A family of neuronal calcium-sensor proteins that interact with and regulate potassium channels, type A.
A stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eye and low voltage fast pattern EEG. It is usually associated with dreaming.
A disorder characterized by incomplete arousals from sleep associated with behavior suggesting extreme fright. This condition primarily affects children and young adults and the individual generally has no recall of the event. Episodes tend to occur during stage III or IV. SOMNAMBULISM is frequently associated with this condition. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p391)
A form of psychiatric treatment, based on Freudian principles, which seeks to eliminate or diminish the undesirable effects of unconscious conflicts by making the patient aware of their existence, origin, and inappropriate expression in current emotions and behavior.
A common condition characterized by transient partial or total paralysis of skeletal muscles and areflexia that occurs upon awakening from sleep or less often while falling asleep. Stimuli such as touch or sound may terminate the episode, which usually has a duration of seconds to minutes. This condition may occur in normal subjects or be associated with NARCOLEPSY; CATAPLEXY; and hypnagogic HALLUCINATIONS. The pathophysiology of this condition is closely related to the normal hypotonia that occur during REM sleep. (From Adv Neurol 1995;67:245-271)
Recording of the average amplitude of the resting potential arising between the cornea and the retina in light and dark adaptation as the eyes turn a standard distance to the right and the left. The increase in potential with light adaptation is used to evaluate the condition of the retinal pigment epithelium.
An imagined sequence of events or mental images, e.g., daydreams.
The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with GOLGI APPARATUS during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.
The unconscious transfer to others (including psychotherapists) of feelings and attitudes which were originally associated with important figures (parents, siblings, etc.) in one's early life.
Written or other literary works whose subject matter is medical or about the profession of medicine and related areas.
A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.
Periods of sleep manifested by changes in EEG activity and certain behavioral correlates; includes Stage 1: sleep onset, drowsy sleep; Stage 2: light sleep; Stages 3 and 4: delta sleep, light sleep, deep sleep, telencephalic sleep.
Movements or behaviors associated with sleep, sleep stages, or partial arousals from sleep that may impair sleep maintenance. Parasomnias are generally divided into four groups: arousal disorders, sleep-wake transition disorders, parasomnias of REM sleep, and nonspecific parasomnias. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p191)
Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
Subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real. They may be of organic origin or associated with MENTAL DISORDERS.
A series of thoughts, images, or emotions occurring during sleep which are dissociated from the usual stream of consciousness of the waking state.
An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A. E2F2 activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the myb gene (GENES, MYB). They are expressed in a wide variety of cells including thymocytes and lymphocytes, and regulate cell differentiation. Overexpression of myb is associated with autoimmune diseases and malignancies.
A belief or practice which lacks adequate basis for proof; an embodiment of fear of the unknown, magic, and ignorance.
A retinoblastoma-binding protein that is involved in CHROMATIN REMODELING, histone deacetylation, and repression of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION. Although initially discovered as a retinoblastoma binding protein it has an affinity for core HISTONES and is a subunit of chromatin assembly factor-1 and polycomb repressive complex 2.
A new pattern of perceptual or ideational material derived from past experience.
Terrorism on September 11, 2001 against targets in New York, the Pentagon in Virginia, and an aborted attack that ended in Pennsylvania.
Calcium-binding motifs composed of two helices (E and F) joined by a loop. Calcium is bound by the loop region. These motifs are found in many proteins that are regulated by calcium.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
Fabric or other material used to cover the body.
The persistence to perform a learned behavior (facts or experiences) after an interval has elapsed in which there has been no performance or practice of the behavior.
An E2F transcription factor that represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F4 recruits chromatin remodeling factors indirectly to target gene PROMOTER REGIONS through RETINOBLASTOMA LIKE PROTEIN P130 and RETINOBLASTOMA LIKE PROTEIN P107.
An anticonvulsant used for several types of seizures, including myotonic or atonic seizures, photosensitive epilepsy, and absence seizures, although tolerance may develop. It is seldom effective in generalized tonic-clonic or partial seizures. The mechanism of action appears to involve the enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor responses.
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (v-myb) originally isolated from the avian myeloblastosis and E26 leukemia viruses. The proto-oncogene c-myb codes for a nuclear protein involved in transcriptional regulation and appears to be essential for hematopoietic cell proliferation. The human myb gene is located at 6q22-23 on the short arm of chromosome 6. This is the point of break in translocations involved in T-cell acute lymphatic leukemia and in some ovarian cancers and melanomas. (From Ibelgaufts, Dictionary of Cytokines, 1995).
Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.
A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.
Integral membrane protein of Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum. Its homodimer is an essential component of the gamma-secretase complex that catalyzes the cleavage of membrane proteins such as NOTCH RECEPTORS and AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES precursors. PSEN2 mutations cause ALZHEIMER DISEASE type 4.
Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
Cyclic AMP response element modulator is a basic leucine zipper transcription factor that is regulated by CYCLIC AMP. It plays an important role in SPERMATID development in the mammalian TESTIS.
Emotional attachment to someone or something in the environment.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
The act of regarding attentively and studying facts and occurrences, gathering data through analyzing, measuring, and drawing conclusions, with the purpose of applying the observed information to theoretical assumptions. Observation as a scientific method in the acquisition of knowledge began in classical antiquity; in modern science and medicine its greatest application is facilitated by modern technology. Observation is one of the components of the research process.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor that is used in the treatment of DEPRESSION and a variety of ANXIETY DISORDERS.
Clothing designed to protect the individual against possible exposure to known hazards.
One of the three major families of endogenous opioid peptides. The enkephalins are pentapeptides that are widespread in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in the adrenal medulla.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).
A type of POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN MODIFICATION by SMALL UBIQUITIN-RELATED MODIFIER PROTEINS (also known as SUMO proteins).
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Integral membrane proteins and essential components of the gamma-secretase complex that catalyzes the cleavage of membrane proteins such as NOTCH RECEPTORS and AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES precursors. Mutations of presenilins lead to presenile ALZHEIMER DISEASE with onset before age 65 years.
The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.
A negative regulator of the CELL CYCLE that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. RBL2 contains a conserved pocket region that binds E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and E2F5 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. RBL2 also interacts with viral ONCOPROTEINS such as POLYOMAVIRUS TUMOR ANTIGENS; ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS; and PAPILLOMAVIRUS E7 PROTEINS.
The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.
Brain waves characterized by a relatively high voltage or amplitude and a frequency of 8-13 Hz. They constitute the majority of waves recorded by EEG registering the activity of the parietal and occipital lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed with the eyes closed.
Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.
An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.
A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Kappa opioid receptors bind dynorphins with a higher affinity than endorphins which are themselves preferred to enkephalins.
Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)
A class of enzymes that form a thioester bond to UBIQUITIN with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES. They transfer ubiquitin to the LYSINE of a substrate protein with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.
Crk-associated substrate was originally identified as a highly phosphorylated 130 kDa protein that associates with ONCOGENE PROTEIN CRK and ONCOGENE PROTEIN SRC. It is a signal transducing adaptor protein that undergoes tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION in signaling pathways that regulate CELL MIGRATION and CELL PROLIFERATION.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Those occurrences, including social, psychological, and environmental, which require an adjustment or effect a change in an individual's pattern of living.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
Disorders characterized by impairment of the ability to initiate or maintain sleep. This may occur as a primary disorder or in association with another medical or psychiatric condition.
Proteins produced from GENES that have acquired MUTATIONS.
Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A group of disorders which feature impaired motor control characterized by bradykinesia, MUSCLE RIGIDITY; TREMOR; and postural instability. Parkinsonian diseases are generally divided into primary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE), secondary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY) and inherited forms. These conditions are associated with dysfunction of dopaminergic or closely related motor integration neuronal pathways in the BASAL GANGLIA.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
A 1.5-kDa small ubiquitin-related modifier protein that can covalently bind via an isopeptide link to a number of cellular proteins. It may play a role in intracellular protein transport and a number of other cellular processes.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.
ONCOGENE PROTEINS from papillomavirus that deregulate the CELL CYCLE of infected cells and lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. Papillomavirus E7 proteins have been shown to interact with various regulators of the cell cycle including RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and certain cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase that is composed of the calcineurin A catalytic subunit and the calcineurin B regulatory subunit. Calcineurin has been shown to dephosphorylate a number of phosphoproteins including HISTONES; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAIN; and the regulatory subunits of CAMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. It is involved in the regulation of signal transduction and is the target of an important class of immunophilin-immunosuppressive drug complexes.
The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).
Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.
A group of two-ring heterocyclic compounds consisting of a benzene ring fused to a diazepine ring.
Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Germany" is a country and not a medical term or concept. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition. It is located in Central Europe and is known for its advanced medical research and facilities.
The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The relationships between symbols and their meanings.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.
A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Protein precursors, also known as proproteins or prohormones, are inactive forms of proteins that undergo post-translational modification, such as cleavage, to produce the active functional protein or peptide hormone.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.

Sequelae of sarin toxicity at one and three years after exposure in Matsumoto, Japan. (1/147)

In order to clarify the later sequelae of sarin poisoning that occurred in Matsumoto City, Japan, on June 27, 1994, a cohort study was conducted on all persons (2052 Japanese people) inhabiting an area 1050 meters from north to south and 850 meters from east to west with the sarin release site in the center. Respondents numbered 1237 and 836 people when surveys were conducted at one and three years after the sarin incident, respectively. Numbers of persons with symptoms of sarin toxicity were compared between sarin victims and non-victims. Of the respondents, 58 and 46 people had symptoms associated with sarin such as fatigue, asthenia, shoulder stiffness, asthenopia and blurred vision at both points of the survey, respectively. The prevalences were low; some complained of insomnia, had bad dreams, difficulty in smoking, husky voice, slight fever and palpitation. The victims who had symptoms one year after the incident had a lower erythrocyte cholinesterase activity than did those who did not have symptoms at the early stage; such persons lived in an area with a 500 meter long axis north east from the sarin release site. The three-year cohort study clearly showed that the odds ratios of almost all of the symptoms were high in the sarin-exposed group, suggesting a positive relationship between symptoms and grades of exposure to sarin. These results suggest that symptoms reported by many victims of the sarin incident are thought to be sequelae related to sarin exposure.  (+info)

Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder: demographic, clinical and laboratory findings in 93 cases. (2/147)

We describe demographic, clinical, laboratory and aetiological findings in 93 consecutive patients with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD), which consists of excessive motor activity during dreaming in association with loss of skeletal muscle atonia of REM sleep. The patients were seen at the Mayo Sleep Disorders Center between January 1, 1991 and July 31, 1995. Eighty-one patients (87%) were male. The mean age of RBD onset was 60.9 years (range 36-84 years) and the mean age at presentation was 64.4 years (37-85 years). Thirty-two per cent of patients had injured themselves and 64% had assaulted their spouses. Subdural haematomas occurred in two patients. Dream content was altered and involved defence of the sleeper against attack in 87%. The frequency of nocturnal events decreased with time in seven untreated patients with neurodegenerative disease. MRI or CT head scans were performed in 56% of patients. Although four scans showed brainstem pathology, all of these patients had apparently unrelated neurodegenerative diseases known to be associated with RBD. Neurological disorders were present in 57% of patients; Parkinson's disease, dementia without parkinsonism and multiple system atrophy accounted for all but 14% of these. RBD developed before parkinsonism in 52% of the patients with Parkinson's disease. Five of the 14 patients with multiple system atrophy were female, and thus the strong male predominance in RBD is less evident in this condition. Psychiatric disorders, drug use or drug withdrawal were rarely causally related to RBD. Clonazepam treatment of RBD was completely or partially successful in 87% of the patients who used the drug. We conclude that RBD is a well-defined condition and that descriptions from different centres are fairly consistent. It is commonest in elderly males and may result in serious morbidity to patients and bed partners. There is a strong relationship to neurodegenerative disease, especially Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy and dementia, and neurologists should explore the possibility of RBD in patients with these conditions. RBD symptoms may be the first manifestations of these disorders and careful follow-up is needed. Neuroimaging is unlikely to reveal underlying disorders not suspected clinically. We confirm the effectiveness of clonazepam, but note that attention to the safety of the bed environment may be sufficient for patients with contraindications to the drug.  (+info)

Nightmares and disorders of dreaming. (3/147)

Dreams occur during all stages of sleep. Nightmares are common. They can be associated with poor sleep and diminished daytime performance. Frequent nightmares are not related to underlying psychopathology in most children and in some "creative" adults. However, recurrent nightmares are the most defining symptom of post-traumatic stress disorder and may be associated with other psychiatric illnesses. Night terrors are arousal disorders that occur most often in children and usually occur early in the sleep period. Patients with rapid-eye-movement behavior disorder often present with nocturnal injury resulting from the acting out of dreams. Dream disorders may respond to medication, but behavioral treatment approaches have shown excellent results, particularly in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder and recurrent nightmares.  (+info)

The use of dreams in psychotherapy: a survey of psychotherapists in private practice. (4/147)

Since the publication of Sigmund Freud's The Interpretation of Dreams, dream interpretation has been a standard technique often used in psychotherapy. However, empirical studies about the frequency of working on dreams in therapy are lacking. The present study elicited, via a self-developed questionnaire, various aspects of work on dreams applied by psychotherapists in private practice. The findings indicate that dreams were often used in therapy, especially in psychoanalysis. In addition, a significant relationship was found between the frequency of the therapists' working on their own dreams and frequency of work on dreams in therapy. Because work on dreams was rated as beneficial for the clients, further studies investigating the effectiveness and the process of working on dreams will be of interest.  (+info)

Rapid eye movements during paradoxical sleep in patients with cerebrovascular disease. (5/147)

Rapid eye movements that occur during paradoxical sleep are generated from the brainstem and are modulated by cerebral hemispheres. In an attempt to establish the participation of cerebral hemispheres on rapid eye movements, we carried out a quantitative study of eye movements density in patients bearing hemispheres vascular lesions. The polysomnographic recordings of 24 patients were compared to those of 24 healthy volunteers. Density of rapid eye movements was defined as the percentage of eye movements during the respective time of paradoxical sleep. Based on the present results, we concluded that: stroke patients with hemispheric lesions displayed increased density of rapid eye movements; there was no difference on the density of rapid eye movements according to the hemispheric lesion; higher density of rapid eye movements was observed in patients with anterior hemispheric lesion.  (+info)

Functional neuroimaging of normal human sleep by positron emission tomography. (6/147)

Functional neuroimaging using positron emission tomography has recently yielded original data on the functional neuroanatomy of human sleep. This paper attempts to describe the possibilities and limitations of the technique and clarify its usefulness in sleep research. A short overview of the methods of acquisition and statistical analysis (statistical parametric mapping, SPM) is presented before the results of PET sleep studies are reviewed. The discussion attempts to integrate the functional neuroimaging data into the body of knowledge already acquired on sleep in animals and humans using various other techniques (intracellular recordings, in situ neurophysiology, lesional and pharmacological trials, scalp EEG recordings, behavioural or psychological description). The published PET data describe a very reproducible functional neuroanatomy in sleep. The core characteristics of this 'canonical' sleep may be summarized as follows. In slow-wave sleep, most deactivated areas are located in the dorsal pons and mesencephalon, cerebellum, thalami, basal ganglia, basal forebrain/hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, precuneus and in the mesial aspect of the temporal lobe. During rapid-eye movement sleep, significant activations were found in the pontine tegmentum, thalamic nuclei, limbic areas (amygdaloid complexes, hippocampal formation, anterior cingulate cortex) and in the posterior cortices (temporo-occipital areas). In contrast, the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex, parietal cortex, as well as the posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus, were the least active brain regions. These preliminary studies open up a whole field in sleep research. More detailed explorations of sleep in humans are now accessible to experimental challenges using PET and other neuroimaging techniques. These new methods will contribute to a better understanding of sleep functions.  (+info)

Replaying the game: hypnagogic images in normals and amnesics. (7/147)

Participants playing the computer game Tetris reported intrusive, stereotypical, visual images of the game at sleep onset. Three amnesic patients with extensive bilateral medial temporal lobe damage produced similar hypnagogic reports despite being unable to recall playing the game, suggesting that such imagery may arise without important contribution from the declarative memory system. In addition, control participants reported images from previously played versions of the game, demonstrating that remote memories can influence the images from recent waking experience.  (+info)

Is there a dissociative process in sleepwalking and night terrors? (8/147)

The enduring and contentious hypothesis that sleepwalking and night terrors are symptomatic of a protective dissociative mechanism is examined. This is mobilised when intolerable impulses, feelings and memories escape, within sleep, the diminished control of mental defence mechanisms. They then erupt but in a limited motoric or affective form with restricted awareness and subsequent amnesia for the event. It has also been suggested that such processes are more likely when the patient has a history of major psychological trauma. In a group of 22 adult patients, referred to a tertiary sleep disorders service with possible sleepwalking/night terrors, diagnosis was confirmed both clinically and polysomnographically, and only six patients had a history of such trauma. More commonly these described sleepwalking/night terrors are associated with vivid dream-like experiences or behaviour related to flight from attack. Two such cases, suggestive of a dissociative process, are described in more detail. The results of this study are presented largely on account of the negative findings. Scores on the dissociation questionnaire (DIS-Q) were normal, although generally higher in the small "trauma" subgroup. These were similar to scores characterising individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder. This "trauma" group also scored particularly highly on the anxiety, phobic, and depression scales of the Crown-Crisp experiential index. In contrast the "no trauma" group scored more specifically highly on the anxiety scale, along with major trends to high depression and hysteria scale scores. Two cases are presented which illustrate exceptional occurrence of later onset of sleepwalking/night terrors with accompanying post-traumatic symptoms during wakefulness. It is concluded that a history of major psychological trauma exists in only a minority of adult patients presenting with sleepwalking/night terror syndrome. In this subgroup trauma appears to dictate the subsequent content of the attacks. However, the symptoms express themselves within the form of the sleepwalking/night terror syndrome rather than as rapid eye movement sleep related nightmares. The main group of subjects with the syndrome and with no history of major psychological trauma show no clinical or DIS-Q evidence of dissociation during wakefulness. The proposition that, within the character structure of this group, the mechanism still operates but exclusively within sleep remains a possibility.  (+info)

Kv channel-interacting proteins (KChIPs) are a family of calcium-binding proteins that interact with and regulate the function of voltage-gated potassium channels (Kv channels). KChIPs belong to the neuronal calcium sensor (NCS) family, which also includes other calcium-binding proteins such as calmodulin and visinin-like proteins.

KChIPs have several functions in regulating Kv channel activity, including promoting channel expression at the cell surface, modulating channel gating kinetics, and influencing channel sensitivity to voltage and calcium. There are four known isoforms of KChIPs (KChIP1-4), which can interact with different subtypes of Kv channels, leading to diverse functional outcomes.

Mutations in KChIP genes have been associated with various human diseases, including epilepsy, cardiac arrhythmias, and schizophrenia. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying KChIP-Kv channel interactions is crucial for developing therapeutic strategies to treat these disorders.

REM sleep, or Rapid Eye Movement sleep, is a stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements, low muscle tone, and active brain activity. It is one of the two main types of sleep along with non-REM sleep and is marked by vivid dreaming, increased brain metabolism, and altered brain wave patterns. REM sleep is often referred to as "paradoxical sleep" because of the seemingly contradictory nature of its characteristics - an active brain in a state of relaxation. It is thought to play a role in memory consolidation, learning, and mood regulation. A typical night's sleep cycle includes several episodes of REM sleep, with each episode becoming longer as the night progresses.

Night terrors, also known as sleep terrors, are a type of parasomnia characterized by extreme fear, panic, and intense feelings of dread during sleep. They are different from nightmares, which occur during the rapid eye movement (REM) stage of sleep and can be remembered upon waking. In contrast, night terrors typically happen during deep non-REM sleep (stage 3 or 4) and individuals usually have no recollection of the event upon waking.

During a night terror episode, a person may sit up in bed, scream, thrash around, and exhibit signs of intense fear. Their heart rate and breathing may increase dramatically, and they might be difficult to awaken or console. Episodes can last from several minutes to half an hour, after which the individual typically returns to sleep without fully waking up.

Night terrors are more common in children than adults, with about 1-6% of children experiencing them at some point. While they can be distressing for both the person experiencing them and their loved ones, night terrors are generally not harmful and do not typically indicate underlying psychological or medical issues. However, if night terrors occur frequently, interfere with sleep quality, or cause significant distress, it is recommended to consult a healthcare professional for further evaluation and guidance on potential treatment options.

Psychoanalytic therapy, also known as psychoanalysis, is a type of in-depth talk therapy that aims to bring unconscious motivations and internal conflicts into conscious awareness. It was developed by Sigmund Freud and is based on the theory that people's behavior and feelings are strongly affected by unconscious motives.

The therapy involves regular, often frequent, sessions with a psychoanalyst. The patient is encouraged to talk freely about whatever comes to mind, including dreams, fantasies, and free associations. The analyst listens carefully and interprets the underlying meanings and patterns in the patient's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors.

The goal of psychoanalytic therapy is to help the patient understand and resolve their internal conflicts, which are often rooted in early childhood experiences. This can lead to improved mental health, better relationships, and increased self-awareness. It's important to note that this type of therapy requires a significant time commitment and can be emotionally challenging.

Sleep paralysis is a temporary inability to move or speak while falling asleep or waking up, often accompanied by frightening hallucinations. These episodes typically last a few seconds to several minutes. During sleep paralysis, a person's body is immobile and cannot perform voluntary muscle movements even though they are fully conscious and awake. This condition can be quite alarming, but it is generally harmless and does not pose any serious threat to one's health. Sleep paralysis is often associated with certain sleep disorders, such as narcolepsy, or other medical conditions, as well as stress, lack of sleep, and changes in sleep patterns.

Electrooculography (EOG) is a technique for measuring the resting potential of the eye and the changes in this potential that occur with eye movements. It involves placing electrodes near the eyes to detect the small electric fields generated by the movement of the eyeball within the surrounding socket. This technique is used in research and clinical settings to study eye movements and their control, as well as in certain diagnostic applications such as assessing the function of the oculomotor system in patients with neurological disorders.

In medical terms, a "fantasy" is generally defined as a mental image or scenario that is not based in reality and is often used for entertainment, relaxation, or sexual gratification. Fantasies can range from relatively harmless daydreams to more complex and detailed scenarios that may involve fictional characters or situations.

While fantasies are a normal part of human cognition and imagination, they can sometimes become problematic if they interfere with a person's ability to function in daily life or cause distress or harm to themselves or others. For example, some people may develop maladaptive sexual fantasies that involve non-consensual or harmful behaviors, which can lead to problems in their relationships or even criminal behavior.

It is important to note that having fantasies does not necessarily mean that a person will act on them, and many people are able to distinguish between their fantasies and reality. However, if you are concerned about your own fantasies or those of someone else, it may be helpful to speak with a mental health professional for guidance and support.

"Mental recall," also known as "memory recall," refers to the ability to retrieve or bring information from your memory storage into your conscious mind, so you can think about, use, or apply it. This process involves accessing and retrieving stored memories in response to certain cues or prompts. It is a fundamental cognitive function that allows individuals to remember and recognize people, places, events, facts, and experiences.

In the context of medical terminology, mental recall may be used to assess an individual's cognitive abilities, particularly in relation to memory function. Impairments in memory recall can be indicative of various neurological or psychological conditions, such as dementia, Alzheimer's disease, or amnesia.

Repressor proteins are a type of regulatory protein in molecular biology that suppress the transcription of specific genes into messenger RNA (mRNA) by binding to DNA. They function as part of gene regulation processes, often working in conjunction with an operator region and a promoter region within the DNA molecule. Repressor proteins can be activated or deactivated by various signals, allowing for precise control over gene expression in response to changing cellular conditions.

There are two main types of repressor proteins:

1. DNA-binding repressors: These directly bind to specific DNA sequences (operator regions) near the target gene and prevent RNA polymerase from transcribing the gene into mRNA.
2. Allosteric repressors: These bind to effector molecules, which then cause a conformational change in the repressor protein, enabling it to bind to DNA and inhibit transcription.

Repressor proteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as development, metabolism, and stress response, by controlling gene expression patterns in cells.

Cyclin B2 is a type of cyclin protein that regulates the cell cycle, particularly at the G2 phase and the beginning of mitosis. It forms a complex with and acts as a regulatory subunit of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1), which plays a crucial role in the transition from G2 phase to mitosis. The expression and activity of Cyclin B2 are tightly regulated during the cell cycle, and its dysregulation can lead to abnormal cell division and contribute to the development of cancer.

"Medicine in Literature" is not a medical term per se, but rather a field of study that explores the representation and interpretation of medicine, health, and illness in literature. It is an interdisciplinary approach that combines literary analysis with medical humanities to understand the cultural, historical, and social contexts of medical practices, theories, and experiences as depicted in various forms of literature. This field often examines how literature reflects and shapes societal attitudes towards health, disease, and medical care, and how it can contribute to medical education and empathic understanding of patients' experiences.

Wakefulness is a state of consciousness in which an individual is alert and aware of their surroundings. It is characterized by the ability to perceive, process, and respond to stimuli in a purposeful manner. In a medical context, wakefulness is often assessed using measures such as the electroencephalogram (EEG) to evaluate brain activity patterns associated with consciousness.

Wakefulness is regulated by several interconnected neural networks that promote arousal and attention. These networks include the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS), which consists of a group of neurons located in the brainstem that project to the thalamus and cerebral cortex, as well as other regions involved in regulating arousal and attention, such as the basal forebrain and hypothalamus.

Disorders of wakefulness can result from various underlying conditions, including neurological disorders, sleep disorders, medication side effects, or other medical conditions that affect brain function. Examples of such disorders include narcolepsy, insomnia, hypersomnia, and various forms of encephalopathy or brain injury.

Sleep stages are distinct patterns of brain activity that occur during sleep, as measured by an electroencephalogram (EEG). They are part of the sleep cycle and are used to describe the different types of sleep that humans go through during a normal night's rest. The sleep cycle includes several repeating stages:

1. Stage 1 (N1): This is the lightest stage of sleep, where you transition from wakefulness to sleep. During this stage, muscle activity and brain waves begin to slow down.
2. Stage 2 (N2): In this stage, your heart rate slows, body temperature decreases, and eye movements stop. Brain wave activity becomes slower, with occasional bursts of electrical activity called sleep spindles.
3. Stage 3 (N3): Also known as deep non-REM sleep, this stage is characterized by slow delta waves. It is during this stage that the body undergoes restorative processes such as tissue repair, growth, and immune function enhancement.
4. REM (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep: This is the stage where dreaming typically occurs. Your eyes move rapidly beneath closed eyelids, heart rate and respiration become irregular, and brain wave activity increases to levels similar to wakefulness. REM sleep is important for memory consolidation and learning.

The sleep cycle progresses through these stages multiple times during the night, with REM sleep periods becoming longer towards morning. Understanding sleep stages is crucial in diagnosing and treating various sleep disorders.

Parasomnias are a category of sleep disorders that involve unwanted physical events or experiences that occur while falling asleep, sleeping, or waking up. These behaviors can include abnormal movements, talk, emotions, perceptions, or dreams. Parasomnias can be caused by various factors such as stress, alcohol, certain medications, or underlying medical conditions. Some examples of parasomnias are sleepwalking, night terrors, sleep talking, and REM sleep behavior disorder. These disorders can disrupt sleep and cause distress to the individual and their bed partner.

Polysomnography (PSG) is a comprehensive sleep study that monitors various body functions during sleep, including brain activity, eye movement, muscle tone, heart rate, respirations, and oxygen levels. It is typically conducted in a sleep laboratory under the supervision of a trained technologist. The data collected during PSG is used to diagnose and manage various sleep disorders such as sleep-related breathing disorders (e.g., sleep apnea), movement disorders (e.g., periodic limb movement disorder), parasomnias, and narcolepsy.

The study usually involves the attachment of electrodes to different parts of the body, such as the scalp, face, chest, and legs, to record electrical signals from the brain, eye movements, muscle activity, and heartbeats. Additionally, sensors may be placed on or near the nose and mouth to measure airflow, and a belt may be worn around the chest and abdomen to monitor breathing efforts. Oxygen levels are also monitored through a sensor attached to the finger or ear.

Polysomnography is often recommended when a sleep disorder is suspected based on symptoms or medical history, and other diagnostic tests have been inconclusive. The results of the study can help guide treatment decisions and improve overall sleep health.

Calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) are a diverse group of proteins that have the ability to bind calcium ions (Ca^2+^) with high affinity and specificity. They play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including signal transduction, muscle contraction, neurotransmitter release, and protection against oxidative stress.

The binding of calcium ions to these proteins induces conformational changes that can either activate or inhibit their functions. Some well-known CaBPs include calmodulin, troponin C, S100 proteins, and parvalbumins. These proteins are essential for maintaining calcium homeostasis within cells and for mediating the effects of calcium as a second messenger in various cellular signaling pathways.

A hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimuli. They are sensory experiences that feel real, but are generated from inside the mind rather than by external reality. Hallucinations can occur in any of the senses, causing individuals to hear sounds, see visions, or smell odors that aren't actually present. They can range from relatively simple experiences, such as seeing flashes of light, to complex experiences like seeing and interacting with people or objects that aren't there. Hallucinations are often associated with certain medical conditions, mental health disorders, or the use of certain substances.

Dreams are a series of thoughts, images, and sensations occurring in a person's mind during sleep. They can be vivid or vague, positive or negative, and may involve memories, emotions, and fears. The scientific study of dreams is called oneirology. While the exact purpose and function of dreams remain a topic of debate among researchers, some theories suggest that dreaming may help with memory consolidation, problem-solving, emotional processing, and learning.

Dreams usually occur during the rapid eye movement (REM) stage of sleep, although they can also happen in non-REM stages. They are typically associated with complex brain activities, involving areas such as the amygdala, hippocampus, and the neocortex. The content of dreams can be influenced by various factors, including a person's thoughts, experiences, emotions, physical state, and environmental conditions.

It is important to note that dreaming is a natural and universal human experience, and understanding dreams can provide insights into our cognitive processes, emotional well-being, and mental health.

E2F2 is a member of the E2F family of transcription factors, which are involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression and differentiation. Specifically, E2F2 forms a complex with a retinoblastoma protein (pRb) to regulate the expression of genes required for DNA replication and cell cycle progression. When pRb is phosphorylated and inactivated by cyclin-dependent kinases during the G1 phase of the cell cycle, E2F2 is released and can activate the transcription of its target genes, promoting the transition from G1 to S phase. In addition to its role in the cell cycle, E2F2 has also been implicated in the regulation of apoptosis and differentiation in certain contexts.

Proto-oncogene proteins c-Myb, also known as MYB proteins, are transcription factors that play crucial roles in the regulation of gene expression during normal cell growth, differentiation, and development. They are named after the avian myeloblastosis virus, which contains an oncogenic version of the c-myb gene.

The human c-Myb protein is encoded by the MYB gene located on chromosome 6 (6q22-q23). This protein contains a highly conserved N-terminal DNA-binding domain, followed by a transcription activation domain and a C-terminal negative regulatory domain. The DNA-binding domain recognizes specific DNA sequences in the promoter regions of target genes, allowing c-Myb to regulate their expression.

Inappropriate activation or overexpression of c-Myb can contribute to oncogenesis, leading to the development of various types of cancer, such as leukemia and lymphoma. This occurs due to uncontrolled cell growth and proliferation, impaired differentiation, and increased resistance to apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Regulation of c-Myb activity is tightly controlled in normal cells through various mechanisms, including post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and degradation. Dysregulation of these control mechanisms can result in the aberrant activation of c-Myb, contributing to oncogenesis.

I must clarify that "superstitions" are not a medical term, and therefore, there is no medical definition for it. However, I can provide you with the general definition. Superstitions refer to beliefs or practices that are not based on reason or scientific evidence, and are often considered to be irrational. They are frequently linked to luck, prophecy, spirits, or the supernatural. Examples include avoiding walking under ladders, believing in Friday the 13th being an unlucky day, or knocking on wood for good fortune. Superstitions are generally not associated with medical conditions or healthcare.

Retinoblastoma-Binding Protein 4 (RBP4) is not typically considered a medical term, but rather a scientific term related to molecular biology. RBP4 is a protein that belongs to the lipocalin family and is primarily known for its role in transporting retinol (vitamin A alcohol) from the liver storage sites to peripheral tissues.

RBP4 is produced mainly in the liver, but also in adipose tissue, and it plays a crucial role in regulating retinol homeostasis in the body. Retinol is essential for various physiological functions, including vision, immune response, cell growth, and differentiation.

In some medical contexts, RBP4 has been studied as a potential biomarker for insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome due to its association with these conditions. However, the clinical utility of RBP4 as a diagnostic or prognostic marker remains a subject of ongoing research and is not yet widely accepted.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "imagnation" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Imagination generally refers to the ability to form mental images or concepts of things that are not present or have never been experienced. It involves the cognitive process of creating new ideas, scenarios, or concepts from existing knowledge and experiences.

However, if you meant to ask for a medical term related to imagination, one possibility could be "**productive thinking**" or **"generative cognitive processes"**. These terms are used in neuropsychology and cognitive science to describe the mental activities involved in creating new ideas, problem-solving, and generating novel responses.

If you had something specific in mind or if there's a different context you'd like me to consider, please provide more information, and I will do my best to help.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "September 11 Terrorist Attacks" is a historical event rather than a medical condition or term. Therefore, it doesn't have a specific medical definition. However, I can provide some context:

The September 11 Terrorist Attacks, often referred to as 9/11, were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks that occurred in the United States on September 11, 2001. These attacks were carried out by the Islamic extremist group al-Qaeda. The attacks involved the hijacking of four commercial airplanes. Two of these planes were flown into the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center complex in New York City, causing both towers to collapse within hours. Another plane hit the Pentagon building in Arlington, Virginia, and the fourth crashed in a field in Pennsylvania after passengers attempted to overcome the hijackers.

The attacks resulted in thousands of deaths and injuries, making it one of the deadliest terrorist attacks in world history. The physical and psychological health effects were significant and far-reaching, affecting not only the survivors and first responders but also the nation as a whole. These effects included acute trauma reactions, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and various physical health issues.

While "September 11 Terrorist Attacks" is not a medical term, it is associated with numerous mental and physical health issues that have been studied and documented in the medical and psychological literature.

"EF hand motifs" are structural domains found in proteins that bind calcium ions. The name "EF hand" comes from the initials of the parvalbumin protein, where these structures were first identified, and the shape of the domain, which resembles the capital letters 'E' and 'F' lying on their sides when viewed in a certain orientation.

Each EF hand motif is composed of a helix-loop-helix structure, with the calcium-binding site located in the loop region. When calcium binds to the EF hand, it causes a conformational change in the protein, which can then activate or inhibit various cellular processes.

EF hand motifs are found in many different types of proteins, including calmodulin, troponin C, and S100 proteins. They play important roles in calcium signaling pathways, muscle contraction, and other physiological processes.

Gene Regulatory Networks (GRNs) are complex systems of molecular interactions that regulate the expression of genes within an organism. These networks consist of various types of regulatory elements, including transcription factors, enhancers, promoters, and silencers, which work together to control when, where, and to what extent a gene is expressed.

In GRNs, transcription factors bind to specific DNA sequences in the regulatory regions of target genes, either activating or repressing their transcription into messenger RNA (mRNA). This process is influenced by various intracellular and extracellular signals that modulate the activity of transcription factors, allowing for precise regulation of gene expression in response to changing environmental conditions.

The structure and behavior of GRNs can be represented as a network of nodes (genes) and edges (regulatory interactions), with the strength and directionality of these interactions determined by the specific molecular mechanisms involved. Understanding the organization and dynamics of GRNs is crucial for elucidating the underlying causes of various biological processes, including development, differentiation, homeostasis, and disease.

Clothing is not a medical term, but rather a general term used to describe items worn on the body for various reasons such as protection from the elements, modesty, or fashion. In a medical context, clothing may be referred to in relation to certain conditions or treatments that require special garments, such as compression stockings for deep vein thrombosis or protective gear for athletes. However, there is no specific medical definition for 'clothing'.

E2F4 is a member of the E2F family of transcription factors, which are involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression and differentiation. E2F4 can function as both a transcriptional activator and repressor, depending on which proteins it interacts with. It primarily acts as a repressor, binding to DNA and preventing the transcription of target genes involved in cell cycle progression. E2F4 has been shown to play important roles in various biological processes, including development, differentiation, and tumor suppression.

Clonazepam is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called benzodiazepines. It is primarily used to treat seizure disorders, panic attacks, and anxiety. Clonazepam works by increasing the activity of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a neurotransmitter in the brain that has a calming effect on the nervous system.

The medication comes in tablet or orally disintegrating tablet form and is typically taken two to three times per day. Common side effects of clonazepam include dizziness, drowsiness, and coordination problems. It can also cause memory problems, mental confusion, and depression.

Like all benzodiazepines, clonazepam has the potential for abuse and addiction, so it should be used with caution and only under the supervision of a healthcare provider. It is important to follow the dosage instructions carefully and not to stop taking the medication suddenly, as this can lead to withdrawal symptoms.

It's important to note that while I strive to provide accurate information, this definition is intended to be a general overview and should not replace professional medical advice. Always consult with a healthcare provider for medical advice.

I'm happy to help! However, it seems there might be a slight mistake in your question. There is no single gene or genetic concept known as "myb." Instead, "MYB" refers to a family of genes that are involved in various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death).

The MYB gene family is named after the first member of this family to be discovered, c-Myb, which was initially identified as an oncogene in birds. These genes encode transcription factors that contain a highly conserved DNA-binding domain called the MYB domain. This domain consists of up to four repeats of a helix-turn-helix structure that recognizes and binds to specific DNA sequences.

The MYB gene family is divided into three subfamilies based on the number of MYB domains they contain: 1-MYB, 2-MYB, and 3-MYB. Each subfamily has distinct functions and expression patterns in different tissues. For example, c-Myb (a member of the 3-MYB subfamily) is primarily expressed in hematopoietic cells and plays a crucial role in their development and proliferation.

Therefore, if you are looking for information on a specific MYB gene or family member, please let me know, and I would be happy to provide more details!

Hazardous substances, in a medical context, refer to agents that pose a risk to the health of living organisms. These can include chemicals, biological agents (such as bacteria or viruses), and physical hazards (like radiation). Exposure to these substances can lead to a range of adverse health effects, from acute symptoms like irritation and poisoning to chronic conditions such as cancer, neurological disorders, or genetic mutations.

The classification and regulation of hazardous substances are often based on their potential for harm, the severity of the associated health risks, and the conditions under which they become dangerous. These assessments help inform safety measures, exposure limits, and handling procedures to minimize risks in occupational, environmental, and healthcare settings.

Sleep is a complex physiological process characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, reduced voluntary muscle activity, and decreased interaction with the environment. It's typically associated with specific stages that can be identified through electroencephalography (EEG) patterns. These stages include rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, associated with dreaming, and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, which is further divided into three stages.

Sleep serves a variety of functions, including restoration and strengthening of the immune system, support for growth and development in children and adolescents, consolidation of memory, learning, and emotional regulation. The lack of sufficient sleep or poor quality sleep can lead to significant health problems, such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and even cognitive decline.

The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) defines sleep as "a period of daily recurring natural rest during which consciousness is suspended and metabolic processes are reduced." However, it's important to note that the exact mechanisms and purposes of sleep are still being researched and debated among scientists.

Presenilin-2 (PSEN2) is a protein that is encoded by the PSEN2 gene in humans. It is a member of the presenilin family, which are integral membrane proteins found in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. Presenilin-2 is most well-known for its role in the processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP), which is implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.

In the context of APP processing, presenilin-2 functions as a catalytic subunit of the gamma-secretase complex, which cleaves APP into smaller peptides, including the beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ). Mutations in the PSEN2 gene have been associated with early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease, suggesting that abnormal APP processing and Aβ accumulation play a significant role in the development of this disorder.

However, it is important to note that presenilin-2 has other functions beyond APP processing, including roles in cell signaling, calcium homeostasis, and autophagy. Dysregulation of these processes may also contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders.

In a medical or physiological context, "arousal" refers to the state of being awake and responsive to stimuli. It involves the activation of the nervous system, particularly the autonomic nervous system, which prepares the body for action. Arousal levels can vary from low (such as during sleep) to high (such as during states of excitement or stress). In clinical settings, changes in arousal may be assessed to help diagnose conditions such as coma, brain injury, or sleep disorders. It is also used in the context of sexual response, where it refers to the level of physical and mental awareness and readiness for sexual activity.

Emotions are complex psychological states that involve three distinct components: a subjective experience, a physiological response, and a behavioral or expressive response. Emotions can be short-lived, such as a flash of anger, or more long-lasting, such as enduring sadness. They can also vary in intensity, from mild irritation to intense joy or fear.

Emotions are often distinguished from other psychological states, such as moods and temperament, which may be less specific and more enduring. Emotions are typically thought to have a clear cause or object, such as feeling happy when you receive good news or feeling anxious before a job interview.

There are many different emotions that people can experience, including happiness, sadness, anger, fear, surprise, disgust, and shame. These emotions are often thought to serve important adaptive functions, helping individuals respond to challenges and opportunities in their environment.

In medical contexts, emotions may be relevant to the diagnosis and treatment of various mental health conditions, such as depression, anxiety disorders, and bipolar disorder. Abnormalities in emotional processing and regulation have been implicated in many psychiatric illnesses, and therapies that target these processes may be effective in treating these conditions.

Electroencephalography (EEG) is a medical procedure that records electrical activity in the brain. It uses small, metal discs called electrodes, which are attached to the scalp with paste or a specialized cap. These electrodes detect tiny electrical charges that result from the activity of brain cells, and the EEG machine then amplifies and records these signals.

EEG is used to diagnose various conditions related to the brain, such as seizures, sleep disorders, head injuries, infections, and degenerative diseases like Alzheimer's or Parkinson's. It can also be used during surgery to monitor brain activity and ensure that surgical procedures do not interfere with vital functions.

EEG is a safe and non-invasive procedure that typically takes about 30 minutes to an hour to complete, although longer recordings may be necessary in some cases. Patients are usually asked to relax and remain still during the test, as movement can affect the quality of the recording.

Cyclic AMP Response Element Modulator (CREM) is a protein that functions as a transcription factor, which binds to specific DNA sequences called cis-acting elements in the promoter region of target genes and regulates their expression. The CREM protein is activated by cyclic AMP (cAMP), a second messenger molecule involved in various cellular signaling pathways.

The CREM protein contains several functional domains, including a DNA-binding domain that recognizes the cAMP response element (CRE) sequence, and a transactivation domain that interacts with other proteins to activate or repress gene transcription. The CREM protein can exist in multiple forms, including activated and repressed isoforms, which are generated by alternative splicing of its pre-mRNA.

The CREM protein plays important roles in various biological processes, such as neuronal development, circadian rhythm regulation, and immune response. Dysregulation of CREM has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and metabolic disorders.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "object attachment" is not a term that has a specific medical definition in the way that a term like "myocardial infarction" (heart attack) or "major depressive disorder" does. It may be used in various ways in different contexts, such as in psychology or psychiatry to describe a phenomenon where an individual becomes excessively attached to an object or items, but it is not a widely recognized or standardized term in medical terminology. If you are referring to a specific concept or diagnosis and could provide more context, I would be happy to help further!

In the context of medical and clinical neuroscience, memory is defined as the brain's ability to encode, store, retain, and recall information or experiences. Memory is a complex cognitive process that involves several interconnected regions of the brain and can be categorized into different types based on various factors such as duration and the nature of the information being remembered.

The major types of memory include:

1. Sensory memory: The shortest form of memory, responsible for holding incoming sensory information for a brief period (less than a second to several seconds) before it is either transferred to short-term memory or discarded.
2. Short-term memory (also called working memory): A temporary storage system that allows the brain to hold and manipulate information for approximately 20-30 seconds, although this duration can be extended through rehearsal strategies. Short-term memory has a limited capacity, typically thought to be around 7±2 items.
3. Long-term memory: The memory system responsible for storing large amounts of information over extended periods, ranging from minutes to a lifetime. Long-term memory has a much larger capacity compared to short-term memory and is divided into two main categories: explicit (declarative) memory and implicit (non-declarative) memory.

Explicit (declarative) memory can be further divided into episodic memory, which involves the recollection of specific events or episodes, including their temporal and spatial contexts, and semantic memory, which refers to the storage and retrieval of general knowledge, facts, concepts, and vocabulary, independent of personal experience or context.

Implicit (non-declarative) memory encompasses various forms of learning that do not require conscious awareness or intention, such as procedural memory (skills and habits), priming (facilitated processing of related stimuli), classical conditioning (associative learning), and habituation (reduced responsiveness to repeated stimuli).

Memory is a crucial aspect of human cognition and plays a significant role in various aspects of daily life, including learning, problem-solving, decision-making, social interactions, and personal identity. Memory dysfunction can result from various neurological and psychiatric conditions, such as dementia, Alzheimer's disease, stroke, traumatic brain injury, and depression.

In medical terms, observation refers to the close monitoring and recording of a patient's signs, symptoms, or biological parameters over time in order to evaluate their condition, response to treatment, or any changes that may occur. This can include continuous or intermittent monitoring of vital signs, behavior, appearance, laboratory results, or other relevant factors. The purpose is to gather data and assess the patient's status, which will help healthcare professionals make informed decisions about diagnosis, treatment, or further management. Observation can take place in various settings such as hospitals, clinics, long-term care facilities, or at home with the use of telemedicine technologies.

'Gene expression regulation' refers to the processes that control whether, when, and where a particular gene is expressed, meaning the production of a specific protein or functional RNA encoded by that gene. This complex mechanism can be influenced by various factors such as transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs, and post-transcriptional modifications, among others. Proper regulation of gene expression is crucial for normal cellular function, development, and maintaining homeostasis in living organisms. Dysregulation of gene expression can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

Fluvoxamine is a type of antidepressant known as a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). It works by increasing the levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps maintain mental balance. Fluvoxamine is primarily used to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and may also be prescribed for other conditions such as depression, panic disorder, or social anxiety disorder.

The medical definition of Fluvoxamine can be stated as:

Fluvoxamine maleate, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), is a psychotropic medication used primarily in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). It functions by increasing the availability of serotonin in the synaptic cleft, which subsequently modulates neurotransmission and helps restore emotional balance. Fluvoxamine may also be employed off-label for managing other conditions, such as depression, panic disorder, or social anxiety disorder, subject to clinical judgment and patient needs.

Protective clothing refers to specialized garments worn by healthcare professionals, first responders, or workers in various industries to protect themselves from potential hazards that could cause harm to their bodies. These hazards may include biological agents (such as viruses or bacteria), chemicals, radiological particles, physical injuries, or extreme temperatures.

Examples of protective clothing include:

1. Medical/isolation gowns: Fluid-resistant garments worn by healthcare workers during medical procedures to protect against the spread of infectious diseases.
2. Lab coats: Protective garments typically worn in laboratories to shield the wearer's skin and clothing from potential chemical or biological exposure.
3. Coveralls: One-piece garments that cover the entire body, often used in industries with high exposure risks, such as chemical manufacturing or construction.
4. Gloves: Protective hand coverings made of materials like latex, nitrile, or vinyl, which prevent direct contact with hazardous substances.
5. Face masks and respirators: Devices worn over the nose and mouth to filter out airborne particles, protecting the wearer from inhaling harmful substances.
6. Helmets and face shields: Protective headgear used in various industries to prevent physical injuries from falling objects or impact.
7. Fire-resistant clothing: Specialized garments worn by firefighters and those working with high temperatures or open flames to protect against burns and heat exposure.

The choice of protective clothing depends on the specific hazards present in the work environment, as well as the nature and duration of potential exposures. Proper use, maintenance, and training are essential for ensuring the effectiveness of protective clothing in minimizing risks and maintaining worker safety.

Enkephalins are naturally occurring opioid peptides that bind to opiate receptors in the brain and other organs, producing pain-relieving and other effects. They are derived from the precursor protein proenkephalin and consist of two main types: Leu-enkephalin and Met-enkephalin. Enkephalins play a role in pain modulation, stress response, mood regulation, and addictive behaviors. They are also involved in the body's reward system and have been implicated in various physiological processes such as respiration, gastrointestinal motility, and hormone release.

Calcium is an essential mineral that is vital for various physiological processes in the human body. The medical definition of calcium is as follows:

Calcium (Ca2+) is a crucial cation and the most abundant mineral in the human body, with approximately 99% of it found in bones and teeth. It plays a vital role in maintaining structural integrity, nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, hormonal secretion, blood coagulation, and enzyme activation.

Calcium homeostasis is tightly regulated through the interplay of several hormones, including parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin, and vitamin D. Dietary calcium intake, absorption, and excretion are also critical factors in maintaining optimal calcium levels in the body.

Hypocalcemia refers to low serum calcium levels, while hypercalcemia indicates high serum calcium levels. Both conditions can have detrimental effects on various organ systems and require medical intervention to correct.

I apologize, but "video recording" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It generally refers to the process of capturing and storing moving visual images on electronic media, which is used in various medical fields for different purposes such as surgical training, telemedicine consultations, or monitoring patient conditions. However, there is no unique medical meaning associated with this term.

Sumoylation is a post-translational modification process in which a small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) protein is covalently attached to specific lysine residues on target proteins. This conjugation is facilitated by an enzymatic cascade involving E1 activating enzyme, E2 conjugating enzyme, and E3 ligase. Sumoylation can regulate various cellular functions such as protein stability, subcellular localization, activity, and interaction with other proteins. It plays crucial roles in numerous biological processes including DNA replication, repair, transcription, and chromatin remodeling, as well as stress response and regulation of the cell cycle. Dysregulation of sumoylation has been implicated in various human diseases, such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and viral infections.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

Presenilins are a group of proteins that play a critical role in the development of early-onset Alzheimer's disease. They are part of the gamma-secretase complex, which is involved in the processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP). This process can result in the formation of beta-amyloid plaques, which are a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease.

Mutations in the presenilin genes (PSEN1 and PSEN2) have been identified as major genetic risk factors for early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease. These mutations can lead to increased production of toxic beta-amyloid fragments, which can accumulate in the brain and cause neuronal damage.

Presenilins also have other functions in the body, including roles in calcium homeostasis, cell signaling, and developmental processes. However, their most well-known function is related to their role in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Writing" is a common term used to describe the act or process of creating written content, whether it's for literary, professional, or personal purposes. However, if you're asking for a medical term related to writing, perhaps you meant "graphomotor," which refers to the fine motor skills required to produce handwriting or signing one's name. If this is not what you were looking for, please clarify your question so I can provide a more accurate answer.

Retinoblastoma-like protein p130, also known as RBL2 or p130, is a tumor suppressor protein that belongs to the family of retinoblastoma proteins (pRb, p107, and p130). It is encoded by the RBL2 gene located on chromosome 12q13. This protein plays crucial roles in regulating the cell cycle, differentiation, and apoptosis.

The primary function of p130 is to negatively control the transition from the G1 phase to the S phase of the cell cycle. It does so by forming a complex with E2F4 or E2F5 transcription factors, which results in the repression of genes required for DNA replication and cell cycle progression. The activity of p130 is regulated through phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) during the cell cycle. When p130 is hypophosphorylated, it can bind to E2F4/E2F5 and repress target gene transcription; however, when p130 gets phosphorylated by CDKs, it releases from E2F4/E2F5, leading to the activation of cell cycle-promoting genes.

Retinoblastoma-like protein p130 is often inactivated or downregulated in various human cancers, including retinoblastoma, lung cancer, breast cancer, and others. This loss of function contributes to uncontrolled cell growth and tumorigenesis. Therefore, understanding the role of p130 in cell cycle regulation and its dysfunction in cancer provides valuable insights into potential therapeutic targets for cancer treatment.

The trigeminal nerve, also known as the fifth cranial nerve or CNV, is a paired nerve that carries both sensory and motor information. It has three major branches: ophthalmic (V1), maxillary (V2), and mandibular (V3). The ophthalmic branch provides sensation to the forehead, eyes, and upper portion of the nose; the maxillary branch supplies sensation to the lower eyelid, cheek, nasal cavity, and upper lip; and the mandibular branch is responsible for sensation in the lower lip, chin, and parts of the oral cavity, as well as motor function to the muscles involved in chewing. The trigeminal nerve plays a crucial role in sensations of touch, pain, temperature, and pressure in the face and mouth, and it also contributes to biting, chewing, and swallowing functions.

Alpha rhythm is a type of brain wave that is typically observed in the electroencephalogram (EEG) of normal, awake individuals when they have their eyes closed. It is characterized by sinusoidal waves with a frequency range of 8-13 Hz and is most prominent over the occipital region of the head, which is located at the back of the skull above the brain's visual cortex.

Alpha rhythm is typically associated with relaxed wakefulness, and its presence may indicate that an individual is awake but not engaged in any mentally demanding tasks. It can be blocked or suppressed by various stimuli, such as opening one's eyes, hearing a loud noise, or engaging in mental activity.

Disruptions in alpha rhythm have been observed in various neurological and psychiatric conditions, including epilepsy, dementia, depression, and anxiety disorders. However, more research is needed to fully understand the clinical significance of these abnormalities.

Protein interaction mapping is a research approach used to identify and characterize the physical interactions between different proteins within a cell or organism. This process often involves the use of high-throughput experimental techniques, such as yeast two-hybrid screening, mass spectrometry-based approaches, or protein fragment complementation assays, to detect and quantify the binding affinities of protein pairs. The resulting data is then used to construct a protein interaction network, which can provide insights into functional relationships between proteins, help elucidate cellular pathways, and inform our understanding of biological processes in health and disease.

An Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) is a laboratory technique used to detect and analyze protein-DNA interactions. In this assay, a mixture of proteins and fluorescently or radioactively labeled DNA probes are loaded onto a native polyacrylamide gel matrix and subjected to an electric field. The negatively charged DNA probe migrates towards the positive electrode, and the rate of migration (mobility) is dependent on the size and charge of the molecule. When a protein binds to the DNA probe, it forms a complex that has a different size and/or charge than the unbound probe, resulting in a shift in its mobility on the gel.

The EMSA can be used to identify specific protein-DNA interactions, determine the binding affinity of proteins for specific DNA sequences, and investigate the effects of mutations or post-translational modifications on protein-DNA interactions. The technique is widely used in molecular biology research, including studies of gene regulation, DNA damage repair, and epigenetic modifications.

In summary, Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) is a laboratory technique that detects and analyzes protein-DNA interactions by subjecting a mixture of proteins and labeled DNA probes to an electric field in a native polyacrylamide gel matrix. The binding of proteins to the DNA probe results in a shift in its mobility on the gel, allowing for the detection and analysis of specific protein-DNA interactions.

Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.

In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.

Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.

Psychotherapy is a type of treatment used primarily to treat mental health disorders and other emotional or behavioral issues. It involves a therapeutic relationship between a trained psychotherapist and a patient, where they work together to understand the patient's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, identify patterns that may be causing distress, and develop strategies to manage symptoms and improve overall well-being.

There are many different approaches to psychotherapy, including cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), psychodynamic therapy, interpersonal therapy, and others. The specific approach used will depend on the individual patient's needs and preferences, as well as the training and expertise of the therapist.

Psychotherapy can be conducted in individual, group, or family sessions, and may be provided in a variety of settings, such as hospitals, clinics, private practices, or online platforms. The goal of psychotherapy is to help patients understand themselves better, develop coping skills, improve their relationships, and enhance their overall quality of life.

Opioid receptors, also known as opiate receptors, are a type of G protein-coupled receptor found in the nervous system and other tissues. They are activated by endogenous opioid peptides, as well as exogenous opiates and opioids. There are several subtypes of opioid receptors, including mu, delta, and kappa.

Kappa opioid receptors (KORs) are a subtype of opioid receptor that are widely distributed throughout the body, including in the brain, spinal cord, and gastrointestinal tract. They are activated by endogenous opioid peptides such as dynorphins, as well as by synthetic and semi-synthetic opioids such as salvinorin A and U-69593.

KORs play a role in the modulation of pain, mood, and addictive behaviors. Activation of KORs has been shown to produce analgesic effects, but can also cause dysphoria, sedation, and hallucinations. KOR agonists have potential therapeutic uses for the treatment of pain, addiction, and other disorders, but their use is limited by their side effects.

It's important to note that opioid receptors and their ligands (drugs or endogenous substances that bind to them) are complex systems with many different actions and effects in the body. The specific effects of KOR activation depend on a variety of factors, including the location and density of the receptors, the presence of other receptors and signaling pathways, and the dose and duration of exposure to the ligand.

Sleep disorders are a group of conditions that affect the ability to sleep well on a regular basis. They can include problems with falling asleep, staying asleep, or waking up too early in the morning. These disorders can be caused by various factors such as stress, anxiety, depression, medical conditions, or substance abuse.

The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) recognizes over 80 distinct sleep disorders, which are categorized into the following major groups:

1. Insomnia - difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep.
2. Sleep-related breathing disorders - abnormal breathing during sleep such as obstructive sleep apnea.
3. Central disorders of hypersomnolence - excessive daytime sleepiness, including narcolepsy.
4. Circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders - disruption of the internal body clock that regulates the sleep-wake cycle.
5. Parasomnias - abnormal behaviors during sleep such as sleepwalking or night terrors.
6. Sleep-related movement disorders - repetitive movements during sleep such as restless legs syndrome.
7. Isolated symptoms and normal variants - brief and occasional symptoms that do not warrant a specific diagnosis.

Sleep disorders can have significant impacts on an individual's quality of life, productivity, and overall health. If you suspect that you may have a sleep disorder, it is recommended to consult with a healthcare professional or a sleep specialist for proper evaluation and treatment.

GABAergic neurons are a type of neuron that releases the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). GABA is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mature central nervous system, meaning it functions to decrease the excitability of neurons it acts upon.

GABAergic neurons are widely distributed throughout the brain and spinal cord and play a crucial role in regulating neural activity by balancing excitation and inhibition. They form synapses with various types of neurons, including both excitatory and inhibitory neurons, and their activation can lead to hyperpolarization or decreased firing rates of the target cells.

Dysfunction in GABAergic neurotransmission has been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as epilepsy, anxiety, and sleep disorders.

NIH 3T3 cells are a type of mouse fibroblast cell line that was developed by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The "3T3" designation refers to the fact that these cells were derived from embryonic Swiss mouse tissue and were able to be passaged (i.e., subcultured) more than three times in tissue culture.

NIH 3T3 cells are widely used in scientific research, particularly in studies involving cell growth and differentiation, signal transduction, and gene expression. They have also been used as a model system for studying the effects of various chemicals and drugs on cell behavior. NIH 3T3 cells are known to be relatively easy to culture and maintain, and they have a stable, flat morphology that makes them well-suited for use in microscopy studies.

It is important to note that, as with any cell line, it is essential to verify the identity and authenticity of NIH 3T3 cells before using them in research, as contamination or misidentification can lead to erroneous results.

Ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (UBCs or E2 enzymes) are a family of enzymes that play a crucial role in the ubiquitination process, which is a post-translational modification of proteins. This process involves the covalent attachment of the protein ubiquitin to specific lysine residues on target proteins, ultimately leading to their degradation by the 26S proteasome.

Ubiquitination is a multi-step process that requires the coordinated action of three types of enzymes: E1 (ubiquitin-activating), E2 (ubiquitin-conjugating), and E3 (ubiquitin ligases). Ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes are responsible for transferring ubiquitin from the E1 enzyme to the target protein, which is facilitated by an E3 ubiquitin ligase. The human genome encodes around 40 different UBCs, each with unique substrate specificities and functions in various cellular processes, such as protein degradation, DNA repair, and signal transduction.

Ubiquitination is a highly regulated process that can be reversed by the action of deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs), which remove ubiquitin molecules from target proteins. Dysregulation of the ubiquitination pathway has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and inflammatory conditions.

Crk-associated substrate protein, often abbreviated as CAS or CAS-L (for Crk-associated substrate lymphocyte type), is a signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and survival. It is called a "substrate" because it can be phosphorylated by various kinases and serves as a platform for the assembly of signaling complexes.

CAS contains several domains that allow it to interact with other proteins, including Src homology 3 (SH3) domains, which bind to proline-rich sequences in partner proteins, and a SH2 domain, which binds to phosphorylated tyrosine residues. These interactions enable CAS to link upstream signaling events with downstream effectors, thereby regulating various cellular responses.

CAS is often found downstream of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and integrins, and has been implicated in the regulation of several signaling pathways, including the Ras/MAPK, PI3K/Akt, and JNK pathways. Mutations or dysregulation of CAS have been associated with various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "History, 20th Century" is a broad and complex topic that refers to the events, developments, and transformations that occurred throughout the world during the 1900s. It is not a medical term or concept. If you're interested in learning more about this historical period, I would recommend consulting a history textbook, reputable online resources, or speaking with a historian. They can provide detailed information about the political, social, economic, and cultural changes that took place during the 20th century.

The thorax is the central part of the human body, located between the neck and the abdomen. In medical terms, it refers to the portion of the body that contains the heart, lungs, and associated structures within a protective cage made up of the sternum (breastbone), ribs, and thoracic vertebrae. The thorax is enclosed by muscles and protected by the ribcage, which helps to maintain its structural integrity and protect the vital organs contained within it.

The thorax plays a crucial role in respiration, as it allows for the expansion and contraction of the lungs during breathing. This movement is facilitated by the flexible nature of the ribcage, which expands and contracts with each breath, allowing air to enter and exit the lungs. Additionally, the thorax serves as a conduit for major blood vessels, such as the aorta and vena cava, which carry blood to and from the heart and the rest of the body.

Understanding the anatomy and function of the thorax is essential for medical professionals, as many conditions and diseases can affect this region of the body. These may include respiratory disorders such as pneumonia or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiovascular conditions like heart attacks or aortic aneurysms, and musculoskeletal issues involving the ribs, spine, or surrounding muscles.

Life change events refer to significant changes or transitions in an individual's personal circumstances that may have an impact on their health and well-being. These events can include things like:

* Marriage or divorce
* Birth of a child or loss of a loved one
* Job loss or retirement
* Moving to a new home or city
* Changes in financial status
* Health diagnoses or serious illnesses
* Starting or ending of a significant relationship

Research has shown that life change events can have a profound effect on an individual's stress levels, mental health, and physical health. Some life change events may be positive and exciting, while others may be challenging and difficult to cope with. In either case, it is important for individuals to take care of themselves during times of transition and seek support as needed.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

Psychotic disorders are a group of severe mental health conditions characterized by distorted perceptions, thoughts, and emotions that lead to an inability to recognize reality. The two most common symptoms of psychotic disorders are hallucinations and delusions. Hallucinations are when a person sees, hears, or feels things that aren't there, while delusions are fixed, false beliefs that are not based on reality.

Other symptoms may include disorganized speech, disorganized behavior, catatonic behavior, and negative symptoms such as apathy and lack of emotional expression. Schizophrenia is the most well-known psychotic disorder, but other types include schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder, brief psychotic disorder, shared psychotic disorder, and substance-induced psychotic disorder.

Psychotic disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, brain chemistry imbalances, trauma, and substance abuse. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, therapy, and support services to help manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

CREB (Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein) is a transcription factor that plays a crucial role in regulating gene expression in response to various cellular signals. CREB binds to the cAMP response element (CRE) sequence in the promoter region of target genes and regulates their transcription.

When activated, CREB undergoes phosphorylation at a specific serine residue (Ser-133), which leads to its binding to the coactivator protein CBP/p300 and recruitment of additional transcriptional machinery to the promoter region. This results in the activation of target gene transcription.

CREB is involved in various cellular processes, including metabolism, differentiation, survival, and memory formation. Dysregulation of CREB has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and mood disorders.

Protein multimerization refers to the process where multiple protein subunits assemble together to form a complex, repetitive structure called a multimer or oligomer. This can involve the association of identical or similar protein subunits through non-covalent interactions such as hydrogen bonding, ionic bonding, and van der Waals forces. The resulting multimeric structures can have various shapes, sizes, and functions, including enzymatic activity, transport, or structural support. Protein multimerization plays a crucial role in many biological processes and is often necessary for the proper functioning of proteins within cells.

Sleep initiation and maintenance disorders are a category of sleep disorders that involve difficulty falling asleep and staying asleep throughout the night. This category includes:

1. Insomnia disorder: A persistent difficulty in initiating or maintaining sleep, or early morning awakening, despite adequate opportunity and circumstances for sleep, which causes clinically significant distress or impairment.
2. Narcolepsy: A chronic neurological disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy (sudden loss of muscle tone triggered by strong emotions), hypnagogic hallucinations (vivid, dream-like experiences that occur while falling asleep) and sleep paralysis (temporary inability to move or speak while falling asleep or waking up).
3. Breathing-related sleep disorders: A group of disorders that involve abnormal breathing patterns during sleep, such as obstructive sleep apnea and central sleep apnea, which can lead to difficulty initiating and maintaining sleep.
4. Circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders: A group of disorders that involve a misalignment between the individual's internal circadian rhythm and the external environment, leading to difficulty falling asleep and staying asleep at desired times.
5. Parasomnias: A group of disorders that involve abnormal behaviors or experiences during sleep, such as sleepwalking, night terrors, and REM sleep behavior disorder, which can disrupt sleep initiation and maintenance.

These disorders can have significant impacts on an individual's quality of life, daytime functioning, and overall health, and should be evaluated and managed by a healthcare professional with expertise in sleep medicine.

A mutant protein is a protein that has undergone a genetic mutation, resulting in an altered amino acid sequence and potentially changed structure and function. These changes can occur due to various reasons such as errors during DNA replication, exposure to mutagenic substances, or inherited genetic disorders. The alterations in the protein's structure and function may have no significant effects, lead to benign phenotypic variations, or cause diseases, depending on the type and location of the mutation. Some well-known examples of diseases caused by mutant proteins include cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, and certain types of cancer.

Systems Biology is a multidisciplinary approach to studying biological systems that involves the integration of various scientific disciplines such as biology, mathematics, physics, computer science, and engineering. It aims to understand how biological components, including genes, proteins, metabolites, cells, and organs, interact with each other within the context of the whole system. This approach emphasizes the emergent properties of biological systems that cannot be explained by studying individual components alone. Systems biology often involves the use of computational models to simulate and predict the behavior of complex biological systems and to design experiments for testing hypotheses about their functioning. The ultimate goal of systems biology is to develop a more comprehensive understanding of how biological systems function, with applications in fields such as medicine, agriculture, and bioengineering.

'Drosophila proteins' refer to the proteins that are expressed in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. This organism is a widely used model system in genetics, developmental biology, and molecular biology research. The study of Drosophila proteins has contributed significantly to our understanding of various biological processes, including gene regulation, cell signaling, development, and aging.

Some examples of well-studied Drosophila proteins include:

1. HSP70 (Heat Shock Protein 70): A chaperone protein involved in protein folding and protection from stress conditions.
2. TUBULIN: A structural protein that forms microtubules, important for cell division and intracellular transport.
3. ACTIN: A cytoskeletal protein involved in muscle contraction, cell motility, and maintenance of cell shape.
4. BETA-GALACTOSIDASE (LACZ): A reporter protein often used to monitor gene expression patterns in transgenic flies.
5. ENDOGLIN: A protein involved in the development of blood vessels during embryogenesis.
6. P53: A tumor suppressor protein that plays a crucial role in preventing cancer by regulating cell growth and division.
7. JUN-KINASE (JNK): A signaling protein involved in stress response, apoptosis, and developmental processes.
8. DECAPENTAPLEGIC (DPP): A member of the TGF-β (Transforming Growth Factor Beta) superfamily, playing essential roles in embryonic development and tissue homeostasis.

These proteins are often studied using various techniques such as biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and structural biology to understand their functions, interactions, and regulation within the cell.

Parkinsonian disorders are a group of neurological conditions characterized by motor symptoms such as bradykinesia (slowness of movement), rigidity, resting tremor, and postural instability. These symptoms are caused by the degeneration of dopamine-producing neurons in the brain, particularly in the substantia nigra pars compacta.

The most common Parkinsonian disorder is Parkinson's disease (PD), which is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. However, there are also several other secondary Parkinsonian disorders, including:

1. Drug-induced parkinsonism: This is caused by the use of certain medications, such as antipsychotics and metoclopramide.
2. Vascular parkinsonism: This is caused by small vessel disease in the brain, which can lead to similar symptoms as PD.
3. Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB): This is a type of dementia that shares some features with PD, such as the presence of alpha-synuclein protein clumps called Lewy bodies.
4. Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP): This is a rare brain disorder that affects movement, gait, and eye movements.
5. Multiple system atrophy (MSA): This is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects multiple systems in the body, including the autonomic nervous system, motor system, and cerebellum.
6. Corticobasal degeneration (CBD): This is a rare neurological disorder that affects both movement and cognition.

It's important to note that while these disorders share some symptoms with PD, they have different underlying causes and may require different treatments.

An algorithm is not a medical term, but rather a concept from computer science and mathematics. In the context of medicine, algorithms are often used to describe step-by-step procedures for diagnosing or managing medical conditions. These procedures typically involve a series of rules or decision points that help healthcare professionals make informed decisions about patient care.

For example, an algorithm for diagnosing a particular type of heart disease might involve taking a patient's medical history, performing a physical exam, ordering certain diagnostic tests, and interpreting the results in a specific way. By following this algorithm, healthcare professionals can ensure that they are using a consistent and evidence-based approach to making a diagnosis.

Algorithms can also be used to guide treatment decisions. For instance, an algorithm for managing diabetes might involve setting target blood sugar levels, recommending certain medications or lifestyle changes based on the patient's individual needs, and monitoring the patient's response to treatment over time.

Overall, algorithms are valuable tools in medicine because they help standardize clinical decision-making and ensure that patients receive high-quality care based on the latest scientific evidence.

Medical Definition of "Multiprotein Complexes" :

Multiprotein complexes are large molecular assemblies composed of two or more proteins that interact with each other to carry out specific cellular functions. These complexes can range from relatively simple dimers or trimers to massive structures containing hundreds of individual protein subunits. They are formed through a process known as protein-protein interaction, which is mediated by specialized regions on the protein surface called domains or motifs.

Multiprotein complexes play critical roles in many cellular processes, including signal transduction, gene regulation, DNA replication and repair, protein folding and degradation, and intracellular transport. The formation of these complexes is often dynamic and regulated in response to various stimuli, allowing for precise control of their function.

Disruption of multiprotein complexes can lead to a variety of diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and infectious diseases. Therefore, understanding the structure, composition, and regulation of these complexes is an important area of research in molecular biology and medicine.

Computational biology is a branch of biology that uses mathematical and computational methods to study biological data, models, and processes. It involves the development and application of algorithms, statistical models, and computational approaches to analyze and interpret large-scale molecular and phenotypic data from genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and other high-throughput technologies. The goal is to gain insights into biological systems and processes, develop predictive models, and inform experimental design and hypothesis testing in the life sciences. Computational biology encompasses a wide range of disciplines, including bioinformatics, systems biology, computational genomics, network biology, and mathematical modeling of biological systems.

SUMO-1 (Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier 1) protein is a member of the SUMO family of post-translational modifiers, which are involved in the regulation of various cellular processes such as nuclear-cytoplasmic transport, transcriptional regulation, and DNA repair. The SUMO-1 protein is covalently attached to specific lysine residues on target proteins through a process called sumoylation, which can alter the activity, localization, or stability of the modified protein. Sumoylation plays a crucial role in maintaining cellular homeostasis and has been implicated in several human diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders.

The cell cycle is a series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication. It consists of four main phases: G1 phase, S phase, G2 phase, and M phase.

During the G1 phase, the cell grows in size and synthesizes mRNA and proteins in preparation for DNA replication. In the S phase, the cell's DNA is copied, resulting in two complete sets of chromosomes. During the G2 phase, the cell continues to grow and produces more proteins and organelles necessary for cell division.

The M phase is the final stage of the cell cycle and consists of mitosis (nuclear division) and cytokinesis (cytoplasmic division). Mitosis results in two genetically identical daughter nuclei, while cytokinesis divides the cytoplasm and creates two separate daughter cells.

The cell cycle is regulated by various checkpoints that ensure the proper completion of each phase before progressing to the next. These checkpoints help prevent errors in DNA replication and division, which can lead to mutations and cancer.

In the context of medical terminology, "attitude" generally refers to the position or posture of a patient's body or a part of it. It can also refer to the mental set or disposition that a person has towards their health, illness, or healthcare providers. However, it is not a term that has a specific medical definition like other medical terminologies do.

For example, in orthopedics, "attitude" may be used to describe the position of a limb or joint during an examination or surgical procedure. In psychology, "attitude" may refer to a person's feelings, beliefs, and behaviors towards a particular object, issue, or idea related to their health.

Therefore, the meaning of "attitude" in medical terminology can vary depending on the context in which it is used.

Papillomavirus E7 proteins are small, viral regulatory proteins encoded by the E7 gene in papillomaviruses (HPVs). These proteins play a crucial role in the life cycle of HPVs and are associated with the development of various types of cancer, most notably cervical cancer.

The E7 protein functions as a transcriptional activator and can bind to and degrade the retinoblastoma protein (pRb), which is a tumor suppressor. By binding to and inactivating pRb, E7 promotes the expression of genes required for cell cycle progression, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and proliferation.

E7 proteins are also capable of inducing genetic alterations, such as chromosomal instability and DNA damage, which can contribute to the development of cancer. Additionally, E7 has been shown to inhibit apoptosis (programmed cell death) and promote angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels), further contributing to tumor growth and progression.

Overall, Papillomavirus E7 proteins are important oncogenic factors that play a central role in the development of HPV-associated cancers.

Promoter regions in genetics refer to specific DNA sequences located near the transcription start site of a gene. They serve as binding sites for RNA polymerase and various transcription factors that regulate the initiation of gene transcription. These regulatory elements help control the rate of transcription and, therefore, the level of gene expression. Promoter regions can be composed of different types of sequences, such as the TATA box and CAAT box, and their organization and composition can vary between different genes and species.

Calcineurin is a calcium-calmodulin-activated serine/threonine protein phosphatase that plays a crucial role in signal transduction pathways involved in immune response and neuronal development. It consists of two subunits: the catalytic A subunit (calcineurin A) and the regulatory B subunit (calcineurin B). Calcineurin is responsible for dephosphorylating various substrates, including transcription factors, which leads to changes in their activity and ultimately affects gene expression. In the immune system, calcineurin plays a critical role in T-cell activation by dephosphorylating the nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT), allowing it to translocate into the nucleus and induce the expression of cytokines and other genes involved in the immune response. Inhibitors of calcineurin, such as cyclosporine A and tacrolimus, are commonly used as immunosuppressive drugs to prevent organ rejection after transplantation.

In the context of medicine, "periodicity" refers to the occurrence of events or phenomena at regular intervals or cycles. This term is often used in reference to recurring symptoms or diseases that have a pattern of appearing and disappearing over time. For example, some medical conditions like menstrual cycles, sleep-wake disorders, and certain infectious diseases exhibit periodicity. It's important to note that the duration and frequency of these cycles can vary depending on the specific condition or individual.

Retinoblastoma Protein (pRb or RB1) is a tumor suppressor protein that plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle and preventing uncontrolled cell growth. It is encoded by the RB1 gene, located on chromosome 13. The retinoblastoma protein functions as a regulatory checkpoint in the cell cycle, preventing cells from progressing into the S phase (DNA synthesis phase) until certain conditions are met.

When pRb is in its active state, it binds to and inhibits the activity of E2F transcription factors, which promote the expression of genes required for DNA replication and cell cycle progression. Phosphorylation of pRb by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) leads to the release of E2F factors, allowing them to activate their target genes and drive the cell into S phase.

Mutations in the RB1 gene can result in the production of a nonfunctional or reduced amount of pRb protein, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and an increased risk of developing retinoblastoma, a rare form of eye cancer, as well as other types of tumors.

Benzodiazepines are a class of psychoactive drugs that have been widely used for their sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, and muscle relaxant properties. They act by enhancing the inhibitory effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.

Benzodiazepines are commonly prescribed for the treatment of anxiety disorders, insomnia, seizures, and muscle spasms. They can also be used as premedication before medical procedures to produce sedation, amnesia, and anxiolysis. Some examples of benzodiazepines include diazepam (Valium), alprazolam (Xanax), clonazepam (Klonopin), lorazepam (Ativan), and temazepam (Restoril).

While benzodiazepines are effective in treating various medical conditions, they can also cause physical dependence and withdrawal symptoms. Long-term use of benzodiazepines can lead to tolerance, meaning that higher doses are needed to achieve the same effect. Abrupt discontinuation of benzodiazepines can result in severe withdrawal symptoms, including seizures, hallucinations, and anxiety. Therefore, it is important to taper off benzodiazepines gradually under medical supervision.

Benzodiazepines are classified as Schedule IV controlled substances in the United States due to their potential for abuse and dependence. It is essential to use them only as directed by a healthcare provider and to be aware of their potential risks and benefits.

A facial expression is a result of the contraction or relaxation of muscles in the face that change the physical appearance of an individual's face to convey various emotions, intentions, or physical sensations. Facial expressions can be voluntary or involuntary and are a form of non-verbal communication that plays a crucial role in social interaction and conveying a person's state of mind.

The seven basic facial expressions of emotion, as proposed by Paul Ekman, include happiness, sadness, fear, disgust, surprise, anger, and contempt. These facial expressions are universally recognized across cultures and can be detected through the interpretation of specific muscle movements in the face, known as action units, which are measured and analyzed in fields such as psychology, neurology, and computer vision.

Transgenic mice are genetically modified rodents that have incorporated foreign DNA (exogenous DNA) into their own genome. This is typically done through the use of recombinant DNA technology, where a specific gene or genetic sequence of interest is isolated and then introduced into the mouse embryo. The resulting transgenic mice can then express the protein encoded by the foreign gene, allowing researchers to study its function in a living organism.

The process of creating transgenic mice usually involves microinjecting the exogenous DNA into the pronucleus of a fertilized egg, which is then implanted into a surrogate mother. The offspring that result from this procedure are screened for the presence of the foreign DNA, and those that carry the desired genetic modification are used to establish a transgenic mouse line.

Transgenic mice have been widely used in biomedical research to model human diseases, study gene function, and test new therapies. They provide a valuable tool for understanding complex biological processes and developing new treatments for a variety of medical conditions.

Cell cycle proteins are a group of regulatory proteins that control the progression of the cell cycle, which is the series of events that take place in a eukaryotic cell leading to its division and duplication. These proteins can be classified into several categories based on their functions during different stages of the cell cycle.

The major groups of cell cycle proteins include:

1. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs): CDKs are serine/threonine protein kinases that regulate key transitions in the cell cycle. They require binding to a regulatory subunit called cyclin to become active. Different CDK-cyclin complexes are activated at different stages of the cell cycle.
2. Cyclins: Cyclins are a family of regulatory proteins that bind and activate CDKs. Their levels fluctuate throughout the cell cycle, with specific cyclins expressed during particular phases. For example, cyclin D is important for the G1 to S phase transition, while cyclin B is required for the G2 to M phase transition.
3. CDK inhibitors (CKIs): CKIs are regulatory proteins that bind to and inhibit CDKs, thereby preventing their activation. CKIs can be divided into two main families: the INK4 family and the Cip/Kip family. INK4 family members specifically inhibit CDK4 and CDK6, while Cip/Kip family members inhibit a broader range of CDKs.
4. Anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C): APC/C is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets specific proteins for degradation by the 26S proteasome. During the cell cycle, APC/C regulates the metaphase to anaphase transition and the exit from mitosis by targeting securin and cyclin B for degradation.
5. Other regulatory proteins: Several other proteins play crucial roles in regulating the cell cycle, such as p53, a transcription factor that responds to DNA damage and arrests the cell cycle, and the polo-like kinases (PLKs), which are involved in various aspects of mitosis.

Overall, cell cycle proteins work together to ensure the proper progression of the cell cycle, maintain genomic stability, and prevent uncontrolled cell growth, which can lead to cancer.

Neurons, also known as nerve cells or neurocytes, are specialized cells that constitute the basic unit of the nervous system. They are responsible for receiving, processing, and transmitting information and signals within the body. Neurons have three main parts: the dendrites, the cell body (soma), and the axon. The dendrites receive signals from other neurons or sensory receptors, while the axon transmits these signals to other neurons, muscles, or glands. The junction between two neurons is called a synapse, where neurotransmitters are released to transmit the signal across the gap (synaptic cleft) to the next neuron. Neurons vary in size, shape, and structure depending on their function and location within the nervous system.

'Drosophila melanogaster' is the scientific name for a species of fruit fly that is commonly used as a model organism in various fields of biological research, including genetics, developmental biology, and evolutionary biology. Its small size, short generation time, large number of offspring, and ease of cultivation make it an ideal subject for laboratory studies. The fruit fly's genome has been fully sequenced, and many of its genes have counterparts in the human genome, which facilitates the understanding of genetic mechanisms and their role in human health and disease.

Here is a brief medical definition:

Drosophila melanogaster (droh-suh-fih-luh meh-lon-guh-ster): A species of fruit fly used extensively as a model organism in genetic, developmental, and evolutionary research. Its genome has been sequenced, revealing many genes with human counterparts, making it valuable for understanding genetic mechanisms and their role in human health and disease.

In medical and psychological terms, "affect" refers to a person's emotional or expressive state, mood, or dispositions that are outwardly manifested in their behavior, facial expressions, demeanor, or speech. Affect can be described as being congruent or incongruent with an individual's thoughts and experiences.

There are different types of affect, including:

1. Neutral affect: When a person shows no apparent emotion or displays minimal emotional expressiveness.
2. Positive affect: When a person exhibits positive emotions such as happiness, excitement, or enthusiasm.
3. Negative affect: When a person experiences and displays negative emotions like sadness, anger, or fear.
4. Blunted affect: When a person's emotional response is noticeably reduced or diminished, often observed in individuals with certain mental health conditions, such as schizophrenia.
5. Flat affect: When a person has an almost complete absence of emotional expressiveness, which can be indicative of severe depression or other mental health disorders.
6. Labile affect: When a person's emotional state fluctuates rapidly and frequently between positive and negative emotions, often observed in individuals with certain neurological conditions or mood disorders.

Clinicians may assess a patient's affect during an interview or examination to help diagnose mental health conditions, evaluate treatment progress, or monitor overall well-being.

Electromyography (EMG) is a medical diagnostic procedure that measures the electrical activity of skeletal muscles during contraction and at rest. It involves inserting a thin needle electrode into the muscle to record the electrical signals generated by the muscle fibers. These signals are then displayed on an oscilloscope and may be heard through a speaker.

EMG can help diagnose various neuromuscular disorders, such as muscle weakness, numbness, or pain, and can distinguish between muscle and nerve disorders. It is often used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests, such as nerve conduction studies, to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the nervous system.

EMG is typically performed by a neurologist or a physiatrist, and the procedure may cause some discomfort or pain, although this is usually minimal. The results of an EMG can help guide treatment decisions and monitor the progression of neuromuscular conditions over time.

Transcription factors are proteins that play a crucial role in regulating gene expression by controlling the transcription of DNA to messenger RNA (mRNA). They function by binding to specific DNA sequences, known as response elements, located in the promoter region or enhancer regions of target genes. This binding can either activate or repress the initiation of transcription, depending on the properties and interactions of the particular transcription factor. Transcription factors often act as part of a complex network of regulatory proteins that determine the precise spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development, differentiation, and homeostasis in an organism.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Germany" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country in central Europe. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

Fear is a basic human emotion that is typically characterized by a strong feeling of anxiety, apprehension, or distress in response to a perceived threat or danger. It is a natural and adaptive response that helps individuals identify and respond to potential dangers in their environment, and it can manifest as physical, emotional, and cognitive symptoms.

Physical symptoms of fear may include increased heart rate, rapid breathing, sweating, trembling, and muscle tension. Emotional symptoms may include feelings of anxiety, worry, or panic, while cognitive symptoms may include difficulty concentrating, racing thoughts, and intrusive thoughts about the perceived threat.

Fear can be a normal and adaptive response to real dangers, but it can also become excessive or irrational in some cases, leading to phobias, anxiety disorders, and other mental health conditions. In these cases, professional help may be necessary to manage and overcome the fear.

The hippocampus is a complex, curved formation in the brain that resembles a seahorse (hence its name, from the Greek word "hippos" meaning horse and "kampos" meaning sea monster). It's part of the limbic system and plays crucial roles in the formation of memories, particularly long-term ones.

This region is involved in spatial navigation and cognitive maps, allowing us to recognize locations and remember how to get to them. Additionally, it's one of the first areas affected by Alzheimer's disease, which often results in memory loss as an early symptom.

Anatomically, it consists of two main parts: the Ammon's horn (or cornu ammonis) and the dentate gyrus. These structures are made up of distinct types of neurons that contribute to different aspects of learning and memory.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

Calcium signaling is the process by which cells regulate various functions through changes in intracellular calcium ion concentrations. Calcium ions (Ca^2+^) are crucial second messengers that play a critical role in many cellular processes, including muscle contraction, neurotransmitter release, gene expression, and programmed cell death (apoptosis).

Intracellular calcium levels are tightly regulated by a complex network of channels, pumps, and exchangers located on the plasma membrane and intracellular organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria. These proteins control the influx, efflux, and storage of calcium ions within the cell.

Calcium signaling is initiated when an external signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, binds to a specific receptor on the plasma membrane. This interaction triggers the opening of ion channels, allowing extracellular Ca^2+^ to flow into the cytoplasm. In some cases, this influx of calcium ions is sufficient to activate downstream targets directly. However, in most instances, the increase in intracellular Ca^2+^ serves as a trigger for the release of additional calcium from internal stores, such as the ER.

The release of calcium from the ER is mediated by ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and inositol trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs), which are activated by specific second messengers generated in response to the initial external signal. The activation of these channels leads to a rapid increase in cytoplasmic Ca^2+^, creating a transient intracellular calcium signal known as a "calcium spark" or "calcium puff."

These localized increases in calcium concentration can then propagate throughout the cell as waves of elevated calcium, allowing for the spatial and temporal coordination of various cellular responses. The duration and amplitude of these calcium signals are finely tuned by the interplay between calcium-binding proteins, pumps, and exchangers, ensuring that appropriate responses are elicited in a controlled manner.

Dysregulation of intracellular calcium signaling has been implicated in numerous pathological conditions, including neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular disorders, and cancer. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms governing calcium homeostasis and signaling is crucial for the development of novel therapeutic strategies targeting these diseases.

Cell proliferation is the process by which cells increase in number, typically through the process of cell division. In the context of biology and medicine, it refers to the reproduction of cells that makes up living tissue, allowing growth, maintenance, and repair. It involves several stages including the transition from a phase of quiescence (G0 phase) to an active phase (G1 phase), DNA replication in the S phase, and mitosis or M phase, where the cell divides into two daughter cells.

Abnormal or uncontrolled cell proliferation is a characteristic feature of many diseases, including cancer, where deregulated cell cycle control leads to excessive and unregulated growth of cells, forming tumors that can invade surrounding tissues and metastasize to distant sites in the body.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "semantics" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Semantics is actually a branch of linguistics that deals with the study of meaning, reference, and the interpretation of signs and symbols, either individually or in combination. It is used in various fields including computer science, anthropology, psychology, and philosophy.

However, if you have any medical terms or concepts that you would like me to explain, I'd be happy to help!

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

In the context of medicine and healthcare, learning is often discussed in relation to learning abilities or disabilities that may impact an individual's capacity to acquire, process, retain, and apply new information or skills. Learning can be defined as the process of acquiring knowledge, understanding, behaviors, and skills through experience, instruction, or observation.

Learning disorders, also known as learning disabilities, are a type of neurodevelopmental disorder that affects an individual's ability to learn and process information in one or more areas, such as reading, writing, mathematics, or reasoning. These disorders are not related to intelligence or motivation but rather result from differences in the way the brain processes information.

It is important to note that learning can also be influenced by various factors, including age, cognitive abilities, physical and mental health status, cultural background, and educational experiences. Therefore, a comprehensive assessment of an individual's learning abilities and needs should take into account these various factors to provide appropriate support and interventions.

A circadian rhythm is a roughly 24-hour biological cycle that regulates various physiological and behavioral processes in living organisms. It is driven by the body's internal clock, which is primarily located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus in the brain.

The circadian rhythm controls many aspects of human physiology, including sleep-wake cycles, hormone secretion, body temperature, and metabolism. It helps to synchronize these processes with the external environment, particularly the day-night cycle caused by the rotation of the Earth.

Disruptions to the circadian rhythm can have negative effects on health, leading to conditions such as insomnia, sleep disorders, depression, bipolar disorder, and even increased risk of chronic diseases like cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Factors that can disrupt the circadian rhythm include shift work, jet lag, irregular sleep schedules, and exposure to artificial light at night.

A cell line that is derived from tumor cells and has been adapted to grow in culture. These cell lines are often used in research to study the characteristics of cancer cells, including their growth patterns, genetic changes, and responses to various treatments. They can be established from many different types of tumors, such as carcinomas, sarcomas, and leukemias. Once established, these cell lines can be grown and maintained indefinitely in the laboratory, allowing researchers to conduct experiments and studies that would not be feasible using primary tumor cells. It is important to note that tumor cell lines may not always accurately represent the behavior of the original tumor, as they can undergo genetic changes during their time in culture.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the genetic material present in the cells of organisms where it is responsible for the storage and transmission of hereditary information. DNA is a long molecule that consists of two strands coiled together to form a double helix. Each strand is made up of a series of four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - that are linked together by phosphate and sugar groups. The sequence of these bases along the length of the molecule encodes genetic information, with A always pairing with T and C always pairing with G. This base-pairing allows for the replication and transcription of DNA, which are essential processes in the functioning and reproduction of all living organisms.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Neuropeptides are small protein-like molecules that are used by neurons to communicate with each other and with other cells in the body. They are produced in the cell body of a neuron, processed from larger precursor proteins, and then transported to the nerve terminal where they are stored in secretory vesicles. When the neuron is stimulated, the vesicles fuse with the cell membrane and release their contents into the extracellular space.

Neuropeptides can act as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators, depending on their target receptors and the duration of their effects. They play important roles in a variety of physiological processes, including pain perception, appetite regulation, stress response, and social behavior. Some neuropeptides also have hormonal functions, such as oxytocin and vasopressin, which are produced in the hypothalamus and released into the bloodstream to regulate reproductive and cardiovascular function, respectively.

There are hundreds of different neuropeptides that have been identified in the nervous system, and many of them have multiple functions and interact with other signaling molecules to modulate neural activity. Dysregulation of neuropeptide systems has been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as chronic pain, addiction, depression, and anxiety.

Tertiary protein structure refers to the three-dimensional arrangement of all the elements (polypeptide chains) of a single protein molecule. It is the highest level of structural organization and results from interactions between various side chains (R groups) of the amino acids that make up the protein. These interactions, which include hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, van der Waals forces, and disulfide bridges, give the protein its unique shape and stability, which in turn determines its function. The tertiary structure of a protein can be stabilized by various factors such as temperature, pH, and the presence of certain ions. Any changes in these factors can lead to denaturation, where the protein loses its tertiary structure and thus its function.

"Motor activity" is a general term used in the field of medicine and neuroscience to refer to any kind of physical movement or action that is generated by the body's motor system. The motor system includes the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and muscles that work together to produce movements such as walking, talking, reaching for an object, or even subtle actions like moving your eyes.

Motor activity can be voluntary, meaning it is initiated intentionally by the individual, or involuntary, meaning it is triggered automatically by the nervous system without conscious control. Examples of voluntary motor activity include deliberately lifting your arm or kicking a ball, while examples of involuntary motor activity include heartbeat, digestion, and reflex actions like jerking your hand away from a hot stove.

Abnormalities in motor activity can be a sign of neurological or muscular disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, cerebral palsy, or multiple sclerosis. Assessment of motor activity is often used in the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

Genetic transcription is the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is used to create a complementary RNA molecule. This process is the first step in gene expression, where the genetic code in DNA is converted into a form that can be used to produce proteins or functional RNAs.

During transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase binds to the DNA template strand and reads the sequence of nucleotide bases. As it moves along the template, it adds complementary RNA nucleotides to the growing RNA chain, creating a single-stranded RNA molecule that is complementary to the DNA template strand. Once transcription is complete, the RNA molecule may undergo further processing before it can be translated into protein or perform its functional role in the cell.

Transcription can be either "constitutive" or "regulated." Constitutive transcription occurs at a relatively constant rate and produces essential proteins that are required for basic cellular functions. Regulated transcription, on the other hand, is subject to control by various intracellular and extracellular signals, allowing cells to respond to changing environmental conditions or developmental cues.

Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage. It is a complex phenomenon that can result from various stimuli, such as thermal, mechanical, or chemical irritation, and it can be acute or chronic. The perception of pain involves the activation of specialized nerve cells called nociceptors, which transmit signals to the brain via the spinal cord. These signals are then processed in different regions of the brain, leading to the conscious experience of pain. It's important to note that pain is a highly individual and subjective experience, and its perception can vary widely among individuals.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

Neuroblastoma is defined as a type of cancer that develops from immature nerve cells found in the fetal or early postnatal period, called neuroblasts. It typically occurs in infants and young children, with around 90% of cases diagnosed before age five. The tumors often originate in the adrenal glands but can also arise in the neck, chest, abdomen, or spine. Neuroblastoma is characterized by its ability to spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body, including bones, bone marrow, lymph nodes, and skin. The severity and prognosis of neuroblastoma can vary widely, depending on factors such as the patient's age at diagnosis, stage of the disease, and specific genetic features of the tumor.

Genetic models are theoretical frameworks used in genetics to describe and explain the inheritance patterns and genetic architecture of traits, diseases, or phenomena. These models are based on mathematical equations and statistical methods that incorporate information about gene frequencies, modes of inheritance, and the effects of environmental factors. They can be used to predict the probability of certain genetic outcomes, to understand the genetic basis of complex traits, and to inform medical management and treatment decisions.

There are several types of genetic models, including:

1. Mendelian models: These models describe the inheritance patterns of simple genetic traits that follow Mendel's laws of segregation and independent assortment. Examples include autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X-linked inheritance.
2. Complex trait models: These models describe the inheritance patterns of complex traits that are influenced by multiple genes and environmental factors. Examples include heart disease, diabetes, and cancer.
3. Population genetics models: These models describe the distribution and frequency of genetic variants within populations over time. They can be used to study evolutionary processes, such as natural selection and genetic drift.
4. Quantitative genetics models: These models describe the relationship between genetic variation and phenotypic variation in continuous traits, such as height or IQ. They can be used to estimate heritability and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that contribute to trait variation.
5. Statistical genetics models: These models use statistical methods to analyze genetic data and infer the presence of genetic associations or linkage. They can be used to identify genetic risk factors for diseases or traits.

Overall, genetic models are essential tools in genetics research and medical genetics, as they allow researchers to make predictions about genetic outcomes, test hypotheses about the genetic basis of traits and diseases, and develop strategies for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Interpersonal relations, in the context of medicine and healthcare, refer to the interactions and relationships between patients and healthcare professionals, as well as among healthcare professionals themselves. These relationships are crucial in the delivery of care and can significantly impact patient outcomes. Positive interpersonal relations can lead to improved communication, increased trust, greater patient satisfaction, and better adherence to treatment plans. On the other hand, negative or strained interpersonal relations can result in poor communication, mistrust, dissatisfaction, and non-adherence.

Healthcare professionals are trained to develop effective interpersonal skills, including active listening, empathy, respect, and cultural sensitivity, to build positive relationships with their patients. Effective interpersonal relations also involve clear and concise communication, setting appropriate boundaries, and managing conflicts in a constructive manner. In addition, positive interpersonal relations among healthcare professionals can promote collaboration, teamwork, and knowledge sharing, leading to improved patient care and safety.

Caspases are a family of protease enzymes that play essential roles in programmed cell death, also known as apoptosis. These enzymes are produced as inactive precursors and are activated when cells receive signals to undergo apoptosis. Once activated, caspases cleave specific protein substrates, leading to the characteristic morphological changes and DNA fragmentation associated with apoptotic cell death. Caspases also play roles in other cellular processes, including inflammation and differentiation. There are two types of caspases: initiator caspases (caspase-2, -8, -9, and -10) and effector caspases (caspase-3, -6, and -7). Initiator caspases are activated in response to various apoptotic signals and then activate the effector caspases, which carry out the proteolytic cleavage of cellular proteins. Dysregulation of caspase activity has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, ischemic injury, and cancer.

Transcriptional activation is the process by which a cell increases the rate of transcription of specific genes from DNA to RNA. This process is tightly regulated and plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including development, differentiation, and response to environmental stimuli.

Transcriptional activation occurs when transcription factors (proteins that bind to specific DNA sequences) interact with the promoter region of a gene and recruit co-activator proteins. These co-activators help to remodel the chromatin structure around the gene, making it more accessible for the transcription machinery to bind and initiate transcription.

Transcriptional activation can be regulated at multiple levels, including the availability and activity of transcription factors, the modification of histone proteins, and the recruitment of co-activators or co-repressors. Dysregulation of transcriptional activation has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptors are a type of ionotropic glutamate receptor, which are found in the membranes of excitatory neurons in the central nervous system. They play a crucial role in synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory processes. NMDA receptors are ligand-gated channels that are permeable to calcium ions (Ca2+) and other cations.

NMDA receptors are composed of four subunits, which can be a combination of NR1, NR2A-D, and NR3A-B subunits. The binding of the neurotransmitter glutamate to the NR2 subunit and glycine to the NR1 subunit leads to the opening of the ion channel and the influx of Ca2+ ions.

NMDA receptors have a unique property in that they require both agonist binding and membrane depolarization for full activation, making them sensitive to changes in the electrical activity of the neuron. This property allows NMDA receptors to act as coincidence detectors, playing a critical role in synaptic plasticity and learning.

Abnormal functioning of NMDA receptors has been implicated in various neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, and chronic pain. Therefore, NMDA receptors are a common target for drug development in the treatment of these conditions.

Biological models, also known as physiological models or organismal models, are simplified representations of biological systems, processes, or mechanisms that are used to understand and explain the underlying principles and relationships. These models can be theoretical (conceptual or mathematical) or physical (such as anatomical models, cell cultures, or animal models). They are widely used in biomedical research to study various phenomena, including disease pathophysiology, drug action, and therapeutic interventions.

Examples of biological models include:

1. Mathematical models: These use mathematical equations and formulas to describe complex biological systems or processes, such as population dynamics, metabolic pathways, or gene regulation networks. They can help predict the behavior of these systems under different conditions and test hypotheses about their underlying mechanisms.
2. Cell cultures: These are collections of cells grown in a controlled environment, typically in a laboratory dish or flask. They can be used to study cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene expression, or metabolism, and to test the effects of drugs or other treatments on these processes.
3. Animal models: These are living organisms, usually vertebrates like mice, rats, or non-human primates, that are used to study various aspects of human biology and disease. They can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of diseases, the mechanisms of drug action, and the safety and efficacy of new therapies.
4. Anatomical models: These are physical representations of biological structures or systems, such as plastic models of organs or tissues, that can be used for educational purposes or to plan surgical procedures. They can also serve as a basis for developing more sophisticated models, such as computer simulations or 3D-printed replicas.

Overall, biological models play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of biology and medicine, helping to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention, develop novel drugs and treatments, and improve human health.

Gene expression profiling is a laboratory technique used to measure the activity (expression) of thousands of genes at once. This technique allows researchers and clinicians to identify which genes are turned on or off in a particular cell, tissue, or organism under specific conditions, such as during health, disease, development, or in response to various treatments.

The process typically involves isolating RNA from the cells or tissues of interest, converting it into complementary DNA (cDNA), and then using microarray or high-throughput sequencing technologies to determine which genes are expressed and at what levels. The resulting data can be used to identify patterns of gene expression that are associated with specific biological states or processes, providing valuable insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms of diseases and potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

In recent years, gene expression profiling has become an essential tool in various fields, including cancer research, drug discovery, and personalized medicine, where it is used to identify biomarkers of disease, predict patient outcomes, and guide treatment decisions.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Cell differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell, or stem cell, becomes a more specialized cell type with specific functions and structures. This process involves changes in gene expression, which are regulated by various intracellular signaling pathways and transcription factors. Differentiation results in the development of distinct cell types that make up tissues and organs in multicellular organisms. It is a crucial aspect of embryonic development, tissue repair, and maintenance of homeostasis in the body.

Down-regulation is a process that occurs in response to various stimuli, where the number or sensitivity of cell surface receptors or the expression of specific genes is decreased. This process helps maintain homeostasis within cells and tissues by reducing the ability of cells to respond to certain signals or molecules.

In the context of cell surface receptors, down-regulation can occur through several mechanisms:

1. Receptor internalization: After binding to their ligands, receptors can be internalized into the cell through endocytosis. Once inside the cell, these receptors may be degraded or recycled back to the cell surface in smaller numbers.
2. Reduced receptor synthesis: Down-regulation can also occur at the transcriptional level, where the expression of genes encoding for specific receptors is decreased, leading to fewer receptors being produced.
3. Receptor desensitization: Prolonged exposure to a ligand can lead to a decrease in receptor sensitivity or affinity, making it more difficult for the cell to respond to the signal.

In the context of gene expression, down-regulation refers to the decreased transcription and/or stability of specific mRNAs, leading to reduced protein levels. This process can be induced by various factors, including microRNA (miRNA)-mediated regulation, histone modification, or DNA methylation.

Down-regulation is an essential mechanism in many physiological processes and can also contribute to the development of several diseases, such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders.

Protein precursors, also known as proproteins or prohormones, are inactive forms of proteins that undergo post-translational modification to become active. These modifications typically include cleavage of the precursor protein by specific enzymes, resulting in the release of the active protein. This process allows for the regulation and control of protein activity within the body. Protein precursors can be found in various biological processes, including the endocrine system where they serve as inactive hormones that can be converted into their active forms when needed.

I am not aware of a widely accepted medical definition for the term "software," as it is more commonly used in the context of computer science and technology. Software refers to programs, data, and instructions that are used by computers to perform various tasks. It does not have direct relevance to medical fields such as anatomy, physiology, or clinical practice. If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try to help with those instead!

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric condition that can occur in people who have experienced or witnessed a traumatic event such as a natural disaster, serious accident, war combat, rape, or violent personal assault. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5), PTSD is characterized by the following symptoms, which must last for more than one month:

1. Intrusion symptoms: These include distressing memories, nightmares, flashbacks, or intense psychological distress or reactivity to internal or external cues that symbolize or resemble an aspect of the traumatic event.
2. Avoidance symptoms: Persistent avoidance of stimuli associated with the traumatic event, including thoughts, feelings, conversations, activities, places, or people.
3. Negative alterations in cognitions and mood: This includes negative beliefs about oneself, others, or the world; distorted blame of self or others for causing the trauma; persistent negative emotional state; decreased interest in significant activities; and feelings of detachment or estrangement from others.
4. Alterations in arousal and reactivity: This includes irritable behavior and angry outbursts, reckless or self-destructive behavior, hypervigilance, exaggerated startle response, problems with concentration, and sleep disturbance.
5. Duration of symptoms: The symptoms must last for more than one month.
6. Functional significance: The symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

It is essential to note that PTSD can occur at any age and can be accompanied by various physical and mental health problems, such as depression, substance abuse, memory problems, and other difficulties in cognition. Appropriate treatment, which may include psychotherapy, medication, or a combination of both, can significantly improve the symptoms and overall quality of life for individuals with PTSD.

Aging is a complex, progressive and inevitable process of bodily changes over time, characterized by the accumulation of cellular damage and degenerative changes that eventually lead to increased vulnerability to disease and death. It involves various biological, genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors that contribute to the decline in physical and mental functions. The medical field studies aging through the discipline of gerontology, which aims to understand the underlying mechanisms of aging and develop interventions to promote healthy aging and extend the human healthspan.

The frontal lobe is the largest lobes of the human brain, located at the front part of each cerebral hemisphere and situated in front of the parietal and temporal lobes. It plays a crucial role in higher cognitive functions such as decision making, problem solving, planning, parts of social behavior, emotional expressions, physical reactions, and motor function. The frontal lobe is also responsible for what's known as "executive functions," which include the ability to focus attention, understand rules, switch focus, plan actions, and inhibit inappropriate behaviors. It is divided into five areas, each with its own specific functions: the primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, Broca's area, prefrontal cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex. Damage to the frontal lobe can result in a wide range of impairments, depending on the location and extent of the injury.

In the context of medical and biological sciences, a "binding site" refers to a specific location on a protein, molecule, or cell where another molecule can attach or bind. This binding interaction can lead to various functional changes in the original protein or molecule. The other molecule that binds to the binding site is often referred to as a ligand, which can be a small molecule, ion, or even another protein.

The binding between a ligand and its target binding site can be specific and selective, meaning that only certain ligands can bind to particular binding sites with high affinity. This specificity plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as signal transduction, enzyme catalysis, or drug action.

In the case of drug development, understanding the location and properties of binding sites on target proteins is essential for designing drugs that can selectively bind to these sites and modulate protein function. This knowledge can help create more effective and safer therapeutic options for various diseases.

Protein transport, in the context of cellular biology, refers to the process by which proteins are actively moved from one location to another within or between cells. This is a crucial mechanism for maintaining proper cell function and regulation.

Intracellular protein transport involves the movement of proteins within a single cell. Proteins can be transported across membranes (such as the nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, or plasma membrane) via specialized transport systems like vesicles and transport channels.

Intercellular protein transport refers to the movement of proteins from one cell to another, often facilitated by exocytosis (release of proteins in vesicles) and endocytosis (uptake of extracellular substances via membrane-bound vesicles). This is essential for communication between cells, immune response, and other physiological processes.

It's important to note that any disruption in protein transport can lead to various diseases, including neurological disorders, cancer, and metabolic conditions.

'Animal behavior' refers to the actions or responses of animals to various stimuli, including their interactions with the environment and other individuals. It is the study of the actions of animals, whether they are instinctual, learned, or a combination of both. Animal behavior includes communication, mating, foraging, predator avoidance, and social organization, among other things. The scientific study of animal behavior is called ethology. This field seeks to understand the evolutionary basis for behaviors as well as their physiological and psychological mechanisms.

Neuropsychological tests are a type of psychological assessment that measures cognitive functions, such as attention, memory, language, problem-solving, and perception. These tests are used to help diagnose and understand the cognitive impact of neurological conditions, including dementia, traumatic brain injury, stroke, Parkinson's disease, and other disorders that affect the brain.

The tests are typically administered by a trained neuropsychologist and can take several hours to complete. They may involve paper-and-pencil tasks, computerized tasks, or interactive activities. The results of the tests are compared to normative data to help identify any areas of cognitive weakness or strength.

Neuropsychological testing can provide valuable information for treatment planning, rehabilitation, and assessing response to treatment. It can also be used in research to better understand the neural basis of cognition and the impact of neurological conditions on cognitive function.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

The spinal cord is a major part of the nervous system, extending from the brainstem and continuing down to the lower back. It is a slender, tubular bundle of nerve fibers (axons) and support cells (glial cells) that carries signals between the brain and the rest of the body. The spinal cord primarily serves as a conduit for motor information, which travels from the brain to the muscles, and sensory information, which travels from the body to the brain. It also contains neurons that can independently process and respond to information within the spinal cord without direct input from the brain.

The spinal cord is protected by the bony vertebral column (spine) and is divided into 31 segments: 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal. Each segment corresponds to a specific region of the body and gives rise to pairs of spinal nerves that exit through the intervertebral foramina at each level.

The spinal cord is responsible for several vital functions, including:

1. Reflexes: Simple reflex actions, such as the withdrawal reflex when touching a hot surface, are mediated by the spinal cord without involving the brain.
2. Muscle control: The spinal cord carries motor signals from the brain to the muscles, enabling voluntary movement and muscle tone regulation.
3. Sensory perception: The spinal cord transmits sensory information, such as touch, temperature, pain, and vibration, from the body to the brain for processing and awareness.
4. Autonomic functions: The sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system originate in the thoracolumbar and sacral regions of the spinal cord, respectively, controlling involuntary physiological responses like heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, and respiration.

Damage to the spinal cord can result in various degrees of paralysis or loss of sensation below the level of injury, depending on the severity and location of the damage.

Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases (PSTKs) are a type of protein kinase that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to the hydroxyl side chains of serine or threonine residues on target proteins. This phosphorylation process plays a crucial role in various cellular signaling pathways, including regulation of metabolism, gene expression, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. PSTKs are involved in many physiological and pathological processes, and their dysregulation has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Cognition refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring, processing, and utilizing information. These processes include perception, attention, memory, language, problem-solving, and decision-making. Cognitive functions allow us to interact with our environment, understand and respond to stimuli, learn new skills, and remember experiences.

In a medical context, cognitive function is often assessed as part of a neurological or psychiatric evaluation. Impairments in cognition can be caused by various factors, such as brain injury, neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer's disease), infections, toxins, and mental health conditions. Assessing cognitive function helps healthcare professionals diagnose conditions, monitor disease progression, and develop treatment plans.

The cerebral cortex is the outermost layer of the brain, characterized by its intricate folded structure and wrinkled appearance. It is a region of great importance as it plays a key role in higher cognitive functions such as perception, consciousness, thought, memory, language, and attention. The cerebral cortex is divided into two hemispheres, each containing four lobes: the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. These areas are responsible for different functions, with some regions specializing in sensory processing while others are involved in motor control or associative functions. The cerebral cortex is composed of gray matter, which contains neuronal cell bodies, and is covered by a layer of white matter that consists mainly of myelinated nerve fibers.

DNA primers are short single-stranded DNA molecules that serve as a starting point for DNA synthesis. They are typically used in laboratory techniques such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The primer binds to a complementary sequence on the DNA template through base pairing, providing a free 3'-hydroxyl group for the DNA polymerase enzyme to add nucleotides and synthesize a new strand of DNA. This allows for specific and targeted amplification or analysis of a particular region of interest within a larger DNA molecule.

The double-blind method is a study design commonly used in research, including clinical trials, to minimize bias and ensure the objectivity of results. In this approach, both the participants and the researchers are unaware of which group the participants are assigned to, whether it be the experimental group or the control group. This means that neither the participants nor the researchers know who is receiving a particular treatment or placebo, thus reducing the potential for bias in the evaluation of outcomes. The assignment of participants to groups is typically done by a third party not involved in the study, and the codes are only revealed after all data have been collected and analyzed.

Magnesium is an essential mineral that plays a crucial role in various biological processes in the human body. It is the fourth most abundant cation in the body and is involved in over 300 enzymatic reactions, including protein synthesis, muscle and nerve function, blood glucose control, and blood pressure regulation. Magnesium also contributes to the structural development of bones and teeth.

In medical terms, magnesium deficiency can lead to several health issues, such as muscle cramps, weakness, heart arrhythmias, and seizures. On the other hand, excessive magnesium levels can cause symptoms like diarrhea, nausea, and muscle weakness. Magnesium supplements or magnesium-rich foods are often recommended to maintain optimal magnesium levels in the body.

Some common dietary sources of magnesium include leafy green vegetables, nuts, seeds, legumes, whole grains, and dairy products. Magnesium is also available in various forms as a dietary supplement, including magnesium oxide, magnesium citrate, magnesium chloride, and magnesium glycinate.

Protein-Tyrosine Kinases (PTKs) are a type of enzyme that plays a crucial role in various cellular functions, including signal transduction, cell growth, differentiation, and metabolism. They catalyze the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to the tyrosine residues of proteins, thereby modifying their activity, localization, or interaction with other molecules.

PTKs can be divided into two main categories: receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and non-receptor tyrosine kinases (NRTKs). RTKs are transmembrane proteins that become activated upon binding to specific ligands, such as growth factors or hormones. NRTKs, on the other hand, are intracellular enzymes that can be activated by various signals, including receptor-mediated signaling and intracellular messengers.

Dysregulation of PTK activity has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and inflammatory disorders. Therefore, PTKs are important targets for drug development and therapy.

Transfection is a term used in molecular biology that refers to the process of deliberately introducing foreign genetic material (DNA, RNA or artificial gene constructs) into cells. This is typically done using chemical or physical methods, such as lipofection or electroporation. Transfection is widely used in research and medical settings for various purposes, including studying gene function, producing proteins, developing gene therapies, and creating genetically modified organisms. It's important to note that transfection is different from transduction, which is the process of introducing genetic material into cells using viruses as vectors.

A chronic disease is a long-term medical condition that often progresses slowly over a period of years and requires ongoing management and care. These diseases are typically not fully curable, but symptoms can be managed to improve quality of life. Common chronic diseases include heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). They are often associated with advanced age, although they can also affect children and younger adults. Chronic diseases can have significant impacts on individuals' physical, emotional, and social well-being, as well as on healthcare systems and society at large.

Caspase-3 is a type of protease enzyme that plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis, or programmed cell death. It's also known as CPP32 (CPP for ced-3 protease precursor) or apopain. Caspase-3 is produced as an inactive protein that is activated when cleaved by other caspases during the early stages of apoptosis. Once activated, it cleaves a variety of cellular proteins, including structural proteins, enzymes, and signal transduction proteins, leading to the characteristic morphological and biochemical changes associated with apoptotic cell death. Caspase-3 is often referred to as the "death protease" because of its crucial role in executing the cell death program.

Carrier proteins, also known as transport proteins, are a type of protein that facilitates the movement of molecules across cell membranes. They are responsible for the selective and active transport of ions, sugars, amino acids, and other molecules from one side of the membrane to the other, against their concentration gradient. This process requires energy, usually in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).

Carrier proteins have a specific binding site for the molecule they transport, and undergo conformational changes upon binding, which allows them to move the molecule across the membrane. Once the molecule has been transported, the carrier protein returns to its original conformation, ready to bind and transport another molecule.

Carrier proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the balance of ions and other molecules inside and outside of cells, and are essential for many physiological processes, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and nutrient uptake.

A "knockout" mouse is a genetically engineered mouse in which one or more genes have been deleted or "knocked out" using molecular biology techniques. This allows researchers to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes, as well as potential associations with human diseases. The mice are generated by introducing targeted DNA modifications into embryonic stem cells, which are then used to create a live animal. Knockout mice have been widely used in biomedical research to investigate gene function, disease mechanisms, and potential therapeutic targets.

Nuclear proteins are a category of proteins that are primarily found in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell. They play crucial roles in various nuclear functions, such as DNA replication, transcription, repair, and RNA processing. This group includes structural proteins like lamins, which form the nuclear lamina, and regulatory proteins, such as histones and transcription factors, that are involved in gene expression. Nuclear localization signals (NLS) often help target these proteins to the nucleus by interacting with importin proteins during active transport across the nuclear membrane.

Apoptosis is a programmed and controlled cell death process that occurs in multicellular organisms. It is a natural process that helps maintain tissue homeostasis by eliminating damaged, infected, or unwanted cells. During apoptosis, the cell undergoes a series of morphological changes, including cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, and fragmentation into membrane-bound vesicles called apoptotic bodies. These bodies are then recognized and engulfed by neighboring cells or phagocytic cells, preventing an inflammatory response. Apoptosis is regulated by a complex network of intracellular signaling pathways that involve proteins such as caspases, Bcl-2 family members, and inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs).

HeLa cells are a type of immortalized cell line used in scientific research. They are derived from a cancer that developed in the cervical tissue of Henrietta Lacks, an African-American woman, in 1951. After her death, cells taken from her tumor were found to be capable of continuous division and growth in a laboratory setting, making them an invaluable resource for medical research.

HeLa cells have been used in a wide range of scientific studies, including research on cancer, viruses, genetics, and drug development. They were the first human cell line to be successfully cloned and are able to grow rapidly in culture, doubling their population every 20-24 hours. This has made them an essential tool for many areas of biomedical research.

It is important to note that while HeLa cells have been instrumental in numerous scientific breakthroughs, the story of their origin raises ethical questions about informed consent and the use of human tissue in research.

"Little Dragon: Machine Dreams". HMV. Archived from the original on 11 July 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2011. "Machine Dreams - ... "Machine Dreams by Little Dragon reviews". AnyDecentMusic?. Retrieved 31 January 2020. "Reviews for Machine Dreams by Little ... "Machine Dreams: Little Dragon". Amazon (Germany) (in German). Retrieved 11 August 2018. "Machine Dreams [Vinyl LP]: Little ... "Machine Dreams: Little Dragon". Amazon (US). Retrieved 11 August 2018. "Machine Dreams (Vinyl): Little Dragon". Amazon (US). ...
... on Twitter Speed Dreams on Google+ Speed Dreams on Facebook Speed Dreams community forums index page Speed Dreams ... "Speed Dreams" team on Launchpad Speed Dreams on PlayDeb.net Speed Dreams on Desura Speed Dreams on haikuware.com (CS1 maint: ... General Speed Dreams official website Speed Dreams : an Open Motorsport Sim project page on SourceForge.net Speed Dreams on the ... The Speed Dreams team (2009-2016). "Speed Dreams Wiki". Tanitimi, Oyun (June 2011). "Speed Dreams" (PDF). GNU Pardus-Linux.org ...
... is an instrumental album by roots music band Lost Dogs, released on Fools of the World records in 2005. All songs ...
... is a 1985 film by Swiss filmmaker Steff Gruber. The film premiered at the Film Festival Locarno 1985. A Swiss ... Fetish & Dreams was given its first showing in the Locarno International Film Festival competition, winning the prize for ... Dreams, was created in the USA. He started work on it in 1982. Filmed in New York, it constitutes a formal and thematic sequel ... Dreams at IMDb (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Use dmy dates from April 2019, IMDb ID ...
Morris - Shattered Dreams (CD)". Discogs.com. 19 December 2005. Retrieved 7 February 2016. "Sergey Lazarev - Shattered Dreams ... "Johnny Hates Jazz - Shattered Dreams". Swiss Singles Chart. Retrieved 3 March 2020. "Johnny Hates Jazz - Shattered Dreams". VG- ... "Johnny Hates Jazz - Shattered Dreams" (in Dutch). Single Top 100. Retrieved 3 March 2020. "Johnny Hates Jazz - Shattered Dreams ... Outside Europe, "Shattered Dreams" missed the top 20 by two places in Australia. By contrast, it was a big hit in North America ...
Loosely based on the theatre production Bombay Dreams, Colombo Dreams was a hit romantic comedy grossing almost £6,000 which ... Colombo Dreams was originally to be called I'm A Sri Lankan, Get Me Out Of Here! Sri Lanka The UCL Bloomsbury Bombay Dreams ... Colombo Dreams was a show performed by the University College London Sri Lankan Society on Friday 28 January and Saturday 29 ... The video sequence was destroyed on the night of the premiere of Colombo Dreams, but thanks to the genius of Society Treasurer/ ...
... is an album by Lester Bowie recorded for the UK based Venture label and the third album by his "Brass Fantasy" ... "Twilight Dreams" - 6:21 All compositions by Lester Bowie except as indicated Recorded April 1987 at Rawlston Recording Studios ...
... who dreams of becoming a singer, but she's faced with several difficulties associated with being a foreigner. Feathered Dreams ... Feathered Dreams is a 2012 Nigerian-Ukrainian drama film, directed by Andrew Rozhen, who also stars in the film with Omoni ... Music for Feathered Dreams was composed by Sergey Vusyk. The song "My Everything" was penned by Natalia Shamaya and performed ... Feathered Dreams was nominated for two awards at the 2013 Golden Icons Academy Movie Awards in the categories; "Best Film ...
Retrieved 14 March 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Pope Dreams at IMDb Pope Dreams at AllMovie v t ... Pope Dreams, also known as Music for My Mother, is a 2006 film written and directed by Patrick Hogan. The film won five awards ...
page: GBC Azure Dreams (PlayStation at MobyGames} Azure Dreams (Game Boy Color) at MobyGames (Articles containing Japanese- ... "Azure Dreams (PS)". Next Generation. No. 44. Imagine Media. August 1998. p. 96. Retrieved September 11, 2023. "Azure Dreams". ... Azure Dreams uses a random map generator: every time Koh enters the Tower of Monsters, the levels are randomly generated so as ... Azure Dreams is a role-playing video game developed by Konami Computer Entertainment Tokyo and published by Konami for the ...
"Impossible Dreams". Impossible Dreams title listing at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database Short film adaptation וידאו ... "Impossible Dreams" is a science fiction short story written in 2006 by Tim Pratt. It was first published in Asimov's Science ... "Impossible Dreams" won the 2007 Hugo Award for Best Short Story. Several reviews stated that the novella and movie are like the ... "Impossible Dreams" was made in Israel by Shir Comay in the Hebrew language (the Hebrew title is וידאו קסם, literally "Magic ...
Dreams' by Jozef Israels, was called one of the "icons of the exhibition. "Jozef Israëls Dreams (Dolce far niente)". Sothebys. ... Dreams or Droomen is an 1860 oil-on-canvas painting by Dutch artist Jozef Israëls. The painting is a depiction of peasant girl ... "Jozef Israëls Dutch dreams (Dolce Far Niente)". Art Salon. Archived from the original on 14 January 2023. Retrieved 14 January ... Israëls first exhibited the painting in 1859 at The Hague with the title Droomen (Dreams). The painting has had many different ...
... may refer to: Bubblegum Dreams, 1997 EP by The Queers "Bubblegum Dreams", 2017 song by Ariel Pink from the ... album Dedicated to Bobby Jameson This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Bubblegum Dreams. If an ...
Music used includes: Gail Lennon - Desire, Gail Lennon - Like A Dream, Shandi Sinnamon - Making It, Computer Dreams (1988) ... and Red's Dream, the first two short films from Pixar. The film is an hour long and features an electronic score by Music ... Computer Dreams is a 1988 film created by Digital Vision Entertainment and released by MPI Home Video. Written, produced and ... directed by Geoffrey de Valois • Reviews, film + cast • Letterboxd, retrieved 2023-04-11 Computer Dreams at IMDb v t e ( ...
"rediff.com, Movies: The Dollar Dreams review". Menon, Amarnath K. (23 August 1999). "Dollar Dreams: Is the great American dream ... Dollar Dreams explores the conflict between American dreams and human feelings. The film re-introduced social realism to Telugu ... "rediff.com, Movies: The Dollar Dreams review". M.rediff.com. 17 July 2000. Retrieved 28 August 2019. Dollar Dreams at IMDb ( ... Dollar Dreams garnered the National Film Award for Best First Film of a Director for its "taking in a very natural manner the ...
... Epitaph followed in 1996 on Head Records, with 31 tracks. Past & Present Records reissued Acid Dreams Epitaph in ... "Acid Dreams - Review". Allmusic (Macrovision Corporation). Retrieved 2009-12-05. Ranta, Alan. "Various Artists - Acid Dreams - ... Acid Dreams is an unofficial compilation album of American acid rock, garage rock and psychedelic rock songs recorded in the ... The album was heavily bootlegged, and in 1988, a compilation titled Acid Dreams Testament collected 13 of the original's 18 ...
... is a 1980 science fiction novel by American writer Janet Morris, the second in her Kerrion Space trilogy. The ... The story concludes in the third book, Earth Dreams. v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different ...
"Haligonians Neon Dreams are living the dream as they tour new EP, To You - Kelowna News". Kelowna Capital News. Retrieved 2016- ... "Halifax EDM group Neon Dreams one step closer to their musical dreams , The Chronicle Herald". m.thechronicleherald.ca. ... Neon Dreams won the JUNO Award for Breakthrough Group of the Year in 2020 and performed "We Were Kings" on the broadcast. ... Neon Dreams is a Canadian alt-pop duo consisting of vocalist Frank Kadillac and drummer Adrian Morris. They write and produce ...
... NewsCenter, often referred to simply as Common Dreams, is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit, U.S.-based news website with a ... Common Dreams publishes news stories, editorials, and a newswire of current, breaking news. Common Dreams also re-publishes ... Inspiration for the name, "Common Dreams", came from the book title, The Twilight of Common Dreams: Why America is Wracked by ... Common Dreams is also known for its strong anti-war stance. Common Dreams is funded through subscriptions and donations from ...
D CTI Records/Vineland Dreams Grogan, G NY Times review Vineland Dreams at CD Universe Vineland Dreams at AllMusic Steve Laury ... Vineland Dreams is an album by American guitarist Steve Laury released in 1996, and recorded for the CTI label. The New York ... 01 When Dreams Come True (Steve Laury) - 6:24 The Moon Beneath The Clouds (Steve Laury) - 5:34 I'll Be There (Hal Davis / Berry ... 26 Vineland Dreams (Steve Laury / Ron Satterfield) - 5:30 Let's Stay Together (Wille Mitchell/Al Green/Al Jackson) - 5: ...
"DMP licenses Megami DX, Garden Dreams". Anime News Network. 2007-04-03. Retrieved 2009-04-16. "Garden Dreams". Digital Manga ... Garden Dreams (彼は花園で夢を見る, Kare wa Hanazono de Yume wo Miru) is a one-shot Japanese manga written and illustrated by Fumi ... Garden Dreams (manga) at Anime News Network's encyclopedia v t e (CS1 Japanese-language sources (ja), CS1 maint: unfit URL, ... Dacey, Katherine (March 14, 2008). "Garden Dreams (DMP)". Pop Shock Culture. Archived from the original on January 19, 2011. ...
... ". Release Magazine. "Jakalope - It Dreams". Tiny Mix Tapes. "Discogs entry". Retrieved October 28, 2013. v t e ( ... It Dreams is the debut album by Jakalope, released on October 26, 2004. The music videos made for the album are known for the ...
"NorthSideBenji Caviar Dreams". exclaim.ca. "NorthSideBenji Premieres Debut EP "Caviar Dreams"". January 18, 2019. " ... Caviar Dreams is the debut extended play by Toronto rapper NorthSideBenji. Although the album was due to be released in July ... "NORTHSIDEBENJI - CAVIAR DREAMS [EP]". crescendo1. "Premiere: Northside Benji & Chip Join Bouncer In "Winner" Visuals". October ... "Northsidebenji - Caviar Dreams Genius". Genius. Retrieved October 4, 2021. (Articles with short description, Short description ...
... " [Inna, masculine look and Moldovan accent in "P.O.H.U.I" feat. Carla's Dreams] (in Romanian). InfoMusic.ro. ... "Carla's Dreams și EMAA lansează prima piesă în colaborare: "N-aud"" [Carla's Dreams and EMAA release first collaboration track ... "Ngoc by Carla's Dreams". Apple Music. Retrieved 7 May 2016. Raluca, Chirilă (16 September 2016). "Carla's Dreams, 7 trofee la ... Carla's Dreams at Wikipedia's sister projects Media from Commons Data from Wikidata Official website Carla's Dreams discography ...
"Dutchcharts.nl - BoyWithUke - Serotonin Dreams" (in Dutch). Hung Medien. Retrieved May 18, 2023. "BoyWithUke: Serotonin Dreams ... Serotonin Dreams is the third studio album by American singer BoyWithUke, and his first on a major label. It was released on ... Click "TYTUŁ" and enter Serotonin Dreams in the search box. (CS1 Polish-language sources (pl), Use mdy dates from May 2023, ... "BoyWithUke - Serotonin Dreams Album Reviews, Songs & More". AllMusic. Retrieved May 18, 2023. Krueger, Jonah (April 27, 2022 ...
... is an alternative rock album recorded by American band Dr Manhattan, co-produced by Chris Conley (frontman of Saves ...
... mixed and mastered by Joey Sturgis Dreams EP at Sputnik "We Came As Romans - Dreams". Discogs.com. Childers, Chad (November 19 ... Dreams is the debut EP by American metalcore band We Came as Romans. It was released on December 2, 2008 and produced by Joey ... The songs "Dreams" and "Intentions" were later re-recorded for their 2009 full-length album To Plant a Seed. The album was ...
... - (Uzbek: Rangsiz tushlar) is a psychological drama directed by Ayub Shahobiddinov in 2020. The film features ... "Ayub Shakhobiddinov's "Colorless Dreams" gets into another international film festival , Embassy of the Republic of Uzbekistan ... "Colorless Dreams (2020) - Asiatica Film Festival". mymovies.it (in Italian). Retrieved February 13, 2022. "Ayub ... "Colorless dreams" was awarded Best Screenplay at Cinemaking International Film Festival in Dhaka, Bangladesh. ""Узбеккино" ...
"Lisa Mitchell - Neopolitan Dreams" (in German). GfK Entertainment charts. Retrieved 5 August 2016. "Neopolitan Dreams - Single ... "Neopolitan Dreams - Single US". iTunes US. Archived from the original on 23 September 2016. Retrieved 5 August 2016. v t e (Use ... "Neopolitan Dreams" is a song performed and written by Australian singer-songwriter Lisa Mitchell from her second extended play ... "Lisa Mitchell - Neopolitan Dreams [Official Video]". 5 September 2008. Archived from the original on 14 October 2016. Retrieved ...
... at IMDb v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Use mdy dates ... Matching Dreams is a 1916 American short comedy film produced by the American Film Manufacturing Company, released by Mutual ... Sylvia Ashton Jimsy Maye Vivian Rich Gayne Whitman (as Alfred Vosburgh) "Progressive Silent Film List: Matching Dreams". Silent ...
OR. Please fill out our enquiry form and the local team will be in touch to arrange your luxury car hire. All fields are mandatory ...
"Little Dragon: Machine Dreams". HMV. Archived from the original on 11 July 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2011. "Machine Dreams - ... "Machine Dreams by Little Dragon reviews". AnyDecentMusic?. Retrieved 31 January 2020. "Reviews for Machine Dreams by Little ... "Machine Dreams: Little Dragon". Amazon (Germany) (in German). Retrieved 11 August 2018. "Machine Dreams [Vinyl LP]: Little ... "Machine Dreams: Little Dragon". Amazon (US). Retrieved 11 August 2018. "Machine Dreams (Vinyl): Little Dragon". Amazon (US). ...
With offices in Park Ridge and Evanston, Have Dreams offers individualized after-school programs, vocational, life skills an ... Have Dreams also provides best-practice autism training for professionals and individual, in-home and school consultative ... With offices in Park Ridge and Evanston, Have Dreams offers individualized after-school programs, vocational, life skills and ... With offices in Park Ridge and Evanston, Have Dreams offers individualized after-school programs, vocational, life skills and ...
PS VR UPDATE Watch your Dreams come to life in front of your eyes in virtual reality. If you own the full Dreams™ game and a PS ... Want to learn to make your own games Dreams™ also gives you the tools and tutorials to create games, memes, music, art and more ... even some genres that may not have existed before Dreams™. With new games and experiences being published every day, there is ... VR headset, you can access the new Dreams™ VR tools, play new VR mini-games created by Media Molecule and create your own VR ...
Source for information on Hoop Dreams: International Dictionary of Films and Filmmakers dictionary. ... Berkow, Ira, "Dreaming Hoop Dreams," in the New York Times, 9 October 1994. ... Kornheiser, Tony, "Living a Dream and Dreaming to Live," in the Washington Post, 3 November 1994. ... Hoop Dreams is an up-close-and-personal look at five years in the lives of William and Arthur. It opens with their enrollment ...
The peaceful Realm of Dreams is about to be consumed by a terrible and maleficent nightmare. You must venture into the darkness ... Includes 9 items: Skyborn, Labyrinthine Dreams, Heroes of Legionwood, Legionwood 2: Rise of the Eternals Realm, Sweet Lily ... Includes 4 items: 3 Stars of Destiny, Sweet Lily Dreams, Whisper of a Rose, The Princess Heart ... Sweet Lily Dreams weaves an intricate RPG tapestry where charming facades mask profound, mature themes. Accompanied by her ...
https://www.mediafire.com/file/hn9v25miei77w29/Dice_Dreams__v1.61.0.12513__Mod.apk/file. .header { position: absolute; width: ...
I may simply speak from my own experience. None of the concepts and insights I share are inherently true or false, correct or incorrect. Table Of Contents Chapter 1: The Basics Chapter 2: You Must Grow Chapter 3: Visible vs. Invisible Chapter 4: Proclamations Chapter 5: What Is Your Financial Future Chapter 6: Verbal Training Chapter 7: Modeling Chapter 8: Particular Incidents Imported from ProductTunnel·com
CFO Dive serves financial industry leadership with the insights needed to navigate industry trends and forces while managing the shifting financial, economic, regulatory, technological and geopolitical risks within the financial services field.
How to Recall Dreams. http://the-dream-collective.com/How_to_Recall_Dreams.html. But what if you DO remember your dream and it ... Dream happy.. Wishing you pleasant dreams,. Chi. Lori Chidori Phillips, Dreams Editor http://dreams.bellaonline.com www.the- ... Do you want to know what your dreams mean? Explore the language of dreams with Lori Chidori Phillips, an intuitive dream ... Unsubscribe from the Dreams Newsletter Online Newsletter Archive for Dreams Site Master List of BellaOnline Newsletters ...
Many factors affect a persons ability to remember their dreams. These include sleep hygiene practices and differences in brain ... How do we dream and what exactly are nightmares? What are lucid dreams, wet dreams, and which dreams do we remember? This ... Why we might dream. Dreaming usually occurs. during REM sleep. People who wake up during REM sleep often report having dream ... The reasons that we dream and the function (or functions) of dreams remain unclear. However, we do know that everyone dreams ...
The dreams of video game players suggest that nocturnal visions have a practical role: helping us to learn new skills ... Doomed dreams. On the second night, nearly everyone dreamed about Doom and about half dreamed about the laboratory. However, ... "Most of the dream studies that have come out have been either just categorising whats in the dreams or seriously driven by ... Volunteers who dreamed most about Doom didnt see the biggest gains.. "If youre too obsessed about something, youre dreaming ...
They saw themselves one step closer to their dream of being engineers helping others achieve their dreams. They witnessed the ... gave the students a personal revelation of how engineering can fulfill dreams and touch lives in positive ways. ...
City Of Dreams. 34 Stories * This iconic south Seattle pastry school may be shuttered. Most Seattle bakeries have employed ... Like so many children of immigrants, Che Sehyun was raised to pursue the traditional American dream: college and a professional ...
Possible Dreams Registration On Monday evening, January 28, Team Haverhill will host its annual, community-wide conversation ... Heres your chance to make new connections, celebrate community progress, and share the hopes and dreams that will take ... Happy New Year! Dont miss our announcement of Team Haverhill initiatives for 2013 at "Possible Dreams on January 28 ( ... called Possible Dreams. This years theme is "Eyes on the Stars, Feet on the Ground," inviting participants into the zone where ...
Denni received a dream vacation to Italy, one years salary and money to pay off her childrens student loans. Find out how ...
When harvesting dreams, make sure you share the victory with all the champions who supported the dream and brought it to ... Harvesting Dreams. There is nothing better than reaping what you sowed by gathering success stories and harvesting dreams. ... Here are a couple of dreams my team recently harvested. An elected city official was seeking funding to study a street ... By using the farming methods that I have outlined here, these successful seeds grew into harvestable dreams with great yields ...
Latest Justin Pearson news and opinion at Common Dreams, an independent and progressive news outlet since 1997. Stay informed ... As Common Dreams previously reported, the Tennessee Houses GOP supermajority on Monday barred state Rep. Jones (D-52) from ...
Lofty Dreams. Ready to claim his independence, Gabe wants to move out of his Moms place and into a party palace of his own. ...
With lightning fast playability and full table scrolling, Pinball dreams is the only Pinball simulator worth playing. Whether ... With lightning fast playability and full table scrolling, Pinball dreams is the only Pinball simulator worth playing. Whether ...
C. G. Jung took the review of dreams ... ... been fixated on dreams and dream interpretation since the dream ... Remembering dreams, and then understanding what type of dream it was, and the significance, if any, of the dream, is therefore ... Western psychology has been fixated on dreams and dream interpretation since the dream interpretation work of Sigmund Freud. C ... However, for most people they only seem to have a faint recollection of specific dreams if they are the last dream during which ...
Lucid dreaming is a phenomenon in which while asleep, you become aware of your dream state, and you can take control of the ... Thats the stage in which we are immersed in the dreaming experience, having the most vivid and realistic dreams. While in REM ... Sleep and dreams have fascinated people for centuries and yet, most that we know about them is based on theories. Sleep ... Having the ability to consciously focus thoughts and intentions to shape and change the story of dreams allows us to learn new ...
In his last days, Michael Jackson apparently dreamed the impossible dream of owning a 10-acre Las Vegas estate he dubbed ...
"Why didnt you call me up and tell me about your dream?" he asked. "They say that the more you talk about bad dreams, the ... "I had another bad dream," she told her fiance. "It was about you again. You and your ex-girlfriend were kissing. I yelled at ... He didnt know what to do. He wanted her to have pleasant dreams. He wanted her to have a life without stress. He wanted her to ... She disagreed. She thought that the only solution was to break up and be just friends. She loved him, but these dreams had ...
I started to wake up and knew I was dreaming and decided Id better quit dreaming or Id forget what the original dream was. ... DREAMS OF EMERALDS by Dee Finney B I R T H S T O N E S come from the High Priests breastplate. Each tribe had its own jewel. ... I woke up and couldnt remember how the dream ended ... and fell asleep again and the dream continued. Now, I was writing down ... DEES DREAMS AND VISIONS ARCHIVE PAGE DREAMS OF THE GREAT EARTHCHANGES. MAIN INDEX ...
Whats the meaning of those bizarre coronavirus dreams plaguing you during the Covid-19 pandemic? Heres what experts think. ... Theres another dream theory - the mood regulatory function theory - that says dreams are for problem solving through emotional ... The science behind bizarre quarantine dreams Researchers still dont know why we dream, said Jason Ellis, a psychology ... "I dreamed that I encountered a duck hanging out in deep snow," wrote John Johnson in a Tweet on April 8. "I asked the duck if ...
Read reviews, view photos, see special offers, and contact Sweet Dreams Catering directly on The Knot. ... Sweet Dreams Catering is a Catering in Meriden, KS. ... Sweet Dreams did an amazing job with the meal. Ginny is very ... Sweet Dreams Catering was the first caterer I looked at and I knew that I had found the one! Ginny was great to work with and ... Sweet Dreams Catering was absolutely a nightmare. The cake lady messed up our grooms cake, and when she drove to our venue to ...
Paper Dreams explores how human creativity can be supported by artificial intelligence.Prior research on AI and creativity has ...
  • DREAMS in South Africa has reached over 305,000 adolescent girls and young women (AGYW), with nearly 85,000 AGYW completing a core package of prevention services in 2022. (cdc.gov)
  • 2020. Brand New Nation: Capitalist Dreams and Nationalist Designs, Stanford: Stanford University Press. (lu.se)
  • That's the stage in which we are immersed in the dreaming experience, having the most vivid and realistic dreams. (behance.net)
  • Vivid dreams may serve as coping mechanisms, or our brain's way of processing novel circumstances. (cnn.com)
  • Then, something strange happens as we enter the rapid eye movement (REM) stage of sleep, where the most vivid dreams occur. (livescience.com)
  • New York resident Paola Fernandez says she had a vivid dream involving bee honey. (abc15.com)
  • Frequent waking means the dreams are still fresh when waking, so they may seem much more vivid than they normally would if sleep had endured throughout the entire night. (pregnancy-info.net)
  • Vivid dreams can be funny and can clearly speak of things you're feeling or experiencing. (pregnancy-info.net)
  • What's more, the more people dream during the light sleep characterised by rapid eye movements (REM), the better they recall memories . (newscientist.com)
  • In a 2017 study published in the journal Frontiers in Human Neuroscience , researchers in France monitored sleep patterns in 18 people who reported remembering their dreams almost every day, and 18 others who rarely remembered their dreams. (livescience.com)
  • The Mother writes: "This [remembering one's dreams] is not so necessary. (selfgrowth.com)
  • To remember one's dreams - that's in the morning … In the morning when you get up, you must not be in a hurry. (selfgrowth.com)
  • But it's important not to lose sight of one's dreams. (porsche.com)
  • In one 2018 study , researchers attempted to establish if a person's brain structure influences how well they recall their dreams. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Although researchers can observe, record, and analyze brain activity during sleep, they cannot identify exactly when a person is dreaming or determine the contents of a person's dreams. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Several factors can influence a person's ability to remember their dreams. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Specifically, he was looking for dreams that had happened before he had any normal knowledge of the person's actual death, and where he was subsequently able to verify whether the person was still alive, and if they weren't, the date of their death. (psychologytoday.com)
  • He then counted the number of days that had elapsed between each dream and the person's date of death. (psychologytoday.com)
  • On the other hand, it's important to point out that the average length of time between one of Paquette's death dreams and the person's actual death was a whopping 2208 days or 6 years. (psychologytoday.com)
  • While this is significantly less than the average length of time between non-death dreams and the person's death (which was 4297 days, or 12 years), it's clear that the mere fact that one has a death-related dream about someone can't be relied upon to pinpoint that person's date of death with any accuracy. (psychologytoday.com)
  • To estimate the fraction of each person's dreams that were devoted to the video game, the researchers also asked volunteers to list things they associated with Doom and things they associated with the sleep lab in general. (newscientist.com)
  • Sigmund Freud thought dreams were a window into our unfulfilled sexual desires. (newscientist.com)
  • Western psychology has been fixated on dreams and dream interpretation since the dream interpretation work of Sigmund Freud. (selfgrowth.com)
  • On the first night, the volunteers did not play any video games, but researchers woke them during REM sleep - the stage of sleep most associated with dreaming - and asked them to recall their dreams. (newscientist.com)
  • Why do some people forget their dreams? (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Most people dream every night, but many do not remember their dreams when they wake up. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Some people may recall brief, obscure fragments of a dream, while others have absolutely no recollection of them. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This article will attempt to answer the question of why some people forget their dreams. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Everyone dreams, but many people do not remember their dreams upon waking. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In a 2016 article in the journal Behavioral and Brain Sciences , researchers posit that people forget their dreams due to changing levels of acetylcholine and norepinephrine during sleep. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The authors of a 2014 study found that people who had high dream recall also showed increased blood flow in the TPJ and MPFC regions of their brains. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • After all, who's keeping track of all the death dreams people have that don't come true? (psychologytoday.com)
  • Paquette began his investigation by combing his personal dream database for dreams that suggested the death of one of the people who were in the dream. (psychologytoday.com)
  • He ended up with 87 dreams featuring 50 identifiable people. (psychologytoday.com)
  • For the 12 people who were now dead, Paquette went back into his dream database and located all of the dreams he'd had about them, both those related to death and those that had nothing to do with it. (psychologytoday.com)
  • He discovered that, for 9 out of the 12 people who had died, his death-related dreams of them occurred, on average, closer to their day of death than did the non-death-related dreams. (psychologytoday.com)
  • And, when the statistics for all 12 of the people were combined, it still turned out that the death dreams were on average significantly closer to the date of death than were Paquette's other dreams about those individuals. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Keep in mind, too, that 76% of the people whose deaths Paquette dreamed about during those 25 years were still alive at the time of his analysis! (psychologytoday.com)
  • Sleep and dreams have fascinated people for centuries and yet, most that we know about them is based on theories. (behance.net)
  • Dreams have always had an outsized importance for people, and ancient cultures had shaman priests who were adept at interpreting dreams . (selfgrowth.com)
  • However, for most people they only seem to have a faint recollection of specific dreams if they are the last dream during which they woke up. (selfgrowth.com)
  • In today's world, with the prevalence of wakeup alarms, people are brought quickly to a waking state with no real transitional time to collect oneself and thereby recall the dreams. (selfgrowth.com)
  • So the fantastical dreams people are reporting are most likely to be quite REM-based," Ellis said. (cnn.com)
  • Cecily hangs up the phone and sleeps] [Cut to people dreaming of themselves in a busy streets of the city. (jt.org)
  • We have a tendency to immediately forget dreams, and it's likely that people who rarely report dreams are just forgetting them more easily," said Thomas Andrillon, a neuroscientist at Monash University in Melbourne, Australia. (livescience.com)
  • It might be hard to believe that you had a dream if you don't remember anything, but studies consistently show that even people who haven't recalled a single dream in decades or even their entire lifetime, do, in fact, recall them if they are awakened at the right moment, Andrillon said. (livescience.com)
  • She says there are a lot of commonalities between dreams people are having now and dreams people experienced during other traumatic events in modern history. (abc15.com)
  • During this pandemic, people have also been dreaming about contracting the virus. (abc15.com)
  • People will dream either realistically that they're having trouble breathing or they're spiking a fever, or they'll have unrealistic things like one woman looked down at her stomach and saw blue stripes and in her dream that was supposed to be the first sign of coronavirus. (abc15.com)
  • The best technique to decrease repetitive anxiety dreams is to think about what you would like to dream about, maybe there's a person you're not getting to see, or a place you'd like to visit, or lots of people like flying dreams, or maybe you've had another dream that you enjoyed in the past," she said. (abc15.com)
  • In fact, multiple studies have shown that when people are deprived of sleep, and thus kept from dreaming, they will eventually go mad from the strain of it. (crosswalk.com)
  • But if you're like most people, you've either sequestered those dreams in the back of your heart because they are so utterly impractical (this is what you tell yourself to justify your choice), or else you struggle with them constantly, but never quite go so far as to actually do anything about them. (crosswalk.com)
  • In another experiment the computers began to deliver "an endless stream of new impressions," which some people are referring to as "dreams. (developer.com)
  • Some people feel that these types of dreams are just the fears of becoming a parent that comes out in dream form and others discount them entirely. (pregnancy-info.net)
  • Explore a massive world of classic tales, folklore and dreams. (steampowered.com)
  • Explore the language of dreams with Lori Chidori Phillips, an intuitive dream communicator. (bellaonline.com)
  • Explore the most appealing deals available for Galapagos Dreams, ensuring you get the best value for your stay. (hotelscombined.com)
  • Researchers still don't know why we dream, said Jason Ellis, a psychology professor at Northumbria University and director of the Northumbria Centre for Sleep Research. (cnn.com)
  • If you've been having bizarre dreams during the pandemic , you're not alone. (cnn.com)
  • The stress of a pandemic - with its family, work and mental troubles - can result in dreams that are equally upsetting, as dreams can not only help us cope but also reflect reality. (cnn.com)
  • What's odd about some of our pandemic dreams isn't only the content of them or the fact that we're having them. (cnn.com)
  • Pandemic causing weird dreams? (abc15.com)
  • Pandemic causing you to have weird dreams? (abc15.com)
  • But have you noticed your dreams are weirder than normal since the pandemic started? (abc15.com)
  • She analyzes dreams after crises like WWII, 9/11, and now, the COVID-19 pandemic. (abc15.com)
  • In his last days, Michael Jackson apparently dreamed the impossible dream of owning a 10-acre Las Vegas estate he dubbed Wonderland. (thedailybeast.com)
  • Lucid dreaming occurs in the sleep stage known as REM sleep (rapid eye movement). (behance.net)
  • Western science took up the study of sleep cycles and determined that a stage they identified as REM sleep (rapid eye movement) was the apparent time when dreaming occurs, and they determined that REM sleep reoccurs in cycles through the night, so that the individual will have multiple dream episodes. (selfgrowth.com)
  • These dreams mostly occur during REM - or rapid eye movement - sleep, our deepest phase of sleep that occurs in intervals during the night and is characterized by rapid eye movements, more dreaming and bodily movement and faster heart rate and breathing. (cnn.com)
  • The new HPC resource at Lund University, COSMOS, will be installed during the autumn and COSMOS Dreams is a special initiative to help both new and experienced users to make the most of the new resource. (lu.se)
  • If you have an idea how you would like use the computational resources, but do not know how to achieve this, you now have the opportunity to submit a proposal to COSMOS Dreams. (lu.se)
  • Submit your proposal through the COSMOS Dreams survey no later than 25 November. (lu.se)
  • On the second night, nearly everyone dreamed about Doom and about half dreamed about the laboratory. (newscientist.com)
  • Why were the neuronal patterns traced in the dreams of Brownie, a mature laboratory rat, the virtual opposite of those detected during his waking hours? (discovermagazine.com)
  • And while sleep is essential, a high-quality dream could be the key to achieving an even healthier and happier life. (behance.net)
  • But whether the specific content of dreams plays a role in this sleep-learning process wasn't clear. (newscientist.com)
  • With offices in Park Ridge and Evanston, Have Dreams offers individualized after-school programs, vocational, life skills and transition to employment programs, along with diagnostic and family support services. (idealist.org)
  • Bring your brilliant video game ideas to life in no time at all, with Dreams' speedy and intuitive design tools. (playstation.com)
  • Remembering dreams, and then understanding what type of dream it was, and the significance, if any, of the dream, is therefore something that may take on a real value, particularly given the amount of time in one's life spent sleeping and dreaming. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Or we might dream of past chapters in life that were less stressful. (cnn.com)
  • There's the evolutionary theory that says we use dreams to try out different scenarios in a safe environment" that might be challenging or threatening in real life, Ellis said. (cnn.com)
  • Live an extraordinary life and awaken your dreams! (thesecret.tv)
  • You spend a third of your life asleep, a good chunk of which involves dreaming. (livescience.com)
  • His rats led a sheltered, uneventful existence before they were introduced to the track and an equally boring life after, which he suspects left them with simple dreams. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Any crisis tends to stir up our dream life a little bit for psychological reasons," Harvard dream researcher Deirdre Barrett said. (abc15.com)
  • Dreaming is essential to life. (crosswalk.com)
  • Because dreaming is so critical to life, it's where I begin my coaching work with all of my clients. (crosswalk.com)
  • There is a God-inspired joy that comes from really digging into the core of who God created you to be and uncovering the wondrous dreams that God implanted there for your life and calling. (crosswalk.com)
  • Some may dismiss the reality of prophecy and premonition but others know better, usually through their own personal experiences with prophetic dreams. (bellaonline.com)
  • There are women who clearly have a prophetic dream where they see the labor, delivery and baby only to experience it exactly. (pregnancy-info.net)
  • Having said that - not all dreams are prophetic and it is important to treat the interpretation of them lightly, if at all. (pregnancy-info.net)
  • A dream is a series of images, thoughts, and sensations that occur in the mind during sleep. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Currently, dream research relies on anecdotal evidence and people's ability to recall and then explain their dreams in an interview. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • When we look at people's brains when they're sleeping, you can actually tell differences between when they're dreaming and when they're not. (cnn.com)
  • Barrett says many people's dreams have also involved political figures or other celebrities. (abc15.com)
  • For individuals, during "Wave Month, we've negotiated an additional shipboard credit on every 6 night or longer cruise booked with Cruise Dreams. (prweb.com)
  • While this might explain why dream memories are so fleeting , it doesn't mean that your hippocampus has been inactive throughout the night. (livescience.com)
  • The team found that compared with low-dream recallers, high recallers woke up more frequently during the night. (livescience.com)
  • He was dreaming up some wacky new experiment every night. (discovermagazine.com)
  • He says his change in routine has thrown off his sleeping schedule, and his dreams seem to be getting wilder by the night. (abc15.com)
  • The external changes are easy to see, the not so obvious but equally remarkable changes that parallel the external are often lived out in the dreams a pregnant woman has at night. (pregnancy-info.net)
  • For 25 years from 1989 to 2014, Paquette carefully recorded 11,779 of his dreams. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Amy Madigan and Kevin Costner star as Annie and Ray Kinsella in Field of Dreams (1989). (mentalfloss.com)
  • Ray Liotta stars as Shoeless Joe Jackson in Field of Dreams (1989). (mentalfloss.com)
  • Evaluating the impact of the DREAMS partnership to reduce HIV incidence among adolescent girls and young women in four settings: a study protocol. (bvsalud.org)
  • The act of dreaming is a universal but poorly understood experience. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Allison's husband is the one who reported this experience to dream researcher Dr. David Ryback. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Those with little experience of Doom activated brain areas that control their hands both while playing the game and while sleeping - and presumably dreaming. (newscientist.com)
  • Discover other properties in Puerto Ayora that offer a similar experience and ambiance to Galapagos Dreams. (hotelscombined.com)
  • There's another dream theory - the mood regulatory function theory - that says dreams are for problem solving through emotional issues that we experience. (cnn.com)
  • We were very pleased with our experience with Sweet Dreams catering. (theknot.com)
  • Researchers have long known that animals experience dreamlike states, but Wilson's experiment breaks new ground, offering a clue to why humans dream. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Ogden (2010a) presents us with a theory of the clinic in which dreaming is taken as a function of unconscious elaboration, being the subject's inability to "dream his emotional experience" an indicator of psychological suffering. (bvsalud.org)
  • Discover how you can turn anything in your imagination into reality with this run through of the basics in Dreams. (playstation.com)
  • Before long, they'll actually begin dreaming while they are still awake, and lose the capacity to discern the difference between their dream and reality. (crosswalk.com)
  • But I have learned not to give up because giving up will cause your dream not to be a reality. (cdc.gov)
  • Eva's dream of starting a business became a reality when she encountered the DREAMS program. (cdc.gov)
  • Further insights into dreaming and learning came from a presentation at the same conference from Stickgold and his colleague Erin Wamsley . (newscientist.com)
  • Discover essential information, amenities, and features of Galapagos Dreams, providing insights into what to expect during your stay. (hotelscombined.com)
  • Barrett is a dream researcher at Harvard University and the author of The Committee of Sleep . (abc15.com)
  • The brain matter density of the amygdala and hippocampus did not significantly differ between the high and low dream recall groups. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • So, you could have this window where you wake up with a dream in your short-term memory, but since the hippocampus is not fully awake yet, your brain is not able to keep that memory," Andrillon told Live Science. (livescience.com)
  • As Common Dreams previously reported , the Tennessee House's GOP supermajority on Monday barred state Rep. Jones (D-52) from speaking after House Speaker Cameron Sexton (R-25) determined that he violated the chamber's rules-which came shortly after the Democratic lawmaker announced plans to call for a vote of no confidence targeting the Republican speaker. (commondreams.org)
  • Machine Dreams is the second studio album by Swedish electronic music band Little Dragon. (wikipedia.org)
  • In making Machine Dreams, Little Dragon focused more on making uptempo dance tracks suited for live performances than on ballads like they did on their self-titled debut album. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vocalist Yukimi Nagano described the sound and style of Machine Dreams as more "anonymous", electronic and pop-infused than the "naked" sound of their debut. (wikipedia.org)
  • Japanese artist Hideyuki Katsumata, whom the group met via Myspace, was responsible for making the cover art of Machine Dreams. (wikipedia.org)
  • Machine Dreams received generally positive reviews from music critics. (wikipedia.org)
  • All tracks are written by Little Dragon Credits adapted from the liner notes of Machine Dreams. (wikipedia.org)
  • Denni received a dream vacation to Italy, one year's salary and money to pay off her children's student loans. (oprah.com)
  • This allows you to direct your dream and change the story, or enjoy and observe it. (behance.net)
  • To see a child kick a soccer ball for the first time, or a mother be able to care for her children more independently, gave the students a personal revelation of how engineering can fulfill dreams and touch lives in positive ways. (udayton.edu)
  • Psychologists and dream experts agree that during the course of pregnancy dreams tend to change with the trimester and tend to follow a particular progression. (pregnancy-info.net)
  • Dreams involving traumas and tragedies incite fear as dreamers wonder, "Is this dream going to come true? (bellaonline.com)
  • Dreams Come True! (thesecret.tv)
  • Well, you get all this and more when you visit Lucky Dreams Casino - a site that could make your lucky dreams come true. (gambling.com)
  • From becoming a producer while you're asleep and streaming your dream on your vlog to unlocking yet another venue to meet with your friends, while co-dreaming, or reliving your favourite childhood memories. (behance.net)
  • Another hypothesis is the memory consolidation idea, he added, which suggests that when we're dreaming, we're taking in the information we've collected throughout the day to either create new memories or sort unfamiliar information into existing knowledge that informs our reasoning. (cnn.com)
  • Drinking more alcohol typically suppresses memories of dreams. (cnn.com)
  • Dreams have fascinated philosophers and researchers for ages. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The researchers categorized them into two groups based on their dream recall frequency. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • However, when the researchers compared players' performance before and after sleeping, only Doom-related dreaming was correlated with improvement at the game. (newscientist.com)
  • The researchers say their study indicates that non-REM dreams also seem to accompany learning. (newscientist.com)
  • However, other dreams are mirrors of the emotional and mental changes going on and how the concerns, thoughts, and fears affect the pregnant woman. (pregnancy-info.net)
  • DREAMS provides young women with comprehensive, evidence-based interventions and services to reduce HIV risk from sexual partners, strengthen families, and mobilize communities for change. (cdc.gov)
  • In 2015, PEPFAR (the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief) with private-sector partners launched the DREAMS Partnership, an ambitious package of interventions in 10 sub-Saharan African countries. (bvsalud.org)
  • and (2) causal pathways linking uptake of DREAMS interventions to 'mediators' of change such as empowerment , through to behavioural and health outcomes, using nested cohort studies with samples of ~ 1000-1500 AGYW selected randomly from the general population and followed for two years. (bvsalud.org)
  • DREAMS is, to date, the most ambitious effort to scale-up combinations or 'packages' of multi-sectoral interventions for HIV prevention. (bvsalud.org)
  • Play a curated list of Dreams from the full game's DreamSurfing mode along with a teaser section from the single player Art's Dream mode - your progress will be saved to continue in the full game. (playstation.com)
  • Although the scientific community has established a solid understanding of the physiology of sleep, they have made significantly less progress in understanding dreams and their functions. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Dream of Conquest," in Sight and Sound (London), April 1995. (encyclopedia.com)
  • What's most interesting about dreams is that they're predominantly going to be sight-based or hearing-based," Ellis said. (cnn.com)
  • The "device" gently influences the prefrontal cortexes of your brain and helps you get into a lucid dreaming state more naturally. (behance.net)
  • In his next experiments, he will test how teaching rats a variety of tasks influences their dreams. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Like so many children of immigrants, Che Sehyun was raised to pursue the traditional American dream: college and a professional career. (kuow.org)
  • Keeping a record of the dreams is a good way to see if there are any patterns that make sense. (pregnancy-info.net)
  • Dr. Nadia Bruschweiler-Stern, MD, a physician at the University of Geneva, Switzerland, feels that dreams are an important part of the critical integration process, allowing the mind to make space for the baby, which could explain why dreams during pregnancy are so bizarre. (pregnancy-info.net)
  • I advise all my passengers to book their cruise now to get the best savings they will see in all of 2014," explains President Kim Gibbons, founder and president of Cruise Dreams, an agency known attentive individual service as well as incomparable group travel and group cruises. (prweb.com)
  • Field of Dreams writer-director Phil Alden Robinson had loved W.P. Kinsella's Shoeless Joe since the book was first published in 1982. (mentalfloss.com)
  • As Bruce Wilkinson wrote in his bestselling book The Dream Giver, "…every Nobody was made to be a Somebody. (crosswalk.com)
  • They found that the more Doom-dreaming a player did, the more likely he or she was to improve on these measures - but only up to a point. (newscientist.com)
  • The work is still preliminary, but Wamsley and Stickgold found that four volunteers who dreamed about the game solved the maze dramatically faster after their siesta, while those whose dreams didn't incorporate the maze improved little or not at all, just like control volunteers not allowed a nap. (newscientist.com)
  • Discover's editors found Wilson's research fascinating but also noted that there is something inherently funny- and humbling- in the idea that rats dream at all. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Google engineers experimenting with artificial neural networks trained to do image recognition found that the systems can also create art and even "dream. (developer.com)
  • As a result of DREAMS and the intensive economic strengthening for AGYW supported through its programming, we see young women like Eva encouraged to be determined, resilient, and empowered. (cdc.gov)
  • DREAMS aims to reduce HIV incidence by 40% among AGYW over two years by addressing multiple causes of AGYW vulnerability . (bvsalud.org)
  • Dreams may arise when the brain sorts information into short- and long-term memory. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • C. G. Jung took the review of dreams deeper by exploring what he called the 'collective unconscious' and the archetypes and symbols that arise widely in dreams. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Understanding more about sleep may help reveal why we dream. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Usually, just talking about it gives perspective and can even reveal the emotion behind the dream. (pregnancy-info.net)
  • Most recently, he remembers having a dream that was particularly stressful. (abc15.com)
  • Dreams is an extraordinary, ever-expanding game universe from the award-winning Media Molecule, creators of LittleBigPlanet and Tearaway, where you can discover community-made games from around the world…and learn to make your own. (playstation.com)
  • Based on these findings, the study authors conclude that increased activity in the TPJ might promote the transition of dream experiences into memory. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • On March 24, she released a dream survey study to the world. (abc15.com)
  • There is one category of dreams that's been completely unique to this study. (abc15.com)
  • This Study Guide consists of approximately 22 pages of chapter summaries, quotes, character analysis, themes, and more - everything you need to sharpen your knowledge of Scribbler of Dreams. (bookrags.com)
  • And in a dream that induced such stark terror it made his electrodes pop off, 762-A slithered down a sewer pipe and was confronted by- a mouse. (discovermagazine.com)
  • At the same time, it is noteworthy that one of Paquette's death dreams happened the very day that the person in question died, even though Paquette had not been in contact with the person or their close acquaintances anytime during the previous year. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Well-known and respected in the industry, Cruise Dreams is not only a top producer but a noteworthy innovator. (prweb.com)
  • The ancient Greeks went to an oracle to have dreams interpreted, and one can go back to the Old Testament of the Bible to find dream interpretation playing a prominent role in the rise of Joseph, son of Abraham, becoming a trusted advisor to the Pharaoh of Egypt. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Freud turned human dreams into sacred texts and created an industry out of their interpretation. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Dreams VR will offer players VR games made by users across the world. (playstation.com)
  • The studies don't prove that dreaming about games makes players better. (newscientist.com)
  • The reception is warm at Lucky Dreams Casino as new players are eligible for a decent Welcome Bonus worth $4,000 and 300 Free Spins on several slot titles. (gambling.com)
  • Exciting Tuesdays are the norm at Lucky Dreams Casino as players will receive a 25% match up to NZ$100. (gambling.com)
  • Every month, Lucky Dreams players are inundated with a "Monthly Reload" bonus. (gambling.com)
  • The next day, an email arrived confirming that the person had indeed died on the day of his dream. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Dr Naima feels fortunate that she gets to live her dream every single day at work. (who.int)
  • Embark on a full-length, genre-crossing story campaign created by developer Media Molecule that showcases the immense creative potential of Dreams. (playstation.com)