Drainage: The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.Drainage, Postural: A rehabilitation therapy for removal of copious mucus secretion from the lung of patients with diseases such as CHRONIC BRONCHITIS; BRONCHIECTASIS; PULMONARY ABSCESS; or CYSTIC FIBROSIS. The patient's head is placed in a downward incline (so the TRACHEA is inferior to the affected area) for 15- to 20-minute sessions.Drainage, Sanitary: A system of artificial or natural drains, generally used for the disposal of liquid wastes.Abscess: Accumulation of purulent material in tissues, organs, or circumscribed spaces, usually associated with signs of infection.Suction: The removal of secretions, gas or fluid from hollow or tubular organs or cavities by means of a tube and a device that acts on negative pressure.Pancreatic Pseudocyst: Cyst-like space not lined by EPITHELIUM and contained within the PANCREAS. Pancreatic pseudocysts account for most of the cystic collections in the pancreas and are often associated with chronic PANCREATITIS.Chest Tubes: Plastic tubes used for drainage of air or fluid from the pleural space. Their surgical insertion is called tube thoracostomy.Glaucoma Drainage Implants: Devices, usually incorporating unidirectional valves, which are surgically inserted in the sclera to maintain normal intraocular pressure.Jaundice, Obstructive: Jaundice, the condition with yellowish staining of the skin and mucous membranes, that is due to impaired BILE flow in the BILIARY TRACT, such as INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS, or EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Lymphoscintigraphy: Radionuclide imaging of the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Lymphatic System: A system of organs and tissues that process and transport immune cells and LYMPH.Cerebral Veins: Veins draining the cerebrum.Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde: Fiberoptic endoscopy designed for duodenal observation and cannulation of VATER'S AMPULLA, in order to visualize the pancreatic and biliary duct system by retrograde injection of contrast media. Endoscopic (Vater) papillotomy (SPHINCTEROTOMY, ENDOSCOPIC) may be performed during this procedure.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Choledochostomy: Surgical formation of an opening (stoma) into the COMMON BILE DUCT for drainage or for direct communication with a site in the small intestine, primarily the DUODENUM or JEJUNUM.Empyema, Pleural: Suppurative inflammation of the pleural space.Pneumothorax: An accumulation of air or gas in the PLEURAL CAVITY, which may occur spontaneously or as a result of trauma or a pathological process. The gas may also be introduced deliberately during PNEUMOTHORAX, ARTIFICIAL.Abdominal Abscess: An abscess located in the abdominal cavity, i.e., the cavity between the diaphragm above and the pelvis below. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Thoracostomy: Surgical procedure involving the creation of an opening (stoma) into the chest cavity for drainage; used in the treatment of PLEURAL EFFUSION; PNEUMOTHORAX; HEMOTHORAX; and EMPYEMA.Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts: Tubes inserted to create communication between a cerebral ventricle and the internal jugular vein. Their emplacement permits draining of cerebrospinal fluid for relief of hydrocephalus or other condition leading to fluid accumulation in the ventricles.Biliary Tract Surgical Procedures: Any surgical procedure performed on the biliary tract.Cholestasis: Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).Cholangitis: Inflammation of the biliary ductal system (BILE DUCTS); intrahepatic, extrahepatic, or both.Cranial Sinuses: Large endothelium-lined venous channels situated between the two layers of DURA MATER, the endosteal and the meningeal layers. They are devoid of valves and are parts of the venous system of dura mater. Major cranial sinuses include a postero-superior group (such as superior sagittal, inferior sagittal, straight, transverse, and occipital) and an antero-inferior group (such as cavernous, petrosal, and basilar plexus).Ventriculostomy: Surgical creation of an opening in a cerebral ventricle.Liver Abscess: Solitary or multiple collections of PUS within the liver as a result of infection by bacteria, protozoa, or other agents.Pleural Effusion: Presence of fluid in the pleural cavity resulting from excessive transudation or exudation from the pleural surfaces. It is a sign of disease and not a diagnosis in itself.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Postoperative Care: The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Hematoma, Subdural, Chronic: Accumulation of blood in the SUBDURAL SPACE with delayed onset of neurological symptoms. Symptoms may include loss of consciousness, severe HEADACHE, and deteriorating mental status.Pericardial Effusion: Fluid accumulation within the PERICARDIUM. Serous effusions are associated with pericardial diseases. Hemopericardium is associated with trauma. Lipid-containing effusion (chylopericardium) results from leakage of THORACIC DUCT. Severe cases can lead to CARDIAC TAMPONADE.Hydrocephalus: Excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cranium which may be associated with dilation of cerebral ventricles, INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; HEADACHE; lethargy; URINARY INCONTINENCE; and ATAXIA.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Thoracic Duct: The largest lymphatic vessel that passes through the chest and drains into the SUBCLAVIAN VEIN.Pancreas Transplantation: The transference of a pancreas from one human or animal to another.Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure: Manometric pressure of the CEREBROSPINAL FLUID as measured by lumbar, cerebroventricular, or cisternal puncture. Within the cranial cavity it is called INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE.Cystostomy: Surgical creation of an opening (stoma) in the URINARY BLADDER for drainage.Fistula: Abnormal communication most commonly seen between two internal organs, or between an internal organ and the surface of the body.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Endoscopy: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing: A severe form of acute INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS characterized by one or more areas of NECROSIS in the pancreas with varying degree of involvement of the surrounding tissues or organ systems. Massive pancreatic necrosis may lead to DIABETES MELLITUS, and malabsorption.Jejunostomy: Surgical formation of an opening through the ABDOMINAL WALL into the JEJUNUM, usually for enteral hyperalimentation.Pancreaticojejunostomy: Surgical anastomosis of the pancreatic duct, or the divided end of the transected pancreas, with the jejunum. (Dorland, 28th ed)Pericardiocentesis: Puncture and aspiration of fluid from the PERICARDIUM.Biliary Fistula: Abnormal passage in any organ of the biliary tract or between biliary organs and other organs.Central Nervous System Vascular Malformations: Congenital, inherited, or acquired abnormalities involving ARTERIES; VEINS; or venous sinuses in the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and MENINGES.Cholangiography: An imaging test of the BILIARY TRACT in which a contrast dye (RADIOPAQUE MEDIA) is injected into the BILE DUCT and x-ray pictures are taken.Lymphedema: Edema due to obstruction of lymph vessels or disorders of the lymph nodes.Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic: Passages within the liver for the conveyance of bile. Includes right and left hepatic ducts even though these may join outside the liver to form the common hepatic duct.Lymphocele: Cystic mass containing lymph from diseased lymphatic channels or following surgical trauma or other injury.Pancreatic Diseases: Pathological processes of the PANCREAS.Bile Ducts: The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.Empyema: Presence of pus in a hollow organ or body cavity.Vagotomy: The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.Liver Abscess, Pyogenic: Single or multiple areas of PUS due to bacterial infection within the hepatic parenchyma. It can be caused by a variety of BACTERIA, local or disseminated from infections elsewhere such as in APPENDICITIS; CHOLECYSTITIS; PERITONITIS; and after LIVER TRANSPLANTATION.Lymph: The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Chylothorax: The presence of chyle in the thoracic cavity. (Dorland, 27th ed)Endoscopy, Digestive System: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the digestive tract.Common Bile Duct: The largest bile duct. It is formed by the junction of the CYSTIC DUCT and the COMMON HEPATIC DUCT.Debridement: The removal of foreign material and devitalized or contaminated tissue from or adjacent to a traumatic or infected lesion until surrounding healthy tissue is exposed. (Dorland, 27th ed)Seroma: Tumor-like sterile accumulation of serum in a tissue, organ, or cavity. It results from a tissue insult and is the product of tissue inflammation. It most commonly occurs following MASTECTOMY.Biliary Tract Diseases: Diseases in any part of the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Cerebrospinal Fluid: A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Hemothorax: Hemorrhage within the pleural cavity.Digestive System Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the digestive system or its parts.Pancreatitis: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of CHRONIC PANCREATITIS (International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, 1992). The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS and gallstone pancreatitis.Suppuration: A pathologic process consisting in the formation of pus.Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted: Endoscopic surgery of the pleural cavity performed with visualization via video transmission.MiningPelvic Infection: Infection involving the tissues or organs in the PELVIS.Lymphography: Radiographic study of the lymphatic system following injection of dye or contrast medium.Petrous Bone: The dense rock-like part of temporal bone that contains the INNER EAR. Petrous bone is located at the base of the skull. Sometimes it is combined with the MASTOID PROCESS and called petromastoid part of temporal bone.Biliary Tract: The BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Cutaneous Fistula: An abnormal passage or communication leading from an internal organ to the surface of the body.Psoas Abscess: Abscess of the PSOAS MUSCLES resulting usually from disease of the lumbar vertebrae, with the pus descending into the muscle sheath. The infection is most commonly tuberculous or staphylococcal.Cardiac Tamponade: Compression of the heart by accumulated fluid (PERICARDIAL EFFUSION) or blood (HEMOPERICARDIUM) in the PERICARDIUM surrounding the heart. The affected cardiac functions and CARDIAC OUTPUT can range from minimal to total hemodynamic collapse.Pleurodesis: The production of adhesions between the parietal and visceral pleura. The procedure is used in the treatment of bronchopleural fistulas, malignant pleural effusions, and pneumothorax and often involves instillation of chemicals or other agents into the pleural space causing, in effect, a pleuritis that seals the air leak. (From Fishman, Pulmonary Diseases, 2d ed, p2233 & Dorland, 27th ed)Therapeutic Irrigation: The washing of a body cavity or surface by flowing water or solution for therapy or diagnosis.Catheters: A flexible, tubular device that is used to carry fluids into or from a blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity.Hepatic Duct, Common: Predominantly extrahepatic bile duct which is formed by the junction of the right and left hepatic ducts, which are predominantly intrahepatic, and, in turn, joins the cystic duct to form the common bile duct.Endosonography: Ultrasonography of internal organs using an ultrasound transducer sometimes mounted on a fiberoptic endoscope. In endosonography the transducer converts electronic signals into acoustic pulses or continuous waves and acts also as a receiver to detect reflected pulses from within the organ. An audiovisual-electronic interface converts the detected or processed echo signals, which pass through the electronics of the instrument, into a form that the technologist can evaluate. The procedure should not be confused with ENDOSCOPY which employs a special instrument called an endoscope. The "endo-" of endosonography refers to the examination of tissue within hollow organs, with reference to the usual ultrasonography procedure which is performed externally or transcutaneously.Pancreatic Ducts: Ducts that collect PANCREATIC JUICE from the PANCREAS and supply it to the DUODENUM.Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations: Congenital vascular anomalies in the brain characterized by direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. The locations and size of the shunts determine the symptoms including HEADACHES; SEIZURES; STROKE; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; mass effect; and vascular steal effect.Klatskin's Tumor: Adenocarcinoma of the common hepatic duct bifurcation. These tumors are generally small, sharply localized, and seldom metastasizing. G. Klatskin's original review of 13 cases was published in 1965. Once thought to be relatively uncommon, tumors of the bifurcation of the bile duct now appear to comprise more than one-half of all bile duct cancers. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1457)Lymphatic Vessels: Tubular vessels that are involved in the transport of LYMPH and LYMPHOCYTES.Echinococcosis, Hepatic: Liver disease caused by infections with parasitic tapeworms of the genus ECHINOCOCCUS, such as Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis. Ingested Echinococcus ova burrow into the intestinal mucosa. The larval migration to the liver via the PORTAL VEIN leads to watery vesicles (HYDATID CYST).Cholecystectomy: Surgical removal of the GALLBLADDER.Preoperative Care: Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Cholangiocarcinoma: A malignant tumor arising from the epithelium of the BILE DUCTS.Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt: Surgical creation of a communication between a cerebral ventricle and the peritoneum by means of a plastic tube to permit drainage of cerebrospinal fluid for relief of hydrocephalus. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Spinal Puncture: Tapping fluid from the subarachnoid space in the lumbar region, usually between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae.Paraplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in the lower extremities and lower portions of the trunk. This condition is most often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, although BRAIN DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause bilateral leg weakness.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Anastomosis, Roux-en-Y: A Y-shaped surgical anastomosis of any part of the digestive system which includes the small intestine as the eventual drainage site.Postoperative Hemorrhage: Hemorrhage following any surgical procedure. It may be immediate or delayed and is not restricted to the surgical wound.Cavernous Sinus: An irregularly shaped venous space in the dura mater at either side of the sphenoid bone.Hydrothorax: A collection of watery fluid in the pleural cavity. (Dorland, 27th ed)Dura Mater: The outermost of the three MENINGES, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.Scleral Buckling: An operation for retinal detachment which reduces the size of the globe by indenting the sclera so that it approximates the retina.Rupture, Spontaneous: Tear or break of an organ, vessel or other soft part of the body, occurring in the absence of external force.Esophageal Perforation: An opening or hole in the ESOPHAGUS that is caused by TRAUMA, injury, or pathological process.Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid: A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in the gastrointestinal system, liver, and spleen.Urinary Catheterization: Passage of a CATHETER into the URINARY BLADDER or kidney.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Thoracotomy: Surgical incision into the chest wall.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Surgical Wound Infection: Infection occurring at the site of a surgical incision.Pylorus: The region of the STOMACH at the junction with the DUODENUM. It is marked by the thickening of circular muscle layers forming the pyloric sphincter to control the opening and closure of the lumen.Retropharyngeal Abscess: An accumulation of purulent material in the space between the PHARYNX and the CERVICAL VERTEBRAE. This usually results from SUPPURATION of retropharyngeal LYMPH NODES in patients with UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS, perforation of the pharynx, or head and neck injuries.Thoracoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the pleural cavity.Radiography, Interventional: Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that are invasive or surgical in nature, and require the expertise of a specially trained radiologist. In general, they are more invasive than diagnostic imaging but less invasive than major surgery. They often involve catheterization, fluoroscopy, or computed tomography. Some examples include percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, percutaneous transthoracic biopsy, balloon angioplasty, and arterial embolization.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Bile Duct Diseases: Diseases in any part of the ductal system of the BILIARY TRACT from the smallest BILE CANALICULI to the largest COMMON BILE DUCT.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hepatic Veins: Veins which drain the liver.Pancreaticoduodenectomy: The excision of the head of the pancreas and the encircling loop of the duodenum to which it is connected.TokyoBrain Abscess: A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)Lacrimal Duct Obstruction: Interference with the secretion of tears by the lacrimal glands. Obstruction of the LACRIMAL SAC or NASOLACRIMAL DUCT causing acute or chronic inflammation of the lacrimal sac (DACRYOCYSTITIS). It is caused also in infants by failure of the nasolacrimal duct to open into the inferior meatus and occurs about the third week of life. In adults occlusion may occur spontaneously or after injury or nasal disease. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p250)Veins: The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.Dumping Syndrome: Gastrointestinal symptoms resulting from an absent or nonfunctioning pylorus.Cholestasis, Extrahepatic: Impairment of bile flow in the large BILE DUCTS by mechanical obstruction or stricture due to benign or malignant processes.Craniotomy: Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)Sphincterotomy, Endoscopic: Incision of Oddi's sphincter or Vater's ampulla performed by inserting a sphincterotome through an endoscope (DUODENOSCOPE) often following retrograde cholangiography (CHOLANGIOPANCREATOGRAPHY, ENDOSCOPIC RETROGRADE). Endoscopic treatment by sphincterotomy is the preferred method of treatment for patients with retained or recurrent bile duct stones post-cholecystectomy, and for poor-surgical-risk patients that have the gallbladder still present.Spinal Cord Ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the spinal cord which is supplied by the anterior spinal artery and the paired posterior spinal arteries. This condition may be associated with ARTERIOSCLEROSIS, trauma, emboli, diseases of the aorta, and other disorders. Prolonged ischemia may lead to INFARCTION of spinal cord tissue.Abdominal Cavity: The region in the abdomen extending from the thoracic DIAPHRAGM to the plane of the superior pelvic aperture (pelvic inlet). The abdominal cavity contains the PERITONEUM and abdominal VISCERA, as well as the extraperitoneal space which includes the RETROPERITONEAL SPACE.Pulmonary Veins: The veins that return the oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.Pleural DiseasesPancreatic Fistula: Abnormal passage communicating with the PANCREAS.Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Arteriovenous Fistula: An abnormal direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. An A-V fistula usually leads to the formation of a dilated sac-like connection, arteriovenous aneurysm. The locations and size of the shunts determine the degree of effects on the cardiovascular functions such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEART RATE.Subphrenic Abscess: Accumulation of purulent EXUDATES beneath the DIAPHRAGM, also known as upper abdominal abscess. It is usually associated with PERITONITIS or postoperative infections.

New perspectives on biliary atresia. (1/1907)

An investigation into the aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of biliary atresia was carried out because the prognosis remains so poor.In an electron microscopical study no viral particles or viral inclusion bodies were seen, nor were any specific ultrastructural features observed. An animal experiment suggested that obstruction within the biliary tract of newborn rabbits could be produced by maternal intravenous injection of the bile acid lithocholic acid.A simple and atraumatic method of diagnosis was developed using(99) (m)Tc-labelled compounds which are excreted into bile. Two compounds, (99m)Tc-pyridoxylidene glutamate ((99m)Tc-PG) and (99m)Tc-dihydrothioctic acid ((99m)Tc-DHT) were first assessed in normal piglets and piglets with complete biliary obstruction. Intestinal imaging correlated with biliary tract patency, and the same correlation was found in jaundiced human adults, in whom the (99m)Tc-PG scan correctly determined biliary patency in 21 out of 24 cases. The (99m)Tc-PG scan compared well with liver biopsy and (131)I-Rose Bengal in the diagnosis of 11 infants with prolonged jaundice.A model of extrahepatic biliary atresia was developed in the newborn piglet so that different methods of bile drainage could be assessed. Priorities in biliary atresia lie in a better understanding of the aetiology and early diagnosis rather than in devising new bile drainage procedures.  (+info)

Colon and rectal anastomoses do not require routine drainage: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (2/1907)

OBJECTIVE: Many surgeons continue to place a prophylactic drain in the pelvis after completion of a colorectal anastomosis, despite considerable evidence that this practice may not be useful. The authors conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to determine if placement of a drain after a colonic or rectal anastomosis can reduce the rate of complications. METHODS: A search of the Medline database of English-language articles published from 1987 to 1997 was conducted using the terms "colon," "rectum," "postoperative complications," "surgical anastomosis," and "drainage." A manual search was also conducted. Four randomized controlled trials, including a total of 414 patients, were identified that compared the routine use of drainage of colonic and/or rectal anastomoses to no drainage. Two reviewers assessed the trials independently. Trial quality was critically appraised using a previously published scale, and data on mortality, clinical and radiologic anastomotic leakage rate, wound infection rate, and major complication rate were extracted. RESULTS: The overall quality of the studies was poor. Use of a drain did not significantly affect the rate of any of the outcomes examined, although the power of this analysis to exclude any difference was low. Comparison of pooled results revealed an odds ratio for clinical leak of 1.5 favoring the control (no drain) group. Of the 20 observed leaks among all four studies that occurred in a patient with a drain in place, in only one case (5%) did pus or enteric content actually appear in the effluent of the existing drain. CONCLUSIONS: Any significant benefit of routine drainage of colon and rectal anastomoses in reducing the rate of anastomotic leakage or other surgical complications can be excluded with more confidence based on pooled data than by the individual trials alone. Additional well-designed randomized controlled trials would further reinforce this conclusion.  (+info)

Lens extraction with ultrasound. Experiments in rabbits. (3/1907)

The extraction of the rabbit lens is described using a 25 G irrigating needle and a 22 G aspirating needle; at the latter's bevelled tip lens fragmentation occurs due to the longitudinal ultrasonic vibrations generated there--an 'acoustic horn' causes the tip to vibrate with large amplitudes. The use of small needles allows considerable manoeuvrability in the anterior chamber and usually eliminates the need for corneal suturing. Push-pull coupled syringes equate the volume of irrigation with that of aspiration. This procedure makes possible lens extraction through an aperture in the anterior capsule of the rabbit's lens and a similar machine is being constructed for trial on human cataract.  (+info)

Cyclic compression of the intracranial optic nerve: patterns of visual failure and recovery. (4/1907)

A patient with a cystic craniopharyngioma below the right optic nerve had several recurrences requiring surgery. Finally the cyst was connected with a subcutaneous reservoir by means of a fine catheter. Symptoms of optic nerve compression recurred more than 50 times during the following year, and were relieved within seconds upon drainage of the reservoir. In each cycle, a drop in visual acuity preceded a measurable change in the visual field. The pattern of field changes was an increasingly severe, uniform depression. Optic nerve ischaemia induced by compression was probably the most important factor causing visual failure in this case.  (+info)

Refractory pneumothorax treated by parietal pleurolysis. (5/1907)

Pneumothorax, persisting in spite of efficient drainage, may in some cases be caused by discrepancy between lung volume and size of the pleural cavity. The logical treatment is reduction of the pleural cavity simultaneously with a traditional surgical procedure on the pulmonary tissue. An increasing number of refractory pneumothoraces--both spontaneous and istrogenic--is probably due to the fact that more people are living with and suffer the sequelae of pulmonary disease. During a 15-year survey a parietal pleurolysis, tailored to fit the size and shape of the lung, was performed in 10 patients as the main surgical procedure in 100 thoracotomies for 1130 cases of spontaneous and 62 cases of iatrogenic pneumothorax. The results were encouraging.  (+info)

Infected total hip arthroplasty--the value of intraoperative histology. (6/1907)

Intraoperative histology showed a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 98%. These results were better than those observed for the other tests evaluated. Our data provide evidence that intraoperative histology is useful tool in the diagnosis of infected total hip arthroplasty.  (+info)

Use of fibrinolytic agents in the management of complicated parapneumonic effusions and empyemas. (7/1907)

BACKGROUND: Standard treatment for pleural infection includes catheter drainage and antibiotics. Tube drainage often fails if the fluid is loculated by fibrinous adhesions when surgical drainage is needed. Streptokinase may aid the process of pleural drainage, but there have been no controlled trials to assess its efficacy. METHODS: Twenty four patients with infected community acquired parapneumonic effusions were studied. All had either frankly purulent/culture or Gram stain positive pleural fluid (13 cases; 54%) or fluid which fulfilled the biochemical criteria for pleural infection. Fluid was drained with a 14F catheter. The antibiotics used were cefuroxime and metronidazole or were guided by culture. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive intrapleural streptokinase, 250,000 IU daily, or control saline flushes for three days. The primary end points related to the efficacy of pleural drainage--namely, the volume of pleural fluid drained and the chest radiographic response to treatment. Other end points were the number of pleural procedures needed and blood indices of inflammation. RESULTS: The streptokinase group drained more pleural fluid both during the days of streptokinase/control treatment (mean (SD) 391 (200) ml versus 124 (44) ml; difference 267 ml, 95% confidence interval (CI) 144 to 390; p < 0.001) and overall (2564 (1663) ml versus 1059 (502) ml; difference 1505 ml, 95% CI 465 to 2545; p < 0.01). They showed greater improvement on the chest radiograph at discharge, measured as the fall in the maximum dimension of the pleural collection (6.0 (2.7) cm versus 3.4 (2.7) cm; difference 2.9 cm, 95% CI 0.3 to 4.4; p < 0.05) and the overall reduction in pleural fluid collection size (p < 0.05, two tailed Fisher's exact test). Systemic fibrinolysis and bleeding complications did not occur. Surgery was required by three control patients but none in the streptokinase group. CONCLUSIONS: Intrapleural streptokinase probably aids the treatment of pleural infections by improving pleural drainage without causing systemic fibrinolysis or local haemorrhage.  (+info)

Empyema thoracis: a role for open thoracotomy and decortication. (8/1907)

BACKGROUND: Thoracentesis and antibiotics remain the cornerstones of treatment in stage I empyema. The management of disease progression or late presentation is controversial. Open thoracotomy and decortication is perceived to be synonymous with protracted recovery and prolonged hospitalisation. Advocates of thoracoscopic adhesiolysis cite earlier chest drain removal and hospital discharge. This paper challenges traditional prejudice towards open surgery. METHODS: A five year audit of empyema cases referred to a regional cardiothoracic surgical unit analysing previous clinical course, surgical management, and outcome. RESULTS: Between February 1992 and February 1997, the number of referrals to this centre increased dramatically. Twenty-two children were referred for surgery (15 boys, seven girls; age range, 0.5-16 years). Before referral, patients had been unwell for 6-50 days (median, 15), had been treated with several antibiotics, and had undergone chest ultrasound (15 patients), computed tomography (five patients), pleural aspiration attempts (13 patients), and intercostal drainage (seven patients). The organism responsible was identified in only two cases (Streptococcus pneumoniae). Three patients had intraparenchymal abscess formation. Eighteen patients underwent open thoracotomy and decortication. Drain removal was performed on the first or second day. Fever resolved within 48 hours. Median hospital stay was four days. All patients had complete clinical and radiological resolution. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment must be tailored to the disease stage. In stage II and III diseases, open decortication followed by early drain removal results in rapid symptomatic recovery, early hospital discharge, and complete resolution. In the early fibrinopurulent phase, alternative strategies should be considered. However, even in ideal cases, neither fibrinolysis nor thoracoscopic adhesiolysis can achieve more rapid resolution at lower risk.  (+info)

  • Should a person direct their issues with a drainage ditch with the HOA of a subdivision if the drainage ditch drains into their back yard? (justanswer.com)
  • If the county owns the road the person can sue the owner of the property whom the drainage ditch drains from to seek the remedy of the issue and if it is the HOA that is responsible, then the person can sue the HOA for a nuisance and have them pay damages or to fix the issue. (justanswer.com)
  • Fishers will not pay for private drainage improvements of backyard swales, private drain tiles, sump pump related issues, etc., but will provide an educated assessment of an issue after inspection if requested. (in.us)
  • A drainage ditch is used to drain water from low lying areas and is normally found along side roadways or fields or is found in further away places to help irrigate crops. (justanswer.com)
  • Integra LifeSciences is introducing its new CSF drainage system that features a shutoff valve that activates when a preset amount of fluid enters the bag, increasing the safety of the patient as well as reducing the workload on nurses that otherwise have to manually monitor the level. (medgadget.com)
  • The LimiTorr(TM) Volume Limiting CSF Drainage System can be used for both lumbar and ventricular drainage. (medgadget.com)
  • The flow of water through well-defined channels is known as drainage and the network of such channels is known as drainage system . (tutorialspoint.com)
  • Residents of Mustafabad, Sector 2nd, Lane No. 3, Zainakot, Srinagar have expressed resentment over incomplete drainage system in the area. (greaterkashmir.com)
  • Although the Drainage Division, SMC laid drainage network during the last year, however, work was started on the main lane only and connected with the existing drainage system via Gazalia Abad. (greaterkashmir.com)
  • The aggrieved resident appealed Deputy Commissioner, Srinagar, Commissioner SMC and other concerned officers to address the issue on priority and complete the drainage system by providing drainage network to the left out three by-lanes for which estimates are already approved with the concerned Executive Engineer. (greaterkashmir.com)
  • As part of any investigation we will assess the significance of the rainfall event to determine if the drainage system could have reasonably coped with this event. (edp24.co.uk)
  • 34) However, given modern development constraints, it seems incomprehensible to expect or require a landowner to litigate drainage rights before constructing a surface water management system. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Execute and register the Drainage System Appurtenances Agreement (PDF) , if required. (burlington.ca)
  • Do I need a Drainage System Appurtenances Agreement? (burlington.ca)
  • A drainage system appurtenance includes any additions to the normal operation of surface related grading that is necessary for the effective operation of the drainage system. (burlington.ca)
  • If your Grading and Drainage Plan requires a drainage system appurtenance then a Drainage System Appurtenances Agreement will be required. (burlington.ca)
  • Building permit applications for lots that are intended for any single detached dwelling, duplex dwelling or semi-detached dwelling used solely for residential use now require a Grading and Drainage Clearance Certificate, in accordance with City of Burlington By-law 52-2018 . (burlington.ca)
  • A woman has called for extra drainage on her street after her house flooded despite complaining to the council about the issue more than two years ago. (edp24.co.uk)
  • Major Himalayan drainage systems are the Indus , the Ganga , and the Brahmaputra rivers. (tutorialspoint.com)
  • Typically, once these systems were in place, there was apparently no urgent need to formalize the drainage rights because the benefits of the systems were obvious and, as a practical matter, maintenance was conducted as needed. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Comcast has run a coax cable through my drainage pipe to my neighbors house Iam trying to connect another pipe to the one with the coax cable in it can't do it because of the coax. (justanswer.com)
  • The Drainage Division is responsible for cleaning catch basins and manholes, clearing storm sewer blockages and repairing broken storm sewer lines. (cityofallen.org)
  • This is not a natural disaster, this is just poor road and drainage design that means we, as householders, have water coming into our house whenever there is sustained heavy rainfall," she said. (edp24.co.uk)
  • Fishers also completes drainage improvement projects within the public right-of-way and performs general drainage inspections of private properties to assist residents with troubleshooting of private drainage issues. (in.us)
  • SuDS efforts make urban drainage systems more compatible with components of the natural water cycle such as storm surge overflows, soil percolation, and bio-filtration. (wikipedia.org)
  • SuDS often use built components that mimic natural features in order to integrate urban drainage systems into the natural drainage systems or a site as efficiently and quickly as possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rudimentary systems made from brick or stone channels constituted the extent of urban drainage technologies for centuries. (wikipedia.org)
  • When builders began constructing aqueducts to import fresh water into cities, urban drainage systems became integrated into water supply infrastructure for the first time as a unified urban water cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since then, most urban drainage systems have aimed for similar goals of preventing public health crises. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first sustainable drainage system to utilize a full management train including source control in the UK was the Oxford services motorway station designed by SuDS specialists Robert Bray Associates Originally the term SUDS described the UK approach to sustainable urban drainage systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Traditional urban drainage systems are limited by various factors including volume capacity, damage or blockage from debris and contamination of drinking water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) are designed to encourage contractors to install drainage system that more closely mimic the natural flow of water in nature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Information on urban drainage issues and services provided for the Still Creek-Brunette River and Port Moody-Coquitlam drainage areas. (metrovancouver.org)
  • You may have a catheter and urine drainage bag because you have urinary incontinence (leakage), urinary retention (not being able to urinate), surgery that made a catheter necessary, or another health problem. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In a ureter drainage device comprising a ureteral catheter (10), a sliding hose (12) to be coupled to the proximal end of the ureteral catheter (10), and a control hose (18) to be mounted over the sliding hose (12), it is provided that the ureteral catheter (10) and the sliding hose (12) comprise mutually. (google.com)
  • 2. The ureter drainage device according to claim 1 , wherein the coupling element ( 38 ) of the sliding hose ( 12 ) comprises at least one distally projecting leg with a hook ( 39 ) formed on its end, and wherein the coupling element ( 33 ) of the ureteral catheter ( 10 ) has a recess formed therein for receiving the hook ( 39 ). (google.com)
  • 3. The ureter drainage device according to claim 1 , wherein the proximal end ( 10 a ) of the ureteral catheter ( 10 ) comprises an inserted coupling member ( 30 ). (google.com)
  • 4. The ureter drainage device according to claim 1 , wherein the coupling element ( 38 ) of the sliding hose ( 12 ) is provided as a barb configured to lock into a recess ( 33 ) of the ureteral catheter ( 10 ) when the coupling elements ( 33 , 38 ) are shifted onto each other. (google.com)
  • The present invention relates to a ureter drainage device comprising a ureteral catheter, a sliding hose to be coupled to the proximal end of the ureteral catheter, and a control hose to be mounted over the sliding hose. (google.com)
  • He did a digital rectal exam and with digital pressure he was able to drain purulent material so he went in through the opening and placed a Malecot catheter for drainage. (aapc.com)
  • Start by making a swale-essentially a gentle, shallow drainage ditch. (familyhandyman.com)
  • Solve flooding problems with an easy do it yourself solution by constructing your own drainage ditch. (doityourself.com)
  • A cheap and revolutionary ditch-digging machine that can help farmers throughout the world cut their drainage costs is being marketed by its inventor on a north-central Scotland farm. (csmonitor.com)
  • The cost of the individual projects ranges from $81,094 for the fourth phase of work to improve drainage in the Kingery East subdivision near Burr Ridge to $3.9 million for the extensive storm sewer, ditch and detention work planned for the Pleasantdale subdivision south of the Stevenson Expressway near Woodridge. (chicagotribune.com)
  • On both sides, the corn is planted all the way up to the slope leading to the drainage ditch. (usgs.gov)
  • The ancient Indus of sewerage and drainage that were developed and used in cities throughout the civilization were far more advanced than any found in contemporary urban cities in the Middle East and even more efficient than those in some areas of the Indian Subcontinent today. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the United Kingdom the Land Drainage Act 1991 decrees drainage of land in England and Wales, however this does not cover sewerage and water supplies but the actual process of draining land itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • noun sewerage , waste , sewage , seepage The drainage system has collapsed. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • They set out from the plans all the roads, street gutters, drainage, culverts and sewers involved in construction operations. (wikipedia.org)
  • A complete review and demonstration of the procedure for incision and drainage of abscess, including wound anesthetization, incision technique, blunt dissection, and insertion of packing materials. (aap.org)
  • How would I code CT guided splenic abscess drainage? (aapc.com)
  • Depending on how much of the subsoil needs water drainage, dig trenches of varying depths, fill the bottoms with gravel or rubble and install pipes within the rubble to more freely conduct moisture to an outflow. (ehow.com)
  • Those designing and building a surface water drainage re-use or disposal system need to consider whether a pesticide runoff problem is likely to occur, the type of pesticides expected, and the mitigation steps needed to avoid downstream pollution. (fao.org)
  • The maker of water drainage systems and pipes posted revenue of $406.6 million in the period. (yahoo.com)
  • Summary: The Ombudsman will not investigate Miss C's complaint that the Council's failure to maintain a surface water drainage system contributed to flooding which caused significant damage to her property. (lgo.org.uk)
  • This company offers lawn sprinklers and storm drainage. (bbb.org)
  • Storm Drainage Design Provides a well-maintained transportation network for the traveling public and maintains storm drainage systems to ensure the safe transport and disposal of storm water runoff. (cabq.gov)
  • The responsibility of the Storm Drainage Design Section of the Engineering Division is to improve the effectiveness of the storm drainage system within the City of Albuquerque and to safeguard the quality of the storm water runoff discharging into the Rio Grande. (cabq.gov)
  • Storm Drainage Design also provides guidance and training to local engineers, planners and contractors in the planning and implementation of storm water quality control measures for construction projects installed within the City of Albuquerque. (cabq.gov)
  • It holds that the owner of a lower parcel of land must accept the natural drainage from those parcels above his, and cannot alter the drainage pattern of his own land to increase the drainage flow onto parcels lower than his own. (wikipedia.org)
  • Application of the civil law rule in its purest form would inhibit the development of land, since virtually every improvement on a parcel would alter the natural drainage. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the natural drainage is from his land to your land, you have to find a way to divert it. (doityourself.com)
  • Overview of the regional system that collects sewage, stormwater and other drainage. (metrovancouver.org)
  • The City of Hendersonville will appropriate funds for stormwater drainage expenditures as they move forward with plans to set up a stormwater utility district. (tennessean.com)
  • At its meeting Jan. 9, the Board of Mayor and Aldermen voted to transfer $131,525 from the general fund to put toward a half year of salary and benefit expenses for stormwater drainage personnel and to purchase a vehicle for those personnel. (tennessean.com)
  • Funds will then be reimbursed from future stormwater fees collected from the stormwater drainage fund. (tennessean.com)
  • Hendersonville is Tennessee's 11th largest city with 56,000 people, and often, Moore said, stormwater drainage projects get sacrificed for other necessities. (tennessean.com)
  • Many of the subdivisions in southeastern DuPage were built in the 1960s and early 1970s before developers were required to meet strict standards for drainage, according to Jeff Dailey, the county's chief stormwater engineer. (chicagotribune.com)
  • With the aim of guaranteeing the safety of its citizens and long-term growth, Jeddah is making significant investments in the planning, engineering and construction of sustainable infrastructure with the Jeddah Stormwater Drainage Program (JSDP). (aecom.com)
  • Retention ponds such as this one in Dunfermline, Scotland are considered components of a sustainable drainage system. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the time, the River Thames was the primary component of London's drainage system, with human waste concentrating in the waters adjacent to the densely populated urban center. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a typical drainage system they would be laid along a trench which would then be filled with coarse granular material: gravel, sea shells, stone or rock. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternatively,the prefabricated plastic drainage system made of HDPE called SmartDitch, often incorporating geotextile, coco fiber or rag filters can be considered. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a channel drainage system it is designed to eliminate the need for further pipework systems to be installed in parallel to the drainage, reducing the environmental impact of production as well as improving water collection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gullies connect to drainage pipes beneath the ground surface and deep excavation is required to facilitate this system. (wikipedia.org)
  • drainage, in agriculture, the removal of excess water from the soil, either by a system of surface ditches, or by underground conduits if required by soil conditions and land contour. (factmonster.com)
  • This system was invented by the American Henry French, author of Farm Drainage, who lived from 1813 to 1885. (ehow.com)
  • There are a limited number of options available when trying to decide where and how to dispose of agricultural drainage Water into the natural hydrological system. (fao.org)
  • Measures such as the construction of retention ponds and the establishment of riparian border strips can be taken to reduce the direct inflow of polluted surface drainage water into the receiving system. (fao.org)
  • Generally, this type of drainage water must be highly diluted in the main drainage system. (fao.org)
  • Where dilution is not possible, special arrangements should be made to flush and transport this acid drainage water from the system. (fao.org)
  • Is there any way to create a drainage system? (sfgate.com)
  • Although lack of a proper drainage system is the likely source of your problem, there are other potential causes. (sfgate.com)
  • 1995). These pesticide problems are the result of farming practices, not the design or functioning of the drainage system. (fao.org)
  • The drainage system should not be considered a mechanism for controlling pesticide runoff. (fao.org)
  • Through the in-depth analysis of the current drainage system including a detailed survey of the capacity of Westwood Brook and the use of industry standard drainage modelling software, this project aims to provide a solution to the campus flooding problem. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Investigation of the types and locations of the materials disposed into the drainage system. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Assessing the possibility of setting up real time monitoring for the drainage system. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • The drainage system shall incorporate adequate cleanouts placed in a manner that the drainage system may be readily cleaned. (mass.gov)
  • When a secondary roof drainage system is, installed, it shall discharge independent of the primary building storm system and shall terminate a minimum of 18" above grade in an area that will be visible to the people who occupy the building. (mass.gov)
  • Lymph drainage also helps stimulate your nervous system. (bellaonline.com)
  • Installed in the 1980's, the existing drainage system that runs along the stretch of SR 503, between Northeast 87th Street and Northeast 95th Street is failing, and is in need of replacement. (wa.gov)
  • Over the course of the past 25 years, as traffic volumes increased through this area, the amount of dirt and debris from cars and commercial trucks has also increased, and is tossed from moving vehicles into the drainage system, clogging it. (wa.gov)
  • During heavy seasonal rainstorms, the existing drainage system is overloaded, and water flows over the roadway. (wa.gov)
  • With the installation of the new drainage system, water will flow into a drainage detention facility, creating a safer roadway surface for drivers. (wa.gov)
  • In addition to improving the drainage system, crews will install an electronic VMS board, which provides traffic information to the traveling public. (wa.gov)
  • Traps are vital components of the drainage system. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Achieving its goal of providing proper safe and sanitary water for under-developed areas, the JSDP has rejuvenated the drainage system of Jeddah, ensuring the city's longevity. (aecom.com)
  • a drainage system whose waters do not continue to the ocean either on the surface or underground, but evaporate within the land area. (dictionary.com)
  • Regional interactions within the climate-lake-FIS system, linked to changes in the availability of subglacial water, led to abrupt drainage cycles of the FIS into the BS watershed. (pnas.org)
  • The discharge requirements should specify the maximum allowable concentration of each constituent of concern and the volume of drainage water discharge that will be acceptable. (fao.org)
  • I put a 8 foot long by about 8 inches deep trench filled with drainage rock to stop some surface water form coming into my dog pen. (doityourself.com)
  • Such geotextiles can also cover perforated drainage pipes to prevent silt and other particulates from clogging the interior of the pipes. (ehow.com)
  • However, in order for methane drainage to be successful and produce the expected results, methane drainage systems must be designed according to specific geologic conditions, such as gassiness of the coal seam and overlying strata, specific gas emissions of the mine, and coal seam thickness and continuity. (cdc.gov)
  • However, most US coal mines using longwalls must utilize methane drainage to meet federal statutory limits for methane concentrations in air and cannot rely on ventilation systems alone. (cdc.gov)
  • Measuring methane drainage at a borehole. (cdc.gov)
  • Building on this work, the NIOSH Mining Program is addressing methane drainage and control problems by developing technologies to identify potential migration pathways and controlling them through methane drainage research. (cdc.gov)
  • Methane Drainage: Experience With Hydraulic Stimulation Thro! (cdc.gov)
  • While there were some minor administrative failings, the Council has no liability to take action to install drainage on the road and, as it has now agreed to carry out some works as a goodwill gesture to help Mr A, we will not pursue the complaint any further. (lgo.org.uk)
  • Major drainage divide in which waters on each side of the divide never meet but flow into the same ocean, such as the divide between the Yellow River basin and the Yangtze . (wikipedia.org)
  • Drainage was practiced in the Nile basin c.400 BC and in ancient Rome. (factmonster.com)
  • returns the lat/lon coordinates of a given drainage basin divide. (mathworks.com)
  • The word "watershed" is sometimes used interchangeably with drainage basin or catchment. (usgs.gov)
  • Currently, most gas drainage applications in individual underground coal mines are based on trial and error and by copying the practices used by other mines located in the same coal basin. (cdc.gov)
  • In this course, learn how to use this powerful software to model watersheds, culverts, and drainage networks. (lynda.com)
  • She also demonstrates how to add culverts to a road both automatically and manually, modify culverts, and create and size drainage networks. (lynda.com)
  • My name is Lynda Sharkey, and I'll be your drainage tour guide as we build on your existing Infraworks expertise to create and analyze washer sheds, find hydrology data, work with culverts, and create and size drainage networks. (lynda.com)
  • In 1997 and 1998, FEMA Region I partnered with the State of New Hampshire, the Town of Durham, and local residents to improve the drainage capacity of the two culverts. (fema.gov)
  • A minor drainage divide south of Buckeye, Arizona. (wikipedia.org)
  • Minor drainage divide in which waters part but eventually rejoin at a river confluence, such as the Mississippi River and the Missouri River drainage divides. (wikipedia.org)
  • A minor drainage divide is a divide where water parts and later converges or forms a confluence. (reference.com)
  • Most of the precipitation that falls within the drainage area of a stream's USGS monitoring site collects in the stream and eventually flows by the monitoring site. (usgs.gov)
  • If water collects or pools in your backyard, protect your landscape by adding extra backyard drainage. (doityourself.com)
  • The bond payments will be financed by using $1.8 million of the $2.1 million in property taxes that the county now collects annually for drainage purposes. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Does Clay Soil Affect the Drainage on a Leach Field? (ehow.com)
  • Drainage water that flows over or through the soil will pick up a variety of dissolved and suspended substances including salts, organic compounds and soil particles. (fao.org)
  • High pesticide concentrations in subsurface drainage water are less probable because of the filtering action of the soil. (fao.org)
  • Puddling water on soil surfaces indicates a drainage problem. (rhs.org.uk)
  • If water remains for hours or even days the soil may benefit from installing drainage. (rhs.org.uk)
  • You mention that there is a lot of gravel under your retaining wall for drainage. (sfgate.com)
  • This type of drainage is a sign of healing, and it is not usually a cause for concern when it appears in normal amounts. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Typically, most jurisdictions have some body of drainage law to govern to what degree a landowner can alter the drainage from his parcel. (wikipedia.org)
  • It holds that since surface water is a "common enemy" to landowners, each landowner has the right to alter the drainage pattern of his land (for example by building dikes or drainage channels) without regard for the effects on neighboring parcels, as long as that water flows to where it otherwise would have naturally flowed. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, under the Restatement of Torts, the test was: Was there reasonable necessity for the property owner to alter the drainage to make use of their land? (wikipedia.org)
  • Mayor-President Joel Robideaux, at a news conference Nov. 2, 2017, explained the need to re-dedicate an existing tax for drainage parishwide. (theadvertiser.com)
  • Serosanguineous drainage is one common type of wound drainage. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • What Is a Wound Drainage Culture? (kidshealth.org)
  • When fluid seeps from a wound, it is called wound drainage. (kidshealth.org)
  • Wound drainage cultures can show if a wound is infected. (kidshealth.org)
  • How Should We Prepare for a Wound Drainage Culture? (kidshealth.org)
  • You don't have to do anything special to prepare your child for a wound drainage culture. (kidshealth.org)
  • You can help prepare your child for a wound drainage culture by explaining that the test will be quick. (kidshealth.org)
  • Can I Stay With My Child During a Wound Drainage Culture? (kidshealth.org)
  • Are There Any Risks From a Wound Drainage Culture? (kidshealth.org)
  • A wound drainage culture is a safe procedure. (kidshealth.org)
  • If you have questions about the wound drainage culture, contact your doctor. (kidshealth.org)
  • Topics include standard project hurricane, levees and floodwalls, datums and elevations, and interior drainage and pump stations. (asce.org)
  • Beneath the city of Las Vegas, Nevada, and its famous strip of dazzling lights and high rollers, are underground drainage tunnels built to prevent flooding in the city. (voanews.com)
  • Drainage water quality may vary within a catchment. (fao.org)
  • Through the Drainage and Wastewater Management Plan, we are planning and working with stakeholders at three levels, the most local being at an individual Water Recycling Centre (WRCs), formally known as Sewage Treatment Works, catchment level to produce locally specific Drainage and Wastewater Strategies. (wessexwater.co.uk)
  • Browse companies that make Underslab Drainage Piping and view and download their free cad details, revit BIM files, specifications and other content relating to Underslab Drainage Piping as well as other product information formated for the architectural community. (arcat.com)
  • A good solution to a drainage problem can almost always be found in altering the slope of your yard. (doityourself.com)
  • The main issues causing the erosion and runoff were a lack of ditches for adequate drainage and overgrown vegetation. (fema.gov)
  • In this edition of Coffee and Coding we will look at a case involving the drainage of a sellar cyst, and the harvesting and placement of a nasoseptal flap. (ahima.org)