A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Specialized cells in the invertebrates that detect and transduce light. They are predominantly rhabdomeric with an array of photosensitive microvilli. Illumination depolarizes invertebrate photoreceptors by stimulating Na+ influx across the plasma membrane.
Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.
An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
A proto-oncogene protein and member of the Wnt family of proteins. It is expressed in the caudal MIDBRAIN and is essential for proper development of the entire mid-/hindbrain region.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects.
Prominent lobed neuropils found in ANNELIDA and all ARTHROPODS except crustaceans. They are thought to be involved in olfactory learning and memory.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A layer of cells lining the fluid-filled cavity (blastocele) of a BLASTULA, usually developed from a fertilized insect, reptilian, or avian egg.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Specialized organs adapted for the reception of stimuli by the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.
A nutritional reservoir of fatty tissue found mainly in insects and amphibians.
Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A family of proteins that contain several 42-amino acid repeat domains and are homologous to the Drosophila armadillo protein. They bind to other proteins through their armadillo domains and play a variety of roles in the CELL including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, regulation of DESMOSOME assembly, and CELL ADHESION.
In invertebrate zoology, a lateral lobe of the FOREBRAIN in certain ARTHROPODS. In vertebrate zoology, either of the corpora bigemina of non-mammalian VERTEBRATES. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1329)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
Slender tubular or hairlike excretory structures found in insects. They emerge from the alimentary canal between the mesenteron (midgut) and the proctodeum (hindgut).
Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Hollow sacs of cells in LARVA that form adult structures in insects during BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS.
Light sensory organ in ARTHROPODS consisting of a large number of ommatidia, each functioning as an independent photoreceptor unit.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysterone is the 20-hydroxylated ECDYSONE.
Activities designed to attract the attention or favors of another.
Color of the iris.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The normal length of time of an organism's life.
The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.
The portion of chromosome material that remains condensed and is transcriptionally inactive during INTERPHASE.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Sexual activities of animals.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.
Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.
Antennapedia homeodomain protein is a homeobox protein involved in limb patterning in ARTHROPODS. Mutations in the gene for the antennapedia homeodomain protein are associated with the conversion of antenna to leg or leg to antenna DROSOPHILA.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Genetic mechanisms that allow GENES to be expressed at a similar level irrespective of their GENE DOSAGE. This term is usually used in discussing genes that lie on the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Because the sex chromosomes are only partially homologous, there is a different copy number, i.e., dosage, of these genes in males vs. females. In DROSOPHILA, dosage compensation is accomplished by hypertranscription of genes located on the X CHROMOSOME. In mammals, dosage compensation of X chromosome genes is accomplished by random X CHROMOSOME INACTIVATION of one of the two X chromosomes in the female.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A family of seven-pass transmembrane cell-surface proteins that combines with LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 or LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 to form receptors for WNT PROTEINS. Frizzled receptors often couple with HETEROTRIMERIC G PROTEINS and regulate the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.
Circadian rhythm signaling proteins that influence circadian clock by interacting with other circadian regulatory proteins and transporting them into the CELL NUCLEUS.
Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
A multisubunit polycomb protein complex with affinity for CHROMATIN that contains methylated HISTONE H3. It contains an E3 ubiquitin ligase activity that is specific for HISTONE H2A and works in conjunction with POLYCOMB REPRESSIVE COMPLEX 2 to effect EPIGENETIC REPRESSION.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
The anatomical parts that make up an organism in the early stages of development.
A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
Fushi tarazu transcription factors were originally identified in DROSOPHILA. They are found throughout ARTHROPODS and play important roles in segmentation and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM development.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
A dense intricate feltwork of interwoven fine glial processes, fibrils, synaptic terminals, axons, and dendrites interspersed among the nerve cells in the gray matter of the central nervous system.
The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.
A family of intracellular tyrosine kinases that participate in the signaling cascade of cytokines by associating with specific CYTOKINE RECEPTORS. They act upon STAT TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS in signaling pathway referred to as the JAK/STAT pathway. The name Janus kinase refers to the fact the proteins have two phosphate-transferring domains.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
Chromosome regions that are loosely packaged and more accessible to RNA polymerases than HETEROCHROMATIN. These regions also stain differentially in CHROMOSOME BANDING preparations.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
An antineoplastic agent with alkylating properties. It also acts as a mutagen by damaging DNA and is used experimentally for that effect.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Proteins which are found in eggs (OVA) from any species.
The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
A family of transcription factors containing SH2 DOMAINS that are involved in CYTOKINE-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. STAT transcription factors are recruited to the cytoplasmic region of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and are activated via PHOSPHORYLATION. Once activated they dimerize and translocate into the CELL NUCLEUS where they influence GENE expression. They play a role in regulating CELL GROWTH PROCESSES and CELL DIFFERENTIATION. STAT transcription factors are inhibited by SUPPRESSOR OF CYTOKINE SIGNALING PROTEINS and PROTEIN INHIBITORS OF ACTIVATED STAT.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
A multicomponent, ribonucleoprotein complex comprised of one of the family of ARGONAUTE PROTEINS and the "guide strand" of the one of the 20- to 30-nucleotide small RNAs. RISC cleaves specific RNAs, which are targeted for degradation by homology to these small RNAs. Functions in regulating gene expression are determined by the specific argonaute protein and small RNA including siRNA (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING), miRNA (MICRORNA), or piRNA (PIWI-INTERACTING RNA).
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
The nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system has autonomic and somatic divisions. The autonomic nervous system includes the enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic subdivisions. The somatic nervous system includes the cranial and spinal nerves and their ganglia and the peripheral sensory receptors.
A genus of small beetles of the family Tenebrionidae; T. confusum is the "confused flour beetle".
Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
The parts of the gene sequence that carry out the different functions of the GENES.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.
Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.
The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
One of the AROMATIC-L-AMINO-ACID DECARBOXYLASES, this enzyme is responsible for the conversion of DOPA to DOPAMINE. It is of clinical importance in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.
Steroids that bring about MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysteroids include the endogenous insect hormones (ECDYSONE and ECDYSTERONE) and the insect-molting hormones found in plants, the phytoecdysteroids. Phytoecdysteroids are natural insecticides.
Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.
A genus of bacteria comprised of a heterogenous group of gram-negative small rods and coccoid forms associated with arthropods. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 1, 1984)
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.

Assaying potential carcinogens with Drosophila. (1/15687)

Drosophila offers many advantages for the detection of mutagenic activity of carcinogenic agents. It provides the quickest assay system for detecting mutations in animals today. Its generation time is short, and Drosophila is cheap and easy to breed in large numbers. The simple genetic testing methods give unequivocal answers about the whole spectrum of relevant genetic damage. A comparison of the detection capacity of assays sampling different kinds of genetic damage revealed that various substances are highly effective in inducing mutations but do not produce chromosome breakage effects at all, or only at much higher concentrations than those required for mutation induction. Of the different assay systems available, the classical sex-linked recessive lethal test deserves priority, in view of its superior capacity to detect mutagens. Of practical importance is also its high sensitivity, because a large number of loci in one fifth of the genome is tested for newly induced forward mutations, including small deletions. The recent findings that Drosophila is capable of carrying out the same metabolic activation reactions as the mammalian liver makes the organism eminently suitable for verifying results obtained in prescreening with fast microbial assay systems. An additional advantage in this respect is the capacity of Drosophila for detecting short-lived activation products, because intracellular metabolic activation appears to occur within the spermatids and spermatocytes.  (+info)

Enzymes and reproduction in natural populations of Drosophila euronotus. (2/15687)

Populations of Drosophila euronotus, one from southern Louisiana )3 samples), and one from Missouri (2 samples), were classified for allele frequencies at alkaline phosphatase (APH) and acid phosphatase (ACPH) loci. The two populations differed consistently in allele frequencies at both loci. The APH locus is on the inversion-free X chromosome; the chromosomal locus of the autosomal ACPH is unknown, and could involve inversion polymorphism. Wild females from Missouri and Louisiana populations heterozygous at the APH locus carried more sperm at capture than did the corresponding homozygotes. This heterotic association was significant for the combined samples, and whether it was the result of heterosis at the enzyme locus studied, or due to geographically widespread close linkage with other heterotic loci, it should help to maintain heterozygosity at the APH locus. In a Louisiana collection which included large numbers of sperm-free females, simultaneous homozygosity at both enzyme loci was significantly associated with lack of sperm. It is suggested that the latter association is the result of young heterozygous females achieving sexual maturity earlier than do the double homozygotes. The average effective sperm load for 225 wild females was only 29.4, suggesting the necessity for frequent repeat-mating in nature to maintain female fertility. A comparison of the sex-linked APH genotypes of wild females with those of their daughters indicated that among 295 wild-inseminated females from five populations, 35% had mated more than once, and of this 35%, six females had mated at least three times. Because of ascertainment difficulties, it is clear that the true frequency of multiple-mating in nature must have been much higher than the observed 35%. Laboratory studies indicate that multiple-mating in this species does not involve sperm displacement, possibly due to the small number of sperms transmitted per mating, and the fact that the sperm receptacles are only partially filled by a given mating.  (+info)

Lack of genic similarity between two sibling species of drosophila as revealed by varied techniques. (3/15687)

Acrylamide gel electrophoresis was performed on the enzyme xanthine dehydrogenase in sixty isochromosomal lines of Drosophila persimilis from three geographic populations. Sequential electrophoretic analysis using varied gel concentrations and buffers revealed twenty-three alleles in this species where only five had been described previously. These new electrophoretic techniques also detected a profound increase in divergence of gene frequencies at this locus between D. persimilis and its sibling species D. pseudoobscura. The implications of these results for questions of speciation and the maintenance of genetic variability are discussed.  (+info)

Genetic heterogeneity within electrophoretic "alleles" of xanthine dehydrogenase in Drosophila pseudoobscura. (4/15687)

An experimental plan for an exhaustive determination of genic variation at structural gene loci is presented. In the initial steps of this program, 146 isochromosomal lines from 12 geographic populations of D. pseudoobscura were examined for allelic variation of xanthine dehydrogenase by the serial use of 4 different electrophoretic conditions and a head stability test. The 5 criteria revealed a total of 37 allelic classes out of the 146 genomes examined where only 6 had been previously revealed by the usual method of gel electrophoresis. This immense increase in genic variation also showed previously unsuspected population differences between the main part of the species distribution and the isolated population of Bogota population. The average heterozygosity at the Xdh locus is at least 72% in natural populations. This result, together with the very large number of alleles segregating and the pattern of allelic frequencies, has implications for theories of genetic polymorphism which are discussed.  (+info)

Testing for selective neutrality of electrophoretically detectable protein polymorphisms. (5/15687)

The statistical assessment of gene-frequency data on protein polymorphisms in natural populations remains a contentious issue. Here we formulate a test of whether polymorphisms detected by electrophoresis are in accordance with the stepwise, or charge-state, model of mutation in finite populations in the absence of selection. First, estimates of the model parameters are derived by minimizing chi-square deviations of the observed frequencies of genotypes with alleles (0,1,2...) units apart from their theoretical expected values. Then the remaining deviation is tested under the null hypothesis of neutrality. The procedure was found to be conservative for false rejections in simulation data. We applied the test to Ayala and Tracey 's data on 27 allozymic loci in six populations of Drosophila willistoni . About one-quarter of polymorphic loci showed significant departure from the neutral theory predictions in virtually all populations. A further quarter showed significant departure in some populations. The remaining data showed an acceptable fit to the charge state model. A predominating mode of selection was selection against alleles associated with extreme electrophoretic mobilities. The advantageous properties and the difficulties of the procedure are discussed.  (+info)

Apontic binds the translational repressor Bruno and is implicated in regulation of oskar mRNA translation. (6/15687)

The product of the oskar gene directs posterior patterning in the Drosophila oocyte, where it must be deployed specifically at the posterior pole. Proper expression relies on the coordinated localization and translational control of the oskar mRNA. Translational repression prior to localization of the transcript is mediated, in part, by the Bruno protein, which binds to discrete sites in the 3' untranslated region of the oskar mRNA. To begin to understand how Bruno acts in translational repression, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify Bruno-interacting proteins. One interactor, described here, is the product of the apontic gene. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments lend biochemical support to the idea that Bruno and Apontic proteins physically interact in Drosophila. Genetic experiments using mutants defective in apontic and bruno reveal a functional interaction between these genes. Given this interaction, Apontic is likely to act together with Bruno in translational repression of oskar mRNA. Interestingly, Apontic, like Bruno, is an RNA-binding protein and specifically binds certain regions of the oskar mRNA 3' untranslated region.  (+info)

The Drosophila kismet gene is related to chromatin-remodeling factors and is required for both segmentation and segment identity. (7/15687)

The Drosophila kismet gene was identified in a screen for dominant suppressors of Polycomb, a repressor of homeotic genes. Here we show that kismet mutations suppress the Polycomb mutant phenotype by blocking the ectopic transcription of homeotic genes. Loss of zygotic kismet function causes homeotic transformations similar to those associated with loss-of-function mutations in the homeotic genes Sex combs reduced and Abdominal-B. kismet is also required for proper larval body segmentation. Loss of maternal kismet function causes segmentation defects similar to those caused by mutations in the pair-rule gene even-skipped. The kismet gene encodes several large nuclear proteins that are ubiquitously expressed along the anterior-posterior axis. The Kismet proteins contain a domain conserved in the trithorax group protein Brahma and related chromatin-remodeling factors, providing further evidence that alterations in chromatin structure are required to maintain the spatially restricted patterns of homeotic gene transcription.  (+info)

Transcriptional repression by the Drosophila giant protein: cis element positioning provides an alternative means of interpreting an effector gradient. (8/15687)

Early developmental patterning of the Drosophila embryo is driven by the activities of a diverse set of maternally and zygotically derived transcription factors, including repressors encoded by gap genes such as Kruppel, knirps, giant and the mesoderm-specific snail. The mechanism of repression by gap transcription factors is not well understood at a molecular level. Initial characterization of these transcription factors suggests that they act as short-range repressors, interfering with the activity of enhancer or promoter elements 50 to 100 bp away. To better understand the molecular mechanism of short-range repression, we have investigated the properties of the Giant gap protein. We tested the ability of endogenous Giant to repress when bound close to the transcriptional initiation site and found that Giant effectively represses a heterologous promoter when binding sites are located at -55 bp with respect to the start of transcription. Consistent with its role as a short-range repressor, as the binding sites are moved to more distal locations, repression is diminished. Rather than exhibiting a sharp 'step-function' drop-off in activity, however, repression is progressively restricted to areas of highest Giant concentration. Less than a two-fold difference in Giant protein concentration is sufficient to determine a change in transcriptional status of a target gene. This effect demonstrates that Giant protein gradients can be differentially interpreted by target promoters, depending on the exact location of the Giant binding sites within the gene. Thus, in addition to binding site affinity and number, cis element positioning within a promoter can affect the response of a gene to a repressor gradient. We also demonstrate that a chimeric Gal4-Giant protein lacking the basic/zipper domain can specifically repress reporter genes, suggesting that the Giant effector domain is an autonomous repression domain.  (+info)

Drosophila willistoni (Sturtevant, 1916) é uma espécie do grupo willistoni de Drosophila que apresenta ampla distribuição geográfica desde o sul dos Estados Unidos (Flórida) e México até o norte da Argentina. Esta espécie tem sido alvo de muitos estudos evolutivos dentro do grupo devido à sua considerável capacidade de explorar de forma bem sucedida diversos tipos de ambientes e também por sua grande variabilidade genética expressa através de diferentes marcadores. A linhagem 17A2 de D. willistoni foi coletada em 1991 no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil (30°05S, 51°39W), e vem sendo mantida desde então no laboratório de Drosophila da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. Diferentemente das demais linhagens de D. willistoni mantidas no laboratório, a linhagem 17A2 já produziu espontaneamente machos do tipo white (olhos brancos) e do tipo sepia (olhos marrons) em estoques mantidos a 170C. A fim de avaliar se esta linhagem é potencialmente hipermutável, nós ...
Events - 56th Annual Drosophila Research Conference - Genetics Society Of America - Sheraton Chicago Hotel - Chicago - Illinois - - - Event Overview: \r\n The Annual Drosophila Research Conference is the preeminent meeting for Drosophila researchers. From students and trainees to PIs and Faculty, there is something for everyone. Nearly 1,000 abstracts are submitted each year and over 150 are selected for platform presentations ranging from model organisms to human disease to cell biology, pattern formation and more. In addition there are over a dozen plenary sessions that are varied in scope. Trainees can also benefit from the experience as there are several sessions that can help them with their career search, presentation skills, grant writing, and much more. Workshops on other topics of interest are also held in conjunction with the conference. The Annual Drosophila Research Conference is an opportunity to learn about the latest research, network with colleagues and share your scientific
There are thousands of different species of flies. Larvae feed not on the vegetable matter itself, but on the yeasts and microorganisms present on the decaying breeding substrate. All that is needed for development is a moist film of fermenting material. The Hawaiian species of Drosophila (estimated to be more than 500, with roughly 380 species described) are sometimes recognized as a separate genus or subgenus, Idiomyia,[3][47] but this is not widely accepted. About 250 species are part of the genus Scaptomyza, which arose from the Hawaiian Drosophila and later recolonized continental areas. They are particularly fond of bananas among fruits. [24], The following section is based on the following Drosophila species: Drosophila serrata, Drosophila pseudoobscura, Drosophila melanogaster, and Drosophila neotestacea. [9] A few species have switched to being parasites or predators. The term Drosophila, meaning dew-loving, is a modern scientific Latin adaptation from Greek words δρόσος, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transcription control of a gene for Drosophila transcription factor, DREF by DRE and cis-elements conserved between Drosophila melanogaster and virilis. AU - Kwon, Eunjeong. AU - Seto, Hirokazu. AU - Hirose, Fumiko. AU - Ohshima, Nobuko. AU - Takahashi, Yasuhiko. AU - Nishida, Yasuyoshi. AU - Yamaguchi, Masamitsu. PY - 2003/5/8. Y1 - 2003/5/8. N2 - A DNA replication-related element (DRE)-binding factor (DREF) has been revealed to be an important transcription factor for activating promoters of cell proliferation and differentiation related genes. The amino acid sequences of DREF are conserved in evolutionary separate Drosophila species, Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) and Drosophila virilis (Dv) in three regions. In the present study, evidence was obtained that there are several highly conserved regions in the 5′ flanking region between the DmDREF and DvDREF genes. Band mobility shift assays using oligonucleotides corresponding to these conserved regions revealed that specific ...
Flybase THE Database of Drosophila Genes & Genomes. NCBI Pubmed citations from the biomedical literature. Flymove images and movies of Drosophila development. Atlas of Drosophila development illustrations of embryogenesis. Drosophila protocols a list of lab homepages with Drosophila protocols JEDI network of junior Drosophila investigators. BSDB the British society of Developmental Biology US fly meeting the American annual Drosophila research conference. European fly meeting the European biannual Drosophila research conference. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterizing recurrent positive selection at fast-evolving genes in Drosophila miranda and Drosophila pseudoobscura. AU - Jensen, Jeffrey. AU - Bachtrog, Doris. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. N2 - Characterizing the distribution of selection coefficients in natural populations remains a central challenge in evolutionary biology. We resequenced a subset of 19 fast-evolving protein-coding genes in the sister species Drosophila miranda and D. pseudoobscura and their flanking regions to characterize the spatial footprint left by recurrent and recent selection. Consistent with previous findings, fast-evolving genes and their flanking regions show reduced levels of neutral diversity compared with randomly chosen genes, as expected under recurrent selection models. Applying a variety of statistical tests designed for the detection of selection at different evolutionary timescales, we attempt to characterize parameters of adaptive evolution. In D. miranda, fast-evolving genes generally show ...
DNA packaging affects a genes availability for transcription. Typically, loosely-packed euchromatic regions are gene rich and exhibit higher levels of gene transcription, while densely-packed heterochromatic regions are gene poor and exhibit less gene transcription. The 4th chromosome, or F Element, of Drosophila is unique, as it contains ~80 genes and is heterochromatic in nature, yet these genes are actively transcribed. Thus, Drosophila species provide an ideal model system for exploring how genes are accessed in heterochromatic regions and how well these mechanisms are conserved over millions of years of evolution. Working alongside the Genomics Education Partnership (GEP), genes of the F Element and the control D Element are being annotated across Drosophila species to identify unique features of genes on the F Element. My work has focused on contig1 of Drosophila ananassae. We have annotated the coding spans (CDS) of contig1, which contains five genes located on the autosomal euchromatic 3L
Cactophilic Drosophila species provide a valuable model to study gene-environment interactions and ecological adaptation. Drosophila buzzatii and Drosophila mojavensis are two cactophilic species that belong to the repleta group, but have very different geographical distributions and primary host plants. To investigate the genomic basis of ecological adaptation, we sequenced the genome and developmental transcriptome of D. buzzatii and compared its gene content with that of D. mojavensis and two other noncactophilic Drosophila species in the same subgenus. The newly sequenced D. buzzatii genome (161.5 Mb) comprises 826 scaffolds (|3 kb) and contains 13,657 annotated protein-coding genes. Using RNA sequencing data of five life-stages we found expression of 15,026 genes, 80% protein-coding genes, and 20% noncoding RNA genes. In total, we detected 1,294 genes putatively under positive selection. Interestingly, among genes under positive selection in the D. mojavensis lineage, there is an excess of genes
At the Genetics Society of America 53rd Annual Drosophila Research Conference in Chicago, shared several scientific research their knowledge about some of these diseases, including ataxia-telangiectasia , a neurodegenerative disorder, Rett syndrome, a neurological disorder, and kidney stones, a common health condition. All are the subject of ongoing research by the Drosophila model system.. Studying Drosophila Advances researching human diseasesMore than two thirds of the human genes colleagues in the well-studied fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, so although it may seem that people do not have much in common with flies, the correspondence of our genetic instructions is astonishing. In fact, there are hundreds of hereditary diseases in humans, the Drosophila colleagues.I do not know holding Lecture in Northern IrelandThe Northern Ireland office to the British Psychological Society and the Queens University of Belfast are happy six eminent psychologist known to throughout Ireland and Britain, ...
Previous experiments have shown two germline stem cell genes, bam and bgcn, to be under strong positive selection in Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans (Bauer DuMont et al. 2007). This prompted the question of whether the same pattern of selection observed in these two species was present in the germline stem cell genes of other Drosophila lineages? The Aquadro Lab has been sequencing many germline stem cell genes in Drosophila species, and the answer to this question so far has been that some lineages show strong positive selection and some do not. This observation led the Aquadro Lab to begin to test hypotheses about the driver - or drivers - of the positive selection in the germline stem cell genes across some Drosophila lineages. One hypothesis proposed by Bauer DuMont et al. (2007) is that coevolution with pathogens such as the reproductive parasite, Wolbachia pipientis, infecting the germline could be driving this observed selection. This project looked for signs of selection ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Further studies on gene polymorphism in the mainbody and geographically isolated populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura. AU - Prakash, S.. PY - 1977/12/1. Y1 - 1977/12/1. N2 - The authors have examined polymorphism at 22 additional loci in the populations from the mainbody of Drosophila pseudoobscura and an isolated population from Bogota, Colombia, which also shows partial reproductive isolation from mainbody populations. These studies extend previous observations of reduced gene polymorphism and apparent lack of unique allele in the Bogota population.. AB - The authors have examined polymorphism at 22 additional loci in the populations from the mainbody of Drosophila pseudoobscura and an isolated population from Bogota, Colombia, which also shows partial reproductive isolation from mainbody populations. These studies extend previous observations of reduced gene polymorphism and apparent lack of unique allele in the Bogota population.. UR - ...
We have analyzed the sterility associated with introgressions of the distal one-fourth of the X chromosome from either Drosophila mauritiana or Drosophila sechellia into the genome of Drosophila simulans using a series of visible and DNA markers. Because in Drosophila hybrids, male sterility is usually complete and is often tightly linked with each of several markers used in crosses, a simple genetic basis has generally been assumed. In our low resolution mapping experiment, we were not able to reject the null hypothesis that a single gene, introgressed from either D. mauritiana or D. sechellia, is the cause of male sterility. High resolution mapping, however, reveals a much more complex picture. At least three distinct factors from D. mauritiana, or two from D. sechellia, were identified that need to be jointly present to confer full sterility. Each individual factor by itself is relatively ineffective in causing sterility, or even a partial spermatogenic defect. Moreover, there appear to be ...
Other articles where Drosophila serrata is discussed: evolution: Ethological (behavioral) isolation: The vinegar flies Drosophila serrata, D. birchii, and D. dominicana are three sibling species (that is, species nearly indistinguishable morphologically) that are endemic in Australia and on the islands of New Guinea and New Britain. In many areas these three species occupy the same territory, but no hybrids…
Many introns in Drosophila and other invertebrates are less than 80 nucleotides in length, too small to be recognized by the vertebrate splicing machinery. Comparison of nuclear splicing extracts from human HeLa and Drosophila Kc cells has revealed species-specificity, consistent with the observed size differences. Here we present additional results with the 68 nucleotide fifth intron of the Drosophila myosin heavy chain gene. As observed with the 74 nucleotide second intron of the Drosophila white gene, the wild-type myosin intron is accurately spliced in a homologous extract, and increasing the size by 16 nucleotides both eliminates splicing in the Drosophila extract and allows accurate splicing in the human extract. In contrast to previous results, however, an upstream cryptic 5 splice site is activated when the wild-type myosin intron is tested in a human HeLa cell nuclear extract, resulting in the removal of a 98 nucleotide intron. The size dependence of splicing in Drosophila extracts is ...
Drosophila buzzatii has been found sympatric in Argentina with a closely-related sibling species, D. serido. The biogeographical, reproductive and chromosomal data allow us to combine these species into an evolutionary unit, the buzzatii cluster. Salivary gland chromosomes also have been used to determine their phylogenetic relationships with other closely related species, showing that the buzzatii cluster species share two inversions-2d2 and 2s6-with the species of the martensis cluster. Both clusters arose from South American populations of the ancestor of the mulleri complex, and we propose to include D. buzzatii and D. serido in the mulleri complex of the repleta group.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Higher rates of nucleotide substitution in Drosophila than in mammals. AU - Moriyama, Etsuko N.. PY - 1987/1/1. Y1 - 1987/1/1. N2 - To examine whether the rate of nucleotide substitution is affected by generation time of the organism, I attempted to estimate an accurate rate of synonymous (silent) substitution in Drosophila lineages, using alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) and heat shock protein 82 (hsp82) genes. The results obtained suggest that the rate of synonymous substitution in Drosophila lineages is roughly 10-8 per site per year. This rate is approximately two times higher than that of rodents and ten times greater than higher primates. The higher rate in Drosophila may be explained by the shorter generation times of the Drosophila species, though the possibility that the mutation mechanism in Drosophila may differ from that in mammals cannot be excluded.. AB - To examine whether the rate of nucleotide substitution is affected by generation time of the organism, I attempted to ...
The standard view of adaptation to larval crowding in fruitflies, built on results from 25 years of multiple experimental evolution studies on Drosophila melanogaster, was that enhanced competitive ability evolves primarily through increased larval feeding and foraging rate, and increased larval tolerance to nitrogenous wastes, at the cost of efficiency of food conversion to biomass. These results were at odds from the predictions of classical K-selection theory, notably the expectation that selection at high density should result in the increase of efficiency of conversion of food to biomass, and were better interpreted through the lens of α-selection. We show here that populations of D. ananassae and D. n. nasuta subjected to extreme larval crowding evolve greater competitive ability and pre-adult survivorship at high density, primarily through a combination of reduced larval duration, faster attainment of minimum critical size for pupation, greater time efficiency of food conversion to ...
Kitagawa M., Oyama T., Kawashima T., Yedvobnick B., Kumar A., Matsuno K., Harigaya K.. Mastermind (Mam) has been implicated as an important positive regulator of the Notch signaling pathway by genetic studies using Drosophila melanogaster. Here we describe a biochemical mechanism of action of Mam within the Notch signaling pathway. Expression of a human sequence related to Drosophila Mam (hMam-1) in mammalian cells augments induction of Hairy Enhancer of split (HES) promoters by Notch signaling. hMam-1 stabilizes and participates in the DNA binding complex of the intracellular domain of human Notch1 and a CSL protein. Truncated versions of hMam-1 that can maintain an association with the complex behave in a dominant negative fashion and depress transactivation. Furthermore, Drosophila Mam forms a similar complex with the intracellular domain of Drosophila Notch and Drosophila CSL protein during activation of Enhancer of split, the Drosophila counterpart of HES. These results indicate that Mam is ...
In Drosophila ananassae, artificial selection was carried out for fast and slow remating speed for 10 generations. Response to selection resulted in rapid divergence in remating time in each of two replicates of both fast and slow lines. There were significant differences in mean remat-ing time in females among fast, slow, and control lines. Regression coefficients for both fast and slow lines are significantly different from zero. The realized heritability over 10 genera-tions of selection is from 0.26 to 0.33 for two replicates of fast line and from 0.23 to 0.27 for two replicates of slow line. These findings suggest that female remating time in D. ananassae is under polygenic control. Remating frequency of females showed a correlated response in both fast and slow lines. At generation 10, correlated response to selection was also investigated. Mating propensity of D. ananassae of fast and slow lines was observed in an Elens-Wattiaux mating chamber. Fifteen pairs per test showed that on the ...
Many new Drosophila genomes have been sequenced in recent years using new-generation sequencing platforms and assembly methods. Transposable elements (TEs), being repetitive sequences, are often misassembled, especially in the genomes sequenced with short reads. Consequently, the mobile fraction of many of the new genomes has not been analyzed in detail or compared with that of other genomes sequenced with different methods, which could shed light into the understanding of genome and TE evolution. Here we compare the TE content of three genomes: D. buzzatii st-1, j-19, and D. mojavensis. We have sequenced a new D. buzzatii genome (j-19) that complements the D. buzzatii reference genome (st-1) already published, and compared their TE contents with that of D. mojavensis. We found an underestimation of TE sequences in Drosophila genus NGS-genomes when compared to Sanger-genomes. To be able to compare genomes sequenced with different technologies, we developed a coverage-based method and applied it to the D
The Annual Drosophila Research Conference is the premier meeting for Drosophila researchers. As many as 1,000 presentations cover the full diversity of Drosophila investigations, from genetics to molecular biology, cell biology, development, immunology, physiology, neuroscience, evolution, and more.. ...
Hi Marc, I am working a little bit with drosophila epithelium, specifically the abdomen. What I can say is that it is not very difficult to dissect Drosophila pupae (at leats with 26h APF). There is a protocol in the web from a Nicolas Gompel that is very good. Good Luck Pedro Marco Antunes wrote: , , Hello! , Im interested in working in the Drosophila pupal epithelium. , However, most literature about Drosophila pupa is very old... , Does anyone have some ideas about the difficulties and protocols for , dissecting and manipulating Drosophila pupae (without getting it killed)? , Also, does anyone know which is the best part of the pupa to visualize the , epithelium? The Thorax or the Abdomen? , Thank you for any help! , Marc , _______________________________________________ , Dros mailing list , Dros from net.bio.net , http://www.bio.net/biomail/listinfo/dros , , -- View this message in context: http://www.nabble.com/Drosophila-pupal-epithelium-tf2941767.html#a9310296 Sent from the Bio.net - ...
Accurate models of gene structure including untranslated regions (UTRs), intron-exon boundaries, as well as coding sequences are essential for proper interpretation of molecular genetics (Fire et al. 1998, Jinek et al. 2012), demographic inference (Halligan and Keightley 2006, Parsch et al. 2010, Clemente and Vogl 2012), tests of selection (Mcdonald and Kreitman 1991), and comparative genomics (Chen et al. 2014). The Drosophila offer an excellent model for comparative genomics, with high-quality sequenced genomes for 12 species(Drosophila Twelve Genomes Consortium 2007) as well as draft genomes for an additional eight species (Chen et al. 2014) spanning a total of 63 million years (Tamura et al. 2004). Previous gene models provided for the 12 Drosophila genomes focused on gene prediction with the aid of homology to establish putative annotations of coding sequences across taxa with 15,000−16,000 genes for most species (Drosophila Twelve Genomes Consortium 2007). These gene models produce ...
Species of the Drosophila obscura species group (e.g., D. pseudoobscura, D. subobscura) have served as favorable models in evolutionary studies since the 1930s. Despite numbers of studies conducted with varied types of data, the basal phylogeny in this group is still controversial, presumably owing to not only the hypothetical rapid radiation history of this group, but also limited taxon sampling from the Old World (esp. the Oriental and Afrotropical regions). Here we reconstruct the phylogeny of this group by using sequence data from 6 loci of 21 species (including 16 Old World ones) covering all the 6 subgroups of this group, estimate the divergence times among lineages, and statistically test the rapid radiation hypothesis. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that each of the subobscura, sinobscura, affinis, and pseudoobscura subgroups is monophyletic. The subobscura and microlabis subgroups form the basal clade in the obscura group. Partial species of the obscura subgroup (the D. ambigua/D. obscura
Species of the Drosophila obscura species group (e.g., D. pseudoobscura, D. subobscura) have served as favorable models in evolutionary studies since the 1930s. Despite numbers of studies conducted with varied types of data, the basal phylogeny in this group is still controversial, presumably owing to not only the hypothetical rapid radiation history of this group, but also limited taxon sampling from the Old World (esp. the Oriental and Afrotropical regions). Here we reconstruct the phylogeny of this group by using sequence data from 6 loci of 21 species (including 16 Old World ones) covering all the 6 subgroups of this group, estimate the divergence times among lineages, and statistically test the rapid radiation hypothesis. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that each of the subobscura, sinobscura, affinis, and pseudoobscura subgroups is monophyletic. The subobscura and microlabis subgroups form the basal clade in the obscura group. Partial species of the obscura subgroup (the D. ambigua/D. obscura
Domain architectures containing the following SCOP superfamilies _gap_,57625,57424,88713,_gap_ in Drosophila ananassae 1.3. Domain architectures illustrate each occurrence of _gap_,57625,57424,88713,_gap_.
Königer, Annabella (2019): The molecular basis of cold tolerance in Drosophila ananassae. Dissertation, LMU München: Faculty of Biology ...
In Drosophila embryos, checkpoints maintain genome stability by delaying cell cycle progression that allows time for damage repair or to complete DNA synthesis. Drosophila MOF, a member of MYST histone acetyl transferase is an essential component of male X hyperactivation process. Until recently its involvement in G2/M cell cycle arrest and defects in ionizing radiation induced DNA damage pathways was not well established. Drosophila MOF is highly expressed during early embryogenesis. In the present study we show that haplo-insufficiency of maternal MOF leads to spontaneous mitotic defects like mitotic asynchrony, mitotic catastrophe and chromatid bridges in the syncytial embryos. Such abnormal nuclei are eliminated and digested in the yolk tissues by nuclear fall out mechanism. MOF negatively regulates Drosophila checkpoint kinase 2 tumor suppressor homologue. In response to DNA damage the checkpoint gene Chk2 (Drosophila mnk) is activated in the mof mutants, there by causing centrosomal inactivation
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular and cytological analysis of widely-used Gal4 driver lines for Drosophila neurobiology. AU - Ogienko, Anna A.. AU - Andreyeva, Evgeniya N.. AU - Omelina, Evgeniya S.. AU - Oshchepkova, Anastasiya L.. AU - Pindyurin, Alexey V.. PY - 2020/10/1. Y1 - 2020/10/1. N2 - Background: The Drosophila central nervous system (CNS) is a convenient model system for the study of the molecular mechanisms of conserved neurobiological processes. The manipulation of gene activity in specific cell types and subtypes of the Drosophila CNS is frequently achieved by employing the binary Gal4/UAS system. However, many Gal4 driver lines available from the Bloomington Drosophila Stock Center (BDSC) and commonly used in Drosophila neurobiology are still not well characterized. Among these are three lines with Gal4 driven by the elav promoter (BDSC #8760, #8765, and #458), one line with Gal4 driven by the repo promoter (BDSC #7415), and the 69B-Gal4 line (BDSC #1774). For most of these lines, the ...
Two recent studies have presented conflicting views on variation present within the 294 base third domain of the 12S rRNA gene in the genus Drosophila, and in D. pseudoobscura in particular. One study suggested that this gene is highly invariant across the genus, while another recovered 22 distinct haplotypes from 22 strains of D. pseudoobscura. We have sequenced this gene in numerous lines of D. pseudoobscura and its relatives, noting only two haplotypes in the third domain, and we failed to confirm any of the published sequences. Second, we note that the published sequence divergence between strains of D. pseudoobscura was as great as that documented between distantly related Drosophila species. Third, we show that the published polymorphisms of this region within D. pseudoobscura would disrupt the secondary structure of the resulting molecule. We conclude that the published 12S rRNA sequences of D. pseudoobscura do not accurately reflect variability of the functional gene, and that this gene is
TY - JOUR. T1 - The actin-binding protein Lasp promotes Oskar accumulation at the posterior pole of the Drosophila embryo. AU - Suyama, Ritsuko. AU - Jenny, Andreas. AU - Curado, Silvia. AU - Pellis-van Berkel, Wendy. AU - Ephrussi, Anne. PY - 2009/4/14. Y1 - 2009/4/14. N2 - During Drosophila oogenesis, oskar mRNA is transported to the posterior pole of the oocyte, where it is locally translated and induces germ-plasm assembly. Oskar protein recruits all of the components necessary for the establishment of posterior embryonic structures and of the germline. Tight localization of Oskar is essential, as its ectopic expression causes severe patterning defects. Here, we show that the Drosophila homolog of mammalian Lasp1 protein, an actin-binding protein previously implicated in cell migration in vertebrate cell culture, contributes to the accumulation of Oskar protein at the posterior pole of the embryo. The reduced number of primordial germ cells in embryos derived from lasp mutant females can be ...
Cyclin Y is a highly conserved member of the Cyclin superfamily of proteins. In Drosophila the Cyclin Y gene (CycY) is required for progression through several stages of development but the specific pathways that Cyclin Y belongs to and that account for its requirement are not known. Studies in human and Drosophila cell lines have shown that membrane-localized Cyclin Y is required for phosphorylation of the wingless/Wnt co-receptor, arrow/LRP6, and for full activation of the canonical wingless/Wnt pathway. CycY null Drosophila, however, do not phenocopy loss-of-function mutations in canonical wingless pathway genes, suggesting that Cyclin Y may have additional roles outside the wingless pathway in vivo. To identify roles for Cyclin Y in Drosophila I used RNAi to knock down CycY expression in 31 distinct tissue patterns. The screen revealed that expression of the CycY shRNA in specific tissue patterns causes larval lethality and other developmental defects. Knockdown of CycY but not arrow in imaginal
Circularization was recently recognized to broadly expand transcriptome complexity. Here, we exploit massive Drosophila total RNA-sequencing data, |5 billion paired-end reads from |100 libraries covering diverse developmental stages, tissues, and cultured cells, to rigorously annotate |2,500 fruit fly circular RNAs. These mostly derive from back-splicing of protein-coding genes and lack poly(A) tails, and the circularization of hundreds of genes is conserved across multiple Drosophila species. We elucidate structural and sequence properties of Drosophila circular RNAs, which exhibit commonalities and distinctions from mammalian circles. Notably, Drosophila circular RNAs harbor |1,000 well-conserved canonical miRNA seed matches, especially within coding regions, and coding conserved miRNA sites reside preferentially within circularized exons. Finally, we analyze the developmental and tissue specificity of circular RNAs and note their preferred derivation from neural genes and enhanced accumulation in
A single species of fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has been the subject of scientific research for more than one hundred years. Why does this tiny insect merit such intense scrutiny?. Drosophilas importance as a research organism began with its short life cycle, ability to reproduce in large numbers, and easy-to-see mutant phenotypes. Over time, laboratory investigation revealed surprising similarities between flies and other animals at the level of genes, gene networks, cell interactions, physiology, immunity, and behavior. Like humans, flies learn and remember, fight microbial infection, and slow down as they age. Scientists use Drosophila to investigate complex biological activities in a simple but intact living system. Fly research provides answers to some of the most challenging questions in biology and biomedicine, including how cells transmit signals and form ordered structures, how we can interpret the wealth of human genome data now available, and how we can develop effective treatments ...
Metz, Charles William, Moses, Mildred S., Mason, Eleanor D. (July 1923) Genetic studies on Drosophila virilis with considerations on the genetics of other species of Drosophila. Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication No. 328 . Carnegie Institution of Washington , Washington, D.C., pp. 1-94. ...
Vectors derived from the Drosophila P element transposon are widely used to make transgenic Drosophila. Insertion of most P-element-derived vectors is nonrandom, but they exhibit a broad specificity of target sites. During experiments to identify cis-acting regulatory elements of the Drosophila segmentation gene engrailed, we identified a fragment of engrailed DNA that, when included within a P-element vector, strikingly alters the specificity of target sites. P-element vectors that contain this fragment of engrailed regulatory DNA insert at a high frequency near genes expressed in stripes.. ...
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N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most common internal modification of eukaryotic messenger RNA (mRNA) and is decoded by YTH domain proteins1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. The mammalian mRNA m6A methylosome is a complex of nuclear proteins that includes METTL3 (methyltransferase-like 3), METTL14, WTAP (Wilms tumour 1-associated protein) and KIAA1429. Drosophila has corresponding homologues named Ime4 and KAR4 (Inducer of meiosis 4 and Karyogamy protein 4), and Female-lethal (2)d (Fl(2)d) and Virilizer (Vir)8, 9, 10, 11, 12. In Drosophila, fl(2)d and vir are required for sex-dependent regulation of alternative splicing of the sex determination factor Sex lethal (Sxl)13. However, the functions of m6A in introns in the regulation of alternative splicing remain uncertain3. Here we show that m6A is absent in the mRNA of Drosophila lacking Ime4. In contrast to mouse and plant knockout models5, 7, 14, Drosophila Ime4-null mutants remain viable, though flightless, and show a sex bias towards maleness. This is ...
The circulatory system of Drosophila melanogaster represents an easily amenable genetic model whose analysis at different levels, i.e., from single molecules up to functional anatomy, has provided new insights into general aspects of cardiogenesis, heart physiology and cardiac aging, to name a few examples. In recent years, the Drosophila heart has also attracted the attention of researchers in the field of biomedicine. This development is mainly due to the fact that several genes causing human heart disease are also present in Drosophila, where they play the same or similar roles in heart development, maintenance or physiology as their respective counterparts in humans. This review will attempt to briefly introduce the anatomy of the Drosophila circulatory system and then focus on the different cell types and non-cellular tissue that constitute the heart.
The generation of cell polarity through the localization of specific mRNAs and proteins to discrete subcellular sites is fundamental to asymmetric cell division, tissue morphogenesis, cell migration, and most other developmental processes. While many different localized mRNAs and proteins have been described, the mechanisms by which such molecules become localized are only poorly understood. In the first part of this dissertation, I describe my efforts to unravel the mechanism by which gurken (grk) mRNA becomes localized to the anterodorsal corner of the Drosophila oocyte during mid-oogenesis. Such localization is a key step in the polarization of the mature Drosophila egg and future embryo; defects in grk mRNA localization result in the production of depolarized eggs that give rise to embryos that fail to specify ectodermal, endodermal and mesodermal germ layers and die before hatching. I show, using a transgenic fly assay system, that a conserved sequence element within the grk mRNA, called ...
P elements containing a 7 kb DNA fragment from the middle of the Drosophila bithorax complex insert preferentially into the bithorax complex or into the adjacent chromosome regions. This homing property is similar to that reported for the engrailed promoter (Hama, C., Ali, Z. and Kornberg, T. B. (1990) Genes Dev. 4, 1079-1093). The 7 kb fragment does not contain any known promoter, but it acts as a boundary element separating adjacent segmental domains. An enhancer-trap P element was constructed with the homing fragment and the selectable marker flanked by FRT sites. P insertions can be trimmed down by Flp-mediated recombination to just the lacZ reporter, so that the (beta)-galactosidase pattern is not influenced by sequences inside the P element. Twenty insertions into the bithorax complex express (beta)-galactosidase in segmentally limited patterns, reflecting the segmental domains of the bithorax complex where the elements reside. The mapping of segmental domains has now been revised, with ...
The chordotonal (Ch) organ, an internal stretch receptor located in the subepidermal layer, is one of the major sensory organs in the peripheral nervous system of Drosophila melanogaster. Although the cell lineage of the Ch organ has been well characterized in many studies, the determination machinery of Ch organ precursor cells (COPs) remains largely unresolved. Here we report that the rhomboid (rho) gene and the activity of the Drosophila EGF receptor (DER) signaling pathway are necessary to induce specifically three of the eight COPs in an embryonic abdominal hemisegment. The cell-lineage analysis of COPs using the yeast flpase (flp/FRT) method indicated that each of the eight COPs originated from an individual undifferentiated ectodermal cell. The eight COPs in each abdominal hemisegment seemed to be determined by a two-phase induction: first, five COPs are determined by the action of the proneural gene atonal and neurogenic genes. Subsequently, these five COPs start to express the rho gene, ...
Drosophila is an insect from the order Diptera, also called the fruit fly. The genus Drosophila includes about 400 species, found all over the planet. Life of the drosophila Drosophila flies...
Polyamine transport is elevated in many tumor types, suggesting that toxic polyamine-drug conjugates could be targeted to cancer cells via the polyamine transporter (PAT). We have previously reported the use of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and its PAT-deficient mutant cell line, CHO-MG, to screen anthracene-polyamine conjugates for their PAT-selective targeting ability. We report here a novel Drosophila-based model for screening anthracene-polyamine conjugates in a developing and intact epithelium (Drosophila imaginal discs), wherein cell-cell adhesion properties are maintained. Data from the Drosophila assay are consistent with previous results in CHO cells, indicating that the Drosophila epithelium has a PAT with vertebrate-like characteristics. This assay will be of use to medicinal chemists interested in screening drugs that use PAT for cellular entry, and it offers the possibility of genetic dissection of the polyamine transport process, including identification of a Drosophila PAT.
The cytokine-activated Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway plays an important role in the control of a wide variety of biological processes. When misregulated, JAK/STAT signaling is associated with various human diseases, such as immune disorders and tumorigenesis. To gain insights into the mechanisms by which JAK/STAT signaling participates in these diverse biological responses, we carried out a genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screen in cultured Drosophila cells. We identified 121 genes whose double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-mediated knockdowns affected STAT92E activity. Of the 29 positive regulators, 13 are required for the tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT92E. Furthermore, we found that the Drosophila homologs of RanBP3 and RanBP10 are negative regulators of JAK/STAT signaling through their control of nucleocytoplasmic transport of STAT92E. In addition, we identified a key negative regulator of Drosophila JAK/STAT signaling, protein tyrosine ...
The relatively simple communication, breeding and egg-making systems that govern reproduction in female Drosophila retain homology to eusocial species in which these same systems are modified to the social condition. Despite having no parental care, division of labour or subfertile caste, Drosophila may nonetheless offer a living test of certain sociobiological hypotheses framed around gene function. In this review, we make this case, and do so around the recent discovery that the non-social fly, Drosophila melanogaster, can respond to the ovary-suppressing queen pheromone of the honey bee Apis meliffera. Here, we first explain the sociobiological imperative to reconcile kin theory with molecular biology, and qualify a potential role for Drosophila. Then, we offer three applications for the fly-pheromone assay. First, the availability and accessibility of massive mutant libraries makes immediately feasible any number of open or targeted gene screens against the ovary-inhibiting response. The sheer
Fissioncytorace-1, a member of the nasuta-albomicans complex of Drosophila is an evolutionary product of centric fission, which had occurred in the chromosome X3 of Cytorace 1, a hydridization product of Drosophila nasuta nasuta male (2n=8) and Drosophila nasuta albomicans female (2n=6). Cytorace 1 (males 2n=7; females 2n=6) has inherited this chromosome from its D. n. albomicans parent. The chromosome X3 of D. n. albomicans is a derivative of a centric fusion between the acrocentric chromosome 3 and the chromosome X of D. n. nasuta. The Fissioncytorace-1 has crossed 200 generations from the time of its evolution in the laboratory environment. When this centromeric fission race was subjected to some of the morphophenotypic and fitness assessment to find its overall population fitness showed, increased body size, sternopleural bristle, ovarioles, lifetime fecundity and fertility with reduced interspecific competitive ability and hatching success when compared with its parent (Cytorace 1). These ...
Applications are invited for a postdoc position and a full-time technician = position in Drosophila epigenetics research laboratory of Dr. Tulin at the = Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA. Both positions planned for at = least three years, with possible renewal. The successful applicants will = use Drosophila model system to study epigenetics of development and = cancer. The primary research focus of Dr. Tulin=92s lab is on = fundamentals of chromatin reprogramming and RNA fate regulation during = normal development and carcinogenics, as well as on translating = fundamental research for clinical applications in oncology. Projects in = Dr. Tulin=92s lab cover the molecular mechanisms of the chromatin = remodeling and regulation of gene expression and employ Drosophila model = and in vitro assays as well as human cells, mouse models. Applicants for the postdoctoral position should have a Ph.D. in molecular = biology, molecular genetics, biochemistry, or a related field and 0-3 = years of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of adult experience on oviposition choice and short-distance attraction in Drosophila buzzatii. AU - Hedrick, Philip W.. AU - Barker, J. S F. AU - Armstrong, T.. PY - 1990/9. Y1 - 1990/9. N2 - In a series of experiments, no consistent effect of adult experience, i.e., exposure to the naturally occurring yeasts, Candida sonorensis and Clavispora opuntiae, on oviposition choice or short-distance attraction in inbred lines of Drosophila buzzatii was found. The lack of consistent effect on oviposition choice was also found in one experiment in which the flies were starved and in another experiment in which choice was determined on 2 consecutive days.. AB - In a series of experiments, no consistent effect of adult experience, i.e., exposure to the naturally occurring yeasts, Candida sonorensis and Clavispora opuntiae, on oviposition choice or short-distance attraction in inbred lines of Drosophila buzzatii was found. The lack of consistent effect on oviposition choice was also ...
Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Figure 1A) is one of the most serious pests of thin-skinned fruits including blueberry, raspberry, cherry, grape and strawberry [1â 5]. Mixtures of yeast, sugar, and water; fruit purees, distillates from apple cider vinegar or wine; ethanol, acetic acid, and phenylethanol in 1: 22: 5 ratios arâ ¦ It differs from other species of drosophilas by having a sawed oviscapto (organ used for laying eggs) that allows it to attack healthy fruits. Introduction. The spotted wing Drosophila (Drosophila suzukii) is an invasive and serious economic pest to small and stone fruits and its control is difficult. Another advantage of using a trap in this manner is that you can wait to treat your crops until you are sure you have the SWD on your property. The Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii, is a small vinegar fly that damages many fruit crops. Although the spotted-wing drosophila Drosophila suzukii originates in Southeast Asia, this pest is now widespread in North ...
Assembly/Alignment/Annotation of 12 related Drosophila species: »Assembly/Alignment/Annotation, LBNL, USA BDGP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Project: »Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project, University of California, Berkeley, USA Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project (BDGP): »BDGP, University of California, Berkeley, USA BDTNP, ChIP/chip in vivo DNA binding data: »Berkeley Drosophila Transcription Network Project, University of California, Berkeley, USA CluSTr protein sequence similarity analysis of Drosophila: »CluSTr proteome analysis, EBI, UK D. pseudoobscura genome project: »Human Genome Sequencing Center, Baylor College of Medicine, USA D. simulans genome project: »Genome Sequencing Center, Washington University, USA D. yakuba genome project: »Genome Sequencing Center, Washington University, USA D.melanogaster UCSC Genome Browser Gateway: »University of California, Santa Cruz, USA DDBJ, the DNA Data Bank of Japan: »DDBJ, National Institute of Genetics, Mishima, Japan DNase I ...
The SpottedWingFlyBase is a dedicated online resource for Drosophila suzukii genomics. The recently introduced and rapidly spreading Spotted Wing Drosophila (Drosophila suzukii) has unique anatomy among Drosophila species that enables it to become a serious economic pest. Female D. suzukii has a serrated ovipositor and exhibits a preference for ovipositing in sound ripe and ripening fruit as opposed to the overripe fruit that other Drosophila species are known to infest. Since its initial detection in the continental United States in 2008 in the berry-growing central coastal region of California, significant crop losses have been reported not only in California, but also throughout the United States, Canada, and Europe among growers of berry crops and soft-skinned stone fruits.. The goal of our database and web server is to provide comparative genomics resources to enable and streamline basic research on Drosophila suzukii biology as well as applied research to develop effective monitoring and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evolution of the LINE-like I element in the Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup. AU - Sezutsu, Hideki. AU - Nitasaka, Eiji. AU - Yamazaki, Tsuneyuki. PY - 1995/3/1. Y1 - 1995/3/1. N2 - LINE-like retrotransposons, the so-called I elements, control the system of I-R (inducer-reactive) hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. I elements are present in many Drosophila species. It has been suggested that active, complete I elements, located at different sites on the chromosomes, invaded natural populations of D. melanogaster recently (1920-1970). But old strains lacking active I elements have only defective I elements located in the chromocenter. We have cloned I elements from D. melanogaster and the melanogaster subgroup. In D. melanogaster, the nucleotide sequences of chromocentral I elements differed from those on chromosome arms by as much as 7%. All the I elements of D. mauritiana and D. sechellia are more closely related to the chromosomal I elements of D. melanogaster ...
To study genes that may be crucial for the male germ cell development of Drosophila we screened a cDNA expression library with a polyclonal antiserum against testis proteins of Drosophila hydei. We identified a cDNA fragment that exhibited a complete sequence similarity with the cDNA of the laminin B2 chain, an important component of the extracellular matrix. Transcripts of laminin B2 were detected in the RNA of male germ cells with the polymerase chain reaction and by in situ hybridization. We studied the reaction of different polyclonal antibodies including those against a Drosophila laminin B2-lac fusion protein, the entire Drosophila laminin complex, or against the mouse laminin complex and against laminin A and B1 chains with specific structures in developing male germ cells of Drosophila. Antigenic sites against laminin B2 were found in the lampbrush loops in primary spermatocyte nuclei, in nuclei of spermatids, and in heads of spermatozoa. The axonemes of elongating spermatids react with ...
Lab Reagents Drosophila Antibody Laboratories manufactures the antibody for drosophila hemocytes reagents distributed by Genprice. The Antibody For Drosophila Hemocytes reagent is RUO (Research Use Only) to test human serum or cell culture lab samples. To purchase these products, for the MSDS, Data Sheet, protocol, storage conditions/temperature or for the concentration, please contact drosophila Antibody. Other Antibody products are available in stock. Specificity: Antibody Category: For Group: Drosophila Hemocytes. Drosophila Hemocytes information ...
Domain architectures containing the following SCOP superfamilies 54236,47031,50729,_gap_ in Drosophila mojavensis 1.3. Domain architectures illustrate each occurrence of 54236,47031,50729,_gap_.
Dedicated to the memory of George Lefevre in recognition of his exhaustive cytogenetic analysis of the X chromosome, |b|The Genome of Drosophila melanogaster|/b| is the complete compendium of what is known about the genes and chromosomes of this widely used model organism. The volume is an up-to-date revision of Lindsley and Grells 1968 work, Genetic Variations of Drosophila melanogaster. The new edition contains complete descriptions of normal and mutant genes including phenotypic, cytological, molecular, and bibliographic information. In addition, it describes thousands of recorded chromosome rearrangements used in research on Drosophila. This handbook and its accompanying polytene chromosome maps, are sturdily bound into the book as foldouts and available as a separate set, are essential research tools for the Drosophila community.|br||br|Key Features |br|* Describes phenotype, cytology, and molecular biology of all recorded genes of Drosophila melanogaster, plus references to the literature|br
VALIATI, Victor Hugo and VALENTE, Vera Lucia S.. Chromosomal polymorphism in urban populations of Drosophila paulistorum. Braz. J. Genet. [online]. 1997, vol.20, n.4, pp.-. ISSN 0100-8455. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-84551997000400004.. Drosophila paulistorum populations colonizing the urban area of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil, were studied with the objective of characterizing their chromosomal polymorphism in this new environment. Despite being geographically and ecologically marginal and the fact that the colonization of the urban area seems to be a recent event, the populations showed a large number of inversions on all chromosome arms. Differences regarding inversion frequencies and percentage of heterozygosis were found when we compared the samples with respect to geographical, microenvironmental and temporal aspects. Such differences, however, could be attributed to both selective and stochastic factors. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The initiation of pair-rule stripes in the Drosophila blastoderm. AU - Small, Stephen. AU - Levine, Michael. PY - 1991/8. Y1 - 1991/8. N2 - The interactions between the products of gap genes and pair-rule promoters results in the single most dramatic increase in the spatial complexity of gene expression during the segmentation process. We attempt to relate recent findings on the regulation of striped patterns of gene expression in the early Drosophila embryo to general strategies of gene expression and development employed by higher organisms.. AB - The interactions between the products of gap genes and pair-rule promoters results in the single most dramatic increase in the spatial complexity of gene expression during the segmentation process. We attempt to relate recent findings on the regulation of striped patterns of gene expression in the early Drosophila embryo to general strategies of gene expression and development employed by higher organisms.. UR - ...
Electrophysiological analysis of cultured neurons provides a potential approach toward understanding the physiological defects that may contribute to abnormal behavior exhibited by mutants of the fruit fly Drosophila. However, its application has been restricted by an inability to identify a particular functional or anatomical subpopulation of neurons from the CNS. To study neurons composing the CNS mushroom body proposed as a center for insect olfactory learning, we utilized a Drosophila enhancer detector line that expresses a lacZ reporter gene in these neurons and identified them in acutely dissociated larval CNS cultures by vital fluorescent staining. The patch-clamp analysis suggests that whole-cell voltage-activated K+ currents can be classified into two types in identified mushroom body neurons. Type 1 current comprises a TEA-sensitive slowly inactivating current and noninactivating component while type 2 current contains a 4-AP-sensitive transient A-current and a noninactivating ...
P-13. Transcription Profiling of Cell Death in Drosophila Melanogaster. S. Chittaranjan, E. Garland, D. Freeman, S. Jones, M. Marra, and S. Gorski, Genome Sequence Centre BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, CANADA. Programmed Cell death - PCD - is a highly conserved and genetically controlled event that plays important roles in animal development, homeostasis and disease. We are employing a genomics approach, using EST and SAGE, to identify new PCD genes that are transciptionally regulated in the salivary glands - SGs - of Drosophila. We constructed a SG-specific cDNA library and SG-miniSAGE libraries from three consecutive developmental stages leading up to PCD.5461 high quality 3 ESTs from our SG cDNA library were used to perform BLAST analysis against Drosophila predicted genes and genomic sequence from the Drosophila Genome Project. The majority of the ESTs matched known or predicted genes in Drosophila including a number of ecdysone-induced genes and known PCD genes. We also identified a ...
The Huntingtons disease (HD) gene encodes a protein, huntingtin, with no known function and no detectable sequence similarity to other proteins in current databases. To gain insight into the normal biological role of huntingtin, we isolated and sequenced a cDNA encoding a protein that is a likely homolog of the HD gene product in Drosophila melanogaster. We also determined the complete sequence of 43,125 contiguous base pairs of genomic DNA that encompass the Drosophila HD gene, allowing the intron-exon structure and 5- and 3-flanking regions to be delineated. The predicted Drosophila huntingtin protein has 3583 amino acids, which is several hundred amino acids larger than any other previously characterized member of the HD family. Analysis of the genomic and cDNA sequences indicates that Drosophila HD has 29 exons, compared with the 67 exons present in vertebrate HD genes, and that Drosophila huntingtin lacks the polyglutamine and polyproline stretches present in its mammalian counterparts. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The M/SAR elements of the bithorax complex in Drosophila melanogaster. AU - Boykova, T. V.. AU - Orlando, V.. AU - Lupo, R.. AU - Bogachev, S. S.. PY - 2005/11. Y1 - 2005/11. N2 - The bithorax (BX) complex of Drosophila is a complex polygenic region with a multifactorial system of regulation. One of the levels of the regulatory system of the BX complex is its association with the nuclear skeleton structures through a specific interaction of the M/SAR DNA with the nuclear matrix proteins. In the present work, M/SAR elements were mapped on the molecular-genetic map of the region. All of the elements examined were found to colocalize with regulatory elements and form clusters that restrict/bracket the genetically active domains. All M/SAR DNA revealed was shown to bins specifically to the purified Drosophila melanogaster lamin.. AB - The bithorax (BX) complex of Drosophila is a complex polygenic region with a multifactorial system of regulation. One of the levels of the regulatory ...
The Vienna Drosophila Resource Center (VDRC) is a professionally organized bioresource center of international significance that aims to promote scientific discoveries in Drosophila melanogaster. Our primary aim is to maintain unique transgenic Drosophila stocks and DNA resources and to distribute them both locally and worldwide. We also acquire, create, and develop new resources, according to emerging new technologies and the needs of the local and international Drosophila research community.. ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Biochemical phylogeny of the eight species in the Drosophila melanogaster subgroup, including D. sechellia and D. orena. by M L Cariou
Abdelwahid, E., Yokokura, T., Krieser, R. J., Balasundaram, S., Fowle, W. H. and White, K. (2007). Mitochondrial disruption in Drosophila apoptosis. Dev. Cell 12(5): 793-806. PubMed citation: 17488629 Abrams, J. M., et al. (1993). Programmed cell death during Drosophila embryogenesis. Development 117: 29-43. PubMed Citation: 8223253 Asano, M, Nevins, J. R. and Wharton, R. P. (1996). Ectopic E2F expression induces S phase and apoptosis in Drosophila imaginal discs. Genes Dev. 10: 1422-32. PubMed Citation: 8647438 Avdonin, V., et al. (1998). Apoptotic proteins Reaper and Grim induce stable inactivation in voltage-gated K+ channels. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 95(20): 11703-8. PubMed Citation: 9751729 Baer, M. M., Bilstein, A., Caussinus, E., Csiszar, A., Affolter, M. and Leptin, M. (2010). The role of apoptosis in shaping the tracheal system in the Drosophila embryo. Mech. Dev. 127(1-2): 28-35. PubMed Citation: 19995601 Bardet, P. L. et al. (2008). A fluorescent reporter of caspase activity for live ...
Males of this genus are known to have the longest sperm cells of any organism on Earth.[5] One species, Drosophila bifurca, has sperm 58 mm (2.3 in) long.[5][6][7] The cells are mostly tail, and are delivered to the females in tangled coils. Those Drosophila species with very long sperms make relatively few sperm cells.[8] D. melanogaster sperm cells are a more modest 1.8 mm long, although this is still about 300 times longer than a human sperm. Several species in the D. melanogaster species group are known to mate by traumatic insemination, in which the male pierces the females abdomen with his penis and injects his sperm through the wound into her abdominal cavity (haemocoel).[9][10]. Drosophila vary widely in their reproductive capacity. Those such as D. melanogaster that breed in large, scarce resources have ovaries that mature 10-20 eggs at a time, and can be laid together in one place. Others, which breed in common but less nutritious places (such as leaves), may only lay one egg each ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cloning, heterologous expression and developmental regulation of a Drosophila receptor for tachykinin-like peptides. AU - Li, X. J.. AU - Wolfgang, W.. AU - Wu, Y. N.. AU - North, R. A.. AU - Forte, M.. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - We identified clones encoding a Drosophila receptor for tachykinin-like peptides by low stringency screening of an embryonic cDNA library with probes from the bovine substance K receptor. The cDNAs encode a seven transmembrane domain protein (DTKR) of 519 amino acids with 40-48% amino acid identity to mammalian tachykinin receptors within transmembrane regions. Xenopus oocytes injected with DTKR cRNAs showed selective responses to vertebrate substance P, its agonists and not to other vertebrate tachykinin peptides. These responses were eliminated by treatment of oocytes with pertussis toxin. In the adult fly, Northern and PCR analysis demonstrated preferential expression of DTKR in the head; in situ hybridization indicated that DTKR is accumulated in the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Localization of transcripts from the wingless gene in whole Drosophila embryos. AU - Baker, N. E.. PY - 1988. Y1 - 1988. N2 - In situ hybridization has been used to detect transcription in whole Drosophila embryos. Improved results have been obtained by incubating the hybridized embryos in liquid emulsion prior to autoradiographic exposure. This technique has been used to map the distribution of transcripts from the segment-polarity gene wingless (wg), which is transcribed in a stripe in each segment of the trunk region. By the extended germband stage additional areas of transcription in the head and caudal regions define a total of 21 domains, comprising the foregut, six regions in the head, three thoracic and ten abdominal segments, and the hindgut. At the end of the extended germband stage, the pattern of wg transcription is no longer uniform in the dorsoventral axis: wg transcripts are absent from the lateral epidermis. This pattern of wg transcription is discussed with ...
The Notch receptor of Drosophila and its homologues in other organisms mediate cell-cell interactions required for the correct partitioning of cell fates within equivalence groups. Genes related to Notch and other components of the Notch signaling pathway represent a well conserved system for signal transduction, having been isolated from organisms as diverse as flies, worms, sea urchins, frogs, fish, chickens, mice, rats, and humans (reviewed by Lardelli et al., 1995). The expression and requirements for Notch signaling are pleiotropic through development, in contrast to other tissue or cell type specific receptors. How the Notch signaling cascade mediates pattern formation in so many tissues and cell types is not well understood. The research contained herein increases the understanding of Notch signaling by studying its role during Drosophila oogenesis. Additionally, this research lends insight into several important processes that take place during Drosophila oogenesis, including ...
2011 Nobel Laureate Jules Hoffmann, Ph.D. described his scientific journey including the discovery of Toll receptors and innate immunity in the keynote lecture on Apr. 3, 2013, the opening night of the Genetics Society of Americas 54th Annual Drosophila Research Conference in Washington, D.C., Apr. 3-7, 2013.
Humanised fruit fly models are transgenic Drosophila melanogaster strains expressing human genes. Specifically, we study the characteristics of fly models expressing human genes involved in neurological disorders such as Alzheimers and Parkinsons Diseases (AD and PD). Interestingly, these Drosophila neurodegenerative disease models show a high degree of conservation in the fundamental biological pathways and in the molecular, genetic and pathophysiological aspects of neurodegenerative human diseases. These characteristics explain why Drosophila models have paved the way for the development of initial fast screening for potential drug candidates in vivo, and represent also a promising tool for biomedical research in neuroscience ...
Comparative Analysises and Genome Databases= =Sequence Traces of Drosophila Genomes= =Genetic and Protein Interaction Databases= =Sequence Analysis= =Atlases, Images, and Videos= =Other= =Related Projects= :[http://www.gmod.org/ GMOD] :[http://www.geneontology.org/ Gene Ontology (GO)] :[http://www.genomeknowledge.org/ Reactome] :[http://www.fruitfly.org/ BDGP (Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project)] :[http://dgrc.cgb.indiana.edu/ DGRC (Drosophila Genomics Resource Center)] :[http://www.ou.edu/journals/dis/byissue.html DIS by issue] :[http://www.flyexpress.net/ FlyExpress] :[http://www.sdbonline.org/fly/aimain/1aahome.htm Interactive Fly] :[http://www.modencode.org/ modENCODE] :[http://www.textpresso.org/fly/ Textpresso for Fly] =Stock Collections= ===D. melanogaster Collections=== :[http://flystocks.bio.indiana.edu/ Bloomington] :[http://www.drosdel.org.uk/ DrosDel] :[http://drosophila.med.harvard.edu/ Exelixis (Harvard)] :[http://flypush.imgen.bcm.tmc.edu/pscreen/ GDP (Baylor)] ...
Drosophila melanogaster, the common fruit fly, has been used as a model organism in both medical and scientific research for over a century. Work by Thomas Hunt Morgan (1866-1945) and his students at Columbia University at the beginning of the twentieth century led to great discoveries such as sex-linked inheritance and that ionising radiation causes mutations in genes. However, the use of Drosophila was not limited to genetic research. Experimentation with this model organism has also led to discoveries in neuroscience and neurodevelopment, including the basis of circadian rhythms. Its complex nervous system, conserved neurological function, and human disease-related loci allow Drosophila to be an ideal model organism for the study of neurodegenerative disease, for which it is used today, aiding research into diseases such as Alzheimers and Parkinsons, which are becoming more prevalent in todays ageing population.. Keywords Drosophila melanogaster, Thomas Hunt Morgan, Alfred Henry ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Daughterless is required for Drosophila photoreceptor cell determination, eye morphogenesis, and cell cycle progression. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
We report the complete sequence of a calcium channel alpha 1 subunit cDNA cloned from a Drosophila head cDNA library. This cDNA encodes a deduced protein containing 2516 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 276,493. The deduced protein shares many features with vertebrate homologs, including four repeat structures, each containing six transmembrane domains, a conserved ion selectivity filter region between transmembrane domains 5 and 6, and an EF hand in the carboxy tail. The Drosophila subunit has unusually long initial amino and terminal carboxy tails. The region corresponding to the last transmembrane domain (IVS6) and the adjacent cytoplasmic domain has been postulated to form a phenylalkylamine-binding site in vertebrate calcium channels. This region is conserved in the Drosophila sequence, while domains thought to be involved in dihydropyridine binding show numerous changes. The Drosophila subunit exhibits 78.3% sequence similarity to the rat brain type D calcium channel alpha ...
Rab proteins are small GTPases that play important roles in transport of vesicle cargo and recruitment, association of motor and other proteins with vesicles, and docking and fusion of vesicles at defined locations. In vertebrates, ,75 Rab genes have been identified, some of which have been intensively studied for their roles in endosome and synaptic vesicle trafficking. Recent studies of the functions of certain Rab proteins have revealed specific roles in mediating developmental signal transduction. We have begun a systematic genetic study of the 33 Rab genes in Drosophila. Most of the fly proteins are clearly related to specific vertebrate proteins. We report here the creation of a set of transgenic fly lines that allow spatially and temporally regulated expression of Drosophila Rab proteins. We generated fluorescent protein-tagged wild-type, dominant-negative, and constitutively active forms of 31 Drosophila Rab proteins. We describe Drosophila Rab expression patterns during embryogenesis, ...
Applications are invited for one post of Junior Research Fellow for the ongoing DBT project entitled Unraveling the adaptive genome evolution by whole genome sequencing of Drosophila nasuta nasuta and laboratory evolved four hybrid strains, Cytoraces for the remaining period of 2 years.. Position Title: Junior Research Fellow. Project Title: Unraveling the adaptive genome evolution by whole genome sequencing of Drosophila nasuta nasuta and laboratory evolved four hybrid strains, Cytoraces. Qualifications: JRF position - I or II class (Above 55%) M.Sc. in Genetics/ Zoology/ Genomics/ Bioinformatics. NET/GATE exam qualified candidates or Non- NET candidates with experience in handling Drosophila and also research experience in the genome analysis will be preferred.. Duration: 2 years. Fellowship: The value of the fellowship would be as per DBT regulations.. How To Apply:. The eligible candidates may send application on plain paper with a biodata along with copies of marks cards, certificates, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Signaling mechanisms in induction of the R7 photoreceptor in the developing Drosophila retina. AU - Yamamoto, Daisuke. PY - 1994/4. Y1 - 1994/4. N2 - The Drosophila compound eye is an excellent experimental system for analysing fate induction of identifiable single cells. Each ommatidium, a unit eye, contains eight photoreceptors (R1‐R8), and the differentiation of these photoreceptors occurs in the larval eye imaginal disc in discrete steps: first R8 is determined, then R2/R5, R3/R4, R1/R6 and finally R7. Induction of R7, in particular, has been extensively studied at the molecular level. The R8 photoreceptor presents on its surface a ligand, Bride of Sevenless, that binds and activates Sevenless receptor tyrosine kinase in the R7 precursor. Autophosphorylated Sevenless initiates a Ras1‐mediated cascade, which eventually activates transcription factors in the nucleus via Raf1 and MAP kinases, resulting in R7 development. However, recent studies indicate that Sevenless (Sev) ...
Drosophila nikananu adolah saikua langau dari genus Drosophila. Spesies ko juo marupokan bagian dari famili Drosophila, ordo Diptera, kelas Insecta, filum Arthropoda, dan kingdom Animalia. Istilah Drosophila, baarati panyuko ambun, adolah adaptasi saintifik Latin modern dari kato Yunani δρόσος, drósos, ambun, dan δρόσος, drósos, panyuko, nan ditambahkan jo akiaran Latin feminin -a. ...
Drosophila paratarsata adolah saikua lalek dari genus Drosophila. Spesies ko juo marupokan bagian dari famili Drosophila, ordo Diptera, kelas Insecta, filum Arthropoda, dan kingdom Animalia. Istilah Drosophila, baarati panyuko ambun, adolah adaptasi saintifik Latin modern dari kato Yunani δρόσος, drósos, ambun, dan δρόσος, drósos, panyuko, nan ditambahkan jo akiaran Latin feminin -a. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Drosophila in cancer researchan expanding role. AU - Potter, Christopher J.. AU - Turenchalk, Gregory S.. AU - Xu, Tian. N1 - Funding Information: We thank Karen Wehner and members of the Xu Lab for helpful comments. This work was supported by NIH grant RO1CA69408. Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2000/1/1. Y1 - 2000/1/1. N2 - In recent years, Drosophila researchers have developed powerful genetic techniques that allow for the rapid identification and characterization of genes involved in tumor formation and development. The high level of gene and pathway conservation, the similarity of cellular processes and the emerging evidence of functional conservation of tumor suppressors between Drosophila and mammals, argue that studies of tumorigenesis in flies can directly contribute to the understanding of human cancer. In this review, we explore the historical and current roles of Drosophila in cancer research, as well as speculate on the future of ...
Main article: Drosophila embryogenesis. Drosophila melanogaster, a fruit fly, is a model organism in biology on which much ... Warn, RM (1986). "The cytoskeleton of the early Drosophila embryo". Journal of Cell Science. Supplement. 5: 311-28. PMID ... In Drosophila, each stripe (segment) is subdivided into anterior and posterior halves. The posterior half of one segment and ... Drosophila melanogaster larvae contained in lab apparatus to be used for experiments in genetics and embryology ...
Morgan's small Mendelian genes in Drosophila, 1912[edit]. Thomas Hunt Morgan's work on Drosophila melanogaster found many small ... By 1912, after years of work on the genetics of Drosophila fruit flies, Thomas Hunt Morgan showed that these animals had many ... 3.4 Morgan's small Mendelian genes in Drosophila, 1912. *3.5 Muller's balanced lethal explanation of Oenothera "mutations", ... He compared the behaviour of balanced lethals in Drosophila with De Vries's supposed mutations in Oenothera, showing that they ...
Drosophila[edit]. Work using Drosophila has dispensed with stimulating electrodes and developed a 3-part remote control system ... that evokes action potentials in pre-specified Drosophila neurons using a laser beam. The central component of the remote ...
Chromosome polymorphism in Drosophila[edit]. In the 1930s Theodosius Dobzhansky and his co-workers collected Drosophila ... "An altitudinal transect of Drosophila robusta". Evolution 1, 237-48. *^ Dobzhansky T. 1970. Genetics of the evolutionary ...
Drosophila[edit]. A fly-controlled heat-box has been designed to study operant conditioning in several studies of Drosophila.[ ... Tracey, W.D. Jr; Wilson, R.I.; Laurent, G.; Benzer, S. (2003). "Painless, a Drosophila gene essential for nociception". Cell. ... A Drosophila flight simulator has been used to examine operant conditioning.[93] The flies are tethered in an apparatus that ... Drosophila melanogaster larvae respond to acids[50] and menthol[51] with a stereotyped nociceptive rolling response, identical ...
Due to their low-maintenance and highly mapped genomes, mice, Drosophila,[19] and C. elegans[20] are very common. Zebrafish[21] ... His pioneering work with Drosophila helped to elucidate the link between circadian rhythms and genes, which led to further ... Seymour Benzer in his office at Caltech in 1974 with a big model of Drosophila ... "Tools for neuroanatomy and neurogenetics in Drosophila". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States ...
Drosophila nonmuscle myosin-2 actin activated ATPase no inhibition[31] Drosophila nonmuscle myosin-2 M466I mutation actin ... Drosophila cardiac tubes heart wall motion 100 μM resulted in full inhibition[32] ... "Kinetic characterization of the sole nonmuscle myosin-2 from the model organism Drosophila melanogaster". FASEB Journal. 29 (4 ... "A Drosophila melanogaster model of diastolic dysfunction and cardiomyopathy based on impaired troponin-T function" ...
When a fertile female worker produces drones, a conflict arises between her interests and those of the queen. The worker shares half her genes with the drone and one-quarter with her brothers, favouring her offspring over those of the queen. The queen shares half her genes with her sons and one-quarter with the sons of fertile female workers.[65] This pits the worker against the queen and other workers, who try to maximize their reproductive fitness by rearing the offspring most related to them. This relationship leads to a phenomenon known as "worker policing". In these rare situations, other worker bees in the hive who are genetically more related to the queen's sons than those of the fertile workers will patrol the hive and remove worker-laid eggs. Another form of worker-based policing is aggression toward fertile females.[66] Some studies have suggested a queen pheromone which may help workers distinguish worker- and queen-laid eggs, but others indicate egg viability as the key factor in ...
Eggs take about 14 days to hatch into larvae, which eat continuously. They have a preference for white mulberry, having an attraction to the mulberry odorant cis-jasmone. They are not monophagous since they can eat other species of Morus, as well as some other Moraceae, mostly Osage orange. They are covered with tiny black hairs. When the color of their heads turns darker, it indicates they are about to molt. After molting, the instar phase of the silkworms emerge white, naked, and with little horns on their backs. After they have molted four times, their bodies become slightly yellow and the skin becomes tighter. The larvae then prepare to enter the pupal phase of their lifecycle, and enclose themselves in a cocoon made up of raw silk produced by the salivary glands. The final molt from larva to pupa takes place within the cocoon, which provides a vital layer of protection during the vulnerable, almost motionless pupal state. Many other Lepidoptera produce cocoons, but only a few-the ...
The ease of culturing houseflies, and the relative ease of handling them when compared to the fruit fly Drosophila, have made ...
Fontdevila A, Pla C, Hasson E, Wasserman M, Sanchez A, Naveira H, Ruiz A (1988). "Drosophila koepferae: a new member of the ... Drosophila serido (Diptera: Drosophilidae) superspecies taxon". Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 81 (3): 380-385 ...
Animals are called pests when they cause damage to agriculture by feeding on crops or parasitising livestock, such as codling moth on apples, or boll weevil on cotton. An animal could also be a pest when it causes damage to a wild ecosystem or carries germs within human habitats. Examples of these include those organisms which vector human disease, such as rats and fleas which carry the plague disease, mosquitoes which vector malaria, and ticks which carry Lyme disease. A species can be a pest in one setting but beneficial or domesticated in another (for example, European rabbits introduced to Australia caused ecological damage beyond the scale they inflicted in their natural habitat). Many weeds are also seen as useful under certain conditions, for instance Patterson's curse is often valued as food for honeybees and as a wildflower, even though it can poison livestock. The term "plant pest" has a specific definition in terms of the International Plant Protection Convention and phytosanitary ...
Some moths, particularly their caterpillars, can be major agricultural pests in many parts of the world. Examples include corn borers and bollworms.[5] The caterpillar of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) causes severe damage to forests in the northeastern United States, where it is an invasive species. In temperate climates, the codling moth causes extensive damage, especially to fruit farms. In tropical and subtropical climates, the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) is perhaps the most serious pest of brassicaceous crops. Also in sub-Saharan Africa, the African sugarcane borer is a major pest of sugarcane, maize, and sorghum.[6] Several moths in the family Tineidae are commonly regarded as pests because their larvae eat fabric such as clothes and blankets made from natural proteinaceous fibers such as wool or silk.[7] They are less likely to eat mixed materials containing some artificial fibers. There are some reports that they may be repelled by the scent of wood from juniper and cedar, ...
Primary screwworms are primary, obligate parasites in the larval stage, and as a result are capable, unlike secondary screwworms, of initialising the penetration of the skin barrier to create an entry wound. Despite this, they are most commonly seen as colonisers of previously existing wounds, and frequently are hatched from eggs laid at the perimeter of a wound. Once the infestation commences, a dark brown or reddish-brown discharge begins leaking from the wound, sometimes accompanied by an unpleasant smell as the flesh begins to decay. This is often the first sign in both livestock and human victims that something is amiss, and often initiates consultation with a professional. As the infestation increases, the victim begins to experience escalating tissue irritation, and in the case of domesticated animals, may be observed to become withdrawn, listless, and anorexic.[5][17] Once the process of clinical diagnosis begins and myiasis is recognised, the larvae are fairly easy to identify. Their ...
The Dynastinae are among the largest of beetles, reaching more than 150 mm (6 in) in length, but are completely harmless to humans because they cannot bite or sting. Some species have been anecdotally claimed to lift up to 850 times their own weight.[1] Their common names refer to the characteristic horns borne only by the males of most species in the group. Each has a horn on the head and another horn pointing forward from the center of the thorax. The horns are used in fighting other males during mating season, and for digging. The size of the horn is a good indicator of nutrition and physical health.[2] The body of an adult rhinoceros beetle is covered by a thick exoskeleton. A pair of thick wings lie atop another set of membranous wings underneath, allowing the rhinoceros beetle to fly, although not very efficiently, owing to its large size. Their best protection from predators is their size and stature. Additionally, since they are nocturnal, they avoid many of their predators during the ...
The deathwatch beetle, Xestobium rufovillosum, is a woodboring beetle. The adult beetle is 7 millimetres (0.28 in) long, while the xylophagous larvae are up to 11 mm (0.43 in) long. To attract mates, these woodborers create a tapping or ticking sound that can be heard in the rafters of old buildings on quiet summer nights. They are therefore associated with quiet, sleepless nights and are named for the vigil (watch) kept beside the dying or dead, and by extension the superstitious have seen the deathwatch beetle as an omen of impending death. The term "death watch" has been applied to a variety of other ticking insects, including Anobium striatum, some of the so-called booklice of the family Psocidae, and the appropriately named Atropos divinatoria and Clothilla pulsatoria (Greek goddesses Atropos and Clotho were associated with death). The larva is very soft, yet can bore its way through wood, which it is able to digest using a number of enzymes in its alimentary canal, provided that the wood ...
Insects have often been taken to represent qualities, for good or ill, and accordingly have been used as amulets to ward off evil, or as omens that predict forthcoming events. A blue-glazed faience dragonfly amulet was found by Flinders Petrie at Lahun, from the Late Middle Kingdom of ancient Egypt.[32] During the Greek Archaic Era, the grasshopper was the symbol of the polis of Athens,[33] possibly because they were among the most common insects on the dry plains of Attica.[33] Native Athenians wore golden grasshopper brooches to symbolize that they were of pure, Athenian lineage and did not have any foreign ancestors.[33] In later times, this custom became seen as a mark of archaism.[33] For some Native American tribes, dragonflies represent swiftness and activity; for the Navajo, they symbolize pure water. They are a common motif in Zuni pottery; stylized as a double-barred cross, they appear in Hopi rock art and on Pueblo necklaces.[34] Among the classical names of Japan are Akitsukuni ...
In Britain, John Curtis wrote the influential 1860 treatise Farm Insects, dealing with the insect pests of corn, roots, grass and stored grain. Fruit and pests were described by authors such as Saunders, Joseph Albert Lintner, Eleanor Anne Ormerod, Charles Valentine Riley, Mark Vernon Slingerland in America and Canada. The pioneers in Europe were Ernst Ludwig Taschenberg, Sven Lampa (1839-1914), Enzio Reuter (1867-1951) and Vincenze Kollar. Charles French (1842-1933), Walter Wilson Froggatt (1858-1937) and Henry Tryon (1856-1943) pioneered in Australia.. It was not until the last quarter of the 19th century that any real advance was made in the study of economic entomology. Among the early writings, besides the book of Curtis, there was a publication by Pohl and Kollar, entitled Insects Injurious to Gardeners, Foresters and Farmers, published in 1837, and Taschenberg's Praktische Insecktenkunde. During the 19th century Italian entomologists made significant progress in controlling diseases of ...
Fruit fly: Drosophila melanogaster.[39] Good embryo supply. Well developed genetics.. *Nematode: Caenorhabditis elegans.[40] ... St Johnston D (2002). "The art and design of genetic screens: Drosophila melanogaster". Nat Rev Genet. 3 (3): 176-188. doi: ... In Bate and Martinez-Arias (eds.), The Development of Drosophila melanogaster, Cold Spring Harbor Press ... Maves L., Schubiger G. (2003). "Transdetermination in Drosophila imaginal discs: a model for understanding pluripotency and ...
Ichneumonoids are solitary insects, and the vast majority are parasitoids; the larvae feed on or in another insect until it finally dies. Most hosts are holometabolus insect larvae, but there are many exceptions. In general, ichneumonoids are host specific, and only attack one or a few closely related host species. Many species use polydnaviruses to suppress the immune systems of their host insects. Due to the wide variety in hosts and lifestyles, see subfamily pages for more detail. The female ichneumonoid finds a host and lays an egg on, near, or inside the host's body.[8] The ovipositor of ichneumonoids generally cannot deliver a sting as many wasps or bees do. It can be used to bore wood and lay eggs on hosts deep inside, or reach hosts hidden inside leaf shelters. Upon hatching, the larva feeds either externally or internally, killing the host when it is ready to pupate. Various ichneumonoids are used as biological control agents in controlling horticultural or forest pests. An example is ...
Sexual cannibalism is common among most predatory species of mantises in captivity. It has sometimes been observed in natural populations, where about a quarter of male-female encounters result in the male being eaten by the female.[57][58][59] Around 90% of the predatory species of mantises exhibit sexual cannibalism.[60] Adult males typically outnumber females at first, but their numbers may be fairly equivalent later in the adult stage,[5] possibly because females selectively eat the smaller males.[61] In Tenodera sinensis, 83% of males escape cannibalism after an encounter with a female, but since multiple matings occur, the probability of a male's being eaten increases cumulatively.[58] The female may begin feeding by biting off the male's head (as they do with regular prey), and if mating has begun, the male's movements may become even more vigorous in its delivery of sperm. Early researchers thought that because copulatory movement is controlled by a ganglion in the abdomen, not the head, ...
... was widely traded in Europe during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. In the 15th and 16th centuries, along with grain, timber, and salt, it was one of Poland's chief exports, mainly to southern Germany and northern Italy as well as to France, England, the Ottoman Empire, and Armenia.[7] In Poland, the cochineal trade was mostly monopolized by Jewish merchants,[7] who bought the dye from peasants in Red Ruthenia and other regions of Poland and Lithuania. The merchants shipped the dye to major Polish cities such as Kraków, Gdańsk (Danzig), and Poznań. From there, the merchandise was exported to wholesalers in Breslau (Wrocław), Nuremberg, Frankfurt, Augsburg, Venice,[7] and other destinations. The Polish cochineal trade was a lucrative business for the intermediaries; according to Marcin of Urzędów (1595), one pound of Polish cochineal cost between four and five Venetian pounds. In terms of quantities, the trade reached its peak in the 1530s. In 1534, 1963 stones (about ...
"Drosophila Genome Project". National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved 2009-04-14.. ...
Inversions in Hawaiian Drosophila. In: Krimbas C.B. & Powell J.R. (eds) Drosophila inversion polymorphism. CRC Press, Boca ... Hawaiian Drosophila[change , change source]. In about 6,500 sq mi (17,000 km2), the Hawaiian Islands have the most diverse ... William Rice and G.W. Salt bred fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, using a maze with three different choices of habitat such ... Diane Dodd was also able to show how reproductive isolation can develop from mating preferences in Drosophila pseudoobscura ...
Drosophila ile çalışmaları[değiştir , kaynağı değiştir]. Alanındaki çalışmalar[değiştir , kaynağı değiştir]. 1970'lerin ... Clyne, Dylan (April 2008). "Sex-Specific Control and Tuning of the Pattern Generator for Courtship Song in Drosophila". Cell. ... Bu durum, Drosophila beynindeki küçük ventral lateral nöronlarda (sLNvs) lokalize edildi. Bu verilerden Hall, sLNv'lerin ... Greenspan, R. J.; Ferveur, J. F. (2000). "Courtship in Drosophila". Annual Review of Genetics. 34: 205-232. ...
Drosophila[change , change source]. Studies over many years have shown that natural populations of Drosophila are polymorphic ...
Drosophila Tudor Etki Proteinleri[değiştir , kaynağı değiştir]. Drosophila'daki piRNA yolu için gereken birçok faktör, Piwi ... Bu modifikasyonun Drosophila melanogaster (meyve sineği), zebra balığı,[6] , fare[7] ve sıçan[6] larda da var olduğu ... Drosophila melanogaster ve omurgalılardaki piRNA'lar herhangi bir protein kodlayan gen bulunmayan bölgelerde bulunurken,[12] ... "Discrete Small RNA-Generating Loci as Master Regulators of Transposon Activity in Drosophila". Cell. 128 (6), s. 1089-1103. doi ...
Versuche an Drosophila". Biologisches Zentralblatt. 49: 437-448.. *Goldschmidt, R. B. (1931). Die sexuellen Zwischenstufen, ... Goldschmidt, R. B. (1949). "The beaded minute-intersexes in Drosophila melanogaster Meig". J. Exp. Zool. (published Nov 1949). ... Goldschmidt, R. B. (1945). "Podoptera, a homoeotic mutant of Drosophila and the origin of the insect wing". Science (published ... Goldschmidt, R. B.; Piternick, L K (1957). "The genetic background of chemically induced phenocopies in Drosophila". J. Exp. ...
The Birnaviridae genome encodes several proteins: Birnaviridae RNA-directed RNA polymerase (VP1), which lacks the highly conserved Gly-Asp-Asp (GDD) sequence, a component of the proposed catalytic site of this enzyme family that exists in the conserved motif VI of the palm domain of other RNA-directed RNA polymerases.[3] The large RNA segment, segment A, of birnaviruses codes for a polyprotein (N-VP2-VP4-VP3-C) [4] that is processed into the major structural proteins of the virion: VP2, VP3 (a minor structural component of the virus), and into the putative protease VP4.[4] VP4 protein is involved in generating VP2 and VP3.[4] recombinant VP3 is more immunogenic than recombinant VP2.[5] Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), a birnavirus, is an important pathogen in fish farms. Analyses of viral proteins showed that VP2 is the major structural and immunogenic polypeptide of the virus.[6][7] All neutralizing monoclonal antibodies are specific to VP2 and bind to continuous or discontinuous ...
Arias AM (2008). "Drosophila melanogaster and the development of biology in the 20th century". Drosophila. Methods in Molecular ... In normal unmutated Drosophila, each segment produces bristles called denticles in a band arranged on the side of the segment ... Nüsslein-Volhard and Wieschaus took advantage of the segmented form of Drosophila larvae to address the logic of the genes ... The subsequent study of these mutants and their interactions led to important new insights into early Drosophila development, ...
Early olfactory processing in Drosophila: mechanisms and principles * RI Wilson. (2013) Annual Review of Neuroscience 36:217- ... In Drosophila, Sema-1a was initially identified as a repulsive axon guidance cue that signals through its receptor PlexA (Yu et ... Food odors trigger Drosophila males to deposit a pheromone that guides aggregation and female oviposition decisions * CC Lin ... The Drosophila EB harbors a particular laminar organization in which axons from multiple ring (R) neuron types form several ...
Biology of Drosophila. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.. Lutz, F. 1948. Field Book of Insects. New York, NY: G. P. Putnams ... Many times Drosophila can be found in fruit cellars, or other available man made structures with a large supply of food. ( ... Drosophila are considered major pests in some area of the world for this reason. (Demerec, 1950; Lutz, 1948; Wilson, October, ... Reproduction in Drosophila is rapid. A single pair of flies can produce hundreds of offspring within a couple of weeks, and the ...
"Drosophila Virtual Library.. *"Drosophila Genomics Resource Center" - collects, maintains and distributes Drosophila DNA clones ... Wikispecies has information related to Drosophila melanogaster. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Drosophila melanogaster. ... Scholia has a topic profile for Drosophila melanogaster.. *. "A quick and simple introduction to Drosophila melanogaster". ... Bloomington Drosophila Stock Center at Indiana University: Basic Methods of Culturing Drosophila Archived 2006-09-01 at the ...
Drosophila melanogaster is a human commensal typically seen hovering around garbage cans or the bananas in kitchen fruit bowls ... Drosophila Animal Sciences COPYRIGHT 2002 The Gale Group Inc.. Drosophila. The common fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is a ... With the sequencing of the entire genome of Drosophila in 2000, Drosophila will continue to be an important tool in ... The life cycle of Drosophila is made up of four stages: egg, larva, pupa, and adult. Eggs are typically laid in a food source ...
... distribution and control of Spotted Wing Drosophila ...
Drosophila (war); Drosophila (id); Drosophila (nn); Drosophila (nb); Drosophila (nl); Drosophila (pt); Drosophila (sk); 果蝇属 (zh ... Drosophila (de); дразафілы (be); مگس سرکه (fa); Drosophila (bg); bananfluer (da); Drosophila (tr); דרוזופילה (he); Drosophila ( ... Drosophila (he); Drosophila, дрозофила (ru); Дрозофіла, Drosophila, Oinopota (uk); Drosophila (ca); Drosófila, Drosófilas (pt ... Drosophila (fi); Дрозофиль шыбындары (kk); Bananmuŝo (eo); octomilka (cs); Drosophila (bs); Drosophila (it); ড্রসোফিলা (bn); ...
a fly of the genus Drosophila, esp. D. melanogaster, used in laboratory studies of genetics and development. ...
The vinegar flies Drosophila serrata, D. birchii, and D. dominicana are three sibling species (that is, species nearly ... Other articles where Drosophila serrata is discussed: evolution: Ethological (behavioral) isolation: ... The vinegar flies Drosophila serrata, D. birchii, and D. dominicana are three sibling species (that is, species nearly ... study employed different strains of Drosophila serrata, a species of vinegar fly from eastern Australia and New Guinea. ...
Drosophila blood cells.. Meister M1, Lagueux M.. Author information. 1. UPR 9022 du CNRS, IBMC, 15 rue René Descartes, 67084 ... Drosophila blood cells or haemocytes belong to three lineages: plasmatocytes, crystal cells and lamellocytes. There is no ... Drosophila plasmatocytes are professional phagocytes reminiscent of the cells from the mammalian monocyte/macrophage lineage. ... Finally, lamellocytes represent a cell type that specifically differentiates after parasitism of Drosophila larvae and forms a ...
Females of Drosophila pachea and Drosophila wassermani store sperm only in the spermathecae, while Drosophila nannoptera ... For most Drosophila species, however, these mechanisms are not completely efficient, and in Drosophila species in which it has ... They range from 0.32 mm in Drosophila persimilis (28) to 58.29 mm in Drosophila bifurca (29); in the latter case sperm are ... Both the sperm and nonsperm components of the ejaculate are known to be extremely variable in Drosophila. Sperm in Drosophila ...
"I mean, the successful male drosophila is a drosophila that gets enough sleep." ... While Stahl and the 60 Minutes crew refer to Drosophila as "fruit flies", McRobert knows better. This is from his website:. My ... Stahl watched as McRobert used a bizarre contraption to suck a male drosophila (fruit fly) out of a vial and put him into a ... The special included an interview with Scott McRobert about sleep deprivation and mating in Drosophila. ...
The D. simulans and D. yakuba genomes mark the third and fourth sequenced Drosophila genomes - the second being the more ... That approach has made its way to Drosophila genomics with the publication of a paper describing polymorphism across the entire ... Around the same time as that white paper, another proposal was submitted to bring the total number of sequenced Drosophila ... Population Genomics: Whole-Genome Analysis of Polymorphism and Divergence in Drosophila simulans. PLoS Biol 5: e310 doi:10.1371 ...
GFP in Drosophila.. Brand A1.. Author information. 1. Wellcome Trust and Cancer Research Campaign, Institute of Cancer and ...
... Wojciech J. Stec and Martin P. Zeidler MRC Centre for Developmental and Biomedical Genetics and ... Wojciech J. Stec and Martin P. Zeidler, "Drosophila SOCS Proteins," Journal of Signal Transduction, vol. 2011, Article ID ...
This site is also protected by an SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) certificate thats been signed by the U.S. government. The https:// means all transmitted data is encrypted - in other words, any information or browsing history that you provide is transmitted securely.. ...
46thAnnual Drosophila Research Conference, San Diego, California. 19thEuropean Drosophila Research Conference, Eger, Hungary. ... Drosophila: A Guide to Species Identification and Use. Held, L.I., Jr. Imaginal Discs: The Genetic and Cellular Logic of ... flare strains of Drosophila melanogaster.. Etges, W.J. Drosophila desertorum in Big Bend National Park, Texas: The search for ... Drosophila.. Garcia, A.C.L., M.S. Gottschalk, G.F. Audino, C. Rohde, V.H. Valiati, and V.L.S. Valente. First evidence of ...
... physical and neurological properties are highly conserved between humans and Drosophila and nearly 75% of human disease-causing ... of human disease-causing genes have a functional homologue in Drosophila. This volume provides recent advances in Drosophila ... The book provides a useful resource for all scientists who are starting to use the Drosophila model in their studies, and for ... Drosophila as a Model to Gain Insight into the Role of lncRNAs in Neurological Disorders ...
Clock Mutants of Drosophila melanogaster. Ronald J. Konopka and Seymour Benzer. PNAS September 1, 1971 68 (9) 2112-2116; https ... A Key Temporal Delay in the Circadian Cycle of Drosophila Is Mediated by a Nuclear Localization Signal in the Timeless Protein ... Failure to reproduce period-dependent song cycles in Drosophila is due to poor automated pulse-detection and low-intensity ... Central Regulation of Locomotor Behavior of Drosophila melanogaster Depends on a CASK Isoform Containing CaMK-Like and L27 ...
In: Siddiqi O., Babu P., Hall L.M., Hall J.C. (eds) Development and Neurobiology of Drosophila. Basic Life Sciences, vol 16. ... T.R. Venkatesh, S. Zingde and K.S. Krishnan, Isolation and characterization of membranes from Drosophila melanogaster,this ... 2-4 We have explored the possibility of in vitro phosphorylation of proteins in membrane preparations obtained from Drosophila ... Thammana P. (1980) Phosphorylated Proteins in Drosophila Membranes. ...
Timofeeff-Ressovsky, N. Temperature-experiments with Drosophila melanogaster.. Timofeeff-Ressovsky, N. A comparison of the ...
This project will be carried on an Asian drosophila species (Drosophila suzukii, aka the Spotted Wing Drosophila ) that has ... MORPHMET] Postdoc position on Drosophila suzukii debat Wed, 22 Mar 2017 02:54:08 -0700 ... A two years post doctoral position will open in our lab next fall on the phenotypic and genetic evolution of *Drosophila ...
p, Whether youre just beginning to work with Drosophila, are an experienced fly-pusher, or are just curious about fly mutants ... youll enjoy perusing the photos and information contained within the Drosophila app. Primarily through photos, the app lets ... Whether youre just beginning to work with Drosophila, are an experienced fly-pusher, or are just curious about fly mutants, ... youll enjoy perusing the photos and information contained within the Drosophila app. Primarily through photos, the app lets ...
The seminal fluid of male Drosophila contains a cocktail of proteins that have striking effects on male and female fitness. In ... Seminal fluid-mediated fitness traits in Drosophila. *Tracey Chapman. 1. Heredity volume 87, pages511-521(2001)Cite this ... Drosophila suzukii contains a peptide homologous to the Drosophila melanogaster sex peptide and functional in both species. ... Male Drosophila transfer a cocktail of ejaculate proteins at mating that have striking effects on fitness. In D. melanogaster, ...
... azza sellami via dros%40net.bio.net (by a.sellami from cnic.u-bordeaux1.fr). Mon Dec 3 10:31:44 EST 2007 * ...
... MA11 at phoenix.cambridge.ac.uk MA11 at phoenix.cambridge.ac.uk Thu Aug 16 08:08:14 EST 1990 *Previous ... Drosophila Genetic Maps. Version 3.5 16 August 1990 Michael Ashburner Department of Genetics Cambridge, England. Telephone 44- ... following tables have been compiled from a database of genetic and other information concerning the genetic loci of Drosophila ...
DQ412091-DQ412111; Table 3). Of these, 7 had been reported in Drosophila before and 7 were new haplotypes for Drosophila (i.e. ... including Drosophila melanogaster, while only 26 belong to the larger subgenus Drosophila, which has ∼1500 species, excluding ... Ota, T., M. Kawabe, K. Oishi and D. F. Poulson, 1979 Non-male-killing spiroplasmas in Drosophila hydei. J. Hered. 70: 211-213. ... Yamada, M., S. Nawa and T. K. Watanabe, 1982 A mutant of SR organism (SRO) in Drosophila that does not kill the host males. Jpn ...
Previous message: [Drosophila] Drosophila incubators/growth-chambers *Next message: [Drosophila] looking for expression vector ... Previous message: [Drosophila] Drosophila incubators/growth-chambers *Next message: [Drosophila] looking for expression vector ... Drosophila] (no subject). Krishna Bhat via dros%40net.bio.net (by kmbhat from utmb.edu). Tue May 15 17:37:44 EST 2007 * ...
... g.e.w.thorig g.e.w.thorig at pobox.ruu.nl Tue Sep 19 03:14:01 EST 1995 *Previous message: (none) ... Does anybody know about a film (movies) of Drosophila concerning the development from embryo up to and including imago. Are ...
Drosophila immigrans. Click on image to zoom in. © Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 Email full-size image and text title. ... IM/I_MWS/0000/640/Drosophila_immigrans,I_MWS78.jpg. width=458 x height=640 pixels; size=83123 bytes Discover Life , Top Updated ... identification and distribution of Drosophila immigrans image ...
Flyseq: a collaborative project at UW to understand the systems biology of Drosophila neurons. Loading... ... are using massively parallel single-cell sequencing methods to map the diversity of neuronal cell-types found in the Drosophila ... quantitative genetics and systems biology to understand cell-type diversity and neurodegenerative disease in the Drosophila ...
  • 2-4 We have explored the possibility of in vitro phosphorylation of proteins in membrane preparations obtained from Drosophila fly heads. (springer.com)
  • Thammana P. (1980) Phosphorylated Proteins in Drosophila Membranes. (springer.com)
  • The seminal fluid of male Drosophila contains a cocktail of proteins that have striking effects on male and female fitness. (nature.com)
  • Male Drosophila transfer a cocktail of ejaculate proteins at mating that have striking effects on fitness. (nature.com)
  • The Drosophila proteins that participate in Hh-mediated signal transduction are highlighted in a Connections Map pathway. (sciencemag.org)
  • In today's ScienceExpress, John Chant and colleagues at CuraGen, New Haven, Connecticut, report that they have identified over 20,000 different interactions among over 7,000 proteins that are coded in the genome of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster . (alzforum.org)
  • Greenspan, Ralph J. Fly Pushing, the Theory and Practice of Drosophila Genetics. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Kohler, Robert E. Lords of the Fly: Drosophila Genetics and the Experimental Life. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Since the founding of Drosophila genetics by Thomas Hunt Morgan and his colleagues over 100 years ago, the experimental induction of mosaicism has featured prominently in its recognition as an unsurpassed genetic model organism. (genetics.org)
  • A project using quantitative genetics and systems biology to understand cell-type diversity and neurodegenerative disease in the Drosophila brain. (washington.edu)
  • A candidate with a recent Ph.D. degree and a strong background in Drosophila genetics is sought to participate in studies on pathogenesis of tauopathies, and to examine tau-targeting therapies in Drosophila models. (alzforum.org)
  • Strong background in Drosophila genetics. (alzforum.org)
  • Drosophila has played a critical role in revolutions in genetics and molecular biology--the announcement in 1981 that the P transposable element could be used to create transgenic fruit flies also assured Drosophila a prominent place in genome research. (sciencemag.org)
  • Engels, W.R. (2000) Genetics: Reversal of fortune for Drosophila geneticists? (sciencemag.org)
  • Drosophila , the common fruit fly, is an ideal organism for studying basic genetics and the laws of heredity. (flinnsci.com)
  • Drosophila melanogaster is the most studied organism in biological research, particularly in genetics and developmental biology. (bionity.com)
  • The 56th Annual Drosophila Research Conference , sponsored by the Genetics Society of America , is taking place March 4-8, 2015 at the Sheraton Chicago Hotel & Towers . (genetics-gsa.org)
  • Let us give some thought to the Y chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster , that engaging fly which is the bond-servant of genetics. (evolutionnews.org)
  • The relatively small brain sized (~100,000 neurons and glia), conserved neurotransmitter signaling mechanisms, and sophisticated genetics of Drosophila melanogaster allows for cell biological, molecular, and genetic analyses that are impractical in mammalian models of TBI. (frontiersin.org)
  • Drosophila pseudoobscura is a species of fruit fly , used extensively in lab studies of the genetics of natural populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • WASHINGTON - The majority of genes associated with nephrotic syndrome (NS) in humans also play pivotal roles in Drosophila renal function, a conservation of function across species that validates transgenic flies as ideal pre-clinical models to improve understanding of human disease, a Children's National Health System research team reports in a recent issue of Human Molecular Genetics . (eurekalert.org)
  • a fly of the genus Drosophila, esp. (infoplease.com)
  • In the genus Drosophila , there is an incredible amount of variation in gametes and other internal reproductive characters with the potential to influence assortative fertilization. (pnas.org)
  • Animals utilized in my work include pomace flies (genus Drosophila), fish, turtles, and frogs. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Around the same time as that white paper, another proposal was submitted to bring the total number of sequenced Drosophila genomes to twelve (making it the eukaryotic genus with the most species with completely sequenced genomes, although the diversity in this genus is equivalent to that of all eutherian mammals ). (scienceblogs.com)
  • The genus Drosophila provides the primary insect genetic model system for studies of evolution and diversification ( P owell 1997 ) and for studies of infectious processes and immunity ( M ylonakis and A ballay 2005 ). (genetics.org)
  • Of the 69 species of the family Drosophilidae for which Wolbachia screening results have been published, 68 belong to the genus Drosophila ( Figure 1 ). (genetics.org)
  • Drosophila' is a genus of flies and this one can be called a concept album de facto handling the adventurous story of fly Ned Busckii who wakes up one morning with the feeling that a change is definetely needed in his life. (progarchives.com)
  • Two Species Of Diptera Of The Genus Drosophila" (PDF Adobe Acrobat). (wikipedia.org)
  • Drosophila mature through complete metamorphosis, as do all members of the order Diptera . (animaldiversity.org)
  • Drosophila melanogaster is a species of fly (the taxonomic order Diptera) in the family Drosophilidae . (wikipedia.org)
  • Differential body expression of isoenzymatic loci in adults of the cactophilic species Drosophila antonietae (Diptera: Drosophilidae). (ou.edu)
  • 1992. Systematics and Modes of Reproductive Isolation in the Holarctic Drosophila testacea Species Group (Diptera: Drosophilidae). (wikipedia.org)
  • Drosophila melanogaster (from the Greek for black-bellied dew-lover ) is a two-winged insect that belongs to the Diptera, the order of the flies. (bionity.com)
  • The invasive spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), has become a serious pest in the United States. (bioone.org)
  • Sh S. Kim , A. D. Tripodi , D. T. Johnson , and A. L. Szalanski "Molecular Diagnostics of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) using PCR-RFLP," Journal of Economic Entomology 107(3), 1292-1294, (1 June 2014). (bioone.org)
  • The homeotic selector genes of Drosophila were later found to be arranged in the same order as the homologous homeotic selector genes in humans and other animals. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Characterization of UDP-glycosyltransferase genes in Drosophila pseudoobscura . (ou.edu)
  • Targeted mutagenesis of Drosophila atm and mre11 genes. (ou.edu)
  • Non-additive combined effect of multiple mutations in tumor suppressor genes on the frequency of hyperplastic mosaic clones in Drosophila imagoes. (ou.edu)
  • Most biological pathways, physical and neurological properties are highly conserved between humans and Drosophila and nearly 75% of human disease-causing genes have a functional homologue in Drosophila. (springer.com)
  • The Drosophila bithorax complex is subdivided into three major genes: Ultrabithorax+, abdominal-A+ and Abdominal-B+. (nih.gov)
  • At a molecular level, genes have been found to influence alcohol tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster. (accessexcellence.org)
  • Evolution of genes and genomes on the Drosophila phylogeny. (uniprot.org)
  • Bicoid and hunchback are the maternal effect genes that are most important for patterning of anterior parts (head and thorax) of the Drosophila embryo. (bionity.com)
  • Nanos and Caudal are maternal effect genes that are important in the formation of more posterior abdominal segments of the Drosophila embryo. (bionity.com)
  • To address those research gaps, Zhe Han, Ph.D., principal investigator and associate professor in the Center for Cancer & Immunology Research at Children's National, and colleagues systematically studied NS-associated genes in the Drosophila model, including seven genes whose renal function had never been analyzed in a pre-clinical model. (eurekalert.org)
  • This development is mainly due to the fact that several genes causing human heart disease are also present in Drosophila , where they play the same or similar roles in heart development, maintenance or physiology as their respective counterparts in humans. (mdpi.com)
  • First record of Drosophila parthenogenetica and D. neomorpha , cardini group, Heed, 1962 (Drosophilidae), in Brazil. (ou.edu)
  • Drosophila melanogaster is a fruit fly and the most studied species from the family Drosophilidae. (uniprot.org)
  • Drosophila xalapa [1] este o specie de muște din genul Drosophila , familia Drosophilidae , descrisă de Vilela și Bachli în anul 2004. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drosophila putrida is a species of fruit fly in the family Drosophilidae. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the genetic level, more is known about Drosophila than any other multicellular organism. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A two years post doctoral position will open in our lab next fall on the phenotypic and genetic evolution of *Drosophila suzukii* throughout its recent worldwide invasion. (mail-archive.com)
  • Drosophila Genetic Maps. (bio.net)
  • Telephone 44-223-333969 Fax 44-223-333992 e-mail ma11 at phx.cam.ac.uk The following tables have been compiled from a database of genetic and other information concerning the genetic loci of Drosophila melanogaster. (bio.net)
  • Although heritable microorganisms are increasingly recognized as widespread in insects, no systematic screens for such symbionts have been conducted in Drosophila species (the primary insect genetic models for studies of evolution, development, and innate immunity). (genetics.org)
  • Despite the broad interest in Drosophila for ecological, evolutionary, and genetic studies, and the recent investigations of heritable symbionts in insects generally, few Drosophila species have been screened for the presence of heritable endosymbionts. (genetics.org)
  • Here, we discuss how genetic mosaicism in Drosophila became an invaluable research tool that revolutionized developmental biology. (genetics.org)
  • Since most transgenic Drosophila melanogaster developed for research purposes do not contain genetic sequences from plant pests and are themselves not considered plant pests, most transgenic Drosophila melanogaster do not require permits from BRS for their movement. (usda.gov)
  • We highlight studies that exploited computational tools and the genetic accessibility and rich social life of Drosophila melanogaster to reveal molecular and neuronal determinants of social networks and collective behavior. (biologists.org)
  • Drosophila melanogaster was introduced into the field of genetic experiments by Thomas Hunt Morgan in 1909. (bionity.com)
  • His laboratory has helped develop Drosophila genetic technology, most recently as part of the Gene Disruption Project. (genetics-gsa.org)
  • As a consequence, the genetic toolbox of Drosophila geneticists have considerably expanded and will have a dramatic impact on our ability to understand genetic pathways in this insect. (els.net)
  • The development of the dorsal vessel in Drosophila is one of the first systems in which key mechanisms regulating cardiogenesis have been defined in great detail at the genetic and molecular level. (mdpi.com)
  • Many of the major components that control Drosophila cardiogenesis were discovered based on candidate gene approaches and their functions were defined by employing the outstanding genetic tools and molecular techniques available in this system. (mdpi.com)
  • Apart from classical forward genetic screens, the availability of the thoroughly annotated Drosophila genome sequence made new genome-wide approaches possible, which include the generation of massive numbers of RNA interference (RNAi) reagents that were used in forward genetic screens, as well as studies of the transcriptomes and proteomes of the developing heart under normal and experimentally manipulated conditions. (mdpi.com)
  • The circulatory system of Drosophila melanogaster represents an easily amenable genetic model whose analysis at different levels, i.e. , from single molecules up to functional anatomy, has provided new insights into general aspects of cardiogenesis, heart physiology and cardiac aging, to name a few examples. (mdpi.com)
  • A series of refereed research articles from Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project, FlyBase and colleagues, describing Release 3 of the Drosophila genome, are freely available online. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The recent completion of the Release 3 euchromatic genomic sequence of Drosophila melanogaster by the Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project ha. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, and Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3200, USA. (sciencemag.org)
  • The Annual Drosophila Research Conference is the premier meeting for Drosophila researchers. (genetics-gsa.org)
  • On and after January 15, 2014, the highlighted letters below provide access to alphabetical lists of the authors whose abstracts have been accepted for the 55th Annual Drosophila Research Conference. (genetics-gsa.org)
  • This project will be carried on an Asian drosophila species (Drosophila suzukii, aka the Spotted Wing Drosophila ) that has recently invaded both Europe and North America. (mail-archive.com)
  • Spotted wing Drosophila can be distinguished from other vinegar flies by spots on the wings of male flies, and by the ovipositor on female flies. (msu.edu)
  • This 10-minute video describes what MSU Enviroweather is and how to use it when managing spotted wing Drosophila. (msu.edu)
  • Since the invasive insect pest spotted wing Drosophila (SWD) (Drosophila suzukii) arrived in Michigan in 2010, it has been a major concern for Michigan fruit industries. (msu.edu)
  • MSU Extension's small fruit program is offering classroom and hands-on training to help successfully identify, monitor and manage spotted Wing Drosophila. (msu.edu)
  • Spotted wing Drosophila monitoring traps provide early warning of fly activity before most fruit are ripening. (msu.edu)
  • Spotted wing Drosophila numbers are still very low, but we have confirmed first detections this season of female SWD from traps in Antrim, Ingham and Livingston. (msu.edu)
  • Spotted wing Drosophila catches are increasing in fields and orchards where harvest is completed and insecticide residues are minimal. (msu.edu)
  • Last year my raspberry patch was infested by a new pest call spotted wing drosophila. (garden.org)
  • Welcome to our web resources on spotted wing Drosophila (SWD). (msu.edu)
  • Spotted wing Drosophila populations are surging. (msu.edu)
  • Spotted wing Drosophila populations have begun to surge. (msu.edu)
  • Spotted wing Drosophila populations are active and growers should be protecting susceptible crops. (msu.edu)
  • With warmer weather, spotted wing Drosophila (SWD) populations are beginning to climb. (msu.edu)
  • 2019 Cool wet spring brought another slow start to spotted wing Drosophila, but now that warm weather is here, expect to begin protecting susceptible crops. (msu.edu)
  • The Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD) is a vinegar fly of East Asian origin that can cause damage to many fruit crops. (msu.edu)
  • The Committee reviews all abstracts submitted for presentation at the Drosophila Annual Conference and determines whether an abstract is suitable for platform or poster presentation. (genetics-gsa.org)
  • If you need to revise your abstract, follow instructions for revision on the abstract link on the Drosophila Web site. (genetics-gsa.org)
  • In the recent kerfuffle over Sarah Palin's disparaging remarks about "fruit fly" research, an important point was missed by the general public, scientists, and even Drosophila geneticists: she wasn't talking about Drosophila. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Drosophila has long been a favorite model system for geneticists and developmental biologists studying embryogenesis . (bionity.com)
  • Due to its small size, ease of culture and short generation time, geneticists have been using Drosophila ever since. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies on Drosophila suzukii Mats. (cabi.org)
  • A molecular diagnostic method for distinguishing D. suzukii from other Drosophila spp. (bioone.org)
  • A 709-bp region of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I gene was amplified from D. suzukii collections in the United States and compared with sequences of other Drosophila taxa from GenBank. (bioone.org)
  • Based on DNA sequence polymorphisms, a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis using the restriction enzyme Msp-I was found to differentiate D. suzukii from other Drosophila spp. (bioone.org)
  • First record of subgenus Phloridosa of Drosophila in southern Brazil, with notes on breeding sites. (ou.edu)
  • Of these, 41 belong to the subgenus Sophophora, which has ∼500 species, including Drosophila melanogaster , while only 26 belong to the larger subgenus Drosophila, which has ∼1500 species, excluding the Hawaiian Drosophila and the Scaptomyza ( M arkow and O'G rady 2006 ). (genetics.org)
  • The fruit fly Drosophila simulans is a member of the melanogaster group of the subgenus Sophophora and a close relative of D. melanogaster. (uniprot.org)
  • With the sequencing of the entire genome of Drosophila in 2000, Drosophila will continue to be an important tool in understanding how the genotype controls the phenotype of complex organisms. (encyclopedia.com)
  • 2000. The Genome Sequence of Drosophila melanogaster . (scienceblogs.com)
  • In the past, APHIS has accepted courtesy permit applications for importations of non-regulated Drosophila melanogaster that were based upon a template of a partially-completed APHIS Form 2000. (usda.gov)
  • BRS is requiring applicants requesting a courtesy permit for Drosophila melanogaster importations to apply through e-permits or to fully complete and submit an APHIS Form 2000 with all required information, including details of the inserted construct. (usda.gov)
  • The Drosophila melanogaster complete genome sequence was published in 2000. (uniprot.org)
  • Rong, Y.S., and Golic, K.G. (2000) Gene targeting by homologous recombination in Drosophila . (sciencemag.org)
  • Finally, lamellocytes represent a cell type that specifically differentiates after parasitism of Drosophila larvae and forms a capsule around the invader. (nih.gov)
  • Some aspects of molting and metamorphosis in Drosophila pavani larvae. (ou.edu)
  • Olfactory responses of Drosophila larvae. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We studied complete dose-response curves for 53 odorants in the third instar larvae of Drosophila melanogaster. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We analyzed the transcriptome profiles of nematode-infected Drosophila larvae with uninfected samples. (diva-portal.org)
  • For this we employed the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora with its symbiont Photorhabdus luminescence to infect Drosophila larvae. (diva-portal.org)
  • When we eliminated hemocytes genetically (referred to as hml-apo) in Drosophila , we found hml-apo larvae are resistant to nematodes. (diva-portal.org)
  • Embryogenesis in Drosophila is unique among model organisms in that cleavage occurs in a syncytium. (bionity.com)
  • Many times Drosophila can be found in fruit cellars, or other available man made structures with a large supply of food. (animaldiversity.org)
  • The common fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is a human commensal typically seen hovering around garbage cans or the bananas in kitchen fruit bowls. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In 1910 Thomas Hunt Morgan of Columbia University in New York City discovered a white-eyed mutant in Drosophila melanogaster which differed from the standard red-eyed fruit fly . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Stahl watched as McRobert used a bizarre contraption to suck a male drosophila (fruit fly) out of a vial and put him into a little dish with a female. (scienceblogs.com)
  • While Stahl and the 60 Minutes crew refer to Drosophila as "fruit flies", McRobert knows better. (scienceblogs.com)
  • nov., a new species associated with male-lethality in Drosophila willistoni , a neotropical species of fruit fly. (nature.com)
  • It was one of 12 fruit fly genomes sequenced for a large comparative study by the Drosophila 12 Genomes Consortium. (uniprot.org)
  • For anesthetizing Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) and other small insects. (fishersci.com)
  • Drosophila busckii is a species of fruit fly that is native to North America. (wikipedia.org)
  • I made the same mistake honestly, simply because Drosophila are commonly referred to as fruit flies, and I have a hard time believing Palin has ever heard of Tephritids. (scienceblogs.com)
  • T. H. Morgan's choice of Drosophila a century ago for studying the mechanisms of heredity has resulted in the lowly fruit fly's becoming one of the model organisms of biology. (sciencemag.org)
  • One of the best understood examples of pattern formation is the patterning along the future head to tail (antero-posterior) axis of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster . (bionity.com)
  • Flinn Drosophila Guide is a basic handbook of techniques and experiments using the common fruit fly. (flinnsci.com)
  • Drosophila melanogaster is a small, common fly found near rotting fruit . (wikipedia.org)
  • books.google.com - The common fruit fly, Drosophila, has long been one of the most productive of all laboratory animals. (google.com)
  • Starting with a review of Drosophila's value as a highly tractable model organism for studying human diseases, subsequent chapters present Drosophila models for specific human diseases. (springer.com)
  • We highlight here the historic discoveries made using the model organism Drosophila melanogaster and its contributions to biomedical and cancer research. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Developmental toxicity of mitomycin C in Drosophila melanogaster. (cdc.gov)
  • The developmental period for Drosophila melanogaster varies with temperature, as with many ectothermic species. (bionity.com)
  • The fly Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most intensively studied organisms in biology and serves as a model system for the investigation of many developmental and cellular processes common to higher eukaryotes, including humans. (osti.gov)
  • As in all insect species Drosophila melanogaster lays eggs. (animaldiversity.org)
  • Drosophila melanogaster is a holometabolous insect, so it undergoes a full metamorphosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • These findings indicate that in contrast to some other insect groups, other heritable symbionts are uncommon in Drosophila species, possibly reflecting a robust innate immune response that eliminates many bacteria. (genetics.org)
  • One aspect of biology in which Drosophila proved to be extremely useful was in the study of development. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In 1990, Rutgers State University offered a summer program in conjunction with the National Teachers of Biology that included a unit on Drosophila. (accessexcellence.org)
  • The book's appendices include key aspects of Drosophila biology, essential solutions, buffers, and recipes. (cshlpress.com)
  • In temperate regions where human activities have introduced Drosophila melanogaster , these flies seek shelter in colder winter months. (animaldiversity.org)
  • Like other flies, Drosophila melanogaster has a single pair of wings that form from the middle segment of its thorax. (animaldiversity.org)
  • The vinegar flies Drosophila serrata , D. birchii , and D. dominicana are three sibling species (that is, species nearly indistinguishable morphologically) that are endemic in Australia and on the islands of New Guinea and New Britain. (britannica.com)
  • Common vinegar flies ( Drosophila melanogaster ) during mating on a kiwifruit. (eurekalert.org)
  • The Spradling group uses Drosophila to study oogenesis, showing frequently that processes characterized in flies are conserved in mice and vice versa. (genetics-gsa.org)
  • Topics in the guide include the Drosophila life cycle, culturing techniques, collection of virgin flies, anesthetizing techniques, sexing flies, mating flies and the inheritance pattern of some basic characteristics. (flinnsci.com)
  • That approach has made its way to Drosophila genomics with the publication of a paper describing polymorphism across the entire genome of D. simulans , a sibling species to D. melanogaster . (scienceblogs.com)
  • The D. simulans and D. yakuba genomes mark the third and fourth sequenced Drosophila genomes - the second being the more distantly related D. pseudoobscura . (scienceblogs.com)
  • 2007. Population Genomics: Whole-Genome Analysis of Polymorphism and Divergence in Drosophila simulans . (scienceblogs.com)
  • Drosophila simulans is a species of fly closely related to D. melanogaster, belonging to the same melanogaster species subgroup. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drosophila simulans was found later to be closely related to two island endemics, D. sechellia and D. mauritiana. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infections of Wolbachia, a commonly infectious strain of bacteria observed in many insects such as Trichogramma and Muscidifurax uniraptor wasps, are transmitted between generations of Drosophila simulans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drosophila simulans has also played an important role in sequencing the genomes for certain Wolbachia strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2005, D. pseudoobscura was the second Drosophila species to have its genome sequenced, after Drosophila melanogaster . (wikipedia.org)
  • Etges, W.J. Drosophila desertorum in Big Bend National Park, Texas: The search for females. (ou.edu)
  • Drosophila are species of molting insects, meaning that they have two distinct stages of their life cycle with radically different body plans: larva and adults. (bionity.com)
  • The development of Drosophila is particularly well studied, and it is representative of a major class of animals, the insects or insecta. (bionity.com)
  • Previous efforts screened relatively few Drosophila lineages, mainly for Wolbachia. (genetics.org)
  • The phylogenetic distribution of Wolbachia and Spiroplasma in Drosophila is discussed. (genetics.org)
  • Wolbachia infections give insight into how certain species of Drosophila are related. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the most well-studied examples of lateral gene transfer (LGT) between microbe and animal is the transfer of DNA from an intracellular Wolbachia endosymbiont to its Drosophila host. (the-scientist.com)
  • As long as the host remains colonized by its Wolbachia endosymbiont, LGT can continue and Wolbachia DNA can accumulate in the Drosophila genome. (the-scientist.com)
  • Just how Wolbachia DNA inserts itself into the Drosophila genome is unclear. (the-scientist.com)
  • The clastogenic effects of Aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) on polytene chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster . (ou.edu)
  • Variation of the male specific wing pigment in the natural populations of Drosophila rajasekari . (ou.edu)
  • Salceda, V.M. Chromosomal polymorphism in natural populations of Drosophila willistoni from Eastern Mexico. (ou.edu)
  • Bentley, J. K., Veneti, Z., Heraty, J. & Hurst, G. D. D. The pathology of embryo death caused by the male-killing Spiroplasma bacterium in Drosophila nebulosa . (nature.com)
  • Martin, J., Chong, T. & Ferree, P. M. Male killing Spiroplasma preferentially disrupts neural development in the Drosophila melanogaster embryo. (nature.com)
  • The FlyBase Database of the Drosophila Genome Projects and Community Literature. (encyclopedia.com)
  • If you're curious as to how long it takes to go from the initial proposal to the published sequence of a genome, check out the white papers proposing various Drosophila genome projects . (scienceblogs.com)
  • The behavior of Drosophila melanogater is simplistic. (animaldiversity.org)
  • Since then thousands of other mutations in Drosophila have been identified and mapped, including mutations that alter behavior and learning. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Although the pheromones that inhibit mating in Drosophila were known, the positive pheromone signal that elicits courtship behavior and mating remained a mystery. (eurekalert.org)
  • the signal molecule which attracts males and triggers mating behavior of the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster remained until recently unidentified. (eurekalert.org)
  • To follow larval behavior in the presence or absence of nematodes we monitored Drosophila larval locomotion behaviors using FIMtrack (a recently devised automated method) to elucidate evasive strategies of hosts. (diva-portal.org)
  • Nearly all cell division mutants in Drosophila were recovered in late larval/pupal lethal screens, with less than 10 embryonic lethal mutants identified, because larval development occurs without a requirement for cell division. (mit.edu)
  • Mating propensity: an indicator of interracial divergence in the nasuta-albomicans complex of Drosophila . (ou.edu)
  • The recent completion of the Drosophila melanogaster genomic sequence to high quality and the availability of a greatly expanded set of Drosophila cDNA sequences, aligning to 78% of the predicted euchromatic gene. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2011) The Drosophila gene disruption project: progress using transposons with distinctive site specificities. (els.net)
  • 2013) Comparing zinc finger nucleases and transcription activator‐like effector nucleases for gene targeting in Drosophila. (els.net)
  • Drosophila plasmatocytes are professional phagocytes reminiscent of the cells from the mammalian monocyte/macrophage lineage. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast to mammalian systems, the protein composition of Drosophila centromeres has not been comprehensively investigated. (mendeley.com)
  • Bibikova M, Golic M, Golic KG and Carroll D (2002) Targeted chromosomal cleavage and mutagenesis in Drosophila using zinc‐finger nucleases. (els.net)
  • Demerec, M. Drosophila stock center at Cold Spring Harbor. (ou.edu)
  • Humans have helped to spread Drosophila melanogaster to every other location which it inhabits. (animaldiversity.org)
  • Furthermore, much of our knowledge of Drosophila is relevant to humans. (encyclopedia.com)
  • L'estudi publicat a Nature Communications obre pistes per investigar la funció d'aquesta via en el desenvolupament de vertebrats i la seva possible implicació en malformacions congènites en humans. (irbbarcelona.org)
  • study employed different strains of Drosophila serrata , a species of vinegar fly from eastern Australia and New Guinea. (britannica.com)
  • Toxicity parameters of 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide, urethane and methyl methanesulfonate in the flare and Oregon- flare strains of Drosophila melanogaster . (ou.edu)
  • Non toxicity of phenylpropanoid verbascoside from a Buddleja scordioides extract in Drosophila melanogaster flare and Oregon- flare strains and toxicity of caffeic acid in the flare strain. (ou.edu)
  • for example, some strains can protect against DCV (Drosophila C virus) while other strains cannot. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thomas Hunt Morgan studied Drosophila early in the 1900s. (wikipedia.org)
  • From 1910 to 1940, the center of Drosophila culture in America was the school of Thomas Hunt Morgan and his students Alfred Sturtevant and Calvin Bridges. (google.com)
  • Thus, the Drosophila nephrocyte can be used to illuminate the clinically relevant molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of most monogenic forms of NS, the research team concludes. (eurekalert.org)
  • 2016. "On the Morphology of the Drosophila Heart. (mdpi.com)
  • Here we describe the proteome of Drosophila melanogaster centromeres as analyzed by quantitative affinity purification-mass spectrometry (AP-MS). The AP-MS input chromatin material was prepared from D. melanogaster cell lines expressing CENP-ACID or H3.3 fused to EGFP as baits. (mendeley.com)
  • In: Siddiqi O., Babu P., Hall L.M., Hall J.C. (eds) Development and Neurobiology of Drosophila. (springer.com)
  • Completed PhD work in a Drosophila neurobiology laboratory at UC San Francisco. (genomeweb.com)
  • T.R. Venkatesh, S. Zingde and K.S. Krishnan, Isolation and characterization of membranes from Drosophila melanogaster ,this volume. (springer.com)
  • Ivanov, Y.N. Stability of sex ratio at mutagenesis in Drosophila melanogaster . (ou.edu)
  • Haselkorn, T. S. The Spiroplasma heritable bacterial endosymbiont of Drosophila . (nature.com)
  • Functional assays performed in Drosophila reveal that miPEP-8 affects development when overexpressed or knocked down. (scoop.it)
  • Here we address the functions of Drosophila Myc (dMyc) during development. (nih.gov)
  • Thermal fluctuations during development in Drosophila melanogaster lead to detrimental cold and beneficial heat acclimation responses, while thermal fluctuations induce little acclimation response during adult exposure. (biologists.org)
  • Drosophila were exposed throughout development (egg through third instar larva) in culture vials to medium containing MMC. (cdc.gov)
  • Studies in Drosophila have provided the framework for understanding human development and disease processes governed by the Hedgehog (Hh) family of secreted signaling molecules. (sciencemag.org)
  • This review will give an overview on these genome-wide approaches to Drosophila heart development and on computational analyses of the obtained information that ultimately aim to provide a description of this process at the systems level. (mdpi.com)
  • Reproductive isolation in the Drosophila longicornis species complex. (ou.edu)
  • The Lab The recruited postdoc will be based in Paris Museum of Natural History (MNHN) and will work in close collaboration with Vincent Debat ( http://www.evomorpho.com/ ) in the team Evolution et Developpement des variation phénotypiques ( http://isyeb.mnhn.fr/annuaire-et-pages-personnelles/pages-personnelles/Nouvelle-traduction-Violaine?lang=en ). (mail-archive.com)
  • An evolution of Michael Ashburner's 1989 classic Drosophila: A Laboratory Manual, this book is an essential addition to the personal library of Drosophila investigators and an incomparable resource for other research groups with goals likely to require fly-based technical approaches. (cshlpress.com)
  • Maternally synthesized bicoid mRNAs attach to microtubules and are concentrated at the anterior ends of forming Drosophila eggs. (bionity.com)
  • It can take up to 14 days for Drosophila eggs to result in viable adults, so order accordingly (3 weeks before intended use date is recommended). (flinnsci.com)
  • This information is necessary for BRS to confirm that the transgenic Drosophila melanogaster are not regulated articles before issuing a courtesy permit. (usda.gov)
  • A new paracentric inversion in the left arm of the third chromosome of Drosophila ananassae . (ou.edu)