazurus (SNZ) and fly lifespan (Suh, PLOS One, 2008). Snazurus, the fly homolog of yeast protein Mdm1, is highly expressed in the fly fat body, the insect hub for lipid metabolism analogous to the mammalian liver adipose tissue.. We are currently focused on understanding the role(s) of SNZ in fly metabolism and lifespan extension.. ...
Under optimal growth conditions at 25 °C (77 °F), the D. melanogaster lifespan is about 50 days from egg to death.[10] The developmental period for D. melanogaster varies with temperature, as with many ectothermic species. The shortest development time (egg to adult), 7 days, is achieved at 28 °C (82 °F).[11][12] Development times increase at higher temperatures (11 days at 30 °C or 86 °F) due to heat stress. Under ideal conditions, the development time at 25 °C (77 °F) is 8.5 days,[11][12][13] at 18 °C (64 °F) it takes 19 days[11][12] and at 12 °C (54 °F) it takes over 50 days.[11][12] Under crowded conditions, development time increases,[14] while the emerging flies are smaller.[14][15] Females lay some 400 eggs (embryos), about five at a time, into rotting fruit or other suitable material such as decaying mushrooms and sap fluxes. Drosophila melanogaster is a holometabolous insect, so it undergoes a full metamorphosis. Their life cycle is broken down into 4 stages: embryo, larva, ...
A second chromosome line of Drosophila melanogaster (Symbol: T-007) has previously been shown to be responsible for the induction of male recombination. In the present investigation, the genetic elements responsible for this phenomenon have been partially identified and mapped. A major element (Symbol: Mr, for M ale recombination) locates on the second chromosome between the pr (2L-54.4) and c (2R-75.5) loci and is responsible for the large majority of male recombination. In addition, there appear to be "secondary elements" present which have the ability to induce male recombination in much reduced frequencies and which are diluted out through successive backcross generations when Mr is removed by recombination. The possible nature of these "secondary elements" is discussed.. ...
Attractiveness is a major component of sexual selection that is dependent on sexual characteristics, such as pheromone production, which often reflect an individuals fitness and reproductive potential. Aging is a process that results in a steady decline in survival and reproductive output, yet little is known about its effect on specific aspects of attractiveness. In this report we asked how aging impacts pheromone production and sexual attractiveness in Drosophila melanogaster. Evidence suggests that key pheromones in Drosophila are produced as cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC), whose functions in attracting mates and influencing behavior have been widely studied. We employed gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry to show that the composition of D. melanogaster CHC is significantly affected by aging in both sexes and that these changes are robust to different genetic backgrounds. Aging affected the relative levels of many individual CHC, and it ...
The long-term goal of our laboratory is to understand how the cell-cycle events of meiosis are coordinated with the developmental events of gametogenesis. Chromosome mis-segregation during female meiosis is the leading cause of miscarriages and birth defects in humans. Recent evidence suggests that many meiotic errors occur downstream of defects in oocyte growth and/or the hormonal signaling pathways that drive differentiation of the oocyte. Thus, an understanding of how meiotic progression and gamete differentiation are coordinated during oogenesis is essential to studies in both reproductive biology and medicine. We use the genetically tractable model organism Drosophila melanogaster to examine how meiotic progression is both coordinated with and instructed by the developmental program of the egg.. In mammals, studies on the early stages of oogenesis face serious technical challenges in that entry into the meiotic cycle, meiotic recombination, and the initiation of the highly conserved ...
Transcriptome analysis may provide means to investigate the underlying genetic causes of shared and divergent phenotypes in different populations and help to identify potential targets of adaptive evolution. Applying RNA sequencing to whole male Drosophila melanogaster from the ancestral tropical African environment and a very recently colonized cold-temperate European environment at both standard laboratory conditions and following a cold shock, we seek to uncover the transcriptional basis of cold adaptation. In both the ancestral and the derived populations, the predominant characteristic of the cold shock response is the swift and massive upregulation of heat shock proteins and other chaperones. Although we find ~25 % of the genome to be differentially expressed following a cold shock, only relatively few genes (n = 16) are up- or down-regulated in a population-specific way. Intriguingly, 14 of these 16 genes show a greater degree of differential expression in the African population. Likewise, there
FlyAtlas, a new online resource, provides the most comprehensive view yet of expression in multiple tissues of Drosophila melanogaster. Meta-analysis of the data shows that a significant fraction of the genome is expressed with great tissue specificity in the adult, demonstrating the need for the fu …
The fly Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most intensively studied organisms in biology and serves as a model system for the investigation of many developmental and cellular processes common to higher eukaryotes, including humans. We have determined the nucleotide sequence of nearly all of the {approximately}120-megabase euchromatic portion of the Drosophila genome using a whole-genome shotgun sequencing strategy supported by extensive clone-based sequence and a high-quality bacterial artificial chromosome physical map. Efforts are under way to close the remaining gaps; however, the sequence is of sufficient accuracy and contiguity to be declared substantially complete and to support an initial analysis of genome structure and preliminary gene annotation and interpretation. The genome encodes {approximately}13,600 genes, somewhat fewer than the smaller Caenorhabditis elegans genome, but with comparable functional diversity. ...
The susceptibility of Drosophila melanogaster to carbofuran and the use of this organism in biomonitoring residues of the insecticide in cabbage was evaluated. Under the conditions of the bioassay, residues-film bioassay in Petri dish, carbofuran degraded depending on the temperature and time of exposure. Bioassays conducted with D. melanogaster showed that its toxicity increases with temperature (20 to 35 °C). LC50 values, calculated as a function of temperature, ranged from 3.6 to 10.5 mg/g body weight (bw) for males and from 2.9 to 8.7 mg/g bw for females. The formulated product Furadan® G was applied on cabbage (Brassica oleracea, var. capitata) and the residues of carbofuran were determined by bioassay. The determination limit of the bioassay was 0.1 mg/kg and the method presented reproducibility with coefficient variation of 17 %. The validation of the bioassay by high performance liquid chromatography confirms the viability of the bioassay with D. melanogaster in monitoring the residues ...
Spatiotemporal gene expression is the activation of genes within specific tissues of an organism at specific times during development. Gene activation patterns vary widely in complexity. Some are straightforward and static, such as the pattern of tubulin, which is expressed in all cells at all times in life. Some, on the other hand, are extraordinarily intricate and difficult to predict and model, with expression fluctuating wildly from minute to minute or from cell to cell. Spatiotemporal variation plays a key role in generating the diversity of cell types found in developed organisms; since the identity of a cell is specified by the collection of genes actively expressed within that cell, if gene expression was uniform spatially and temporally, there could be at most one kind of cell. Consider the gene wingless, a member of the wnt family of genes. In the early embryonic development of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, or fruit fly, wingless is expressed across almost the entire ...
Gametogenesis and early embryogenesis in many animal species often occur in the context of little or no new transcription. Instead, they rely on the translation of preexisting mRNAs that had been synthesized and stockpiled earlier in gametogenesis. Translation of these mRNAs must be repressed during their synthesis and deposition, and then be activated later. One mechanism to regulate the translation of maternal mRNAs is to control the length of their 3 poly(A) tails through cytoplasmic polyadenylation. Studies in C. elegans identified a cytoplasmic poly(A) polymerase (PAP) GLD-2 that, in complex with an RNA-binding protein GLD-3, extends poly(A) tails of stored maternal mRNAs during oogenesis. Here, I identified the two GLD-2 cytoplasmic PAPs in Drosophila melanogaster. Using yeast two-hybrid assays I showed that both can interact with the Drosophila GLD-3 (Bic-C). I showed that one Drosophila GLD-2 PAP is expressed in the female germline, and the other in testes. I focused my subsequent ...
Studies on genetic variation can reveal effects on traits and disease, both in humans and in model organisms. Good technology for the analysis of DNA sequence variations is critical. Currently the development towards assays for large-scale and parallel DNA sequencing and genotyping is progressing rapidly. Single base primer extension (SBE) is a robust reaction principle based on four-colour fluorescent terminating nucleotides to interrogate all four DNA nucleotides in a single reaction. In this thesis, SBE methods were applied to the analysis and discovery of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster and in humans.. The tag-array minisequencing system in a microarray format is convenient for intermediate sized genotyping projects. The system is scalable and flexible to adapt to specialized and novel applications. In Study I of the thesis a tool was established to automate quality control of clustered genotype data. By calculating "Silhouette scores", the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sexual dimorphism in the nutritional requirement for adult lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster. AU - Wu, Qi. AU - Yu, Guixiang. AU - Cheng, Xingyi. AU - Gao, Yue. AU - Fan, Xiaolan. AU - Yang, Deying. AU - Xie, Meng. AU - Wang, Tao. AU - Piper, Matthew D.W.. AU - Yang, Mingyao. PY - 2020/3. Y1 - 2020/3. N2 - The nutritional requirements of Drosophila have mostly been studied for development and reproduction, but the minimal requirements for adult male and female flies for lifespan have not been established. Following development on a complete diet, we find substantial sex difference in the basic nutritional requirement of adult flies for full length of life. Relative to females, males require less of each nutrient, and for some nutrients that are essential for development, adult males have no requirement at all for lifespan. The most extreme (and surprising) sex differences were that chronic cholesterol and vitamin deficiencies had no effect on the lifespan of adult males, but ...
Main article: Drosophila embryogenesis. Drosophila melanogaster, a fruit fly, is a model organism in biology on which much ... Drosophila melanogaster larvae contained in lab apparatus to be used for experiments in genetics and embryology ... Evidence available to date, primarily from the study of Drosophila melanogaster, indicates that homeotic genes act to control ... "Genetic and Cytological Examination of the Phenomena of Primary Non-Disjunction in Drosophila melanogaster". Genetics. 5 (5): ...
Drosophila melanogaster. Harmful. insects. Crop pests. *Aphid. *Boll weevil. *Colorado potato beetle ...
Drosophila melanogaster. Harmful. insects. Crop pests. *Aphid. *Boll weevil. *Colorado potato beetle ...
Drosophila melanogaster. Harmful. insects. Crop pests. *Aphid. *Boll weevil. *Colorado potato beetle ...
The ease of culturing houseflies, and the relative ease of handling them when compared to the fruit fly Drosophila, have made ...
Drosophila melanogaster. Harmful. insects. Crop pests. *Aphid. *Boll weevil. *Colorado potato beetle ...
Drosophila melanogaster. Harmful. insects. Crop pests. *Aphid. *Boll weevil. *Colorado potato beetle ...
Drosophila melanogaster. Harmful. insects. Crop pests. *Aphid. *Boll weevil. *Colorado potato beetle ...
Fruit fly: Drosophila melanogaster.[39] Good embryo supply. Well developed genetics.. *Nematode: Caenorhabditis elegans.[40] ... St Johnston D (2002). "The art and design of genetic screens: Drosophila melanogaster". Nat Rev Genet. 3 (3): 176-188. doi: ... In Bate and Martinez-Arias (eds.), The Development of Drosophila melanogaster, Cold Spring Harbor Press ... which generate the adult body parts of the fly Drosophila melanogaster.[26][27] ...
Drosophila melanogaster. Harmful. insects. Crop pests. *Aphid. *Boll weevil. *Colorado potato beetle ...
Drosophila melanogaster) 8 6 autosomal and 2 allosomic (sex) [13] Macrostomum lignano. (Macrostomum lignano) 8 [14] ... "Drosophila Genome Project". National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved 2009-04-14.. ...
Метод доминантных летальных мутаций у Drosophila melanogaster. Примечания[править , править код]. *↑ List of sequenced animal ... Основная статья: Drosophila melanogaster. Небольшие размеры, короткий жизненный цикл и простота культивирования позволили ... Дрозофила фруктовая (Drosophila melanogaster) - наиболее важный для научных исследований вид дрозофил. Широко используется в ... Дрозофи́лы (лат. Drosophila от др.-греч. δρόσος - роса, влага + φιλέω - любить) - плодовые мухи, род мелких насекомых семейства ...
... the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster,[48] the zebrafish Danio rerio,[49] the mouse Mus musculus,[50] and the weed Arabidopsis ... "Drosophila melanogaster: The Fruit Fly". In Reeve, Eric C. R. Encyclopedia of genetics. USA: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, I. p ...
Fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) pupa *. An emperor gum moth caterpillar spinning its cocoon ...
Huber, R; Hill, SL; Holladay, C; Biesiadecki, M; Tononi, G; Cirelli, C (2005). "Sleep Homeostasis in Drosophila Melanogaster ...
... levels in Drosophila melanogaster are nearly undetectable.[65] Sensitive methods applied to Drosophila DNA ... Lyko F, Ramsahoye BH, Jaenisch R (November 2000). "DNA methylation in Drosophila melanogaster". Nature. 408 (6812): 538-40. doi ... "Cytosine DNA methylation is found in Drosophila melanogaster but absent in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe ... Smith SS, Thomas CA (May 1981). "The two-dimensional restriction analysis of Drosophila DNAs: males and females". Gene. 13 (4 ...
Drosophila melanogaster. 黑腹果蠅 180,000,000 13,350 Oryza sativa. 亞洲稻 466,000,000 45,000-55,000 ...
黑腹果蠅也稱黑尾果蠅(學名:Drosophila melanogaster),是被人類研究得最徹底的生物之一,為模式生物。從查爾斯·伍德沃斯(英語:Charles W. Woodworth)(Charles W. Woodworth)關於利用該物種作為模 ... Drosophila melanogaster: The Fruit Fly. (編) Eric C. R. Reeve. Encyclopedia of genetics. USA: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, I: ... 布克斯在他2002年出版的書Drosophila裡寫道。科學家用果蠅進
Analyse eines Mosaikindividuums bei Drosophila melanogaster. Bio. Zentr. 51, 194-199. *^ Stern C. 1936. "Somatic crossing-over ... FRT sites have been inserted transgenically near the centromere of each chromosome arm of Drosophila melanogaster. The FLP gene ... "The site of function of the Y chromosome in Drosophila melanogaster males". Molecular and. General Genetics. 165: 221. doi: ... In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, where a fly possessing two X chromosomes is a female and a fly possessing a single X ...
Other strains (for example P. burhodogranariea and P. sneebia) are found in the haemolymph of Drosophila melanogaster fruit ... nov., isolated from wild Drosophila melanogaster". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 59 (Pt 5 ...
nov., isolated from wild Drosophila melanogaster". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 59 (Pt 5 ... nov., isolated from wild Drosophila melanogaster". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 59 (Pt 5 ... Many strains have been isolated from the haemolymph of Drosophila melanogaster fruit flies. These strains display different ... "Convergent Balancing Selection on an Antimicrobial Peptide in Drosophila". Current Biology. 26 (2): 257-262. doi:10.1016/j.cub ...
Drosophila melanogaster, plants, fungi, bacteria,[4][5] and presumably also in Archaea.[6][7][8] ... "Clock mutants of Drosophila melanogaster" (PDF). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ... locus in Drosophila melanogaster from forward genetic screens completed by Ron Konopka and Seymour Benzer in 1971.[11] Through ... In D. melanogaster, the gene cycle (CYC) is the orthologue of BMAL1 in mammals. Thus, CLOCK-CYC dimers activate the ...
Hubby, J. L. Protein Differences in Drosophila. I. Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1963, 48 (6): 871-879. PMC 1210521. PMID ... 不同物種帶有不同數量的基因,以不同的模式散布在其基因體內。有些物種,如大多數細菌、Drosophila屬果蠅、擬南芥的基因體特別緊湊,非編碼DNA較少。相較之下,哺乳動物和玉米的基因體則有
2000). "The genome sequence of Drosophila melanogaster". Science. 287 (5461): 2185-95. Bibcode:2000Sci...287.2185.. CiteSeerX ... and together with the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster genome in 2000,[16] Gerald M. Rubin and his team published a paper ... titled "Comparative Genomics of the Eukaryotes", in which they compared the genomes of the eukaryotes D. melanogaster, C. ...
Campos-Ortega, J. A. (1993). "Mechanisms of early neurogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster". Journal of Neurobiology. 24 (10): ... a member of the achaete-scute complex of Drosophila melanogaster, and its novel role in optic lobe development". The EMBO ... temperature-sensitive maternal effect of the daughterless mutation of Drosophila melanogaster". Genetics. 84 (4): 723-42. PMC ... For instance, in Drosophila, atonal (ato) can promote the development of chordotonal organs, for the receptors of olfactory ...
Why "Flyguy649"? Although I have an interest in aviation, "Fly" refers to the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. I used be a ...
Wikispecies has information related to Drosophila melanogaster. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Drosophila melanogaster. ... Scholia has a topic profile for Drosophila melanogaster.. *. "A quick and simple introduction to Drosophila melanogaster". ... "Bloomington Drosophila Stock Center" - collects, maintains and distributes Drosophila melanogaster strains for research ... "Drosophila Virtual Library.. *"Drosophila Genomics Resource Center" - collects, maintains and distributes Drosophila DNA clones ...
Clock Mutants of Drosophila melanogaster. Ronald J. Konopka and Seymour Benzer. PNAS September 1, 1971 68 (9) 2112-2116; https ... Central Regulation of Locomotor Behavior of Drosophila melanogaster Depends on a CASK Isoform Containing CaMK-Like and L27 ... Selection on the timing of adult emergence results in altered circadian clocks in fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster ... Comparative Analysis of Pdf-Mediated Circadian Behaviors Between Drosophila melanogaster and D. virilis ...
Clock Mutants of Drosophila melanogaster. Ronald J. Konopka and Seymour Benzer. PNAS September 1, 1971 68 (9) 2112-2116; https ...
... Anima80 anima80 at aol.com Tue Oct 6 23:46:23 EST 1998 *Previous message: Local Hop and IPCR ...
Drosophila melanogaster DGRP-849. BioProject. PRJNA36679 Drosophila melanogaster strain:mixed. Retrieve all samples from this ... Drosophila; Sophophora; melanogaster group; melanogaster subgroup. Attributes. strain. DGRP-849 ... Generic sample from Drosophila melanogaster. Identifiers. BioSample: SAMN01057325; Sample name: 849; SRA: SRS346742. Organism. ... Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly). cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Opisthokonta; Metazoa; Eumetazoa; Bilateria; Protostomia; ...
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Schultz, J., 1929, The Minute reaction in the development of Drosophila melanogaster, Genetics, 14: 366.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Procunier, J.D., and Tartof, K., 1975, Genetic analysis of the 5S RNA genes in Drosophila melanogaster, Genetics, 81: 515. ... Dunn, R.J., 1977, Studies on transfer RNA and transfer RNA genes in Drosophila melanogaster, Ph.D. Thesis, The University of ... Duttagupta A.K., Shellenbarger D.L. (1980) Genetics of Minute Locus in Drosophila Melanogaster. In: Siddiqi O., Babu P., Hall L ...
Phosphoproteome analysis of Drosophila melanogaster embryos.. Zhai B1, Villén J, Beausoleil SA, Mintseris J, Gygi SP. ... A) The 0-24 h old D. melanogaster w118 embryos were lysed and directly digested with trypsin. Tryptic peptides were desalted ... Yorkie (Yki) is hyperphosphorylated in Drosophila embryos. The arrows in the figure represent what is known about the pathway ... B) MS/MS spectra from 24 analyses (duplicates for each sample) were searched against a composite target-decoy Drosophila ...
Triacylglycerol Metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster. View ORCID ProfileChristoph Heier and View ORCID ProfileRonald P. ... Triacylglycerol Metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster. View ORCID ProfileChristoph Heier and View ORCID ProfileRonald P. ... Triacylglycerol Metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster. View ORCID ProfileChristoph Heier and View ORCID ProfileRonald P. ... Here, we review the metabolism of TAG in the Drosophila model system. Recently, the fruit fly has attracted renewed attention ...
Barcode data: Drosophila melanogaster. The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available ...
Billeter J-C, Levine JD (2013) Who is he and what is he to you? Recognition in Drosophila melanogaster. Curr Opin Neurobiol 23: ... Liu H, Kubli E (2003) Sex-peptide is the molecular basis of the sperm effect in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA ... Antony C, Jallon J-M (1982) The chemical basis for sex recognition in Drosophila melanogaster. J Insect Physiol 28:873-880 ... Chapman T, Liddle LF, Kalb JM et al (1995) Cost of mating in Drosophila melanogaster females is mediated by male accessory ...
... Salah-Eddin A. Araj,1 Nida M. Salem,1 Ihab ... and adults of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Nanoparticles of silver and sulfur were synthesized through reducing, ... melanogaster. Results showed that silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were highly effective on larvae, pupae, and adults mortality ...
... Salah-Eddin A. Araj,1 Nida M. Salem,1 Ihab ... on Drosophila melanogaster," Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 45, no. 11, pp. 4974-4979, 2011. View at Publisher · View ... X. Liu, D. Vinson, D. Abt, R. H. Hurt, and D. M. Rand, "Differential toxicity of carbon nanomaterials in Drosophila: larval ... S. Tweedie, M. Ashburner, K. Falls et al., "FlyBase: enhancing Drosophila Gene Ontology annotations," Nucleic Acids Research, ...
Five bivariate distributions of wing dimensions of Drosophila melanogaster were measured, in flies 1) subjected to four defined ...
The neurogenetics of group behavior in Drosophila melanogaster Pavan Ramdya, Jonathan Schneider, Joel D. Levine ... Summary: Thermal fluctuations during development in Drosophila melanogaster lead to detrimental cold and beneficial heat ... Drosophila females trade off good nutrition with high-quality oviposition sites when choosing foods Mathieu Lihoreau, Laure- ... Collective selection of food patches in Drosophila Mathieu Lihoreau, Ireni M. Clarke, Jerome Buhl, David J. T. Sumpter, Stephen ...
... GMUS-PD-0293 $15.95 ... All about Fruit Fly (Drosophila melanogaster). FACTS: The common fruit fly was elevated to iconic laboratory status in 1901 by ... Drosophila comes from Greek roots "drosos" and "philos", meaning dew-loving. Melanogaster comes from Greek roots "melas" and " ... Thomas Hunt Morgan was the first to discover the unique chromosomal inheritance patterns of Drosophila melanogaster in 1910, ...
To further characterize the Drosophila-based prescreen to detect developmental toxicants, Mitomycin C (Ametycine, Mutamycin [ ... Drosophila were exposed throughout development (egg through third instar larva) in culture vials to medium containing MMC. A ... To further characterize the Drosophila-based prescreen to detect developmental toxicants, Mitomycin C (Ametycine, Mutamycin [ ... mated, untreated, Oregon-R wild-type female (Mid American Drosophila Stock Center, BGSU, Ohio) was added to each vial and ...
Temperature-Sensitive Mutations in Drosophila melanogaster Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
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Drosophila melanogaster - Sex linkage and inheritance of genes through cross breeding Abstract This experiment looks at the ... Drosophila melanogaster - Sex linkage and inheritance of genes through cross breeding. Abstract. This experiment looks at the ... By studying Drosophila melanogaster, starting with a parent group we crossed a variety of flies and observe the characteristics ... Education Index Drosophila Melanogaster - Sex Linkage and Inheritance of Genes Through Cross Breeding ...
The ability to genetically transform and modify Drosophila melanogaster was originally made possible through the use of ... Drosophila melanogaster Germ‐line Transformation. Peter W Atkinson, University of California, Riverside, California, USA ... Metaxakis A, Oehler S, Klinakis A and Savakis B (2005) Minos as a genetic and genomic tool in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics ... The ability to genetically transform and modify Drosophila melanogaster was originally made possible through the use of ...
Let us give some thought to the Y chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster, that engaging fly which is the bond-servant of ...
The fly Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most intensively studied organisms in biology and serves as a model system for ... 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; ACCURACY; BIOLOGY; CHROMOSOMES; DROSOPHILA; FUNCTIONALS; GENES; NUCLEOTIDES; GENOME DNA SEQUENCE ... 120-megabase euchromatic portion of the Drosophila genome using a whole-genome shotgun sequencing strategy supported by ...
Drosophila melanogaster. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: dUTPase, BcDNA.LD08534, CG4584, Dmel_CG4584, anon-SAGE:Wang-077, BcDNA: ...
Drosophila melanogaster. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: mus209, PCNA, CG9193, PCNA1. Find proteins for P17917 (Drosophila ... Structure of PCNA from Drosophila melanogaster.. Wang, K., Shi, Z., Zhang, M., Cheng, D.. (2013) Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct ... The PCNA from Drosophila melanogaster (DmPCNA) was purified and crystallized. The crystal of DmPCNA diffracted to 2.0 Å ... The PCNA from Drosophila melanogaster (DmPCNA) was purified and crystallized. The crystal of DmPCNA diffra ... ...
  • Adams EM, Wolfner MF (2007) Seminal proteins but not sperm induce morphological changes in the Drosophila melanogaster female reproductive tract during sperm storage. (springer.com)
  • Here, heterozygous mutant and overexpression ferritin strains of Drosophila melanogaster were subjected to dietary iron manipulations to study the dynamics of iron partition between ferritin and other proteins . (rsc.org)
  • Apger-McGlaughon J, Wolfner MF (2013) Post-mating change in excretion by mated Drosophila melanogaster females is a long-term response that depends on sex peptide and sperm. (springer.com)
  • Avila FW, Mattei AL, Wolfner MF (2015b) Sex peptide receptor is required for the release of stored sperm by mated Drosophila melanogaster females. (springer.com)
  • B) MS/MS spectra from 24 analyses (duplicates for each sample) were searched against a composite target-decoy Drosophila protein database. (nih.gov)
  • Avila FW, Cohen AB, Ameerudeen FS et al (2015a) Retention of ejaculate by Drosophila melanogaster females requires the male-derived mating plug protein PEBme. (springer.com)
  • Sensory neurons in the uterus of female D. melanogaster respond to a male protein, sex peptide, which is found in sperm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The image shows mitotic metaphase (upper) and anaphase (lower) in Drosophila tissue culture cells immunostained for the microtubule severing protein katanin (green), microtubules (red) and kinetochores/chromosomes (blue). (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • The role of membrane recycling has been analysed in Drosophila by characterising the distribution of a clathrin coat protein throughout development. (bl.uk)
  • In this study, we demonstrate that CASK- β , a Drosophila scaffolding protein orthologous to mammalian CASK, regulates motor initiation by facilitating transmitter release specifically in dopaminergic cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Further, three-dimensional maps of the ferritin protein shell and iron core were obtained from single particle transmission electron microscopy imaging and confirmed the similarity between Drosophila and Trichoplusia ferritin structures. (rsc.org)
  • Drosophila melanogaster uncharacterized protein (CG5323), mRNA. (genscript.com)
  • Heat shock protein synthesis can be induced during recovery from cold treatment of Drosophila melanogaster larvae. (caltech.edu)
  • In Drosophila , quantitative analysis of subtle effects of new mutations have revealed large numbers of novel loci affecting quantitative traits 4 , as have high resolution maps of segregating quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in Drosophila 4 and mice 5 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Dear Fly researchers, We have some Agilent Gene expression D.melanogaster (8*15K) microarrays. (bio.net)
  • Genotypic Technology, India's first Agilent Certified Service Provider Company is pleased to announce special year end attractive price options for ready to use D.melanogaster gene expression arrays. (bio.net)
  • Therefore, feedback through the Dpp signaling network is a prime candidate for enhancing the robustness of patterning of DV gene expression, as shown in (C). These interactions between the NF-κB and BMP signaling pathways may be necessary to ensure robust gene expression in the developing Drosophila embryo. (aiche.org)
  • Acute and chronic toxicity effects of silver nanoparticles (NPs) on Drosophila melanogaster ," Environmental Science & Technology , vol. 45, no. 11, pp. 4974-4979, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • We have examined the embryonic development of an identified neuromuscular junction (NMJ) of Drosophila melanogaster using whole- cell patch-clamp and a variety of physiological and morphological techniques. (jneurosci.org)
  • The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster offers the most powerful means of studying embryonic development in eukaryotes. (cshlpress.com)
  • We used a Drosophila melanogaster model to understand how imidacloprid (a common neonicotinoid) interferes with two innate immune pathways-Duox and Imd. (asm.org)
  • Using Drosophila melanogaster to map human cancer pathways. (humpath.com)
  • The present study intends to investigate the geroprotective action of three selected flavonoids (naringin, luteolin, chrysin) in two model organisms, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster . (frontiersin.org)
  • In Drosophila melanogaster , exposure of females to low temperature and shortened photoperiod can induce the expression of reproductive quiescence or diapause. (bioone.org)
  • Members of the genus Spiroplasma associated with distantly related Drosophila hosts are known to engage in either reproductive parasitism (i.e., male killing) or defense against natural enemies (the parasitic wasp Leptopilina heterotoma and a nematode). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • We applied label-free quantitative proteomics to Drosophila melanogaster male reproductive tissue - where Sfps are unprocessed, and highly abundant - and quantified Sfps before and immediately after mating, to infer those transferred during copulation. (mcponline.org)
  • The recent completion of the Drosophila melanogaster genomic sequence to high quality, and the availability of a greatly expanded set of Drosophila cDNA sequences, afforded FlyBase the opportunity to significantly improve genomic annotations. (harvard.edu)
  • The genome sequence of Drosophila melanogaster. (osti.gov)
  • The genome sequence will greatly accelerate the progress of the 5,000 scientists for whom Drosophila is already a major research tool," said Dr. Rubin. (genome.gov)
  • Volatile chemicals derived from fruit, yeast growing on the fruit, and flies already present on the fruit attract Drosophila , concentrating flies at food sites, where they will also mate. (springer.com)
  • Five bivariate distributions of wing dimensions of Drosophila melanogaster were measured, in flies 1) subjected to four defined environmental regimes during development, 2) taken directly from nature in seven U.S. states, 3) selected in ten populations for change in wing form, and 4) sampled from 21 long inbred wild-type lines. (genetics.org)
  • By studying Drosophila melanogaster, starting with a parent group we crossed a variety of flies and observe the characteristics of the F1 generation. (educationindex.com)
  • These new approaches will greatly facilitate the structure-function analyses of Drosophila genes, will enhance the ease and speed with which flies can be manipulated, and should advance our understanding of biological processes during normal development and disease. (biologists.org)
  • Results: We used DNA microarray analysis to identify bursicon-regulated genes in neck-ligated flies (Drosophila melanogaster) that received recombinant bursicon (r-bursicon). (ebscohost.com)
  • The experiment conducted used drosophila or fruit flies to test certain crosses such as a sepia female drosophila x wild male drosophila, a white female drosophila x wild male drosophila, and red/vestigial female drosophila x sepia/normal male drosophila. (ukessays.com)
  • Burke R, Commons E, Camakaris J. Expression and localisation of the essential copper transporter DmATP7 in Drosophila neuronal and intestinal tissues. (labome.org)
  • Drosophila melanogaster is a holometabolous insect, so it undergoes a full metamorphosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drosophila melanogaster sex peptide (SP) and Ductus ejaculatorius peptide (DUP99B) are male pheromones transferred in the seminal fluid to the female during copulation. (nih.gov)
  • The intracardiac valve cells in the Drosophila heart tube are essential to regulate haemolymph flow directionality, in concert with a highly orchestrated cardiac contraction cycle. (biologists.org)