An exudate between the RETINA and CHOROID from various sources including the vitreous cavity, SUBARACHNOID SPACE, or abnormal vessels.
Separation of the inner layers of the retina (neural retina) from the pigment epithelium. Retinal detachment occurs more commonly in men than in women, in eyes with degenerative myopia, in aging and in aphakia. It may occur after an uncomplicated cataract extraction, but it is seen more often if vitreous humor has been lost during surgery. (Dorland, 27th ed; Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p310-12).
The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
The layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA; the CILIARY BODY; and the IRIS in the eye.
Bleeding from the vessels of the retina.
Inorganic salts of iodic acid (HIO3).
Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.
An operation for retinal detachment which reduces the size of the globe by indenting the sclera so that it approximates the retina.
Plastic tubes used for drainage of air or fluid from the pleural space. Their surgical insertion is called tube thoracostomy.
Exudates are fluids, CELLS, or other cellular substances that are slowly discharged from BLOOD VESSELS usually from inflamed tissues. Transudates are fluids that pass through a membrane or squeeze through tissue or into the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE of TISSUES. Transudates are thin and watery and contain few cells or PROTEINS.
The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
A system of artificial or natural drains, generally used for the disposal of liquid wastes.
The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.
A retrogressive pathological change in the retina, focal or generalized, caused by genetic defects, inflammation, trauma, vascular disease, or aging. Degeneration affecting predominantly the macula lutea of the retina is MACULAR DEGENERATION. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p304)
A pathological process consisting of the formation of new blood vessels in the CHOROID.
Specialized PHOTOTRANSDUCTION neurons in the vertebrates, such as the RETINAL ROD CELLS and the RETINAL CONE CELLS. Non-visual photoreceptor neurons have been reported in the deep brain, the PINEAL GLAND and organs of the circadian system.
The removal of secretions, gas or fluid from hollow or tubular organs or cavities by means of a tube and a device that acts on negative pressure.
The administration of substances into the eye with a hypodermic syringe.
The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
A group of rare, idiopathic, congenital retinal vascular anomalies affecting the retinal capillaries. It is characterized by dilation and tortuosity of retinal vessels and formation of multiple aneurysms, with different degrees of leakage and exudates emanating from the blood vessels.
Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.
Degenerative changes in the RETINA usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the MACULA LUTEA) because of damage to the retina. It occurs in dry and wet forms.
The single layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA, situated closely to the tips (outer segments) of the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. These epithelial cells are macroglia that perform essential functions for the photoreceptor cells, such as in nutrient transport, phagocytosis of the shed photoreceptor membranes, and ensuring retinal attachment.
Disorders of the choroid including hereditary choroidal diseases, neoplasms, and other abnormalities of the vascular layer of the uvea.
Rats bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
Formation of new blood vessels originating from the retinal veins and extending along the inner (vitreal) surface of the retina.
Liquid components of living organisms.
Enzymes that catalyze the rearrangement of geometry about double bonds. EC 5.2.
A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.
An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.
The fraction of a blood sample, following CENTRIFUGATION, that is distinguished as a thin light-colored layer between the RED BLOOD CELLS, underneath it, and the PLASMA, above it. It is composed mostly of WHITE BLOOD CELLS and PLATELETS.
A visual impairment characterized by the accumulation of fluid under the retina through a defect in the retinal pigment epithelium.
Examination of the interior of the eye with an ophthalmoscope.
Inflammation of the choroid.
Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.
Colloid or hyaline bodies lying beneath the retinal pigment epithelium. They may occur either secondary to changes in the choroid that affect the pigment epithelium or as an autosomal dominant disorder of the retinal pigment epithelium.
Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.
Vitreoretinal membrane shrinkage or contraction secondary to the proliferation of primarily retinal pigment epithelial cells and glial cells, particularly fibrous astrocytes, followed by membrane formation. The formation of fibrillar collagen and cellular proliferation appear to be the basis for the contractile properties of the epiretinal and vitreous membranes.
An accumulation of air or gas in the PLEURAL CAVITY, which may occur spontaneously or as a result of trauma or a pathological process. The gas may also be introduced deliberately during PNEUMOTHORAX, ARTIFICIAL.
A form of RETINAL DEGENERATION in which abnormal CHOROIDAL NEOVASCULARIZATION occurs under the RETINA and MACULA LUTEA, causing bleeding and leaking of fluid. This leads to bulging and or lifting of the macula and the distortion or destruction of central vision.
The coagulation of tissue by an intense beam of light, including laser (LASER COAGULATION). In the eye it is used in the treatment of retinal detachments, retinal holes, aneurysms, hemorrhages, and malignant and benign neoplasms. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)
Transference of cells within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
Surgical procedure involving the creation of an opening (stoma) into the chest cavity for drainage; used in the treatment of PLEURAL EFFUSION; PNEUMOTHORAX; HEMOTHORAX; and EMPYEMA.
Tumors of the choroid; most common intraocular tumors are malignant melanomas of the choroid. These usually occur after puberty and increase in incidence with advancing age. Most malignant melanomas of the uveal tract develop from benign melanomas (nevi).
The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.
The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Removal of the whole or part of the vitreous body in treating endophthalmitis, diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment, intraocular foreign bodies, and some types of glaucoma.
A specialized transport barrier, in the EYE, formed by the retinal pigment EPITHELIUM, and the ENDOTHELIUM of the BLOOD VESSELS of the RETINA. TIGHT JUNCTIONS joining adjacent cells keep the barrier between cells continuous.
A protein complex comprised of COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1. It is involved in transport of vesicles between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.
The inner layer of CHOROID, also called the lamina basalis choroideae, located adjacent to the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM; (RPE) of the EYE. It is a membrane composed of the basement membranes of the choriocapillaris ENDOTHELIUM and that of the RPE. The membrane stops at the OPTIC NERVE, as does the RPE.
The study of life and ECOLOGIC SYSTEMS in bodies of FRESHWATER.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Perforations through the whole thickness of the retina including the macula as the result of inflammation, trauma, degeneration, etc. The concept includes retinal breaks, tears, dialyses, and holes.
The administration of substances into the VITREOUS BODY of the eye with a hypodermic syringe.
Color of hair or fur.
Inflammation of the RETINA. It is rarely limited to the retina, but is commonly associated with diseases of the choroid (CHORIORETINITIS) and of the OPTIC DISK (neuroretinitis).
An oval area in the retina, 3 to 5 mm in diameter, usually located temporal to the posterior pole of the eye and slightly below the level of the optic disk. It is characterized by the presence of a yellow pigment diffusely permeating the inner layers, contains the fovea centralis in its center, and provides the best phototropic visual acuity. It is devoid of retinal blood vessels, except in its periphery, and receives nourishment from the choriocapillaris of the choroid. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Transference of fetal tissue between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.
Also called xiphoid process, it is the smallest and most inferior triangular protrusion of the STERNUM or breastbone that extends into the center of the ribcage.
Permanent dilation of preexisting blood vessels (CAPILLARIES; ARTERIOLES; VENULES) creating small focal red lesions, most commonly in the skin or mucous membranes. It is characterized by the prominence of skin blood vessels, such as vascular spiders.
General term for a number of inherited defects of amino acid metabolism in which there is a deficiency or absence of pigment in the eyes, skin, or hair.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Small breaks in the elastin-filled tissue of the retina.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Material, usually gauze or absorbent cotton, used to cover and protect wounds, to seal them from contact with air or bacteria. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Diseases affecting the eye.
Color of the iris.
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
TRANSPORT VESICLES formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles is covered with a lattice-like network of COP (coat protein complex) proteins, either COPI or COPII. COPI coated vesicles transport backwards from the cisternae of the GOLGI APPARATUS to the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH), while COPII coated vesicles transport forward from the rough endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus.
Infections with nematodes of the genus GNATHOSTOMA, superfamily THELAZIOIDEA. Gnathostomiasis is a food-borne zoonosis caused by eating undercooked or raw fish or meat.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
The technique of using a cryostat or freezing microtome, in which the temperature is regulated to -20 degrees Celsius, to cut ultrathin frozen sections for microscopic (usually, electron microscopic) examination.
Artificial device such as an externally-worn camera attached to a stimulator on the RETINA, OPTIC NERVE, or VISUAL CORTEX, intended to restore or amplify vision.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
Infection occurring at the site of a surgical incision.
Surgical creation of an opening in a cerebral ventricle.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
A rare degenerative inherited eye disease that appears at birth or in the first few months of life that results in a loss of vision. Not to be confused with LEBER HEREDITARY OPTIC NEUROPATHY, the disease is thought to be caused by abnormal development of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS in the RETINA, or by the extremely premature degeneration of retinal cells.
Inflammation of the choroid in which the sensory retina becomes edematous and opaque. The inflammatory cells and exudate may burst through the sensory retina to cloud the vitreous body.
Reinfusion of blood or blood products derived from the patient's own circulation. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Therapy using oral or topical photosensitizing agents with subsequent exposure to light.
Surgical insertion of a prosthesis.
Adjustment of the eyes under conditions of low light. The sensitivity of the eye to light is increased during dark adaptation.
A tricarbocyanine dye that is used diagnostically in liver function tests and to determine blood volume and cardiac output.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A local anesthetic of the ester type that has a rapid onset of action and a longer duration of action than procaine hydrochloride. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1017)
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Salts and esters of the 10-carbon monocarboxylic acid-decanoic acid.
Tumors or cancer of the EYE.
Hereditary, progressive degeneration of the neuroepithelium of the retina characterized by night blindness and progressive contraction of the visual field.
Mild to severe infections of the eye and its adjacent structures (adnexa) by adult or larval protozoan or metazoan parasites.
Measurement of light given off by fluorescein in order to assess the integrity of various ocular barriers. The method is used to investigate the blood-aqueous barrier, blood-retinal barrier, aqueous flow measurements, corneal endothelial permeability, and tear flow dynamics.
The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.
Photosensitive proteins in the membranes of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS such as the rods and the cones. Opsins have varied light absorption properties and are members of the G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS family. Their ligands are VITAMIN A-based chromophores.
Transmission of gene defects or chromosomal aberrations/abnormalities which are expressed in extreme variation in the structure or function of the eye. These may be evident at birth, but may be manifested later with progression of the disorder.
Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Surgery performed on the thoracic organs, most commonly the lungs and the heart.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Hemorrhage following any surgical procedure. It may be immediate or delayed and is not restricted to the surgical wound.
Abnormal passage communicating with the PANCREAS.
The use of green light-producing LASERS to stop bleeding. The green light is selectively absorbed by HEMOGLOBIN, thus triggering BLOOD COAGULATION.
Absence of crystalline lens totally or partially from field of vision, from any cause except after cataract extraction. Aphakia is mainly congenital or as result of LENS DISLOCATION AND SUBLUXATION.
Accumulation of blood in the SUBDURAL SPACE with delayed onset of neurological symptoms. Symptoms may include loss of consciousness, severe HEADACHE, and deteriorating mental status.
A purplish-red, light-sensitive pigment found in RETINAL ROD CELLS of most vertebrates. It is a complex consisting of a molecule of ROD OPSIN and a molecule of 11-cis retinal (RETINALDEHYDE). Rhodopsin exhibits peak absorption wavelength at about 500 nm.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
A membrane on the vitreal surface of the retina resulting from the proliferation of one or more of three retinal elements: (1) fibrous astrocytes; (2) fibrocytes; and (3) retinal pigment epithelial cells. Localized epiretinal membranes may occur at the posterior pole of the eye without clinical signs or may cause marked loss of vision as a result of covering, distorting, or detaching the fovea centralis. Epiretinal membranes may cause vascular leakage and secondary retinal edema. In younger individuals some membranes appear to be developmental in origin and occur in otherwise normal eyes. The majority occur in association with retinal holes, ocular concussions, retinal inflammation, or after ocular surgery. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p291)
Control of bleeding during or after surgery.
Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
An area approximately 1.5 millimeters in diameter within the macula lutea where the retina thins out greatly because of the oblique shifting of all layers except the pigment epithelium layer. It includes the sloping walls of the fovea (clivus) and contains a few rods in its periphery. In its center (foveola) are the cones most adapted to yield high visual acuity, each cone being connected to only one ganglion cell. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Silicone polymers which consist of silicon atoms substituted with methyl groups and linked by oxygen atoms. They comprise a series of biocompatible materials used as liquids, gels or solids; as film for artificial membranes, gels for implants, and liquids for drug vehicles; and as antifoaming agents.
Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P2X RECEPTORS. Included under this heading are antagonists for specific P2X receptor subtypes.
A group of disorders involving predominantly the posterior portion of the ocular fundus, due to degeneration in the sensory layer of the RETINA; RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM; BRUCH MEMBRANE; CHOROID; or a combination of these tissues.
Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P22-like viruses, family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects SALMONELLA species. The genome consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
Persons who have acquired academic or specialized training in countries other than that in which they are working. The concept excludes physicians for which FOREIGN MEDICAL GRADUATES is the likely heading.
Agents that mimic neural transmission by stimulation of the nicotinic receptors on postganglionic autonomic neurons. Drugs that indirectly augment ganglionic transmission by increasing the release or slowing the breakdown of acetylcholine or by non-nicotinic effects on postganglionic neurons are not included here nor are the nonspecific cholinergic agonists.
Experimentally produced harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing RADIATION in CHORDATA animals.
Suppurative inflammation of the pleural space.
Photosensitive afferent neurons located primarily within the FOVEA CENTRALIS of the MACULA LUTEA. There are three major types of cone cells (red, blue, and green) whose photopigments have different spectral sensitivity curves. Retinal cone cells operate in daylight vision (at photopic intensities) providing color recognition and central visual acuity.
A genus of parasitic nematodes that occurs in mammals including man. Infection in humans is either by larvae penetrating the skin or by ingestion of uncooked fish.
Recovery of blood lost from surgical procedures for reuse by the same patient in AUTOLOGOUS BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS. It is collected during (intraoperatively) or after completion of (postoperatively) the surgical procedures.
Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles are covered with a lattice-like network of coat proteins, such as CLATHRIN, coat protein complex proteins, or CAVEOLINS.
The surgical removal of the eyeball leaving the eye muscles and remaining orbital contents intact.
An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.
Acute suppurative inflammation of the inner eye with necrosis of the sclera (and sometimes the cornea) and extension of the inflammation into the orbit. Pain may be severe and the globe may rupture. In endophthalmitis the globe does not rupture.
An autologous or commercial tissue adhesive containing FIBRINOGEN and THROMBIN. The commercial product is a two component system from human plasma that contains more than fibrinogen and thrombin. The first component contains highly concentrated fibrinogen, FACTOR VIII, fibronectin, and traces of other plasma proteins. The second component contains thrombin, calcium chloride, and antifibrinolytic agents such as APROTININ. Mixing of the two components promotes BLOOD CLOTTING and the formation and cross-linking of fibrin. The tissue adhesive is used for tissue sealing, HEMOSTASIS, and WOUND HEALING.
Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.
Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Autosomal dominant hereditary maculopathy with childhood-onset accumulation of LIPOFUSION in RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. Affected individuals develop progressive central acuity loss, and distorted vision (METAMORPHOPSIA). It is associated with mutations in bestrophin, a chloride channel.
Devices used to hold tissue structures together for repair, reconstruction or to close wounds. They may consist of adsorbable or non-adsorbable, natural or synthetic materials. They include tissue adhesives, skin tape, sutures, buttons, staples, clips, screws, etc., each designed to conform to various tissue geometries.
A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the short version of the genome and have a separate gene for cell lysis.
The thin serous membrane enveloping the lungs (LUNG) and lining the THORACIC CAVITY. Pleura consist of two layers, the inner visceral pleura lying next to the pulmonary parenchyma and the outer parietal pleura. Between the two layers is the PLEURAL CAVITY which contains a thin film of liquid.
A form of MACULAR DEGENERATION also known as dry macular degeneration marked by occurrence of a well-defined progressive lesion or atrophy in the central part of the RETINA called the MACULA LUTEA. It is distinguishable from WET MACULAR DEGENERATION in that the latter involves neovascular exudates.
Phenomenon where BLOOD PRESSURE readings are elevated only when taken in clinical settings.
Breakdown of the connection and subsequent leakage of effluent (fluids, secretions, air) from a SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS of the digestive, respiratory, genitourinary, and cardiovascular systems. Most common leakages are from the breakdown of suture lines in gastrointestinal or bowel anastomosis.
Potential cavity which separates the ARACHNOID MATER from the DURA MATER.
The type species of the genus ALFAMOVIRUS that is non-persistently transmitted by aphids.
The space in the eye, filled with aqueous humor, bounded anteriorly by the cornea and a small portion of the sclera and posteriorly by a small portion of the ciliary body, the iris, and that part of the crystalline lens which presents through the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p109)
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
A flexible, tubular device that is used to carry fluids into or from a blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
Photosensitive afferent neurons located in the peripheral retina, with their density increases radially away from the FOVEA CENTRALIS. Being much more sensitive to light than the RETINAL CONE CELLS, the rod cells are responsible for twilight vision (at scotopic intensities) as well as peripheral vision, but provide no color discrimination.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Nerve cells of the RETINA in the pathway of transmitting light signals to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They include the outer layer of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS, the intermediate layer of RETINAL BIPOLAR CELLS and AMACRINE CELLS, and the internal layer of RETINAL GANGLION CELLS.
A system of organs and tissues that process and transport immune cells and LYMPH.
Replacement of the knee joint.
Substances used to cause adherence of tissue to tissue or tissue to non-tissue surfaces, as for prostheses.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Inflammation of part or all of the uvea, the middle (vascular) tunic of the eye, and commonly involving the other tunics (sclera and cornea, and the retina). (Dorland, 27th ed)
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS caused by the dematiaceous (darkly pigmented) MITOSPORIC FUNGI of ALTERNARIA, Bipolaris, CLADOSPORIUM, Curvularia, and EXOPHIALA. These fungi have pigmented HYPHAE due to MELANIN in the cell wall. The initial subcutaneous cyst from the infection can become systemic and spread rapidly to renal, pulmonary and cerebral systems (see CEREBRAL PHAEOHYPHOMYCOSIS) in an IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOST.
The escape of diagnostic or therapeutic material from the vessel into which it is introduced into the surrounding tissue or body cavity.
Extravasation of blood into the skin, resulting in a nonelevated, rounded or irregular, blue or purplish patch, larger than a petechia.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Loss of blood during a surgical procedure.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.
Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.
A 700-kDa cytosolic protein complex consisting of seven equimolar subunits (alpha, beta, beta', gamma, delta, epsilon and zeta). COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1 are principle components of COAT PROTEIN COMPLEX I and are involved in vesicle transport between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.
The external junctural region between the lower part of the abdomen and the thigh.
The productive enterprises concerned with food processing.
Cytosine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.
A benign tumor composed of bone tissue or a hard tumor of bonelike structure developing on a bone (homoplastic osteoma) or on other structures (heteroplastic osteoma). (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A space in which the pressure is far below atmospheric pressure so that the remaining gases do not affect processes being carried on in the space.
The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
Inflammation of CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.
Removal of an implanted therapeutic or prosthetic device.
The design or construction of objects greatly reduced in scale.
The use of photothermal effects of LASERS to coagulate, incise, vaporize, resect, dissect, or resurface tissue.
The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.
The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.
A branch of engineering concerned with the design, construction, and maintenance of environmental facilities conducive to public health, such as water supply and waste disposal.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
The most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior. It consists of two layers - the stroma and the pigmented epithelium. Color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.
Tumors or cancer of the RETINA.
A broad family of synthetic organosiloxane polymers containing a repeating silicon-oxygen backbone with organic side groups attached via carbon-silicon bonds. Depending on their structure, they are classified as liquids, gels, and elastomers. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Techniques for securing together the edges of a wound, with loops of thread or similar materials (SUTURES).
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids (depending on species) that regulates the synthesis of eumelanin (brown/black) pigments in MELANOCYTES. Agouti protein antagonizes the signaling of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTORS and has wide distribution including ADIPOSE TISSUE; GONADS; and HEART. Its overexpression in agouti mice results in uniform yellow coat color, OBESITY, and metabolic defects similar to type II diabetes in humans.
Any adverse condition in a patient occurring as the result of treatment by a physician, surgeon, or other health professional, especially infections acquired by a patient during the course of treatment.
The use of freezing as a special surgical technique to destroy or excise tissue.
... fluid dynamics F15D; fluid clutches or brakes F16D; fluid springs F16F; fluid gearing F16H; pistons, cylinders, packing F16J; ... a drain contact on the drain region, and recesses in the source and drain contacts substantially aligned with the gate contact ... Coating material storage bag orientation clip and coating material cartridge incorporating the same Patent No. 10857558 ... optical delivery of opsins for vision restoration in patients with retinal photodegeneration by conventional intravitreal/sub-retinal ...
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Subretinal Fluid Cannulas *Viscoelastic & Irrigating Cannulas *Visitec Anesthesia Administration *Visitec Anterior Chamber ... Ethicon Coated VICRYL Plus Suture *Ethicon Coated VICRYL Suture *Ethicon MONOCRYL Plus Suture ... Ethicon Drains *Ethicon Hernia Repair *Ethicon Miscellaneous *Pro Advantage Surgical Caps *Pro Advantage Surgical Drapes and ...
Subretinal Fluid Cannulas *Viscoelastic & Irrigating Cannulas *Visitec Anesthesia Administration *Visitec Anterior Chamber ... Ethicon Coated VICRYL Plus Suture *Ethicon Coated VICRYL Suture *Ethicon MONOCRYL Plus Suture ... Ethicon Drains *Ethicon Hernia Repair *Ethicon Miscellaneous *Pro Advantage Surgical Caps *Pro Advantage Surgical Drapes and ...
Subretinal Fluid Cannulas *Viscoelastic & Irrigating Cannulas *Visitec Anesthesia Administration *Visitec Anterior Chamber ... Ethicon Coated VICRYL Plus Suture *Ethicon Coated VICRYL Suture *Ethicon MONOCRYL Plus Suture ... Ethicon Drains *Ethicon Hernia Repair *Ethicon Miscellaneous *Pro Advantage Surgical Caps *Pro Advantage Surgical Drapes and ...
Subretinal Fluid Cannulas *Viscoelastic & Irrigating Cannulas *Visitec Anesthesia Administration *Visitec Anterior Chamber ... Ethicon Coated VICRYL Plus Suture *Ethicon Coated VICRYL Suture *Ethicon MONOCRYL Plus Suture ... Ethicon Drains *Ethicon Hernia Repair *Ethicon Miscellaneous *Pro Advantage Surgical Caps *Pro Advantage Surgical Drapes and ...
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Subretinal Fluid Cannulas *Viscoelastic & Irrigating Cannulas *Visitec Anesthesia Administration *Visitec Anterior Chamber ... Ethicon Coated VICRYL Plus Suture *Ethicon Coated VICRYL Suture *Ethicon MONOCRYL Plus Suture ... Ethicon Drains *Ethicon Hernia Repair *Ethicon Miscellaneous *Pro Advantage Surgical Caps *Pro Advantage Surgical Drapes and ...
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... in vitro and in vivo Solid-to-fluid DNA transition inside HSV-1 capsid close to the temperature of infection Solid-to-fluid ... coating improves penetration of large polymeric nanoparticles within brain tissue Gene therapy for adenosine deaminase- ... 64Cu-micelles enhance accumulation in rat glioblastoma Super natural killer cells that target metastases in the tumor draining ... Regenerative biotechnological treatment Nanowire-based electrode for acute in vivo neural recordings in the brain Subretinal ...

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