Surgery performed in which part of the STAPES, a bone in the middle ear, is removed and a prosthesis is placed to help transmit sound between the middle ear and inner ear.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The branch of physics that deals with sound and sound waves. In medicine it is often applied in procedures in speech and hearing studies. With regard to the environment, it refers to the characteristics of a room, auditorium, theatre, building, etc. that determines the audibility or fidelity of sounds in it. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Any device or element which converts an input signal into an output signal of a different form. Examples include the microphone, phonographic pickup, loudspeaker, barometer, photoelectric cell, automobile horn, doorbell, and underwater sound transducer. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Computer-assisted interpretation and analysis of various mathematical functions related to a particular problem.
Transducers that are activated by pressure changes, e.g., blood pressure.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Unequal curvature of the refractive surfaces of the eye. Thus a point source of light cannot be brought to a point focus on the retina but is spread over a more or less diffuse area. This results from the radius of curvature in one plane being longer or shorter than the radius at right angles to it. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
A state of internal activity of an organism that is a necessary condition before a given stimulus will elicit a class of responses; e.g., a certain level of hunger (drive) must be present before food will elicit an eating response.
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
Elements that constitute group 18 (formerly the zero group) of the periodic table. They are gases that generally do not react chemically.
Refraction of LIGHT effected by the media of the EYE.
Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
Deviations from the average or standard indices of refraction of the eye through its dioptric or refractive apparatus.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A combustible, gaseous mixture of low-molecular weight PARAFFIN hydrocarbons, generated below the surface of the earth. It contains mostly METHANE and ETHANE with small amounts of PROPANE; BUTANES; and higher hydrocarbons, and sometimes NITROGEN; CARBON DIOXIDE; HYDROGEN SULFIDE; and HELIUM. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A plant genus of the family ARISTOLOCHIACEAE. Species of this genus have been used in traditional medicine but they contain aristolochic acid which is associated with nephropathy. These are sometimes called 'snakeroot' but that name is also used with a number of other plants such as POLYGALA; SANICULA; ASARUM; ARISTOLOCHIA; AGERATINA; and others.
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)
An objective determination of the refractive state of the eye (NEARSIGHTEDNESS; FARSIGHTEDNESS; ASTIGMATISM). By using a RETINOSCOPE, the amount of correction and the power of lens needed can be determined.
The internal resistance of a material to moving some parts of it parallel to a fixed plane, in contrast to stretching (TENSILE STRENGTH) or compression (COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH). Ionic crystals are brittle because, when subjected to shear, ions of the same charge are brought next to each other, which causes repulsion.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A severe condition resulting from bacteria invading healthy muscle from adjacent traumatized muscle or soft tissue. The infection originates in a wound contaminated with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM. C. perfringens accounts for the majority of cases (over eighty percent), while C. noyvi, C. septicum, and C. histolyticum cause most of the other cases.
The motion of air currents.
Force exerted when gripping or grasping.
The measurement of curvature and shape of the anterior surface of the cornea using techniques such as keratometry, keratoscopy, photokeratoscopy, profile photography, computer-assisted image processing and videokeratography. This measurement is often applied in the fitting of contact lenses and in diagnosing corneal diseases or corneal changes including keratoconus, which occur after keratotomy and keratoplasty.
The motion of fluids, especially noncompressible liquids, under the influence of internal and external forces.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
A representation, generally small in scale, to show the structure, construction, or appearance of something. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A condition of an inequality of refractive power of the two eyes.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
A refractive error in which rays of light entering the eye parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus behind the retina, as a result of the eyeball being too short from front to back. It is also called farsightedness because the near point is more distant than it is in emmetropia with an equal amplitude of accommodation. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Areas of the earth where hydrocarbon deposits of PETROLEUM and/or NATURAL GAS are located.
Perception of three-dimensionality.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A phylum of small sessile aquatic animals living as small tufted colonies. Some appear like hydroids or corals, but their internal structure is more advanced. Most bryozoans are matlike, forming thin encrustations on rocks, shells, or kelp. (Storer & Stebbins, General Zoology, 6th ed, p443)
The management of all procurement, distribution, and storage of equipment and supplies, as well as logistics management including laundry, processing of reusables, etc.
Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.
An adhesion procedure for orthodontic attachments, such as plastic DENTAL CROWNS. This process usually includes the application of an adhesive material (DENTAL CEMENTS) and letting it harden in-place by light or chemical curing.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
A noninflammatory, usually bilateral protrusion of the cornea, the apex being displaced downward and nasally. It occurs most commonly in females at about puberty. The cause is unknown but hereditary factors may play a role. The -conus refers to the cone shape of the corneal protrusion. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers which are used as sheets, moulding, extrusion powders, surface coating resins, emulsion polymers, fibers, inks, and films (From International Labor Organization, 1983). This material is also used in tooth implants, bone cements, and hard corneal contact lenses.
A refractive error in which rays of light entering the EYE parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus in front of the RETINA when accommodation (ACCOMMODATION, OCULAR) is relaxed. This results from an overly curved CORNEA or from the eyeball being too long from front to back. It is also called nearsightedness.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Conveying ill or injured individuals from one place to another.
The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.
Compounds that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of CELLS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A family of bacteria consisting of flexible helical cells exhibiting a right-handed conformation. It consists of a single genus, LEPTOSPIRA.
The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.
A genus of microorganisms of the order SPIROCHAETALES, many of which are pathogenic and parasitic for man and animals.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Severe irritant and vesicant of skin, eyes, and lungs. It may cause blindness and lethal lung edema and was formerly used as a war gas. The substance has been proposed as a cytostatic and for treatment of psoriasis. It has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985) (Merck, 11th ed).
Specific alloys not less than 85% chromium and nickel or cobalt, with traces of either nickel or cobalt, molybdenum, and other substances. They are used in partial dentures, orthopedic implants, etc.
A serovar of the bacterial species LEPTOSPIRA INTERROGANS, whose natural host is DOGS where disease is characterized by GASTROENTERITIS, and INTERSTITIAL NEPHRITIS.
Products made by baking or firing nonmetallic minerals (clay and similar materials). In making dental restorations or parts of restorations the material is fused porcelain. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)
Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).
A subfield of acoustics dealing in the radio frequency range higher than acoustic SOUND waves (approximately above 20 kilohertz). Ultrasonic radiation is used therapeutically (DIATHERMY and ULTRASONIC THERAPY) to generate HEAT and to selectively destroy tissues. It is also used in diagnostics, for example, ULTRASONOGRAPHY; ECHOENCEPHALOGRAPHY; and ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, to visually display echoes received from irradiated tissues.
Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.
Computed tomography modalities which use a cone or pyramid-shaped beam of radiation.
The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.
The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.
A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Sensation of making physical contact with objects, animate or inanimate. Tactile stimuli are detected by MECHANORECEPTORS in the skin and mucous membranes.
An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.
Physical motion, i.e., a change in position of a body or subject as a result of an external force. It is distinguished from MOVEMENT, a process resulting from biological activity.
Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard X-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength X-rays. Soft x-rays or Grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the X-ray spectrum overlaps the GAMMA RAYS wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
Cetyltrimethylammonium compounds that have cationic detergent, antiseptic, and disinfectant activities. They are used in pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics as preservatives; on skin, mucous membranes, etc., as antiseptics or cleansers, and also as emulsifiers. These compounds are toxic when used orally due to neuromuscular blockade.
Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.
Mechanical devices used to produce or assist pulmonary ventilation.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Partial or total replacement of all layers of a central portion of the cornea.
Dental cements composed either of polymethyl methacrylate or dimethacrylate, produced by mixing an acrylic monomer liquid with acrylic polymers and mineral fillers. The cement is insoluble in water and is thus resistant to fluids in the mouth, but is also irritating to the dental pulp. It is used chiefly as a luting agent for fabricated and temporary restorations. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p159)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)
The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)
A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.
Electrically neutral elementary particles found in all atomic nuclei except light hydrogen; the mass is equal to that of the proton and electron combined and they are unstable when isolated from the nucleus, undergoing beta decay. Slow, thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons refer to the energy levels with which the neutrons are ejected from heavier nuclei during their decay.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
Application of tests and examinations to identify visual defects or vision disorders occurring in specific populations, as in school children, the elderly, etc. It is differentiated from VISION TESTS, which are given to evaluate/measure individual visual performance not related to a specific population.
Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.
Preparation of TOOTH surfaces, and of materials bonded to teeth or DENTAL IMPLANTS, with agents and methods which roughen the surface to facilitate adhesion. Agents include phosphoric or other acids (ACID ETCHING, DENTAL) and methods include LASERS.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Surgical insertion of a prosthesis.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.
A pair of ophthalmic lenses in a frame or mounting which is supported by the nose and ears. The purpose is to aid or improve vision. It does not include goggles or nonprescription sun glasses for which EYE PROTECTIVE DEVICES is available.
The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.
Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The sensory discrimination of a pattern shape or outline.
The study of fluid channels and chambers of tiny dimensions of tens to hundreds of micrometers and volumes of nanoliters or picoliters. This is of interest in biological MICROCIRCULATION and used in MICROCHEMISTRY and INVESTIGATIVE TECHNIQUES.
The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.
The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.
Preparation of TOOTH surfaces and DENTAL MATERIALS with etching agents, usually phosphoric acid, to roughen the surface to increase adhesion or osteointegration.
Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Analysis based on the mathematical function first formulated by Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier in 1807. The function, known as the Fourier transform, describes the sinusoidal pattern of any fluctuating pattern in the physical world in terms of its amplitude and its phase. It has broad applications in biomedicine, e.g., analysis of the x-ray crystallography data pivotal in identifying the double helical nature of DNA and in analysis of other molecules, including viruses, and the modified back-projection algorithm universally used in computerized tomography imaging, etc. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.
An organization of cells into an organ-like structure. Organoids can be generated in culture. They are also found in certain neoplasms.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
The study of MAGNETIC PHENOMENA.
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
A large stout-bodied, sometimes anadromous, TROUT found in still and flowing waters of the Pacific coast from southern California to Alaska. It has a greenish back, a whitish belly, and pink, red, or lavender stripes on the sides, with usually a sprinkling of black dots. It is highly regarded as a sport and food fish. Its former name was Salmo gairdneri. The sea-run rainbow trouts are often called steelheads. Redband trouts refer to interior populations of rainbows.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.
The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).
Self-replicating, short, fibrous, rod-shaped organelles. Each centriole is a short cylinder containing nine pairs of peripheral microtubules, arranged so as to form the wall of the cylinder.
Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A vinyl polymer made from ethylene. It can be branched or linear. Branched or low-density polyethylene is tough and pliable but not to the same degree as linear polyethylene. Linear or high-density polyethylene has a greater hardness and tensile strength. Polyethylene is used in a variety of products, including implants and prostheses.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Apparatus for removing exhaled or leaked anesthetic gases or other volatile agents, thus reducing the exposure of operating room personnel to such agents, as well as preventing the buildup of potentially explosive mixtures in operating rooms or laboratories.
Cements that act through infiltration and polymerization within the dentinal matrix and are used for dental restoration. They can be adhesive resins themselves, adhesion-promoting monomers, or polymerization initiators that act in concert with other agents to form a dentin-bonding system.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.
The use of statistical and mathematical methods to analyze biological observations and phenomena.
The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.
Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
Blocking of a blood vessel by air bubbles that enter the circulatory system, usually after TRAUMA; surgical procedures, or changes in atmospheric pressure.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.
Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
A neurotransmitter analogue that depletes noradrenergic stores in nerve endings and induces a reduction of dopamine levels in the brain. Its mechanism of action is related to the production of cytolytic free-radicals.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.
Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
In a reciprocating engine, the high-pressure gases inside the cylinders drive the engine's pistons. Once the available energy ... A ventilation system drives the small amount of gas that escapes past the pistons during normal operation (the blow-by gases) ... The Beare Head and "piston charger" engines operate as opposed-piston engines, two pistons in a single cylinder, firing every ... It collects the exhaust gases from the cylinders and drives it to the following component in the path. The exhaust system of an ...
The bipod can be removed from the gas cylinder by tapping-out a roll pin in the gas cylinder head until it is flush and the ... which utilizes the ignited powder gases generated by firing vented through a port in the barrel to propel a gas piston rod ... The bolt's guide rails are shaped downward to drive the locking lever into engagement with the locking shoulder, which is also ... The machine gun is fitted with a folding bipod (attached to the end of the gas cylinder) that can be adjusted for height. For ...
Indirect drive or low velocity devices. This uses gas pressure acting on a heavy piston which drives the nail. Indirect drive ... Powered by a gas (e.g. propane) and air explosion in a small cylinder; the piston pushes the nail directly and there are no ... Direct drive or high velocity devices. This uses gas pressure acting directly on the nail to drive it. ... the inner chamber contains the piston assembly which drives the nail. Nails come in clips for use in nail guns Nails also come ...
Gun gases enter a cylinder, drive a piston to power the system, and prevent any leakage of propellant gases and residues into ... Due to the light weight of the projectile, the gas port tapped gas earlier in the barrel than conventional weapons. Therefore ... A closed bolt, gas operated, full stocked, magazine fed, conventionally laid out rifle. The 1990 ACR Program Summary report ... but how it differs from traditional Long or Short stroke piston systems already in existence at the time is unclear. Jane's ...
... was powered by a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen gases ignited to create an explosion within the cylinder and drive the piston ... The cylinder was 1.5 meters long and the piston had a stroke of 97 cm. The explosive gas mixture used was now composed of about ... The explosion drove the piston freely up the vertically mounted cylinder, storing the energy by lifting the heavy piston to an ... The compressed hydrogen gas fuel was stored in a balloon connected by a pipe to the cylinder. Oxygen was supplied from the air ...
... and a channel in the gas block. The high-pressure gases drive the piston rod (which is attached to the bolt carrier) rearward. ... When fired, a portion of the propellant gases are evacuated into the gas cylinder through a 1.8 mm (0.07 in) port, drilled at a ... Due to the shorter barrel a corresponding shorter piston and gas tube as well as a unique gas block are found on the SAR. The ... which has a further reduced barrel and a shortened gas cylinder and piston assembly. Lyttleton Ingenieurs Werke (LIW)/Denel ...
PCD-system includes the piston compressor 1 with the cylinder 2. The crankshaft 4 connected to the external drive is used for ... 2014) High-Voltage Electro-Discharge Technique Used for the Generation of Shock Waves and the Heating of Reactive Gases. Dr.Sc ... Due to the further motion of the piston 3 from the BDC to the TDC the compression of combustible mixture occurs in the cylinder ... and the detonable gas mixture is pumped into the cylinder 2 of the compressor 1 through the intake port 6 using the supply ...
The build-up of gases inside the gas cylinder drives the long-stroke piston and bolt carrier rearward and a cam guide machined ... After ignition of the cartridge primer and propellant, rapidly expanding propellant gases are diverted into the gas cylinder ... The front sight base and gas block were redesigned. The gas block contains a gas channel that is installed at a 90° angle in ... excess gases are ventilated through a series of radial ports in the gas cylinder. Since the Kalashnikov operating system offers ...
The build-up of gases inside the gas cylinder drives the long-stroke piston and bolt carrier rearward and a cam guide machined ... Gas relief ports that alleviate gas pressure are placed horizontally in a row on the gas cylinder. The fire selector is a large ... The AK-47 does not have a gas valve; excess gases are ventilated through a series of radial ports in the gas cylinder. The ... It was gas-operated rifle with a short-stroke gas piston above the barrel, a breech-block mechanism similar to his 1944 carbine ...
... inside a cylinder and uses the expanding gases to drive a piston. The movement of the piston rotates the crank shaft. The ... remaining mechanical components such as the transmission, drive shaft, differential, axles and wheels form the power ...
... inside a cylinder and uses the expanding gases to drive a piston. A jet engine uses a turbine to compress air which is burned ... Finally, the pulley rotation drives the flyball governor which controls the valve for the steam input to the piston cylinder. ... This can be seen in Watt's steam engine in which the power is provided by steam expanding to drive the piston. The walking beam ... A steam engine uses heat to boil water contained in a pressure vessel; the expanding steam drives a piston or a turbine. This ...
... or the expansion of gases against a sliding piston in a cylinder can drive the rotation of the crank. There are two types of ... Kinematic diagram Four-bar linkage Hand pump Piston motion equations Reciprocating engine Oscillating cylinder steam engine ... Piston speed x' is expressed as: x ′ = ( − r sin ⁡ α − r 2 sin ⁡ α cos ⁡ α l 2 − r 2 sin 2 ⁡ α ) d α d t {\displaystyle x'=\ ... But in reality, the torque is maximum at crank angle of less than α = 90° from TDC for a given force on the piston. One way to ...
... cartridge following the projectile down the bore are vented through a gas port into a gas cylinder where they drive the piston ... The gas cylinder, support structures, brackets, lugs and other devices are welded in place. The front portion carries the ... piston and barrel and is perforated to reduce weight and improve air circulation around the barrel and gas cylinder. The rear ... The LMG has a quick-change barrel and the gas cylinder is positioned below the barrel since the receiver is inverted. The LMG ...
... powder gases channelled through a vent in the barrel to drive a long stroke piston located above the barrel in a gas cylinder ... which has a further reduced barrel and a shortened gas cylinder and piston assembly. This reduced the barrel length to 279 ... Dr. David Westwood (2005). Rifles: an illustrated history of their impact. ABC-CLIO. p. 392. ISBN 1-85109-401-6. Jonh Walter ( ... The R4 is a selective fire, gas-operated weapon that fires from a closed bolt. As with the Galil parent weapon, the operating ...
... gases from the barrel are fed into the gas cylinder located above the barrel and impart rearward pressure on the piston rod, ... which drives the bolt carrier back. After a certain amount of free travel built into the system to allow the projectile to ... a shorter gas cylinder and piston rod as well as a different handguard and sights with 100, 200, 300 and 400 m firing range ... SIG designers used a long-stroke piston-driven action (with the recoil spring wrapped around the piston rod itself) and an ...
The plunger or piston is actuated by a steam powered, pneumatic, hydraulic, or electric drive. Rotary piston and plunger pumps ... which then builds pressure in a cylinder or working barrel to force gas or fluid through the pump. The pressure in the chamber ... the number of pistons or plungers and the speed of the drive. The power needed from the drive is proportional to the pressure ... The overall capacity of the piston pumps and plunger pumps can be calculated with the area of the piston or plunger, the stroke ...
... the burning gases either operating directly in the cylinders to rotate the engine or operating through a geared drive. First ... In 1920 Roy Fedden designed a piston engine gas starting system, this was in use on the Bristol Jupiter engine by 1922. A ... Similar in operating principle to the piston engine Coffman starter, an explosive cartridge drives a small turbine engine which ... or Gas Turbine Compressor (GTC). Comprising a small gas turbine which is electrically started, these devices provide compressed ...
... or the expansion of gases against a sliding piston in a cylinder can drive the rotation of the crank. There are two types of ... Examples of symmetrical motion mechanisms include: Windshield wipers Engine mechanisms or pistons Automobile window crank Other ... The rotation of the crank drives the linear movement the slider, ... Fixed piston mechanism (used in hand pumps) Two revolute joints ...
... inside a cylinder and uses the expanding gases to drive a piston. A jet engine uses a turbine to compress air which is burned ... Finally, the pulley rotation drives the flyball governor which controls the valve for the steam input to the piston cylinder. ... Power plant: The heat from coal and natural gas combustion in a boiler generates steam that drives a steam turbine to rotate an ... Fluid Power: Hydraulic and pneumatic systems use electrically driven pumps to drive water or air respectively into cylinders to ...
... "working a piston-valve in a cylinder and vibrating a current of air or gas, entering another cylinder and vibrating a large ... His father was Ignacio de Moura, and he had five brothers: João, Edmundo and Ricardo (all apothecaries), Dr. Ignacio Landell, a ... The intensity of the sound can be increased by having more than one piston and cylinder regulating air currents, so that the ... "O Gouraudphono" (correspondence from Dr. Rodrigues Botet, reprinted from the (São Paulo) La Voz de España issue dated December ...
... and exhaust gases are later expelled through poppet valves in the cylinder head. The intake ports are narrow enough to ensure ... Instead of using a gudgeon pin, each piston was connected to its connecting rod via a ball and socket joint, to enable the ... The WAM unit is a direct-drive two-stroke inverted inline triple with wet-sump, liquid cooling, supercharger, turbocharger and ... WAM120 three-cylinder engine WAM125BB three-cylinder engine WAM167BB four-cylinder engine Europa XS Liberty XL2 Thorp T211 ...
... disk drive), a division of data in a disk drive Cylinder (engine), the space in which a piston travels in an engine Cylinder ( ... a natural basic set in product spaces Cylinder set measure, a way to generate a measure over product spaces Gas cylinder, a ... A cylinder is a basic curvilinear geometric shape. Cylinder may also refer to: Cylinder (algebra), the Cartesian product of a ... Cylinder All pages with titles containing Cylinder This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Cylinder. ...
... and a double action booster has a boost cylinder on each end of the power cylinder, and the piston rod has a drive piston in ... There will always be some compressed gas remaining in the cylinder and cylinder head spaces at the top of the stroke. The gas ... Boosters may be used for increasing gas pressure, transferring high pressure gas, charging gas cylinders and scavenging. On new ... more supply gas will flow into the cylinder. The ratio of the volume of the cylinder space with the piston fully withdrawn, to ...
Compressed gas would then drive a piston forward in the main body of the device, forcing fuel out of the underground tanks into ... For the attack, the nozzle would be pushed upwards through the earth by a pneumatic cylinder. ...
... which drives the piston downward. As the piston moves downward in the cylinder, it will reach a point where the exhaust port is ... thereby greatly reducing combustion gas pressure and temperature, and preparing the cylinder for scavenging, for a power stroke ... Intake begins when the piston is near the bottom dead center. Air is admitted to the cylinder through ports in the cylinder ... Continued downward movement of the piston will expose the air intake ports in the cylinder wall, and the cycle will start again ...
... the high pressure in the cylinder drives the piston downward, supplying power to the crankshaft. As well as the high level of ... and the cylinder contains gas at a higher temperature than at 2. Between 3 and 4 this hot gas expands, again approximately ... Four-stroke cycle Two-stroke cycle Source Crosshead piston Double-acting piston Opposed piston Trunk piston Regular cylinder ... The piston-cylinder system absorbs energy between 1 and 2 - this is the work needed to compress the air in the cylinder, and is ...
The pressurised exhaust gases flow out of the cylinder. A fraction after the exhaust port is uncovered, the descending piston ... The resulting pressure drives the piston down (the power stroke). The piston's action is converted to a rotary motion by the ... The air in the cylinder is then forced through the top of the cylinder as the piston rises (the compression stroke), through ... The piston is driven down the cylinder. As it descends, the piston first uncovers the exhaust port. ...
The gas cylinder is vented after the piston has traveled back 16 mm (0.6 in) and the remaining gases are exhausted into the ... The weapon is unlocked by the short tappet-like stroke of the piston rod as it strikes the bolt carrier and drives it rearwards ... 58 does not have a gas regulator and the full force of the gas pressure is exerted on the piston head, propelling it backwards ... 58 resembles the Soviet AK-47, it is a different design based on a short-stroke gas piston. It shares no parts with Kalashnikov ...
The Pescara gas generator in 040-GA-1 consisted of a horizontal, single cylinder, two-stroke diesel engine with opposed pistons ... A gas turbine-electric locomotive (GTEL) is a locomotive that uses a gas turbine to drive an electric generator or alternator, ... Another is to use a separate gas generator, which may be of either rotary or piston type. Gas turbine-mechanical locomotives ... A gas turbine locomotive is a type of railway locomotive in which the prime mover is a gas turbine. Several types of gas ...
Cylinders are either oscillating (single-acting or double-acting) or fixed cylinder using slide-valves, piston valves or poppet ... Model steam engines typically use hexamine fuel tablets, methylated spirits (aka meths or denatured alcohol), butane gas, or ... and more intricate model engines that are meant to be used to drive things like workshops or boats. ... Vintage oscillating-cylinder engine by Cyldon Electrically heated Wilesco D24 Mamod fire engine Model steam engine in the ...
... apabila dia mencipta sebuah pam piston sedutan tindakan dua twin-cylinder, yang kelihatan telah mempunyai kepentingan pada ... a b c d e f g h i Dr. Kasem Ajram (1992). Miracle of Islamic Science, Appendix B. Knowledge House Publishers. ISBN 0911119434. ... Topeng gas[79]. *Grab dan Clamshell grab[79]. *Self-feeding lamp dan self-trimming lamp: Invented by the eldest brother Ahmad ... suatu batang-slot oscillating yang mana batang pada dua piston telah dicantum. Piston-piston berjalan secara silinder opposed ...
... to move the piston. Engines have glow plugs and grid heaters to help start the engine by preheating the cylinders to a minimum ... In vehicles or installations that use diesel engines and also bottled gas, a gas leak into the engine room could also provide ... powered by a Packard DR-980 9-cylinder diesel radial engine, designed by Woolson. Charles Lindbergh flew the same aircraft and ... Diesel is commonly used in oil and gas extracting equipment, though some places use electric or natural gas powered equipment ...
... gas, or renewable sources. Thus a country can benefit from adoption of biofuels, without a reduction in greenhouse gas ... "Biodiesel to drive up the price of cooking oil". Biopower London. 2006. Retrieved 2008-04-03.. ... Water causes pitting in pistons.. Previously, the amount of water contaminating biodiesel has been difficult to measure by ... iron cylinder with a flywheel at its base, ran on its own power for the first time in Augsburg, Germany, on 10 August 1893 ...
A seal must be made between the sliding piston and the walls of the cylinder so that the high pressure gas above the piston ... Stirling piston engine Rhombic Drive - Beta Stirling Engine Design, showing the second displacer piston (green) within the ... There may be one or more pistons. Each piston is inside a cylinder, into which a gas is introduced, either already under ... or where the piston forms the largest volume in the cylinder. The piston is returned to the cylinder top (Top Dead Centre) (TDC ...
These continuously forming and collapsing volumetric displacements may take the form of pistons reciprocating in cylinders, ... Gas[edit]. Gases are compressible and change volume when placed under pressure, are heated or are cooled. A volume of gas under ... Through a gear mechanism and, sometimes, a magnetic drive, a needle dial and odometer type display are advanced. ... Piston meter/rotary piston[edit]. Because they are used for domestic water measurement, piston meters, also known as rotary ...
is the piston radius, λ. {\displaystyle \lambda }. is the wavelength (i.e. λ. =. c. f. =. speed of sound. frequency. {\ ... "FeONIC S-Drive Bass Sounder" (PDF). FeONIC. November 2008. Retrieved 2009-10-05.. [dead link] ... "Re: COULD YOU PLEASE FIND RESEARCH RE:SOUND REPRODUTION VIA GAS FLAME & ELECTRI". www.madsci.org. Retrieved 14 April 2018.. ... Thomas Edison was issued a British patent for a system using compressed air as an amplifying mechanism for his early cylinder ...
... bypassing the pistons and rings and going into the crankcase oil.[28] One journal stated, "...on a multi-cylinder engine in a ... compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)). In many countries, gasoline has a ... Heinz Guderian and his Panzer divisions consumed nearly 1,000 U.S. gallons (3,800 L) of gasoline per mile on the drive to ... "Gassing up with premium probably a waste". philly.com. 19 August 2009. Archived from the original on 21 August 2009.. CS1 maint ...
It can be powered from a large compressed gas cylinder instead of gas cartridges. It is made by Bioject.[7] ... The jet stream is usually generated by the pressure of a piston in an enclosed liquid-filled chamber. The piston is usually ... 1947: Lockhart's jet injector, known as the Hypospray, was introduced for clinical evaluation by Dr. Robert Hingson and Dr. ... Gas-powered and hydraulically-powered devices may involve hoses that carry compressed gas or hydraulic fluid from separate ...
The build-up of gases inside the gas cylinder drives the long-stroke piston and bolt carrier rearward and a cam guide machined ... The front sight base and gas block were redesigned. The gas block contains a gas channel that is installed at a 90° angle in ... excess gases are ventilated through a series of radial ports in the gas cylinder. Since the Kalashnikov operating system offers ... rapidly expanding propellant gases are diverted into the gas cylinder above the barrel through a vent near the muzzle. ...
The vehicle uses nitrogen gas compressed by energy harvested from braking or deceleration to power a hydraulic drive which ... The engine uses a mixture of compressed air and gasoline injected into the cylinders.[36] A key aspect of the hybrid engine is ... A small fossil fuelled piston engine sized for average power use charges the accumulator. The accumulator is sized at running ... Rising gas prices may also push consumers to purchase these vehicles. When gas prices trade around US$4.00, the price of ...
Compressed natural gas. The Honda Civic GX was for a long time the only purpose-built natural gas vehicle (NGV) commercially ... The FIM rules limited engines to four cylinders, so the NR500 had non-circular, 'race-track', cylinders, each with 8 valves and ... The car looks and drives just like a contemporary Honda Civic LX, but does not run on gasoline. In 2001, the Civic GX was rated ... Honda views hydrogen fuel cell vehicles as the long term replacement of piston cars, not battery cars.[97] ...
At high speeds the lubrication of piston cylinder wall interface tends to break down. This limits the piston speed for ... US 367496, J. Atkinson, "Gas Engine", issued 1887-08-02 *^ "Auto Tech: Atkinson Cycle engines and Hybrids". Autos.ca. 2010-07- ... Mechanically driven supercharging has the disadvantage that some of the output power is used to drive the supercharger, while ... The cylinder wall is a thin sleeve surrounding the piston head which creates a space for the combustion of fuel and the genesis ...
"Leaded Gas Phaseout". U.S. EPA, Region 10. June 1995. Archived from the original on 2008-06-03. Retrieved 2012-06-15.. ... "Octane determination in Piston Engines". vintagebonanza.com. Archived from the original on 2013-10-29.. ... This directly translates to less fuel and reduced absolute compression in the cylinder, therefore deterring knock. It is safe ... https://www.theglobeandmail.com/globe-drive/culture/commentary/the-problem-with-ethanol-in-gasoline/article29103634/ ...
... bypassing the pistons and rings and going into the crankcase oil.[28] One journal stated, "...on a multi-cylinder engine in a ... such as compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). In many languages, the ... Heinz Guderian and his Panzer divisions consumed nearly 1,000 U.S. gallons (3,800 L) of gasoline per mile on the drive to ... Gasoline, gas (American English), or, petrol (British English) is a colorless petroleum-derived flammable liquid that is used ...
If the piston is slowly lowered, the system will trace a curve of increasing temperature and pressure within the gas region of ... Consider a test apparatus consisting of a closed and well insulated cylinder equipped with a piston. By charging the right ... Increasing the pressure drives the water into the higher density phase, which causes melting. ... Distinct phases may be described as different states of matter such as gas, liquid, solid, plasma or Bose-Einstein condensate. ...
... in long multiphase pipelines that convey natural gas from remote gas fields to a gas processing facility. Ethylene glycol can ... Cylinder block. *Cylinder head (crossflow, reverse-flow). *Flywheel. *Head gasket. *Hypereutectic piston ... Drive by wire. *Electronic control unit. *Engine control unit. *Engine coolant temperature sensor ... Ethylene glycol is used in the natural gas industry to remove water vapor from natural gas before further processing, in much ...
in storing purified or manufactured gases in a small volume, high pressure cylinders for medical, welding and other uses. ... Reciprocating compressors use pistons driven by a crankshaft. They can be either stationary or portable, can be single or multi ... The compressor flywheel may drive a cooling fan. For instance in a typical diving compressor, the air is compressed in three ... A gas compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its volume. Compression of a gas ...
Heavy duty gas engines may employ precombustion chambers in the cylinder head. A lean gas and air mixture is first highly ... compressed in the main chamber by the piston. A much richer, though much lesser volume gas/air mixture is introduced to the ... Drive by wire. *Electronic control unit. *Engine control unit. *Engine coolant temperature sensor ... Heavy-duty gas engines[edit]. Lean-burn concepts are often used for the design of heavy-duty natural gas, biogas, and liquefied ...
As the piston moves upward, driven by the depression of the plunger, a vacuum is created in the space left vacant by the piston ... The first micropipette was patented in 1957 by Dr Heinrich Schnitger (Marburg, Germany). The founder of the company Eppendorf, ... as on a graduated cylinder or burette, to indicate different calibrated volumes. They also require a source of vacuum; in the ... A glass or plastic pipette tube is used with a thumb-operated piston and PTFE seal which slides within the pipette in a ...
Four-wheel-drive HF variantsEdit. The Lancia four-wheel-drive systemEdit. Lancia's first-ever four-wheel-drive car was a Delta ... This was a 1,929 cc 8-valve four-cylinder from the Prisma, with an output of 80 PS; it used a KKK turbocharger with wastegate ... The braking system featured larger diameter discs and vacuum servo, and fixed two-piston Brembo calipers at the front. No ... Other outside changes were new windscreen wipers with integrated spoilers, a sports-type gas cap, and new yellow HF badges, ...
... and exhaust gas is pushed out of the cylinder and into the exhaust manifold by the piston as it travels upward. By manipulating ... Eccentric cam driveEdit. Eccentric cam drive systems operates through an eccentric disc mechanism which slows and speeds up the ... This inert gas then fills the cylinder in the subsequent intake stroke, which aids in controlling the temperature of the ... By opening the intake valve early, some of the inert/combusted exhaust gas will back flow out of the cylinder, via the intake ...
The 3S-GTE is an in-line 4-cylinder 1998 cc engine from Toyota, based on the 3S-GE with the addition of under piston oil ... prevents gas leakages from the combustion chamber while the oil ring works to clear oil off the cylinder walls, preventing any ... A single timing belt drives the intake and exhaust camshaft along with the oil and water pumps. The cam journal is supported on ... Piston pins holding the pistons in place are locked by snap rings. The first compression ring and the oil ring is made of steel ...
2) is a gas at standard temperature and pressure. Combined with oxygen, it forms a liquid called tritiated water ( T. 2 O. ). ... Actuated by an ultrafast switch like a krytron, a small particle accelerator drives ions of tritium and deuterium to energies ... Piston-flow approach - tritium signal appears immediately; and. *Well-mixed reservoir approach - outflow concentration depends ... a cylinder of U-235/Pu-239 at the center of the fusion stage(s), begins to fission in a chain reaction, from excess neutrons ...
... or between pistons in an opposed piston engine) of the engine at top dead center, resulting in extremely high cylinder pressure ... in combination with cooled exhaust gas recirculation, depending of the drive cycle considered. ... the injected water and some of the exhaust gas was drawn back into the cylinder. The effect was to reduce NOx emissions by up ... This may be attributable to the water gas shift reaction, in which CO and H2O shift to form CO. 2 and H2.[1] However, water may ...
Turbocharged piston engines are also subject to many of the same operating restrictions as gas turbine engines. Pilots must ... Throttle lag occurs because turbochargers rely on the buildup of exhaust gas pressure to drive the turbine. In variable output ... Cut-out of a twin-scroll exhaust and turbine; the dual "scrolls" pairing cylinders 1 and 4, and 2 and 3 are clearly visible ... In naturally aspirated piston engines, intake gases are drawn or "pushed" into the engine by atmospheric pressure filling the ...
is the piston radius, λ. {\displaystyle \lambda }. is the wavelength (i.e. λ. =. c. f. =. speed of sound. frequency. {\ ... "FeONIC D2 Audio Drive" (PDF). FeONIC. p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-12-29. Retrieved 2009-10-05. The D2 is ... "Re: COULD YOU PLEASE FIND RESEARCH RE:SOUND REPRODUTION VIA GAS FLAME & ELECTRI". www.madsci.org. Retrieved 14 April 2018.. ... Thomas Edison was issued a British patent for a system using compressed air as an amplifying mechanism for his early cylinder ...
For example, in a gas turbine engine, air is compressed, mixed with fuel, which is then burned and used to drive a turbine. The ... Since the gases have been pre-heated, less fuel is needed to heat the gases up to the turbine inlet temperature. By recovering ... Recuperators can be used to increase the efficiency of gas turbines for power generation, provided the exhaust gas is hotter ... Recuperators have also been used to recover heat from waste gasses to preheat combustion air and fuel for many years by ...
... like in gas cylinders), or the amount of payload in the can would be small, and rapidly deplete. Usually the gas is the vapor ... Packaging that uses a piston barrier system by CCL Industries or EarthSafe by Crown Holdings is often selected for highly ... As propellant expands to drive out the payload, only some propellant evaporates inside the can to maintain a constant pressure ... In gas dusters and freeze sprays, the propellant itself acts as the payload. The propellant in a gas duster can is not " ...
Exhaust gases rush out of the cylinder, relieving the pressure.. *As the piston bottoms out, it uncovers the air intake ports. ... The pressure created by the combustion of the fuel drives the piston downward. This is the power stroke. ... When the piston is at the top of its travel, the cylinder contains a charge of highly compressed air. Diesel fuel is sprayed ... As the piston nears the top of the cylinder, the cycle repeats with step 1. ...
The bipod can be removed from the gas cylinder by tapping-out a roll pin in the gas cylinder head until it is flush and the ... which utilizes the ignited powder gases generated by firing vented through a port in the barrel to propel a gas piston rod ... The bolts guide rails are shaped downward to drive the locking lever into engagement with the locking shoulder, which is also ... The machine gun is fitted with a folding bipod (attached to the end of the gas cylinder) that can be adjusted for height. For ...
In a reciprocating engine, the high-pressure gases inside the cylinders drive the engines pistons. Once the available energy ... A ventilation system drives the small amount of gas that escapes past the pistons during normal operation (the blow-by gases) ... The Beare Head and "piston charger" engines operate as opposed-piston engines, two pistons in a single cylinder, firing every ... It collects the exhaust gases from the cylinders and drives it to the following component in the path. The exhaust system of an ...
The build-up of gases inside the gas cylinder drives the long-stroke piston and bolt carrier rearward and a cam guide machined ... The front sight base and gas block were redesigned. The gas block contains a gas channel that is installed at a 90° angle in ... excess gases are ventilated through a series of radial ports in the gas cylinder. Since the Kalashnikov operating system offers ... rapidly expanding propellant gases are diverted into the gas cylinder above the barrel through a vent near the muzzle. ...
Only a single check valve is used for each cylinder. The crankshaft is built up from a shaft with eccentrics and spacers. ... A home care oxygen system includes an inline compressor that has all the check valves and gas flow passages between cylinders ... A plurality of pistons are received in the cylinders. A drive mechanism is connected with the pistons. A cylinder head is ... A cylinder head assembly connected with the cylinder assembly includes a gas inlet and a gas outlet and a single gas flow path ...
gas seal between the piston and the cylinder. the two halves are driven in opposition by the acoustic pressure wave introduced ... The acoustic power is used to drive a pair of flexure-bearingsupported pistons connected to voice coils in a vibrationally ... The gas clearance seal between the moving pistons and stationary cylinders is maintained by radially stiff flexures. The ... Before the new pistons were put onto the motors. . such as motor windage and gas spring losses in the pressure vessel space. ...
Now imagine you could simply add highly compressed air into a cars cylinder to drive the piston. You wouldnt need heat, so ... But all the heat actually does is to increase the pressure of gases in the engines cylinder. Its the high pressure that ... Then the pistons motion powers the vehicle.. The heat isnt crucial, its the pressure inside the cylinder thats the key. ... And you could drive all day with no stinky fumes coming out your tailpipe.. For several decades, engineers have tinkered with ...
... inside a cylinder and uses the expanding gases to drive a piston. A jet engine uses a turbine to compress air which is burned ... Finally, the pulley rotation drives the flyball governor which controls the valve for the steam input to the piston cylinder. ... Power plant: The heat from coal and natural gas combustion in a boiler generates steam that drives a steam turbine to rotate an ... Fluid Power: Hydraulic and pneumatic systems use electrically driven pumps to drive water or air respectively into cylinders to ...
From small single-cylinder models to V20 designs, their horsepower can range from as low as 3.73 kW (5 hp) to as high as 46,625 ... As the piston continues moving down the cylinder, the exhaust gas pressure decreases. At approximately 59 degrees BBDC (before ... The maximum energy to drive the turbine of the turbocharger is that shown in the area identified as points 6-9-10 and 10-11-12 ... the piston moves down the cylinder, while on both the compression and the exhaust strokes the piston moves up the cylinder. ...
The build-up of gases inside the gas cylinder drives the long-stroke piston and bolt carrier rearward and a cam guide machined ... The AK-47 does not have a gas valve; excess gases are ventilated through a series of radial ports in the gas cylinder. The ... Gas relief ports that alleviate gas pressure are placed horizontally in a row on the gas cylinder. ... It was gas-operated rifle with a short-stroke gas piston above the barrel, a breech-block mechanism similar to his 1944 carbine ...
During the exhaust stroke, the piston moves towards the cylinder head to drive the exhaust gases out of the cylinder via an ... the expanding gases produced by the combustion of the fuel drive the piston away from the cylinder head. ... the piston 10A pushes gases from the cylinder 12 via the return port 38 into the holding tank 52. Since these gases cannot ... from the cylinder 12. It is recalled that the piston 10A of the modified cylinder is taller than the piston 10 (as described ...
... too little gas and too much air) this will cause the cylinder to run very hot, and damage the valves or piston, not to mention ... 3 cylinder misfire due to a leaking intake manifold gasket. Can I continue to drive the truck without doing any damage? ... Question: I own a 1999 Subaru Outback four-cylinder with 80,000 miles. Recently, the engine overheated. I can drive the car 100 ... The battery will go dead if I do not drive it for five days. I took the car back to the dealer and they checked the battery and ...
... or straight compressed gas or air, can be used to drive the knife piston/rod assembly into container 24. In this case, an ... Gas 80 fills the entire interior of housing 12 and mixes with the powder gas escaping from ports 47 formed in cylinder 58, the ... The moving knife blade ruptures the gas container and the gas therein escapes and the powder gas from the shotgun shell ignites ... The moving knife blade ruptures the gas container and the gas therein escapes, the gases from the shotgun shell igniting the ...
Now drive the piston into the cylinder, keeping the temperature constant. The ensuing ch PV=graph fig. 4 by the curve abc. At c ... The cylinder also contains inert gas. So that the liquid ammonia will remain at the bottom of the cylinder and not flow upward ... 3 represents a cylinder 1 closed by a movable piston 15. In the lower part of the cylinder is a small amount of liquid ammonia ... 4 and have the cylinder 1 and piston 15 (fig. 3). At the Bottom of the cylinder 1 is a small quantity qx of fluid ammonia 2. ...
SUCTION STROKE: When the air or gas is exhausted from the PNEUMATIC DRIVE CYLINDER the RETURN SPRING forces. the PISTON-PLUNGER ... POWER STROKE: As the CONTROLLER air or gas enters the PNEUMATIC DRIVE CYLINDER, the PISTON-PLUNGER ASSEMBLY. is driven down ... Motor Cylinder Face Plate: 316 SS (V Model). Piston: Anodized Aluminum. Piston Seal: Buna N. Return Spring: 17-7ph discharge ... PnEUmatic drive cylinder. 4 A true double sealing arrangement is used so that secondary seal. containment is provided.. 5 ...
A system and method for generating a gas-supersaturated fluid and delivering the fluid at high delivery pressures to thereby ... a drive assembly comprising a piston pusher for advancing said piston within the cylinder and a drive system for advancing said ... said drive mechanism comprising a piston pusher adapted to advance said piston within said cylinder; advancing said piston ... said drive mechanism comprising a piston pusher adapted to advance said piston within said cylinder; advancing said piston ...
Its lightweight steel barrel is equipped with a ventilated top rib for acquiring fast-moving birds, while the Power Drive Gas ... Plus, its SpeedLock forearm allows for quick access to change the magazine capacity, clean the gas piston system, or add/remove ... Includes 3 choke tubes (full, modified, improved cylinder). *Gas-operated autoloader action ... Power Drive Gas System reduces recoil and cycles a wide range of loads ...
But diesel costs have been rising in recent years-and so has concern over greenhouse gases. To address both problems, ... The cylinder in the center gasifies biomass such as waste from the field and wood, heating it to release combustible gases. The ... The steam it generates drives a piston in a double-action reciprocating pump, but the steam can also divert off to turn a ... This modified version of the century-old Humphrey Pump uses water as a piston, rather than the solid pistons that are most ...
... a bi-directional cylinder uni-directional pulling type cylinder, and expanding arms that are rigidly connected. As the ... Cylinder 17 drives rack 15 move up and down, which in turn drives spur gear 20 and bevel 22 rotated. The rotation of bevel 22 ... Cdx Gas, Llc. Cavity positioning tool and method US6851479B1 (en) * 2002-07-17. 2005-02-08. Cdx Gas, Llc. Cavity positioning ... a piston rod 37, cylinder wall 38 without piston sleeve 39. Piston rod 37 coordinates with cylinder wall 38 so that piston rod ...
Consumes no drive gas, allowing dramatically increased ventilation time when running on cylinders. - Precision volume ... Dräger E-Vent piston-based ventilator is the latest in precision anesthesia ventilation technology.. - Electronically driven ... Fresh gas decoupled for tidal volume delivery unaffected by fresh gas flow adjustments. - Simplified design allows easy ... Waste Gas Environmental Testing, Medical Gas Services and Inspections. Heartland Medical offers many different medical rental ...
JQGHT] THE 40-H.P. N.E.C. THE accompanying photograph shows the inlet side of a -40-h.p. two-stroke four-cylinder N.E.C. ... the gas passing into the cylinders and the exhaust passing out of the cylinders through very large slots or ports cut through ... The cylinders and pistons are of cast iron, as in all motor car engines of the present day, and the makers are strongly of the ... The bkstfrom the incoming charge also drives out the exhaust through the opposite ports in the cylinder walls. The process of ...
5-1 OPERATOR CAB GAS CYLINDER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1 OPERATOR SEAT ... 1-36 DRIVE BELT Adjusting The Drive Belt Equipped With The Fixed Drive Idler . . . . . . . 1-30 Adjusting The Drive Belt ... PISTON AND CONNECTING ROD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PIVOT PINS ... Adjusting the Drive Belt Equipped With The Spring Loaded Drive Idler To adjust the drive belt between the engine flywheel and ...
noun) An example of cylinder is a can of tomato soup.... ... The definition of a cylinder is a three dimensional shape with ... A container in the form of a cylinder with rounded ends for storing pressurized gas. ... A cylindrical cavity or chamber in a mechanism, such as the counterpart to a piston found in a piston-driven engine. ... computing) The corresponding tracks on a vertical arrangement of disks in a disk drive considered as a unit of data capacity. ...
... each having a hermetic cylinder with a drive piston configured to be... ... Control device for gas taps. A control device for gas appliances comprises at least one control module (20) having a supporting ... A vaporizer has: an inlet (72); an oil outlet (90; 94); a vent (120); a hot gas inlet (132); and a cooled gas outlet (134). A ... Igniter with pilot flame, particularly for gas-fired burners. An igniter with pilot flame, particularly for gas-fired burners, ...
Acquista motori a gas online su HobbyKing ai prezzi più bassi. La nostra vasta gamma di ricambi per motori a benzina di alta ... NGH GTT70 70cc Twin Cylinder Gas Engine Replacement Piston Pin Spacer SKU: 406000209-0 Free Shipping on Eligible Orders ... NGH GF25 25cc Gas 4 Stroke Engine Replacement Drive Washer Complete SKU: 406000143-0 Free Shipping on Eligible Orders ... NGH GTT70 70cc Twin Cylinder Gas Engine Replacement Piston Pin SKU: 406000208-0 Free Shipping on Eligible Orders ...
Air moves sequentially from induction (top cylinder) to combustion (middle cylinder) to expansion (bottom cylinder). Click to ... EP, With the OPOC engine being piston ported and operating essentially in 2-stroke mode mostly, it strikes me that gas transfer ... While the energy required to drive a turbocharger is not free, its exhaust energy, not crankshaft energy. There are some ... Gas transfer. Fundamental to achieving the theoretical benefit, however, is exchanging gas between the cylinders without ...
... assuming no friction between the piston and cylinder? b. What is the pressure of the gas in psia? c. If the gas in the cylinder ... DR. * TAGS. 8%, electrical energy, 29 g * Click to edit the document details ... A gas is confined in a 1.25 ft diameter cylinder by a piston, on which rests a weight. The mass of the piston and weight ... If the piston and weight are raised 1.7 ft, what is the work done by the gas in ft lbf? What is the change in potential energy ...
This action inserts the piston into a cylinder of hydraulic fluid, and the resultant pressure is transmitted to the brake pads ... These brakes utilize a system of pipes filled with fluid that are activated when you press your foot into the gas pedal. ... Needless to say, when your brakes function is impaired, your vehicle is unsafe to drive. Brake bleeding refers to the process ...
... the drive gear moves the piston in the second direction to discharge gasses from the cylinder to the sensor when the cylinder ... Because the drive rod 200 is fixedly coupled to the piston 190, rotation of the drive gear 210 also rotates the cylinder 180 ... A drive rod 200 is fixedly secured at one end to the piston 190. A second end of the drive rod is rotatably coupled to a drive ... The rotation of the drive gear 210 moves the piston 190 upward in the cylinder 180, driving the breath sample from the cylinder ...
Figure 6: Large Piston.4.5 Regenerator in PistonA displacer piston and a power piston are connected by a drive shaft. The ... The displacer design uses one cylinder to expose thecontained gas to either a hot or a cold source and a second cylinder to ... As the gas isheated it expands and is forced into the piston. The movement of the piston pushes thedisplacer disk to the hot ... If we were to assume apower piston diameter of 10cm and displacer piston width of 10cm, the heights of thepower cylinder and ...
  • At the top of the cylinder are typically two or four exhaust valves that all open at the same time. (howstuffworks.com)
  • As the piston nears the bottom of its stroke, all of the exhaust valves open. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Exhaust gases rush out of the cylinder, relieving the pressure. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Pressurized air fills the cylinder, forcing out the remainder of the exhaust gases. (howstuffworks.com)
  • The exhaust valves close and the piston starts traveling back upward, re-covering the intake ports and compressing the fresh charge of air. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Also attached to the barrel is the front sight base, carry handle and gas block (equipped with an exhaust-type gas regulator valve with three settings). (wikipedia.org)
  • A total of 720 degrees of crankshaft rotation (two complete revolutions) are required to complete the four piston strokes of intake, compression, power, and exhaust. (encyclopedia.com)
  • During both the intake and the power strokes, the piston moves down the cylinder, while on both the compression and the exhaust strokes the piston moves up the cylinder. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Basically during the intake and exhaust strokes the piston acts as a simple air pump by inducting air and expelling burned exhaust gases from the cylinder. (encyclopedia.com)
  • On the compression stroke the upward-moving piston raises the air charge to a pressure typically between 30 and 55 bar (441 and 809 psi) based upon the piston compression ratio and whether the engine is naturally aspirated or employs an exhaust-gas-driven turbocharger to boost the air supply pressure. (encyclopedia.com)
  • These manifolds facilitate the entry of fuel to the engine as well as provide the exit of exhaust gases. (rexresearch.com)
  • According to the abstract of the patented gas saving technology: An Elevated Expansion-Ratio Internal Combustion Engine has a substantially standard repeating four-stroke sequence for each cylinder, and the Engine includes for each cylinder: an intake valve, a combustion-gas exhaust valve, and a vapor return valve. (rexresearch.com)
  • The N.E.C. engine being of the two-stroke type has no valves in the ordinary sense, the gas passing into the cylinders and the exhaust passing out of the cylinders through very large slots or ports cut through the cylinder walls. (flightglobal.com)
  • The bkstfrom the incoming charge also drives out the exhaust through the opposite ports in the cylinder walls. (flightglobal.com)
  • The power is produced in almost a 50-50 split between the combustion (central) and exhaust (largest) pistons. (greencarcongress.com)
  • The power unit was a twelve cylinder twin bank four stroke Sulzer 12LDA28 fitted with a single Sulzer exhaust-gas turbo-charger. (derbysulzers.com)
  • Each cylinder has its own individual water cooled cylinder head of cast iron, into which one inlet valve, one exhaust valve and the fuel injector are fitted. (derbysulzers.com)
  • The single Sulzer exhaust-gas turblo blower is mounted on the gear housing, its shaft runs in plain bearings which are lubricated by the pressure lubrication system of the engine. (derbysulzers.com)
  • Once the available energy has been removed, the staying hot gases are vented ( frequently by opening a valve or exposing the exhaust mercantile establishment ) and this allows the Piston to return to its old place. (graceandthetruth.com)
  • For the new diesel engine generation an innovative exhaust gas aftertreatment system is at the forefront. (liebherr.com)
  • The last stroke is the exhaust stroke, when the piston travels from BDC to TDC, during which the products of combustion are expelled from the cylinder. (mnsu.edu)
  • The intake starts at BDC where the opening in the cylinder is with the exhaust valve open. (mnsu.edu)
  • Close to the bottom of the cylinder, the exhaust valve opens to begin the release of the combustion gases. (mnsu.edu)
  • The mark usually points toward the cylinder's exhaust port or recoil, but another way to make sure it's correctly oriented is to check the position of the piston ring locator pins. (snowgoer.com)
  • One pin is in each ring groove, and when the piston is correctly installed, the pin or pins (depending on how many rings the piston carries) should point away from the exhaust port. (snowgoer.com)
  • A new cylinder head, intake tract and exhaust system add additional power and torque. (totalmotorcycle.com)
  • The cylinder head on the CBR1000RR SP's 16-valve DOHC engine features polished inlet and exhaust ports and "gas-flowed" combustion chambers to improve efficiency. (totalmotorcycle.com)
  • The numbers refer to the number of cubic inches per cylinder, with a typical- engine having 16 cylinders (for a total displacement on the order of 10,000 cubic inches! (howstuffworks.com)
  • This paper investigates the application of remote combustion sensing technology to a larger displacement inline 6-cylinder diesel with substantially higher power output (280 kW, 1645 N-m) than previously explored. (sae.org)
  • The distance traveled between dead centers (TDC &BDC) is the stroke, corresponding volume is the swept volume, or displacement, of the cylinder. (marineengineeringonline.com)
  • 10. The system of claim 1 further comprising an indicated work determination module that determines an indicated work of the combustion cycle of the cylinder based on the squares of the first and second ones of the engine speeds during the combustion cycle, wherein the IMEP determination module determines the IMEP of the combustion cycle as a function of the indicated work and a displacement volume of the engine. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Big engines tend to be inherrently [/b]more[/b] efficient than little ones thermodynamically because the friction losses are smaller proportionally (displacement is a square function of piston diameter, but surface contact area is a linear function). (physicsforums.com)
  • The steam it generates drives a piston in a double-action reciprocating pump, but the steam can also divert off to turn a portable steam turbine and electricity generator, or it can condense into drinking water or hot water for cooking and bathing. (popularmechanics.com)
  • This modified version of the century-old Humphrey Pump uses water as a piston, rather than the solid pistons that are most common now. (popularmechanics.com)
  • The gases ignite in the combustion chamber and push down the water, which rises over on the other side of the U-shaped tube and drives the pump. (popularmechanics.com)
  • At the surface the steam turns a turbine that drives an electricity generator and also a centrifugal pump. (popularmechanics.com)
  • The particular engine illustrated was arranged for thermo-syphon water circulation, but pump circula tion is optional on the two-cylinder and four-cylinder models and is standard practice on the six-cylinder model. (flightglobal.com)
  • The chamber of a pump from which fluid is expelled by a piston. (yourdictionary.com)
  • There is one fuel injection pump per cylinder. (derbysulzers.com)
  • Compressor types range from the simple hand pump pump, device to lift, transfer, or increase the pressure of a fluid (gas or liquid) or to create a vacuum in an enclosed space by the removal of a gas (see vacuum pumps under vacuum). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Pump is a device, which adds to the energy of a liquid or gas causing an increase in its pressure and perhaps a movement of the fluid. (hubpages.com)
  • The MD 12 NT diaphragm pump is an especially powerful pump for oil-free evacuation and pumping of non aggressive gases. (vacuubrand.com)
  • The three-stage design of this eight-cylinder pump provides the advantageous combination of very high pumping speed and excellent ultimate vacuum. (vacuubrand.com)
  • Pumps can be of several different types, but the most common are the rotary gear pump and the axial piston pump. (tpub.com)
  • The axial piston pump is used in most power drives that require either a variable output or a high-volume output. (tpub.com)
  • Figure 4-21 shows how the output of an axial piston pump is varied. (tpub.com)
  • The pump uses pistons attached to a movable tilt plate. (tpub.com)
  • The larger the tilt angle, the longer the piston stroke and the larger the quantity of pump output. (tpub.com)
  • Operation of the axial piston pump. (tpub.com)
  • piston stroke is on zero stroke, there is no pump output, even though the pump is still rotating. (tpub.com)
  • This configuration of the axial piston pump is used primarily for the train and elevation power drives, magazine ready service rings, and loaders on gun mounts and missile launchers. (tpub.com)
  • The pump output is used to drive a hydraulic motor . (tpub.com)
  • The Putzmeister- KOS pump is a valveless two-cylinder piston pump for conveying thick media with high solids content. (putzmeister.com)
  • The pump unit consists of a sturdy pump hopper for reliable feeding of material, two hardened delivery cylinders with one piston each and a so-called S-transfer-tube for connection of the delivery cylinders to the output flange. (putzmeister.com)
  • A home care oxygen system includes an inline compressor that has all the check valves and gas flow passages between cylinders located in the cylinder head. (google.es)
  • A return manifold for vapor connects from the return valves of respective ones of the cylinders back into a passage ahead of a beginning portion of an intake manifold. (rexresearch.com)
  • If the shop is correct and the No. 3 cylinder is running lean (too little gas and too much air) this will cause the cylinder to run very hot, and damage the valves or piston, not to mention the catalytic converter. (tauntongazette.com)
  • It is possible to make the ports in an engine of this kind very large in proportion to the volume of the cylinder, without involving that increase in weight which would accompany very large valves on an engine of the ordinary four-stroke type. (flightglobal.com)
  • The advantage of large valves is that the gas is able to enter the cylinders more readily at high speeds, and there' is thus less tendency for the power to be automatically choked off in the way that is sometimes noticeable on engines having valves that are too small. (flightglobal.com)
  • Gas Temperature Adiabatic Compression Hydro-Pac Two-Stage Compressors Compression Process Poppet Type Check Valves All LX-SERIES Gas Compressors feature poppet type check valves with reversible seats. (sportdocbox.com)
  • Closed-loop electronic controller with pneumatic valves accurately positions cylinder rod and holds it in position with various degrees of accuracy and force. (thomasnet.com)
  • Plus one of the side effects of meth injection is the steam cleaning effect it has on combustion chambers, pistons and valves. (camaro5.com)
  • The solenoid valves are direct acting or pilot operated solenoid valves for liquid suction and hot gas lines with ammonia or fluorinated refrigerant. (globalspec.com)
  • The chrome-nickel steel connecting rods are fully machined and are drilled longitudinally to convey lubricating oil to the gudgeon pin bearings and for cooling the pistons. (derbysulzers.com)
  • In a two-stroke, opposed-piston internal combustion engine with optimized cooling and no engine block, the opposed pistons are coupled to a pair of crankshafts by connecting rods that are subject to substantially tensile forces acting between the pistons and the crankshafts. (google.com)
  • In these engines, gas pressure in the cylinder acts on the piston, forcing it down during the power stroke to drive the crankshaft through connecting rods. (marineengineeringonline.com)
  • The new EcoDiesel continues to use a forged steel crankshaft and connecting rods while the aluminum alloy pistons are cooled on the underside via oil jets. (cleanmpg.com)
  • Add high-performance engine parts, including pistons and connecting rods that are hand-picked to match weight and balance, and you have a finely honed instrument that brings the CBR1000RR SP's performance to a whole new level. (totalmotorcycle.com)
  • Special pistons and connecting rods hand selected to match weight and balance for quality and performance. (totalmotorcycle.com)
  • The engine in each SP is assembled using "blueprinting" methods, including hand-selected pistons and connecting rods that are carefully weight-matched to achieve optimum balance - a benefit especially at high rpm. (totalmotorcycle.com)
  • The piston is elongated, as in a gasoline two-stroke engine, so that it can act as the intake valve. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Only a single check valve is used for each cylinder. (google.es)
  • Substantially during a predetermined part of each compression stroke in the sequence of strokes, the return valve opens after a closing of the intake valve, and thereafter closes at a time within the compression stroke corresponding to a predetermined position of the piston in the cylinder. (rexresearch.com)
  • The drop in pressure in the FLUID CHAMBER caused by the retraction of the piston allows the spring loaded DISCHARGE CHECK VALVE to close and the SUCTION CHECK VALVE to open so that the FLUID CHAMBER is again filled and ready for the power stroke. (scribd.com)
  • To deliver the gas-supersaturate fluid, the fluid assembly is returned to the system housing and the drive assembly advances the piston to increase the hydrostatic pressure to the desired delivery pressure and, after opening a valve, to deliver the gas-supersaturated fluid at the desired high delivery pressure to a delivery site. (patents.com)
  • Gas transfer from one cylinder to the next is begun at equal pressures on either side of the valve, keeping velocities low and minimizing pumping losses. (greencarcongress.com)
  • the gas is drawn in through an inlet valve on the suction stroke of the piston and is compressed and driven through another valve on the return stroke. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • An anaesthetist's ventilator includes a cylinder adapted for connection to a respiratory tube connected to an Ayres T-piece and a face mask or endotrachael tube with a gas supply being connected thereto, the cylinder having a vent connecting to atmosphere, a gas flow control valve reciprocable within. (google.com.au)
  • On the piston up stroke, gas is sucked or drawn into the piston cylinder space from the compressor intake valve. (shoulderconference.de)
  • Piston Valve assures lubrication on every part. (thomasnet.com)
  • Model 725DA-SS stainless steel, pneumatically operated piston valve applies accurate, uniform dots and stripes of grease without mess, drooling, or maintenance. (thomasnet.com)
  • There is no need for an intake valve because the cylinder is designed with an opening nearing BDC through which fresh air is drawn in. (mnsu.edu)
  • The cylinder has a poppet valve to keep the bladder from being pushed into the output line by its nitrogen pressure when the system is not energized. (tpub.com)
  • The pistons and cylinder barrel rotate together, driven by an electric motor, between the tilt plate and the valve plate. (tpub.com)
  • There is a valve plate under cylinder head with plate type of suction and discharge valve located in it. (slideserve.com)
  • The stuck mechanism indicator module selectively diagnoses a fault in a variable valve lift (VVL) mechanism of the cylinder based on the IMEP. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The valve seats have been matched to the cylinder head and the intake funnels are "slash cut", a design used in World Superbike. (totalmotorcycle.com)
  • Description: MOPD: 150 psi (10 bar) CV Range: 0.020 to 0.300 7 Watts The AS Series is a 2-way isolation solenoid valve , designed to control the flow of various aggressive liquids and gases with several body and diaphragm materials. (globalspec.com)
  • The two-stroke engine article also explains that the gasoline engine cycle , where gas and air are mixed and compressed together, is not really a perfect match for the two-stroke approach. (howstuffworks.com)
  • From this description, you can see the big difference between a diesel two-stroke engine and a gasoline two-stroke engine: In the diesel version, only air fills the cylinder, rather than gas and air mixed together. (howstuffworks.com)
  • In an internal combustion engine, the expansion of the high-temperature and high-pressure gases produced by combustion applies direct force to some component of the engine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term internal combustion engine usually refers to an engine in which combustion is intermittent, such as the more familiar four-stroke and two-stroke piston engines, along with variants, such as the six-stroke piston engine and the Wankel rotary engine. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1794 Thomas Mead patented a gas engine. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1860, Belgian Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir produced a gas-fired internal combustion engine. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1864, Nicolaus Otto patented the first atmospheric gas engine. (wikipedia.org)
  • therefore a greater expansion rate occurs when the piston is driven down the cylinder on its power stroke than occurs in a gasoline engine. (encyclopedia.com)
  • According to the abstract of the patented three-manifold engine: A four-cycle internal combustion engine has eight cylinders each provided with a main combustion chamber and an auxiliary combustion chamber connected by a torch nozzle. (rexresearch.com)
  • Although the effective cross sectional area of the Venturi throat for the rich mixture need not be larger than the effective cross sectional area of a single torch nozzle when the engine has four cylinders or six cylinders, an eight cylinder engine requires that the Venturi throat for the rich mixture be smaller than 1.4 times as large in effective cross sectional area as each of the torch nozzles. (rexresearch.com)
  • According to the National Fuelsaver Corp., the third manifold can be used to increase the gas mileage of an engine by injecting platinum vapor into the combustion chamber. (rexresearch.com)
  • With a simple connection to a vacuum line, the Gas Saver adds platinum vapor to the air and fuel entering the engine. (rexresearch.com)
  • Since platinum enables non-burning fuel to burn, the Gas Saver's platinum enables your engine to burn 90% of each gallon instead of the average 68% of each gallon, a 22% increase. (rexresearch.com)
  • The engine was running rough, so I took it to a local shop and they determined the problem was No. 3 cylinder misfire due to a leaking intake manifold gasket. (tauntongazette.com)
  • This solar-powered low-temperature Stirling engine can drive electricity generators, air compressors, grain mills, or anything else that an external combustion engine can drive, including water pumps. (popularmechanics.com)
  • This engine can operate with the expansion cylinder at 100 degrees C or hotter. (popularmechanics.com)
  • The apparent height of the motor is largely due to its short overall length, for the engine has small dimensions for the power developed, the cylinders being only 3 in. (flightglobal.com)
  • In the N.E.C. engine the gas is forced into the cylinders by a series of Roots blowers, contained in a box mounted alongside the crank-chamber. (flightglobal.com)
  • This double operation, and especially the timing of the admission of the gas, is a special feature of the N.E.C. engine. (flightglobal.com)
  • A cylindrical cavity or chamber in a mechanism, such as the counterpart to a piston found in a piston-driven engine. (yourdictionary.com)
  • Motiv Engines, LLC introduced the second-generation of its engine concept dubbed the MkII Clarke-Brayton Engine, which it intends to develop into a heavy-duty on-highway engine fueled by liquid natural gas (LNG). (greencarcongress.com)
  • It achieves this by splitting the processes of an engine into three separate optimized spaces-i.e., across three optimized cylinders-rather than performing all the operations in a single "compromised" space. (greencarcongress.com)
  • This allows it to implement a fundamentally more efficient cycle, achieve an extremely high 56:1 compression ratio leading to 30 MPa peak pressure, and lose much less of its energy to heat than a conventional engine due to the very small bore of the combustion chamber (the middle set of cylinders). (greencarcongress.com)
  • The very high compression ratio also enables the engine to burn natural gas as a compression ignition fuel, without any ignition assistance. (greencarcongress.com)
  • The small combustion piston area leads to lower forces on the crank than a conventional engine would have if it were able to reach similar pressures, reducing the friction compared to conventional architectures. (greencarcongress.com)
  • The improvement in efficiency and the use of natural gas makes this engine a natural fit to meet the upcoming greenhouse gas emissions regulations while reducing costs for operators. (greencarcongress.com)
  • The Clarke-Brayton Engine uses a modified Brayton Cycle-the same cycle used by gas turbine engines. (greencarcongress.com)
  • At the Engine Stretch Efficiency Colloquium in 2010, Clarke noted that the classic piston and crank mechanism constrains thermodynamic efficiency, while separating the cylinders allows them to be individually optimized. (greencarcongress.com)
  • The design team is supervised by Dr. Murat Koksal.The Stirling engine is to be used in thermodynamics and energy conversion classroomdemonstrations. (slideshare.net)
  • Cat G3516 gas engine. (cat.com)
  • Over 60 years of natural gas engine production Ownership of these manufacturing processes enables Caterpillar to produce high quality, dependable products. (cat.com)
  • 30-78kw Gas Engine for Generator, Car , Truck etc. (made-in-china.com)
  • The two crankshafts drive the generator through a common gear at a speed 1.44 times faster than that of the engine. (derbysulzers.com)
  • 9. The method of claim 8 , further including applying the liquid coolant to an internal surface portion of each piston during engine operation. (google.com)
  • In the early 1800s, Reverend Dr. Robert Stirling developed a thermodynamic cycle engine, known as a Stirling engine, which he used to demonstrate a water pumping machine. (nasa.gov)
  • Such an engine can be coupled with an alternator, which helps convert the heat energy of the gas into electrical power. (nasa.gov)
  • The defining characteristic of an internal burning engine is that utile work is performed by the spread outing hot gases moving straight to a movable constituent of the engine, such as the Pistons, turbine blades, or even the full engine itself, doing motions over a distance to bring forth utile mechanical energy. (graceandthetruth.com)
  • In a reciprocating engine, the high force per unit area merchandise gases inside the cylinders drive the engine 's Pistons. (graceandthetruth.com)
  • They can be installed in all engine model series from the 4-cylinder in-line engine up to the 20-cylinder v-engine. (liebherr.com)
  • Accelerometers are mounted on the cylinder head and lug surfaces while vibration signals are recorded during engine operation. (sae.org)
  • A solution to these is to operate the engine in a 'hybrid mode', where the engine operates in spark ignition mode at cold start, idle and high loads and HCCI mode elsewhere during the drive cycle, demanding a seamless transition between the two modes of combustion through spark assisted controlled auto ignition. (sae.org)
  • Dr. Diesel's first engine ran on coal dust and used a compression pressure of 1500 psi( about 103 bar) to increase its theoretical efficiency. (marineengineeringonline.com)
  • Diesel Engine is a type of internal combustion engine (one from which work is obtained by compression of the fuel within the cylinders themselves) which operates on the constant pressure or diesel cycle principle. (marineengineeringonline.com)
  • Compression ratio is a measure of how much the engine compresses the air inside the cylinder. (marineengineeringonline.com)
  • In a reciprocating compressor, pistons are used to achieve compression and the design of this compressor-type mimics the piston-driven features of an internal combustion engine. (shoulderconference.de)
  • SUBSTANCE: auxiliary mechanism drive of two-shaft gas turbine engine comprising high- and low-pressure shafts incorporates first mechanical transmission between high-pressure shaft and drive box, and hydraulic transmission between low-pressure shaft and drive box. (russianpatents.com)
  • Typically, gas turbine engine includes an air compressor feeding, at least partially, by air to the combustion chamber. (russianpatents.com)
  • This is all the more manifest the need for electrical supply of the aircraft does not allow, due to operating conditions and characteristics of the engine mainly in the regimes of small gas, to take power only on the shaft VD. (russianpatents.com)
  • Tool to increase PTO for new needs in gas turbine engines, respectively, requires the selection of mechanical power on the shaft VD and OD of the engine. (russianpatents.com)
  • In accordance with the present invention, the device drive auxiliary shaft, in particular, the two-shaft gas turbine engine containing the shaft OD and the shaft VD, these mechanisms are installed in a box actuators, the device comprises a first mechanical transmission between the shaft of the DB and the said box, characterized in that it further comprises a hydraulic transmission between the shaft VD and the said box. (russianpatents.com)
  • The diesel engine is an example of an internal combustion engine, which converts chemical energy into mechanical energy by moving pistons up and down in enclosed spaces, called cylinders. (mnsu.edu)
  • The engine then compresses the air as the piston moves to TDC. (mnsu.edu)
  • The fuel is injected the same way it is in a four-stroke engine, and the piston travels back down in the power stroke. (mnsu.edu)
  • The placement of these throws depends on the setup of the engine (inline or V), and they are arranged so that when the pistons travel upward and downward, the crankshaft is turned. (mnsu.edu)
  • The master cylinder is the brake system component under the hood that sits against the firewall/bulkhead between the engine and passenger compartment fright in front of the steering wheel. (racingjunk.com)
  • Instead, this thermoelectric CHP engine uses a novel concentration mode-thermoelectric converter (C-TEC) to harness the heat of the natural gas combustor to vaporize and ionize sodium, creating positive sodium ions and electrons that carry electric current. (energy.gov)
  • the first 12-cylinder diesel engine in a high-performance roadgoing sports car. (themotorreport.com.au)
  • The new V12 TDI belongs to Audi's family of V engines but has the ideal included angle for this engine type of 60 degrees between cylinder banks. (themotorreport.com.au)
  • The IMEP determination module determines an IMEP for a combustion cycle of a cylinder of an engine based on squares of first and second ones of the engine speeds during the combustion cycle. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The CAC uses the same mounting position as in the four-cylinder gasoline turbo engine, helping to reduce complexity. (cleanmpg.com)
  • If you look at any car that has 2 available engines, the big engine's gas mileage sucks compared to the small engine. (physicsforums.com)
  • The new Toyota RAV 4 gets slightly better gas mileage with the 3.5 V6 engine than it does with the 2.4 inline 4 cyl. (physicsforums.com)
  • ACME truck previouslyf called Cadillac used 4 and 6 cylinder Continental engine in their vehicles. (hemmings.com)
  • Initially, the base 200LX and the one-step-up Limited offered only the four-cylinder engine, while the sportier 200S and luxury-centered 200C opened the pathway to V-6 and all-wheel-drive options. (caranddriver.com)
  • By combining an electric motor in parallel with the 3.5 liter V6 petrol engine, RENNtech has been able to capture the impressive torque that characterizes electric motor drives, adding 54 Nm to enhance the GLK's performance off-the-line and out of corners. (didntyouhear.com)
  • The 3.5-liter V6 engine that comes stock in the GLK received a special intake manifold, cams and cylinder heads directly from MB, and then RENNtech added their own long-tube headers, composite air intake, and RENNtech ECU software to make the engine put out approximately 350 horsepower on gas power alone. (didntyouhear.com)
  • The CBR1000RR Fireblade SP's 999.8cc four-cylinder engine is armed with a gas-flowed cylinder head and polished ports. (totalmotorcycle.com)
  • In this video, Dr. vonHypermiler says he uses acetone with no harmful effects on his engine. (blogspot.com)
  • Its new five-cylinder aluminum engine delivers 400 hp, which is 60 hp more than the power of the previous model. (conceptcarz.com)
  • the latter only enters the cylinder slightly before the inlet port is automatically covered by FIRST FLIGHT THE Emerald Isle is not by any means very far behind the times in matters of practical value, and among the several flying machines which have betn built and experimented with, that of Mr. H. G. Ferguson, of Belfast, appears to give very good promise of success. (flightglobal.com)
  • Hydro-Pac gas compressors work over a wide range of inlet pressures. (sportdocbox.com)
  • In operation, the force of the hydraulic pressure acting on a hydraulic piston is balanced by Single-Stage Machines Single-stage compressors are commonly used to take advantage of high inlet pressures. (sportdocbox.com)
  • At its other end, the respiratory tube 34 has connected thereto an Ayres T-piece 38 having a gas inlet 40 and connected in turn to a face mask 42. (google.com.au)
  • Two hydraulic cylinders are used as drives for the delivery cylinders. (putzmeister.com)
  • 8 Threaded port after the secondary seal provides for the indication, piston/fluid 3 collection or containment of any seal leakage. (scribd.com)
  • A system and method for generating a gas-supersaturated fluid and delivering the fluid at high delivery pressures to thereby prevent bubble nucleation is disclosed. (patents.com)
  • The system comprises a housing for containing a removable fluid assembly for housing a fluid to be gas-supersaturated and a drive assembly for delivering the fluid to a delivery site. (patents.com)
  • The housing assembly comprises a cylinder and a piston which may be advanced along the inner surface of the cylinder to pressurize and to deliver the fluid. (patents.com)
  • To generate a gas-supersaturated fluid, the housing assembly is removed from the system housing, filled with a fluid, and gas is introduced at or slightly above the desired gas partial pressure into the cylinder. (patents.com)
  • wherein the fluid assembly is removable from the system housing for said generating of the gas-supersaturated fluid. (patents.com)
  • 2. The apparatus according to claim 1, said fluid assembly further comprises a disposable fluid container within said cylinder for containing said fluid and gas, said disposable fluid container having one or more ports in fluid and gaseous communication with the one or more ports of said cylinder for input and output of fluid and gas. (patents.com)
  • 3. The apparatus according to claim 2, said disposable fluid container having fold lines such that when compressed by the piston, said disposable fluid container collapses in a predetermined manner. (patents.com)
  • 4. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein said drive assembly further comprises a ball screw rotated by said drive system, wherein rotation of said ball screw in a first direction advances the piston pusher toward said fluid assembly and rotation in a second direction advances the piston pusher away said fluid assembly. (patents.com)
  • These brakes utilize a system of pipes filled with fluid that are activated when you press your foot into the gas pedal. (autozone.com)
  • This action inserts the piston into a cylinder of hydraulic fluid, and the resultant pressure is transmitted to the brake pads. (autozone.com)
  • In the Noble Gas Laboratory, the isotopic signature of noble gases can be determined that provides valuable information on the origin and history of a rock or fluid sample. (gfz-potsdam.de)
  • When you drive over a bump, the piston inside the cylinder moves up and down against the gas/fluid and the spring, absorbing the shock from the bump. (yourmechanic.com)
  • The bladder, filled with nitrogen to a certain pressure, is compressed by the fluid as the cylinder fills. (tpub.com)
  • One or more of the inner seals on the piston inside have failed and fluid pressure is bypassing that/those seal(s) and returning to the reservoir. (racingjunk.com)
  • These include the use of the laboratory equipment (gas-mixing furnaces, piston cylinder, multi-anvil press) and analytical techniques such as SEM, EPMA, and LA-ICPMS. (edu.au)
  • The LX-SERIES Gas Compressors are based on our hydraulically driven intensifier technology, the same technology proven reliable and easy to maintain in installations worldwide. (sportdocbox.com)
  • Hydraulically driven intensifiers allow control of both discharge pressure and gas flow rate by controlling the hydraulic drive. (sportdocbox.com)
  • 3 HYDRO-PAC Intensifiers The heart of every Hydro-Pac gas compressor is a hydraulically driven intensifier. (sportdocbox.com)
  • 1. This is a piston driven system firing electronic energized darts to defend life and property. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Various support mechanisms, such as generators and hydraulic oil pumps or fuel pumps installed on this box drives and are driven through a system of gears. (russianpatents.com)
  • However, in the diesel cycle, combustion occurs under constant pressure, at least for a time, because the piston moves to increase the volume during the burn to hold the pressure constant. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Air moves sequentially from induction (top cylinder) to combustion (middle cylinder) to expansion (bottom cylinder). (greencarcongress.com)
  • As illustrated in the animation above, air moves sequentially through the 3 cylinders from top to bottom. (greencarcongress.com)
  • The resulting force on the piston moves it inside the cylinder across a distance, doing work. (nasa.gov)
  • The regenerator helps improve the efficiency of the cycle - it conserves energy, extracting heat from the gas as it moves from the hot end to the cold end, and gives up that heat as the gas flows in the opposite direction. (nasa.gov)
  • In a Stirling convertor, the useful work produced by the thermodynamic cycle moves the piston and this motion can be converted into electricity using an alternator. (nasa.gov)
  • In the four four-stroke process, the intake stroke starts at top dead center (TDC) and as the piston moves down to bottom dead center (BDC), fresh air is drawn into the cylinder. (mnsu.edu)
  • The air is then compressed as the piston moves back up to TDC. (mnsu.edu)
  • The problem is that some unburned fuel leaks out each time the cylinder is recharged with the air-fuel mixture. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Diesel fuel is sprayed into the cylinder by the injector and immediately ignites because of the heat and pressure inside the cylinder. (howstuffworks.com)
  • The pressure created by the combustion of the fuel drives the piston downward. (howstuffworks.com)
  • ICEs are typically powered by fossil fuels like natural gas or petroleum products such as gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over half a million of their Gas Savers have been sold since Consumer Protection concluded: "Independent testing shows greater fuel savings with the Gas Saver than the 22% claimed by the developer. (rexresearch.com)
  • These fuel-injected vehicles will continue to keep moving along at speeds of 18-28 miles per hour without one touching the gas pedal. (tauntongazette.com)
  • Typically an ICE is fed with fossil fuels like natural gas or petroleum products such as gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil. (mechgin.com)
  • This exothermal reaction of a fuel with an oxidant ( normally air ) creates gases of high temperature and force per unit area, which are permitted to spread out. (graceandthetruth.com)
  • Furthermore, the pneumatic hybrid can eliminate turbo-lag by injecting compressed air into manifold and a correspondingly larger amount of fuel into the cylinder to build-up full-load torque almost immediately. (sae.org)
  • After recovering from his injuries, Dr. Diesel tried again using oil as fuel, adding a cooling water jacket around the cylinder, and lowering the compression ratio to about 550 psi(about 35 bar). (marineengineeringonline.com)
  • Fuel is admitted directly into the cylinder and combustion takes place as a result of the heat of compression. (marineengineeringonline.com)
  • Compressors achieve increased gas pressure by various means, though they all utilise fuel to drive the actual compression phase of the process. (shoulderconference.de)
  • There are a lot of advantages to going with gas, like cleaner operation and cheaper fuel. (horizonhobby.com)
  • It has Stage 5 heads, Brooks rods, a Bryant crankshaft, Venolia pistons, the fuel system was built & designed by Northern Spirit. (draglist.com)
  • Factors such as water in the gas or an improper fuel/air ratio can cause damage that causes low compression. (snowgoer.com)
  • Instead, your car combines gas vapors with oxygen from the air to form an explosive air-fuel mixture. (blogspot.com)
  • Then a spark from the spark plug detonates this air-fuel mixture, which has enough explosive power to throw the piston up against all the load your car is putting on it. (blogspot.com)
  • The MAG operates via a long-stroke piston system, which utilizes the ignited powder gases generated by firing vented through a port in the barrel to propel a gas piston rod connected to the locking assembly. (wikipedia.org)
  • The build-up of gases inside the gas cylinder drives the long-stroke piston and bolt carrier rearward and a cam guide machined into the underside of the bolt carrier along with an ejector spur on the bolt carrier rail guide, rotates the bolt approximately 35° and unlocks it from the barrel extension via a camming pin on the bolt. (wikipedia.org)
  • It uses ignited powder gases channelled through a vent in the barrel to drive a long stroke piston located above the barrel in a gas cylinder to provide power to the operating system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moving the compressed gas to a smaller diameter combustion cylinder with a geometric compression ratio of approximately 8 improves both the chamber shape and time available at optimum combustion conditions. (greencarcongress.com)
  • With combustion occurring in a smaller diameter cylinder, the required crank diameter is reduced. (greencarcongress.com)
  • 6. A gas is confined in a 1.25 ft diameter cylinder by a piston, on which rests a weight. (coursehero.com)
  • The main difference is that the diameter of the second stage gas cylinder is smaller than the first stage gas cylinder. (sportdocbox.com)
  • The inside diameter of the cylinder is the bore. (marineengineeringonline.com)
  • Large diameter and very small lifts of plates offer the least resistance to the flow of refrigerant gas. (slideserve.com)
  • The moving assembly has about 5.5 mm (0.2 in) of free travel which creates a delay between the initial recoil impulse of the piston and the bolt unlocking sequence, allowing gas pressures to drop to a safe level before the seal between the chamber and the bolt is broken. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pressures that are useful in a piston are generally much higher than those in a car tire. (lamonitor.com)
  • Special design LX-SERIES Gas Compressors are available for pressures up to 12,000 psi (80 MPa). (sportdocbox.com)
  • Hydro-Pac also manufactures a complete line of ultra highpressure gas compressors for pressures to 60,000 psi (400 MPa) and higher. (sportdocbox.com)
  • The crankcase carries the main bearings in U-shaped transversals which are extended in a straight line into the cylinder block and transmit the gas pressures directly to the bearings. (derbysulzers.com)
  • The most popular type is the reciprocating (or piston-and-cylinder) compressor, which is useful for supplying small amounts of a gas at relatively high pressures. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • a dispenser apparatus for showering the liquid coolant onto the outside surface of an external portion of each piston withdrawn from the cylinder. (google.com)
  • 25 . The surgical apparatus of claim 16 , further comprising a gas supply within the frame portion. (google.co.uk)
  • 26 . The surgical apparatus of claim 25 , further comprising an actuator mechanism associated with the gas supply. (google.co.uk)
  • 27 . The surgical apparatus of claim 26 , further comprising a piston adapted for reciprocal movement in response to actuation of the gas supply and for moving the cam member to eject the at least one surgical fastener from the cartridge assembly. (google.co.uk)
  • At the bottom of the piston's travel, the piston uncovers the ports for air intake. (howstuffworks.com)
  • As the piston bottoms out, it uncovers the air intake ports. (howstuffworks.com)
  • excess gases are ventilated through a series of radial ports in the gas cylinder. (wikipedia.org)
  • A bypassing master cylinder leaks between pressure and return ports for one or both reservoirs. (racingjunk.com)
  • What is the force in lbf exerted on the gas by the atmosphere, the piston, and the weight, assuming no friction between the piston and cylinder? (coursehero.com)
  • Heat-treated aluminum cylinder heads use individual bearing caps to reduce friction and minimize NVH. (cleanmpg.com)
  • I'd say internal friction, more moving parts, bigger piston / cilinder contact surfaces, more compression to generate. (physicsforums.com)
  • On the down stroke of the piston, the gas is rapidly compressed by reducing its volume. (shoulderconference.de)
  • But all the heat actually does is to increase the pressure of gases in the engine's cylinder. (lamonitor.com)
  • It's the high pressure that pushes on the piston. (lamonitor.com)
  • The heat isn't crucial, it's the pressure inside the cylinder that's the key. (lamonitor.com)
  • For several decades, engineers have tinkered with the possibility of using air under high pressure to power the pistons of automobiles. (lamonitor.com)
  • As it spins faster and faster, the pressure at the extremities increases up to 1,000 times that of the atmosphere (14.7 x 1000 = 14,700 PSI), generating heat which could be used to drive a turbine. (rexresearch.com)
  • The most common type of anesthetic machine in use in the developed world is the continuous-flow anesthetic machine, which is designed to provide an accurate and continuous supply of medical gases (such as oxygen and nitrous oxide), mixed with an accurate concentration of anesthetic vapor (such as isoflurane), and deliver this to the patient at a safe pressure and flow. (rentittoday.com)
  • Modeling the atmosphere as an isothermal column of ideal gas at 10 ºC, estimate the ambient pressure in Denver, where z = 1 mile relative to sea level. (coursehero.com)
  • What is the pressure of the gas in psia? (coursehero.com)
  • These LX-SERIES Gas Compressors are available as single or two-stage models and feature the same proven design that made Hydro-Pac high-pressure gas compressors so reliable. (sportdocbox.com)
  • Gas pressure assists in the compression stroke improving the overall efficiency of the machine. (sportdocbox.com)
  • gas pressure acting on the gas piston. (sportdocbox.com)
  • Cylinders were 280mm by 360mm (11in by 14.2in), piston speed was 29ft per second, charging air pressure was 25lb per sq in. (derbysulzers.com)
  • The six main components are the primary switch, the activation switch (infrared, proximity sensor or pressure switch), the servo system, the micro switch to power unit, the firing piston and the power head. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • machine that decreases the volume of air or other gas by the application of pressure. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This causes a gas that is continuously admitted near the center of rotation to experience an outward flow and a pressure increase due to centrifugal action. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • a device for compressing air or another gas and supplying it under pressure. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A heated balloon expands the pressure of the gas rises and acts on the balloon causing it to stretch and grow. (nasa.gov)
  • The balloon does work as the gas expands and contracts in response to the difference in temperature and pressure. (nasa.gov)
  • A gas contained in the cylinder can be heated so its pressure increases, and it expands, pushing against the piston. (nasa.gov)
  • A compressor s function is to increase the pressure of a given quantity of gas. (shoulderconference.de)
  • Compressing gas also means the temperature of the gas is raised due to the increase in gas pressure. (shoulderconference.de)
  • Auxiliary mechanisms are arranged in drive box, while hydraulic transmission is mounted to allow auxiliary mechanism drive rpm being equal to high-pressure shaft rpm. (russianpatents.com)
  • Currently, multi-shaft motor this power is taken away, partially mechanically to the shaft of the high pressure stage for driving the input receiving shaft gearbox drives support mechanisms. (russianpatents.com)
  • This creates a greater expansion of power within the cylinder, since pressure is directly proportional to temperature. (camaro5.com)
  • Its highlights include the new chain drive layout that includes the two newly developed high-pressure pumps for the common rail injection system. (themotorreport.com.au)
  • The pressure gauge on the compressor suction and discharge shows the gas pressure and also has marked on it the relative condensing temperature. (slideserve.com)
  • Oil pressure is about 2 bar above crankcase pressure and the differential oil pressure gauge is necessary to compare oil pressure with that of the gas in the crankcase. (slideserve.com)
  • Some rings are tapered on the top surface to let cylinder pressure slip under the ring and force the ring against the cylinder to form a good seal. (snowgoer.com)
  • To compensate for the lateral forces on the struts at high cornering speeds, the front axle setting has been changed to upside-down technology together with single-tube gas pressure dampers. (porsche.com)
  • The cartridge projects from the top of the working cylinder which also contains the gas pressure cushion. (porsche.com)
  • The single-tube gas pressure damper is installed in the conventional position: chromiumplated damper rod at the top, gas cushion at the bottom. (porsche.com)
  • A second class of internal combustion engines use continuous combustion: gas turbines, jet engines and most rocket engines, each of which are internal combustion engines on the same principle as previously described. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4 Continuous Piston Rings Hydro-Pac s proprietary piston design features continuous piston rings for reliable leak free operation. (sportdocbox.com)
  • Air under compression can be stored in closed cylinders to provide an continuous or as-needed supply of pressurized air. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Tie-Rod Cylinder provides continuous position sensing. (thomasnet.com)
  • This generates a continuous power supply because not all of the piston cylinder sets are producing power at the same time. (mnsu.edu)
  • Parker domnick hunter specialise in the design, manufacture and global aftermarket support of analytical gas generators to enable laboratory users to produce a cost-effective, continuous supply of premium quality gas from a compact, on-site source. (hannovermesse.de)
  • Cylinder liners are cast iron and are water cooled. (derbysulzers.com)
  • The aluminium alloy pistons operate in cast iron liners, which are honed internally. (slideserve.com)
  • Rebuilding a two-stroke engine's top end includes servicing the cylinders, pistons, rings and related gaskets and O-rings. (snowgoer.com)
  • Reciprocating piston engines are by far the most common power source for land and water vehicles, including automobiles, motorcycles, ships and to a lesser extent,locomotives (some are electrical but most use Diesel engines). (mechgin.com)
  • Part of the alternator is attached to a reciprocating piston which creates an alternating current, and a rectifier converts this current into direct current that a spacecraft can use. (nasa.gov)
  • Preferably the drive means is in the form of a vacuum-powered reciprocating motor. (google.com.au)
  • Various reciprocating compressor design patterns have been devised, from basic single-cylinder types up to complex multi-cylinder, multi-phase variants. (shoulderconference.de)
  • Double-action models allocate two sectors for each part of the same suction, compression and discharge cycle, whilst larger reciprocating compressors can utilise an array of four or six cylinders. (shoulderconference.de)
  • The larger reciprocating compressors have their cylinders arranged in either V or W formation with 4,6, 8, 12 or even 16 cylinders. (slideserve.com)
  • Its lightweight steel barrel is equipped with a ventilated top rib for acquiring fast-moving birds, while the Power Drive Gas System cycles a wide range of loads and reduces felt-recoil for quick follow-up shots. (sportsmansguide.com)
  • This in turn release nitrogen gas into the power head therefore firing the power darts. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • In the retracted position the gas channel is outside of the power head. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Decompression of a plane) the gas cylinder were to depressurize the gases are vented outside of the power head. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • ICEs drive some of the large electric generators that power electrical grids. (mechgin.com)
  • The gas is moved by the displacer and the gas acts upon the power piston. (nasa.gov)
  • Internal burning engines appear in the signifier of gas turbines every bit good where a really high power is required, such as in jet aircraft, choppers, and big ships. (graceandthetruth.com)
  • Liebherr gas engines are characterized by their high power density. (liebherr.com)
  • The present invention relates to the field of multi-shaft gas turbine engines used in aircraft, and its object is the means of selection of mechanical power on the shaft of the motor. (russianpatents.com)
  • When multiple pistons are connected to the crankshaft, they are staggered so that the power stroke of one piston cylinder pair helps drive the rest of the piston cylinders to complete whichever stroke they are in. (mnsu.edu)
  • The crankshaft converts the linear motion of the pistons into rotational motion that is transmitted to the load, whether it be a generator or to power a vehicle. (mnsu.edu)
  • For example, the power or energy flow to a drive shaft on a compressor is numerically similar to the heat emitted from the system plus the heat applied to the compressed gas. (atlascopco.com)
  • Accumulator power drive systems are the most common hydraulic power drives used in ordnance equipment. (tpub.com)
  • This is an example of a power master brake cylinder with cast metal body and power booster out of an early model Buick Riviera. (racingjunk.com)
  • This is a photo of a non-power master cylinder from an early model Pontiac Grand Prix. (racingjunk.com)
  • Residential combined heat and power (CHP) systems can burn natural gas to produce electricity for a home while also using the waste heat for space and water heating. (energy.gov)
  • But Saito™ 4-stroke gas engines give modelers more, namely some of the most impressive power-to-weight ratios in their class. (horizonhobby.com)
  • It depends a lot on the drive train and the torque vs horse power curve. (physicsforums.com)
  • Custom coil-over suspension was created by KW for RENNtech, allowing for adjustments in height, rake, damping rate, camber and toe-in, and 412mm, 2-piece rotors with 8-piston callipers from RENNtech handle stopping power in the front, while 4-pot callipers grab 356mm discs in the rear. (didntyouhear.com)
  • Gas-flowing (flow-testing on an air-flow bench) improves both the quality and quantity of airflow at high rpm when air resistance becomes much greater, thereby increasing combustion efficiency and outright power. (totalmotorcycle.com)
  • 2. The compressor of claim 1 further comprising first and second guides disposed in first and second guide openings respectively, wherein the first and second guide openings are aligned with the first and second cylinders respectively, wherein the first guide is formed separately from the first piston, and wherein the second guide is formed separately from the second piston. (google.es)
  • 3. The compressor of claim 2 wherein the first piston is connected to the first guide. (google.es)
  • A refrigerator includes a motor to drive a compressor, an output current detector to detect an output current flowing to the motor, a compressor controller to. (patents.com)
  • Long slow stroke and small dead volume in the compressor cylinders result in high volumetric efficiency. (sportdocbox.com)
  • This may be important when matching the flow rate of the compressor to that of a gas generator. (sportdocbox.com)
  • and the piston-equipped compressor used to inflate tires to machines that use a rotating, bladed element to achieve compression. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The rotary-screw compressor uses two meshed rotating helical rotors within a casing to force the gas into a smaller space. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Advantages of this type of compressor include smooth, pulse-free gas output with high output volume. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In an axial-flow compressor, the gas flows over a set of airfoils spinning on a shaft in a tapered tube. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Next, the compressed gas is discharged either for use directly from the compressor to drive a pneumatic device, or for collection and storage in compressed-air tanks. (shoulderconference.de)
  • The gases leaving the combustion chamber, drive the one or more turbines, mechanically connected to the compressor, and ensure the creation of thrust. (russianpatents.com)
  • The cylinders and pistons are of cast iron, as in all motor car engines of the present day, and the makers are strongly of the opinion that more satisfactory lubrication is possible between surfaces of this metal than when steel is used. (flightglobal.com)
  • The idea with acetone is that adding it to gas will make the gas vaporize better, reducing the amount of liquid gasoline droplets that may get into the cylinder helping generate a more complete burn. (blogspot.com)
  • [16] After ignition of the cartridge primer and propellant, rapidly expanding propellant gases are diverted into the gas cylinder above the barrel through a vent near the muzzle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bolted to a bracket in the gas block, under the barrel, is a lightweight folding bipod (folds into the handguard), which includes a wire cutter in the hinge. (wikipedia.org)
  • For regular field maintenance and cleaning, the firearm is disassembled into the following components: the receiver and barrel group, bolt carrier, bolt, return mechanism, gas tube, receiver dust cover and magazine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The weapon features a self-regulating gas system and a rotary bolt breech locking mechanism (equipped with two locking lugs), which is rotated by a helical camming groove machined into the bolt carrier that engages a control pin on the bolt. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plus, its SpeedLock forearm allows for quick access to change the magazine capacity, clean the gas piston system, or add/remove a sling. (sportsmansguide.com)
  • When storing data, the operating system fills an entire cylinder before moving to the next one. (yourdictionary.com)
  • the servo system deploys all gas pistons into the firing head. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • A gas contained inside such a closed system undergoes compression, heating, expansion and cooling to produce work. (nasa.gov)
  • The system has a 'hot end' and a 'cool end' where the gas is heated and cooled. (nasa.gov)
  • Some free-piston Stirling convertors use a gas bearing system that pushes radially against the piston. (nasa.gov)
  • NanoConversion Technologies, along with researchers from Gas Technologies Institute (GTI), will develop a high-efficiency thermoelectric CHP system. (energy.gov)
  • Crankcase and cylinder block were welded from cast steel sections and steel plate and are bolted together. (derbysulzers.com)
  • The crankcase and cylinders comprise a one-piece iron casting. (slideserve.com)
  • After removing a cylinder, chances are good that at least some of the base gasket material will be stuck to the crankcase and bottom of the cylinder, and it needs to be removed to ensure an airtight seal is achieved when the cylinder and case are reunited. (snowgoer.com)
  • Eight-cylinder NT pumps feature quiet operation, with smooth and easy-to-clean surfaces. (vacuubrand.com)
  • The brand has often enough demonstrated its sporty character in its production cars, especially the six- and eight-cylinder 3.0 TDI and 4.2 TDI. (themotorreport.com.au)
  • they produce a smooth discharge of the compressed gas. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In a single-action cylinder there is just one sector each for suction, compression and final discharge. (shoulderconference.de)
  • Using the Gas Discharge principle, they create an arc of light between two elctrodes in a glass tube filled with metal salts and inert gases to give two to three times more light with only half energy consumption and a more variable headlamp design. (cardekho.com)
  • The shock absorber has a piston and a cylinder that contains a gas or liquid substance. (yourmechanic.com)
  • SUCTION STROKE: When the air or gas is exhausted from the PNEUMATIC DRIVE CYLINDER the RETURN SPRING forces the PISTON-PLUNGER ASSEMBLY to return to its original position. (scribd.com)
  • Secured to the end plate 18, by bolts 25, so as to be disposed adjacent to the angle member 12 is a cylinder assembly indicated generally by the reference numeral 26, which is illustrated in cross-section in FIG. 2 of the drawings. (google.com.au)
  • This cylinder assembly 26 comprises a tubular cylinder body 28 formed at one end with a taper socket 30 which projects through a respective opening (not visible) in the end plate 18 and serves to receive a spigot 32 provided on one end of a respiratory tube 34 whereby the latter can be connected to the interior 36 of the cylinder body 28. (google.com.au)
  • As can be seen from FIG. 2, the tubular body 28 is located within a housing 44 of the cylinder assembly, being sealed relative to the latter by sealing rings 46. (google.com.au)
  • Small engines may have only one piston cylinder assembly but large engines will have more piston cylinder pairs. (mnsu.edu)
  • Straightforward arrangement and patented free piston design of Hydro-Pac compressors simplifies maintenance. (sportdocbox.com)
  • RPM level 6.TR6000 (beefed up ZR-1): Torque tube/drive shaft solid aluminum connectors: L.G. Trans & Diff. (race-cars.com)
  • The brilliant torque is accompanied by typical five-cylinder sound - which is music to the ears of horsepower purists. (conceptcarz.com)
  • The force is applied typically to pistons, turbine blades, a rotor, or a nozzle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water cooled gas cylinders lower operating temperatures, which increases packing life. (sportdocbox.com)
  • Hydraulic pumps and hydraulic motors are produced in an axial piston design at Bulle. (liebherr.com)
  • Like all VACUUBRAND diaphragm pumps they operate absolutely oil-free and do not have any sliding components in the gas path. (vacuubrand.com)
  • This eliminates most of the particulate impurities frequently generated inside of scroll or piston pumps. (vacuubrand.com)
  • X-ray diffractometry (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), inductive coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), ion chromatography (IC), low-temperature calorimetry, gas-mass spectrometry (MS), gas chromatography (GC). (gfz-potsdam.de)
  • According to the Oxford Dictionary, it can be interpreted as a progressive increase in the comprehensive temperature of the earth´s atmosphere due to the "greenhouse effect" caused by increased levels of some gases. (iaacblog.com)
  • If the gas in the cylinder is heated, it expands, pushing the piston and weight upward. (coursehero.com)
  • Stirling engines work via a closed cycle with two cylinders, one that is heated and one that is cooled. (popularmechanics.com)
  • Brembo front brakes with four-piston calipers and 320mm floating rotors deliver track-spec braking performance. (totalmotorcycle.com)
  • Lead-acid batteries produce flammable and explosive gases. (issuu.com)
  • Enclosed Space atmosphere must be tested for adequate amount of oxygen and presence of toxic and flammable gases. (hubpages.com)
  • but part of the heat gets trapped in the atmosphere because of the presence of the gases. (iaacblog.com)
  • Pneumatic tools are designed around three basic devices: the air cylinder, the vane motor, and the sprayer. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • An engineer we met here in Dallas named Mike Eskely also claimed to have a turbine which generated overunity by high velocity rotation of gases. (rexresearch.com)
  • A piston ring locator pin is typically in a position where, when the piston is correctly installed on the connecting rod, the ring will ride against the cylinder wall through full crankshaft rotation. (snowgoer.com)
  • Air is the most frequently compressed gas, although natural gas, oxygen, and nitrogen are also often compressed. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This accumulator flask uses a nitrogen -filled bladder inside a steel cylinder. (tpub.com)
  • LCMS nitrogen gas generators are also available and are designed to specifically match the gas requirements of individual LCMS instrumentation to facilitate optimum performance. (hannovermesse.de)
  • The mechanical work associated with changes in the volume of a gas mixture is one of the most important processes in engineering thermodynamics. (atlascopco.com)
  • The cylinder in the center gasifies biomass such as waste from the field and wood, heating it to release combustible gases. (popularmechanics.com)
  • The bipod can be removed from the gas cylinder by tapping-out a roll pin in the gas cylinder head until it is flush and the bipod can be rotated enough to clear the gas cylinder's retaining lugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The expanding head includes a hydraulic positioning device, an automatic hydraulic revolving device, a bi-directional cylinder uni-directional pulling type cylinder, and expanding arms that are rigidly connected. (google.com)
  • Even though functions are the same, materials of construction and design of piston for four stroke trunk type engines and large two stroke cross head type engines is entirely different. (hubpages.com)
  • The same goes for engines that have a paper gasket between the head and cylinder. (snowgoer.com)
  • Piston pin removal tools typically have a threaded rod with a nut on one end and a 'T' handle on the other end. (snowgoer.com)
  • Pistons typically have a mark on the crown to indicate how they should be positioned. (snowgoer.com)
  • As the hydraulic cylinder strokes, gas is compressed and displaced from one gas cylinder while simultaneously filling the other gas cylinder. (sportdocbox.com)
  • From small single-cylinder models to V20 designs, their horsepower can range from as low as 3.73 kW (5 hp) to as high as 46,625 kW (62,500 hp). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Snowmobiles with high miles might also benefit from a top-end rebuild to keep them reliable and fun to drive. (snowgoer.com)
  • charger installed: Brakes, front Essex/AP racing competition endurance,6 piston: G2 spindle ducts: All Star high temp. (race-cars.com)
  • This is achieved by a process which reduces the gas volume, thus increasing its density, whilst leaving the state of the gas unchanged the gas does not become liquefied. (shoulderconference.de)