Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Carbonated Beverages: Drinkable liquids combined with or impregnated with carbon dioxide.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Alcoholic Beverages: Drinkable liquids containing ETHANOL.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Mineral Waters: Water naturally or artificially infused with mineral salts or gases.Dietary Sucrose: Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.Mineral Oil: A mixture of liquid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It is used as laxative, lubricant, ointment base, and emollient.Sweetening Agents: Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Beer: An alcoholic beverage usually made from malted cereal grain (as barley), flavored with hops, and brewed by slow fermentation.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Drinking: The consumption of liquids.Body Water: Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Wine: Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.Water Purification: Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.Drinking Behavior: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Food Dispensers, Automatic: Mechanical food dispensing machines.Coffee: A beverage made from ground COFFEA beans (SEEDS) infused in hot water. It generally contains CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE unless it is decaffeinated.Tea: The infusion of leaves of CAMELLIA SINENSIS (formerly Thea sinensis) as a beverage, the familiar Asian tea, which contains CATECHIN (especially epigallocatechin gallate) and CAFFEINE.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Tooth Erosion: Progressive loss of the hard substance of a tooth by chemical processes that do not involve bacterial action. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p296)Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Alcoholic Intoxication: An acute brain syndrome which results from the excessive ingestion of ETHANOL or ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Energy Drinks: Beverages consumed as stimulants and tonics. They usually contain a combination of CAFFEINE with other substances such as herbal supplements; VITAMINS; AMINO ACIDS; and sugar or sugar derivatives.Cola: A plant genus of the family STERCULIACEAE. This is the source of the kola nut which contains CAFFEINE and is used in popular beverages.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Soy Milk: A beverage prepared from SOYBEANS.Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Citrus sinensis: A plant species of the genus CITRUS, family RUTACEAE that provides the familiar orange fruit which is also a source of orange oil.Food and Beverages: Edible or potable substances.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Mineral Fibers: Long, pliable, cohesive natural or manufactured filaments of various lengths. They form the structure of some minerals. The medical significance lies in their potential ability to cause various types of PNEUMOCONIOSIS (e.g., ASBESTOSIS) after occupational or environmental exposure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p708)Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Bone Diseases, MetabolicCaffeine: A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.Water Deprivation: The withholding of water in a structured experimental situation.Diet Surveys: Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Silicates: The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Food Services: Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Calcium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Thirst: A drive stemming from a physiological need for WATER.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Diet Records: Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Trace Elements: A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Polyphenols: A large class of organic compounds having more than one PHENOL group.Aspartame: Flavoring agent sweeter than sugar, metabolized as PHENYLALANINE and ASPARTIC ACID.Cooking and Eating UtensilsDehydration: The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.United StatesWater SofteningCacao: A tree of the family Sterculiaceae (or Byttneriaceae), usually Theobroma cacao, or its seeds, which after fermentation and roasting, yield cocoa and chocolate.Ilex paraguariensis: A plant species of the family AQUIFOLIACEAE. An infusion of the leaves is commonly drunk in South America for stimulating effect in much the same manner as coffee is in other cultures.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Dental Enamel: A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)Radius: The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Binge Drinking: Drinking an excessive amount of ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES in a short period of time.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Rehydration Solutions: Fluids restored to the body in order to maintain normal water-electrolyte balance.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Nutritive Sweeteners: Any agent that adds not only sweet taste but some energy value to food. They include natural sugars such as SUCROSE; FRUCTOSE; and GALACTOSE; and certain SUGAR ALCOHOLS.Candy: Sweet food products combining cane or beet sugars with other carbohydrates and chocolate, milk, eggs, and various flavorings. In the United States, candy refers to both sugar- and cocoa-based confections and is differentiated from sweetened baked goods; elsewhere the terms sugar confectionary, chocolate confectionary, and flour confectionary (meaning goods such as cakes and pastries) are used.Schools: Educational institutions.Food Packaging: Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.Vitamins: Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.Aluminum Silicates: Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Saliva, Artificial: A solution used for irrigating the mouth in xerostomia and as a substitute for saliva.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Immersion: The placing of a body or a part thereof into a liquid.Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Taxes: Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.Fluorides: Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.Dairy Products: Raw and processed or manufactured milk and milk-derived products. These are usually from cows (bovine) but are also from goats, sheep, reindeer, and water buffalo.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Electrolytes: Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Tooth Demineralization: A tooth's loss of minerals, such as calcium in hydroxyapatite from the tooth matrix, caused by acidic exposure. An example of the occurrence of demineralization is in the formation of dental caries.Central Nervous System Depressants: A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).RestaurantsFlavoring Agents: Substances added to foods and medicine to improve the quality of taste.Adolescent Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 13-18 years.Dental Enamel Solubility: The susceptibility of the DENTAL ENAMEL to dissolution.Aquaporins: A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.Hardness: The mechanical property of material that determines its resistance to force. HARDNESS TESTS measure this property.Satiety Response: Behavioral response associated with the achieving of gratification.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Temperance: Habitual moderation in the indulgence of a natural appetite, especially but not exclusively the consumption of alcohol.Food Quality: Ratings of the characteristics of food including flavor, appearance, nutritional content, and the amount of microbial and chemical contamination.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Bone Density Conservation Agents: Agents that inhibit BONE RESORPTION and/or favor BONE MINERALIZATION and BONE REGENERATION. They are used to heal BONE FRACTURES and to treat METABOLIC BONE DISEASES such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Nutrition Assessment: Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Osteocalcin: Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Hip: The projecting part on each side of the body, formed by the side of the pelvis and the top portion of the femur.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Satiation: Full gratification of a need or desire followed by a state of relative insensitivity to that particular need or desire.Menu PlanningBody Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Chlorine: A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.Postprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Alcohol-Related Disorders: Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.Calcium Carbonate: Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.Carbonates: Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Food Additives: Substances which are of little or no nutritive value, but are used in the processing or storage of foods or animal feed, especially in the developed countries; includes ANTIOXIDANTS; FOOD PRESERVATIVES; FOOD COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS (both plain and LOCAL); VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS and other similarly used substances. Many of the same substances are PHARMACEUTIC AIDS when added to pharmaceuticals rather than to foods.Bone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Food, Formulated: Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Camellia sinensis: Camellia sinensis L. (formerly Thea sinensis) is an evergreen Asiatic shrub of the THEACEAE family. The infusion of leaves of this plant is used as Oriental TEA which contains CAFFEINE; THEOPHYLLINE; and epigallocatechin gallate.Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Apatites: A group of phosphate minerals that includes ten mineral species and has the general formula X5(YO4)3Z, where X is usually calcium or lead, Y is phosphorus or arsenic, and Z is chlorine, fluorine, or OH-. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Cultured Milk Products: Milk modified with controlled FERMENTATION. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KAFFIR CORN.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Citrus: A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. They bear the familiar citrus fruits including oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. There are many hybrids which makes the nomenclature confusing.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Calcium Phosphates: Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Flavonoids: A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Aluminum Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain aluminum as an integral part of the molecule.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Catechin: An antioxidant flavonoid, occurring especially in woody plants as both (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin (cis) forms.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Water Wells: Constructions built to access underground water.Acids: Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Plant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Food Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, NUTRITIONAL VALUE, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.Central Nervous System Stimulants: A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Deuterium Oxide: The isotopic compound of hydrogen of mass 2 (deuterium) with oxygen. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed) It is used to study mechanisms and rates of chemical or nuclear reactions, as well as biological processes.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Television: The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)Postmenopause: The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Bone Demineralization, Pathologic: Decrease, loss, or removal of the mineral constituents of bones. Temporary loss of bone mineral content is especially associated with space flight, weightlessness, and extended immobilization. OSTEOPOROSIS is permanent, includes reduction of total bone mass, and is associated with increased rate of fractures. CALCIFICATION, PHYSIOLOGIC is the process of bone remineralizing. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed; Nicogossian, Space Physiology and Medicine, 2d ed, pp327-33)Ion-Selective Electrodes: Electrodes which can be used to measure the concentration of particular ions in cells, tissues, or solutions.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Filtration: A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
  • If you find that sugar-free drinks like diet soda actually increase your cravings, avoid it! (strmv.com)
  • Avoid foods and beverages from street vendors. (onlinebangalore.com)
  • Avoid popsicles and flavored ices that may have been made with contaminated water. (onlinebangalore.com)
  • Avoid prolonged exposure to the sun, drink lots of non-alcoholic fluids and increase salt intake in food. (onlinebangalore.com)
  • Particularly in areas where hygiene and sanitation are inadequate, the traveler should be advised to avoid salads, uncooked vegetables, and unpasteurized milk and milk products such as cheese, and to eat only food that has been cooked and is still hot or fruit that has been washed in clean water and then peeled by the traveler personally. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Travelers should be warned to try to avoid swallowing water while engaging in aquatic activities. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Cryptosporidium, Giardia, hepatitis A, and Norovirus) have moderate to very high resistance to chlorine levels commonly found in chlorinated swimming pools, so travelers also should avoid swallowing chlorinated swimming pool water. (encyclopedia.com)
  • All travelers who have diarrhea should refrain from swimming to avoid contaminating recreational water. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In certain areas, fatal primary amebic meningoencephalitis has occurred after swimming in warm freshwater lakes or rivers, thermally polluted areas around industrial complexes, and hot springs, so travelers should avoid submerging the head and should wear nose plugs when entering untreated water to prevent water getting up the nose. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Travelers should also be advised to avoid wading or swimming in freshwater streams, canals, and lakes in schistosomiasis-endemic areas of the Caribbean, South America , Africa, and Asia (see Map 4-10, Geographic distribution of schistosomiasis), or in bodies of water that may be contaminated with urine from animals infected with Leptospira. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The Nausea And Reflux with Homeopathic Remedies For Heartburn and think about dropping harmful habits pertaining to instance smoking and drinking liquor that to avoid having an acidic atmosphere in the stomach The Feeling Of Having Something Stuck In Your Throat between Does Carbonated Water Cause Heartburn The Feeling Of Having Something Stuck In Your Throat and Acid Reflux Home. (chicoimperialcourt.com)
  • The Does Carbonated Water Cause Heartburn with Reflux In The Throat and think about dropping harmful habits pertaining to instance smoking and drinking liquor that to avoid having an acidic atmosphere in the stomach then Causes Of Reflux Oesophagitis with Causes And Treatment Of Heartburn and Acid Reflux Causing Chest Pain Acid Reflux Sore Throat Symptoms then The above is. (chicoimperialcourt.com)
  • In spite of the minor risks, it is wise for pregnant women to avoid the beverage, due to the contraindication with some of the additives. (isitbadforyou.com)
  • Bone Density - A common misconception is that drinking carbonated water prevents your body from absorbing calcium, increasing the risk of osteoporosis. (liversupport.com)
  • Contrary to many concerns, plain sparkling water has not demonstrated adverse health effects such as dental erosion and calcium loss. (facty.com)
  • Kidney stones are accumulations of mineral salts that can form anywhere in the entire urinary tract (kidney, bladder, the ducts in-between, or the ureters), and primarily occur because of calcium (oxalate) and/or phosphate that has come out of solution. (naturalcures.com)
  • The Rate of Bone Mineral Loss in Normal Men and the Effects of Calcium and Cholecalciferol Supplementation", Annals of Internal Medicine, Jan. 1, 1990, vol. 112, pp. 29-34. (patents.com)
  • People may also choose to do water fasts , which are fasts that eliminate all food and beverages, including water. (livestrong.com)
  • Have a cup of tea, suck on a piece of hard candy or enjoy a small bowl of light ice cream or frozen yogurt if you want something sweet after dinner, but then brush your teeth so you will be less likely to eat or drink anything else," suggests Elaine Magee, MPH, RD, WebMD's "Recipe Doctor" and the author of Comfort Food Makeovers. (sixwaystolosebellyfatforwomen.co.uk)
  • Nutriceutical beverages contain a food source or naturally occurring food additive that gives us a beneficial effect on our health. (blogspot.com)
  • OK, not technically a food, but tap water is a diet staple for millions of Americans. (draxe.com)
  • This green tea in powder form is highly versatile and consumers are able to enjoy the health benefits while mixing into almost any food/beverage. (wholefoodsmagazine.com)
  • You can get some types of infections by eating or drinking contaminated food or water. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It is used in a wide range of food , beverages , personal care , healthcare , cleaners , feed & pet food and chemical products as a mild acidity regulator with flavour enhancing and antibacterial properties. (jungbunzlauer.com)
  • Contaminated food and drink are common sources for the introduction of infection into the body. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Among the more common infections that travelers can acquire from contaminated food and drink are Escherichia coli infections, shigellosis or bacillary dysentery, giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, noroviruses, and hepatitis A. Other less common infectious disease risks for travelers include typhoid fever and other salmonelloses, cholera, rotavirus infections, and a variety of protozoan and helminthic parasites (other than those that cause giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Many infectious diseases transmitted in food and water can also be acquired directly through the fecal-oral route. (encyclopedia.com)
  • If the infant has already been weaned from the breast, formula prepared from commercial powder and boiled water is the safest and most practical food. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Moreover, travelers may assume incorrectly that food and water aboard commercial aircraft are safe. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Food and water may be obtained in the country of departure, where items may be contaminated. (encyclopedia.com)
  • After water, fuel yourself with food! (detox-cleansing-diet.com)
  • The Food Standards Code specifies that a minimum fruit amount of fruit must be present before a manufacturer may call the product a fruit drink. (fruitjuiceaustralia.org)
  • The Food Standards Code specifies that fruit drinks must contain no less than 50 mL/L of fruit, except in the case of passionfruit drink which must contain no less than 35 mL/L of passionfruit. (fruitjuiceaustralia.org)
  • Prior to the industrial revolution of the 1940s, humanity ingested lots of clean, organic, farm raised food, drank pure water, and breathed fresh oxygenated air. (investigatorsreport.com)
  • More than two million synthetic chemical substances have been dumped into our water, food, and atmosphere that weren't here before. (investigatorsreport.com)
  • Norovirus is a highly contagious virus that can be spread via an infected individual, contaminated food or water, or by coming in contact with a contaminated surface. (nursingart.com)
  • It's crucial to wash hands with soap and water after toileting and changing diapers, as well as before eating, preparing, and handling food. (nursingart.com)
  • Diet" food, but it causes cancer in lab rats so don't drink/eat too much of it. (projectswole.com)
  • The insoluble fiber in apples provides bulk in the intestinal tract, holding water to cleanse and move food quickly through the digestive system. (cbia.com)
  • Beverage fountain syrups are typically utilized by fast food and restaurant retail establishments. (google.com)
  • It is our vision to be the best and leading provider of food and beverage products in Pakistan, and among the top ten food and beverage companies in the world, by continually challenging present conventions and always staying a step ahead of the competition. (scribd.com)
  • It is Mehran Bottlers'1 mission to be the number one food and beverage company in Pakistan by providing our customers with the highest product quality in terms of taste, experience, and satisfaction. (scribd.com)
  • In line with the 2017 Food and Health Survey, almost 96% of Americans seek out health benefits from everything they drink and eat, with the most notable benefit being weight loss. (infervour.com)
  • However, the actual fundamental meaning of diet is, "the food and drink regularly provided or consumed. (infervour.com)
  • Also known as Roux-en-Y , gastric bypass surgery is a bariatric procedure whose aim is to reduce the size of the stomach so that the patient will be prevented from ingesting large amounts of food at once. (marinahospital.com)
  • For one or two weeks prior to your surgery, you should only eat protein shakes or meal replacement shakes, soup broth with no solid pieces of food, one or two daily servings of lean meat, as well as give up all caffeinated and carbonated drinks. (marinahospital.com)
  • Shipping concentrated coconut water and then manufacturing in the U.S. is more responsible for our planet, food safety and product quality and consistency. (ititropicals.com)
  • A food that helps you release retained water. (drkellyann.com)
  • Insoluble fiber is known for its ability to move through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, provide bulk and regulate bowel activity, whereas soluble fibers absorb water and can become gelatinous, slowing the movement of food through the digestive tract. (bevindustry.com)
  • What's happening in our industry is that there's a lot of overlap, because functional food manufacturers want to give value-added propositions to their consumers, and the supplement companies want to have products outside of just pills and capsules, so they are looking to beverages," he says. (bevindustry.com)
  • It was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in beverages in 1983 1 and is approximately 200 times sweeter than sugar. (dpsgproductfacts.com)
  • It is a balanced and infused drink produced in Europe, based on an original Swiss recipe that combines all-natural ingredients, including passion fruit and apple juices, extracts from melon, tarragon, infusions of sunflower and sesame seeds and a little Siberian gingseng. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Baking Mixes are the packaged mix of ingredients (typically sold in packets or tubs) to which liquid, eggs or other ingredients are added to produce baked goods like bread, brownie, dessert, cake, muffin, pancake, biscuits etc. (sandlerresearch.org)
  • He notes that matcha has been trending since 2012 and more heavily in the last two years as the beverage industry moves increasingly towards natural ingredients, portability and convenience. (wholefoodsmagazine.com)
  • Soluble fiber ingredients are the most relevant to today's beverage market because their non- or low-viscous properties mean that lighter drinks, such as juices and waters, are now possible to fortify, suppliers explain. (bevindustry.com)
  • Just like any other form of water, mineral water can help to induce urination, which is one of the best ways to detoxify the body, eliminating excess fats, salts, and toxins . (organicfacts.net)
  • The client should be instructed to eat foods that are nutritious and that contain ample amounts of protein, carbohydrates, fats, and minerals. (nursereview.org)
  • That means the formula is balanced to match the same proportions of chemicals and minerals in body fluids, making it easier to absorb the drink-and boost energy. (chicagotribune.com)
  • A recent German study detected nearly 25,000 chemicals in a single bottled water . (draxe.com)
  • Activated charcoal is typically used to treat accidental poisoning with toxic chemicals, because it helps absorb the toxins before they can enter your bloodstream. (mercola.com)
  • According to the Environmental Working Group's Tap Water Database, which analyzes data from almost 50,000 municipal water utilities, Americans are consuming over 250 chemicals along with their sink water. (facty.com)
  • Although the amounts of these substances are acceptable under state regulations, many of the chemicals in tap water come in levels known to pose health risks. (facty.com)
  • EWG's database provides information on contaminants and their sources and shows people what chemicals have infiltrated their local water supply by ZIP code. (facty.com)
  • Vinegar is a liquid consisting of about 5-20% acetic acid (CH 3 COOH), water , and other trace chemicals, which may include flavorings. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water needs three simple atoms to exist: two hydrogens and one oxygen, which bond to make the molecule H 2 O. Those two common chemicals give water some rather uncommon properties. (onhealth.com)