A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Specialized cells in the invertebrates that detect and transduce light. They are predominantly rhabdomeric with an array of photosensitive microvilli. Illumination depolarizes invertebrate photoreceptors by stimulating Na+ influx across the plasma membrane.
Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.
An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
A proto-oncogene protein and member of the Wnt family of proteins. It is expressed in the caudal MIDBRAIN and is essential for proper development of the entire mid-/hindbrain region.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects.
Prominent lobed neuropils found in ANNELIDA and all ARTHROPODS except crustaceans. They are thought to be involved in olfactory learning and memory.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A layer of cells lining the fluid-filled cavity (blastocele) of a BLASTULA, usually developed from a fertilized insect, reptilian, or avian egg.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Specialized organs adapted for the reception of stimuli by the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.
A nutritional reservoir of fatty tissue found mainly in insects and amphibians.
Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A family of proteins that contain several 42-amino acid repeat domains and are homologous to the Drosophila armadillo protein. They bind to other proteins through their armadillo domains and play a variety of roles in the CELL including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, regulation of DESMOSOME assembly, and CELL ADHESION.
In invertebrate zoology, a lateral lobe of the FOREBRAIN in certain ARTHROPODS. In vertebrate zoology, either of the corpora bigemina of non-mammalian VERTEBRATES. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1329)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
Slender tubular or hairlike excretory structures found in insects. They emerge from the alimentary canal between the mesenteron (midgut) and the proctodeum (hindgut).
Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Hollow sacs of cells in LARVA that form adult structures in insects during BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS.
Light sensory organ in ARTHROPODS consisting of a large number of ommatidia, each functioning as an independent photoreceptor unit.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysterone is the 20-hydroxylated ECDYSONE.
Activities designed to attract the attention or favors of another.
Color of the iris.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The normal length of time of an organism's life.
The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.
The portion of chromosome material that remains condensed and is transcriptionally inactive during INTERPHASE.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Sexual activities of animals.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.
Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.
Antennapedia homeodomain protein is a homeobox protein involved in limb patterning in ARTHROPODS. Mutations in the gene for the antennapedia homeodomain protein are associated with the conversion of antenna to leg or leg to antenna DROSOPHILA.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Genetic mechanisms that allow GENES to be expressed at a similar level irrespective of their GENE DOSAGE. This term is usually used in discussing genes that lie on the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Because the sex chromosomes are only partially homologous, there is a different copy number, i.e., dosage, of these genes in males vs. females. In DROSOPHILA, dosage compensation is accomplished by hypertranscription of genes located on the X CHROMOSOME. In mammals, dosage compensation of X chromosome genes is accomplished by random X CHROMOSOME INACTIVATION of one of the two X chromosomes in the female.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A family of seven-pass transmembrane cell-surface proteins that combines with LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 or LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 to form receptors for WNT PROTEINS. Frizzled receptors often couple with HETEROTRIMERIC G PROTEINS and regulate the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.
Circadian rhythm signaling proteins that influence circadian clock by interacting with other circadian regulatory proteins and transporting them into the CELL NUCLEUS.
Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
A multisubunit polycomb protein complex with affinity for CHROMATIN that contains methylated HISTONE H3. It contains an E3 ubiquitin ligase activity that is specific for HISTONE H2A and works in conjunction with POLYCOMB REPRESSIVE COMPLEX 2 to effect EPIGENETIC REPRESSION.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
The anatomical parts that make up an organism in the early stages of development.
A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
Fushi tarazu transcription factors were originally identified in DROSOPHILA. They are found throughout ARTHROPODS and play important roles in segmentation and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM development.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
A dense intricate feltwork of interwoven fine glial processes, fibrils, synaptic terminals, axons, and dendrites interspersed among the nerve cells in the gray matter of the central nervous system.
The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.
A family of intracellular tyrosine kinases that participate in the signaling cascade of cytokines by associating with specific CYTOKINE RECEPTORS. They act upon STAT TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS in signaling pathway referred to as the JAK/STAT pathway. The name Janus kinase refers to the fact the proteins have two phosphate-transferring domains.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
Chromosome regions that are loosely packaged and more accessible to RNA polymerases than HETEROCHROMATIN. These regions also stain differentially in CHROMOSOME BANDING preparations.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
An antineoplastic agent with alkylating properties. It also acts as a mutagen by damaging DNA and is used experimentally for that effect.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Proteins which are found in eggs (OVA) from any species.
The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
A family of transcription factors containing SH2 DOMAINS that are involved in CYTOKINE-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. STAT transcription factors are recruited to the cytoplasmic region of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and are activated via PHOSPHORYLATION. Once activated they dimerize and translocate into the CELL NUCLEUS where they influence GENE expression. They play a role in regulating CELL GROWTH PROCESSES and CELL DIFFERENTIATION. STAT transcription factors are inhibited by SUPPRESSOR OF CYTOKINE SIGNALING PROTEINS and PROTEIN INHIBITORS OF ACTIVATED STAT.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
A multicomponent, ribonucleoprotein complex comprised of one of the family of ARGONAUTE PROTEINS and the "guide strand" of the one of the 20- to 30-nucleotide small RNAs. RISC cleaves specific RNAs, which are targeted for degradation by homology to these small RNAs. Functions in regulating gene expression are determined by the specific argonaute protein and small RNA including siRNA (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING), miRNA (MICRORNA), or piRNA (PIWI-INTERACTING RNA).
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
The nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system has autonomic and somatic divisions. The autonomic nervous system includes the enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic subdivisions. The somatic nervous system includes the cranial and spinal nerves and their ganglia and the peripheral sensory receptors.
A genus of small beetles of the family Tenebrionidae; T. confusum is the "confused flour beetle".
Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
The parts of the gene sequence that carry out the different functions of the GENES.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.
Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.
The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
One of the AROMATIC-L-AMINO-ACID DECARBOXYLASES, this enzyme is responsible for the conversion of DOPA to DOPAMINE. It is of clinical importance in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.
Steroids that bring about MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysteroids include the endogenous insect hormones (ECDYSONE and ECDYSTERONE) and the insect-molting hormones found in plants, the phytoecdysteroids. Phytoecdysteroids are natural insecticides.
Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.
A genus of bacteria comprised of a heterogenous group of gram-negative small rods and coccoid forms associated with arthropods. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 1, 1984)
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.

Assaying potential carcinogens with Drosophila. (1/15687)

Drosophila offers many advantages for the detection of mutagenic activity of carcinogenic agents. It provides the quickest assay system for detecting mutations in animals today. Its generation time is short, and Drosophila is cheap and easy to breed in large numbers. The simple genetic testing methods give unequivocal answers about the whole spectrum of relevant genetic damage. A comparison of the detection capacity of assays sampling different kinds of genetic damage revealed that various substances are highly effective in inducing mutations but do not produce chromosome breakage effects at all, or only at much higher concentrations than those required for mutation induction. Of the different assay systems available, the classical sex-linked recessive lethal test deserves priority, in view of its superior capacity to detect mutagens. Of practical importance is also its high sensitivity, because a large number of loci in one fifth of the genome is tested for newly induced forward mutations, including small deletions. The recent findings that Drosophila is capable of carrying out the same metabolic activation reactions as the mammalian liver makes the organism eminently suitable for verifying results obtained in prescreening with fast microbial assay systems. An additional advantage in this respect is the capacity of Drosophila for detecting short-lived activation products, because intracellular metabolic activation appears to occur within the spermatids and spermatocytes.  (+info)

Enzymes and reproduction in natural populations of Drosophila euronotus. (2/15687)

Populations of Drosophila euronotus, one from southern Louisiana )3 samples), and one from Missouri (2 samples), were classified for allele frequencies at alkaline phosphatase (APH) and acid phosphatase (ACPH) loci. The two populations differed consistently in allele frequencies at both loci. The APH locus is on the inversion-free X chromosome; the chromosomal locus of the autosomal ACPH is unknown, and could involve inversion polymorphism. Wild females from Missouri and Louisiana populations heterozygous at the APH locus carried more sperm at capture than did the corresponding homozygotes. This heterotic association was significant for the combined samples, and whether it was the result of heterosis at the enzyme locus studied, or due to geographically widespread close linkage with other heterotic loci, it should help to maintain heterozygosity at the APH locus. In a Louisiana collection which included large numbers of sperm-free females, simultaneous homozygosity at both enzyme loci was significantly associated with lack of sperm. It is suggested that the latter association is the result of young heterozygous females achieving sexual maturity earlier than do the double homozygotes. The average effective sperm load for 225 wild females was only 29.4, suggesting the necessity for frequent repeat-mating in nature to maintain female fertility. A comparison of the sex-linked APH genotypes of wild females with those of their daughters indicated that among 295 wild-inseminated females from five populations, 35% had mated more than once, and of this 35%, six females had mated at least three times. Because of ascertainment difficulties, it is clear that the true frequency of multiple-mating in nature must have been much higher than the observed 35%. Laboratory studies indicate that multiple-mating in this species does not involve sperm displacement, possibly due to the small number of sperms transmitted per mating, and the fact that the sperm receptacles are only partially filled by a given mating.  (+info)

Lack of genic similarity between two sibling species of drosophila as revealed by varied techniques. (3/15687)

Acrylamide gel electrophoresis was performed on the enzyme xanthine dehydrogenase in sixty isochromosomal lines of Drosophila persimilis from three geographic populations. Sequential electrophoretic analysis using varied gel concentrations and buffers revealed twenty-three alleles in this species where only five had been described previously. These new electrophoretic techniques also detected a profound increase in divergence of gene frequencies at this locus between D. persimilis and its sibling species D. pseudoobscura. The implications of these results for questions of speciation and the maintenance of genetic variability are discussed.  (+info)

Genetic heterogeneity within electrophoretic "alleles" of xanthine dehydrogenase in Drosophila pseudoobscura. (4/15687)

An experimental plan for an exhaustive determination of genic variation at structural gene loci is presented. In the initial steps of this program, 146 isochromosomal lines from 12 geographic populations of D. pseudoobscura were examined for allelic variation of xanthine dehydrogenase by the serial use of 4 different electrophoretic conditions and a head stability test. The 5 criteria revealed a total of 37 allelic classes out of the 146 genomes examined where only 6 had been previously revealed by the usual method of gel electrophoresis. This immense increase in genic variation also showed previously unsuspected population differences between the main part of the species distribution and the isolated population of Bogota population. The average heterozygosity at the Xdh locus is at least 72% in natural populations. This result, together with the very large number of alleles segregating and the pattern of allelic frequencies, has implications for theories of genetic polymorphism which are discussed.  (+info)

Testing for selective neutrality of electrophoretically detectable protein polymorphisms. (5/15687)

The statistical assessment of gene-frequency data on protein polymorphisms in natural populations remains a contentious issue. Here we formulate a test of whether polymorphisms detected by electrophoresis are in accordance with the stepwise, or charge-state, model of mutation in finite populations in the absence of selection. First, estimates of the model parameters are derived by minimizing chi-square deviations of the observed frequencies of genotypes with alleles (0,1,2...) units apart from their theoretical expected values. Then the remaining deviation is tested under the null hypothesis of neutrality. The procedure was found to be conservative for false rejections in simulation data. We applied the test to Ayala and Tracey 's data on 27 allozymic loci in six populations of Drosophila willistoni . About one-quarter of polymorphic loci showed significant departure from the neutral theory predictions in virtually all populations. A further quarter showed significant departure in some populations. The remaining data showed an acceptable fit to the charge state model. A predominating mode of selection was selection against alleles associated with extreme electrophoretic mobilities. The advantageous properties and the difficulties of the procedure are discussed.  (+info)

Apontic binds the translational repressor Bruno and is implicated in regulation of oskar mRNA translation. (6/15687)

The product of the oskar gene directs posterior patterning in the Drosophila oocyte, where it must be deployed specifically at the posterior pole. Proper expression relies on the coordinated localization and translational control of the oskar mRNA. Translational repression prior to localization of the transcript is mediated, in part, by the Bruno protein, which binds to discrete sites in the 3' untranslated region of the oskar mRNA. To begin to understand how Bruno acts in translational repression, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify Bruno-interacting proteins. One interactor, described here, is the product of the apontic gene. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments lend biochemical support to the idea that Bruno and Apontic proteins physically interact in Drosophila. Genetic experiments using mutants defective in apontic and bruno reveal a functional interaction between these genes. Given this interaction, Apontic is likely to act together with Bruno in translational repression of oskar mRNA. Interestingly, Apontic, like Bruno, is an RNA-binding protein and specifically binds certain regions of the oskar mRNA 3' untranslated region.  (+info)

The Drosophila kismet gene is related to chromatin-remodeling factors and is required for both segmentation and segment identity. (7/15687)

The Drosophila kismet gene was identified in a screen for dominant suppressors of Polycomb, a repressor of homeotic genes. Here we show that kismet mutations suppress the Polycomb mutant phenotype by blocking the ectopic transcription of homeotic genes. Loss of zygotic kismet function causes homeotic transformations similar to those associated with loss-of-function mutations in the homeotic genes Sex combs reduced and Abdominal-B. kismet is also required for proper larval body segmentation. Loss of maternal kismet function causes segmentation defects similar to those caused by mutations in the pair-rule gene even-skipped. The kismet gene encodes several large nuclear proteins that are ubiquitously expressed along the anterior-posterior axis. The Kismet proteins contain a domain conserved in the trithorax group protein Brahma and related chromatin-remodeling factors, providing further evidence that alterations in chromatin structure are required to maintain the spatially restricted patterns of homeotic gene transcription.  (+info)

Transcriptional repression by the Drosophila giant protein: cis element positioning provides an alternative means of interpreting an effector gradient. (8/15687)

Early developmental patterning of the Drosophila embryo is driven by the activities of a diverse set of maternally and zygotically derived transcription factors, including repressors encoded by gap genes such as Kruppel, knirps, giant and the mesoderm-specific snail. The mechanism of repression by gap transcription factors is not well understood at a molecular level. Initial characterization of these transcription factors suggests that they act as short-range repressors, interfering with the activity of enhancer or promoter elements 50 to 100 bp away. To better understand the molecular mechanism of short-range repression, we have investigated the properties of the Giant gap protein. We tested the ability of endogenous Giant to repress when bound close to the transcriptional initiation site and found that Giant effectively represses a heterologous promoter when binding sites are located at -55 bp with respect to the start of transcription. Consistent with its role as a short-range repressor, as the binding sites are moved to more distal locations, repression is diminished. Rather than exhibiting a sharp 'step-function' drop-off in activity, however, repression is progressively restricted to areas of highest Giant concentration. Less than a two-fold difference in Giant protein concentration is sufficient to determine a change in transcriptional status of a target gene. This effect demonstrates that Giant protein gradients can be differentially interpreted by target promoters, depending on the exact location of the Giant binding sites within the gene. Thus, in addition to binding site affinity and number, cis element positioning within a promoter can affect the response of a gene to a repressor gradient. We also demonstrate that a chimeric Gal4-Giant protein lacking the basic/zipper domain can specifically repress reporter genes, suggesting that the Giant effector domain is an autonomous repression domain.  (+info)

Drosophila willistoni (Sturtevant, 1916) é uma espécie do grupo willistoni de Drosophila que apresenta ampla distribuição geográfica desde o sul dos Estados Unidos (Flórida) e México até o norte da Argentina. Esta espécie tem sido alvo de muitos estudos evolutivos dentro do grupo devido à sua considerável capacidade de explorar de forma bem sucedida diversos tipos de ambientes e também por sua grande variabilidade genética expressa através de diferentes marcadores. A linhagem 17A2 de D. willistoni foi coletada em 1991 no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil (30°05S, 51°39W), e vem sendo mantida desde então no laboratório de Drosophila da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. Diferentemente das demais linhagens de D. willistoni mantidas no laboratório, a linhagem 17A2 já produziu espontaneamente machos do tipo white (olhos brancos) e do tipo sepia (olhos marrons) em estoques mantidos a 170C. A fim de avaliar se esta linhagem é potencialmente hipermutável, nós ...
Events - 56th Annual Drosophila Research Conference - Genetics Society Of America - Sheraton Chicago Hotel - Chicago - Illinois - - - Event Overview: \r\n The Annual Drosophila Research Conference is the preeminent meeting for Drosophila researchers. From students and trainees to PIs and Faculty, there is something for everyone. Nearly 1,000 abstracts are submitted each year and over 150 are selected for platform presentations ranging from model organisms to human disease to cell biology, pattern formation and more. In addition there are over a dozen plenary sessions that are varied in scope. Trainees can also benefit from the experience as there are several sessions that can help them with their career search, presentation skills, grant writing, and much more. Workshops on other topics of interest are also held in conjunction with the conference. The Annual Drosophila Research Conference is an opportunity to learn about the latest research, network with colleagues and share your scientific
There are thousands of different species of flies. Larvae feed not on the vegetable matter itself, but on the yeasts and microorganisms present on the decaying breeding substrate. All that is needed for development is a moist film of fermenting material. The Hawaiian species of Drosophila (estimated to be more than 500, with roughly 380 species described) are sometimes recognized as a separate genus or subgenus, Idiomyia,[3][47] but this is not widely accepted. About 250 species are part of the genus Scaptomyza, which arose from the Hawaiian Drosophila and later recolonized continental areas. They are particularly fond of bananas among fruits. [24], The following section is based on the following Drosophila species: Drosophila serrata, Drosophila pseudoobscura, Drosophila melanogaster, and Drosophila neotestacea. [9] A few species have switched to being parasites or predators. The term Drosophila, meaning dew-loving, is a modern scientific Latin adaptation from Greek words δρόσος, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transcription control of a gene for Drosophila transcription factor, DREF by DRE and cis-elements conserved between Drosophila melanogaster and virilis. AU - Kwon, Eunjeong. AU - Seto, Hirokazu. AU - Hirose, Fumiko. AU - Ohshima, Nobuko. AU - Takahashi, Yasuhiko. AU - Nishida, Yasuyoshi. AU - Yamaguchi, Masamitsu. PY - 2003/5/8. Y1 - 2003/5/8. N2 - A DNA replication-related element (DRE)-binding factor (DREF) has been revealed to be an important transcription factor for activating promoters of cell proliferation and differentiation related genes. The amino acid sequences of DREF are conserved in evolutionary separate Drosophila species, Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) and Drosophila virilis (Dv) in three regions. In the present study, evidence was obtained that there are several highly conserved regions in the 5′ flanking region between the DmDREF and DvDREF genes. Band mobility shift assays using oligonucleotides corresponding to these conserved regions revealed that specific ...
Flybase THE Database of Drosophila Genes & Genomes. NCBI Pubmed citations from the biomedical literature. Flymove images and movies of Drosophila development. Atlas of Drosophila development illustrations of embryogenesis. Drosophila protocols a list of lab homepages with Drosophila protocols JEDI network of junior Drosophila investigators. BSDB the British society of Developmental Biology US fly meeting the American annual Drosophila research conference. European fly meeting the European biannual Drosophila research conference. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterizing recurrent positive selection at fast-evolving genes in Drosophila miranda and Drosophila pseudoobscura. AU - Jensen, Jeffrey. AU - Bachtrog, Doris. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. N2 - Characterizing the distribution of selection coefficients in natural populations remains a central challenge in evolutionary biology. We resequenced a subset of 19 fast-evolving protein-coding genes in the sister species Drosophila miranda and D. pseudoobscura and their flanking regions to characterize the spatial footprint left by recurrent and recent selection. Consistent with previous findings, fast-evolving genes and their flanking regions show reduced levels of neutral diversity compared with randomly chosen genes, as expected under recurrent selection models. Applying a variety of statistical tests designed for the detection of selection at different evolutionary timescales, we attempt to characterize parameters of adaptive evolution. In D. miranda, fast-evolving genes generally show ...
DNA packaging affects a genes availability for transcription. Typically, loosely-packed euchromatic regions are gene rich and exhibit higher levels of gene transcription, while densely-packed heterochromatic regions are gene poor and exhibit less gene transcription. The 4th chromosome, or F Element, of Drosophila is unique, as it contains ~80 genes and is heterochromatic in nature, yet these genes are actively transcribed. Thus, Drosophila species provide an ideal model system for exploring how genes are accessed in heterochromatic regions and how well these mechanisms are conserved over millions of years of evolution. Working alongside the Genomics Education Partnership (GEP), genes of the F Element and the control D Element are being annotated across Drosophila species to identify unique features of genes on the F Element. My work has focused on contig1 of Drosophila ananassae. We have annotated the coding spans (CDS) of contig1, which contains five genes located on the autosomal euchromatic 3L
Cactophilic Drosophila species provide a valuable model to study gene-environment interactions and ecological adaptation. Drosophila buzzatii and Drosophila mojavensis are two cactophilic species that belong to the repleta group, but have very different geographical distributions and primary host plants. To investigate the genomic basis of ecological adaptation, we sequenced the genome and developmental transcriptome of D. buzzatii and compared its gene content with that of D. mojavensis and two other noncactophilic Drosophila species in the same subgenus. The newly sequenced D. buzzatii genome (161.5 Mb) comprises 826 scaffolds (|3 kb) and contains 13,657 annotated protein-coding genes. Using RNA sequencing data of five life-stages we found expression of 15,026 genes, 80% protein-coding genes, and 20% noncoding RNA genes. In total, we detected 1,294 genes putatively under positive selection. Interestingly, among genes under positive selection in the D. mojavensis lineage, there is an excess of genes
At the Genetics Society of America 53rd Annual Drosophila Research Conference in Chicago, shared several scientific research their knowledge about some of these diseases, including ataxia-telangiectasia , a neurodegenerative disorder, Rett syndrome, a neurological disorder, and kidney stones, a common health condition. All are the subject of ongoing research by the Drosophila model system.. Studying Drosophila Advances researching human diseasesMore than two thirds of the human genes colleagues in the well-studied fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, so although it may seem that people do not have much in common with flies, the correspondence of our genetic instructions is astonishing. In fact, there are hundreds of hereditary diseases in humans, the Drosophila colleagues.I do not know holding Lecture in Northern IrelandThe Northern Ireland office to the British Psychological Society and the Queens University of Belfast are happy six eminent psychologist known to throughout Ireland and Britain, ...
Previous experiments have shown two germline stem cell genes, bam and bgcn, to be under strong positive selection in Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans (Bauer DuMont et al. 2007). This prompted the question of whether the same pattern of selection observed in these two species was present in the germline stem cell genes of other Drosophila lineages? The Aquadro Lab has been sequencing many germline stem cell genes in Drosophila species, and the answer to this question so far has been that some lineages show strong positive selection and some do not. This observation led the Aquadro Lab to begin to test hypotheses about the driver - or drivers - of the positive selection in the germline stem cell genes across some Drosophila lineages. One hypothesis proposed by Bauer DuMont et al. (2007) is that coevolution with pathogens such as the reproductive parasite, Wolbachia pipientis, infecting the germline could be driving this observed selection. This project looked for signs of selection ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Further studies on gene polymorphism in the mainbody and geographically isolated populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura. AU - Prakash, S.. PY - 1977/12/1. Y1 - 1977/12/1. N2 - The authors have examined polymorphism at 22 additional loci in the populations from the mainbody of Drosophila pseudoobscura and an isolated population from Bogota, Colombia, which also shows partial reproductive isolation from mainbody populations. These studies extend previous observations of reduced gene polymorphism and apparent lack of unique allele in the Bogota population.. AB - The authors have examined polymorphism at 22 additional loci in the populations from the mainbody of Drosophila pseudoobscura and an isolated population from Bogota, Colombia, which also shows partial reproductive isolation from mainbody populations. These studies extend previous observations of reduced gene polymorphism and apparent lack of unique allele in the Bogota population.. UR - ...
We have analyzed the sterility associated with introgressions of the distal one-fourth of the X chromosome from either Drosophila mauritiana or Drosophila sechellia into the genome of Drosophila simulans using a series of visible and DNA markers. Because in Drosophila hybrids, male sterility is usually complete and is often tightly linked with each of several markers used in crosses, a simple genetic basis has generally been assumed. In our low resolution mapping experiment, we were not able to reject the null hypothesis that a single gene, introgressed from either D. mauritiana or D. sechellia, is the cause of male sterility. High resolution mapping, however, reveals a much more complex picture. At least three distinct factors from D. mauritiana, or two from D. sechellia, were identified that need to be jointly present to confer full sterility. Each individual factor by itself is relatively ineffective in causing sterility, or even a partial spermatogenic defect. Moreover, there appear to be ...
Other articles where Drosophila serrata is discussed: evolution: Ethological (behavioral) isolation: The vinegar flies Drosophila serrata, D. birchii, and D. dominicana are three sibling species (that is, species nearly indistinguishable morphologically) that are endemic in Australia and on the islands of New Guinea and New Britain. In many areas these three species occupy the same territory, but no hybrids…
Many introns in Drosophila and other invertebrates are less than 80 nucleotides in length, too small to be recognized by the vertebrate splicing machinery. Comparison of nuclear splicing extracts from human HeLa and Drosophila Kc cells has revealed species-specificity, consistent with the observed size differences. Here we present additional results with the 68 nucleotide fifth intron of the Drosophila myosin heavy chain gene. As observed with the 74 nucleotide second intron of the Drosophila white gene, the wild-type myosin intron is accurately spliced in a homologous extract, and increasing the size by 16 nucleotides both eliminates splicing in the Drosophila extract and allows accurate splicing in the human extract. In contrast to previous results, however, an upstream cryptic 5 splice site is activated when the wild-type myosin intron is tested in a human HeLa cell nuclear extract, resulting in the removal of a 98 nucleotide intron. The size dependence of splicing in Drosophila extracts is ...
Drosophila buzzatii has been found sympatric in Argentina with a closely-related sibling species, D. serido. The biogeographical, reproductive and chromosomal data allow us to combine these species into an evolutionary unit, the buzzatii cluster. Salivary gland chromosomes also have been used to determine their phylogenetic relationships with other closely related species, showing that the buzzatii cluster species share two inversions-2d2 and 2s6-with the species of the martensis cluster. Both clusters arose from South American populations of the ancestor of the mulleri complex, and we propose to include D. buzzatii and D. serido in the mulleri complex of the repleta group.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Higher rates of nucleotide substitution in Drosophila than in mammals. AU - Moriyama, Etsuko N.. PY - 1987/1/1. Y1 - 1987/1/1. N2 - To examine whether the rate of nucleotide substitution is affected by generation time of the organism, I attempted to estimate an accurate rate of synonymous (silent) substitution in Drosophila lineages, using alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) and heat shock protein 82 (hsp82) genes. The results obtained suggest that the rate of synonymous substitution in Drosophila lineages is roughly 10-8 per site per year. This rate is approximately two times higher than that of rodents and ten times greater than higher primates. The higher rate in Drosophila may be explained by the shorter generation times of the Drosophila species, though the possibility that the mutation mechanism in Drosophila may differ from that in mammals cannot be excluded.. AB - To examine whether the rate of nucleotide substitution is affected by generation time of the organism, I attempted to ...
The standard view of adaptation to larval crowding in fruitflies, built on results from 25 years of multiple experimental evolution studies on Drosophila melanogaster, was that enhanced competitive ability evolves primarily through increased larval feeding and foraging rate, and increased larval tolerance to nitrogenous wastes, at the cost of efficiency of food conversion to biomass. These results were at odds from the predictions of classical K-selection theory, notably the expectation that selection at high density should result in the increase of efficiency of conversion of food to biomass, and were better interpreted through the lens of α-selection. We show here that populations of D. ananassae and D. n. nasuta subjected to extreme larval crowding evolve greater competitive ability and pre-adult survivorship at high density, primarily through a combination of reduced larval duration, faster attainment of minimum critical size for pupation, greater time efficiency of food conversion to ...
Kitagawa M., Oyama T., Kawashima T., Yedvobnick B., Kumar A., Matsuno K., Harigaya K.. Mastermind (Mam) has been implicated as an important positive regulator of the Notch signaling pathway by genetic studies using Drosophila melanogaster. Here we describe a biochemical mechanism of action of Mam within the Notch signaling pathway. Expression of a human sequence related to Drosophila Mam (hMam-1) in mammalian cells augments induction of Hairy Enhancer of split (HES) promoters by Notch signaling. hMam-1 stabilizes and participates in the DNA binding complex of the intracellular domain of human Notch1 and a CSL protein. Truncated versions of hMam-1 that can maintain an association with the complex behave in a dominant negative fashion and depress transactivation. Furthermore, Drosophila Mam forms a similar complex with the intracellular domain of Drosophila Notch and Drosophila CSL protein during activation of Enhancer of split, the Drosophila counterpart of HES. These results indicate that Mam is ...
In Drosophila ananassae, artificial selection was carried out for fast and slow remating speed for 10 generations. Response to selection resulted in rapid divergence in remating time in each of two replicates of both fast and slow lines. There were significant differences in mean remat-ing time in females among fast, slow, and control lines. Regression coefficients for both fast and slow lines are significantly different from zero. The realized heritability over 10 genera-tions of selection is from 0.26 to 0.33 for two replicates of fast line and from 0.23 to 0.27 for two replicates of slow line. These findings suggest that female remating time in D. ananassae is under polygenic control. Remating frequency of females showed a correlated response in both fast and slow lines. At generation 10, correlated response to selection was also investigated. Mating propensity of D. ananassae of fast and slow lines was observed in an Elens-Wattiaux mating chamber. Fifteen pairs per test showed that on the ...
Many new Drosophila genomes have been sequenced in recent years using new-generation sequencing platforms and assembly methods. Transposable elements (TEs), being repetitive sequences, are often misassembled, especially in the genomes sequenced with short reads. Consequently, the mobile fraction of many of the new genomes has not been analyzed in detail or compared with that of other genomes sequenced with different methods, which could shed light into the understanding of genome and TE evolution. Here we compare the TE content of three genomes: D. buzzatii st-1, j-19, and D. mojavensis. We have sequenced a new D. buzzatii genome (j-19) that complements the D. buzzatii reference genome (st-1) already published, and compared their TE contents with that of D. mojavensis. We found an underestimation of TE sequences in Drosophila genus NGS-genomes when compared to Sanger-genomes. To be able to compare genomes sequenced with different technologies, we developed a coverage-based method and applied it to the D
The Annual Drosophila Research Conference is the premier meeting for Drosophila researchers. As many as 1,000 presentations cover the full diversity of Drosophila investigations, from genetics to molecular biology, cell biology, development, immunology, physiology, neuroscience, evolution, and more.. ...
Hi Marc, I am working a little bit with drosophila epithelium, specifically the abdomen. What I can say is that it is not very difficult to dissect Drosophila pupae (at leats with 26h APF). There is a protocol in the web from a Nicolas Gompel that is very good. Good Luck Pedro Marco Antunes wrote: , , Hello! , Im interested in working in the Drosophila pupal epithelium. , However, most literature about Drosophila pupa is very old... , Does anyone have some ideas about the difficulties and protocols for , dissecting and manipulating Drosophila pupae (without getting it killed)? , Also, does anyone know which is the best part of the pupa to visualize the , epithelium? The Thorax or the Abdomen? , Thank you for any help! , Marc , _______________________________________________ , Dros mailing list , Dros from net.bio.net , http://www.bio.net/biomail/listinfo/dros , , -- View this message in context: http://www.nabble.com/Drosophila-pupal-epithelium-tf2941767.html#a9310296 Sent from the Bio.net - ...
Accurate models of gene structure including untranslated regions (UTRs), intron-exon boundaries, as well as coding sequences are essential for proper interpretation of molecular genetics (Fire et al. 1998, Jinek et al. 2012), demographic inference (Halligan and Keightley 2006, Parsch et al. 2010, Clemente and Vogl 2012), tests of selection (Mcdonald and Kreitman 1991), and comparative genomics (Chen et al. 2014). The Drosophila offer an excellent model for comparative genomics, with high-quality sequenced genomes for 12 species(Drosophila Twelve Genomes Consortium 2007) as well as draft genomes for an additional eight species (Chen et al. 2014) spanning a total of 63 million years (Tamura et al. 2004). Previous gene models provided for the 12 Drosophila genomes focused on gene prediction with the aid of homology to establish putative annotations of coding sequences across taxa with 15,000−16,000 genes for most species (Drosophila Twelve Genomes Consortium 2007). These gene models produce ...
Species of the Drosophila obscura species group (e.g., D. pseudoobscura, D. subobscura) have served as favorable models in evolutionary studies since the 1930s. Despite numbers of studies conducted with varied types of data, the basal phylogeny in this group is still controversial, presumably owing to not only the hypothetical rapid radiation history of this group, but also limited taxon sampling from the Old World (esp. the Oriental and Afrotropical regions). Here we reconstruct the phylogeny of this group by using sequence data from 6 loci of 21 species (including 16 Old World ones) covering all the 6 subgroups of this group, estimate the divergence times among lineages, and statistically test the rapid radiation hypothesis. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that each of the subobscura, sinobscura, affinis, and pseudoobscura subgroups is monophyletic. The subobscura and microlabis subgroups form the basal clade in the obscura group. Partial species of the obscura subgroup (the D. ambigua/D. obscura
Species of the Drosophila obscura species group (e.g., D. pseudoobscura, D. subobscura) have served as favorable models in evolutionary studies since the 1930s. Despite numbers of studies conducted with varied types of data, the basal phylogeny in this group is still controversial, presumably owing to not only the hypothetical rapid radiation history of this group, but also limited taxon sampling from the Old World (esp. the Oriental and Afrotropical regions). Here we reconstruct the phylogeny of this group by using sequence data from 6 loci of 21 species (including 16 Old World ones) covering all the 6 subgroups of this group, estimate the divergence times among lineages, and statistically test the rapid radiation hypothesis. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that each of the subobscura, sinobscura, affinis, and pseudoobscura subgroups is monophyletic. The subobscura and microlabis subgroups form the basal clade in the obscura group. Partial species of the obscura subgroup (the D. ambigua/D. obscura
Domain architectures containing the following SCOP superfamilies _gap_,57625,57424,88713,_gap_ in Drosophila ananassae 1.3. Domain architectures illustrate each occurrence of _gap_,57625,57424,88713,_gap_.
Königer, Annabella (2019): The molecular basis of cold tolerance in Drosophila ananassae. Dissertation, LMU München: Faculty of Biology ...
In Drosophila embryos, checkpoints maintain genome stability by delaying cell cycle progression that allows time for damage repair or to complete DNA synthesis. Drosophila MOF, a member of MYST histone acetyl transferase is an essential component of male X hyperactivation process. Until recently its involvement in G2/M cell cycle arrest and defects in ionizing radiation induced DNA damage pathways was not well established. Drosophila MOF is highly expressed during early embryogenesis. In the present study we show that haplo-insufficiency of maternal MOF leads to spontaneous mitotic defects like mitotic asynchrony, mitotic catastrophe and chromatid bridges in the syncytial embryos. Such abnormal nuclei are eliminated and digested in the yolk tissues by nuclear fall out mechanism. MOF negatively regulates Drosophila checkpoint kinase 2 tumor suppressor homologue. In response to DNA damage the checkpoint gene Chk2 (Drosophila mnk) is activated in the mof mutants, there by causing centrosomal inactivation
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular and cytological analysis of widely-used Gal4 driver lines for Drosophila neurobiology. AU - Ogienko, Anna A.. AU - Andreyeva, Evgeniya N.. AU - Omelina, Evgeniya S.. AU - Oshchepkova, Anastasiya L.. AU - Pindyurin, Alexey V.. PY - 2020/10/1. Y1 - 2020/10/1. N2 - Background: The Drosophila central nervous system (CNS) is a convenient model system for the study of the molecular mechanisms of conserved neurobiological processes. The manipulation of gene activity in specific cell types and subtypes of the Drosophila CNS is frequently achieved by employing the binary Gal4/UAS system. However, many Gal4 driver lines available from the Bloomington Drosophila Stock Center (BDSC) and commonly used in Drosophila neurobiology are still not well characterized. Among these are three lines with Gal4 driven by the elav promoter (BDSC #8760, #8765, and #458), one line with Gal4 driven by the repo promoter (BDSC #7415), and the 69B-Gal4 line (BDSC #1774). For most of these lines, the ...
Two recent studies have presented conflicting views on variation present within the 294 base third domain of the 12S rRNA gene in the genus Drosophila, and in D. pseudoobscura in particular. One study suggested that this gene is highly invariant across the genus, while another recovered 22 distinct haplotypes from 22 strains of D. pseudoobscura. We have sequenced this gene in numerous lines of D. pseudoobscura and its relatives, noting only two haplotypes in the third domain, and we failed to confirm any of the published sequences. Second, we note that the published sequence divergence between strains of D. pseudoobscura was as great as that documented between distantly related Drosophila species. Third, we show that the published polymorphisms of this region within D. pseudoobscura would disrupt the secondary structure of the resulting molecule. We conclude that the published 12S rRNA sequences of D. pseudoobscura do not accurately reflect variability of the functional gene, and that this gene is
TY - JOUR. T1 - The actin-binding protein Lasp promotes Oskar accumulation at the posterior pole of the Drosophila embryo. AU - Suyama, Ritsuko. AU - Jenny, Andreas. AU - Curado, Silvia. AU - Pellis-van Berkel, Wendy. AU - Ephrussi, Anne. PY - 2009/4/14. Y1 - 2009/4/14. N2 - During Drosophila oogenesis, oskar mRNA is transported to the posterior pole of the oocyte, where it is locally translated and induces germ-plasm assembly. Oskar protein recruits all of the components necessary for the establishment of posterior embryonic structures and of the germline. Tight localization of Oskar is essential, as its ectopic expression causes severe patterning defects. Here, we show that the Drosophila homolog of mammalian Lasp1 protein, an actin-binding protein previously implicated in cell migration in vertebrate cell culture, contributes to the accumulation of Oskar protein at the posterior pole of the embryo. The reduced number of primordial germ cells in embryos derived from lasp mutant females can be ...
Cyclin Y is a highly conserved member of the Cyclin superfamily of proteins. In Drosophila the Cyclin Y gene (CycY) is required for progression through several stages of development but the specific pathways that Cyclin Y belongs to and that account for its requirement are not known. Studies in human and Drosophila cell lines have shown that membrane-localized Cyclin Y is required for phosphorylation of the wingless/Wnt co-receptor, arrow/LRP6, and for full activation of the canonical wingless/Wnt pathway. CycY null Drosophila, however, do not phenocopy loss-of-function mutations in canonical wingless pathway genes, suggesting that Cyclin Y may have additional roles outside the wingless pathway in vivo. To identify roles for Cyclin Y in Drosophila I used RNAi to knock down CycY expression in 31 distinct tissue patterns. The screen revealed that expression of the CycY shRNA in specific tissue patterns causes larval lethality and other developmental defects. Knockdown of CycY but not arrow in imaginal
Circularization was recently recognized to broadly expand transcriptome complexity. Here, we exploit massive Drosophila total RNA-sequencing data, |5 billion paired-end reads from |100 libraries covering diverse developmental stages, tissues, and cultured cells, to rigorously annotate |2,500 fruit fly circular RNAs. These mostly derive from back-splicing of protein-coding genes and lack poly(A) tails, and the circularization of hundreds of genes is conserved across multiple Drosophila species. We elucidate structural and sequence properties of Drosophila circular RNAs, which exhibit commonalities and distinctions from mammalian circles. Notably, Drosophila circular RNAs harbor |1,000 well-conserved canonical miRNA seed matches, especially within coding regions, and coding conserved miRNA sites reside preferentially within circularized exons. Finally, we analyze the developmental and tissue specificity of circular RNAs and note their preferred derivation from neural genes and enhanced accumulation in
A single species of fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has been the subject of scientific research for more than one hundred years. Why does this tiny insect merit such intense scrutiny?. Drosophilas importance as a research organism began with its short life cycle, ability to reproduce in large numbers, and easy-to-see mutant phenotypes. Over time, laboratory investigation revealed surprising similarities between flies and other animals at the level of genes, gene networks, cell interactions, physiology, immunity, and behavior. Like humans, flies learn and remember, fight microbial infection, and slow down as they age. Scientists use Drosophila to investigate complex biological activities in a simple but intact living system. Fly research provides answers to some of the most challenging questions in biology and biomedicine, including how cells transmit signals and form ordered structures, how we can interpret the wealth of human genome data now available, and how we can develop effective treatments ...
Metz, Charles William, Moses, Mildred S., Mason, Eleanor D. (July 1923) Genetic studies on Drosophila virilis with considerations on the genetics of other species of Drosophila. Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication No. 328 . Carnegie Institution of Washington , Washington, D.C., pp. 1-94. ...
Vectors derived from the Drosophila P element transposon are widely used to make transgenic Drosophila. Insertion of most P-element-derived vectors is nonrandom, but they exhibit a broad specificity of target sites. During experiments to identify cis-acting regulatory elements of the Drosophila segmentation gene engrailed, we identified a fragment of engrailed DNA that, when included within a P-element vector, strikingly alters the specificity of target sites. P-element vectors that contain this fragment of engrailed regulatory DNA insert at a high frequency near genes expressed in stripes.. ...
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N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most common internal modification of eukaryotic messenger RNA (mRNA) and is decoded by YTH domain proteins1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. The mammalian mRNA m6A methylosome is a complex of nuclear proteins that includes METTL3 (methyltransferase-like 3), METTL14, WTAP (Wilms tumour 1-associated protein) and KIAA1429. Drosophila has corresponding homologues named Ime4 and KAR4 (Inducer of meiosis 4 and Karyogamy protein 4), and Female-lethal (2)d (Fl(2)d) and Virilizer (Vir)8, 9, 10, 11, 12. In Drosophila, fl(2)d and vir are required for sex-dependent regulation of alternative splicing of the sex determination factor Sex lethal (Sxl)13. However, the functions of m6A in introns in the regulation of alternative splicing remain uncertain3. Here we show that m6A is absent in the mRNA of Drosophila lacking Ime4. In contrast to mouse and plant knockout models5, 7, 14, Drosophila Ime4-null mutants remain viable, though flightless, and show a sex bias towards maleness. This is ...
The circulatory system of Drosophila melanogaster represents an easily amenable genetic model whose analysis at different levels, i.e., from single molecules up to functional anatomy, has provided new insights into general aspects of cardiogenesis, heart physiology and cardiac aging, to name a few examples. In recent years, the Drosophila heart has also attracted the attention of researchers in the field of biomedicine. This development is mainly due to the fact that several genes causing human heart disease are also present in Drosophila, where they play the same or similar roles in heart development, maintenance or physiology as their respective counterparts in humans. This review will attempt to briefly introduce the anatomy of the Drosophila circulatory system and then focus on the different cell types and non-cellular tissue that constitute the heart.
The generation of cell polarity through the localization of specific mRNAs and proteins to discrete subcellular sites is fundamental to asymmetric cell division, tissue morphogenesis, cell migration, and most other developmental processes. While many different localized mRNAs and proteins have been described, the mechanisms by which such molecules become localized are only poorly understood. In the first part of this dissertation, I describe my efforts to unravel the mechanism by which gurken (grk) mRNA becomes localized to the anterodorsal corner of the Drosophila oocyte during mid-oogenesis. Such localization is a key step in the polarization of the mature Drosophila egg and future embryo; defects in grk mRNA localization result in the production of depolarized eggs that give rise to embryos that fail to specify ectodermal, endodermal and mesodermal germ layers and die before hatching. I show, using a transgenic fly assay system, that a conserved sequence element within the grk mRNA, called ...
P elements containing a 7 kb DNA fragment from the middle of the Drosophila bithorax complex insert preferentially into the bithorax complex or into the adjacent chromosome regions. This homing property is similar to that reported for the engrailed promoter (Hama, C., Ali, Z. and Kornberg, T. B. (1990) Genes Dev. 4, 1079-1093). The 7 kb fragment does not contain any known promoter, but it acts as a boundary element separating adjacent segmental domains. An enhancer-trap P element was constructed with the homing fragment and the selectable marker flanked by FRT sites. P insertions can be trimmed down by Flp-mediated recombination to just the lacZ reporter, so that the (beta)-galactosidase pattern is not influenced by sequences inside the P element. Twenty insertions into the bithorax complex express (beta)-galactosidase in segmentally limited patterns, reflecting the segmental domains of the bithorax complex where the elements reside. The mapping of segmental domains has now been revised, with ...
The chordotonal (Ch) organ, an internal stretch receptor located in the subepidermal layer, is one of the major sensory organs in the peripheral nervous system of Drosophila melanogaster. Although the cell lineage of the Ch organ has been well characterized in many studies, the determination machinery of Ch organ precursor cells (COPs) remains largely unresolved. Here we report that the rhomboid (rho) gene and the activity of the Drosophila EGF receptor (DER) signaling pathway are necessary to induce specifically three of the eight COPs in an embryonic abdominal hemisegment. The cell-lineage analysis of COPs using the yeast flpase (flp/FRT) method indicated that each of the eight COPs originated from an individual undifferentiated ectodermal cell. The eight COPs in each abdominal hemisegment seemed to be determined by a two-phase induction: first, five COPs are determined by the action of the proneural gene atonal and neurogenic genes. Subsequently, these five COPs start to express the rho gene, ...
Drosophila is an insect from the order Diptera, also called the fruit fly. The genus Drosophila includes about 400 species, found all over the planet. Life of the drosophila Drosophila flies...
Polyamine transport is elevated in many tumor types, suggesting that toxic polyamine-drug conjugates could be targeted to cancer cells via the polyamine transporter (PAT). We have previously reported the use of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and its PAT-deficient mutant cell line, CHO-MG, to screen anthracene-polyamine conjugates for their PAT-selective targeting ability. We report here a novel Drosophila-based model for screening anthracene-polyamine conjugates in a developing and intact epithelium (Drosophila imaginal discs), wherein cell-cell adhesion properties are maintained. Data from the Drosophila assay are consistent with previous results in CHO cells, indicating that the Drosophila epithelium has a PAT with vertebrate-like characteristics. This assay will be of use to medicinal chemists interested in screening drugs that use PAT for cellular entry, and it offers the possibility of genetic dissection of the polyamine transport process, including identification of a Drosophila PAT.
The cytokine-activated Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway plays an important role in the control of a wide variety of biological processes. When misregulated, JAK/STAT signaling is associated with various human diseases, such as immune disorders and tumorigenesis. To gain insights into the mechanisms by which JAK/STAT signaling participates in these diverse biological responses, we carried out a genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screen in cultured Drosophila cells. We identified 121 genes whose double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-mediated knockdowns affected STAT92E activity. Of the 29 positive regulators, 13 are required for the tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT92E. Furthermore, we found that the Drosophila homologs of RanBP3 and RanBP10 are negative regulators of JAK/STAT signaling through their control of nucleocytoplasmic transport of STAT92E. In addition, we identified a key negative regulator of Drosophila JAK/STAT signaling, protein tyrosine ...
The relatively simple communication, breeding and egg-making systems that govern reproduction in female Drosophila retain homology to eusocial species in which these same systems are modified to the social condition. Despite having no parental care, division of labour or subfertile caste, Drosophila may nonetheless offer a living test of certain sociobiological hypotheses framed around gene function. In this review, we make this case, and do so around the recent discovery that the non-social fly, Drosophila melanogaster, can respond to the ovary-suppressing queen pheromone of the honey bee Apis meliffera. Here, we first explain the sociobiological imperative to reconcile kin theory with molecular biology, and qualify a potential role for Drosophila. Then, we offer three applications for the fly-pheromone assay. First, the availability and accessibility of massive mutant libraries makes immediately feasible any number of open or targeted gene screens against the ovary-inhibiting response. The sheer
Fissioncytorace-1, a member of the nasuta-albomicans complex of Drosophila is an evolutionary product of centric fission, which had occurred in the chromosome X3 of Cytorace 1, a hydridization product of Drosophila nasuta nasuta male (2n=8) and Drosophila nasuta albomicans female (2n=6). Cytorace 1 (males 2n=7; females 2n=6) has inherited this chromosome from its D. n. albomicans parent. The chromosome X3 of D. n. albomicans is a derivative of a centric fusion between the acrocentric chromosome 3 and the chromosome X of D. n. nasuta. The Fissioncytorace-1 has crossed 200 generations from the time of its evolution in the laboratory environment. When this centromeric fission race was subjected to some of the morphophenotypic and fitness assessment to find its overall population fitness showed, increased body size, sternopleural bristle, ovarioles, lifetime fecundity and fertility with reduced interspecific competitive ability and hatching success when compared with its parent (Cytorace 1). These ...
Applications are invited for a postdoc position and a full-time technician = position in Drosophila epigenetics research laboratory of Dr. Tulin at the = Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA. Both positions planned for at = least three years, with possible renewal. The successful applicants will = use Drosophila model system to study epigenetics of development and = cancer. The primary research focus of Dr. Tulin=92s lab is on = fundamentals of chromatin reprogramming and RNA fate regulation during = normal development and carcinogenics, as well as on translating = fundamental research for clinical applications in oncology. Projects in = Dr. Tulin=92s lab cover the molecular mechanisms of the chromatin = remodeling and regulation of gene expression and employ Drosophila model = and in vitro assays as well as human cells, mouse models. Applicants for the postdoctoral position should have a Ph.D. in molecular = biology, molecular genetics, biochemistry, or a related field and 0-3 = years of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of adult experience on oviposition choice and short-distance attraction in Drosophila buzzatii. AU - Hedrick, Philip W.. AU - Barker, J. S F. AU - Armstrong, T.. PY - 1990/9. Y1 - 1990/9. N2 - In a series of experiments, no consistent effect of adult experience, i.e., exposure to the naturally occurring yeasts, Candida sonorensis and Clavispora opuntiae, on oviposition choice or short-distance attraction in inbred lines of Drosophila buzzatii was found. The lack of consistent effect on oviposition choice was also found in one experiment in which the flies were starved and in another experiment in which choice was determined on 2 consecutive days.. AB - In a series of experiments, no consistent effect of adult experience, i.e., exposure to the naturally occurring yeasts, Candida sonorensis and Clavispora opuntiae, on oviposition choice or short-distance attraction in inbred lines of Drosophila buzzatii was found. The lack of consistent effect on oviposition choice was also ...
Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Figure 1A) is one of the most serious pests of thin-skinned fruits including blueberry, raspberry, cherry, grape and strawberry [1â 5]. Mixtures of yeast, sugar, and water; fruit purees, distillates from apple cider vinegar or wine; ethanol, acetic acid, and phenylethanol in 1: 22: 5 ratios arâ ¦ It differs from other species of drosophilas by having a sawed oviscapto (organ used for laying eggs) that allows it to attack healthy fruits. Introduction. The spotted wing Drosophila (Drosophila suzukii) is an invasive and serious economic pest to small and stone fruits and its control is difficult. Another advantage of using a trap in this manner is that you can wait to treat your crops until you are sure you have the SWD on your property. The Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii, is a small vinegar fly that damages many fruit crops. Although the spotted-wing drosophila Drosophila suzukii originates in Southeast Asia, this pest is now widespread in North ...
Assembly/Alignment/Annotation of 12 related Drosophila species: »Assembly/Alignment/Annotation, LBNL, USA BDGP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Project: »Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project, University of California, Berkeley, USA Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project (BDGP): »BDGP, University of California, Berkeley, USA BDTNP, ChIP/chip in vivo DNA binding data: »Berkeley Drosophila Transcription Network Project, University of California, Berkeley, USA CluSTr protein sequence similarity analysis of Drosophila: »CluSTr proteome analysis, EBI, UK D. pseudoobscura genome project: »Human Genome Sequencing Center, Baylor College of Medicine, USA D. simulans genome project: »Genome Sequencing Center, Washington University, USA D. yakuba genome project: »Genome Sequencing Center, Washington University, USA D.melanogaster UCSC Genome Browser Gateway: »University of California, Santa Cruz, USA DDBJ, the DNA Data Bank of Japan: »DDBJ, National Institute of Genetics, Mishima, Japan DNase I ...
The SpottedWingFlyBase is a dedicated online resource for Drosophila suzukii genomics. The recently introduced and rapidly spreading Spotted Wing Drosophila (Drosophila suzukii) has unique anatomy among Drosophila species that enables it to become a serious economic pest. Female D. suzukii has a serrated ovipositor and exhibits a preference for ovipositing in sound ripe and ripening fruit as opposed to the overripe fruit that other Drosophila species are known to infest. Since its initial detection in the continental United States in 2008 in the berry-growing central coastal region of California, significant crop losses have been reported not only in California, but also throughout the United States, Canada, and Europe among growers of berry crops and soft-skinned stone fruits.. The goal of our database and web server is to provide comparative genomics resources to enable and streamline basic research on Drosophila suzukii biology as well as applied research to develop effective monitoring and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evolution of the LINE-like I element in the Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup. AU - Sezutsu, Hideki. AU - Nitasaka, Eiji. AU - Yamazaki, Tsuneyuki. PY - 1995/3/1. Y1 - 1995/3/1. N2 - LINE-like retrotransposons, the so-called I elements, control the system of I-R (inducer-reactive) hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. I elements are present in many Drosophila species. It has been suggested that active, complete I elements, located at different sites on the chromosomes, invaded natural populations of D. melanogaster recently (1920-1970). But old strains lacking active I elements have only defective I elements located in the chromocenter. We have cloned I elements from D. melanogaster and the melanogaster subgroup. In D. melanogaster, the nucleotide sequences of chromocentral I elements differed from those on chromosome arms by as much as 7%. All the I elements of D. mauritiana and D. sechellia are more closely related to the chromosomal I elements of D. melanogaster ...
To study genes that may be crucial for the male germ cell development of Drosophila we screened a cDNA expression library with a polyclonal antiserum against testis proteins of Drosophila hydei. We identified a cDNA fragment that exhibited a complete sequence similarity with the cDNA of the laminin B2 chain, an important component of the extracellular matrix. Transcripts of laminin B2 were detected in the RNA of male germ cells with the polymerase chain reaction and by in situ hybridization. We studied the reaction of different polyclonal antibodies including those against a Drosophila laminin B2-lac fusion protein, the entire Drosophila laminin complex, or against the mouse laminin complex and against laminin A and B1 chains with specific structures in developing male germ cells of Drosophila. Antigenic sites against laminin B2 were found in the lampbrush loops in primary spermatocyte nuclei, in nuclei of spermatids, and in heads of spermatozoa. The axonemes of elongating spermatids react with ...
Lab Reagents Drosophila Antibody Laboratories manufactures the antibody for drosophila hemocytes reagents distributed by Genprice. The Antibody For Drosophila Hemocytes reagent is RUO (Research Use Only) to test human serum or cell culture lab samples. To purchase these products, for the MSDS, Data Sheet, protocol, storage conditions/temperature or for the concentration, please contact drosophila Antibody. Other Antibody products are available in stock. Specificity: Antibody Category: For Group: Drosophila Hemocytes. Drosophila Hemocytes information ...
Domain architectures containing the following SCOP superfamilies 54236,47031,50729,_gap_ in Drosophila mojavensis 1.3. Domain architectures illustrate each occurrence of 54236,47031,50729,_gap_.
Dedicated to the memory of George Lefevre in recognition of his exhaustive cytogenetic analysis of the X chromosome, |b|The Genome of Drosophila melanogaster|/b| is the complete compendium of what is known about the genes and chromosomes of this widely used model organism. The volume is an up-to-date revision of Lindsley and Grells 1968 work, Genetic Variations of Drosophila melanogaster. The new edition contains complete descriptions of normal and mutant genes including phenotypic, cytological, molecular, and bibliographic information. In addition, it describes thousands of recorded chromosome rearrangements used in research on Drosophila. This handbook and its accompanying polytene chromosome maps, are sturdily bound into the book as foldouts and available as a separate set, are essential research tools for the Drosophila community.|br||br|Key Features |br|* Describes phenotype, cytology, and molecular biology of all recorded genes of Drosophila melanogaster, plus references to the literature|br
VALIATI, Victor Hugo and VALENTE, Vera Lucia S.. Chromosomal polymorphism in urban populations of Drosophila paulistorum. Braz. J. Genet. [online]. 1997, vol.20, n.4, pp.-. ISSN 0100-8455. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-84551997000400004.. Drosophila paulistorum populations colonizing the urban area of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil, were studied with the objective of characterizing their chromosomal polymorphism in this new environment. Despite being geographically and ecologically marginal and the fact that the colonization of the urban area seems to be a recent event, the populations showed a large number of inversions on all chromosome arms. Differences regarding inversion frequencies and percentage of heterozygosis were found when we compared the samples with respect to geographical, microenvironmental and temporal aspects. Such differences, however, could be attributed to both selective and stochastic factors. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The initiation of pair-rule stripes in the Drosophila blastoderm. AU - Small, Stephen. AU - Levine, Michael. PY - 1991/8. Y1 - 1991/8. N2 - The interactions between the products of gap genes and pair-rule promoters results in the single most dramatic increase in the spatial complexity of gene expression during the segmentation process. We attempt to relate recent findings on the regulation of striped patterns of gene expression in the early Drosophila embryo to general strategies of gene expression and development employed by higher organisms.. AB - The interactions between the products of gap genes and pair-rule promoters results in the single most dramatic increase in the spatial complexity of gene expression during the segmentation process. We attempt to relate recent findings on the regulation of striped patterns of gene expression in the early Drosophila embryo to general strategies of gene expression and development employed by higher organisms.. UR - ...
Electrophysiological analysis of cultured neurons provides a potential approach toward understanding the physiological defects that may contribute to abnormal behavior exhibited by mutants of the fruit fly Drosophila. However, its application has been restricted by an inability to identify a particular functional or anatomical subpopulation of neurons from the CNS. To study neurons composing the CNS mushroom body proposed as a center for insect olfactory learning, we utilized a Drosophila enhancer detector line that expresses a lacZ reporter gene in these neurons and identified them in acutely dissociated larval CNS cultures by vital fluorescent staining. The patch-clamp analysis suggests that whole-cell voltage-activated K+ currents can be classified into two types in identified mushroom body neurons. Type 1 current comprises a TEA-sensitive slowly inactivating current and noninactivating component while type 2 current contains a 4-AP-sensitive transient A-current and a noninactivating ...
P-13. Transcription Profiling of Cell Death in Drosophila Melanogaster. S. Chittaranjan, E. Garland, D. Freeman, S. Jones, M. Marra, and S. Gorski, Genome Sequence Centre BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, CANADA. Programmed Cell death - PCD - is a highly conserved and genetically controlled event that plays important roles in animal development, homeostasis and disease. We are employing a genomics approach, using EST and SAGE, to identify new PCD genes that are transciptionally regulated in the salivary glands - SGs - of Drosophila. We constructed a SG-specific cDNA library and SG-miniSAGE libraries from three consecutive developmental stages leading up to PCD.5461 high quality 3 ESTs from our SG cDNA library were used to perform BLAST analysis against Drosophila predicted genes and genomic sequence from the Drosophila Genome Project. The majority of the ESTs matched known or predicted genes in Drosophila including a number of ecdysone-induced genes and known PCD genes. We also identified a ...
The Huntingtons disease (HD) gene encodes a protein, huntingtin, with no known function and no detectable sequence similarity to other proteins in current databases. To gain insight into the normal biological role of huntingtin, we isolated and sequenced a cDNA encoding a protein that is a likely homolog of the HD gene product in Drosophila melanogaster. We also determined the complete sequence of 43,125 contiguous base pairs of genomic DNA that encompass the Drosophila HD gene, allowing the intron-exon structure and 5- and 3-flanking regions to be delineated. The predicted Drosophila huntingtin protein has 3583 amino acids, which is several hundred amino acids larger than any other previously characterized member of the HD family. Analysis of the genomic and cDNA sequences indicates that Drosophila HD has 29 exons, compared with the 67 exons present in vertebrate HD genes, and that Drosophila huntingtin lacks the polyglutamine and polyproline stretches present in its mammalian counterparts. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The M/SAR elements of the bithorax complex in Drosophila melanogaster. AU - Boykova, T. V.. AU - Orlando, V.. AU - Lupo, R.. AU - Bogachev, S. S.. PY - 2005/11. Y1 - 2005/11. N2 - The bithorax (BX) complex of Drosophila is a complex polygenic region with a multifactorial system of regulation. One of the levels of the regulatory system of the BX complex is its association with the nuclear skeleton structures through a specific interaction of the M/SAR DNA with the nuclear matrix proteins. In the present work, M/SAR elements were mapped on the molecular-genetic map of the region. All of the elements examined were found to colocalize with regulatory elements and form clusters that restrict/bracket the genetically active domains. All M/SAR DNA revealed was shown to bins specifically to the purified Drosophila melanogaster lamin.. AB - The bithorax (BX) complex of Drosophila is a complex polygenic region with a multifactorial system of regulation. One of the levels of the regulatory ...
The Vienna Drosophila Resource Center (VDRC) is a professionally organized bioresource center of international significance that aims to promote scientific discoveries in Drosophila melanogaster. Our primary aim is to maintain unique transgenic Drosophila stocks and DNA resources and to distribute them both locally and worldwide. We also acquire, create, and develop new resources, according to emerging new technologies and the needs of the local and international Drosophila research community.. ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Biochemical phylogeny of the eight species in the Drosophila melanogaster subgroup, including D. sechellia and D. orena. by M L Cariou
Abdelwahid, E., Yokokura, T., Krieser, R. J., Balasundaram, S., Fowle, W. H. and White, K. (2007). Mitochondrial disruption in Drosophila apoptosis. Dev. Cell 12(5): 793-806. PubMed citation: 17488629 Abrams, J. M., et al. (1993). Programmed cell death during Drosophila embryogenesis. Development 117: 29-43. PubMed Citation: 8223253 Asano, M, Nevins, J. R. and Wharton, R. P. (1996). Ectopic E2F expression induces S phase and apoptosis in Drosophila imaginal discs. Genes Dev. 10: 1422-32. PubMed Citation: 8647438 Avdonin, V., et al. (1998). Apoptotic proteins Reaper and Grim induce stable inactivation in voltage-gated K+ channels. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 95(20): 11703-8. PubMed Citation: 9751729 Baer, M. M., Bilstein, A., Caussinus, E., Csiszar, A., Affolter, M. and Leptin, M. (2010). The role of apoptosis in shaping the tracheal system in the Drosophila embryo. Mech. Dev. 127(1-2): 28-35. PubMed Citation: 19995601 Bardet, P. L. et al. (2008). A fluorescent reporter of caspase activity for live ...
Males of this genus are known to have the longest sperm cells of any organism on Earth.[5] One species, Drosophila bifurca, has sperm 58 mm (2.3 in) long.[5][6][7] The cells are mostly tail, and are delivered to the females in tangled coils. Those Drosophila species with very long sperms make relatively few sperm cells.[8] D. melanogaster sperm cells are a more modest 1.8 mm long, although this is still about 300 times longer than a human sperm. Several species in the D. melanogaster species group are known to mate by traumatic insemination, in which the male pierces the females abdomen with his penis and injects his sperm through the wound into her abdominal cavity (haemocoel).[9][10]. Drosophila vary widely in their reproductive capacity. Those such as D. melanogaster that breed in large, scarce resources have ovaries that mature 10-20 eggs at a time, and can be laid together in one place. Others, which breed in common but less nutritious places (such as leaves), may only lay one egg each ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cloning, heterologous expression and developmental regulation of a Drosophila receptor for tachykinin-like peptides. AU - Li, X. J.. AU - Wolfgang, W.. AU - Wu, Y. N.. AU - North, R. A.. AU - Forte, M.. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - We identified clones encoding a Drosophila receptor for tachykinin-like peptides by low stringency screening of an embryonic cDNA library with probes from the bovine substance K receptor. The cDNAs encode a seven transmembrane domain protein (DTKR) of 519 amino acids with 40-48% amino acid identity to mammalian tachykinin receptors within transmembrane regions. Xenopus oocytes injected with DTKR cRNAs showed selective responses to vertebrate substance P, its agonists and not to other vertebrate tachykinin peptides. These responses were eliminated by treatment of oocytes with pertussis toxin. In the adult fly, Northern and PCR analysis demonstrated preferential expression of DTKR in the head; in situ hybridization indicated that DTKR is accumulated in the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Localization of transcripts from the wingless gene in whole Drosophila embryos. AU - Baker, N. E.. PY - 1988. Y1 - 1988. N2 - In situ hybridization has been used to detect transcription in whole Drosophila embryos. Improved results have been obtained by incubating the hybridized embryos in liquid emulsion prior to autoradiographic exposure. This technique has been used to map the distribution of transcripts from the segment-polarity gene wingless (wg), which is transcribed in a stripe in each segment of the trunk region. By the extended germband stage additional areas of transcription in the head and caudal regions define a total of 21 domains, comprising the foregut, six regions in the head, three thoracic and ten abdominal segments, and the hindgut. At the end of the extended germband stage, the pattern of wg transcription is no longer uniform in the dorsoventral axis: wg transcripts are absent from the lateral epidermis. This pattern of wg transcription is discussed with ...
The Notch receptor of Drosophila and its homologues in other organisms mediate cell-cell interactions required for the correct partitioning of cell fates within equivalence groups. Genes related to Notch and other components of the Notch signaling pathway represent a well conserved system for signal transduction, having been isolated from organisms as diverse as flies, worms, sea urchins, frogs, fish, chickens, mice, rats, and humans (reviewed by Lardelli et al., 1995). The expression and requirements for Notch signaling are pleiotropic through development, in contrast to other tissue or cell type specific receptors. How the Notch signaling cascade mediates pattern formation in so many tissues and cell types is not well understood. The research contained herein increases the understanding of Notch signaling by studying its role during Drosophila oogenesis. Additionally, this research lends insight into several important processes that take place during Drosophila oogenesis, including ...
2011 Nobel Laureate Jules Hoffmann, Ph.D. described his scientific journey including the discovery of Toll receptors and innate immunity in the keynote lecture on Apr. 3, 2013, the opening night of the Genetics Society of Americas 54th Annual Drosophila Research Conference in Washington, D.C., Apr. 3-7, 2013.
Humanised fruit fly models are transgenic Drosophila melanogaster strains expressing human genes. Specifically, we study the characteristics of fly models expressing human genes involved in neurological disorders such as Alzheimers and Parkinsons Diseases (AD and PD). Interestingly, these Drosophila neurodegenerative disease models show a high degree of conservation in the fundamental biological pathways and in the molecular, genetic and pathophysiological aspects of neurodegenerative human diseases. These characteristics explain why Drosophila models have paved the way for the development of initial fast screening for potential drug candidates in vivo, and represent also a promising tool for biomedical research in neuroscience ...
Comparative Analysises and Genome Databases= =Sequence Traces of Drosophila Genomes= =Genetic and Protein Interaction Databases= =Sequence Analysis= =Atlases, Images, and Videos= =Other= =Related Projects= :[http://www.gmod.org/ GMOD] :[http://www.geneontology.org/ Gene Ontology (GO)] :[http://www.genomeknowledge.org/ Reactome] :[http://www.fruitfly.org/ BDGP (Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project)] :[http://dgrc.cgb.indiana.edu/ DGRC (Drosophila Genomics Resource Center)] :[http://www.ou.edu/journals/dis/byissue.html DIS by issue] :[http://www.flyexpress.net/ FlyExpress] :[http://www.sdbonline.org/fly/aimain/1aahome.htm Interactive Fly] :[http://www.modencode.org/ modENCODE] :[http://www.textpresso.org/fly/ Textpresso for Fly] =Stock Collections= ===D. melanogaster Collections=== :[http://flystocks.bio.indiana.edu/ Bloomington] :[http://www.drosdel.org.uk/ DrosDel] :[http://drosophila.med.harvard.edu/ Exelixis (Harvard)] :[http://flypush.imgen.bcm.tmc.edu/pscreen/ GDP (Baylor)] ...
Drosophila melanogaster, the common fruit fly, has been used as a model organism in both medical and scientific research for over a century. Work by Thomas Hunt Morgan (1866-1945) and his students at Columbia University at the beginning of the twentieth century led to great discoveries such as sex-linked inheritance and that ionising radiation causes mutations in genes. However, the use of Drosophila was not limited to genetic research. Experimentation with this model organism has also led to discoveries in neuroscience and neurodevelopment, including the basis of circadian rhythms. Its complex nervous system, conserved neurological function, and human disease-related loci allow Drosophila to be an ideal model organism for the study of neurodegenerative disease, for which it is used today, aiding research into diseases such as Alzheimers and Parkinsons, which are becoming more prevalent in todays ageing population.. Keywords Drosophila melanogaster, Thomas Hunt Morgan, Alfred Henry ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Daughterless is required for Drosophila photoreceptor cell determination, eye morphogenesis, and cell cycle progression. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
We report the complete sequence of a calcium channel alpha 1 subunit cDNA cloned from a Drosophila head cDNA library. This cDNA encodes a deduced protein containing 2516 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 276,493. The deduced protein shares many features with vertebrate homologs, including four repeat structures, each containing six transmembrane domains, a conserved ion selectivity filter region between transmembrane domains 5 and 6, and an EF hand in the carboxy tail. The Drosophila subunit has unusually long initial amino and terminal carboxy tails. The region corresponding to the last transmembrane domain (IVS6) and the adjacent cytoplasmic domain has been postulated to form a phenylalkylamine-binding site in vertebrate calcium channels. This region is conserved in the Drosophila sequence, while domains thought to be involved in dihydropyridine binding show numerous changes. The Drosophila subunit exhibits 78.3% sequence similarity to the rat brain type D calcium channel alpha ...
Rab proteins are small GTPases that play important roles in transport of vesicle cargo and recruitment, association of motor and other proteins with vesicles, and docking and fusion of vesicles at defined locations. In vertebrates, ,75 Rab genes have been identified, some of which have been intensively studied for their roles in endosome and synaptic vesicle trafficking. Recent studies of the functions of certain Rab proteins have revealed specific roles in mediating developmental signal transduction. We have begun a systematic genetic study of the 33 Rab genes in Drosophila. Most of the fly proteins are clearly related to specific vertebrate proteins. We report here the creation of a set of transgenic fly lines that allow spatially and temporally regulated expression of Drosophila Rab proteins. We generated fluorescent protein-tagged wild-type, dominant-negative, and constitutively active forms of 31 Drosophila Rab proteins. We describe Drosophila Rab expression patterns during embryogenesis, ...
Applications are invited for one post of Junior Research Fellow for the ongoing DBT project entitled Unraveling the adaptive genome evolution by whole genome sequencing of Drosophila nasuta nasuta and laboratory evolved four hybrid strains, Cytoraces for the remaining period of 2 years.. Position Title: Junior Research Fellow. Project Title: Unraveling the adaptive genome evolution by whole genome sequencing of Drosophila nasuta nasuta and laboratory evolved four hybrid strains, Cytoraces. Qualifications: JRF position - I or II class (Above 55%) M.Sc. in Genetics/ Zoology/ Genomics/ Bioinformatics. NET/GATE exam qualified candidates or Non- NET candidates with experience in handling Drosophila and also research experience in the genome analysis will be preferred.. Duration: 2 years. Fellowship: The value of the fellowship would be as per DBT regulations.. How To Apply:. The eligible candidates may send application on plain paper with a biodata along with copies of marks cards, certificates, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Signaling mechanisms in induction of the R7 photoreceptor in the developing Drosophila retina. AU - Yamamoto, Daisuke. PY - 1994/4. Y1 - 1994/4. N2 - The Drosophila compound eye is an excellent experimental system for analysing fate induction of identifiable single cells. Each ommatidium, a unit eye, contains eight photoreceptors (R1‐R8), and the differentiation of these photoreceptors occurs in the larval eye imaginal disc in discrete steps: first R8 is determined, then R2/R5, R3/R4, R1/R6 and finally R7. Induction of R7, in particular, has been extensively studied at the molecular level. The R8 photoreceptor presents on its surface a ligand, Bride of Sevenless, that binds and activates Sevenless receptor tyrosine kinase in the R7 precursor. Autophosphorylated Sevenless initiates a Ras1‐mediated cascade, which eventually activates transcription factors in the nucleus via Raf1 and MAP kinases, resulting in R7 development. However, recent studies indicate that Sevenless (Sev) ...
Drosophila paratarsata adolah saikua lalek dari genus Drosophila. Spesies ko juo marupokan bagian dari famili Drosophila, ordo Diptera, kelas Insecta, filum Arthropoda, dan kingdom Animalia. Istilah Drosophila, baarati panyuko ambun, adolah adaptasi saintifik Latin modern dari kato Yunani δρόσος, drósos, ambun, dan δρόσος, drósos, panyuko, nan ditambahkan jo akiaran Latin feminin -a. ...
Drosophila huayla adolah saikua lalek dari genus Drosophila. Spesies ko juo marupokan bagian dari famili Drosophila, ordo Diptera, kelas Insecta, filum Arthropoda, dan kingdom Animalia. Istilah Drosophila, baarati panyuko ambun, adolah adaptasi saintifik Latin modern dari kato Yunani δρόσος, drósos, ambun, dan δρόσος, drósos, panyuko, nan ditambahkan jo akiaran Latin feminin -a. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Drosophila in cancer researchan expanding role. AU - Potter, Christopher J.. AU - Turenchalk, Gregory S.. AU - Xu, Tian. N1 - Funding Information: We thank Karen Wehner and members of the Xu Lab for helpful comments. This work was supported by NIH grant RO1CA69408. Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2000/1/1. Y1 - 2000/1/1. N2 - In recent years, Drosophila researchers have developed powerful genetic techniques that allow for the rapid identification and characterization of genes involved in tumor formation and development. The high level of gene and pathway conservation, the similarity of cellular processes and the emerging evidence of functional conservation of tumor suppressors between Drosophila and mammals, argue that studies of tumorigenesis in flies can directly contribute to the understanding of human cancer. In this review, we explore the historical and current roles of Drosophila in cancer research, as well as speculate on the future of ...
... willistoni Drosophila (Drosophila) mojavensis Drosophila (Drosophila) virilis Drosophila (Drosophila) grimshawi The data have ... Lifecycle of Drosophila The following section is based on the following Drosophila species: Drosophila simulans and Drosophila ... The following section is based on the following Drosophila species: Drosophila serrata, Drosophila pseudoobscura, Drosophila ... expression and protein data for Drosophila The Drosophila Virtual library is library of Drosophila on the web Drosophila ...
... at the Washington University in St. Louis Genome Sequencing Center Drosophila simulans at FlyBase ... Drosophila C virus) while other strains cannot. Drosophila simulans has also played an important role in sequencing the genomes ... Drosophila simulans was found later to be closely related to two island endemics, D. sechellia and D. mauritiana. D. simulans ... Drosophila simulans is a species of fly closely related to D. melanogaster, belonging to the same melanogaster species subgroup ...
... is a species of fruit fly that is native to North America, though it now also occurs in Asia, Europe, ... "Drosophila busckii". www.cabi.org. Retrieved 2022-06-01. Miller, M. E.; Marshall, S. A.; Grimaldi, D. A. "A Review of the ... Niswonger, H. R. (1911). "Two Species Of Diptera Of The Genus Drosophila" (PDF Adobe Acrobat). The Ohio Naturalist. Ohio. 11 (8 ... Drosophila, Diptera of North America, Insects described in 1901, All stub articles, Drosophilidae stubs). ...
"Drosophila putrida Species Information". BugGuide.net. Retrieved 30 January 2018. "Drosophila putrida Report". Integrated ... Drosophila putrida is a species of fruit fly in the family Drosophilidae. It is found throughout the temperate central-eastern ... Like other members of the Drosophila testacea species group, D. putrida breeds exclusively on mushrooms. " ... Systematics and Modes of Reproductive Isolation in the Holarctic Drosophila testacea Species Group (Diptera: Drosophilidae). ...
Séguy, Drosophila subobscura, 1938, Mem. Mjs. Hist. nat. Paris (n.s.) 8:352. Séguy, Drosophila subobscura, 1939, Zool. Rec. 75 ... D. subobscura belongs to the subobscura subgroup, along with the closely related Drosophila guanche and Drosophila madeirensis ... Gordon, C (1936). "The frequency of heterozygous in free-living populations of Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila ... of the Genus Drosophila". Buzzati-Traverso AA, Scossiroli RE. The "obscura group" of the genus Drosophila. Adv Genet. 1955;7:47 ...
... is a species of fly in the subgenus Dudaica. Katoh, Takehiro K.; Zhang, Guang; Toda, Masanori J.; Suwito ... Awit; Gao, Jian-Jun (9 August 2018). "A revision of the subgenus Dudaica Strand of the genus Drosophila Fallén, with ... Drosophila, Insects described in 2018, All stub articles, Drosophilidae stubs). ...
Wikispecies has information related to Drosophila virilis. Drosophila virilis at FlyBase Drosophila virilis at Ensembl Genomes ... Drosophila 12 Genomes Consortium; et al. (2007). "Evolution of genes and genomes on the Drosophila phylogeny". Nature. 450 ( ... which include the species Drosophila montana and Drosophila virilis, respectively. Divergence of these phylads preceded the ... Drosophila virilis is a species of fruit fly with a worldwide distribution (probably due to human movements), and was one of 12 ...
... is a member of the planitiba subgroup of the picture-wing clade of Hawaiian Drosophila. This species is ... "Natural Hybridization between the Sympatric Hawaiian Species Drosophila silvestris and Drosophila heteroneura". Evolution; ... Drosophila heteroneura is an endangered species of Hawaiian fly in the family Drosophilidae. This rare fly is part of the ... Carson HL, Clayton FE, Stalker HD (May 1967). "Karyotypic stability and speciation in Hawaiian Drosophila". Proceedings of the ...
... is a species of fruit fly in the genus Drosophila, described by Malloch in 1927. It is endemic to Australia ...
... was listed as federally endangered in 2006 along with ten other species of picture-wing Drosophila. One ... Drosophila montgomeryi is an endangered species of fly from the lineage of Hawaiian Drosophilidae. It is found on the island of ... Drosophila montgomeryi was described in 1971 by D. Elmo Hardy and Kenneth Kaneshiro from specimens collected from the Waianae ... Hardy, D. E.; Kaneshiro, K. Y. (1971). "New picture-winged Drosophila from Hawaii. II. (Drosophilidae, Diptera)". Studies in ...
... is a species of fly in the genus Drosophila. It is found in Cameroon and the Republic of the Congo. Tsacas, ... et nouveau complexe afrotropical apparenté au complexe acrostigma [Diptera, Drosophilidae]" [Drosophila str. s. acelidota sp. n ... L. (2004). "Drosophila s. str. acelidota n. sp. ...
... is a species of mushroom-feeding fruit fly in the Drosophila quinaria species group. The genome of D. ... Drosophila quinaria species group flies including the related D. guttifera display marked variation in their wing patterning, ... "The genome of Drosophila innubila reveals lineage-specific patterns of selection in immune genes". Molecular Biology and ... Drosophila, Articles created by Qbugbot, Insects described in 1866, All stub articles, Drosophilidae stubs). ...
Wikispecies has information related to Drosophila pseudoobscura. Drosophila pseudoobscura at FlyBase Drosophila pseudoobscura ... In 2005, D. pseudoobscura was the second Drosophila species to have its genome sequenced, after the model organism Drosophila ... Drosophila pseudoobscura is a species of fruit fly, used extensively in lab studies of speciation. It is native to western ... Female Drosophila pseudoobscura are polyandrous, meaning they mate with more than one male. By mating with multiple males, ...
... is a species of fruit fly in the Drosophila quinaria species group. "Drosophila deflecta Report". ... "Drosophila deflecta species details". Catalogue of Life. Retrieved 2018-05-02. "Drosophila deflecta". GBIF. Retrieved 2018-05- ... "Drosophila deflecta Species Information". BugGuide.net. Retrieved 2018-05-02. Miller, Meredith E.; Marshall, Stephen A.; ... Drosophila, Articles created by Qbugbot, Insects described in 1924, All stub articles, Drosophilidae stubs). ...
... is a species of fruit fly in the Drosophila quinaria species group. Most Quinaria group species feed ... "Drosophila quinaria species details". Catalogue of Life. Retrieved 2018-04-29. "Drosophila quinaria". GBIF. Retrieved 2018-04- ... "Drosophila quinaria Species Information". BugGuide.net. Retrieved 2018-04-29. Scott Chialvo, Clare H.; White, Brooke E.; Reed, ... Miller, Meredith E.; Marshall, Stephen A.; Grimaldi, David A. (2017). "A Review of the Species of Drosophila (Diptera: ...
... is a species of fly in the subgenus Dudaica. Katoh, Takehiro K.; Zhang, Guang; Toda, Masanori J.; ... Suwito, Awit; Gao, Jian-Jun (9 August 2018). "A revision of the subgenus Dudaica Strand of the genus Drosophila Fallén, with ... Drosophila, Insects described in 2018, All stub articles, Drosophilidae stubs). ...
... is a member of the testacea species group of Drosophila. Testacea species are specialist fruit flies that ... Drosophila orientacea is found in northern Japan on the island of Hokkaido. However, the European species Drosophila testacea ... Drosophila testacea species group Meiotic drive Haldane's rule Grimaldi, David; James, Avis C.; Jaenike, John (1992). " ... While D. orientacea readily mates with Drosophila neotestacea, viable hybrids are never produced. This hybrid inviability (see ...
... is a fly of the family Drosophilidae. This species is endemic to southeast Asia. Males of this species ... Singh, B. K., & Gupta, J. P. (1977). Two new and two unrecorded species of the genus Drosophila Fallen (Diptera: Drosophilidae ... Sexual dimorphism and courtship behavior in Drosophila prolongata. Journal of Ethology, 32(2), 91-102. v t e (Articles with ... short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with 'species' microformats, Drosophila, Insects of ...
... was described by Malloch in 1934 and is distinguished from all other Drosophila species by the three ... D. Brncic (1987) A review of the genus Drosophila Fallen (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Chile with the description of Drosophila ... With a size of 5 to 5.5 mm, this species is relative large for the genus Drosophila. The egg have four filaments. The species ... Drosophila appendiculata is a large yellowish fruitfly found in Southern Chile and neighboring Argentina. The species is placed ...
List of Drosophila species Tsacas L. and David J., 1974: Drosophila mauritiana n. sp. du groupe melanogaster de l'Ile Maurice. ... Drosophila mauritiana is a species of fly, belonging to the family Drosophilidae. It belongs to the Drosophila melanogaster ... "Drosophila mauritiana" at the Encyclopedia of Life Drosophila mauritiana at insectoid.info v t e (Articles with short ... PMC 1461507 Media related to Drosophila mauritiana at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Drosophila mauritiana at Wikispecies " ...
Drosophila metlerri, commonly known as the Sonoran Desert fly, is a fly in the genus Drosophila. The species is found in North ... mettleri in comparison to other desert Drosophila species. A characteristic pertinent to each of the Sonoran Desert Drosophila ... Other species of Drosophila are less successful in the heat of the Sonoran Desert in rearing young due to the intense ... While other Drosophila have higher heat tolerances due to their breeding grounds in the necrotic tissue of cacti that is higher ...
... was described by D. Elmo Hardy and Kenneth Y. Kaneshiro in 1968. This fly is yellow with two brown spots ... Drosophila digressa is an endangered species of fly from Hawaii, in the species rich lineage of Hawaiian Drosophilidae. It is ... Drosophila digressa was listed as a federally endangered species in 2013. Threats to the conservation of D. digressa include ... Hardy, D. Elmo; Kaneshiro, Kenneth Y. (1968). "New picture-winged Drosophila from Hawaii". Studies in Genetics. 4: 171-262. ...
Wikispecies has information related to Drosophila ananassae. Drosophila ananassae at FlyBase Drosophila ananassae at Ensembl ... Drosophila 12 Genomes Consortium; et al. (2007). "Evolution of genes and genomes on the Drosophila phylogeny". Nature. 450 ( ... Drosophila ananassae is a species of fruit fly that is a useful model organism for genetic studies because it is easily ...
The Drosophila connectome, once completed, will be a complete list of the roughly 135,000 neurons in the brain of the fruit fly ... Drosophila looks very good on these counts: The brain contains about 135,000 neurons, small enough to be reconstructed in the ... In 2020, a dense connectome of half the central brain of Drosophila was released, along with a web site that allows queries and ... As of 2020, the Drosophila connectome is a work in progress, being obtained by the methods of neural circuit reconstruction. A ...
Large sperm is a noted phenomenon among Drosophila species, but Drosophila hydei have the largest recorded sperm at over 20 mm ... PDF Wikimedia Commons has media related to Drosophila repleta hydei. NCBI taxonomy database: Drosophila hydei (Webarchive ... Drosophila hydei (mosca casera) is a species of Diptera, or the order of flies, in the family Drosophilidae. It is a species in ... Drosophila hydei are commonly found on compost piles worldwide, and can be rudimentarily identified by eye owing to their large ...
... is a species of vinegar fly in the Immigrans-tripunctata radiation of the subgenus Drosophila. Vilela, ... Therese A. Markow; Patrick M. O'Grady (2005). Drosophila: A guide to species identification and use. London: Elsevier. ISBN 978 ... "Preliminary data on the geographical distribution of Drosophila species within morphoclimatic domains of Brazil. III. The ... Drosophila, Insects described in 1862, All stub articles, Drosophilidae stubs). ...
... is a species of vinegar fly in the family Drosophilidae. It is found in the United States. "Drosophila ... "Drosophila colorata Report". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 27 January 2018. Advances in Genetics. Academic ... Diptera.info NCBI Taxonomy Browser, Drosophila colorata v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different ... from Wikidata, Use dmy dates from June 2021, Articles with 'species' microformats, Drosophila, All stub articles, Drosophilidae ...
Spieth HT (1981). "Drosophila heteroneura and Drosophila silvestris: Head Shapes, Behavior and Evolution". Evolution. 35 (5): ... Conant, P. (1978) ''Lek Behavior and Ecology of Two Sympatric Homosequential Hawaiian Drosophila: Drosophila heteroneura and ... "Change in the signal-response sequence responsible for asymmetric isolation between Drosophila planitibia and Drosophila ... "Natural Hybridization Between the Sympatric Hawaiian Species Drosophila silvestris and Drosophila heteroneura". Evolution. 43 ( ...
"Drosophila montana (Fruit fly)". www.uniprot.org. Retrieved 30 October 2019. "ITIS Standard Report Page: Drosophila montana". ... The species belongs to the order of flies Diptera and the genus Drosophila. The genus Drosophila includes the virilis group, ... Drosophila montana, colloquially referred to as a fruit fly, is a species of fly belonging to the family Drosophilidae and the ... Drosophila montana typically reside near bodies of water within boreal forest regions, primarily in latitudes above 40 degrees ...
... is a member of the Immigrans-tripunctata radiation of the subgenus Drosophila. Drosophila funebris female ... ICZN (2010). "OPINION 2245 (Case 3407) Drosophila Fallén, 1823 (Insecta, Diptera): Drosophila funebris Fabricius, 1787 is ... Drosophila funebris is a species of fruit fly. It was originally described by Johan Christian Fabricius in 1787, and placed in ... Drosophila funebris female "Drosophila funebris". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. ...
Drosophila bifurca is a species of fruit fly. Males of this species are known to have the longest sperm cells of any organism ... The other members of the genus Drosophila also make very few, giant sperm cells, with D. bifurcas being the longest. The sperm ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Drosophila_bifurca&oldid=1106449398" ...
Drosophila melanogaster, the insect that has been so important in genetic research, is not a true fruit fly. Drosophila is a ... Drosophila Are Not Fruit Flies Edition As I have mentioned before, Drosophila are not fruit flies. Tephritids are fruit flies. ... Paraphyly in Drosophila Many biology students have hands-on experience working with Drosophila melanogaster. This little fly is ... First, the genera nested within the Drosophila phylogeny can be redesignated into the Drosophila genus. Thats not going to ...
... Permanent URI for this collection. https://hdl.handle.net/10125/18539 ...
... of which Drosophila melanogaster is the most extensively studied species. Information in FlyBase originates from a variety of ... FlyBase : a database for the Drosophila research community Methods Mol Biol. 2008;420:45-59. doi: 10.1007/978-1-59745-583-1_3. ... of which Drosophila melanogaster is the most extensively studied species. Information in FlyBase originates from a variety of ...
Drosophila Homolog of the Human Carpenter Syndrome Linked Gene, MEGF8, Is Required for Synapse Development and Function Shuting ...
We have investigated the proliferative role of the single Drosophila STAT92E, part of the evolutionarily conserved JAK/STAT ... The single STAT92E present in Drosophila therefore mediates both proproliferative functions analogous to vertebrate interleukin ... Lehmann R and Tautz D . (1994). Drosophila melanogaster: Practical Uses in Cell and Molecular Biology Vol. 44, Goldstein LSB, ... Cohen S . (1993). The Development of Drosophila melanogaster, Vol. II. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press: Cold Spring Harbor ...
The Drosophila ovary : An in vivo stem cell system. Xie T, Spradling AC. In: DR Marshak, RL Gardner, and D Gottlieb, eds. Stem ...
Spotted Wing Drosophila-Drosophila suzukii The spotted wing drosophila (SWD) is a fruit fly orginally from Asia, was found in ... Spotted Wing Drosophila-Cornell University. *Fruit Flies/Spotted Wing Drosophila Fact Sheets and Seasonal Update-University of ... Spotted Wing Drosophila-Maine Organic Farmers and Gardeners Association *Spotted Wing Drosophila Information-Michigan State ... The spotted wing drosophila adult is approximately 1/16 to 1/8 inches long (which is very, very small). The males can be ...
It also indicates that caffeine could be used as a biomarker to evaluate CYP phenotypes in Drosophila and other insects. ... A transcriptomic screen of Drosophila flies exposed to caffeine revealed the coordinated variation of a large set of genes that ... we have identified some of the primary caffeine metabolites produced in the body of Drosophila melanogaster males, including ...
One of the most commonly modeled biological systems involves a gene family critical to segmentation in ,i,Drosophila,/i, ... A Reduced Drosophila Model Whose Characteristic Behavior Scales Up. Andrew David Irving. 1 ... H. Meinhardt, "Hierarchical inductions of cell states: a model for segmentation in Drosophila," Journal of Cell Science, vol. 4 ... J. W. Bodnar and M. K. Bradley, "Programming the Drosophila embryo 2: from genotype to phenotype," Cell Biochemistry and ...
... Male Drosophila melanogaster Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum ... Drosophila melanogaster. Meigen, 1830[1] Drosophila melanogaster (from the Greek for black-bellied dew-lover) is a two-winged ... Ashburner M, Thompson JN (1978). The laboratory culture of Drosophila. In: The genetics and biology of Drosophila. (Ashburner M ... Main article: Drosophila embryogenesis. Embryogenesis in Drosophila has been extensively studied, as its small size, short ...
The ecological overlap of three species of Hawaiian Drosophila: D. mimica D. kambysellisi , and D. imparisetae , has been ... Richardson, R. H.; Smouse, P. E.; (1975). "Ecological specialization of Hawaiian Drosophila ." Oecologia 22(1): 1-13. ,http:// ...
Copyright © KYOTO Drosophila Stock Center, Kyoto Institute of Technology. All rights reserved ... The DrosDel collection: a set of P-element insertions for generating custom chromosomal aberrations in Drosophila melanogaster. ... The DrosDel collection: a set of P-element insertions for generating custom chromosomal aberrations in Drosophila melanogaster. ... The DrosDel deletion collection: a Drosophila genomewide chromosomal deficiency resource.. Genetics (2007) 177(1) 615-29 [RRC ...
Drosophila Virilis, where the two sexes sing to each other during courtship. Shes trying to understand neurologically what ... Mala Murthy has been studying a species of fruit fly called, Drosophila Virilis, where the two sexes sing to each other during ... Acoustic duetting in Drosophila virilis relies on the integration of auditory and tactile signals ... Mala - The male and female of this particular species, Drosophila Virilis, have an interesting courtship behavior where while ...
Program Book: Drosophila 2021 Program Book. Abstract Book: Drosophila 2021 Abstract Book ...
Ndfip protein, Drosophila. Known as: Nedd4 family interacting protein 2, Drosophila, dNdfip protein, Drosophila ... In the Drosophila wing, the Nedd4 ubiquitin ligases (E3s), dNedd4 and Su(dx), are important negative regulators of Notch… ...
Specification of dendritogenesis site in Drosophila aCC motoneuron by membrane enrichment of Pak1 through Dscam1. Dev Cell 35: ... Regulation of cortical stability by RhoGEF3 in mitotic sensory organ precursor cells in Drosophila. Biol Open. PubMed ID: ... A Cdc42-mediated supracellular network drives polarized forces and Drosophila egg chamber extension. Nat Commun 11(1): 1921. ... Genetic dissection of active forgetting in labile and consolidated memories in Drosophila. Different memory components are ...
The spotted wing drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii, is a small fruit fly (vinegar fly) native to Japan. It was first ... Female spotted wing drosophila on raspberry fruit (Rubus). Note lack of spotted wings on female. H. Burrack, NCSU, Bugwood.org ... Female spotted wing drosophila and damage on raspberry fruit (Rubus). H. Burrack, NCSU, Bugwood.org. ... Tiny, white cigar-shaped eggs of the spotted wing drosophila on strawberry fruit (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne ex Rozier). H ...
Drosophila gustatory projections are segregated by taste modality and connectivity. Stefanie Engert, Gabriella R. Sterne, David ... Drosophila gustatory projections are segregated by taste modality and connectivity Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ... we reconstructed gustatory axons and their synaptic sites in the adult Drosophila melanogaster brain, utilizing a whole-brain ...
Hormones insulin and leptin function in directly opposing ways to control energy homeostasis in Drosophila. ... The authors were able to show that in Drosophila, the regulation of synapse number occurs when fat stores increase, but that ... Using this pipeline, the authors investigated how the protein Unpaired 2 (Upd2), a Drosophila Leptin ortholog, regulates the ... signaling and found it to be evolutionarily conserved between Drosophila and humans. In a recent preprint , Drs Ava Brent and ...
Timeline for Species Fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) [TaxId:7227] from b.34.13.2 Polycomb protein, Pc: *Species Fruit fly ( ... Drosophila melanogaster) [TaxId:7227] from b.34.13.2 Polycomb protein, Pc is new in SCOP 1.67. *Species Fruit fly (Drosophila ... PDB entries in Species: Fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster):. *Domain(s) for 1pdq: *. Domain d1pdqa_: 1pdq A: [94590]. ... Lineage for Species: Fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster). *Root: SCOP 1.67 *. Class b: All beta proteins [48724] (141 folds). ...
Here, we employ Drosophila melanogaster as a genetically tractable model organism to study disease resistance and disease ...
Biology of Drosophila. Edited By M. Demerec © 2008 632 pp., illus., indexes. Paperback $42.00. $33.60 ISBN 978-087969828-7 ... Won for All: How the Drosophila Genome Was Sequenced. By Michael Ashburner © 2006 107 pp., illus.. Hardcover $19.95. $9.97 ISBN ... Drosophila Neurobiology: A Laboratory Manual. Edited By Bing Zhang, University of Oklahoma; Marc R. Freeman, University of ... Drosophila Protocols. By William Sullivan, University of California, Santa Cruz; Michael Ashburner, University of Cambridge; R ...
Biology of Drosophila. Edited By M. Demerec © 2008 632 pp., illus., indexes. Paperback $42.00. $33.60 ISBN 978-087969828-7 ... Won for All: How the Drosophila Genome Was Sequenced. By Michael Ashburner © 2006 107 pp., illus.. Hardcover $19.95. $9.97 ISBN ... Drosophila Neurobiology: A Laboratory Manual. Edited By Bing Zhang, University of Oklahoma; Marc R. Freeman, University of ... Drosophila Protocols. By William Sullivan, University of California, Santa Cruz; Michael Ashburner, University of Cambridge; R ...
The P-element, a DNA-based transposable element, recently invaded two Drosophila species: D. melanogaster in the 20th century, ...
Archives: Drosophila Small Fly, Big Impact: A History of Drosophila Research (and Why It Matters). A charming short film about ... the history and importance of the fruit fly Drosophila as a model organism in biomedical research. ...
Januschke J; Llamazares S; Reina J; Gonzalez C | Nature Communications | 2011
Portal to information on the insect order Diptera (flies and midges) and a forum for researchers on the insect group. The site enables, for example, link submission and identification queries. Registration required for submissions.
The drosophila hangs unharmed lifted by the robots suction tube.. The drosophila hangs unharmed lifted by the robots suction ...
  • Drosophila melanogaster is the most studied organism in biological research, particularly in genetics and developmental biology. (bionity.com)
  • Introduction: The Drosophila melanogaster, otherwise known as the common fruit fly has been a useful organism to the field of genetics. (cram.com)
  • Spotted Wing Drosophila: Got Pests? (maine.gov)
  • The spotted wing drosophila (SWD) is a fruit fly orginally from Asia, was found in Hawaii in the 1980s, in California in 2008, in Michigan in 2010 and in Maine in 2012. (maine.gov)
  • The spotted wing drosophila adult is approximately 1/16 to 1/8 inches long (which is very, very small). (maine.gov)
  • Female spotted wing drosophila and damage on raspberry fruit ( Rubus ). (missouribotanicalgarden.org)
  • The spotted wing drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii , is a small fruit fly (vinegar fly) native to Japan. (missouribotanicalgarden.org)
  • Male spotted wing drosophila on trap, showing spotted wings. (missouribotanicalgarden.org)
  • Spotted wing drosophila took Washington State by surprise last season, but the industry will be ready this time. (goodfruit.com)
  • Spotted wing drosophila larvae that hatch from eggs inside the fruit sometimes pop out and walk around on the surface. (goodfruit.com)
  • The spotted wing drosophila can pupate inside the cherry, outside the cherry, or halfway out. (goodfruit.com)
  • The Washington tree fruit industry should be better prepared to tackle the new pest spotted wing drosophila in the coming season, thanks to extensive trapping by field horticulturists last year and results from ongoing research on the pest, says Dr. Elizabeth Beers, Washington State -University entomologist. (goodfruit.com)
  • Beers said notices of the first trap catches of spotted wing drosophila (Drosophila suzukii) in the various growing regions of the state will also be posted on the site. (goodfruit.com)
  • The spotted wing drosophila originated in Asia and was first detected in the United States in 2008 in California. (goodfruit.com)
  • The first spotted wing drosophila in Washington in 2010 was found in a Royal City orchard in late June. (goodfruit.com)
  • Spotted wing drosophila populations did not decline until a hard freeze in late November when the temperature dropped to -4°F in Wenatchee and lower still in other parts of the state. (goodfruit.com)
  • 21/04/2022 - Impacting on fruit quality and marketable yield, the Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii , has become a widespread and economically damaging pest of soft fruit and orchard crops. (biobestgroup.com)
  • There is some interesting new research out on the Asian Fruit Fly, Drosophila suzukii. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Drosophila suzukii is threatening soft fruit production worldwide due to the females' ability to pierce through the intact skin of ripe fruits and lay eggs inside. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • A major challenge to the area-wide management of Drosophila suzukii is understanding the fly's host use and temporal dynamics, which may dictate local movement patterns. (mdpi.com)
  • Drosophila bifurca is a species of fruit fly . (wikipedia.org)
  • FlyBase ( http://flybase.org ) is the primary database of integrated genetic and genomic data about the Drosophilidae, of which Drosophila melanogaster is the most extensively studied species. (nih.gov)
  • The developmental period for Drosophila melanogaster varies with temperature, as with many ectothermic species. (bionity.com)
  • The ecological overlap of three species of Hawaiian Drosophila: D. mimica D. kambysellisi , and D. imparisetae , has been investigated by analysis of the community matrix. (umich.edu)
  • Mala Murthy has been studying a species of fruit fly called, Drosophila Virilis, where the two sexes sing to each other during courtship. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Mala - The male and female of this particular species, Drosophila Virilis, have an interesting courtship behavior where while the male is singing to the female, and she's singing back to him, he's constantly interacting with her in a kind of salacious way. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • The P-element, a DNA-based transposable element, recently invaded two Drosophila species: D. melanogaster in the 20th century, and D. simulans, in the 21st. (bl.uk)
  • Unlike its cousin, the common vinegar fly (Drosophila melanogaster), the new species attacks fruit that is on the tree and not completely ripe or damaged. (goodfruit.com)
  • It takes good magnification to see that it has a toothed ovipositor that is significantly larger than that of other drosophila species. (goodfruit.com)
  • This dataset contains the digitized treatments in Plazi based on the original journal article Roman, Bruna Emilia, Madi-Ravazzi, Lilian (2021): Male terminalia morphology of sixteen species of the Drosophila saltans group Sturtevant (Diptera, Drosophilidae). (gbif.org)
  • The model species drosophila melanogaster was used to study the passing of genes from one generation to the next. (cram.com)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Drosophila bipectinata species complex. (who.int)
  • Drosophila bipectinata species complex. (who.int)
  • The Drosophila bipectinata species complex belongs to the ananassae subgroup of the melanogaster species group (Genus Drosophila, Subgenus Sophophora). (who.int)
  • Networks that link cytoskeletal regulators and diaphragm proteins underpin filtration function in Drosophila nephrocytes. (instem.res.in)
  • In summary, Drosophila resilin can enhance the mechanical properties of silk , and this study is the first to improve the mechanical properties of silk using proteins other than spider silk , which broadens the possibilities for the design and application of biomimetic silk materials. (bvsalud.org)
  • Using the proliferating Drosophila wing disc epithelium, this study demonstrates that disruption of the junctional [Cdc42/ Par6 / Par3 /Atypical PKC (aPKC)] complex vs. basolateral polarity complex [ Scribble (Scrib)/Discs Large (Dlg)/Lethal Giant Larvae (Lgl)] complex results in increased epithelial proliferation via distinct downstream signaling pathways. (sdbonline.org)
  • Both chips were capable of significantly reducing the endogenous CNS movement while still allowing the study of sound-stimulated CNS activities of Drosophila 3rd instar larvae using genetically encoded calcium indicator GCaMP5. (rsc.org)
  • Drosophila melanogaster (from the Greek for black-bellied dew-lover ) is a two-winged insect that belongs to the Diptera, the order of the flies. (bionity.com)
  • A still shot from the 3D-IsoView microscope shows neural activity within a Drosophila larva detected with fluorescent indicators. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Image courtesy of Keller Lab, HHMI/Janelia Research Campus A new kind of three-dimensional technology, called IsoView, allows researchers to view biological processes within nontransparent animals that are rather large by microscopy standards such as the drosophila larva above and even the brains of larval zebrafish. (scienceblogs.com)
  • We study brain and behavior in the roundworm C. elegans and the Drosophila larva. (harvard.edu)
  • Here, we employ Drosophila melanogaster as a genetically tractable model organism to study disease resistance and disease tolerance mechanisms in the context of viral infection. (harvard.edu)
  • A charming short film about the history and importance of the fruit fly Drosophila as a model organism in biomedical research. (sspnet.org)
  • Introduction When analyzing biological processes and development, Drosophila melanogaster is an ideal organism to utilize. (cram.com)
  • The simple but revolutionary organism Drosophila melanogaster has intricate properties that are studied to find its relations with human genes. (cram.com)
  • Not only is D. melanogaster a model organism for its rapid growth, inexpensive culturing, and easy modifications, the Drosophila can provide more in-depth scientific analysis that can solve human diseases. (cram.com)
  • To examine the signals that gustatory neurons transmit and receive, we reconstructed gustatory axons and their synaptic sites in the adult Drosophila melanogaster brain, utilizing a whole-brain electron microscopy volume. (biorxiv.org)
  • Here we test whether wiring economy together with volume exclusion can explain the placement of neurons in a module of the Drosophila melanogaster brain known as lamina cartridge [5-13]. (janelia.org)
  • They answered this question using Drosophila melanogaster, commonly known as fruit flies. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Here we functionally characterize neural circuitry in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster , that conveys polarized light signals from the eye to the central complex, a brain region essential for the fly's sense of direction. (elifesciences.org)
  • Drosophila melanogaster: Inheritance Pattern Experiment Kaitlyn Grifka Saginaw Valley State University Abstract The purpose of this experiment was to study a population of Drosophila melanogaster, or more commonly known as the fruit fly. (cram.com)
  • The aim of this programme is to re-introduce the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster into school and college biology lessons. (biologists.com)
  • By demonstrating to school pupils the potential scope of fruit fly research, it enhances the chance that those who choose to study the life sciences at university, will have more of an appreciation for the impact of Drosophila research on modern science, and be keen to explore the field themselves. (biologists.com)
  • In contrast to the 'common vinegar fly' ( Drosophila melanogaster ), SWD attacks healthy ripening fruits. (biobestgroup.com)
  • We have investigated the proliferative role of the single Drosophila STAT92E, part of the evolutionarily conserved JAK/STAT cascade. (nature.com)
  • Specifically, they identified a mechanism coupling systemic energy sensing to adipokine secretion via intracellular calcium (Ca 2+ ) signaling and found it to be evolutionarily conserved between Drosophila and humans. (fredhutch.org)
  • In addition, I carried out experiments to optimize a germline-specific CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing protocol in Drosophila that will facilitate future studies of Drosophila reproduction and germ cells. (cornell.edu)
  • This study used piggyBac-mediated transgenic technology to stably insert the Drosophila melanogaster resilin gene into the silkworm genome to investigate whether exogenous protein structures improve the mechanical properties of silkworm silk . (bvsalud.org)
  • The recommended citation when using these images is: "We used the Drosophila Kc167 1 image set (Carpenter, et al. (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • Over the course of Drosophila embryogenesis (when the formation of embryonic cells and organs occurs [ 5 ]), a cascade of maternal and zygotic segmentation genes establishes the bodily layout [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Here, I describe an effort to systematize what is currently known about which genes are part of Drosophila pathways and use the resulting resource as the foundation for machine learning analyses, aiming to address whether existing data can be used to predict novel pathway members. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Pathway members also have fewer loss-of-function variants in natural Drosophila populations than other genes, highlighting their biological importance. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Xiong, WC & Montell, C 1993, ' tramtrack is a transcriptional repressor required for cell fate determination in the Drosophila eye ', Genes & development , vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 1085-1096. (elsevier.com)
  • Through a combination of mutation, RNAi, and imaging experiments, this study found that a Dscam - Dock - Pak1 hierarchical interaction defines the stereotypical dendrite growth site in the Drosophila aCC motoneuron. (sdbonline.org)
  • Lillian M. Cosentino University of North Carolina Wilmington Rachel Hanson BIOL 335-204 7 October 2015 Determining mode of inheritance for eyeless mutation in Drosophila melanogaster Abstract: The purpose of this experiment is to determine the mode of inheritance for the eyeless mutation in Drosophila melanogaster, whether it be autosomal or sex-linked. (cram.com)
  • Andreas and Catherine together explained the mutual benefits of using Drosophila as a teaching tool: the benefit for pupils and teachers lies in the fact that Drosophila provides uniquely detailed biology knowledge, delivering concepts, stories and experiments across biology - paired up with human examples to illustrate relevance. (biologists.com)
  • Using this pipeline, the authors investigated how the protein Unpaired 2 (Upd2), a Drosophila Leptin ortholog, regulates the extent of inhibitory tone provided by its target GABA neurons on the insulin producing cells (IPCs). (fredhutch.org)
  • BACKGROUND: Dorsal closure is a morphogenetic event that occurs during mid-embryogenesis in many insects including Drosophila, during which the ectoderm migrates on the extraembryonic amnioserosa to seal the embryo dorsally. (knaw.nl)
  • Cdc42 and formin activity control non-muscle myosin dynamics during Drosophila heart morphogenesis. (sdbonline.org)
  • This study shows that the small GTPase Cdc42 is essential for Drosophila melanogaster heart morphogenesis and lumen formation. (sdbonline.org)
  • By using the Drosophila pupal wing, we are interested in elucidating how tissue morphogenesis and dynamic cellular communications are regulated at the subcellular level. (helsinki.fi)
  • The foraging gene affects alcohol sensitivity, metabolism and memory in Drosophila. (cdc.gov)
  • One of the most commonly modeled biological systems involves a gene family critical to segmentation in Drosophila embryogenesis-the segment polarity network (SPN). (hindawi.com)
  • At the same time, there is now a large amount of publicly available functional genomics data in Drosophila that, if appropriately analysed, might be able to contribute to further progress in the study of signalling pathways. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Two microfluidic devices (pneumatic chip and FlexiChip) have been developed for immobilization and live-intact fluorescence functional imaging of Drosophila larva's Central Nervous System (CNS) in response to controlled acoustic stimulation. (rsc.org)
  • Our lab-on-chip devices can not only aid further studies of Drosophila larva's auditory responses but can be also adopted for functional imaging of CNS activities in response to other sensory cues. (rsc.org)
  • We used an integrative approach to probe the significance of the interaction between the relay loop and converter domain of the myosin molecular motor from Drosophila melanogaster indirect flight muscle. (nih.gov)
  • Choice behavior of Drosophila facing contradictory visual cues. (yale.edu)
  • A new study published in the American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology describes how Drosophila melanogaster develop similar heart complications as humans when they become obese. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Interestingly, Drosophila null mutants for the ubiquitously expressed ssp3 gene are viable and female fertile but male sterile. (bgu.ac.il)
  • These results raise the intriguing possibility of a common feature between human and Drosophila meiosis. (bgu.ac.il)
  • Using a live animal in the classroom puts the " life " back into the life sciences, and encourages pupils to engage with the subject content - Drosophila brings real-world relevance to the curriculum. (biologists.com)
  • Since leptin and insulin in humans interact with one another, and these interactions are sometimes synergistic, sometimes antagonistic, the Drosophila provided a simpler model where leptin/insulin interactions are better defined. (fredhutch.org)
  • Drosophila melanogaster cystathionine beta-synthase, transcript variant A (Cbs), mRNA. (genscript.com)
  • My findings not only suggest conservation of multiple events during egg activation, but also demonstrate that Drosophila is an ideal model with which to dissect the molecular mechanisms of these events. (cornell.edu)
  • Extensive research in Drosophila melanogaster has greatly contributed to the understanding of these pathways, but a central resource distilling the vast literature on the topic has been lacking. (cam.ac.uk)
  • My research uncovered several aspects of Drosophila egg activation. (cornell.edu)
  • The day began with a tour of the fly facility, a short activity using microscopes to identify common phenotypic markers used in Drosophila research, and an introduction to the droso4schools programme by academic lead Professor Andreas Prokop, and long-time collaborator Dr Catherine Alnuamaani, a teacher and keen Drosophila advocate from Trinity CoE High School , Manchester. (biologists.com)
  • Drosophila information service / Division of Biological SciencesUniversity of Kansas. (bvs.br)
  • Curation, characterisation and prediction of Drosophila signalling pathway members (Doctoral thesis). (cam.ac.uk)
  • The other members of the genus Drosophila also make very few, giant sperm cells, with D. bifurca 's being the longest. (wikipedia.org)
  • Five different samples of Drosophila melanogaster Kc167 cells were stained with Hoechst 33342, a DNA stain. (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • Cell fate determination in the Drosophila eye is mediated by inductive events between neighboring cells in the eye imaginai disc. (elsevier.com)
  • Drosophila circuits underlying identified behaviors are being reconstructed in the pipeline with the goal of generating a complete Drosophila connectome. (janelia.org)
  • The Development of Drosophila melanogaster , Vol. II . (nature.com)
  • Sequence finishing and mapping of Drosophila melanogaster heterochromatin. (genscript.com)