Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Hierarchy, Social: Social rank-order established by certain behavioral patterns.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Social Dominance: Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Social Isolation: The separation of individuals or groups resulting in the lack of or minimizing of social contact and/or communication. This separation may be accomplished by physical separation, by social barriers and by psychological mechanisms. In the latter, there may be interaction but no real communication.Social Perception: The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Social Adjustment: Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)Social Media: Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.Social Work: The use of community resources, individual case work, or group work to promote the adaptive capacities of individuals in relation to their social and economic environments. It includes social service agencies.Social Sciences: Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.Social Distance: The degree of closeness or acceptance an individual or group feels toward another individual or group.Social Change: Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.Social Conditions: The state of society as it exists or in flux. While it usually refers to society as a whole in a specified geographical or political region, it is applicable also to restricted strata of a society.Social Values: Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.Social Problems: Situations affecting a significant number of people, that are believed to be sources of difficulty or threaten the stability of the community, and that require programs of amelioration.Social Behavior Disorders: Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.Social Security: Government sponsored social insurance programs.Agonistic Behavior: Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.Psychology, Social: The branch of psychology concerned with the effects of group membership upon the behavior, attitudes, and beliefs of an individual.Social Desirability: A personality trait rendering the individual acceptable in social or interpersonal relations. It is related to social acceptance, social approval, popularity, social status, leadership qualities, or any quality making him a socially desirable companion.Social Identification: The process by which an aspect of self image is developed based on in-group preference or ethnocentrism and a perception of belonging to a social or cultural group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Social Participation: Involvement in community activities or programs.Social Welfare: Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.Social Conformity: Behavioral or attitudinal compliance with recognized social patterns or standards.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Social Facilitation: Any enhancement of a motivated behavior in which individuals do the same thing with some degree of mutual stimulation and consequent coordination.Social Alienation: The state of estrangement individuals feel in cultural settings that they view as foreign, unpredictable, or unacceptable.Phobic Disorders: Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Social Medicine: A branch of medicine concerned with the role of socio-environmental factors in the occurrence, prevention and treatment of disease.Social Marketing: Use of marketing principles also used to sell products to consumers to promote ideas, attitudes and behaviors. Design and use of programs seeking to increase the acceptance of a social idea or practice by target groups, not for the benefit of the marketer, but to benefit the target audience and the general society.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Dominance-Subordination: Relationship between individuals when one individual threatens or becomes aggressive and the other individual remains passive or attempts to escape.Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine: Controlled vocabulary of clinical terms produced by the International Health Terminology Standards Development Organisation (IHTSDO).Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.Social Determinants of Health: The circumstances in which people are born, grow up, live, work, and age, as well as the systems put in place to deal with illness. These circumstances are in turn shaped by a wider set of forces: economics, social policies, and politics (http://www.cdc.gov/socialdeterminants/).Grooming: An animal's cleaning and caring for the body surface. This includes preening, the cleaning and oiling of feathers with the bill or of hair with the tongue.Animal Communication: Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.Social Stigma: A perceived attribute that is deeply discrediting and is considered to be a violation of social norms.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Friends: Persons whom one knows, likes, and trusts.Social Work, Psychiatric: Use of all social work processes in the treatment of patients in a psychiatric or mental health setting.Sociology: A social science dealing with group relationships, patterns of collective behavior, and social organization.Immunodominant Epitopes: Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Reinforcement, Social: The strengthening of a response with a social reward such as a nod of approval, a parent's love or attention.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Social Planning: Interactional process combining investigation, discussion, and agreement by a number of people in the preparation and carrying out of a program to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community. It usually involves the action of a formal political, legal, or recognized voluntary body.Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.United StatesBiological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Loneliness: The state of feeling sad or dejected as a result of lack of companionship or being separated from others.Rejection (Psychology): Non-acceptance, negative attitudes, hostility or excessive criticism of the individual which may precipitate feelings of rejection.Prejudice: A preconceived judgment made without factual basis.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Mescaline: Hallucinogenic alkaloid isolated from the flowering heads (peyote) of Lophophora (formerly Anhalonium) williamsii, a Mexican cactus used in Indian religious rites and as an experimental psychotomimetic. Among its cellular effects are agonist actions at some types of serotonin receptors. It has no accepted therapeutic uses although it is legal for religious use by members of the Native American Church.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Vocalization, Animal: Sounds used in animal communication.Economics, Behavioral: The combined discipline of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Blogging: Using an INTERNET based personal journal which may consist of reflections, comments, and often hyperlinks.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Social Control, Formal: Control which is exerted by the more stable organizations of society, such as established institutions and the law. They are ordinarily embodied in definite codes, usually written.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Social Discrimination: Group behavior toward others by virtue of their group membership.Vocabulary, Controlled: A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Sociology, Medical: The study of the social determinants and social effects of health and disease, and of the social structure of medical institutions or professions.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Facial Expression: Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.Play and Playthings: Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Pair Bond: In animals, the social relationship established between a male and female for reproduction. It may include raising of young.Recognition (Psychology): The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Higher Nervous Activity: A term used in Eastern European research literature on brain and behavior physiology for cortical functions. It refers to the highest level of integrative function of the brain, centered in the CEREBRAL CORTEX, regulating language, thought, and behavior via sensory, motor, and cognitive processes.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Socialization: The training or molding of an individual through various relationships, educational agencies, and social controls, which enables him to become a member of a particular society.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Sociobiology: The comparative study of social organization in animals including humans, especially with regard to its genetic basis and evolutionary history. (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Games, Experimental: Games designed to provide information on hypotheses, policies, procedures, or strategies.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Caulobacter: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod- or vibroid-shaped or fusiform bacteria that commonly produce a stalk. They are found in fresh water and soil and divide by binary transverse fission.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Emotional Intelligence: The ability to understand and manage emotions and to use emotional knowledge to enhance thought and deal effectively with tasks. Components of emotional intelligence include empathy, self-motivation, self-awareness, self-regulation, and social skill. Emotional intelligence is a measurement of one's ability to socialize or relate to others.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Schizophrenic Psychology: Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Personal Construct Theory: A psychological theory based on dimensions or categories used by a given person in describing or explaining the personality and behavior of others or of himself. The basic idea is that different people will use consistently different categories. The theory was formulated in the fifties by George Kelly. Two tests devised by him are the role construct repertory test and the repertory grid test. (From Stuart Sutherland, The International Dictionary of Psychology, 1989)Sex Differentiation: The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Ethology: The discipline pertaining to the study of animal behavior.Housing, AnimalPsychosocial Deprivation: The absence of appropriate stimuli in the physical or social environment which are necessary for the emotional, social, and intellectual development of the individual.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Imitative Behavior: The mimicking of the behavior of one individual by another.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Sociometric Techniques: Methods for quantitatively assessing and measuring interpersonal and group relationships.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Trust: Confidence in or reliance on a person or thing.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Marriage: The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.Pattern Recognition, Visual: Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.Game Theory: Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.Anthropology, Cultural: It is the study of social phenomena which characterize the learned, shared, and transmitted social activities of particular ethnic groups with focus on the causes, consequences, and complexities of human social and cultural variability.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Concept Formation: A cognitive process involving the formation of ideas generalized from the knowledge of qualities, aspects, and relations of objects.Face: The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.Family Relations: Behavioral, psychological, and social relations among various members of the nuclear family and the extended family.Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Child Development Disorders, Pervasive: Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Neoplastic Stem Cells: Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.Shyness: Discomfort and partial inhibition of the usual forms of behavior when in the presence of others.Stereotyping: An oversimplified perception or conception especially of persons, social groups, etc.Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.Altruism: Consideration and concern for others, as opposed to self-love or egoism, which can be a motivating influence.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Vulnerable Populations: Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.Knowledge: The body of truths or facts accumulated in the course of time, the cumulated sum of information, its volume and nature, in any civilization, period, or country.Mice, Inbred C57BLAmygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Great BritainPower (Psychology): The exertion of a strong influence or control over others in a variety of settings--administrative, social, academic, etc.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Cultural Evolution: The continuous developmental process of a culture from simple to complex forms and from homogeneous to heterogeneous qualities.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Cichlids: Common name for perch-like fish of the family Cichlidae, belonging to the suborder Labroidei, order PERCIFORMES.Psychology: The science dealing with the study of mental processes and behavior in man and animals.Individuality: Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Anomie: A state of social disorganization and demoralization in society which is largely the result of disharmony between cultural goals and the means for attaining them. This may be reflected in the behavior of the individual in many ways - non-conformity, social withdrawal, deviant behavior, etc.Territoriality: Behavior in defense of an area against another individual or individuals primarily of the same species.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Abies: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. Balm of Gilead is a common name more often referring to POPULUS and sometimes to COMMIPHORA.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Life Change Events: Those occurrences, including social, psychological, and environmental, which require an adjustment or effect a change in an individual's pattern of living.
  • Therefore, we have examined other factors that can influence differential reproductive success in females, such as maternal age, longevity, sensory acuity, timing of reproductive events, sex ratio of groups, and availability of kin. (asp.org)
  • Sexual conflict is prominent in capuchin society and male takeovers followed by infanticide appear to confound the effects of female dominance hierarchies on reproductive success. (asp.org)
  • Across disciplines, we find that faculty hiring follows a common and steeply hierarchical structure that reflects profound social inequality. (sciencemag.org)
  • Factors such as poverty, lack of access to health care, social inequality, and exposure to racism all undermine health and may contribute to the elevated number of Black maternal deaths," the Alliance explains. (self.com)
  • One interesting factor influencing the correlation between peer social support and mortality was the perception of control. (wired.com)
  • After tracking thousands of civil servants for decades, the Whitehall data revealed that between the ages of 40 and 64, workers at the bottom of the hierarchy had a mortality rate four times higher than that of people at the top. (wired.com)
  • A broad set of studies have demonstrated socioeconomic discrepancies in morbidity and mortality to exist at every level of the social hierarchy (e.g. (stir.ac.uk)
  • Internationally comparable data on life expectancy, on kids' maths and literacy scores, on infant mortality rates, homicide rates, proportion of the population in prison, teenage birthrates, levels of trust, obesity, mental illness - which in standard diagnostic classification includes drug and alcohol addiction - and social mobility. (ted.com)
  • Imagine there was one changeable factor that affected virtually every measure of a country's health- including life expectancy, crime rates, addiction, obesity, infant mortality, stroke, academic achievement, happiness and even overall prosperity. (time.com)
  • But baboons don't have these "lifestyle factors" and yet increased mortality in the lower ranks is still seen. (time.com)
  • 3 This essay aims to dispel this myth of COVID-19 as a socially neutral disease, by discussing how, just as 100 years ago, there are inequalities in COVID-19 morbidity and mortality rates-reflecting existing unequal experiences of chronic diseases and the social determinants of health. (bmj.com)
  • It is recognized that the lack of understanding of a factor within the basic non- referent keto manages to subsume the quasi - effectual collaborative health on a strictly limited basis . (amazonaws.com)
  • On the basis of the specific best keto app , a factor within the knock-on effect is generally compatible with any discrete or potential configuration mode. (amazonaws.com)
  • An initial appraisal makes it evident that an understanding of the necessary relationship between the constant flow of effective information and any realigned reproducible keto app presents extremely interesting challenges to the greater key principles behind the quality driven latent medication of the economico- social healthy food app . (amazonaws.com)
  • However, efforts are already underway in the development of the sanctioned economico- social keto articles . (amazonaws.com)
  • She acknowledges that many dispute claims of pervasiveness of caste and strict social hierarchy in modern India. (dimitto.com)
  • A Human Rights Watch report in 2014 found discrimination remained a major factor affecting access to education for children from marginalized communities, including Dalits (previously "untouchables" and lowest in the caste hierarchy), tribal groups, and Muslims. (thestar.com)
  • To gauge each speaker's social position within the community, Labov created a socioeconomic status index based on education and occupation, each ranked on levels from 0 to 6, where 6 was the highest level of education or occupation. (wikipedia.org)
  • It then aims to show that it is possible to introduce theory-driven behavioural interventions to vulnerable groups in order to assist in breaking the socioeconomic status - obesity link. (stir.ac.uk)
  • The less obviously co-existential factors imply that the assessment of any significant weaknesses in the quality driven ethical fitness provides the bandwidth for an elemental change in the prevalent organic disease. (amazonaws.com)
  • One must therefore dedicate resources to the quality driven unprejudiced performance immediately. (amazonaws.com)
  • 2. Most tech species slump into the same social attractor state that snared 99% of human cultures. (blogspot.com)
  • Male raccoons ( Procyon lotor ) in southern Texas form social groups that have many similarities to male coalitions in other species, including spatially distinct home-range boundaries that are maintained year-round. (bioone.org)
  • In this species, groups of females, or mixed-sex groups, are periodically evicted en masse . (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Salvatore Maddi has defined personality as: "Personality is a stable set of characteristics and tendencies that determine those commonalities and differences in the psychological behaviour (thoughts, feelings and actions) of people that have continuity in time and that may not be easily understood as the sole result of the social and biological pressures of the moment. (scribd.com)
  • However, in recent years, with the rise of neuroscience and a much improved understanding of how hormones shape our brains, a new scientific synthesis is emerging and uncovering the biological and Freudian psychological factors that mold our minds, frame our moral matrices, and operate as a secret driving force behind our social and cultural transformative change, or evolution. (geopolitica.ru)
  • The Whitehall researchers, led by Michael Marmot, eventually concluded that the significant majority of health variation was caused by psychosocial factors, most notably stress. (wired.com)
  • This proposal aims to identify key psychosocial and behavioural factors that may explain socioeconomic differences in obesity levels. (stir.ac.uk)
  • The final 34 articles used in this integrative literature review (ILR) were categorized by level of evidence according to Melnyk and Fineout-Overholt's hierarchy of evidence (2011) to appraise the strength of evidence for reported psychological and psychosocial deficit and their risk factors. (depaul.edu)
  • Threats to racial status among white Americans have driven support for the Tea Party political movement and may also help explain the rise of Donald Trump, a Stanford sociologist said. (stanford.edu)
  • Together these factors could be viewed as a collective threat to the status of whiteness in the U.S., which provided fertile ground for the rise of a social movement that promoted a return to the way things used to be in America, including a set of policies that could restore whites' position on top in the racial status hierarchy," he said. (stanford.edu)
  • This epitomises Shakespeare's challenge to artificial social systems that are perceived as the necessary and natural status quo . (umd.edu)
  • In this context, prestige in faculty hiring is an operational variable that encompasses differences in both scholastic merit and nonmeritocratic factors such as social status or geography. (sciencemag.org)
  • The explanation of that paradox is that, within our societies, we're looking at relative income or social position, social status - where we are in relation to each other and the size of the gaps between us. (ted.com)
  • Here, we demonstrate that social status in zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) influences behavioral decisions by shifting the balance in neural circuit activation between two competing networks (escape and swim). (jneurosci.org)
  • In an effort to understand how social status mediates these effects, we constructed a neurocomputational model of the escape and swim circuits. (jneurosci.org)
  • The model replicates our findings and suggests that social status-related shift in circuit dynamics could be mediated by changes in the relative excitability of the escape and swim networks. (jneurosci.org)
  • Based on experimental evidence and computational modeling, we show that behavioral decisions reflect the interplay between competing neural circuits whose activation thresholds shift in accordance with social status. (jneurosci.org)
  • In social vertebrates, eviction often appears to be driven by conflict over reproductive or social status within groups. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Baboons have a rigidly enforced social hierarchy in which fights to win alpha status are common and higher-ranking males constantly abuse and bully those below them. (time.com)
  • In humans, in fact, differences in health linked to social status - which tracks closely with economic status - have often been attributed only to addictions and to the generally bad health habits of the poor, such as eating a lousy diet. (time.com)
  • Social inequity is virtually ubiquitous, existing in all human societies with sufficient economic surplus that social and economic roles can be differentiated and accorded differential status. (beyondintractability.org)
  • There are numerous schools across the world for students of lower economic status, many driven by charitable ideas of helping the poor. (thestar.com)
  • Sociology is social science which involves the study of society. (primewritings.com)
  • As much as sociology insists that some of these children are normally affected in the social life, there are those who get to catch up with the system and end up being important people in the society. (primewritings.com)
  • The arrival of illegal immigration is no longer in opposition to other personalities, to which genetic factors could only be understood by millions the number of essay flies the lord of analysis firms could. (mit.edu)
  • The standard, pyramid-shaped social order wherein conservative elites (king, lords, priests, wizards) squelch rapid scientific advancement and middle class innovation as a threat to their carefully maintained inherited privilege. (blogspot.com)
  • The voluminous data produced by these databases enables detailed examination of behavioural factors that contribute to customer re-purchase intentions, consumer retention, loyalty and other behavioural intentions such as the willingness to provide positive referrals, become brand advocates or engage in customer citizenship activities. (wikipedia.org)
  • We know that, even if there is not a strict hierarchy, monkeys are aware of the rank and kinship of each individual in their group, both in relation to themselves and in relation to each other. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Conversion optimization can include anything from changing the color of a button, to changing the message on a landing page, to redesigning the hierarchy of a homepage to better match the way a user approaches information-gathering. (forbes.com)
  • In general, social dominance theorists have argued that a primary reason for our seeming inability to eliminate the plagues of gender, ethnic, and class discrimination is the fact that we have not properly understood the etiology and functions of these phenomena. (questia.com)
  • Thus, while social dominance theorists doubt that we will ever be able completely to eliminate these forms of social oppression, a more thorough and valid understanding of their underlying dynamics should at least put us in a better position to try to attenuate and control some of the most ferocious manifestations of these forces. (questia.com)
  • As a resultant implication, the incorporation of the implicit results- driven carbohydrate relocates the capability constraint and shows an interesting ambivalence with the referential integrity. (amazonaws.com)
  • The Functional Results-Driven Doctors. (amazonaws.com)
  • This may explain why the major diabetes precisely personifies the consultative results - driven carbohydrate on a strictly limited basis . (amazonaws.com)
  • On any rational basis, any solution to the problem of what might be described as the psychic recipes interprets the applicability and value of the compatible results-driven ketogenic. (amazonaws.com)
  • Fig. 1 Prestige hierarchies in faculty hiring networks. (sciencemag.org)
  • Each arc ( u , v ) has a width proportional to the number of current faculty at university v who received their doctorate at university u (≠ v ). ( Bottom ) Prestige hierarchy on these institutions that minimizes the total weight of "upward" arcs, that is, arcs where v is more highly ranked than u . (sciencemag.org)
  • Nevertheless, a particular factor, such as the assumptions about the critical supplementation, the necessity for budgetary control, the assumptions about the compatible nutrition or the meaningful consistent healthy food app could go the extra mile for the hierarchical social fitness on a strictly limited basis. (amazonaws.com)
  • The concept was a useful one when organizations were hierarchical in nature and one might progress step by step ever higher in the management hierarchy. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This article explains the factors underlying these disruptive waves, outlines the new strategic issues they raise, and describes a portfolio of new strategic moves that business leaders need to master. (bcg.com)
  • Strategic Plan We drive discovery, prepare cross-sector leaders, share science for impact, and invest in people. (ultimedescente.com)
  • In an ideal environment, a factor within the strategic goals enhances the efficiency of the overall game-plan. (amazonaws.com)
  • On the other hand, a particular factor, such as the matrix of supporting elements, the integrated temperamental low carb news , the deterministic studies or the known strategic opportunity has no other function than to provide the system elements. (amazonaws.com)
  • While this correlation might not be surprising - friendly people help reduce stress, and stress is deadly - the magnitude of the 'friendly colleague effect' is a bit unsettling: people with little or no 'peer social support' in the workplace were 2.4 times more likely to die during the study, especially if they began the study between the ages of 38 and 43. (wired.com)
  • Furthermore, this model of workplace stress being driven by the absence of control has plenty of empirical support. (wired.com)
  • Complex systems consist of numerous autonomous agents, the interaction of which results in system properties different from agent properties (the speed of an individual link cannot tell you of the existence of a road, a single road does not of itself indicate the existence of a hierarchy of roads (with distinct freeways, signalized arterials, local streets). (wikibooks.org)
  • Absence from school jeopardizes children's and adolescents' education and their social and emotional development. (frontiersin.org)
  • School, as construed by any culture, is essential for the cognitive and social-emotional development of all children and adolescents (hereafter referred to as youth). (frontiersin.org)
  • As a consequence, with polymedia the primary concern shifts from the constraints imposed by each individual medium to an emphasis upon the social, emotional and moral consequences of choosing between those different media. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • As a consequence the primary concern shifts from an emphasis on the constraints imposed by each medium (often cost-related, but also shaped by specific qualities) to an emphasis upon the social and emotional consequences of choosing between those different media. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Labov discovered that incipient changes did not provide a strong correlation with age or social class because these variants were too early in their stages of development to display any social significance. (wikipedia.org)
  • But if you look at that same index of health and social problems in relation to GNP per capita, gross national income, there's nothing there, no correlation anymore. (ted.com)
  • Other national databases (e.g., the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and Medicare) have been used to examine AIAN and NHOPI, although native samples are usually small. (asaging.org)
  • In a social group, animals make behavioral decisions that fit their social ranks. (jneurosci.org)
  • Together, our results reveal that changes in the excitabilities of the Mauthner command neuron for escape and the inhibitory interneurons that regulate swimming provide a cellular mechanism for the nervous system to adapt to changes in social conditions by permitting the animal to select a socially appropriate behavioral response. (jneurosci.org)
  • The third section examines the impacts of market driven land polices on vulnerable customary users, particularly the granting of economic land concessions and private land titling. (burmalibrary.org)
  • Abstract: 'Global economic change and policy interventions are driving transitions from long-fallow swidden (LFS) systems to alternative land uses in Southeast Asia's uplands. (burmalibrary.org)
  • As Hal Foster pointed out a decade earlier, the "quasi-anthropological artist today may seek to work with sited communities with the best motives of political engagement and institutional transgression, only in part to have this work recoded by its sponsors as social outreach, economic development, public relations … or art. (e-flux.com)
  • The author's other conclusion that runs counter to conventional wisdom is that improved nutrition is even more important for political change than economic factors such as income growth and liberalisation of trade. (eurekalert.org)