A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Specialized cells in the invertebrates that detect and transduce light. They are predominantly rhabdomeric with an array of photosensitive microvilli. Illumination depolarizes invertebrate photoreceptors by stimulating Na+ influx across the plasma membrane.
Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.
An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
A proto-oncogene protein and member of the Wnt family of proteins. It is expressed in the caudal MIDBRAIN and is essential for proper development of the entire mid-/hindbrain region.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects.
Prominent lobed neuropils found in ANNELIDA and all ARTHROPODS except crustaceans. They are thought to be involved in olfactory learning and memory.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A layer of cells lining the fluid-filled cavity (blastocele) of a BLASTULA, usually developed from a fertilized insect, reptilian, or avian egg.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Specialized organs adapted for the reception of stimuli by the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.
A nutritional reservoir of fatty tissue found mainly in insects and amphibians.
Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A family of proteins that contain several 42-amino acid repeat domains and are homologous to the Drosophila armadillo protein. They bind to other proteins through their armadillo domains and play a variety of roles in the CELL including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, regulation of DESMOSOME assembly, and CELL ADHESION.
In invertebrate zoology, a lateral lobe of the FOREBRAIN in certain ARTHROPODS. In vertebrate zoology, either of the corpora bigemina of non-mammalian VERTEBRATES. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1329)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
Slender tubular or hairlike excretory structures found in insects. They emerge from the alimentary canal between the mesenteron (midgut) and the proctodeum (hindgut).
Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Hollow sacs of cells in LARVA that form adult structures in insects during BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS.
Light sensory organ in ARTHROPODS consisting of a large number of ommatidia, each functioning as an independent photoreceptor unit.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysterone is the 20-hydroxylated ECDYSONE.
Activities designed to attract the attention or favors of another.
Color of the iris.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The normal length of time of an organism's life.
The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.
The portion of chromosome material that remains condensed and is transcriptionally inactive during INTERPHASE.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Sexual activities of animals.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.
Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.
Antennapedia homeodomain protein is a homeobox protein involved in limb patterning in ARTHROPODS. Mutations in the gene for the antennapedia homeodomain protein are associated with the conversion of antenna to leg or leg to antenna DROSOPHILA.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Genetic mechanisms that allow GENES to be expressed at a similar level irrespective of their GENE DOSAGE. This term is usually used in discussing genes that lie on the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Because the sex chromosomes are only partially homologous, there is a different copy number, i.e., dosage, of these genes in males vs. females. In DROSOPHILA, dosage compensation is accomplished by hypertranscription of genes located on the X CHROMOSOME. In mammals, dosage compensation of X chromosome genes is accomplished by random X CHROMOSOME INACTIVATION of one of the two X chromosomes in the female.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A family of seven-pass transmembrane cell-surface proteins that combines with LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 or LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 to form receptors for WNT PROTEINS. Frizzled receptors often couple with HETEROTRIMERIC G PROTEINS and regulate the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.
Circadian rhythm signaling proteins that influence circadian clock by interacting with other circadian regulatory proteins and transporting them into the CELL NUCLEUS.
Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
A multisubunit polycomb protein complex with affinity for CHROMATIN that contains methylated HISTONE H3. It contains an E3 ubiquitin ligase activity that is specific for HISTONE H2A and works in conjunction with POLYCOMB REPRESSIVE COMPLEX 2 to effect EPIGENETIC REPRESSION.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
The anatomical parts that make up an organism in the early stages of development.
A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
Fushi tarazu transcription factors were originally identified in DROSOPHILA. They are found throughout ARTHROPODS and play important roles in segmentation and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM development.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
A dense intricate feltwork of interwoven fine glial processes, fibrils, synaptic terminals, axons, and dendrites interspersed among the nerve cells in the gray matter of the central nervous system.
The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.
A family of intracellular tyrosine kinases that participate in the signaling cascade of cytokines by associating with specific CYTOKINE RECEPTORS. They act upon STAT TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS in signaling pathway referred to as the JAK/STAT pathway. The name Janus kinase refers to the fact the proteins have two phosphate-transferring domains.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
Chromosome regions that are loosely packaged and more accessible to RNA polymerases than HETEROCHROMATIN. These regions also stain differentially in CHROMOSOME BANDING preparations.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
An antineoplastic agent with alkylating properties. It also acts as a mutagen by damaging DNA and is used experimentally for that effect.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Proteins which are found in eggs (OVA) from any species.
The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
A family of transcription factors containing SH2 DOMAINS that are involved in CYTOKINE-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. STAT transcription factors are recruited to the cytoplasmic region of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and are activated via PHOSPHORYLATION. Once activated they dimerize and translocate into the CELL NUCLEUS where they influence GENE expression. They play a role in regulating CELL GROWTH PROCESSES and CELL DIFFERENTIATION. STAT transcription factors are inhibited by SUPPRESSOR OF CYTOKINE SIGNALING PROTEINS and PROTEIN INHIBITORS OF ACTIVATED STAT.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
A multicomponent, ribonucleoprotein complex comprised of one of the family of ARGONAUTE PROTEINS and the "guide strand" of the one of the 20- to 30-nucleotide small RNAs. RISC cleaves specific RNAs, which are targeted for degradation by homology to these small RNAs. Functions in regulating gene expression are determined by the specific argonaute protein and small RNA including siRNA (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING), miRNA (MICRORNA), or piRNA (PIWI-INTERACTING RNA).
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
The nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system has autonomic and somatic divisions. The autonomic nervous system includes the enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic subdivisions. The somatic nervous system includes the cranial and spinal nerves and their ganglia and the peripheral sensory receptors.
A genus of small beetles of the family Tenebrionidae; T. confusum is the "confused flour beetle".
Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
The parts of the gene sequence that carry out the different functions of the GENES.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.
Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.
The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
One of the AROMATIC-L-AMINO-ACID DECARBOXYLASES, this enzyme is responsible for the conversion of DOPA to DOPAMINE. It is of clinical importance in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.
Steroids that bring about MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysteroids include the endogenous insect hormones (ECDYSONE and ECDYSTERONE) and the insect-molting hormones found in plants, the phytoecdysteroids. Phytoecdysteroids are natural insecticides.
Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.
A genus of bacteria comprised of a heterogenous group of gram-negative small rods and coccoid forms associated with arthropods. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 1, 1984)
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.

Assaying potential carcinogens with Drosophila. (1/15687)

Drosophila offers many advantages for the detection of mutagenic activity of carcinogenic agents. It provides the quickest assay system for detecting mutations in animals today. Its generation time is short, and Drosophila is cheap and easy to breed in large numbers. The simple genetic testing methods give unequivocal answers about the whole spectrum of relevant genetic damage. A comparison of the detection capacity of assays sampling different kinds of genetic damage revealed that various substances are highly effective in inducing mutations but do not produce chromosome breakage effects at all, or only at much higher concentrations than those required for mutation induction. Of the different assay systems available, the classical sex-linked recessive lethal test deserves priority, in view of its superior capacity to detect mutagens. Of practical importance is also its high sensitivity, because a large number of loci in one fifth of the genome is tested for newly induced forward mutations, including small deletions. The recent findings that Drosophila is capable of carrying out the same metabolic activation reactions as the mammalian liver makes the organism eminently suitable for verifying results obtained in prescreening with fast microbial assay systems. An additional advantage in this respect is the capacity of Drosophila for detecting short-lived activation products, because intracellular metabolic activation appears to occur within the spermatids and spermatocytes.  (+info)

Enzymes and reproduction in natural populations of Drosophila euronotus. (2/15687)

Populations of Drosophila euronotus, one from southern Louisiana )3 samples), and one from Missouri (2 samples), were classified for allele frequencies at alkaline phosphatase (APH) and acid phosphatase (ACPH) loci. The two populations differed consistently in allele frequencies at both loci. The APH locus is on the inversion-free X chromosome; the chromosomal locus of the autosomal ACPH is unknown, and could involve inversion polymorphism. Wild females from Missouri and Louisiana populations heterozygous at the APH locus carried more sperm at capture than did the corresponding homozygotes. This heterotic association was significant for the combined samples, and whether it was the result of heterosis at the enzyme locus studied, or due to geographically widespread close linkage with other heterotic loci, it should help to maintain heterozygosity at the APH locus. In a Louisiana collection which included large numbers of sperm-free females, simultaneous homozygosity at both enzyme loci was significantly associated with lack of sperm. It is suggested that the latter association is the result of young heterozygous females achieving sexual maturity earlier than do the double homozygotes. The average effective sperm load for 225 wild females was only 29.4, suggesting the necessity for frequent repeat-mating in nature to maintain female fertility. A comparison of the sex-linked APH genotypes of wild females with those of their daughters indicated that among 295 wild-inseminated females from five populations, 35% had mated more than once, and of this 35%, six females had mated at least three times. Because of ascertainment difficulties, it is clear that the true frequency of multiple-mating in nature must have been much higher than the observed 35%. Laboratory studies indicate that multiple-mating in this species does not involve sperm displacement, possibly due to the small number of sperms transmitted per mating, and the fact that the sperm receptacles are only partially filled by a given mating.  (+info)

Lack of genic similarity between two sibling species of drosophila as revealed by varied techniques. (3/15687)

Acrylamide gel electrophoresis was performed on the enzyme xanthine dehydrogenase in sixty isochromosomal lines of Drosophila persimilis from three geographic populations. Sequential electrophoretic analysis using varied gel concentrations and buffers revealed twenty-three alleles in this species where only five had been described previously. These new electrophoretic techniques also detected a profound increase in divergence of gene frequencies at this locus between D. persimilis and its sibling species D. pseudoobscura. The implications of these results for questions of speciation and the maintenance of genetic variability are discussed.  (+info)

Genetic heterogeneity within electrophoretic "alleles" of xanthine dehydrogenase in Drosophila pseudoobscura. (4/15687)

An experimental plan for an exhaustive determination of genic variation at structural gene loci is presented. In the initial steps of this program, 146 isochromosomal lines from 12 geographic populations of D. pseudoobscura were examined for allelic variation of xanthine dehydrogenase by the serial use of 4 different electrophoretic conditions and a head stability test. The 5 criteria revealed a total of 37 allelic classes out of the 146 genomes examined where only 6 had been previously revealed by the usual method of gel electrophoresis. This immense increase in genic variation also showed previously unsuspected population differences between the main part of the species distribution and the isolated population of Bogota population. The average heterozygosity at the Xdh locus is at least 72% in natural populations. This result, together with the very large number of alleles segregating and the pattern of allelic frequencies, has implications for theories of genetic polymorphism which are discussed.  (+info)

Testing for selective neutrality of electrophoretically detectable protein polymorphisms. (5/15687)

The statistical assessment of gene-frequency data on protein polymorphisms in natural populations remains a contentious issue. Here we formulate a test of whether polymorphisms detected by electrophoresis are in accordance with the stepwise, or charge-state, model of mutation in finite populations in the absence of selection. First, estimates of the model parameters are derived by minimizing chi-square deviations of the observed frequencies of genotypes with alleles (0,1,2...) units apart from their theoretical expected values. Then the remaining deviation is tested under the null hypothesis of neutrality. The procedure was found to be conservative for false rejections in simulation data. We applied the test to Ayala and Tracey 's data on 27 allozymic loci in six populations of Drosophila willistoni . About one-quarter of polymorphic loci showed significant departure from the neutral theory predictions in virtually all populations. A further quarter showed significant departure in some populations. The remaining data showed an acceptable fit to the charge state model. A predominating mode of selection was selection against alleles associated with extreme electrophoretic mobilities. The advantageous properties and the difficulties of the procedure are discussed.  (+info)

Apontic binds the translational repressor Bruno and is implicated in regulation of oskar mRNA translation. (6/15687)

The product of the oskar gene directs posterior patterning in the Drosophila oocyte, where it must be deployed specifically at the posterior pole. Proper expression relies on the coordinated localization and translational control of the oskar mRNA. Translational repression prior to localization of the transcript is mediated, in part, by the Bruno protein, which binds to discrete sites in the 3' untranslated region of the oskar mRNA. To begin to understand how Bruno acts in translational repression, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify Bruno-interacting proteins. One interactor, described here, is the product of the apontic gene. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments lend biochemical support to the idea that Bruno and Apontic proteins physically interact in Drosophila. Genetic experiments using mutants defective in apontic and bruno reveal a functional interaction between these genes. Given this interaction, Apontic is likely to act together with Bruno in translational repression of oskar mRNA. Interestingly, Apontic, like Bruno, is an RNA-binding protein and specifically binds certain regions of the oskar mRNA 3' untranslated region.  (+info)

The Drosophila kismet gene is related to chromatin-remodeling factors and is required for both segmentation and segment identity. (7/15687)

The Drosophila kismet gene was identified in a screen for dominant suppressors of Polycomb, a repressor of homeotic genes. Here we show that kismet mutations suppress the Polycomb mutant phenotype by blocking the ectopic transcription of homeotic genes. Loss of zygotic kismet function causes homeotic transformations similar to those associated with loss-of-function mutations in the homeotic genes Sex combs reduced and Abdominal-B. kismet is also required for proper larval body segmentation. Loss of maternal kismet function causes segmentation defects similar to those caused by mutations in the pair-rule gene even-skipped. The kismet gene encodes several large nuclear proteins that are ubiquitously expressed along the anterior-posterior axis. The Kismet proteins contain a domain conserved in the trithorax group protein Brahma and related chromatin-remodeling factors, providing further evidence that alterations in chromatin structure are required to maintain the spatially restricted patterns of homeotic gene transcription.  (+info)

Transcriptional repression by the Drosophila giant protein: cis element positioning provides an alternative means of interpreting an effector gradient. (8/15687)

Early developmental patterning of the Drosophila embryo is driven by the activities of a diverse set of maternally and zygotically derived transcription factors, including repressors encoded by gap genes such as Kruppel, knirps, giant and the mesoderm-specific snail. The mechanism of repression by gap transcription factors is not well understood at a molecular level. Initial characterization of these transcription factors suggests that they act as short-range repressors, interfering with the activity of enhancer or promoter elements 50 to 100 bp away. To better understand the molecular mechanism of short-range repression, we have investigated the properties of the Giant gap protein. We tested the ability of endogenous Giant to repress when bound close to the transcriptional initiation site and found that Giant effectively represses a heterologous promoter when binding sites are located at -55 bp with respect to the start of transcription. Consistent with its role as a short-range repressor, as the binding sites are moved to more distal locations, repression is diminished. Rather than exhibiting a sharp 'step-function' drop-off in activity, however, repression is progressively restricted to areas of highest Giant concentration. Less than a two-fold difference in Giant protein concentration is sufficient to determine a change in transcriptional status of a target gene. This effect demonstrates that Giant protein gradients can be differentially interpreted by target promoters, depending on the exact location of the Giant binding sites within the gene. Thus, in addition to binding site affinity and number, cis element positioning within a promoter can affect the response of a gene to a repressor gradient. We also demonstrate that a chimeric Gal4-Giant protein lacking the basic/zipper domain can specifically repress reporter genes, suggesting that the Giant effector domain is an autonomous repression domain.  (+info)

Events - 56th Annual Drosophila Research Conference - Genetics Society Of America - Sheraton Chicago Hotel - Chicago - Illinois - - - Event Overview: \r\n The Annual Drosophila Research Conference is the preeminent meeting for Drosophila researchers. From students and trainees to PIs and Faculty, there is something for everyone. Nearly 1,000 abstracts are submitted each year and over 150 are selected for platform presentations ranging from model organisms to human disease to cell biology, pattern formation and more. In addition there are over a dozen plenary sessions that are varied in scope. Trainees can also benefit from the experience as there are several sessions that can help them with their career search, presentation skills, grant writing, and much more. Workshops on other topics of interest are also held in conjunction with the conference. The Annual Drosophila Research Conference is an opportunity to learn about the latest research, network with colleagues and share your scientific
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transcription control of a gene for Drosophila transcription factor, DREF by DRE and cis-elements conserved between Drosophila melanogaster and virilis. AU - Kwon, Eunjeong. AU - Seto, Hirokazu. AU - Hirose, Fumiko. AU - Ohshima, Nobuko. AU - Takahashi, Yasuhiko. AU - Nishida, Yasuyoshi. AU - Yamaguchi, Masamitsu. PY - 2003/5/8. Y1 - 2003/5/8. N2 - A DNA replication-related element (DRE)-binding factor (DREF) has been revealed to be an important transcription factor for activating promoters of cell proliferation and differentiation related genes. The amino acid sequences of DREF are conserved in evolutionary separate Drosophila species, Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) and Drosophila virilis (Dv) in three regions. In the present study, evidence was obtained that there are several highly conserved regions in the 5′ flanking region between the DmDREF and DvDREF genes. Band mobility shift assays using oligonucleotides corresponding to these conserved regions revealed that specific ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterizing recurrent positive selection at fast-evolving genes in Drosophila miranda and Drosophila pseudoobscura. AU - Jensen, Jeffrey. AU - Bachtrog, Doris. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. N2 - Characterizing the distribution of selection coefficients in natural populations remains a central challenge in evolutionary biology. We resequenced a subset of 19 fast-evolving protein-coding genes in the sister species Drosophila miranda and D. pseudoobscura and their flanking regions to characterize the spatial footprint left by recurrent and recent selection. Consistent with previous findings, fast-evolving genes and their flanking regions show reduced levels of neutral diversity compared with randomly chosen genes, as expected under recurrent selection models. Applying a variety of statistical tests designed for the detection of selection at different evolutionary timescales, we attempt to characterize parameters of adaptive evolution. In D. miranda, fast-evolving genes generally show ...
Cactophilic Drosophila species provide a valuable model to study gene-environment interactions and ecological adaptation. Drosophila buzzatii and Drosophila mojavensis are two cactophilic species that belong to the repleta group, but have very different geographical distributions and primary host plants. To investigate the genomic basis of ecological adaptation, we sequenced the genome and developmental transcriptome of D. buzzatii and compared its gene content with that of D. mojavensis and two other noncactophilic Drosophila species in the same subgenus. The newly sequenced D. buzzatii genome (161.5 Mb) comprises 826 scaffolds (|3 kb) and contains 13,657 annotated protein-coding genes. Using RNA sequencing data of five life-stages we found expression of 15,026 genes, 80% protein-coding genes, and 20% noncoding RNA genes. In total, we detected 1,294 genes putatively under positive selection. Interestingly, among genes under positive selection in the D. mojavensis lineage, there is an excess of genes
Previous experiments have shown two germline stem cell genes, bam and bgcn, to be under strong positive selection in Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans (Bauer DuMont et al. 2007). This prompted the question of whether the same pattern of selection observed in these two species was present in the germline stem cell genes of other Drosophila lineages? The Aquadro Lab has been sequencing many germline stem cell genes in Drosophila species, and the answer to this question so far has been that some lineages show strong positive selection and some do not. This observation led the Aquadro Lab to begin to test hypotheses about the driver - or drivers - of the positive selection in the germline stem cell genes across some Drosophila lineages. One hypothesis proposed by Bauer DuMont et al. (2007) is that coevolution with pathogens such as the reproductive parasite, Wolbachia pipientis, infecting the germline could be driving this observed selection. This project looked for signs of selection ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Further studies on gene polymorphism in the mainbody and geographically isolated populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura. AU - Prakash, S.. PY - 1977/12/1. Y1 - 1977/12/1. N2 - The authors have examined polymorphism at 22 additional loci in the populations from the mainbody of Drosophila pseudoobscura and an isolated population from Bogota, Colombia, which also shows partial reproductive isolation from mainbody populations. These studies extend previous observations of reduced gene polymorphism and apparent lack of unique allele in the Bogota population.. AB - The authors have examined polymorphism at 22 additional loci in the populations from the mainbody of Drosophila pseudoobscura and an isolated population from Bogota, Colombia, which also shows partial reproductive isolation from mainbody populations. These studies extend previous observations of reduced gene polymorphism and apparent lack of unique allele in the Bogota population.. UR - ...
Other articles where Drosophila serrata is discussed: evolution: Ethological (behavioral) isolation: The vinegar flies Drosophila serrata, D. birchii, and D. dominicana are three sibling species (that is, species nearly indistinguishable morphologically) that are endemic in Australia and on the islands of New Guinea and New Britain. In many areas these three species occupy the same territory, but no hybrids…
Many introns in Drosophila and other invertebrates are less than 80 nucleotides in length, too small to be recognized by the vertebrate splicing machinery. Comparison of nuclear splicing extracts from human HeLa and Drosophila Kc cells has revealed species-specificity, consistent with the observed size differences. Here we present additional results with the 68 nucleotide fifth intron of the Drosophila myosin heavy chain gene. As observed with the 74 nucleotide second intron of the Drosophila white gene, the wild-type myosin intron is accurately spliced in a homologous extract, and increasing the size by 16 nucleotides both eliminates splicing in the Drosophila extract and allows accurate splicing in the human extract. In contrast to previous results, however, an upstream cryptic 5 splice site is activated when the wild-type myosin intron is tested in a human HeLa cell nuclear extract, resulting in the removal of a 98 nucleotide intron. The size dependence of splicing in Drosophila extracts is ...
Drosophila buzzatii has been found sympatric in Argentina with a closely-related sibling species, D. serido. The biogeographical, reproductive and chromosomal data allow us to combine these species into an evolutionary unit, the buzzatii cluster. Salivary gland chromosomes also have been used to determine their phylogenetic relationships with other closely related species, showing that the buzzatii cluster species share two inversions-2d2 and 2s6-with the species of the martensis cluster. Both clusters arose from South American populations of the ancestor of the mulleri complex, and we propose to include D. buzzatii and D. serido in the mulleri complex of the repleta group.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Higher rates of nucleotide substitution in Drosophila than in mammals. AU - Moriyama, Etsuko N.. PY - 1987/1/1. Y1 - 1987/1/1. N2 - To examine whether the rate of nucleotide substitution is affected by generation time of the organism, I attempted to estimate an accurate rate of synonymous (silent) substitution in Drosophila lineages, using alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) and heat shock protein 82 (hsp82) genes. The results obtained suggest that the rate of synonymous substitution in Drosophila lineages is roughly 10-8 per site per year. This rate is approximately two times higher than that of rodents and ten times greater than higher primates. The higher rate in Drosophila may be explained by the shorter generation times of the Drosophila species, though the possibility that the mutation mechanism in Drosophila may differ from that in mammals cannot be excluded.. AB - To examine whether the rate of nucleotide substitution is affected by generation time of the organism, I attempted to ...
The standard view of adaptation to larval crowding in fruitflies, built on results from 25 years of multiple experimental evolution studies on Drosophila melanogaster, was that enhanced competitive ability evolves primarily through increased larval feeding and foraging rate, and increased larval tolerance to nitrogenous wastes, at the cost of efficiency of food conversion to biomass. These results were at odds from the predictions of classical K-selection theory, notably the expectation that selection at high density should result in the increase of efficiency of conversion of food to biomass, and were better interpreted through the lens of α-selection. We show here that populations of D. ananassae and D. n. nasuta subjected to extreme larval crowding evolve greater competitive ability and pre-adult survivorship at high density, primarily through a combination of reduced larval duration, faster attainment of minimum critical size for pupation, greater time efficiency of food conversion to ...
Kitagawa M., Oyama T., Kawashima T., Yedvobnick B., Kumar A., Matsuno K., Harigaya K.. Mastermind (Mam) has been implicated as an important positive regulator of the Notch signaling pathway by genetic studies using Drosophila melanogaster. Here we describe a biochemical mechanism of action of Mam within the Notch signaling pathway. Expression of a human sequence related to Drosophila Mam (hMam-1) in mammalian cells augments induction of Hairy Enhancer of split (HES) promoters by Notch signaling. hMam-1 stabilizes and participates in the DNA binding complex of the intracellular domain of human Notch1 and a CSL protein. Truncated versions of hMam-1 that can maintain an association with the complex behave in a dominant negative fashion and depress transactivation. Furthermore, Drosophila Mam forms a similar complex with the intracellular domain of Drosophila Notch and Drosophila CSL protein during activation of Enhancer of split, the Drosophila counterpart of HES. These results indicate that Mam is ...
In Drosophila ananassae, artificial selection was carried out for fast and slow remating speed for 10 generations. Response to selection resulted in rapid divergence in remating time in each of two replicates of both fast and slow lines. There were significant differences in mean remat-ing time in females among fast, slow, and control lines. Regression coefficients for both fast and slow lines are significantly different from zero. The realized heritability over 10 genera-tions of selection is from 0.26 to 0.33 for two replicates of fast line and from 0.23 to 0.27 for two replicates of slow line. These findings suggest that female remating time in D. ananassae is under polygenic control. Remating frequency of females showed a correlated response in both fast and slow lines. At generation 10, correlated response to selection was also investigated. Mating propensity of D. ananassae of fast and slow lines was observed in an Elens-Wattiaux mating chamber. Fifteen pairs per test showed that on the ...
Many new Drosophila genomes have been sequenced in recent years using new-generation sequencing platforms and assembly methods. Transposable elements (TEs), being repetitive sequences, are often misassembled, especially in the genomes sequenced with short reads. Consequently, the mobile fraction of many of the new genomes has not been analyzed in detail or compared with that of other genomes sequenced with different methods, which could shed light into the understanding of genome and TE evolution. Here we compare the TE content of three genomes: D. buzzatii st-1, j-19, and D. mojavensis. We have sequenced a new D. buzzatii genome (j-19) that complements the D. buzzatii reference genome (st-1) already published, and compared their TE contents with that of D. mojavensis. We found an underestimation of TE sequences in Drosophila genus NGS-genomes when compared to Sanger-genomes. To be able to compare genomes sequenced with different technologies, we developed a coverage-based method and applied it to the D
The Annual Drosophila Research Conference is the premier meeting for Drosophila researchers. As many as 1,000 presentations cover the full diversity of Drosophila investigations, from genetics to molecular biology, cell biology, development, immunology, physiology, neuroscience, evolution, and more.. ...
Hi Marc, I am working a little bit with drosophila epithelium, specifically the abdomen. What I can say is that it is not very difficult to dissect Drosophila pupae (at leats with 26h APF). There is a protocol in the web from a Nicolas Gompel that is very good. Good Luck Pedro Marco Antunes wrote: , , Hello! , Im interested in working in the Drosophila pupal epithelium. , However, most literature about Drosophila pupa is very old... , Does anyone have some ideas about the difficulties and protocols for , dissecting and manipulating Drosophila pupae (without getting it killed)? , Also, does anyone know which is the best part of the pupa to visualize the , epithelium? The Thorax or the Abdomen? , Thank you for any help! , Marc , _______________________________________________ , Dros mailing list , Dros from net.bio.net , http://www.bio.net/biomail/listinfo/dros , , -- View this message in context: http://www.nabble.com/Drosophila-pupal-epithelium-tf2941767.html#a9310296 Sent from the Bio.net - ...
Accurate models of gene structure including untranslated regions (UTRs), intron-exon boundaries, as well as coding sequences are essential for proper interpretation of molecular genetics (Fire et al. 1998, Jinek et al. 2012), demographic inference (Halligan and Keightley 2006, Parsch et al. 2010, Clemente and Vogl 2012), tests of selection (Mcdonald and Kreitman 1991), and comparative genomics (Chen et al. 2014). The Drosophila offer an excellent model for comparative genomics, with high-quality sequenced genomes for 12 species(Drosophila Twelve Genomes Consortium 2007) as well as draft genomes for an additional eight species (Chen et al. 2014) spanning a total of 63 million years (Tamura et al. 2004). Previous gene models provided for the 12 Drosophila genomes focused on gene prediction with the aid of homology to establish putative annotations of coding sequences across taxa with 15,000−16,000 genes for most species (Drosophila Twelve Genomes Consortium 2007). These gene models produce ...
Species of the Drosophila obscura species group (e.g., D. pseudoobscura, D. subobscura) have served as favorable models in evolutionary studies since the 1930s. Despite numbers of studies conducted with varied types of data, the basal phylogeny in this group is still controversial, presumably owing to not only the hypothetical rapid radiation history of this group, but also limited taxon sampling from the Old World (esp. the Oriental and Afrotropical regions). Here we reconstruct the phylogeny of this group by using sequence data from 6 loci of 21 species (including 16 Old World ones) covering all the 6 subgroups of this group, estimate the divergence times among lineages, and statistically test the rapid radiation hypothesis. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that each of the subobscura, sinobscura, affinis, and pseudoobscura subgroups is monophyletic. The subobscura and microlabis subgroups form the basal clade in the obscura group. Partial species of the obscura subgroup (the D. ambigua/D. obscura
Species of the Drosophila obscura species group (e.g., D. pseudoobscura, D. subobscura) have served as favorable models in evolutionary studies since the 1930s. Despite numbers of studies conducted with varied types of data, the basal phylogeny in this group is still controversial, presumably owing to not only the hypothetical rapid radiation history of this group, but also limited taxon sampling from the Old World (esp. the Oriental and Afrotropical regions). Here we reconstruct the phylogeny of this group by using sequence data from 6 loci of 21 species (including 16 Old World ones) covering all the 6 subgroups of this group, estimate the divergence times among lineages, and statistically test the rapid radiation hypothesis. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that each of the subobscura, sinobscura, affinis, and pseudoobscura subgroups is monophyletic. The subobscura and microlabis subgroups form the basal clade in the obscura group. Partial species of the obscura subgroup (the D. ambigua/D. obscura
Königer, Annabella (2019): The molecular basis of cold tolerance in Drosophila ananassae. Dissertation, LMU München: Faculty of Biology ...
In Drosophila embryos, checkpoints maintain genome stability by delaying cell cycle progression that allows time for damage repair or to complete DNA synthesis. Drosophila MOF, a member of MYST histone acetyl transferase is an essential component of male X hyperactivation process. Until recently its involvement in G2/M cell cycle arrest and defects in ionizing radiation induced DNA damage pathways was not well established. Drosophila MOF is highly expressed during early embryogenesis. In the present study we show that haplo-insufficiency of maternal MOF leads to spontaneous mitotic defects like mitotic asynchrony, mitotic catastrophe and chromatid bridges in the syncytial embryos. Such abnormal nuclei are eliminated and digested in the yolk tissues by nuclear fall out mechanism. MOF negatively regulates Drosophila checkpoint kinase 2 tumor suppressor homologue. In response to DNA damage the checkpoint gene Chk2 (Drosophila mnk) is activated in the mof mutants, there by causing centrosomal inactivation
TY - JOUR. T1 - The actin-binding protein Lasp promotes Oskar accumulation at the posterior pole of the Drosophila embryo. AU - Suyama, Ritsuko. AU - Jenny, Andreas. AU - Curado, Silvia. AU - Pellis-van Berkel, Wendy. AU - Ephrussi, Anne. PY - 2009/4/14. Y1 - 2009/4/14. N2 - During Drosophila oogenesis, oskar mRNA is transported to the posterior pole of the oocyte, where it is locally translated and induces germ-plasm assembly. Oskar protein recruits all of the components necessary for the establishment of posterior embryonic structures and of the germline. Tight localization of Oskar is essential, as its ectopic expression causes severe patterning defects. Here, we show that the Drosophila homolog of mammalian Lasp1 protein, an actin-binding protein previously implicated in cell migration in vertebrate cell culture, contributes to the accumulation of Oskar protein at the posterior pole of the embryo. The reduced number of primordial germ cells in embryos derived from lasp mutant females can be ...
Cyclin Y is a highly conserved member of the Cyclin superfamily of proteins. In Drosophila the Cyclin Y gene (CycY) is required for progression through several stages of development but the specific pathways that Cyclin Y belongs to and that account for its requirement are not known. Studies in human and Drosophila cell lines have shown that membrane-localized Cyclin Y is required for phosphorylation of the wingless/Wnt co-receptor, arrow/LRP6, and for full activation of the canonical wingless/Wnt pathway. CycY null Drosophila, however, do not phenocopy loss-of-function mutations in canonical wingless pathway genes, suggesting that Cyclin Y may have additional roles outside the wingless pathway in vivo. To identify roles for Cyclin Y in Drosophila I used RNAi to knock down CycY expression in 31 distinct tissue patterns. The screen revealed that expression of the CycY shRNA in specific tissue patterns causes larval lethality and other developmental defects. Knockdown of CycY but not arrow in imaginal
Circularization was recently recognized to broadly expand transcriptome complexity. Here, we exploit massive Drosophila total RNA-sequencing data, |5 billion paired-end reads from |100 libraries covering diverse developmental stages, tissues, and cultured cells, to rigorously annotate |2,500 fruit fly circular RNAs. These mostly derive from back-splicing of protein-coding genes and lack poly(A) tails, and the circularization of hundreds of genes is conserved across multiple Drosophila species. We elucidate structural and sequence properties of Drosophila circular RNAs, which exhibit commonalities and distinctions from mammalian circles. Notably, Drosophila circular RNAs harbor |1,000 well-conserved canonical miRNA seed matches, especially within coding regions, and coding conserved miRNA sites reside preferentially within circularized exons. Finally, we analyze the developmental and tissue specificity of circular RNAs and note their preferred derivation from neural genes and enhanced accumulation in
A single species of fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has been the subject of scientific research for more than one hundred years. Why does this tiny insect merit such intense scrutiny?. Drosophilas importance as a research organism began with its short life cycle, ability to reproduce in large numbers, and easy-to-see mutant phenotypes. Over time, laboratory investigation revealed surprising similarities between flies and other animals at the level of genes, gene networks, cell interactions, physiology, immunity, and behavior. Like humans, flies learn and remember, fight microbial infection, and slow down as they age. Scientists use Drosophila to investigate complex biological activities in a simple but intact living system. Fly research provides answers to some of the most challenging questions in biology and biomedicine, including how cells transmit signals and form ordered structures, how we can interpret the wealth of human genome data now available, and how we can develop effective treatments ...
Metz, Charles William, Moses, Mildred S., Mason, Eleanor D. (July 1923) Genetic studies on Drosophila virilis with considerations on the genetics of other species of Drosophila. Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication No. 328 . Carnegie Institution of Washington , Washington, D.C., pp. 1-94. ...
Vectors derived from the Drosophila P element transposon are widely used to make transgenic Drosophila. Insertion of most P-element-derived vectors is nonrandom, but they exhibit a broad specificity of target sites. During experiments to identify cis-acting regulatory elements of the Drosophila segmentation gene engrailed, we identified a fragment of engrailed DNA that, when included within a P-element vector, strikingly alters the specificity of target sites. P-element vectors that contain this fragment of engrailed regulatory DNA insert at a high frequency near genes expressed in stripes.. ...
N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most common internal modification of eukaryotic messenger RNA (mRNA) and is decoded by YTH domain proteins1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. The mammalian mRNA m6A methylosome is a complex of nuclear proteins that includes METTL3 (methyltransferase-like 3), METTL14, WTAP (Wilms tumour 1-associated protein) and KIAA1429. Drosophila has corresponding homologues named Ime4 and KAR4 (Inducer of meiosis 4 and Karyogamy protein 4), and Female-lethal (2)d (Fl(2)d) and Virilizer (Vir)8, 9, 10, 11, 12. In Drosophila, fl(2)d and vir are required for sex-dependent regulation of alternative splicing of the sex determination factor Sex lethal (Sxl)13. However, the functions of m6A in introns in the regulation of alternative splicing remain uncertain3. Here we show that m6A is absent in the mRNA of Drosophila lacking Ime4. In contrast to mouse and plant knockout models5, 7, 14, Drosophila Ime4-null mutants remain viable, though flightless, and show a sex bias towards maleness. This is ...
The circulatory system of Drosophila melanogaster represents an easily amenable genetic model whose analysis at different levels, i.e., from single molecules up to functional anatomy, has provided new insights into general aspects of cardiogenesis, heart physiology and cardiac aging, to name a few examples. In recent years, the Drosophila heart has also attracted the attention of researchers in the field of biomedicine. This development is mainly due to the fact that several genes causing human heart disease are also present in Drosophila, where they play the same or similar roles in heart development, maintenance or physiology as their respective counterparts in humans. This review will attempt to briefly introduce the anatomy of the Drosophila circulatory system and then focus on the different cell types and non-cellular tissue that constitute the heart.
The generation of cell polarity through the localization of specific mRNAs and proteins to discrete subcellular sites is fundamental to asymmetric cell division, tissue morphogenesis, cell migration, and most other developmental processes. While many different localized mRNAs and proteins have been described, the mechanisms by which such molecules become localized are only poorly understood. In the first part of this dissertation, I describe my efforts to unravel the mechanism by which gurken (grk) mRNA becomes localized to the anterodorsal corner of the Drosophila oocyte during mid-oogenesis. Such localization is a key step in the polarization of the mature Drosophila egg and future embryo; defects in grk mRNA localization result in the production of depolarized eggs that give rise to embryos that fail to specify ectodermal, endodermal and mesodermal germ layers and die before hatching. I show, using a transgenic fly assay system, that a conserved sequence element within the grk mRNA, called ...
P elements containing a 7 kb DNA fragment from the middle of the Drosophila bithorax complex insert preferentially into the bithorax complex or into the adjacent chromosome regions. This homing property is similar to that reported for the engrailed promoter (Hama, C., Ali, Z. and Kornberg, T. B. (1990) Genes Dev. 4, 1079-1093). The 7 kb fragment does not contain any known promoter, but it acts as a boundary element separating adjacent segmental domains. An enhancer-trap P element was constructed with the homing fragment and the selectable marker flanked by FRT sites. P insertions can be trimmed down by Flp-mediated recombination to just the lacZ reporter, so that the (beta)-galactosidase pattern is not influenced by sequences inside the P element. Twenty insertions into the bithorax complex express (beta)-galactosidase in segmentally limited patterns, reflecting the segmental domains of the bithorax complex where the elements reside. The mapping of segmental domains has now been revised, with ...
The chordotonal (Ch) organ, an internal stretch receptor located in the subepidermal layer, is one of the major sensory organs in the peripheral nervous system of Drosophila melanogaster. Although the cell lineage of the Ch organ has been well characterized in many studies, the determination machinery of Ch organ precursor cells (COPs) remains largely unresolved. Here we report that the rhomboid (rho) gene and the activity of the Drosophila EGF receptor (DER) signaling pathway are necessary to induce specifically three of the eight COPs in an embryonic abdominal hemisegment. The cell-lineage analysis of COPs using the yeast flpase (flp/FRT) method indicated that each of the eight COPs originated from an individual undifferentiated ectodermal cell. The eight COPs in each abdominal hemisegment seemed to be determined by a two-phase induction: first, five COPs are determined by the action of the proneural gene atonal and neurogenic genes. Subsequently, these five COPs start to express the rho gene, ...
Drosophila is an insect from the order Diptera, also called the fruit fly. The genus Drosophila includes about 400 species, found all over the planet. Life of the drosophila Drosophila flies...
Polyamine transport is elevated in many tumor types, suggesting that toxic polyamine-drug conjugates could be targeted to cancer cells via the polyamine transporter (PAT). We have previously reported the use of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and its PAT-deficient mutant cell line, CHO-MG, to screen anthracene-polyamine conjugates for their PAT-selective targeting ability. We report here a novel Drosophila-based model for screening anthracene-polyamine conjugates in a developing and intact epithelium (Drosophila imaginal discs), wherein cell-cell adhesion properties are maintained. Data from the Drosophila assay are consistent with previous results in CHO cells, indicating that the Drosophila epithelium has a PAT with vertebrate-like characteristics. This assay will be of use to medicinal chemists interested in screening drugs that use PAT for cellular entry, and it offers the possibility of genetic dissection of the polyamine transport process, including identification of a Drosophila PAT.
The cytokine-activated Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway plays an important role in the control of a wide variety of biological processes. When misregulated, JAK/STAT signaling is associated with various human diseases, such as immune disorders and tumorigenesis. To gain insights into the mechanisms by which JAK/STAT signaling participates in these diverse biological responses, we carried out a genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screen in cultured Drosophila cells. We identified 121 genes whose double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-mediated knockdowns affected STAT92E activity. Of the 29 positive regulators, 13 are required for the tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT92E. Furthermore, we found that the Drosophila homologs of RanBP3 and RanBP10 are negative regulators of JAK/STAT signaling through their control of nucleocytoplasmic transport of STAT92E. In addition, we identified a key negative regulator of Drosophila JAK/STAT signaling, protein tyrosine ...
The relatively simple communication, breeding and egg-making systems that govern reproduction in female Drosophila retain homology to eusocial species in which these same systems are modified to the social condition. Despite having no parental care, division of labour or subfertile caste, Drosophila may nonetheless offer a living test of certain sociobiological hypotheses framed around gene function. In this review, we make this case, and do so around the recent discovery that the non-social fly, Drosophila melanogaster, can respond to the ovary-suppressing queen pheromone of the honey bee Apis meliffera. Here, we first explain the sociobiological imperative to reconcile kin theory with molecular biology, and qualify a potential role for Drosophila. Then, we offer three applications for the fly-pheromone assay. First, the availability and accessibility of massive mutant libraries makes immediately feasible any number of open or targeted gene screens against the ovary-inhibiting response. The sheer
Fissioncytorace-1, a member of the nasuta-albomicans complex of Drosophila is an evolutionary product of centric fission, which had occurred in the chromosome X3 of Cytorace 1, a hydridization product of Drosophila nasuta nasuta male (2n=8) and Drosophila nasuta albomicans female (2n=6). Cytorace 1 (males 2n=7; females 2n=6) has inherited this chromosome from its D. n. albomicans parent. The chromosome X3 of D. n. albomicans is a derivative of a centric fusion between the acrocentric chromosome 3 and the chromosome X of D. n. nasuta. The Fissioncytorace-1 has crossed 200 generations from the time of its evolution in the laboratory environment. When this centromeric fission race was subjected to some of the morphophenotypic and fitness assessment to find its overall population fitness showed, increased body size, sternopleural bristle, ovarioles, lifetime fecundity and fertility with reduced interspecific competitive ability and hatching success when compared with its parent (Cytorace 1). These ...
Our data provide the first genomewide survey of variability in D. americana. In common with previous studies of a more limited number of genes (Hilton and Hey 1996; Vieira et al. 2001; McAllister 2003), we find a fairly typical level of silent- nucleotide-site diversity for a Drosophila species, with a mean of ∼2%. As reported in the results section, mean silent-site diversity is significantly lower for the X chromosome than for the autosomes, suggesting an absence of strong effects of sexual selection on genetic diversity in this species, in contrast to what has been described for African populations of D. melanogaster and D. simulans (Andolfatto 2001) and for D. miranda and D. pseudoobscura (Yi et al. 2003; Bartolomé et al. 2005).. At autosomal loci, the variance-weighted mean diversity for synonymous sites (in percent) is larger than that for introns (2.59 ± 0.251 vs. 1.66 ± 0.289; mean ± SE; Mann-Whitney U0.05[10,7] = 53; P = 0.05). This is, however, consistent with the theoretical ...
Applications are invited for a postdoc position and a full-time technician = position in Drosophila epigenetics research laboratory of Dr. Tulin at the = Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA. Both positions planned for at = least three years, with possible renewal. The successful applicants will = use Drosophila model system to study epigenetics of development and = cancer. The primary research focus of Dr. Tulin=92s lab is on = fundamentals of chromatin reprogramming and RNA fate regulation during = normal development and carcinogenics, as well as on translating = fundamental research for clinical applications in oncology. Projects in = Dr. Tulin=92s lab cover the molecular mechanisms of the chromatin = remodeling and regulation of gene expression and employ Drosophila model = and in vitro assays as well as human cells, mouse models. Applicants for the postdoctoral position should have a Ph.D. in molecular = biology, molecular genetics, biochemistry, or a related field and 0-3 = years of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - DCtBP mediates transcriptional repression by Knirps, Kruppel and Snail in the Drosophila embryo. AU - Nibu, Yutaka. AU - Zhang, Hailan. AU - Bajor, Ewa. AU - Barolo, Scott. AU - Small, Stephen. AU - Levine, Michael. PY - 1998/12/1. Y1 - 1998/12/1. N2 - The pre-cellular Drosophila embryo contains 10 well characterized sequence-specific transcriptional repressors, which represent a broad spectrum of DNA-binding proteins. Previous studies have shown that two of the repressors, Hairy and Dorsal, recruit a common co-repressor protein, Groucho. Here we present evidence that three different repressors, Knirps, Kruppel and Snail, recruit a different co-repressor, dCtBP. Mutant embryos containing diminished levels of maternal dCtBP products exhibit both segmentation and dorsoventral patterning defects, which can be attributed to loss of Kruppel, Knirps and Snail activity. In contrast, the Dorsal and Hairy repressors retain at least some activity in dCtBP mutant embryos, dCtBP interacts ...
The fruits of the experimental immunohistochemistry resulted in a large number of wild-type and vtd mutant Drosophila embryos appropriate for separate FAS II and 22C10 analyses under light microscopy. Embryos with too much tissue wear or crushed during the mounting/orienting process, those with incomplete antibody binding/staining, and homozygous lethal mutants (for either balancer or vtd imprecise excision) displaying no protein expression, were excluded from the data. A sample of about 20 per subset, chosen from the mounted slides, were selected for comparative analysis-reflected in Table 1.. ​. ​. ​. ​. ​. ​. ​. ​. Registration of FAS II protein expression was tagged a brown color by DAB-staining with the secondary anti-mouse antibody. This visualization of the neuroanatomy of the ventral nerve cord in the Drosophila CNS can be observed in Appendix A, revealing the characteristic three axonal connectives running longitudinally parallel in wild-type Drosophila neurodevelopment. ...
Acar, M., et al. (2006). Senseless physically interacts with proneural proteins and functions as a transcriptional co-activator. Development 133: 1979-1989. PubMed ID: 16624856 Alifragis, P., et al. (1997). A network of interacting transcriptional regulators involved in Drosophila neural fate specification revealed by the yeast two-hybrid system. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 94(24): 13099-13104. PubMed ID: 9371806 Bardin, A. J., et al. (2010). Transcriptional control of stem cell maintenance in the Drosophila intestine. Development 137(5): 705-14. PubMed ID: 20147375 Barndt, R. J., Dai, M. and Zhuang, Y. (2000). Functions of E2A-HEB heterodimers in T-cell development revealed by a dominant negative mutation of HEB. Mol. Cell Biol. 20: 6677-6685. PubMed ID: 10958665 Brown, N. L., et al. (1996). daughterless is required for Drosophila photoreceptor cell determination, eye morphogenesis, and cell cycle progression. Dev. Biol. 179: 65-78. PubMed ID: 8873754 Buszczak, M., Paterno, S. and Spradling, A. C. ...
Primary Drosophila embryo cells from postgastrulation embryos differentiate when cultured on a substratum of Drosophila laminin or human vitronectin. Tiggrin, and a fusion protein of Tiggrin (residues 1,891-2,161) that contains the RGD binding site have been tested as substrata. Excellent differentiation of several different cell types occurs; e.g. abundant multinucleate myotubes and neurites form and both hemocytes and clusters of epidermal cells are present after 18 hours of culture at 22 degrees C. On control coverslips coated with bovine serum albumin very limited differentiation is observed (Fogerty, 1994). The finding of an RGD cell attachment motif in Tiggrin, which conspicuously colocates with both alphaPS integrins at muscle apodemes and at Z-bands, emphasized the need to test Tiggrin as an integrin ligand. To do this, the ability of Tiggrin-coated substratum to mediate the spreading of Drosophila S2 cells that have been transformed with genes for alphaPS2 and betaPS integrin chains was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tube continued. T2 - Morphogenesis of the Drosophila tracheal system. AU - Schottenfeld, Jodi. AU - Song, Yanjun. AU - Ghabrial, Amin S.. N1 - Funding Information: The authors apologize to those whose work we were unable to include within the limited confines of this review. We thank Dena Alpert for her insightful comments on the manuscript. JS has received support from NIH Developmental Biology training grant (T32-HD007516-12) and is currently supported by an NIH NRSA postdoctoral fellowship (F32-GM090438). ASG gratefully acknowledges research support from the NIH (1R01GM089782-01A1), the March of Dimes (Basil OConnor award), a McCabe Scholar award, an ACS pilot grant, and the University of Pennsylvania. PY - 2010/10. Y1 - 2010/10. N2 - The Drosophila respiratory organ (tracheal system) consists of epithelial tubes, the morphogenesis of which is controlled by distinct sets of signaling pathways and transcription factors. The downstream events controlling tube formation and ...
Binding of pumilio to maternal hunchback mRNA is required for posterior patterning in Drosophila embryos. Developmental regulation of vesicle transport in Drosophila embryos: forces and kinetics
TY - JOUR. T1 - TGF-β family signaling in drosophila. AU - Upadhyay, Ambuj. AU - Moss-Taylor, Lindsay. AU - Kim, Myung Jun. AU - Ghosh, Arpan C.. AU - OConnor, Michael B.. PY - 2017/9. Y1 - 2017/9. N2 - The transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) family signaling pathway is conserved and ubiquitous in animals. In Drosophila, fewer representatives of each signaling component are present compared with vertebrates, simplifying mechanistic study of the pathway. Although there are fewer family members, the TGF-β family pathway still regulates multiple and diverse functions in Drosophila. In this review, we focus our attention on several of the classic and best-studied functions for TGF-β family signaling in regulating Drosophila developmental processes such as embryonic and imaginal disc patterning, but we also describe several recently discovered roles in regulating hormonal, physiological, neuronal, innate immunity, and tissue homeostatic processes.. AB - The transforming growth factor β ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of adult experience on oviposition choice and short-distance attraction in Drosophila buzzatii. AU - Hedrick, Philip W.. AU - Barker, J. S F. AU - Armstrong, T.. PY - 1990/9. Y1 - 1990/9. N2 - In a series of experiments, no consistent effect of adult experience, i.e., exposure to the naturally occurring yeasts, Candida sonorensis and Clavispora opuntiae, on oviposition choice or short-distance attraction in inbred lines of Drosophila buzzatii was found. The lack of consistent effect on oviposition choice was also found in one experiment in which the flies were starved and in another experiment in which choice was determined on 2 consecutive days.. AB - In a series of experiments, no consistent effect of adult experience, i.e., exposure to the naturally occurring yeasts, Candida sonorensis and Clavispora opuntiae, on oviposition choice or short-distance attraction in inbred lines of Drosophila buzzatii was found. The lack of consistent effect on oviposition choice was also ...
Assembly/Alignment/Annotation of 12 related Drosophila species: »Assembly/Alignment/Annotation, LBNL, USA BDGP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Project: »Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project, University of California, Berkeley, USA Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project (BDGP): »BDGP, University of California, Berkeley, USA BDTNP, ChIP/chip in vivo DNA binding data: »Berkeley Drosophila Transcription Network Project, University of California, Berkeley, USA CluSTr protein sequence similarity analysis of Drosophila: »CluSTr proteome analysis, EBI, UK D. pseudoobscura genome project: »Human Genome Sequencing Center, Baylor College of Medicine, USA D. simulans genome project: »Genome Sequencing Center, Washington University, USA D. yakuba genome project: »Genome Sequencing Center, Washington University, USA D.melanogaster UCSC Genome Browser Gateway: »University of California, Santa Cruz, USA DDBJ, the DNA Data Bank of Japan: »DDBJ, National Institute of Genetics, Mishima, Japan DNase I ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evolution of the LINE-like I element in the Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup. AU - Sezutsu, Hideki. AU - Nitasaka, Eiji. AU - Yamazaki, Tsuneyuki. PY - 1995/3/1. Y1 - 1995/3/1. N2 - LINE-like retrotransposons, the so-called I elements, control the system of I-R (inducer-reactive) hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. I elements are present in many Drosophila species. It has been suggested that active, complete I elements, located at different sites on the chromosomes, invaded natural populations of D. melanogaster recently (1920-1970). But old strains lacking active I elements have only defective I elements located in the chromocenter. We have cloned I elements from D. melanogaster and the melanogaster subgroup. In D. melanogaster, the nucleotide sequences of chromocentral I elements differed from those on chromosome arms by as much as 7%. All the I elements of D. mauritiana and D. sechellia are more closely related to the chromosomal I elements of D. melanogaster ...
To study genes that may be crucial for the male germ cell development of Drosophila we screened a cDNA expression library with a polyclonal antiserum against testis proteins of Drosophila hydei. We identified a cDNA fragment that exhibited a complete sequence similarity with the cDNA of the laminin B2 chain, an important component of the extracellular matrix. Transcripts of laminin B2 were detected in the RNA of male germ cells with the polymerase chain reaction and by in situ hybridization. We studied the reaction of different polyclonal antibodies including those against a Drosophila laminin B2-lac fusion protein, the entire Drosophila laminin complex, or against the mouse laminin complex and against laminin A and B1 chains with specific structures in developing male germ cells of Drosophila. Antigenic sites against laminin B2 were found in the lampbrush loops in primary spermatocyte nuclei, in nuclei of spermatids, and in heads of spermatozoa. The axonemes of elongating spermatids react with ...
Domain architectures containing the following SCOP superfamilies 54236,47031,50729,_gap_ in Drosophila mojavensis 1.3. Domain architectures illustrate each occurrence of 54236,47031,50729,_gap_.
Domain architecture and assignment details (superfamily, family, region, evalue) for FBpp0161640 from Drosophila mojavensis 1.3. Plus protein sequence and external database links.
VALIATI, Victor Hugo and VALENTE, Vera Lucia S.. Chromosomal polymorphism in urban populations of Drosophila paulistorum. Braz. J. Genet. [online]. 1997, vol.20, n.4, pp.-. ISSN 0100-8455. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-84551997000400004.. Drosophila paulistorum populations colonizing the urban area of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil, were studied with the objective of characterizing their chromosomal polymorphism in this new environment. Despite being geographically and ecologically marginal and the fact that the colonization of the urban area seems to be a recent event, the populations showed a large number of inversions on all chromosome arms. Differences regarding inversion frequencies and percentage of heterozygosis were found when we compared the samples with respect to geographical, microenvironmental and temporal aspects. Such differences, however, could be attributed to both selective and stochastic factors. ...
Electrophysiological analysis of cultured neurons provides a potential approach toward understanding the physiological defects that may contribute to abnormal behavior exhibited by mutants of the fruit fly Drosophila. However, its application has been restricted by an inability to identify a particular functional or anatomical subpopulation of neurons from the CNS. To study neurons composing the CNS mushroom body proposed as a center for insect olfactory learning, we utilized a Drosophila enhancer detector line that expresses a lacZ reporter gene in these neurons and identified them in acutely dissociated larval CNS cultures by vital fluorescent staining. The patch-clamp analysis suggests that whole-cell voltage-activated K+ currents can be classified into two types in identified mushroom body neurons. Type 1 current comprises a TEA-sensitive slowly inactivating current and noninactivating component while type 2 current contains a 4-AP-sensitive transient A-current and a noninactivating ...
P-13. Transcription Profiling of Cell Death in Drosophila Melanogaster. S. Chittaranjan, E. Garland, D. Freeman, S. Jones, M. Marra, and S. Gorski, Genome Sequence Centre BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, CANADA. Programmed Cell death - PCD - is a highly conserved and genetically controlled event that plays important roles in animal development, homeostasis and disease. We are employing a genomics approach, using EST and SAGE, to identify new PCD genes that are transciptionally regulated in the salivary glands - SGs - of Drosophila. We constructed a SG-specific cDNA library and SG-miniSAGE libraries from three consecutive developmental stages leading up to PCD.5461 high quality 3 ESTs from our SG cDNA library were used to perform BLAST analysis against Drosophila predicted genes and genomic sequence from the Drosophila Genome Project. The majority of the ESTs matched known or predicted genes in Drosophila including a number of ecdysone-induced genes and known PCD genes. We also identified a ...
The Huntingtons disease (HD) gene encodes a protein, huntingtin, with no known function and no detectable sequence similarity to other proteins in current databases. To gain insight into the normal biological role of huntingtin, we isolated and sequenced a cDNA encoding a protein that is a likely homolog of the HD gene product in Drosophila melanogaster. We also determined the complete sequence of 43,125 contiguous base pairs of genomic DNA that encompass the Drosophila HD gene, allowing the intron-exon structure and 5- and 3-flanking regions to be delineated. The predicted Drosophila huntingtin protein has 3583 amino acids, which is several hundred amino acids larger than any other previously characterized member of the HD family. Analysis of the genomic and cDNA sequences indicates that Drosophila HD has 29 exons, compared with the 67 exons present in vertebrate HD genes, and that Drosophila huntingtin lacks the polyglutamine and polyproline stretches present in its mammalian counterparts. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The M/SAR elements of the bithorax complex in Drosophila melanogaster. AU - Boykova, T. V.. AU - Orlando, V.. AU - Lupo, R.. AU - Bogachev, S. S.. PY - 2005/11. Y1 - 2005/11. N2 - The bithorax (BX) complex of Drosophila is a complex polygenic region with a multifactorial system of regulation. One of the levels of the regulatory system of the BX complex is its association with the nuclear skeleton structures through a specific interaction of the M/SAR DNA with the nuclear matrix proteins. In the present work, M/SAR elements were mapped on the molecular-genetic map of the region. All of the elements examined were found to colocalize with regulatory elements and form clusters that restrict/bracket the genetically active domains. All M/SAR DNA revealed was shown to bins specifically to the purified Drosophila melanogaster lamin.. AB - The bithorax (BX) complex of Drosophila is a complex polygenic region with a multifactorial system of regulation. One of the levels of the regulatory ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Biochemical phylogeny of the eight species in the Drosophila melanogaster subgroup, including D. sechellia and D. orena. by M L Cariou
Males of this genus are known to have the longest sperm cells of any organism on Earth.[5] One species, Drosophila bifurca, has sperm 58 mm (2.3 in) long.[5][6][7] The cells are mostly tail, and are delivered to the females in tangled coils. Those Drosophila species with very long sperms make relatively few sperm cells.[8] D. melanogaster sperm cells are a more modest 1.8 mm long, although this is still about 300 times longer than a human sperm. Several species in the D. melanogaster species group are known to mate by traumatic insemination, in which the male pierces the females abdomen with his penis and injects his sperm through the wound into her abdominal cavity (haemocoel).[9][10]. Drosophila vary widely in their reproductive capacity. Those such as D. melanogaster that breed in large, scarce resources have ovaries that mature 10-20 eggs at a time, and can be laid together in one place. Others, which breed in common but less nutritious places (such as leaves), may only lay one egg each ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Localization of transcripts from the wingless gene in whole Drosophila embryos. AU - Baker, N. E.. PY - 1988. Y1 - 1988. N2 - In situ hybridization has been used to detect transcription in whole Drosophila embryos. Improved results have been obtained by incubating the hybridized embryos in liquid emulsion prior to autoradiographic exposure. This technique has been used to map the distribution of transcripts from the segment-polarity gene wingless (wg), which is transcribed in a stripe in each segment of the trunk region. By the extended germband stage additional areas of transcription in the head and caudal regions define a total of 21 domains, comprising the foregut, six regions in the head, three thoracic and ten abdominal segments, and the hindgut. At the end of the extended germband stage, the pattern of wg transcription is no longer uniform in the dorsoventral axis: wg transcripts are absent from the lateral epidermis. This pattern of wg transcription is discussed with ...
The Notch receptor of Drosophila and its homologues in other organisms mediate cell-cell interactions required for the correct partitioning of cell fates within equivalence groups. Genes related to Notch and other components of the Notch signaling pathway represent a well conserved system for signal transduction, having been isolated from organisms as diverse as flies, worms, sea urchins, frogs, fish, chickens, mice, rats, and humans (reviewed by Lardelli et al., 1995). The expression and requirements for Notch signaling are pleiotropic through development, in contrast to other tissue or cell type specific receptors. How the Notch signaling cascade mediates pattern formation in so many tissues and cell types is not well understood. The research contained herein increases the understanding of Notch signaling by studying its role during Drosophila oogenesis. Additionally, this research lends insight into several important processes that take place during Drosophila oogenesis, including ...
2011 Nobel Laureate Jules Hoffmann, Ph.D. described his scientific journey including the discovery of Toll receptors and innate immunity in the keynote lecture on Apr. 3, 2013, the opening night of the Genetics Society of Americas 54th Annual Drosophila Research Conference in Washington, D.C., Apr. 3-7, 2013.
Humanised fruit fly models are transgenic Drosophila melanogaster strains expressing human genes. Specifically, we study the characteristics of fly models expressing human genes involved in neurological disorders such as Alzheimers and Parkinsons Diseases (AD and PD). Interestingly, these Drosophila neurodegenerative disease models show a high degree of conservation in the fundamental biological pathways and in the molecular, genetic and pathophysiological aspects of neurodegenerative human diseases. These characteristics explain why Drosophila models have paved the way for the development of initial fast screening for potential drug candidates in vivo, and represent also a promising tool for biomedical research in neuroscience ...
We report the complete sequence of a calcium channel alpha 1 subunit cDNA cloned from a Drosophila head cDNA library. This cDNA encodes a deduced protein containing 2516 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 276,493. The deduced protein shares many features with vertebrate homologs, including four repeat structures, each containing six transmembrane domains, a conserved ion selectivity filter region between transmembrane domains 5 and 6, and an EF hand in the carboxy tail. The Drosophila subunit has unusually long initial amino and terminal carboxy tails. The region corresponding to the last transmembrane domain (IVS6) and the adjacent cytoplasmic domain has been postulated to form a phenylalkylamine-binding site in vertebrate calcium channels. This region is conserved in the Drosophila sequence, while domains thought to be involved in dihydropyridine binding show numerous changes. The Drosophila subunit exhibits 78.3% sequence similarity to the rat brain type D calcium channel alpha ...
Rab proteins are small GTPases that play important roles in transport of vesicle cargo and recruitment, association of motor and other proteins with vesicles, and docking and fusion of vesicles at defined locations. In vertebrates, ,75 Rab genes have been identified, some of which have been intensively studied for their roles in endosome and synaptic vesicle trafficking. Recent studies of the functions of certain Rab proteins have revealed specific roles in mediating developmental signal transduction. We have begun a systematic genetic study of the 33 Rab genes in Drosophila. Most of the fly proteins are clearly related to specific vertebrate proteins. We report here the creation of a set of transgenic fly lines that allow spatially and temporally regulated expression of Drosophila Rab proteins. We generated fluorescent protein-tagged wild-type, dominant-negative, and constitutively active forms of 31 Drosophila Rab proteins. We describe Drosophila Rab expression patterns during embryogenesis, ...
Applications are invited for one post of Junior Research Fellow for the ongoing DBT project entitled Unraveling the adaptive genome evolution by whole genome sequencing of Drosophila nasuta nasuta and laboratory evolved four hybrid strains, Cytoraces for the remaining period of 2 years.. Position Title: Junior Research Fellow. Project Title: Unraveling the adaptive genome evolution by whole genome sequencing of Drosophila nasuta nasuta and laboratory evolved four hybrid strains, Cytoraces. Qualifications: JRF position - I or II class (Above 55%) M.Sc. in Genetics/ Zoology/ Genomics/ Bioinformatics. NET/GATE exam qualified candidates or Non- NET candidates with experience in handling Drosophila and also research experience in the genome analysis will be preferred.. Duration: 2 years. Fellowship: The value of the fellowship would be as per DBT regulations.. How To Apply:. The eligible candidates may send application on plain paper with a biodata along with copies of marks cards, certificates, ...
Drosophila huayla adolah saikua lalek dari genus Drosophila. Spesies ko juo marupokan bagian dari famili Drosophila, ordo Diptera, kelas Insecta, filum Arthropoda, dan kingdom Animalia. Istilah Drosophila, baarati panyuko ambun, adolah adaptasi saintifik Latin modern dari kato Yunani δρόσος, drósos, ambun, dan δρόσος, drósos, panyuko, nan ditambahkan jo akiaran Latin feminin -a. ...
Drosophila paratarsata adolah saikua lalek dari genus Drosophila. Spesies ko juo marupokan bagian dari famili Drosophila, ordo Diptera, kelas Insecta, filum Arthropoda, dan kingdom Animalia. Istilah Drosophila, baarati panyuko ambun, adolah adaptasi saintifik Latin modern dari kato Yunani δρόσος, drósos, ambun, dan δρόσος, drósos, panyuko, nan ditambahkan jo akiaran Latin feminin -a. ...
The genetics of resistance to Morinda fruit toxin during the postembryonic stages in Drosophila sechellia Yan Huang, Deniz Erezyilmaz doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/014027 Many phytophagous insect species are ecologic specialists that have adapted to utilize a single host plant. Drosophila sechellia is a specialist that utilizes the ripe fruit of Morinda citrifolia, which is toxic to its…
A transposon based on the transposable element Minos from Drosophila hydei was introduced into the genome of Drosophila melanogaster using transformation mediated by the Minos transposase. The transposon carries a wild-type version of the white gene (w) of Drosophila inserted into the second exon of Minos. Transformation was obtained by injecting the transposon into preblastoderm embryos that were expressing transposase either from a Hsp70-Minos fusion inserted into the genome via P-element-mediated transformation or from a coinjected plasmid carrying the Hsp70-Minos fusion. Between 1% and 6% of the fertile injected individuals gave transformed progeny. Four of the insertions were cloned and the DNA sequences flanking the transposon ends were determined. The empty sites corresponding to three of the insertions were amplified from the recipient strain by PCR, cloned, and sequenced. In all cases, the transposon has inserted into a TA dinucleotide and has created the characteristic TA target site ...
Innate immunity is an ancient defense system that distinguishes between self and non self and is present in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Peptidoglycan (PGN), a cell wall component shared by both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, is the major recognition molecule for the detection of bacteria in Drosophila. Peptidoglycan Recognition Proteins (PGRPs) are conserved from insect to mammals and bind PGN with high affinity. In Drosophila, distinct PGRPs provide essential signals upstream of the Toll and Imd pathways. This thesis concerns the recognition of PGN by PGRPs and the expression of antibacterial peptides from the Imd pathway.. The PGRP-LC locus encodes three splice forms, a, x, and y. PGRP-LCx and PGRP-LCa form heterodimers in the presence of monomeric PGN. We propose a model for activation of Imd where PGRP-LCx binds to monomeric PGN leading to dimerization with PGRP-LCa and activation of the Imd pathway. With polymeric PGN, PGRP-LCx dimers activate the Imd pathway.. Drosophila ...
In 1989 Diane Dodd gave laboratory populations of D. pseudoobscura two different food types, starch and maltose. They rapidly evolved into two distinct groups after only eight generations with the different foods. As the two groups both showed a strong preference for mating with their own type, this was claimed as an example of speciation by reproductive isolation.[5] Dodds experiment has been repeated by others, and works with other kinds of fruit flies and foods.[6] In 2005, D. pseudoobscura was the second Drosophila species to have its genome sequenced, after Drosophila melanogaster.[7] ...
Stephen, , The application to the ICZN (to protect a combination!) was a , ridiculous one. This was a misunderstanding, provoked by inaccurate headlines. , The application should have been to deem , melanogaster to be the type species of Drosophila, setting aside all , previous designations of type species for that nominal genus... That had actually been the case. The Commission was asked to set aside Drosophilas current type species and did not approve this. The case can be solved by creating a mega-genus Drosophila containing many species, probably more than the currently included 1500 species, so D. melanogaster would keep its genus-species combination. This is the responsibility of taxonomists. I see no constraint to create a genus instead of a subgenus Sophophora. Francisco University of Goettingen, Germany www.animalbase.org ...
1. Gilbert SF (2003) Developmental Biology. Sunderland: Sinauer Associates, Inc. 838 p.. 2. Bodentstein D (1950) The Postembryonic development of Drosophila melanogaster. In: Demerec M, editor. Biology of Drosophila. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. pp. 275-367.. 3. Ferris GF (1950) External Morphology of the Adult. In: Demerec M, editor. Biology of Drosophila. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. . pp. 368-419.. 4. Cohen SM (1993) Imaginal Disc Development. In: Bate M, Martinez-Arias A, editors. The Development of Drosophila melanogaster: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. pp. 747-841.. 5. HeberleinU, WolffT, RubinGM (1993) The TGF beta homolog dpp and the segment polarity gene hedgehog are required for propagation of a morphogenetic wave in the Drosophila retina. Cell 75: 913-926.. 6. MaC, ZhouY, BeachyPA, MosesK (1993) The segment polarity gene hedgehog is required for progression of the morphogenetic furrow in the developing Drosophila eye. Cell 75: 927-938.. 7. WolffT, ReadyDF (1991) ...
We studied NF1 mutant phenotypes at Drosophila larval NMJs and found that both Fak56 and NF1 showed very similar phenotypes. We suggest that NF1 mediates Fak56 signaling activity through a protein-protein interaction with Fak56. The interaction with Fak56 is mediated through the N-terminal 400 aa region of NF1 that is important for NF1 function and localization. The NF1 activity in NMJ growth regulation is independent of its GAP activity but mediated through the cAMP pathway. Together with our other results (Tsai et al., 2008, 2012), these findings indicate that presynaptic Fak56 mediates integrin signaling to transduce through the NF1/AC/cAMP pathway (Fig. 6H). Our study reveals the role of NF1 in synapse growth modulation and its relationship with integrin/FAK signaling, which might contribute to the understanding of pathogenesis in the NF1 genetic disorder.. Integrins promote maturation of central hippocampal synapses and peripheral NMJs, mainly through the postsynaptic activity of integrin ...
Ionizing radiation (IR) is used to treat more than half of human cancer patients. The therapeutic effect of IR is due to its ability to induce apoptosis. Success of radiation therapy relies not only on apoptosis induction but also on whether surviving cancer cells proliferate and regenerate a tumor. Drosophila melanogaster is a premier genetic model and, relevant to radiation biology of cancer, Drosophila larvae display an amazing capacity to regenerate. IR doses that kill more than half of the cells in larval tissues still allow complete regeneration to produce an adult fly of normal size and pattern. It is by understanding not only the initial effects of IR such as DNA damage and cell death but also longer-term regenerative responses that we may manipulate and improve radiation therapy of cancer. In this regard, Drosophila offers an unparalleled model to study both types of responses ...
A resource developed by the Murphy lab for the Drosophila research community Contents Overview The Drosophila Gateway Vector collection How to get the vectors Organization of the vectors FAQs Vector sequence files References Copyright notice Figure 1 . The Gateway LR in vitro recombination reaction Overview The Drosophila Gateway™ Vector collection is a set of 68 Gateway-based
"Drosophila". eLife. 5. doi:10.7554/eLife.19334. PMC 5119887. PMID 27873574. Donlea JM, Alam MN, Szymusiak R (June 2017). " ...
Because the immune function of toll in Drosophila was not then known, it was assumed that TIL (now known as TLR1) might ... The prototypic member of the family, the toll receptor (P08953; Tl) in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, was discovered in ... June 2019). "Drosophila". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 294 (26): 10172-10181. doi:10.1074/jbc.RA118.006804. PMC 6664172 ... Medzhitov R, Preston-Hurlburt P, Janeway CA (July 1997). "A human homologue of the Drosophila Toll protein signals activation ...
Drosophila melanogaster produces sperm that can be up to 1.8 mm, while its relative Drosophila bifurca produces the largest ... In Drosophila melanogaster, the entire sperm, tail included, gets incorporated into the oocyte cytoplasm, however, for ... Cooper, K.W. (1950). Demerec, M. (ed.). Biology of Drosophila. New York: Wiley. pp. 1-61. Pitnick, S.; Spicer, G. S.; Markow, T ... Pitnick, S; Markow, TA (27 September 1994). "Large-male advantages associated with costs of sperm production in Drosophila ...
"Interactive Fly, Drosophila". sdbonline.org. v t e. ... involved with the hedgehog signaling pathway in Drosophila. ...
Early Drosophila Development. Retrieved 4 October 2020. "Yahoo". Yahoo. Archived from the original on 2009-12-22. Nissen SB, ... Cdx2 gene Collective cell migration Drosophila embryogenesis Enterocoely Homeobox genes Human embryogenesis Leech embryogenesis ...
Drosophila mushroom bodies are also often used to study learning and memory and are manipulated due to their relatively ... Protein kinase A (PKA) has been found to play an important role in learning and memory in Drosophila. When calcium enters a ... Caron, SJ; Ruta, V; Abbott, LF; Axel, R (2 May 2013). "Random convergence of olfactory inputs in the Drosophila mushroom body ... Wang, Yalin; Mamira, Akira; Chiang, Ann-shyn; Zhong, Yi (April 2008). "Imaging of an early memory trace in the Drosophila ...
Indy, short for I'm not dead yet, is a gene found in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, an important model organism. Mutant ... Reduced expression of this gene in Drosophila melanogaster flies and C. elegans worms (P32739) modeled the effects on obesity ... Niku M, Taipale M (25 March 2003). "Clever Drosophila gene names". Archived from the original on 2007-02-03. Retrieved 2007-02- ... Indy at FlyBase database of Drosophila genes. v t e. ... conferred by cotransporter gene mutations in Drosophila". ...
Over a career that spanned more than 50 years, Crow and his collaborators studied a variety of traits in Drosophila, dissected ... Under the influence of Muller, Patterson was starting to switch to Drosophila genetics, having previously worked on the ... Crow, J. F.; Lindsley, D.; Lucchesi, J. (2006). "Edward Novitski: Drosophila Virtuoso". Genetics. 174 (2): 549-553. doi:10.1534 ... embryology of the armadillo, and so it was that Crow came to study the genetic isolating mechanisms in the Drosophila mulleri ...
Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project) and EDGP (European Drosophila Genome Project) informatics groups. These groups recognized ... Enhancing Drosophila Gene Ontology Annotation: What gene products do and where they do it are important questions for ... List of Drosophila databases Model Organism Databases WormBase Xenbase Thurmond, Jim; Goodman, Joshua L; Strelets, Victor B; ... They were able to do this with the help of information on Drosophila melanogaster in FlyBase. Putative sequence identity was ...
"Lateral Accessory Lobe". Drosophila Gross Anatomy Ontology. Leland Stanford Junior University. Retrieved 2017-11-04. National ... "Lateral Accessory Lobe Commissure". Drosophila Gross Anatomy Ontology. Leland Stanford Junior University. Retrieved 2017-11-04. ...
P, Raghu (August 2012). "Lipid signaling in Drosophila photoreceptors". Biochim Biophys Acta. 1821 (8): 1154-1165. doi:10.1016/ ... PA plays very important role in phototransduction in Drosophila PA is a lipid ligand that gates ion channels. See also lipid- ...
Thomas Hunt Morgan (August 31, 2012). Sex-Linked Inheritance in Drosophila. Ulan Press. pp. 10-11. Nagaoka, SI; Hassold, TJ; ... Calvin Bridges and Thomas Hunt Morgan are credited with discovering nondisjunction in Drosophila melanogaster sex chromosomes ...
Although composed of over 16,000 cells, the Drosophila compound eye is a simple repetitive pattern of 700 to 750 of ommatidia, ... Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) Cagan RL, Ready DF (December 1989). "The emergence of order in the Drosophila pupal ... Cagan R (2009). "Principles of Drosophila eye differentiation". Current Topics in Developmental Biology. 89. Elsevier: 115-35. ... which therefore affects the acuity of Drosophila vision. In true flies, the rhabdom has separated into seven independent ...
The following sections discuss Imd signalling as it is found in Drosophila melanogaster, where it is exceptionally well- ... While the Toll and Imd signalling pathways of Drosophila are commonly depicted as independent for explanatory purposes, the ... The following genes are analogous or homologous between Drosophila melanogaster (in bold) and human TNFR1 signalling: Imd: ... "A recessive mutation, immune deficiency (imd), defines two distinct control pathways in the Drosophila host defense". Google ...
Intra-sexual selection in Drosophila. Heredity, 2(3), pp.349-368. Alexander, R.D., 1974. The evolution of social behavior. ...
... (flb) is a Drosophila gene that encodes the Drosophila epidermal growth factor receptor (DER) homolog. The ... Drosophila EGF receptor is involved in the development of embryos as well as larvae/pupae's wings, eyes, legs and ovaries. ... The gene is located at 3-26 of the Drosophila melanogaster genome. It is named faint little ball because when the gene is ... Expression of the flb gene can be seen as early as four hours into the development of Drosophila melanogaster. At four hours ...
When Yao was in Britain, his research mainly focused on the developmental embryology of drosophila. Yao made significant ... "Cytochemical studies on drosophila development". hdl:1842/11639. Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) 生化细胞所庆祝姚錱院士90华诞暨从
The only resource that a male provides is a nuptial gift, such as protection or food, as seen in Drosophila subobscura. The ... Steele, RH (1986). "Courtship feeding in Drosophila subobscura. 2. Courtship feeding by males influences female mate choice". ...
Morgan, T. H. (1910). "Sex-limited inheritance in Drosophila". Science. 32 (812): 120-122. Bibcode:1910Sci....32..120M. doi: ... Morgan's 1910 discovery of the pattern of inheritance of the white eyes mutation in Drosophila melanogaster. Such discoveries ...
Coyne, Jerry A. & Orr, H. Allen (March 1989). "Patterns of Speciation in Drosophila". Evolution. 43 (2): 362-381. doi:10.1111/j ... and Orr found equal levels of postzygotic isolation among sympatric and allopatric species pairs in closely related Drosophila ...
metafemale: in Drosophila, a female phenotype of relatively low viability in which the ratio of X chromosomes to sets of ... metamale: in Drosophila, a poorly viabile male characterized by cells containing one X and three sets of autosomes, previously ... A metamale (or supermale) is a low viability Drosophila fruit fly with a male phenotype in which the ratio of X chromosomes to ... American geneticist Calvin Bridges, who discovered the genic balance sex-determination system in Drosophila in 1921, used the ...
Morgan TH (July 1910). "Sex limited inheritance in drosophila". Science. 32 (812): 120-2. Bibcode:1910Sci....32..120M. doi: ... A mutation in this gene was reported by Morgan in 1910 in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. In the fly this mutation is ...
Hotta Y, Benzer S (December 1972). "Mapping of behaviour in Drosophila mosaics". Nature. 240 (5383): 527-35. Bibcode:1972Natur. ...
She primarily researches the fruit fly Drosophila as a model for human neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease and ... Feany, Mel B.; Bender, Welcome W. (2000). "A Drosophila model of Parkinson's disease". Nature. 404 (6776): 394-398. Bibcode: ... Chen, Li; Feany, Mel B. (2005). "Α-Synuclein phosphorylation controls neurotoxicity and inclusion formation in a Drosophila ...
"The Genome Sequence of Drosophila melanogaster." Science. 24 March 2000. "The $2 Million Genome." Technology Review. 1 June ...
The cabbage looper genome is larger than the Drosophila melanogaster genome (180Mb) but smaller than the Bombyx mori genome ( ... "The Genome Sequence of Drosophila melanogaster". Science. 287 (5461): 2185-2195. Bibcode:2000Sci...287.2185.. CiteSeerX 10.1. ...
Faced with the challenge of assembling the first larger eukaryotic genomes-the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster in 2000 and ... March 2000). "A whole-genome assembly of Drosophila". Science. 287 (5461): 2196-204. Bibcode:2000Sci...287.2196M. CiteSeerX ...
In the 1930s Dobzhansky and his co-workers collected Drosophila pseudoobscura and D. persimilis from wild populations in ... Stalker H.D; Carson H.L. (1948). "An altitudinal transect of Drosophila robusta". Evolution. 1 (4): 237-48. doi:10.2307/2405325 ...
In Drosophila melanogaster, one population of Johnston's organ neurons has been shown to mediate the sensation of sound, ... In Drosophila melanogaster, where it is possible to systematically analyze neuronal populations using genetic tools, the ... For example, in Johnston's organ of Drosophila melanogaster, sensory neurons that detect sound may express nompC, an ion ... Mamiya A, Gurung P, Tuthill JC (November 2018). "Neural Coding of Leg Proprioception in Drosophila". Neuron. 100 (3): 636-650. ...
"N6-methyladenine DNA modification in Drosophila". Cell. 161 (4): 893-906. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2015.04.018. PMID 25936838. "Chuan ...
The vinegar flies Drosophila serrata, D. birchii, and D. dominicana are three sibling species (that is, species nearly ... Other articles where Drosophila serrata is discussed: evolution: Ethological (behavioral) isolation: ... The vinegar flies Drosophila serrata, D. birchii, and D. dominicana are three sibling species (that is, species nearly ... study employed different strains of Drosophila serrata, a species of vinegar fly from eastern Australia and New Guinea. ...
DQ412091-DQ412111; Table 3). Of these, 7 had been reported in Drosophila before and 7 were new haplotypes for Drosophila (i.e. ... including Drosophila melanogaster, while only 26 belong to the larger subgenus Drosophila, which has ∼1500 species, excluding ... Ota, T., M. Kawabe, K. Oishi and D. F. Poulson, 1979 Non-male-killing spiroplasmas in Drosophila hydei. J. Hered. 70: 211-213. ... Yamada, M., S. Nawa and T. K. Watanabe, 1982 A mutant of SR organism (SRO) in Drosophila that does not kill the host males. Jpn ...
Annual Drosophila Research Conference. The Annual Drosophila Research Conference is the premier meeting for Drosophila ... As many as 1,000 presentations cover the full diversity of Drosophila investigations, from genetics to molecular biology, cell ...
ENAH stands for Enabled Homolog of Drosophila. ENAH is defined as Enabled Homolog of Drosophila very rarely. ... 2020 https://www.acronymfinder.com/Enabled-Homolog-of-Drosophila-(ENAH).html. *Chicago style: Acronym Finder. S.v. "ENAH." ... n.d.) Acronym Finder. (2020). Retrieved June 3 2020 from https://www.acronymfinder.com/Enabled-Homolog-of-Drosophila-(ENAH). ... a href=https://www.acronymfinder.com/Enabled-Homolog-of-Drosophila-(ENAH).html,ENAH,/a,. ...
This development is mainly due to the fact that several genes causing human heart disease are also present in Drosophila, where ... This review will attempt to briefly introduce the anatomy of the Drosophila circulatory system and then focus on the different ... In recent years, the Drosophila heart has also attracted the attention of researchers in the field of biomedicine. ... The circulatory system of Drosophila melanogaster represents an easily amenable genetic model whose analysis at different ...
Early olfactory processing in Drosophila: mechanisms and principles * RI Wilson. (2013) Annual Review of Neuroscience 36:217- ... In Drosophila, Sema-1a was initially identified as a repulsive axon guidance cue that signals through its receptor PlexA (Yu et ... Food odors trigger Drosophila males to deposit a pheromone that guides aggregation and female oviposition decisions * CC Lin ... The Drosophila EB harbors a particular laminar organization in which axons from multiple ring (R) neuron types form several ...
Biology of Drosophila. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.. Lutz, F. 1948. Field Book of Insects. New York, NY: G. P. Putnams ... Many times Drosophila can be found in fruit cellars, or other available man made structures with a large supply of food. ( ... Drosophila are considered major pests in some area of the world for this reason. (Demerec, 1950; Lutz, 1948; Wilson, October, ... Reproduction in Drosophila is rapid. A single pair of flies can produce hundreds of offspring within a couple of weeks, and the ...
"Drosophila Virtual Library.. *"Drosophila Genomics Resource Center" - collects, maintains and distributes Drosophila DNA clones ... Wikispecies has information related to Drosophila melanogaster. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Drosophila melanogaster. ... Scholia has a topic profile for Drosophila melanogaster.. *. "A quick and simple introduction to Drosophila melanogaster". ... Bloomington Drosophila Stock Center at Indiana University: Basic Methods of Culturing Drosophila Archived 2006-09-01 at the ...
Drosophila melanogaster is a human commensal typically seen hovering around garbage cans or the bananas in kitchen fruit bowls ... Drosophila Animal Sciences COPYRIGHT 2002 The Gale Group Inc.. Drosophila. The common fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is a ... With the sequencing of the entire genome of Drosophila in 2000, Drosophila will continue to be an important tool in ... The life cycle of Drosophila is made up of four stages: egg, larva, pupa, and adult. Eggs are typically laid in a food source ...
... distribution and control of Spotted Wing Drosophila ...
Drosophila (war); Drosophila (id); Drosophila (nn); Drosophila (nb); Drosophila (nl); Drosophila (pt); Drosophila (sk); 果蝇属 (zh ... Drosophila (de); дразафілы (be); مگس سرکه (fa); Drosophila (bg); bananfluer (da); Drosophila (tr); דרוזופילה (he); Drosophila ( ... Drosophila (he); Drosophila, дрозофила (ru); Дрозофіла, Drosophila, Oinopota (uk); Drosophila (ca); Drosófila, Drosófilas (pt ... Drosophila (fi); Дрозофиль шыбындары (kk); Bananmuŝo (eo); octomilka (cs); Drosophila (bs); Drosophila (it); ড্রসোফিলা (bn); ...
a fly of the genus Drosophila, esp. D. melanogaster, used in laboratory studies of genetics and development. ...
Drosophila blood cells.. Meister M1, Lagueux M.. Author information. 1. UPR 9022 du CNRS, IBMC, 15 rue René Descartes, 67084 ... Drosophila blood cells or haemocytes belong to three lineages: plasmatocytes, crystal cells and lamellocytes. There is no ... Drosophila plasmatocytes are professional phagocytes reminiscent of the cells from the mammalian monocyte/macrophage lineage. ... Finally, lamellocytes represent a cell type that specifically differentiates after parasitism of Drosophila larvae and forms a ...
Females of Drosophila pachea and Drosophila wassermani store sperm only in the spermathecae, while Drosophila nannoptera ... For most Drosophila species, however, these mechanisms are not completely efficient, and in Drosophila species in which it has ... They range from 0.32 mm in Drosophila persimilis (28) to 58.29 mm in Drosophila bifurca (29); in the latter case sperm are ... Both the sperm and nonsperm components of the ejaculate are known to be extremely variable in Drosophila. Sperm in Drosophila ...
"I mean, the successful male drosophila is a drosophila that gets enough sleep." ... While Stahl and the 60 Minutes crew refer to Drosophila as "fruit flies", McRobert knows better. This is from his website:. My ... Stahl watched as McRobert used a bizarre contraption to suck a male drosophila (fruit fly) out of a vial and put him into a ... The special included an interview with Scott McRobert about sleep deprivation and mating in Drosophila. ...
The D. simulans and D. yakuba genomes mark the third and fourth sequenced Drosophila genomes - the second being the more ... That approach has made its way to Drosophila genomics with the publication of a paper describing polymorphism across the entire ... Around the same time as that white paper, another proposal was submitted to bring the total number of sequenced Drosophila ... Population Genomics: Whole-Genome Analysis of Polymorphism and Divergence in Drosophila simulans. PLoS Biol 5: e310 doi:10.1371 ...
GFP in Drosophila.. Brand A1.. Author information. 1. Wellcome Trust and Cancer Research Campaign, Institute of Cancer and ...
Drosophila SOCS Proteins. Wojciech J. Stec and Martin P. Zeidler MRC Centre for Developmental and Biomedical Genetics and ... Wojciech J. Stec and Martin P. Zeidler, "Drosophila SOCS Proteins," Journal of Signal Transduction, vol. 2011, Article ID ...
This site is also protected by an SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) certificate thats been signed by the U.S. government. The https:// means all transmitted data is encrypted - in other words, any information or browsing history that you provide is transmitted securely.. ...
46thAnnual Drosophila Research Conference, San Diego, California. 19thEuropean Drosophila Research Conference, Eger, Hungary. ... Drosophila: A Guide to Species Identification and Use. Held, L.I., Jr. Imaginal Discs: The Genetic and Cellular Logic of ... flare strains of Drosophila melanogaster.. Etges, W.J. Drosophila desertorum in Big Bend National Park, Texas: The search for ... Drosophila.. Garcia, A.C.L., M.S. Gottschalk, G.F. Audino, C. Rohde, V.H. Valiati, and V.L.S. Valente. First evidence of ...
... physical and neurological properties are highly conserved between humans and Drosophila and nearly 75% of human disease-causing ... of human disease-causing genes have a functional homologue in Drosophila. This volume provides recent advances in Drosophila ... The book provides a useful resource for all scientists who are starting to use the Drosophila model in their studies, and for ... Drosophila as a Model to Gain Insight into the Role of lncRNAs in Neurological Disorders ...
Clock Mutants of Drosophila melanogaster. Ronald J. Konopka and Seymour Benzer. PNAS September 1, 1971 68 (9) 2112-2116; https ... A Key Temporal Delay in the Circadian Cycle of Drosophila Is Mediated by a Nuclear Localization Signal in the Timeless Protein ... Failure to reproduce period-dependent song cycles in Drosophila is due to poor automated pulse-detection and low-intensity ... Central Regulation of Locomotor Behavior of Drosophila melanogaster Depends on a CASK Isoform Containing CaMK-Like and L27 ...
In: Siddiqi O., Babu P., Hall L.M., Hall J.C. (eds) Development and Neurobiology of Drosophila. Basic Life Sciences, vol 16. ... T.R. Venkatesh, S. Zingde and K.S. Krishnan, Isolation and characterization of membranes from Drosophila melanogaster,this ... 2-4 We have explored the possibility of in vitro phosphorylation of proteins in membrane preparations obtained from Drosophila ... Thammana P. (1980) Phosphorylated Proteins in Drosophila Membranes. ...
Timofeeff-Ressovsky, N. Temperature-experiments with Drosophila melanogaster.. Timofeeff-Ressovsky, N. A comparison of the ...
This project will be carried on an Asian drosophila species (Drosophila suzukii, aka the Spotted Wing Drosophila ) that has ... MORPHMET] Postdoc position on Drosophila suzukii debat Wed, 22 Mar 2017 02:54:08 -0700 ... A two years post doctoral position will open in our lab next fall on the phenotypic and genetic evolution of *Drosophila ...
p, Whether youre just beginning to work with Drosophila, are an experienced fly-pusher, or are just curious about fly mutants ... youll enjoy perusing the photos and information contained within the Drosophila app. Primarily through photos, the app lets ... Whether youre just beginning to work with Drosophila, are an experienced fly-pusher, or are just curious about fly mutants, ... youll enjoy perusing the photos and information contained within the Drosophila app. Primarily through photos, the app lets ...
The seminal fluid of male Drosophila contains a cocktail of proteins that have striking effects on male and female fitness. In ... Seminal fluid-mediated fitness traits in Drosophila. *Tracey Chapman. 1. Heredity volume 87, pages511-521(2001)Cite this ... Drosophila suzukii contains a peptide homologous to the Drosophila melanogaster sex peptide and functional in both species. ... Male Drosophila transfer a cocktail of ejaculate proteins at mating that have striking effects on fitness. In D. melanogaster, ...
... azza sellami via dros%40net.bio.net (by a.sellami from cnic.u-bordeaux1.fr). Mon Dec 3 10:31:44 EST 2007 * ...
... MA11 at phoenix.cambridge.ac.uk MA11 at phoenix.cambridge.ac.uk Thu Aug 16 08:08:14 EST 1990 *Previous ... Drosophila Genetic Maps. Version 3.5 16 August 1990 Michael Ashburner Department of Genetics Cambridge, England. Telephone 44- ... following tables have been compiled from a database of genetic and other information concerning the genetic loci of Drosophila ...
Drosophila. Drosophila - Development. Insects. Insects - Development. Nature / Animals / Insects & Spiders. Nature / Insects & ... abdominal segments adult analia antenna axons Biol Biology of Drosophila bithorax blastoderm Bownes bristles Bryant Campos- ... analysis clones compartment boundary cuticle cytoplasm defects developmental Devl differentiation disc of Drosophila Drosophila ... gb-gplus-shareA handbook of Drosophila development. ... Drosophila_development.html?id=1anwAAAAMAAJ&utm_source= ...
Previous message: [Drosophila] Drosophila incubators/growth-chambers *Next message: [Drosophila] looking for expression vector ... Previous message: [Drosophila] Drosophila incubators/growth-chambers *Next message: [Drosophila] looking for expression vector ... Drosophila] (no subject). Krishna Bhat via dros%40net.bio.net (by kmbhat from utmb.edu). Tue May 15 17:37:44 EST 2007 * ...
... g.e.w.thorig g.e.w.thorig at pobox.ruu.nl Tue Sep 19 03:14:01 EST 1995 *Previous message: (none) ... Does anybody know about a film (movies) of Drosophila concerning the development from embryo up to and including imago. Are ...
Drosophila immigrans. Click on image to zoom in. © Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 Email full-size image and text title. ... IM/I_MWS/0000/640/Drosophila_immigrans,I_MWS78.jpg. width=458 x height=640 pixels; size=83123 bytes Discover Life , Top Updated ... identification and distribution of Drosophila immigrans image ...
  • The Annual Drosophila Research Conference is the premier meeting for Drosophila researchers. (genetics-gsa.org)
  • The Annual Drosophila Research Conference is the preeminent meeting for Drosophila researchers. (eventsinamerica.com)
  • The Annual Drosophila Research Conference is an opportunity to learn about the latest research, network with colleagues and share your scientific findings. (eventsinamerica.com)
  • Hydra) suggest that the caspase and Bcl-2 families were already highly complex in cnidarians and that Caenorhabditis and Drosophila lost many of the genes involved in apoptosis. (kegg.jp)
  • Heterozygous genetic mutations linked to this phenotype have been studied in Drosophila orthologs and include genes Nipped-B , SMC1 , SMC3 , and verthandi ( vtd , also known as RAD21 in humans), the responsible gene of choice for this experimental analysis (Bloomington Drosophila Stock Center). (xikel.xyz)
  • Any of numerous tiny fruit flies for the genus Drosophila, specially D. melanogaster, used extensively in hereditary analysis. (azdictionary.com)
  • A genus of flies, of this household Muscidæ, one species of which, Drosophila flava (the yellowish turnip-leaf miner), is extremely destructive to turnips, the maggots consuming in to the pulp and creating whitish blisters in the upper part. (azdictionary.com)
  • The vinegar flies Drosophila serrata , D. birchii , and D. dominicana are three sibling species (that is, species nearly indistinguishable morphologically) that are endemic in Australia and on the islands of New Guinea and New Britain. (britannica.com)
  • study employed different strains of Drosophila serrata , a species of vinegar fly from eastern Australia and New Guinea. (britannica.com)
  • Specifically, I present my characterization of a new Rab11 effector, dRip11 (Drosophila Rab11-family interacting protein). (ku.edu)
  • The experiment applies immunohistochemistry, anti-body staining with molecular markers, to visualize neural protein expression patterns in Drosophila neurodevelopment. (xikel.xyz)
  • Using immortalized [ 3 H]inositol-labelled S3 cells, we demonstrated in the present study that various elements of the inositol phosphate signalling cascade are recruited by a Drosophila homologue from a cytokine family of so-called GBPs (growth-blocking peptides). (portlandpress.com)
  • Conducted on Drosophila melanogaster embryos in varying neurodevelopmental stages fixed in 4% formaldehyde, the investigation examined slides of 21 wild-type subjects and 23 vtd genetic mutants (created via balancer chromosome rescue) under immunofluorescent microscopy. (xikel.xyz)
  • In Drosophila, fewer representatives of each signaling component are present compared with vertebrates, simplifying mechanistic study of the pathway. (umn.edu)
  • Although there are fewer family members, the TGF-β family pathway still regulates multiple and diverse functions in Drosophila. (umn.edu)
  • Mammals, by comparison with Caenorhabditis and Drosophila, exhibit highly complex extrinsic and intrinsic pathways for apoptosis induction. (kegg.jp)
  • Tracing these neurodevelopmental and neuroanatomical abnormalities in the Drosophila model will provide revealing clues about the homologous human gene attributable to a subset of non-classical Cornelia De Lange Syndrome. (xikel.xyz)
  • We report here a novel Drosophila-based model for screening anthracene-polyamine conjugates in a developing and intact epithelium (Drosophila imaginal discs), wherein cell-cell adhesion properties are maintained. (ucf.edu)
  • Because of vtd' s location deep within the centric heterochromatin of the left third arm of the Drosophila chromosome, little is known of its characterization at the molecular level (Hallson, 2008 via SDB). (xikel.xyz)
  • Investigation of γ neurons in Drosophila suggests that cohesin mediates the elimination of axon projections and dendrites. (xikel.xyz)
  • In this review, we focus our attention on several of the classic and best-studied functions for TGF-β family signaling in regulating Drosophila developmental processes such as embryonic and imaginal disc patterning, but we also describe several recently discovered roles in regulating hormonal, physiological, neuronal, innate immunity, and tissue homeostatic processes. (umn.edu)
  • In the first part of this dissertation, I describe my efforts to unravel the mechanism by which gurken (grk) mRNA becomes localized to the anterodorsal corner of the Drosophila oocyte during mid-oogenesis. (ku.edu)
  • In the developing Drosophila eye, individual cell fates are specified when general signaling mechanisms are interpreted in the context of cell-specific transcription factors. (elsevier.com)
  • Drosophila melanogaster has been introduced to every continent of the world with one exception, Antarctica. (animaldiversity.org)
  • Humans have helped to spread Drosophila melanogaster to every other location which it inhabits. (animaldiversity.org)
  • Drosophila melanogaster lives in a wide range of habitats. (animaldiversity.org)
  • Therefore, in colder climates Drosophila melanogaster cannot survive. (animaldiversity.org)
  • In temperate regions where human activities have introduced Drosophila melanogaster , these flies seek shelter in colder winter months. (animaldiversity.org)
  • Like other flies, Drosophila melanogaster has a single pair of wings that form from the middle segment of its thorax. (animaldiversity.org)
  • As in all insect species Drosophila melanogaster lays eggs. (animaldiversity.org)
  • Drosophila melanogaster also have a propensity to fly towards light. (animaldiversity.org)
  • Our training and test sets of human and Drosophila melanogaster splice sites are available to the community for testing splice site predictors. (fruitfly.org)
  • Drosophila melanogaster is a species of fly (the taxonomic order Diptera) in the family Drosophilidae . (wikipedia.org)
  • Drosophila melanogaster is a holometabolous insect, so it undergoes a full metamorphosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The common fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is a human commensal typically seen hovering around garbage cans or the bananas in kitchen fruit bowls. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In 1910 Thomas Hunt Morgan of Columbia University in New York City discovered a white-eyed mutant in Drosophila melanogaster which differed from the standard red-eyed fruit fly . (encyclopedia.com)
  • That approach has made its way to Drosophila genomics with the publication of a paper describing polymorphism across the entire genome of D. simulans , a sibling species to D. melanogaster . (scienceblogs.com)
  • 2000. The Genome Sequence of Drosophila melanogaster . (scienceblogs.com)
  • Incidence of ovarian abnormalities in Drosophila melanogaster . (ou.edu)
  • Toxicity parameters of 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide, urethane and methyl methanesulfonate in the flare and Oregon- flare strains of Drosophila melanogaster . (ou.edu)
  • Non toxicity of phenylpropanoid verbascoside from a Buddleja scordioides extract in Drosophila melanogaster flare and Oregon- flare strains and toxicity of caffeic acid in the flare strain. (ou.edu)
  • Ivanov, Y.N. Stability of sex ratio at mutagenesis in Drosophila melanogaster . (ou.edu)
  • Lack of correlation between reproductive diapause and life span in Drosophila melanogaster . (ou.edu)
  • The clastogenic effects of Aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) on polytene chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster . (ou.edu)
  • T.R. Venkatesh, S. Zingde and K.S. Krishnan, Isolation and characterization of membranes from Drosophila melanogaster ,this volume. (springer.com)
  • Timofeeff-Ressovsky, N. Temperature-experiments with Drosophila melanogaster . (ou.edu)
  • Telephone 44-223-333969 Fax 44-223-333992 e-mail ma11 at phx.cam.ac.uk The following tables have been compiled from a database of genetic and other information concerning the genetic loci of Drosophila melanogaster. (bio.net)
  • Of these, 41 belong to the subgenus Sophophora, which has ∼500 species, including Drosophila melanogaster , while only 26 belong to the larger subgenus Drosophila, which has ∼1500 species, excluding the Hawaiian Drosophila and the Scaptomyza ( M arkow and O'G rady 2006 ). (genetics.org)
  • The recent completion of the Drosophila melanogaster genomic sequence to high quality and the availability of a greatly expanded set of Drosophila cDNA sequences, aligning to 78% of the predicted euchromatic gene. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Drosophila melanogaster genome was the first metazoan genome to have been sequenced by the whole-genome shotgun (WGS) method. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The recent completion of the Release 3 euchromatic genomic sequence of Drosophila melanogaster by the Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project ha. (biomedcentral.com)
  • At a molecular level, genes have been found to influence alcohol tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster. (accessexcellence.org)
  • Martin, J., Chong, T. & Ferree, P. M. Male killing Spiroplasma preferentially disrupts neural development in the Drosophila melanogaster embryo. (nature.com)
  • The fruit fly Drosophila simulans is a member of the melanogaster group of the subgenus Sophophora and a close relative of D. melanogaster. (uniprot.org)
  • Cruzamiento entre una cepa silvestre y una cepa mutante forked de Drosophila melanogaster Miguel Correa, Susana Prieto, Camila Yepes Introducción ¿Por qué Drosophila melanogaster? (prezi.com)
  • Las proporciones fenotípicas esperadas para los dos cruces son: 75% silvestre y 25% forked Discusión El locus forked no se encuentra en los cromosomas sexuales sino en los autosomas de D. melanogaster, ya que los resultados la prueba de Chi2 apoya las proporciones de un cruce al analizar un gen que se encuentra en un autosoma. (prezi.com)
  • For anesthetizing Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) and other small insects. (fishersci.com)
  • Here we describe the proteome of Drosophila melanogaster centromeres as analyzed by quantitative affinity purification-mass spectrometry (AP-MS). The AP-MS input chromatin material was prepared from D. melanogaster cell lines expressing CENP-ACID or H3.3 fused to EGFP as baits. (mendeley.com)
  • Thermal fluctuations during development in Drosophila melanogaster lead to detrimental cold and beneficial heat acclimation responses, while thermal fluctuations induce little acclimation response during adult exposure. (biologists.org)
  • We highlight studies that exploited computational tools and the genetic accessibility and rich social life of Drosophila melanogaster to reveal molecular and neuronal determinants of social networks and collective behavior. (biologists.org)
  • Common vinegar flies ( Drosophila melanogaster ) during mating on a kiwifruit. (eurekalert.org)
  • The common vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster is a very well-studied animal. (eurekalert.org)
  • the signal molecule which attracts males and triggers mating behavior of the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster remained until recently unidentified. (eurekalert.org)
  • Developmental toxicity of mitomycin C in Drosophila melanogaster. (cdc.gov)
  • Drosophila melanogaster was introduced into the field of genetic experiments by Thomas Hunt Morgan in 1909. (bionity.com)
  • One of the best understood examples of pattern formation is the patterning along the future head to tail (antero-posterior) axis of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster . (bionity.com)
  • In today's ScienceExpress, John Chant and colleagues at CuraGen, New Haven, Connecticut, report that they have identified over 20,000 different interactions among over 7,000 proteins that are coded in the genome of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster . (alzforum.org)
  • This is the premier meeting for students, postdoctoral fellows, research staff and principal investigators studying Drosophila melanogaster . (genetics-gsa.org)
  • The ability to genetically transform and modify Drosophila melanogaster was originally made possible through the use of transposable elements (TEs). (els.net)
  • Let us give some thought to the Y chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster , that engaging fly which is the bond-servant of genetics. (evolutionnews.org)
  • The fly Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most intensively studied organisms in biology and serves as a model system for the investigation of many developmental and cellular processes common to higher eukaryotes, including humans. (osti.gov)
  • Is the Subject Area "Drosophila melanogaster" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • The PCNA from Drosophila melanogaster (DmPCNA) was purified and crystallized. (rcsb.org)
  • In this review, we discuss using Drosophila melanogaster as a model to study TBI (6) and outline the current TBI inducing methods used to inflict brain trauma. (frontiersin.org)
  • The relatively small brain sized (~100,000 neurons and glia), conserved neurotransmitter signaling mechanisms, and sophisticated genetics of Drosophila melanogaster allows for cell biological, molecular, and genetic analyses that are impractical in mammalian models of TBI. (frontiersin.org)
  • In 2005, D. pseudoobscura was the second Drosophila species to have its genome sequenced, after Drosophila melanogaster . (wikipedia.org)
  • Drosophila melanogaster is a small, common fly found near rotting fruit . (wikipedia.org)
  • We highlight here the historic discoveries made using the model organism Drosophila melanogaster and its contributions to biomedical and cancer research. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The circulatory system of Drosophila melanogaster represents an easily amenable genetic model whose analysis at different levels, i.e. , from single molecules up to functional anatomy, has provided new insights into general aspects of cardiogenesis, heart physiology and cardiac aging, to name a few examples. (mdpi.com)
  • Drosophila melanogaster is a widely studied model organism due to its versatility and facility of use. (jove.com)
  • Greenspan, Ralph J. Fly Pushing, the Theory and Practice of Drosophila Genetics. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Kohler, Robert E. Lords of the Fly: Drosophila Genetics and the Experimental Life. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Since the founding of Drosophila genetics by Thomas Hunt Morgan and his colleagues over 100 years ago, the experimental induction of mosaicism has featured prominently in its recognition as an unsurpassed genetic model organism. (genetics.org)
  • A project using quantitative genetics and systems biology to understand cell-type diversity and neurodegenerative disease in the Drosophila brain. (washington.edu)
  • A candidate with a recent Ph.D. degree and a strong background in Drosophila genetics is sought to participate in studies on pathogenesis of tauopathies, and to examine tau-targeting therapies in Drosophila models. (alzforum.org)
  • Strong background in Drosophila genetics. (alzforum.org)
  • Drosophila has played a critical role in revolutions in genetics and molecular biology--the announcement in 1981 that the P transposable element could be used to create transgenic fruit flies also assured Drosophila a prominent place in genome research. (sciencemag.org)
  • Engels, W.R. (2000) Genetics: Reversal of fortune for Drosophila geneticists? (sciencemag.org)
  • Drosophila , the common fruit fly, is an ideal organism for studying basic genetics and the laws of heredity. (flinnsci.com)
  • The 56th Annual Drosophila Research Conference , sponsored by the Genetics Society of America , is taking place March 4-8, 2015 at the Sheraton Chicago Hotel & Towers . (genetics-gsa.org)
  • Drosophila pseudoobscura is a species of fruit fly , used extensively in lab studies of the genetics of natural populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • WASHINGTON - The majority of genes associated with nephrotic syndrome (NS) in humans also play pivotal roles in Drosophila renal function, a conservation of function across species that validates transgenic flies as ideal pre-clinical models to improve understanding of human disease, a Children's National Health System research team reports in a recent issue of Human Molecular Genetics . (eurekalert.org)
  • A series of refereed research articles from Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project, FlyBase and colleagues, describing Release 3 of the Drosophila genome, are freely available online. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, and Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3200, USA. (sciencemag.org)
  • The homeotic selector genes of Drosophila were later found to be arranged in the same order as the homologous homeotic selector genes in humans and other animals. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Characterization of UDP-glycosyltransferase genes in Drosophila pseudoobscura . (ou.edu)
  • Targeted mutagenesis of Drosophila atm and mre11 genes. (ou.edu)
  • Non-additive combined effect of multiple mutations in tumor suppressor genes on the frequency of hyperplastic mosaic clones in Drosophila imagoes. (ou.edu)
  • Most biological pathways, physical and neurological properties are highly conserved between humans and Drosophila and nearly 75% of human disease-causing genes have a functional homologue in Drosophila. (springer.com)
  • The Drosophila bithorax complex is subdivided into three major genes: Ultrabithorax+, abdominal-A+ and Abdominal-B+. (nih.gov)
  • Bicoid and hunchback are the maternal effect genes that are most important for patterning of anterior parts (head and thorax) of the Drosophila embryo. (bionity.com)
  • Nanos and Caudal are maternal effect genes that are important in the formation of more posterior abdominal segments of the Drosophila embryo. (bionity.com)
  • To address those research gaps, Zhe Han, Ph.D., principal investigator and associate professor in the Center for Cancer & Immunology Research at Children's National, and colleagues systematically studied NS-associated genes in the Drosophila model, including seven genes whose renal function had never been analyzed in a pre-clinical model. (eurekalert.org)
  • This development is mainly due to the fact that several genes causing human heart disease are also present in Drosophila , where they play the same or similar roles in heart development, maintenance or physiology as their respective counterparts in humans. (mdpi.com)
  • A list and description of Drosophila genes involved in leg pattern formation and development. (curriki.org)
  • At the genetic level, more is known about Drosophila than any other multicellular organism. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A two years post doctoral position will open in our lab next fall on the phenotypic and genetic evolution of *Drosophila suzukii* throughout its recent worldwide invasion. (mail-archive.com)
  • Drosophila Genetic Maps. (bio.net)
  • Although heritable microorganisms are increasingly recognized as widespread in insects, no systematic screens for such symbionts have been conducted in Drosophila species (the primary insect genetic models for studies of evolution, development, and innate immunity). (genetics.org)
  • Despite the broad interest in Drosophila for ecological, evolutionary, and genetic studies, and the recent investigations of heritable symbionts in insects generally, few Drosophila species have been screened for the presence of heritable endosymbionts. (genetics.org)
  • Here, we discuss how genetic mosaicism in Drosophila became an invaluable research tool that revolutionized developmental biology. (genetics.org)
  • His laboratory has helped develop Drosophila genetic technology, most recently as part of the Gene Disruption Project. (genetics-gsa.org)
  • As a consequence, the genetic toolbox of Drosophila geneticists have considerably expanded and will have a dramatic impact on our ability to understand genetic pathways in this insect. (els.net)
  • The development of the dorsal vessel in Drosophila is one of the first systems in which key mechanisms regulating cardiogenesis have been defined in great detail at the genetic and molecular level. (mdpi.com)
  • Many of the major components that control Drosophila cardiogenesis were discovered based on candidate gene approaches and their functions were defined by employing the outstanding genetic tools and molecular techniques available in this system. (mdpi.com)
  • Apart from classical forward genetic screens, the availability of the thoroughly annotated Drosophila genome sequence made new genome-wide approaches possible, which include the generation of massive numbers of RNA interference (RNAi) reagents that were used in forward genetic screens, as well as studies of the transcriptomes and proteomes of the developing heart under normal and experimentally manipulated conditions. (mdpi.com)
  • Drosophila subobscura is a species of fruit fly in the family Drosophilidae. (wikipedia.org)
  • First record of Drosophila parthenogenetica and D. neomorpha , cardini group, Heed, 1962 (Drosophilidae), in Brazil. (ou.edu)
  • Differential body expression of isoenzymatic loci in adults of the cactophilic species Drosophila antonietae (Diptera: Drosophilidae). (ou.edu)
  • Drosophila xalapa [1] este o specie de muște din genul Drosophila , familia Drosophilidae , descrisă de Vilela și Bachli în anul 2004. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the recent kerfuffle over Sarah Palin's disparaging remarks about "fruit fly" research, an important point was missed by the general public, scientists, and even Drosophila geneticists: she wasn't talking about Drosophila. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Drosophila has long been a favorite model system for geneticists and developmental biologists studying embryogenesis . (bionity.com)
  • Due to its small size, ease of culture and short generation time, geneticists have been using Drosophila ever since. (wikipedia.org)
  • First record of subgenus Phloridosa of Drosophila in southern Brazil, with notes on breeding sites. (ou.edu)
  • Starting with a review of Drosophila's value as a highly tractable model organism for studying human diseases, subsequent chapters present Drosophila models for specific human diseases. (springer.com)
  • Labelling Drosophila pupae with BrdU Protocol Protocol for labelling Drosophila pupae with BrdU. (molecularstation.com)
  • Nearly all cell division mutants in Drosophila were recovered in late larval/pupal lethal screens, with less than 10 embryonic lethal mutants identified, because larval development occurs without a requirement for cell division. (mit.edu)
  • To follow larval behavior in the presence or absence of nematodes we monitored Drosophila larval locomotion behaviors using FIMtrack (a recently devised automated method) to elucidate evasive strategies of hosts. (diva-portal.org)
  • This video will cover the essential methods for the dissection, fixation, blocking, and mounting of Drosophila larval tissue and examples of their applications. (jove.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry of Drosophila larva hinges on proper dissection, which demands accuracy and timeliness due to the sensitivity of larval tissue. (jove.com)
  • In this video we'll focus on the reagents, tools, and processes used in the immunohistochemistry of the Drosophila larval brain beginning with fixation. (jove.com)
  • 2007. Population Genomics: Whole-Genome Analysis of Polymorphism and Divergence in Drosophila simulans . (scienceblogs.com)
  • Mating propensity: an indicator of interracial divergence in the nasuta-albomicans complex of Drosophila . (ou.edu)
  • Drosophila are species of molting insects, meaning that they have two distinct stages of their life cycle with radically different body plans: larva and adults. (bionity.com)
  • The development of Drosophila is particularly well studied, and it is representative of a major class of animals, the insects or insecta. (bionity.com)
  • Finally, lamellocytes represent a cell type that specifically differentiates after parasitism of Drosophila larvae and forms a capsule around the invader. (nih.gov)
  • Some aspects of molting and metamorphosis in Drosophila pavani larvae. (ou.edu)
  • We analyzed the transcriptome profiles of nematode-infected Drosophila larvae with uninfected samples. (diva-portal.org)
  • For this we employed the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora with its symbiont Photorhabdus luminescence to infect Drosophila larvae. (diva-portal.org)
  • When we eliminated hemocytes genetically (referred to as hml-apo) in Drosophila , we found hml-apo larvae are resistant to nematodes. (diva-portal.org)
  • This project will be carried on an Asian drosophila species (Drosophila suzukii, aka the Spotted Wing Drosophila ) that has recently invaded both Europe and North America. (mail-archive.com)
  • Last year my raspberry patch was infested by a new pest call spotted wing drosophila. (garden.org)
  • The vinegar flies Drosophila serrata , D. birchii , and D. dominicana are three sibling species (that is, species nearly indistinguishable morphologically) that are endemic in Australia and on the islands of New Guinea and New Britain. (britannica.com)
  • While Stahl and the 60 Minutes crew refer to Drosophila as "fruit flies", McRobert knows better. (scienceblogs.com)
  • I made the same mistake honestly, simply because Drosophila are commonly referred to as fruit flies, and I have a hard time believing Palin has ever heard of Tephritids. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The Spradling group uses Drosophila to study oogenesis, showing frequently that processes characterized in flies are conserved in mice and vice versa. (genetics-gsa.org)
  • The IRB Barcelona Drosophila Injection Service generates transgenic flies for researchers within IRB Barcelona and their collaborators. (irbbarcelona.org)
  • Etges, W.J. Drosophila desertorum in Big Bend National Park, Texas: The search for females. (ou.edu)
  • 2011) The Drosophila gene disruption project: progress using transposons with distinctive site specificities. (els.net)
  • 2013) Comparing zinc finger nucleases and transcription activator‐like effector nucleases for gene targeting in Drosophila. (els.net)
  • One of the most well-studied examples of lateral gene transfer (LGT) between microbe and animal is the transfer of DNA from an intracellular Wolbachia endosymbiont to its Drosophila host. (the-scientist.com)
  • One aspect of biology in which Drosophila proved to be extremely useful was in the study of development. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In 1990, Rutgers State University offered a summer program in conjunction with the National Teachers of Biology that included a unit on Drosophila. (accessexcellence.org)
  • T. H. Morgan's choice of Drosophila a century ago for studying the mechanisms of heredity has resulted in the lowly fruit fly's becoming one of the model organisms of biology. (sciencemag.org)
  • The book's appendices include key aspects of Drosophila biology, essential solutions, buffers, and recipes. (cshlpress.com)
  • The FlyBase Database of the Drosophila Genome Projects and Community Literature. (encyclopedia.com)
  • If you're curious as to how long it takes to go from the initial proposal to the published sequence of a genome, check out the white papers proposing various Drosophila genome projects . (scienceblogs.com)
  • In the current study, the authors first made cDNAs representing each transcript on the Drosophila genome and cloned them into 'bait" and "prey" vectors to be used in the classic two-hybrid screen. (alzforum.org)
  • Bibikova M, Golic M, Golic KG and Carroll D (2002) Targeted chromosomal cleavage and mutagenesis in Drosophila using zinc‐finger nucleases. (els.net)
  • Drosophila virilis is a species of fruit fly with a worldwide distribution (probably due to human movements), and was one of 12 fruit fly genomes sequenced for a large comparative study. (wikipedia.org)
  • nov., a new species associated with male-lethality in Drosophila willistoni , a neotropical species of fruit fly. (nature.com)
  • Demerec, M. Drosophila stock center at Cold Spring Harbor. (ou.edu)
  • Furthermore, much of our knowledge of Drosophila is relevant to humans. (encyclopedia.com)
  • L'estudi publicat a Nature Communications obre pistes per investigar la funció d'aquesta via en el desenvolupament de vertebrats i la seva possible implicació en malformacions congènites en humans. (irbbarcelona.org)
  • Thomas Hunt Morgan studied Drosophila early in the 1900s. (wikipedia.org)
  • From 1910 to 1940, the center of Drosophila culture in America was the school of Thomas Hunt Morgan and his students Alfred Sturtevant and Calvin Bridges. (google.com)
  • Studies on Drosophila suzukii Mats. (cabi.org)
  • This event split the virilis group into the montana and virilis phylads, which include the species Drosophila montana and Drosophila virilis, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drosophila virilis at FlyBase Drosophila virilis at Ensembl Genomes Metazoa View the droVir2 genome assembly in the UCSC Genome Browser. (wikipedia.org)
  • This volume provides recent advances in Drosophila models for various human diseases, with each chapter providing a review of studies involving Drosophila models, as well as detailed protocols commonly used in laboratories. (springer.com)
  • Protocols and information related to Drosophila dissection. (molecularstation.com)
  • Haselkorn, T. S. The Spiroplasma heritable bacterial endosymbiont of Drosophila . (nature.com)
  • A new paracentric inversion in the left arm of the third chromosome of Drosophila ananassae . (ou.edu)
  • The Lab The recruited postdoc will be based in Paris Museum of Natural History (MNHN) and will work in close collaboration with Vincent Debat ( http://www.evomorpho.com/ ) in the team Evolution et Developpement des variation phénotypiques ( http://isyeb.mnhn.fr/annuaire-et-pages-personnelles/pages-personnelles/Nouvelle-traduction-Violaine?lang=en ). (mail-archive.com)
  • An evolution of Michael Ashburner's 1989 classic Drosophila: A Laboratory Manual, this book is an essential addition to the personal library of Drosophila investigators and an incomparable resource for other research groups with goals likely to require fly-based technical approaches. (cshlpress.com)
  • The CRISPR/Cas9 system has recently emerged as a powerful tool for functional genomic studies and has been adopted for many organisms, including Drosophila . (biotechniques.com)