Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.
An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
An antimitotic agent with immunosuppressive properties.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).
Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.
A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.
Antitumor alkaloid isolated from Vinca rosea. (Merck, 11th ed.)
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
A very toxic anthracycline aminoglycoside antineoplastic isolated from Streptomyces peucetius and others, used in treatment of LEUKEMIA and other NEOPLASMS.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
An experimental lymphocytic leukemia originally induced in DBA/2 mice by painting with methylcholanthrene.
Agents that have a damaging effect on the HEART. Such damage can occur from ALKYLATING AGENTS; FREE RADICALS; or metabolites from OXIDATIVE STRESS and in some cases is countered by CARDIOTONIC AGENTS. Induction of LONG QT SYNDROME or TORSADES DE POINTES has been the reason for viewing some drugs as cardiotoxins.
Monohydroxyethyl derivative of rutin. Peripheral circulation stimulant used in treatment of venous disorders.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
Positional isomer of CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE which is active as an alkylating agent and an immunosuppressive agent.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A connective tissue neoplasm formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells; it is usually highly malignant.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
Organic compounds that have a tetrahydronaphthacenedione ring structure attached by a glycosidic linkage to the amino sugar daunosamine.
A complex of related glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus consisting of bleomycin A2 and B2. It inhibits DNA metabolism and is used as an antineoplastic, especially for solid tumors.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.
An anthracenedione-derived antineoplastic agent.
An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).
Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.
A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
A sarcoma originating in bone-forming cells, affecting the ends of long bones. It is the most common and most malignant of sarcomas of the bones, and occurs chiefly among 10- to 25-year-old youths. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.
Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.
A group of diterpenoid CYCLODECANES named for the taxanes that were discovered in the TAXUS tree. The action on MICROTUBULES has made some of them useful as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.
DNA TOPOISOMERASES that catalyze ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. These enzymes bring about relaxation of the supercoiled DNA and resolution of a knotted circular DNA duplex.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
Polyacenes with four ortho-fused benzene rings in a straight linear arrangement. This group is best known for the subclass called TETRACYCLINES.
An antineoplastic agent used primarily in combination with mechlorethamine, vincristine, and prednisone (the MOPP protocol) in the treatment of Hodgkin's disease.
A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.
Nanometer-sized, hollow, spherically-shaped objects that can be utilized to encapsulate small amounts of pharmaceuticals, enzymes, or other catalysts (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology, 4th ed).
An anthracycline which is the 4'-epi-isomer of doxorubicin. The compound exerts its antitumor effects by interference with the synthesis and function of DNA.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
An anthracycline produced by Streptomyces galilaeus. It has potent antineoplastic activity.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
Neoplasms of whatever cell type or origin, occurring in the extraskeletal connective tissue framework of the body including the organs of locomotion and their various component structures, such as nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics, etc.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
Compounds that inhibit the activity of DNA TOPOISOMERASE II. Included in this category are a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS which target the eukaryotic form of topoisomerase II and ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS which target the prokaryotic form of topoisomerase II.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.
Genes for MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that confer resistance to toxic compounds. Several superfamilies of these multidrug export proteins are known and found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.
A decrease in the number of NEUTROPHILS found in the blood.
An antineoplastic agent. It has significant activity against melanomas. (from Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p564)
A group of closely related cyclic undecapeptides from the fungi Trichoderma polysporum and Cylindocarpon lucidum. They have some antineoplastic and antifungal action and significant immunosuppressive effects. Cyclosporins have been proposed as adjuvants in tissue and organ transplantation to suppress graft rejection.
Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.
A biologic alkylating agent that exerts its cytotoxic effects by forming DNA ADDUCTS and DNA interstrand crosslinks, thereby inhibiting rapidly proliferating cells. The hydrochloride is an antineoplastic agent used to treat HODGKIN DISEASE and LYMPHOMA.
Malignant lymphoma composed of large B lymphoid cells whose nuclear size can exceed normal macrophage nuclei, or more than twice the size of a normal lymphocyte. The pattern is predominantly diffuse. Most of these lymphomas represent the malignant counterpart of B-lymphocytes at midstage in the process of differentiation.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
A glycoprotein of MW 25 kDa containing internal disulfide bonds. It induces the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of neutrophilic granulocyte precursor cells and functionally activates mature blood neutrophils. Among the family of colony-stimulating factors, G-CSF is the most potent inducer of terminal differentiation to granulocytes and macrophages of leukemic myeloid cell lines.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
A malignant disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue. In the classical variant, giant usually multinucleate Hodgkin's and REED-STERNBERG CELLS are present; in the nodular lymphocyte predominant variant, lymphocytic and histiocytic cells are seen.
Each of the upper and lower folds of SKIN which cover the EYE when closed.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)

Decreased expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Par-4 in renal cell carcinoma. (1/8107)

Par-4 is a widely expressed leucine zipper protein that confers sensitization to apoptosis induced by exogenous insults. Because the expression of genes that promote apoptosis may be down-regulated during tumorigenesis, we sought to examine the expression of Par-4 in human tumors. We present here evidence that Par-4 protein levels were severely decreased in human renal cell carcinoma specimens relative to normal tubular cells. Replenishment of Par-4 protein levels in renal cell carcinoma cell lines conferred sensitivity to apoptosis. Because apoptosis may serve as a defense mechanism against malignant transformation or progression, decreased expression of Par-4 may contribute to the pathophysiology of renal cell carcinoma.  (+info)

Tumour ablation and hepatic decompensation rates in multi-agent chemoembolization of hepatocellular carcinoma. (2/8107)

Thirty-seven cirrhotic patients with 62 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) foci--most Child-Pugh class B or C and/or with large, inoperable tumours--underwent 148 sessions of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) using lipiodol, doxorubicin and cisplatin. Treatment efficacy was assessed by serial hepatic arteriography in 34/37 (91.9%) patients and abdominal CT scanning in 3/37 (8.1%) patients. Child-Pugh status was determined prior to each treatment session. Varying degrees of control of tumour neovascularity occurred for a median 390 days (range 90 to > 1680 days) in 33/34 (97.1%) patients in whom progress hepatic arteriography was performed. Ablation of tumour neovascularity occurred in 6/6 (100%), 4/12 (33.3%) and 6/16 (37.5%) patients with HCC diameters < 4 cm, 4-7 cm and > 8 cm, respectively (p < 0.02). Significantly more sessions were required for ablation of larger tumours (p < 0.05). Recurrent HCC was detected in 50% of patients after a median 240 days (range 60-1120 days). Deterioration in Child-Pugh status followed a session of TACE on 19/148 (12.8%) occasions but resulted in unscheduled hospitalization on only 4/148 (2.7%) occasions, the highest incidence (8.3%) in Child-Pugh C patients. Actuarial survival was 27/36 (75.0%) at 6 months, 17/34 (50.0%) at 12 months, 14/34 (41.2%) at 18 months, 9/31 (29.0%) at 24 months and 4/27 (14.8%) at 36 months. Multi-agent TACE with lipiodol, doxorubicin and cisplatin provides a useful anti-tumour effect, even in cirrhotic patients with large HCCs. The incidence of clinically significant deterioration in hepatic function due to ischaemia of non-tumorous liver is acceptably low, even in Child-Pugh C patients.  (+info)

Inhibition of doxorubicin toxicity in cultured neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes with elevated metallothionein levels. (3/8107)

Controversial results have been reported regarding whether metallothionein (MT) functions in doxorubicin (DOX) detoxification in the heart. To determine unequivocally the role of MT in cardiac protection against the toxicity of DOX, ventricular cardiomyocytes isolated from 1- to 3-day neonatal transgenic mice with high levels of cardiac MT and from nontransgenic control animals were applied. On the 6th day of culturing, MT concentrations in the transgenic cardiomyocytes were about 2-fold higher than those in the nontransgenic cells. DOX was added directly into the cultures. Compared with nontransgenic controls, transgenic cardiomyocytes displayed a significant (p <.05) resistance to DOX cytotoxicity, as measured by morphological alterations, cell viability, and lactate dehydrogenase leakage from the cells. This cytoprotective effect of MT correlated with its inhibition of DOX-induced lipid peroxidation. These observations demonstrate unequivocally that elevation of MT concentrations in the cardiomyocytes of 2-fold higher than normal provides efficient protection against DOX toxicity.  (+info)

1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 enhances the susceptibility of breast cancer cells to doxorubicin-induced oxidative damage. (4/8107)

1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), the hormonal form of vitamin D, has anticancer activity in vivo and in vitro. Doxorubicin exerts its cytotoxic effect on tumor cells mainly by two mechanisms: (a) generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS); and (b) inhibition of topoisomerase II. We studied the combined cytotoxic action of 1,25(OH)2D3 and doxorubicin on MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Pretreatement with 1,25(OH)2D3 resulted in enhanced cytotoxicity of doxorubicin. The average enhancing effect after a 72-h pretreatment with 1,25(OH)2D3 (10 nM) followed by a 24-h treatment with 1 microg/ml doxorubicin was 74+/-9% (mean +/- SE). Under these experimental conditions, 1,25(OH)2D3 on its own did not affect cell number or viability. 1,25(OH)2D3 also enhanced the cytotoxic activity of another ROS generating quinone, menadione, but did not affect cytotoxicity induced by the topoisomerase inhibitor etoposide. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine slightly reduced the cytotoxic activity of doxorubicin but had a marked protective effect against the combined action of 1,25(OH)2D3 and doxorubicin. These results indicate that ROS are involved in the interaction between 1,25(OH)2D3 and doxorubicin. 1,25(OH)2D3 also increased doxorubicin cytotoxicity in primary cultures of rat cardiomyocytes. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with 1,25(OH)2D3 alone markedly reduced the activity, protein, and mRNA levels of the cytoplasmic antioxidant enzyme Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, which indicated that the hormone inhibits its biosynthesis. This reduction in the antioxidant capacity of the cells could account for the synergistic interaction between 1,25(OH)2D3 and doxorubicin and may also suggest increased efficacy of 1,25(OH)2D3 or its analogues in combination with other ROS-generating anticancer therapeutic modalities.  (+info)

Cell adhesion mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR): role of integrins and resistance to apoptosis in human myeloma cell lines. (5/8107)

Integrin-mediated adhesion influences cell survival and may prevent programmed cell death. Little is known about how drug-sensitive tumor cell lines survive initial exposures to cytotoxic drugs and eventually select for drug-resistant populations. Factors that allow for cell survival following acute cytotoxic drug exposure may differ from drug resistance mechanisms selected for by chronic drug exposure. We show here that drug-sensitive 8226 human myeloma cells, demonstrated to express both VLA-4 (alpha4beta1) and VLA-5 (alpha5beta1) integrin fibronectin (FN) receptors, are relatively resistant to the apoptotic effects of doxorubicin and melphalan when pre-adhered to FN and compared with cells grown in suspension. This cell adhesion mediated drug resistance, or CAM-DR, was not due to reduced drug accumulation or upregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members. As determined by flow cytometry, myeloma cell lines selected for drug resistance, with either doxorubicin or melphalan, overexpress VLA-4. Functional assays revealed a significant increase in alpha4-mediated cell adhesion in both drug-resistant variants compared with the drug-sensitive parent line. When removed from selection pressure, drug-resistant cell lines reverted to a drug sensitive and alpha4-low phenotype. Whether VLA-4-mediated FN adhesion offers a survival advantage over VLA-5-mediated adhesion remains to be determined. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that FN-mediated adhesion confers a survival advantage for myeloma cells acutely exposed to cytotoxic drugs by inhibiting drug-induced apoptosis. This finding may explain how some cells survive initial drug exposure and eventually express classical mechanisms of drug resistance such as MDR1 overexpression.  (+info)

Combination of theanine with doxorubicin inhibits hepatic metastasis of M5076 ovarian sarcoma. (6/8107)

Theanine is a peculiar amino acid existing in green tea leaves, which was previously indicated to enhance the antitumor activity of doxorubicin. In the present study, the effect of combination of theanine with doxorubicin against hepatic metastasis of M5076 ovarian sarcoma was investigated. The primary tumor was significantly reduced by the combined treatment on M5076 transplanted (s.c.) mice. The liver weight of control mice increased to twice the normal level because of hepatic metastasis of M5076. In contrast, the injection of doxorubicin alone or theanine plus doxorubicin suppressed the increase in liver weight and inhibited hepatic metastasis. Moreover, the liver weights and metastasis scores demonstrated that theanine enhanced the inhibition of hepatic metastasis induced by doxorubicin. Furthermore, in vitro experiments indicated that theanine increased the intracellular concentration of doxorubicin remaining in M5076 cells. This action suggests that theanine leads the enhancement of the suppressive efficacy of doxorubicin on hepatic metastasis in vivo. Therefore, it was proved that theanine increased not only the antitumor activity on primary tumor but also the metastasis-suppressive efficacy of doxorubicin. The effect of theanine on the efficacy of antitumor agents is expected to be applicable in clinical cancer chemotherapy.  (+info)

Inhibition of p53 transcriptional activity by Bcl-2 requires its membrane-anchoring domain. (7/8107)

We show here that the anti-apoptosis protein Bcl-2 potently inhibits p53-dependent transcriptional activation of various p53-responsive promoters in reporter gene co-transfection assays in human embryonic kidney 293 and MCF7 cells, without affecting nuclear accumulation of p53 protein. In contrast, Bcl-2(Deltatransmembrane (TM)), which lacks a hydrophobic membrane-anchoring domain, had no effect on p53 activity. Similarly, in MCF7 cells stably expressing either Bcl-2 or Bcl-2(DeltaTM), nuclear levels of p53 protein were up-regulated upon treatment with the DNA-damaging agents doxorubicin and UV radiation, whereas p53-responsive promoter activity and expression of p21(CIP1/WAF1) were strongly reduced in MCF7-Bcl-2 cells but not in MCF7-Bcl-2(DeltaTM) or control MCF7 cells. The issue of membrane anchoring was further explored by testing the effects of Bcl-2 chimeric proteins that contained heterologous transmembrane domains from the mitochondrial protein ActA or the endoplasmic reticulum protein cytochrome b5. Both Bcl-2(ActA) and Bcl-2(Cytob5) suppressed p53-mediated transactivation of reporter gene plasmids with efficiencies comparable to wild-type Bcl-2. These results suggest that (a) Bcl-2 not only suppresses p53-mediated apoptosis but also interferes with the transcriptional activation of p53 target genes at least in some cell lines, and (b) membrane anchoring is required for this function of Bcl-2. We speculate that membrane-anchored Bcl-2 may sequester an unknown factor necessary for p53 transcriptional activity.  (+info)

MycN sensitizes neuroblastoma cells for drug-induced apoptosis. (8/8107)

Amplification of the MYCN gene is found in a large proportion of neuroblastoma and considered as an adverse prognostic factor. To investigate the effect of ectopic MycN expression on the susceptibility of neuroblastoma cells to cytotoxic drugs we used a human neuroblastoma cell line harboring tetracycline-controlled expression of MycN. Neither conditional expression of MycN alone nor low drug concentrations triggered apoptosis. However, when acting in concert, MycN and cytotoxic drugs efficiently induced cell death. Apoptosis depended on mitochondrial permeability transition and activation of caspases, since the mitochondrion-specific inhibitor bongkrekic acid and the caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk almost completely abrogated apoptosis. Loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria preceded activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3 and cleavage of PARP. CD95 expression was upregulated by treatment with cytotoxic drugs, while MycN cooperated with cytotoxic drugs to increase sensitivity to CD95-induced apoptosis and enhancing CD95-L expression. MycN overexpression and cytotoxic drugs also synergized to induce p53 and Bax protein expression, while Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L) protein levels remained unchanged. Since amplification of MYCN is usually associated with a poor prognosis, these findings suggest that dysfunctions in apoptosis pathways may be a mechanism by which MycN-induced apoptosis of neuroblastoma cells is inhibited.  (+info)

PRIMARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To determine the maximum tolerated dose of intraperitoneal (IP) paclitaxel when given concurrently with fixed dose intravenous (IV) doxorubicin (doxorubicin hydrochloride) and IV cisplatin.. II. To determine the maximum tolerated dose of IP paclitaxel when given concurrently with fixed dose IV doxorubicin hydrochloride and IP cisplatin.. III. To determine the feasibility of an IV/IP based doxorubicin hydrochloride, paclitaxel, and cisplatin chemotherapy regimen in patients with advanced endometrial cancer.. OUTLINE: This is a dose-escalation study of paclitaxel.. Patients receive doxorubicin hydrochloride IV over 30 minutes followed by cisplatin IV over 1 hour on day 1, paclitaxel IV over 3 hours on day 2, and filgrastim subcutaneously (SC) on days 3-12 or pegfilgrastim SC on day 3. Treatment repeats every 21 days for up to 2 courses in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.. Patients then receive doxorubicin hydrochloride IV and cisplatin IV or IP ...
Doxorubicin (5 mg kg-1) was administered intravenously to C57 mice bearing subcutaneous B16F10 melanomas, distributing into the tumour with an area under the concentration-time curve (0-48 h; AUC) of 8.7 micrograms h g-1. Injection of doxorubicin-N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer conjugate, containing 5 mg of doxorubicin equivalent per kg, mediated an AUC for free doxorubicin (i.e. doxorubicin released from the conjugate) of 15.2 micrograms h g-1 and for total doxorubicin (i.e. free plus conjugated) of 149.1 micrograms h g-1. An increased dose of doxorubicin-HPMA copolymer conjugate (18 mg of doxorubicin equivalent per kg) produced AUC values of 40.1 micrograms h g-1 and 671.7 micrograms h g-1 for free and total doxorubicin respectively. Hence administration of doxorubicin-HPMA copolymer conjugate achieved rises of 1.7- to 4.6-fold in tumour AUC (free doxorubicin) and 17.19 to 77.0-fold in tumour AUC (total doxorubicin). HPMA copolymers bearing fluorescein isothiocyanate accumulated in
Pharmacokinetic studies conducted in patients with various types of tumors have shown that doxorubicin follows multiphasic disposition after intravenous injection. The distribution half-life is approximately 5 minutes, while the terminal half-life is 20 to 48 hours. In four patients, doxorubicin demonstrated dose-independent pharmacokinetics across a dose range of 30 to 70 mg/m2 .. Distribution Steady-state distribution volume ranges from 809 to 1214 L/m2. Binding of doxorubicin and its major metabolite, doxorubicinol, to plasma proteins is about 75% and is independent of plasma concentration of doxorubicin up to 1.1 mcg/mL. Doxorubicin was measured in the milk of one lactating patient after therapy with 70 mg/m2 of doxorubicin given as a 15 minute intravenous infusion. The peak milk concentration at 24 hours after treatment was 4.4 fold greater than the corresponding plasma concentration. Doxorubicin was detectable in the milk up to 72 hours.. Doxorubicin does not cross the blood brain ...
We investigated in vivo the chemotherapeutic anthracycline agents doxorubicin and its ability to activate mitochondrial-mediated, receptor-mediated and endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum-mediated apoptosis transduction pathways in cardiac tissue from male and female rats. We administered a single low dose of doxorubicin (10 mg/kg of body weight, i.p.) and then isolated mitochondrial and cytosolic proteins one and four days later from the heart. Caspase-3 protein content and caspase-3 activity were significantly increased after day four of doxorubicin treatment in both male and female rats. However, while males had DNA fragmentation at day one but not day four following doxorubicin administration, females showed no significant increase in DNA fragmentation at either time. Caspase-12, localized in the SR, is considered a central caspase, and its activation by cleavage via calpain indicates activation of the SR-mediated pathway of apoptosis. Cleaved caspase-12 content and calpain activity significantly
Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) is the first antineoplastic drug derived from the new technology of liposome formulation to be introduced in clinical practice. The low myocardium uptake of this formulation accounts for its reduced cardiac toxicity, confirmed both in preclinical models and in humans. Preclinical data have shown activity in NSCLC xenografts. This Phase II study is to explore the efficacy and toxicity of Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin and Carboplatin in patients with previously untreated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) not amenable to radiotherapy or surgical treatment ...
The efficacy of liposomal doxorubicin for treating Kaposis sarcoma (KS) in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was studied. Eight men with HIV infection and KS were to be given liposomal doxorubicin 20 mg/sq m i.v. monthly for six months and 10 mg/sq m i.v. monthly thereafter, depending on the response. They were assessed for the onset, extent, and duration of clinical response; relapse; adverse effects; development of new opportunistic infections; quality of life; and survival. Five patients had a clinical complete response (i.e., complete resolution of the manifestations of KS, as determined by physical examination but not confirmed by biopsy) and three patients had a partial response to the induction regimen of liposomal doxorubicin. Relapse occurred in all patients in whom therapy was stopped; reinstatement of therapy elicited a partial response. Neutropenia occurred in two patients; filgrastim therapy enabled the liposomal doxorubicin therapy to continue uninterrupted.
Doxorubicin is a commonly used antineoplastic agent in the treatment of many types of cancer. Little is known about the interactions of doxorubicin with cardiac biomolecules. Serious cardiotoxicity including dilated cardiomyopathy often resulting in a fatal congestive heart failure may occur as a consequence of chemotherapy with doxorubicin. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of exposure to doxorubicin on the changes in major amino acids in tissue of cardiac muscle (proline, taurine, glutamic acid, arginine, aspartic acid, leucine, glycine, valine, alanine, isoleucine, threonine, lysine and serine). An in vitro interaction study was performed as a comparison of amino acid profiles in heart tissue before and after application of doxorubicin. We found that doxorubicin directly influences myocardial amino acid representation even at low concentrations. In addition, we performed an interaction study that resulted in the determination of breaking points for each of analyzed amino acids.
Verapamil reversed resistance to doxorubicin in a human multiple myeloma cell line selected for multiple drug resistance. The drug-resistant cell line 8226/DOX40 is known to have reduced intracellular drug accumulation associated with the overexpression of P-glycoprotein when compared to the sensitive parent cell line 8226/S. Verapamil alone was minimally cytotoxic in both cell lines, but reversed doxorubicin resistance in a dose-related manner in 8226/DOX40. A similar dose-response relationship was observed for verapamil in increasing net intracellular doxorubicin accumulation. This increased net accumulation was secondary to block of enhanced doxorubicin efflux by verapamil from resistant cells. In contrast, verapamil did not alter initial doxorubicin accumulation over the first 60 s when incubated with resistant cells. Addition of verapamil to the 8226/DOX40 cells enhanced the formation of doxorubicin-induced DNA single strand breaks, double strand breaks, and DNA-protein cross-links. ...
Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective potential of Galangin on Doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity in rats.. Methods: Albino rats used in this experiment were pretreated with vehicle, Galangin (100 & 200µg/kg) and Vit-C (20 mg/kg) for 28 days. On 25th day, a single dose of Doxorubicin (10 mg/kg, i. p) was administered to groups. After 72 h of Doxorubicin administration, ECG, serum and tissues biomarkers were evaluated. Histopathological examination of the heart was performed.. Results: Doxorubicin treated rats exhibited abnormal ECG pattern followed by significant increase in CK-MB, LDH, SGOT, SGPT and LPO level and decrease in GSH, CAT, TT when compared to control rats. Pretreatment with different doses of Galangin and Vit-C significantly reduced the serum biomarkers and increased the tissue antioxidant level when compared to Doxorubicin alone treated groups. Moreover, pretreatment also improved Doxorubicin induced changes in ECG pattern and ...
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BACKGROUND: We aimed to define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and characterize the toxicity of the combination of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD; Caelyx trade mark ) and weekly paclitaxel (wPTX), and to investigate pharmacokinetics of PLD in this combination. METHODS: A phase I study was performed with an initial dose of 50 mg/m(2) wPTX and 30 mg/m(2) PLD. The paclitaxel dose was escalated in increments of 10 mg/m(2) and PLD in increments of 5 mg/m(2) until the MTD was reached. The pharmacokinetics of PLD were studied at the highest achieved dose levels. RESULTS: Forty-four cancer patients were enrolled. The MTD was 30/90 and 35/80 mg/m(2) for PLD/wPTX. Dose-limiting toxicities included treatment delay for neutropenia grade 3, febrile neutropenia, palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia and deep venous thrombosis. Toxicity below the MTD was mild: skin toxicity grade 1-2 developed at high cumulative doses and vascular thrombotic events occurred in two patients with predisposing factors. No ...
Dose limiting toxicities of therapy are myelosuppression and cardiotoxicity. Other reactions reported are:. Cardiotoxicity - (See WARNINGS.). Cutaneous- Reversible complete alopecia occurs in most cases. Hyperpigmentation of nailbeds and dermal creases, primarily in pediatric patients, and onycholysis have been reported in a few cases. Radiation recall reaction has occurred with doxorubicin administration. Rash, itching, or photosensitivity may occur.. Gastrointestinal-Acute nausea and vomiting occurs frequently and may be severe. This may be alleviated by antiemetic therapy. Mucositis (stomatitis and esophagitis) may occur within 5 to 10 of beginning therapy, and most patients recover from this adverse event within another 5 to 10 days. The effect may be severe leading to ulceration and represents a site of origin for severe infections. The dosage regimen consisting of administration of doxorubicin on three successive days results in greater incidence and severity of mucositis. Ulceration and ...
Preclinical studies have reported that a single treadmill session performed 24h prior to doxorubicin provides cardio-protection. We aimed to characterize the acute change in cardiac function following an initial doxorubicin treatment in humans and determine whether an exercise session performed 24h prior to treatment changes this response. Breast cancer patients were randomized to either 30min of vigorous-intensity exercise 24h prior to the first doxorubicin treatment (n=13), or no vigorous exercise for 72h prior to treatment (control, n=11). Echocardiographically-derived left ventricular volumes, longitudinal strain, twist, E/A ratio, and circulating NT-proBNP, a marker of later cardiotoxicity, were measured before and 24-48h after the treatment. Following treatment in the control group, NT-proBNP, end-diastolic and stroke volumes, cardiac output, E/A ratio, strain, diastolic strain rate, twist, and untwist velocity significantly increased (all p≤0.01). Whereas systemic vascular resistance ...
Doxorubicin is an antineoplastic in the anthracycline class. General properties of drugs in this class include: interaction with DNA in a variety of different ways including intercalation (squeezing between the base pairs), DNA strand breakage and inhibition with the enzyme topoisomerase II. Most of these compounds have been isolated from natural sources and antibiotics. However, they lack the specificity of the antimicrobial antibiotics and thus produce significant toxicity. The anthracyclines are among the most important antitumor drugs available. Doxorubicin is widely used for the treatment of several solid tumors while daunorubicin and idarubicin are used exclusively for the treatment of leukemia. Doxorubicin may also inhibit polymerase activity, affect regulation of gene expression, and produce free radical damage to DNA. Doxorubicin possesses an antitumor effect against a wide spectrum of tumors, either grafted or spontaneous. The anthracyclines are cell cycle-nonspecific ...
Various researches about doxorubicin work mechanism have done. Anthracyclin antibiotic like doxorubicin has cytotoxic action mechanism through four mechanism, that are: (1) Inhibition of topoisomerase II. (2) Intercalation of DNA so that cause DNA and RNA synthesis inhibition. (3) Cell membrane binding which cause ion flow and transport. (4) Formation of semiquinon free radicals and oxygen free radicals through iron dependent processes and reductive process that is mediated enzyme. This free radicals mechanism has known responsible in cardiotoxicity cause antracyclin antibiotic (Bruton et al, 2005). Doxorubicin can intercalation with DNA, it will directly affect transcription and replication. Doxorubicin can form complex tripartite with topoisomerase II and DNA. Topoisomerase II is an enzyme dependent ATP that work to bind DNA and cause double-stand break in the tip 3phosphate so that allowing strand exchange and streamlining the supercoiled DNA. The streamlining of this strand is followed by ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Doxorubicin Blocks Cardiomyocyte Autophagic Flux by Inhibiting Lysosome Acidification. AU - Li, Dan L.. AU - Wang, Zhao. AU - Ding, Guanqiao. AU - Tan, Wei. AU - Luo, Xiang. AU - Criollo, Alfredo. AU - Xie, Min. AU - Jiang, Nan. AU - May, Herman. AU - Kyrychenko, Viktoriia. AU - Schneider, Jay W. AU - Gillette, Thomas G.. AU - Hill, Joseph A. PY - 2016/4/26. Y1 - 2016/4/26. N2 - Background - The clinical use of doxorubicin is limited by cardiotoxicity. Histopathological changes include interstitial myocardial fibrosis and the appearance of vacuolated cardiomyocytes. Whereas dysregulation of autophagy in the myocardium has been implicated in a variety of cardiovascular diseases, the role of autophagy in doxorubicin cardiomyopathy remains poorly defined. Methods and Results - Most models of doxorubicin cardiotoxicity involve intraperitoneal injection of high-dose drug, which elicits lethargy, anorexia, weight loss, and peritoneal fibrosis, all of which confound the interpretation ...
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In the present study, we explored sexual dimorphism of doxorubicin cardiotoxicity and energetic and signaling pathways that could be involved in these differences. Two clinically relevant cumulative doses of doxorubicin, either 14 mg/kg after 7 injections or 8 mg/kg after 4 injections were administrated to investigate sex differences in the cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin. Doxorubicin treatment resulted in sex differences characterized in males by (1) important weight loss and decrease in survival rate, (2) strong alterations of myocardial function, (3) decrease in energy signaling pathways, (4) downregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, (5) decrease in cardiolipin content, (6) decrease in mitochondrial DNA content, and (7) and alteration of mitochondrial respiration. No sex differences were found for the oxidative stress response or for death markers, whereas mitochondrial dysfunction and mitochondrial protein expression were associated with early cardiotoxicity in males.. Several clinical ...
A new chemotherapeutic approach using doxorubicin simultaneously with geopropolis favoring monocyte functions.. Lucas Pires Garcia Oliveira, Fernanda Lopes Conte, Eliza de Oliveira Cardoso, Bruno José Conti, Karina Basso Santiago, Marjorie de Assis Golim, Geórgiada Silva Feltran, Willian Fernando Zambuzzi, José Maurício Sforcin. Abstract. Aims. Chemotherapy has been widely used to treat cancer although it may affect non-target cells involved in the immune response. This work aimed at elucidating whether the chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin in combination with geopropolis produced by Melipona fasciculata Smith could affect nontumor immune cells, evaluating their immunomodulatory effects on human monocytes.. Main methods. Cell viability, expression of cell markers (HLA-DR, TLR-2, TLR-4, C80 and CD40), cytokine production (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10), intracellular pathways (NF-κB and autophagy), the microbicidal activity of monocytes and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production were ...
Cardiomyopathy. Doxorubicin hydrochloride can result in myocardial damage, including acute left ventricular failure. The risk of cardiomyopathy is generally proportional to the cumulative exposure. Include prior doses of other anthracyclines or anthracenediones in calculations of total cumulative dosage for doxorubicin hydrochloride. Cardiomyopathy may develop during treatment or up to several years after completion of treatment and can include decrease in LVEF and signs and symptoms of congestive heart failure (CHF). The probability of developing cardiomyopathy is estimated to be 1 to 2% at a total cumulative dose of 300 mg/m2 of doxorubicin hydrochloride, 3 to 5% at a dose of 400 mg/m2, 5 to 8% at a dose of 450 mg/m2, and 6 to 20% at a dose of 500 mg/m2, when doxorubicin hydrochloride is administered every 3 weeks. There is an additive or potentially synergistic increase in the risk of cardiomyopathy in patients who have received radiotherapy to the mediastinum or concomitant therapy with ...
This randomized phase III trial studies how well doxorubicin hydrochloride and cyclophosphamide followed by paclitaxel with or without carboplatin work in
The optimal cardiac toxicity prevention strategy for doxorubicin would include an agent that improves the efficacy of the doxorubicin-based cancer therapy and prevents cardiac toxicity. In our experiments, pretreatment with GGA blocked doxorubicin cardiac toxicity by maintaining systolic function and decreasing cell death in the heart. Most remarkably, GGA also contributed to doxorubicins chemotherapy efficacy in MDA-MB-231 xenografts in parallel with protecting the heart. GGAs antineoplastic effect is likely due to its inhibition of RHO family proteins in both the heart and cancer cells, and we selected MDA-MB-231 for these experiments because of the endogenous high RHO activity in these cells. Because GGA has been used in Japan since 1984 to prevent stomach ulcers and has a long history of safety and lack of adverse effects, we suggest that this novel approach to prevention of doxorubicin toxicity should be further investigated.. By comparison, dexrazoxane, an iron chelator used to reduce ...
Clinical resistance to chemotherapeutic agents is one of the major hindrances in the treatment of human cancers. Erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog 1 (ETS1) is involved in the drug resistance of various cancer cells, and is overexpressed in drug-resistant human breast cancer cell lines. In this study, we investigated the effects of ETS1 on adriamycin resistance in MCF-7/ADR cells. siRNAs against ETS1 or negative control siRNAs was transfected to MCF-7/ADR breast cancer cells. Reverse transcription-PCR and Western blotting were used to determine the mRNA and protein expression of ETS1 and MDR1. The cytotoxicity of adriamycin was assessed using the MTT assay. Drug efflux was investigated by flow cytometry using the Rhodamine 123 intracellular accumulation assay. ETS1 mRNA and protein was significantly overexpressed in MCF-7/ADR cells, compared to MCF-7 cells. ETS1 siRNA successfully silenced ETS1 mRNA and protein expression. Silencing of ETS1 also significantly reduced the mRNA and protein
A total of 10 patients with histologically proved carcinoma in situ of the bladder had remission of tumor after topical chemotherapy with doxorubicin hydrochloride for 24 months. Of the 10 patients 3 suffered new areas of carcinoma in situ 9 to 12 months after termination of intravesical chemotherapy. Furthermore, 1 of these 3 patients had a distal ureteral tumor. Fibrosis of the submucosal tissue was observed in every patient but a decrease in bladder capacity was observed in only 1 with prior radiotherapy. ...
RATIONALE: Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as gemcitabine hydrochloride, docetaxel, and doxorubicin hydrochloride, work in different ways to stop the g
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Patient information for DOXORUBICIN HYDROCHLORIDE 2 MG/ML SOLUTION FOR INFUSION Including dosage instructions and possible side effects.
From March 1996 to March 1998, 106 patients with untreated metastatic breast cancer (MBC) were treated with docetaxel (Taxotere) (100 mg/m²) and doxorubicin (75 mg/m²) on an alternating cycle-by-cycle (doxorubicin, docetaxel, doxorubicin, etc) or sequential (four cycles of docetaxel, then four cycles of doxorubicin) basis, every 3 weeks, for a maximum of eight cycles. 1
Background. Prognosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in elderly is poor. The GRAALL-SA1 phase II trial randomly compared the efficacy and toxicity of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin versus continuous-infusion doxorubicin in patients ≥55 years with Philadelphia chromosome-negative ALL. Design and Methods. Sixty patients received either continuous infusion-Doxorubicin (12 mg/m²/d) and continuous infusion-vincristine (0.4 mg/day) on day1-4 or liposomal-Doxorubicin (40 mg/m2;) and standard vincristine (2 mg) on day1, accompanied by dexamethasone, followed at day 28 by a second cycle, reinforced by cyclophosphamide. Endpoints were safety, outcome and prognostic factors. Results. Myelosupression was reduced in the Peg-Dox arm with shorter severe neutropenia (P=0.05), shorter severe thrombocytopenia (P=0.03), and less erythrocytes transfusions (P=0.04). Grade 3/4 infections and gram-negative bacteremia were reduced in the Peg-Dox arm (P=0.04 and 0.02, respectively). There was a trend toward less ...
Anthracyclines such as, doxorubicin (DOX) are an effective class of antineoplastic agents. Despite its efficacy in the treatment of a variety of cancers including breast cancer, the clinical use of DOX is limited by cardiac side effects. While it has been shown that DOX alters myocardial fatty acid metabolism, it is poorly understood whether variations in myocardial triacylglycerol (TG) metabolism contribute to DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Since TG catabolism in the heart is primarily controlled by adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), this study examined the influence of DOX on cardiac ATGL expression and TG levels as well as the consequence of forced-expression of ATGL in the setting of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. To do this, wild type (WT) mice and mice with cardiomyocyte-specific ATGL over-expression (MHC-ATGL) received weekly intraperitoneal injections of saline or DOX (8mg/kg) for four weeks. Heart rate, heart weight to tibia length ratio and DOX-induced body weight loss were comparable ...
|strong|Resveratrol enhances the sensitivity of doxorubicin-mediated cell proliferation invasion and migration in human breast cancer cell lines.|/stron ...
Purpose Anthracyclines (including doxorubicin) are still the backbone of commonly used breast cancer chemotherapy regimens. Despite increasing use of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (AC) combinations...
This phase IIb trial investigated the efficacy and tolerability of adding vintafolide [EC 145] to pegylated doxorubicin liposomal in patients with
Doxorubicin - Get up-to-date information on Doxorubicin side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more about Doxorubicin
Detection of dose response in chronic doxorubicin-mediated cell death with cardiac technetium 99m annexin V single-photon emission computed tomography. Mol Imaging. 2008 May-Jun; 7(3):132-8 ...
There are direct and indirect indications that PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil), a widely used anticancer nanomedicine, has a subclinical immune suppressive effect. As an example of a seemingly bad pharmacological property turning out to be not-so-ugly, but actually beneficial, the authors highlight the potential benefits of Doxils immune suppressive effect. ... read more These include (1) the decreased uptake of the drug by the MPS which may entail enhanced tumor uptake, and, hence, improved therapeutic efficacy; (2) the use of slow infusion protocols in reducing the risk of hypersensitivity (infusion) reactions; and (3), possible protection against hypersensitivity reactions to co-administered reactogenic drugs. To consider immune suppression as useful represents a paradigm shifts in nanotoxicology and anticancer chemotherapy. show less ...
Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a prime reason for numerous failed oncotherapy approaches. In the present study, we investigated whether Alisol F 24 acetate (ALI) could reverse the MDR of MCF-7/DOX cells, a multidrug-resistant human breast cancer cell line. We found that ALI was a potent P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor, in the Caco-2-monolayer cell model. ALI showed a significant and concentration-dependent cytotoxic effect on MCF-7/DOX cells in combination with doxorubicin by increasing intracellular accumulation and inducing nuclear migration of doxorubicin. However, ALI had no such effect on MCF-7 cells. In addition, ALI also promoted doxorubicin-induced early apoptosis of MCF-7/DOX cells in a time-dependent manner. These results suggest that ALI can enhance chemosensitivity of doxorubicin and reinforce its anti-cancer effect by increasing its uptake, especially inducing its nuclear accumulation in MCF-7/DOX cells. Therefore, ALI could be developed as a potential MDR-reversing agent in cancer
Symptoms of Male reproductive toxicity - Doxorubicin hydrochloride including 1 medical symptoms and signs of Male reproductive toxicity - Doxorubicin hydrochloride, alternative diagnoses, misdiagnosis, and correct diagnosis for Male reproductive toxicity - Doxorubicin hydrochloride signs or Male reproductive toxicity - Doxorubicin hydrochloride symptoms.
Evidence-based recommendations on topotecan, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride (Caelyx; PLDH), paclitaxel, trabectedin (Yondelis) and gemcitabine
Cardiomyopathy is a clinical problem that occurs in the hearts of type 2 diabetic patients as well as cancer patients undergoing doxorubicin chemotherapy. The number of diabetic cancer patients is increasing but surprisingly the cardiac damaging effects of doxorubicin, a commonly used chemotherapeutic drug, on diabetic hearts have not been well-examined. As the signaling mechanisms of the doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy in type 2 diabetic heart are largely unknown, this study examined the molecular signaling pathways that are responsible for the doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in type 2 diabetic hearts. Male 14- to 18-week-old db/db mice were used as the type 2 diabetic model, and age-matched non-diabetic db/+ mice served as controls. The db/+ non-diabetic and db/db diabetic mice were randomly assigned to the following groups: db/+CON, db/+DOX-5d, db/+DOX-7d, db/dbCON, db/dbDOX-5d, and db/dbDOX-7d. Mice assigned to doxorubicin (DOX) group were exposed to an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of DOX
PURPOSE: This randomized multicenter study was designed to compare the activity of a high-dose doxorubicin-containing chemotherapy regimen with a conventional standard-dose regimen in adult patients with advanced soft tissue sarcomas (ASTS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1992 and 1995, 314 patients were randomized to receive a standard-dose regimen (arm A), containing doxorubicin (50 mg/m(2) on day 1) and ifosfamide (5 g/m(2) on day 1), or an intensified regimen (arm B), combining doxorubicin (75 mg/m(2) on day 1), the same ifosfamide dose, and recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF; sargramostim, 250 microgram/m(2) on days 3 to 16); all courses were repeated every 3 weeks. RESULTS: The median age of the 294 eligible patients was 50 years. They received a median of five chemotherapy cycles. The median dose and relative doxorubicin dose-intensity achieved were 245 mg and 97% in arm A and 360 mg and 99% in arm B, respectively. Thirty-eight percent and 23% of ...
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A phase III trial (TH CR-406/SARC021) has shown no survival benefit of adding evofosfamide to doxorubicin in the first-line treatment of locally advanced unresectable or metastatic soft-tissue sarcoma. Trial results were reported in The Lancet Oncology by Tap et al. Evofosfamide is a hypoxia-activated prodrug of bromo-isophosphoramide mustard.. Study Details. In the open-label trial, 640 patients from 81 sites in 13 countries were randomized between September 2011 and January 2014 to receive evofosfamide plus doxorubicin (n = 317) or doxorubicin alone (n = 323). Doxorubicin was given at 75 mg/m² via bolus injection over 5 to 20 minutes or continuous infusion for 6 to 96 hours on day 1 of every 21-day cycle for up to 6 cycles. Evofosfamide was given at 300 mg/m² intravenously for 30 to 60 minutes on days 1 and 8 of every 21-day cycle for up to 6 cycles. After 6 cycles, patients in the doxorubicin group were followed, and patients with stable or responsive disease in the combination group were ...
Results Doxorubicin decreased calpain activities in cultured neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes and in vivomouse hearts, which correlated with down-regulation of calpain-1 and calpain-2 proteins. Over-expression of calpastatin or treatment with pharmacological calpain inhibitors aggravated apoptosis in neonatal and adult cardiomyocytes caused by doxorubicin. On the while, over-expression of calpain-2 but not calpain-1 decreased doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. The pro-apoptotic effects of calpain inhibition were concerned with down-regulation of AKT protein and mRNA expression, and a concomitant reduction in GSK-3 beta phosphorylation (Ser9) in doxorubicin-treated cardiomyocytes. Inhibiting AKT further increased doxorubicin-induced cardiac injuries, suggesting the effects of calpain inhibition may be mediated through inactivating the AKT signalling. In an in vivomodel of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity, overexpression of calpastatin aggravated myocardial dysfunction in transgenic ...
New approaches to the chemotherapy of glioblastoma [Elektronische Ressource] : investigations on doxorubicin nanoparticles, inhibition of PDGF receptors and kinesin Eg5, with emphasis on confocal laser-scanning microscopy / vorgelegt von Dietmar Gross : New Approaches to the Chemotherapy of Glioblastoma: investigations on doxorubicin nanoparticles, inhibition of PDGF receptors and kinesin Eg5, with emphasis on confocal laser-scanning microscopy Dissertation zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades der Naturwissenschaften (Dr. rer. nat.) der Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultät IV - Chemie und Pharmazie - der Universität Regensburg
Title:Comparison of Physicochemical Properties of Generic Doxorubicin HCl Liposome Injection with the Reference Listed Drug. VOLUME: 18 ISSUE: 4. Author(s):Kuntal Maiti *, Subhas Bhowmick, Pankaj Jain, Murlidhar Zope, Keyur Doshi and Thennati Rajamannar. Affiliation:Sun Pharma Advanced Research Company Ltd., Mumbai, Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. Mumbai, Sun Pharma Advanced Research Company Ltd., Mumbai, Sun Pharma Advanced Research Company Ltd., Mumbai, Sun Pharma Advanced Research Company Ltd., Mumbai, Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. Mumbai. Keywords:Doxorubicin hydrochloride, liposome, sterically stable, generic, physicochemical equivalence, cancer.. Abstract:Background: Liposomal doxorubicin is widely used for treating ovarian cancer and Kaposis sarcoma. Encapsulation of doxorubicin in highly complex polyethylene glycol-coated (stealth) liposomes prolongs residence time and avoids the systemic toxicity associated with administration of the free drug. Small variations in ...
Аннотация: In isotonic medium, daunorubicin in the concentration range of 0.5-5.0 mg/ml of cells and doxorubicin in the concentration range of 0.2-1.0 mg/ml of cells caused hemoglobin (Hb) and K+ to efflux from red blood cells (RBC), to increase RBC size and to lower their deformability. Hb and K+ efflux rates were proportional to the antibiotic concentrations and remained stable for a few hours. Hb efflux did not change significantly in the 4-21 degrees C range (exempt at an experimental concentration of daunorubicin of 5.0 mg/ml of cells) but soared sharply at 37 degrees C. At the daunorubicin and doxorubicin concentration of 0.2 mg/ml of cells, Hb and K+ efflux virtually did not differ from control values. At the antibiotic concentration of 1.0 mg/ml of cells, 37 degrees C, Hb efflux rate was 0.34-5.6%, while that of K+(-) 1.0-8.2%, per hour, of possible maximum value. For the daunorubicin level of 5.0 mg/ml of cells, the respective values were 10 and 17%. At the daunorubicin ...
Doxorubicin-mediated radiosensitivity in multicellular spheroids from a lung cancer cell line is enhanced by composite micelle encapsulation Wen-Hong Xu,1 Min Han,2 Qi Dong,3 Zhi-Xuan Fu,3 Yuan-Yuan Diao,2 Hai Liu,3 Jing Xu,3 Hong-Liang Jiang,4 Su-Zhan Zhang,3 Shu Zheng,3 Jian-Qing Gao,2 Qi-Chun Wei11Department of Radiation Oncology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 2Institute of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3Cancer Institute (Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Intervention, China National Ministry of Education), The Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, 4Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, ChinaBackground: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of composite doxorubicin-loaded micelles for enhancing doxorubicin radiosensitivity in multicellular spheroids from a non-small cell lung cancer cell line.Methods: A novel composite doxorubicin-loaded micelle consisting
Cardiotoxicity with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, non-pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone compared to rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone in frontline treatment of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: A randomised phase-III study from the Austrian Cancer Drug Therapy Working Group [Arbeitsgemeinschaft Medikamentöse Tumortherapie AGMT](NHL-14 ...
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Background: Progressive apoptosis following the primary injury has been implicated in the progression to end-stage heart failure. Survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein, is one of the most potent suppressor of apoptosis. We hypothesized that preventing apoptosis by survivin gene therapy may prevent deterioration in left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction in a doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy model in rats.. Methods and Results: A reproducible model of doxorubicin (dox)-induced cardiomyopathy was established in male Fisher rats by 6 equal doses (2.5 mg/kg bw) of i.p. injection every other day for 2 weeks. Echocardiographic assessment was performed at week 0, 3, and 6. A subset of animals (DOX+SURV, n=8) was treated with the survivin gene using the ultrasound targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) technique at week 3. Control animals (DOX, n=12) did not receive any treatment at week 3. At week 0 (pre-dox), LV% fractional shortening (FS) was comparable in DOX+SURV and DOX ...
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Life Sci 2019 Dec 18;239:117070. Epub 2019 Nov 18.. Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202, USA; Kosair Charities Pediatric Heart Research Program, Cardiovascular Innovation Institute, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202, USA. Electronic address: Doxorubicin (DOX) induced cardiotoxicity is a life-threatening side effect of chemotherapy and decreased cardiac function can present years after treatment. Despite the investigation of a broad range of pharmacologic interventions, to date the only drug shown to reduce DOX-related cardiotoxicity in preclinical studies and limited clinical trials is the iron chelating agent, dexrazoxane (DRZ), although the mechanisms responsible for DRZ mediated protection from DOX related cardiotoxicity remain unclear. Engineered cardiac tissues (ECTs) can be used for tissue repair strategies and as in vitro surrogate models to test cardiac toxicities and preventative countermeasures. Read ...
The advantages of cytotoxic drugs such as anthracyclines can be limited by the harmful damage that they inflicted on the human body. One of the main side effects of administering such powerful chemotherapeutic drugs is their negative impact on the cardiovascular system. These adverse side effects can significantly limit the usefulness of freely administered drugs such as doxorubicin. Lower doses must be given for the safety and well being of the patients while ultimately reducing the potency of the drug itself. Immunoliposomes can allow for the targeted delivery of anthracyclines such as doxorubicin. Specific targeting greatly decreases the detrimental side effects to sensitive tissues outside the targeted site while simultaneously acquiescing a larger dosage of drug at the tumor site without larger doses actually being administered. Immunoliposomes contain reactive lipids on their outer surface that allow for the conjugation of different molecules such as antibodies, peptides, or proteins. The ...
PURPOSE: To estimate the cost effectiveness of TAC (docetaxel, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide) compared with FAC (fluorouracil, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide) when administered as adjuvant therapy to women with node-positive early breast cancer in the United Kingdom (UK), both with and without primary prophylaxis with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). METHODS: A standard health economic Markov model estimated the cost and outcome for node-positive early breast cancer patients, from initiation of adjuvant chemotherapy to death.
The protein p53 plays a crucial role in the regulation of cellular responses to diverse stresses. Thus, a major priority in cell biology is to define the mechanisms that regulate p53 activity in response to stresses or maintain it at basal levels under normal conditions. Moreover, further investigation is required to establish whether RNA participates in regulating p53s interaction with other proteins. Here, by conducting systematic experiments, we discovered a p53 interactor-hnRNPC-that directly binds to p53, destabilizes it, and prevents its activation under normal conditions. Upon doxorubicin treatment, the lncRNA SNHG1 is retained in the nucleus through its binding with nucleolin and it competes with p53 for hnRNPC binding, which upregulates p53 levels and promotes p53‐dependent apoptosis by impairing hnRNPC regulation of p53 activity. Our results indicate that a balance between lncRNA SNHG1 and hnRNPC regulates p53 activity and p53‐dependent apoptosis upon doxorubicin treatment, and ...
QUÉBEC CITY, Feb. 4, 2014 /PRNewswire/ - Aeterna Zentaris Inc. (NASDAQ: AEZS) (TSX: AEZ) (the Company) today announced that an article on Phase 2 results for zoptarelin doxorubicin (AEZS-108) in endometrial cancer has been published in the February issue of the International Journal of Gynecological Cancer. Zoptarelin doxorubicin, is the Companys cytotoxic peptide conjugate which specifically targets luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptors. The article, Efficacy and Safety of AEZS-108 (LHRH Agonist Linked to Doxorubicin) in Women With Advanced or Recurrent Endometrial Cancer Expressing LHRH Receptors: A Multicenter Phase 2 Trial (AGO-GYN5), Emons G., Gorchev G., Harter P., Wimberger P., Stähle A., Hanker L., Hilpert F., Beckmann M.W., Dall P., Gründker C., Sindermann H., Sehouli J., outlines results of this study which had been previously presented at the European Society of Gynaecological Oncologys (ESGO) annual meeting in September 2011. The article is currently ...
Doxorubicin is an anthracycline antitumor antibiotic that inhibits DNA topoisomerase II by inducing double-stranded DNA breaks.{22647} By intercalating within DN...
Modern medicine had achieved the pinnacle of human. HBV reactivation has been noted in Breast Cancer patients following Cytoxan and Adriamycin chemotherapy,.. followed by doxorubicin (7.2 %) and vincristine. chemotherapy is to bring the disease into remission). Cyclophosphamide Daunorubicin Prednisone.Inicio » Arranca el US Open. â I went to have my pre-chemotherapy blood check this week. org/index.php/cytoxan-adriamycin-taxol.pdf gesture deliberate.. . ineligible for standard high-dose chemotherapy with. to vincristine plus doxorubicin plus. SE, Szubert AJ, et al. Cyclophosphamide,.Facial ,, Facial Mask Beauty Treatment. Facial Mask Beauty Treatment ¿Por qué pagar por la máscara cuándo usted puede usar ingredientes básicos encontrados ...
The anthracycline doxorubicin (DOX) is an exceptionally good antineoplastic agent, but its use is limited by formation of metabolites which induce acute and chronic cardiac toxicities. Whereas the acute toxicity is mild, the chronic toxicity can produce a life-threatening cardiomyopathy. Studies in laboratory animals are of limited value in predicting the structure and reactivity of toxic metabolites in humans; therefore, we used an ethically acceptable system which is suitable for exploring DOX metabolism in human myocardium. The system involves cytosolic fractions from myocardial samples obtained during aorto-coronary bypass grafting. After reconstitution with NADPH and DOX, these fractions generate the alcohol metabolite doxorubicinol (DOXol) as well as DOX deoxyaglycone and DOXol hydroxyaglycone, reflecting reduction of the side chain carbonyl group, reductase-type deglycosidation of the anthracycline, and hydrolase-type deglycosidation followed by carbonyl reduction, respectively. The ...
Understanding the survival mechanism of metastatic cancer cells in circulation will provide new perspectives on metastasis prevention and also shed new light on metastasis-derived drug resistance. In this study, we made it feasible to detect apoptosis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in real-time by integrating a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based caspase sensor into one in vitro microfluidic circulatory system, and two in vivo models: zebrafish circulation and mouse lung metastatic model. Our study demonstrated that fluid shear stresses triggered apoptosis of breast cancer cells in circulation by elevating the mitochondrial production of the primary free radical, superoxide anion. Cancer cells with high levels of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) exhibited stronger resistance to shear forceinduced apoptosis and formed more lung metastases in mice. These metastasized cells further displayed higher resistance to chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin, which also generates ...
Fig. 1. Lack of p53 induction in cells lacking PARP-1 in response to doxorubicin treatment. Normal and PARP-1 −/− MEFs, the human breast carcinoma MCF-7, and human osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells were treated with 0.2 μg/ml (0.35 μm) doxorubicin for indicated times. B, PARP KO cells were also treated with increasing doxorubicin concentrations for 24 h. Total cell lysates (20 μg protein/lane) were separated on 10% SDS gels and transferred onto the PVDF membrane. Immunoblotting was performed with anti-p53 PAb421 antibody and subsequently with anti-PARP-1 C-2-10 and antiactin antibody. Saos-2 cells were used as the p53-negative control.. ...
Doxorubicin is an anticancer agent that is commonly used to treat a number of tumors and is associated with acute and chronic changes of the cardiovascular system. Ellagic acid has strong free radical scavenging capacity, neuroprotective and hepatoprotective effects, and is known to protect against changes occurring due to diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Twenty-four Wistar rats were divided in four groups: control group received saline, doxorubicin group received doxorubicin in a single dose of 20 mg/kg, ellagic acid group received ellagic acid in a dose of 4 mg/kg, and doxorubicin + ellagic acid group received doxorubicin and ellagic acid in same doses as in previous groups ...
This phase I dose-finding study examined the effects of the combination of doxorubicin and docetaxel (Taxotere) in 42 women with metastatic breast cancer. The combination was studied at six different dosing levels. The maximum tolerated doses were defined as doxorubicin, 50 mg/m², and docetaxel, 85 mg/m², with sepsis as the dose-limiting toxicity. 1
Onxeo S.A. (Euronext Paris, NASDAQ Copenhagen: ONXEO), an innovative company specializing in the development of orphan oncology drugs, today announced that the phase I/II clinical trial of belinostat in combination with doxorubicin (PXD101-CLN-14) in patients with soft tissue sarcoma (STS) was accepted for presentation in the Poster Discussion Session at the 2015 Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), taking place in Chicago, USA from May 29 to June 2, 2015.. The PXD101-CLN-14 study was an open-label, multicenter, dose-escalation phase I/II to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the combination of belinostat with doxorubicin in patients with advanced solid tumors (the phase I part of the study) and STS (the phase II part of the study).. The trial demonstrated that belinostat in combination with doxorubicin has an acceptable safety profile, allowing the combination of belinostat at the dose of 1000 mg/m2 on days 1-5 with 75 mg/m2 doxorubicin on day 5 in a three-week ...
Introduction: Protection of the heart from chemotherapeutic (Doxorubicin, DOX) drug-induced toxicity is a desirable goal, to limit side effects of cancer treatments. DOX toxicity has been linked to the activation (phosphorylation) of the AMP-activated kinase, AMPK. The 18 kDa low molecular weight isoform of fibroblast growth factor 2 (Lo-FGF-2) is a known cardioprotective and cytoprotective agent. In this study we have tested the ability of Lo-FGF-2 to protect from DOX-induced damage in rat cardiomyocytes in vitro, and in transgenic mouse models in vivo, in relation to AMPK activation.. Methods: Rat neonatal cardiomyocytes in culture were exposed to DOX (0.5 μM) in the presence or absence of pre-treatment Lo-FGF-2 (10 ng/ml). Compound C was used to block phosphorylation (activity) of AMPK. Levels of cell viability/death (using Calcein-AM/Propidium iodide assay), phospho -and total AMPK, and apoptotic markers such as active caspase 3 were analyzed. In addition, transgenic mice expressing only ...
A pH and redox dual-sensitive biodegradable polysaccharide, succinic acid-decorated dextran-g-phenylalanine ethyl ester-g-cysteine ethyl ester (Dex-SA-l-Phe-l-Cys), was synthesized to load doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX·HCl). The DOX-loaded nanoparticles, which were prepared in aqueous solution and free of o
Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent and widely used anthracycline antibiotic for the treatment of several malignancies. Unfortunately, the clinical utility of DOX is often restricted due to the elicitation of organ toxicity. Particularly, the increased risk for the development of dilated cardiomyopathy by DOX among the cancer survivors warrants major attention from the physicians as well as researchers to develop adjuvant agents to neutralize the noxious effects of DOX on the healthy myocardium. Despite these pitfalls, the use of traditional cytotoxic drugs continues to be the mainstay treatment for several types of cancer. Recently, phytochemicals have gained attention for their anticancer, chemopreventive, and cardioprotective activities. The ideal cardioprotective agents should not compromise the clinical efficacy of DOX and should be devoid of cumulative or irreversible toxicity on the naïve tissues. Furthermore, adjuvants possessing synergistic anticancer activity and quelling of chemoresistance
"Doxorubicin - an overview , ScienceDirect Topics". www.sciencedirect.com. Retrieved 2020-04-08. "Pralatrexate". www.drugbank.ca ... Doxorubicin): blocks the enzyme that promotes growth and cell division Oncovin (Vincristine): used to inhibit the growth of ...
ISBN 978-0-412-26730-7. Arcamone, Federico (1981). Doxorubicin: Anticancer Antibiotics. Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-059280-7 ...
Doxorubicin Khosla, C.; Gokhale, R. S.; Jacobsen, J. R.; Cane, D. E. (1999). "Tolerance and Specificity of Polyketide Synthases ...
ISBN 0-412-46620-1.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link) Federico, Arcamone (1981). DOXORUBICIN Anticancer Antibiotics ...
etoposide and doxorubicin. In high doses it was found to be strongly toxic to normal cells. This effect may be responsible for ...
ISBN 978-81-88237-58-6.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link) Federico, Arcamone (1981). DOXORUBICIN Anticancer Antibiotics ...
Alternatives such as doxorubicin are today more widely available and prescribed, due to more mild side effects along with ... Doxorubicin Azithromycin Kitamura, Tsuyoshi; Yoshihiro Sato; Miwako Mori (2004). "Synthetic study of (+)-anthramycin using ring ...
Doxorubicin (trade name Adriamycin; also known as hydroxydaunorubicin), the most widely used agent in HCC, has shown a 4% to ... Studies have shown that the overall response (OR) rate, but not overall survival (OS), doubles when doxorubicin was given in ...
January 1999). "Phase I clinical and pharmacokinetic study of PK1 [N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide copolymer doxorubicin]: ... HPMA copolymer-doxorubicin conjugate). The HPMA copolymers are also used as a scaffold for iBodies, polymer-based antibody ...
Daunorubicin Idarubicin Doxorubicin Grethe, Guenter; Mitt, Toomas; Williams, Thomas H; Uskokovic, Milan R (1983). "Synthesis of ...
July 2004). "The effect of dexrazoxane on myocardial injury in doxorubicin-treated children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia ... 300 mg/m2 doxorubicin or > 540 mg/m2 epirubicin and general approval for use for cardioprotection. That showed a possibly ... such as daunorubicin or doxorubicin or other chemotherapeutic agents. However, in July 2011 the European Medicines Agency (EMA ... "Effects of dexrazoxane and amifostine on evolution of Doxorubicin cardiomyopathy in vivo". Experimental Biology and Medicine. ...
Doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine. ABVD. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, ... Among the anthracyclines, doxorubicin and daunorubicin were the first, and were obtained from the bacterium Streptomyces ... Cardiotoxicity (heart damage) is especially prominent with the use of anthracycline drugs (doxorubicin, epirubicin, idarubicin ... and liposomal doxorubicin). The cause of this is most likely due to the production of free radicals in the cell and subsequent ...
Doxorubicin hydrochloride liposome Increased doxorubicin exposure Vaccinations for Bacillus of Calmette and Guerin, measles, ... The third case involved pyloric stenosis in an infant whose mother received a combination regimen of docetaxel, doxorubicin, ... The treatment of breast cancer with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide is enhanced by adjuvant treatment with docetaxel. ... Doxorubicin was combined with docetaxel in one study of 24 patients and resulted in an increased AUC of docetaxel by 50 to 70 ...
Doxorubicin is loaded into the liposomes just before administration to patients with a maximum single dose of 75 mg/m2 every 3 ... Doxorubicin was isolated from a mutated variant of S. peucetius (var. caesius). It differs from daunorubicin only by the ... Radiolabelled doxorubicin has been utilised as a breast cancer lesion imaging agent in a pilot study. This radiochemical, 99mTc ... Doxil has lower maximum tolerable dose (MTD) at 50 mg/m2 every 4 weeks compared to free doxorubicin at 60 mg/m2 every 3 weeks. ...
Cyclophosphamide plus doxorubicin plus fluorouracil (CAF). Trastuzumab (monoclonal antibody therapy). Hormonal options include ...
Hydock, D. S., Wonders, K. Y., Schneider, C. M., & Hayward, R. (2009). Voluntary wheel running in rats receiving doxorubicin: ... Furthermore, she studied the limited usage of an effective chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin (DOX) in terms of its dose- ... Wonders, K. Y., & Reigle, B. S. (2009). Trastuzumab and doxorubicin-related cardiotoxicity and the cardioprotective role of ... Wonders also focused her study on trastuzumab and doxorubicin-related cardiotoxicity and suggested that incorporating exercise ...
Doxorubicin is used in some cases. Chemotherapy in relatively healthy ferrets is tolerated very well, but possible side effects ... The most common treatment is a combination of cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone, L-asparaginase, and doxorubicin. Other ...
FAC (or CAF): 5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide. AC (or CA): Adriamycin (doxorubicin) and cyclophosphamide. AC- ... AT: Adriamycin (doxorubicin) and Taxotere (docetaxel). Since chemotherapy affects the production of white blood cells, a ... Taxol: AC followed by paclitaxel (Taxol). TAC: Taxotere (docetaxel), Adriamycin (doxorubicin), and cyclophosphamide. FEC: 5- ...
Currently, there are four main anthracyclines in medical use: Doxorubicin Daunorubicin (doxorubicin precursor) Epirubicin (a ... Some poisons, such as doxorubicin, have been proposed to intercalate in the strand break between the base pairs that flank the ... The first anthracycline (doxorubicin) was isolated from the bacteria Streptomyces peucetius in the 1960s. Anthracyclines are ... It is hypothesized that doxorubicin, which possesses a hydroxyl group and a methoxy group not present in idarubicin, can form ...
... is a class of prescription drugs in India appearing as an appendix to the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules, 1945 introduced in 1945. These are drugs which cannot be purchased over the counter without the prescription of a qualified doctor.The manufacture and sale of all drugs are covered under the Drugs and Cosmetics Act and Rules. It is revised at times based on the advice of the Drugs Technical Advisory Board, part of the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization[1] in the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. The most recent schedule H (2006) lists 536 drugs from abacavir to zuclopenthixol.[2] However, enforcement of Schedule H laws in India is lax, compared to the more restrictive Schedule X, for which a mandatory documentation trail must be maintained.[3] ...
Aihara Y, Kurabayashi M, Tanaka T, Takeda SI, Tomaru K, Sekiguchi KI, Ohyama Y, Nagai R (Aug 2000). "Doxorubicin represses CARP ... In cardiomyocytes treated with doxorubicin, a model of anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy, CARP mRNA and protein levels were ... "A novel cardiac-restricted target for doxorubicin. CARP, a nuclear modulator of gene expression in cardiac progenitor cells and ... and whose mRNA levels are exquisitely sensitive to Doxorubicin, mediated through a hydrogen peroxide/ERK/p38MAP kinase- ...
"Flavaglines Alleviate Doxorubicin Cardiotoxicity: Implication of Hsp27". PLoS ONE. 6: e25302. Bibcode:2011PLoSO...625302B. doi: ...
"Role of RLIP76 in lung cancer doxorubicin resistance: I. The ATPase activity of RLIP76 correlates with doxorubicin and 4- ... Doxorubicin transport in lung cancer by RLIP76". Int. J. Oncol. 22 (4): 713-20. doi:10.3892/ijo.22.4.713. PMID 12632060. ... Awasthi S, Singhal SS, Singhal J, Yang Y, Zimniak P, Awasthi YC (2003). "Role of RLIP76 in lung cancer doxorubicin resistance: ... Awasthi S, Singhal SS, Singhal J, Cheng J, Zimniak P, Awasthi YC (2003). "Role of RLIP76 in lung cancer doxorubicin resistance ...
Doxorubicin has shown some promise in treatment. Most mammary tumors in rats are benign fibroadenomas, which are also the most ... "Retrospective Evaluation of Adjunctive Doxorubicin for the Treatment of Feline Mammary Gland Adenocarcinoma: 67 Cases". J Am ...
It was also shown that FL3 may enhance the efficacy of one of the most widely used anticancer agents, doxorubicin, and ... "Flavaglines Alleviate Doxorubicin Cardiotoxicity: Implication of Hsp27". PLoS ONE. 6 (10): e25302. Bibcode:2011PLoSO...625302B ...
Similar to doxorubicin, daunorubicin interacts with DNA by intercalation and inhibition of macromolecular biosynthesis. This ... Fornari FA, Randolph JK, Yalowich JC, Ritke MK, Gewirtz DA (April 1994). "Interference by doxorubicin with DNA unwinding in MCF ... Doxorubicin Idarubicin "Daunorubicin (Cerubidine) Use During Pregnancy". Drugs.com. 19 September 2019. Retrieved 15 August 2020 ... Weiss RB (December 1992). "The anthracyclines: will we ever find a better doxorubicin?". Seminars in Oncology. 19 (6): 670-86. ...
In addition to a DNA repair response, exposure of spermatogonia to doxorubicin can also induce programmed cell death (apoptosis ... Anticancer drugs such as doxorubicin and vincristine can adversely affect male fertility by damaging the DNA of proliferative ... Habas K, Anderson D, Brinkworth MH (2017). "Germ cell responses to doxorubicin exposure in vitro" (PDF). Toxicol. Lett. 265: 70 ... Experimental exposure of rat undifferentiated spermatogonia to doxorubicin and vincristine indicated that these cells are able ...
Aldoxorubicin is a new pro-drug of doxorubicin. Doxorubicin is the standard of care for advanced or metastic epithelioid ... "Doxorubicin alone versus intensified doxorubicin plus ifosfamide for first-line treatment of advanced or metastatic soft-tissue ... Doxorubicin has achieved response rates in the 12-23% range for patients with soft tissue sarcomas. Aldoxorubicin is a new ... Doxorubicin has been shown to increase adenoviral replication in soft tissue sarcoma cells as well, potentially contributing to ...
Among the anthracyclines, doxorubicin and daunorubicin were the first, and were obtained from the bacterium Streptomyces ... Drugs with medium risk include doxorubicin and platinum analogs such as cisplatin and carboplatin. On the other hand, therapies ... Cardiotoxicity (heart damage) is especially prominent with the use of anthracycline drugs (doxorubicin, epirubicin, idarubicin ... and liposomal doxorubicin). The cause of this is most likely due to the production of free radicals in the cell and subsequent ...
... and doxorubicin. For an intercalator to fit between base pairs, the bases must separate, distorting the DNA strands by ...
Stalder G, et al. Dexrazoxane prevents skin necrosis in non-target embolization of falciform artery during transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging 99: 179-180, No. 3, Mar 2018. Available from: URL: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.diii.2017.09.005 - Switzerland ...
... doxorubicin, daunorubicin, bleomycin, mitomycin, and dactinomycin, all of which are derived from species of Streptomyces ... doxorubicin, daunorubicin, bleomycin, mitomycin, and dactinomycin, all of which are derived from species of Streptomyces ...
Doxorubicin is associated with a high rate of transient serum enzyme during therapy and to rare instances of clinically ... Epirubicin and idarubicin have similar profiles of activity and adverse events as doxorubicin, but have been less commonly used ... Doxorubicin, epirubicin, idarubicin and valrubicin are structurally related cytotoxic antineoplastic antibiotics used in the ... Olaratumab and doxorubicin versus doxorubicin alone for treatment of soft-tissue sarcoma: an open-label phase 1b and randomised ...
Doxorubicin: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Before receiving doxorubicin injection,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to doxorubicin, daunorubicin ( ... Doxorubicin comes as a solution (liquid) or as a powder to be mixed with liquid to be injected intravenously (into a vein) by a ... Doxorubicin may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away: *nausea ...
Caelyx infusion contains the active ingredient doxorubicin hydrochloride, which is a type of anticancer medicine called a ... Caelyx (doxorubicin). Caelyx infusion contains the active ingredient doxorubicin hydrochloride, which is a type of anticancer ... The doxorubicin in this medicine is contained in tiny spheres called pegylated liposomes. These spheres allow the doxorubicin ... Doxorubicins exact mechanism of action is unknown but it seems to work in three ways. Firstly, it inserts itself into the ...
Doxorubicin was originally made from the bacterium Streptomyces peucetius. Doxorubicin is commonly used to treat some leukemias ... Mohan P, Rapoport N (2010). "Doxorubicin as a Molecular Nanotheranostic Agent: Effect of Doxorubicin Encapsulation in Micelles ... Substitution would be desirable because liposome-encapsulated doxorubicin is less cardiotoxic than unencapsulated doxorubicin. ... later identified doxorubicin in a set of compounds that inhibit parasite growth Doxorubicin is also known to be fluorescent. ...
A list of US medications equivalent to Doxorubicin-Hexal is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Doxorubicin-Hexal is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... Ingredient matches for Doxorubicin-Hexal. Doxorubicin. Doxorubicin is reported as an ingredient of Doxorubicin-Hexal in the ... Doxorubicin hydrochloride (a derivative of Doxorubicin) is reported as an ingredient of Doxorubicin-Hexal in the following ...
Zoptarelin doxorubicin (developmental code names AEZS-108, AN-152) consists of doxorubicin linked to a small peptide agonist to ... June 2014). "Efficacy and safety of AEZS-108 (INN: zoptarelin doxorubicin acetate) an LHRH agonist linked to doxorubicin in ... Zoptarelin doxorubicin was invented by Andrew V. Schally while at the Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans and ... "Zoptarelin doxorubicin". Adis Insight. Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Emons G, Gorchev G, Sehouli J, Wimberger P, Stähle A, ...
Doxorubicin Lipid Complex Injection: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... When doxorubicin lipid complex is used to treat ovarian cancer, it is given once every 4 weeks. When doxorubicin lipid complex ... Before receiving doxorubicin lipid complex,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to doxorubicin, any other ... If you become pregnant while receiving doxorubicin lipid complex, call your doctor. Doxorubicin lipid complex may harm the ...
... we discuss the role of nitric oxide synthase in doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiomyopathy, a prominent side effect of DOX ... doxorubicin reactive oxygen species apoptosis endothelial nitric oxide synthase caspase activation This is a preview of ... Myers C: The role of iron in doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy. Semin Oncol 25(suppl 10): 10-14, 1998Google Scholar ... In this review, we discuss the role of nitric oxide synthase in doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiomyopathy, a prominent side ...
Easy to read patient leaflet for Doxorubicin (Conventional). Includes indications, proper use, special instructions, ... Doxorubicin (Conventional). Generic Name: Doxorubicin (Conventional) (doks oh ROO bi sin con VEN sha nal). Brand Name: ... What do I need to tell my doctor BEFORE I take Doxorubicin?. *If you have an allergy to doxorubicin or any other part of ... How do I store and/or throw out Doxorubicin?. *If you need to store doxorubicin at home, talk with your doctor, nurse, or ...
Liposomal doxorubicin is also known as Caelyx® or Myocet®. It is used to treat breast and ovarian cancer, myeloma, and HIV- ... What is liposomal doxorubicin (Caelyx® or Myocet®)?. Liposomal doxorubicin is used to treat breast and ovarian cancer, myeloma ... How liposomal doxorubicin is given. You will be given liposomal doxorubicin in the chemotherapy day unit or during a stay in ... Liposomal doxorubicin may affect your skin. It can cause a rash, which may be itchy. Your doctor or nurse can tell you what to ...
"Gene signatures predict doxorubicin response in K9 osteosarcoma." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 22 Apr. 2015. Web. ... There are two chemotherapies commonly used to treat bone cancer in dogs: doxorubicin and carboplatin. Some dogs respond better ... 2015, April 22). "Gene signatures predict doxorubicin response in K9 osteosarcoma." Medical News Today. Retrieved from. https ... "This study shows that we can use the COXEN model to accurately predict our patients responses to doxorubicin," Gustafson says ...
Doxorubicin is also used to treat Hodgkin lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and certain types of leukemia. Doxorubicin may also ... Doxorubicin is used to treat different types of cancers that affect the breast, bladder, kidneys, ovaries, thyroid, stomach, ... How is doxorubicin given?. Doxorubicin is given as an infusion into a vein. A healthcare provider will give you this injection ... What other drugs will affect doxorubicin?. Many drugs can affect doxorubicin. This includes prescription and over-the-counter ...
After you stop using this medicine, it may still produce some side effects that need attention. During this period of time, check with your doctor immediately if you notice the following side effects:. Other side effects not listed may also occur in some patients. If you notice any other effects, check with your healthcare professional.. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.. ...
If you or someone close to you has been diagnosed with cancer, youre not alone. Find out what to expect, get information, practical advice and support, hear from experts and read about other peoples experiences.
Doxorubicin Hydrochloride, Doxorubicin hydrochloride (liposomal), Doxorubicina, Liposomal Doxorubicin. Drug Class: ... Liposomal doxorubicin HCl was approved by the FDA on November 17, 1995, for the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposis sarcoma ... Liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride (HCl), also known as Doxil, belongs to the class of drugs called antineoplastics. ... Liposomal doxorubicin HCl comes in liquid form that is given by intravenous infusion into a vein. ...
Doxorubicin Hydrochloride (UNII: 82F2G7BL4E) (Doxorubicin - UNII:80168379AG) Doxorubicin Hydrochloride. 2 mg in 1 mL. ... Doxorubicin Hydrochloride (UNII: 82F2G7BL4E) (Doxorubicin - UNII:80168379AG) Doxorubicin Hydrochloride. 2 mg in 1 mL. ... DOXOrubicin HCl liposome 20 MG in 10 ML Injection. PSN. 2. 1790115. 10 ML doxorubicin hydrochloride liposome 2 MG/ML Injection ... doxorubicin hydrochloride liposome 20 MG per 10 ML Injection. SY. 4. 1790127. DOXOrubicin HCl liposome 50 MG in 25 ML Injection ...
Doxorubicin Liposomal (Doxil) chemotherapy side effects, how its given, how it works, precautions and self care tips for ... What Doxorubicin Liposomal Is Used For:. Doxorubicin (liposomal) is used to treat AIDS-related Kaposis sarcoma, breast cancer ... Doxorubicin (liposomal) is the drug doxorubicin encapsulated in a STEALTH® liposome. Liposomes are closed lipid spheres made of ... There is no pill form of doxorubicin (liposomal). *The amount of doxorubicin (liposomal) you will receive depends on many ...
What is Doxorubicin? Doxorubicin is a prescription medicine used to treat certain types of cancers. Doxorubicin may be used ... DOXORUBICIN HYDROCHLORIDE (UNII: 82F2G7BL4E) (DOXORUBICIN - UNII:80168379AG) DOXORUBICIN HYDROCHLORIDE. 2 mg in 1 mL. ... DOXORUBICIN HYDROCHLORIDE (UNII: 82F2G7BL4E) (DOXORUBICIN - UNII:80168379AG) DOXORUBICIN HYDROCHLORIDE. 2 mg in 1 mL. ... DOXORUBICIN HYDROCHLORIDE (UNII: 82F2G7BL4E) (DOXORUBICIN - UNII:80168379AG) DOXORUBICIN HYDROCHLORIDE. 2 mg in 1 mL. ...
Liposomal Doxorubicin. Web Resources: Liposomal Doxorubicin. Recent Research Publications. Doxorubicin. Web Resources: ... non-pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone (R-COMP) with doxorubicin substituted by NPL-doxorubicin. ... Doxorubicin Endometrial (Uterus) Cancer Endometrial Cancer Ovarian Cancer Paclitaxel Liposomal Doxorubicin Gemcitabine ... Doxorubicin Cancer of the Larynx Laryngeal Cancer - Molecular Biology Kaposi Sarcoma Liposomal Doxorubicin ...
Feedback regulation of doxorubicin biosynthesis in Streptomyces peucetius.. Jiang H1, Hutchinson CR. ...
Modeling of Targeted Liposomal Doxorubicin Dynamics. Contact Us. Our goal is to develop a model for the binding, ... Our goal is to develop a model for the binding, internalization, and tumor-killing dynamics of liposome-enclosed doxorubicin ... In particular, we study liposomal doxorubicin with attached F3 ligand specific to nucleolin overexpressing cancer cells. We ... internalization, and tumor-killing dynamics of liposome-enclosed doxorubicin targeted to cancer cells and develop design ...
Doxorubicin (Adriamycin, Rubex) chemotherapy side effects, how its given, how it works, precautions and self care tips for ... How Doxorubicin Is Given:. * Doxorubicin is administered via an intravenous (IV) injection through a central line or a ... Doxorubicin can also be given by continuous infusion through a central catheter line. There is no pill form of Doxorubicin. ... Doxorubicins side effects will improve after therapy is complete. * Doxorubicins side effects may be quite manageable. There ...
Find the most comprehensive real-world treatment information on Cytarabine-Doxorubicin at PatientsLikeMe. 0 patients with ... bipolar I disorder or psoriasis currently take Cytarabine-Doxorubicin. ...
Harmonised classification and labelling is a legally binding classification and labelling for a substance, agreed at European Community level. Harmonisation is based on the substances physical, toxicological and eco-toxicological hazard assessment. The Hazard classification and labelling section uses the signal word, pictogram(s) and hazard statements of the substance under the harmonised classification and labelling (CLH) as its primary source of information.. If the substance is covered by more than one CLH entry (e.g. disodium tetraborate EC no. 215-540-4, is covered by three harmonisations: 005-011-00-4; 005-011-01-1 and 005-011-02-9), CLH information cannot be displayed in the InfoCard as the difference between the CLH classifications requires manual interpretation or verification. If a substance is classified under multiple CLH entries, a link to the C&L Inventory is provided to allow users to view CLH information associated with the substance, instead of having the information ...
Read more about the prescription drug DOXORUBICIN - INJECTION. ... while taking doxorubicin. It may decrease doxorubicins effects ... Consumer information about the medication DOXORUBICIN - INJECTION (Adriamycin, Rubex), includes side effects, drug interactions ... doxorubicin - injection, Adriamycin, Rubex. GENERIC NAME: DOXORUBICIN - INJECTION (dox-oh-REW-beh-sin). BRAND NAME(S): ... Doxorubicin may cause heart problems, including possibly fatal heart failure. Heart problems may occur during doxorubicin ...
Doxorubicin er substrat for P-glykoprotein (P-gp), og derfor kan samtidig administration af P-gp-hæmmere (fx ciclosporin og ... Doxorubicin er substrat for CYP3A4 og CYP2D6. Samtidig indgift af hæmmere eller induktorer af disse enzymer kan øge eller ... Doxorubicin bør kun anvendes, når behandlingen forestås af læger med særligt kendskab til maligne lidelser og deres behandling ... Ved i.v. administration skal doxorubicin på grund af den lokalirriterende effekt altid doseres i løbende drop. For at mindske ...
Find the most comprehensive real-world treatment information on Doxorubicin at PatientsLikeMe. 0 patients with fibromyalgia, ... bipolar I disorder or psoriasis currently take Doxorubicin. ... Stopped taking Doxorubicin Duration. Patients. This item is ... Docetaxel-doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide (TAC) Doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide (AC) Doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide-paclitaxel (ACT) ... See also: ABVD regimen Bortezomib-doxorubicin-dexamethasone (PAD) Bortezomib-thalidomide-dexamethasone-cisplatin-doxorubicin- ...
Design of an allosterically modulated doxycycline and doxorubicin drug-binding protein. Karin Schmidt, Bernd R. Gardill, Alina ... Design of an allosterically modulated doxycycline and doxorubicin drug-binding protein. Karin Schmidt, Bernd R. Gardill, Alina ... Design of an allosterically modulated doxycycline and doxorubicin drug-binding protein Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you ... Design of an allosterically modulated doxycycline and doxorubicin drug-binding protein. Karin Schmidt, Bernd R. Gardill, Alina ...
  • Doxorubicin is available as a powder for injection and in liquid solution in 10, 20, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg vials [2 mg/mL] generically and under the brand name Adriamycin. (nih.gov)
  • You may experience a serious allergic reaction while you receive a dose of doxorubicin lipid complex injection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to doxorubicin, any other medications, or any of the ingredients in doxorubicin lipid complex injection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Call your doctor for instructions if you miss an appointment for your doxorubicin injection. (cigna.com)
  • Doxorubicin is given by injection into a vein. (wikipedia.org)
  • These highlights do not include all the information needed to use DOXORUBICIN HYDROCHLORIDE LIPOSOME INJECTION safely and effectively. (nih.gov)
  • Administer doxorubicin hydrochloride liposome injection at an initial rate of 1 mg/min to minimize the risk of infusion reactions. (nih.gov)
  • Doxorubicin is administered via an intravenous (IV) injection through a central line or a peripheral venous line, and the drug is given over several minutes. (chemocare.com)
  • Caraco launched generic doxorubicin liposomal injection in mid-March 2013 and can supply the market with their presentations. (ashp.org)
  • Doxorubicin liposomal is not bioequivalent to conventional doxorubicin injection. (ashp.org)
  • Doxil® (doxorubicin HCl liposome injection) for intravenous injection, [product information]. (ashp.org)
  • Doxorubicin hydrochloride liposomal injection [product information]. (ashp.org)
  • Please read this leaflet carefully before you start using Doxorubicin SZ Concentrate for injection. (nps.org.au)
  • Dr Reddy's Laboratories announced that it has received approval from USFDA to launch Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Liposome Injection, a therapeutic equivalent generic version of Doxil, for intravenous use, in the United States market. (business-standard.com)
  • A reproducible model of doxorubicin (dox)-induced cardiomyopathy was established in male Fisher rats by 6 equal doses (2.5 mg/kg bw) of i.p. injection every other day for 2 weeks. (ahajournals.org)
  • Plasma MMP activity and the echocardiogram were assessed at baseline, and at 15 and 45 days after first injection of doxorubicin. (scielo.br)
  • To study the maximum tolerated dose of Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Liposome Injection combination with cyclophosphamide and sequential treatment of docetaxel for patients with locally advanc. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Like Doxil, the liposomal encapsulation of the doxorubicin limits the cardiotoxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • In theory, by limiting the cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin through liposomal encapsulation, it can be used safely in concurrent combination with other cardiotoxic chemotherapy drugs, such as trastuzumab. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though concurrent combination of trastuzumab and doxorubicin in clinical studies found superior tumor response, the combination resulted in unacceptable cardiotoxicity, including risk of cardiac failure manifesting as congestive heart failure (CHF). (wikipedia.org)
  • The specific targeting of the doxorubicin to LHRH receptor bearing cells is also proposed to reduce the cardiotoxicity observed in the administration of unconjugated doxorubicin. (wikipedia.org)
  • General oxidative stress during doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats: absence of cardioprotection and low antioxidant efficiency of alpha-lipoic acid," Biochimie , vol. 94, no. 4, pp. 932-939, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • Acute exercise protects against doxorubicin cardiotoxicity. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • However, certain combination treatments of trastuzumab and chemotherapy ( i.e . doxorubicin) are not recommended due to high risk of cardiotoxicity. (scirp.org)
  • Trastuzumab may increase the cardiotoxicity of Doxorubicin. (nextbio.com)
  • Serious cardiotoxicity including dilated cardiomyopathy often resulting in a fatal congestive heart failure may occur as a consequence of chemotherapy with doxorubicin. (mdpi.com)
  • Some studies have shown the role played by matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in doxorubicin cardiotoxicity. (scielo.br)
  • This suggests that doxorubicinol may contribute to the downregulation of cardiac RYR2 expression in chronic doxorubicin cardiotoxicity. (biomedsearch.com)
  • New insights into doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity: the critical role of cellular energetics. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Doxorubicin (dox) is an effective chemotherapeutic agent that leads to cardiotoxicity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Your doctor will order tests before and during your treatment to see if your heart is working well enough for you to safely receive doxorubicin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Radiation recall can occur in patients who receive doxorubicin HCl after prior radiation therapy ( 5.7 ). (nih.gov)
  • Arm I: Patients receive doxorubicin IV over 15 minutes and cyclophosphamide IV over 15 minutes on day 1 followed by doxorubicin IV over 15 minutes, cyclophosphamide IV over 15 minutes, and docetaxel IV over 1 hour on day 22. (bioportfolio.com)
  • If you miss an appointment to receive doxorubicin, contact your doctor as soon as possible to reschedule your appointment. (medbroadcast.com)
  • Phase I: Patients receive doxorubicin hydrochloride IV over 1 hour followed by carboplatin intraperitoneally on day 1 until the maximum tolerated dose is achieved. (knowcancer.com)
  • Phase II: Patients receive doxorubicin hydrochloride as in phase I and carboplatin at the maximum tolerated dose as in phase I. (knowcancer.com)
  • A non-pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, called Myocet, is approved in the European Union and in Canada for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer in combination with cyclophosphamide, but it has not been approved by the FDA for use in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • positive breast cancer in Korea: docetaxel, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (TAC) versus fluorouracil, doxorubicin and. (evidence.nhs.uk)
  • docetaxel , doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide, use different ways to stop tumor cells from dividing so they stop growing or die. (bioportfolio.com)
  • PURPOSE: Randomized phase I trial to compare the effectiveness of two regimens of docetaxel combined with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide in treating women who have advanced breast cancer. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Determine the pharmacokinetic profile of docetaxel, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide in women with advanced breast cancer. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Primary objective : - To compare disease-free survival after treatment with docetaxel in combination with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide to doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide foll. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Adjuvant dose-dense doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide versus docetaxel-doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide for high-risk breast cancer: First results of the randomised MATADOR trial (BOOG 2004-04). (bioportfolio.com)
  • High doses or prolonged therapy with doxorubicin can cause serious cardiac toxicity which is a major dose limiting side effect. (nih.gov)
  • Common side effects are similar to those of doxorubicin and include cardiac toxicity and secondary malignancies. (nih.gov)
  • You may be given doxorubicin (liposomal) for as long as the disease does not progress and you show no evidence of heart toxicity. (chemocare.com)
  • Radiation-induced toxicity can be increased by the administration of doxorubicin HCl. (nih.gov)
  • Curcumin has a cardioprotective effect against doxorubicin-induced myocardial toxicity in albino rats. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • This study investigated the protective effects of melatonin (MLT) against doxorubicin (DXR)-induced testicular toxicity and oxidative stress in rats. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The final part of the review integrates information from the previous chapters, demonstrating how carvedilol can contribute to reduce doxorubicin toxicity on cardiac mitochondria. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • However, inhibition of PLD1 with VU0155069 increased doxorubicin toxicity in both cell lines. (bruker.com)
  • Doxorubicin is a widely used first line agent for breast cancer despite its significant toxicity. (bruker.com)
  • 13 The discovery of a new potential biomarker for reducing doxorubicin toxicity as well as identifying a novel target for the development of new treatments for breast cancer are significant developments. (bruker.com)
  • This strategy resulted in preferential accumulation of doxorubicin within the cancerous cell in order to maximize the drug efficacy and minimize toxicity, thus fueling the doxorubicin market growth in the near future. (sbwire.com)
  • Our goal is to develop a model for the binding, internalization, and tumor-killing dynamics of liposome-enclosed doxorubicin targeted to cancer cells and develop design principles for creating more effective therapeutics. (mit.edu)
  • Tumor lysis syndrome may occur as a result of treatment with Doxorubicin. (chemocare.com)
  • By analogy, we propose that the variants described in the present study could be further developed to allow for the delivery of the antibiotic doxycycline and the anticancer compound doxorubicin to tissues/locations that express specific proteinases, such as bacterial infection sites or tumor cells secreting matrix metalloproteinases. (pnas.org)
  • To sum up our data, with this preliminary analysis, we have a proof of a concept: It is possible to substantially increase the volume of ablation when the tumor area is exposed to such high concentrations of doxorubicin as provided by the use of doxorubicin-eluting beads,' Dr. Lencioni concluded. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Here, we developed a natural H-ferritin (HFn) nanocarrier that specifically delivered a high concentration of the therapeutic drug doxorubicin (Dox) to tumor cells and significantly inhibited tumor growth with a single-dose treatment while also showing excellent biocompatibility and safety profiles in murine cancer models. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we show that natural H-ferritin (HFn) nanocages can carry high doses of doxorubicin (Dox) for tumor-specific targeting and killing without any targeting ligand functionalization or property modulation. (pnas.org)
  • Background LncRNA PTCSC3 is a tumor suppressor in thyroid cancer, and its role in drug resistance of anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) to chemotherapy drug doxorubicin was investigated in this study. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Overlays of both pictures revealed doxorubicin gradients in tumor islets with high concentrations in the periphery and low concentrations in the center of the tumor islets. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Tumor cell apoptosis in the combination therapy-treated mice was 113.3 ± 20% greater than that in TM-treated mice and 52.4 ± 14.3% greater than that in doxorubicin-treated mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this study, the combination therapy of TM and doxorubicin was more effective at inducing apoptosis and suppressing tumor growth in NF-κB-overexpressing SUM149 cells than either agent administered alone. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the present study, selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) was decorated with hyaluronic acid (HA) to prepare HA-SeNPs nanoparticles which were used to load doxorubicin (DOX) to fabricate tumor-targeted functionalized selenium nanoparticles [email protected] (medworm.com)
  • The greatest clinical experience has been with doxorubicin which was previously known as adriamycin. (nih.gov)
  • Doxorubicin, sold under the brand name Adriamycin among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • It contains the chemotherapy drug doxorubicin (Adriamycin) wrapped up in a fatty covering called a liposome. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • Doxorubicin(Adriamycin PFS) generic Duxocin is a cytotoxic anthracycline antibiotic, prescribed for treating various types of cancer. (medindia.net)
  • Doxorubicin, also known as adriamycin or adriblastina, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as anthracyclines. (hmdb.ca)
  • There is a pegylated (polyethylene glycol coated) liposome-encapsulated form of doxorubicin, sold as Doxil. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride (HCl), also known as Doxil, belongs to the class of drugs called antineoplastics. (thebody.com)
  • Doxil is the trade name for doxorubicin liposomal. (chemocare.com)
  • In some cases, health care professionals may use the trade name doxil when referring to the generic drug name doxorubicin liposomal. (chemocare.com)
  • The purpose of this research study is to test the safety, tolerability, and effectiveness of the drug combination of Doxil (doxorubicin) and estramustine when used to treat prostate cancer. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Caelyx infusion contains the active ingredient doxorubicin hydrochloride, which is a type of anticancer medicine called a cytotoxic anthracycline antibiotic. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Liposomal doxorubicin (Caelyx ® or Myocet ® ) is a chemotherapy drug. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • Liposomal doxorubicin is a chemotherapy drug that is also called by the brand names Caelyx or Myocet. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • In this review, we discuss the role of nitric oxide synthase in doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiomyopathy, a prominent side effect of DOX chemotherapy in cancer patients. (springer.com)
  • Singal PK, Iliskovic N: Doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy. (springer.com)
  • The most dangerous side effect of doxorubicin is dilated cardiomyopathy, leading to congestive heart failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rate of cardiomyopathy is dependent on its cumulative dose, with an incidence about 4% when the dose of doxorubicin is 500-550 mg/m2, 18% when the dose is 551-600 mg/m2 and 36% when the dose exceeds 600 mg/m2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cardiomyopathy: Myocardial damage can occur with doxorubicin HCl with incidences from 1% - 20% for cumulative doses from 300 mg/m 2 to 500 mg/m 2 when doxorubicin HCl is administered every 3 weeks. (nih.gov)
  • Discontinue doxorubicin HCl in patients who develop signs or symptoms of cardiomyopathy ( 2.2 ). (nih.gov)
  • The occurrence of late potentials in dogs under doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy and their relationship with the development of ventricular arrhythmias or sudden death were studied. (scielo.br)
  • Cardiomyopathy was induced by slow intravenous infusion of doxorubicin (30mg/m 2 ) at 21-day intervals, until a total cumulative dose of 240mg/m 2 was reached. (scielo.br)
  • The objective of the present study was to determine the risk of sudden death in dogs under doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy using HRECG. (scielo.br)
  • We hypothesized that preventing apoptosis by survivin gene therapy may prevent deterioration in left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction in a doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy model in rats. (ahajournals.org)
  • We have shown that gene delivery of survivin using UTMD can prevent and/or delay the progression of LV systolic dysfunction in doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy. (ahajournals.org)
  • For the former, we present the case for doxorubicin, an anticancer agent whose treatment is associated with a cumulative and dose-dependent cardiomyopathy with a mitochondrial etiology. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In this study, we sought to investigate how plasma and myocardial MMP 2 and 9 perform in rabbits with doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy, searching for a correlation between the activity of these collagenases and cardiac remodeling. (scielo.br)
  • Cardiomyopathy was induced by doxorubicin given intravenously twice a week for six consecutive weeks. (scielo.br)
  • One of the most common and prevailing side effect of doxorubicin is cardiomyopathy with an estimated incidence of 4% at a dose of 500-550 mg/m², subsequently leading to congestive heart failure. (sbwire.com)
  • Doxorubicin, epirubicin, idarubicin and valrubicin are structurally related cytotoxic antineoplastic antibiotics used in the therapy of several forms of lymphoma, leukemia, sarcoma and solid organ cancers. (nih.gov)
  • Doxorubicin (liposomal) is an anti-cancer ("antineoplastic" or "cytotoxic") chemotherapy drug. (chemocare.com)
  • A temperature-sensitive liposomal formulation of the anthracycline antibiotic doxorubicin with potential antineoplastic activity. (cancer.gov)
  • An immunoconjugate consisting of milatuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against CD74, conjugated to the anthracycline antibiotic doxorubicin with potential antineoplastic activity. (cancer.gov)
  • Doxorubicin is an antineoplastic in the anthracycline class. (nextbio.com)
  • Doxorubicin is a commonly used antineoplastic agent in the treatment of many types of cancer. (mdpi.com)
  • Kalivendi S, Kotamraju S, Zhao H, Joseph J, Kalyanaraman B: Doxorubicin-induced apoptosis is associated with increased transcription of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase: Effect of antiapoptotic antioxidants and calcium. (springer.com)
  • Gouazè V, Mirault ME, Carpentier S, Salvayre R, Levade T, Andrieu-Abadie N: Glutathione peroxidase-1 overexpression prevents ceramide production and partially inhibits apoptosis in doxorubicin-treated human breast carcinoma cells. (springer.com)
  • Partial inhibition of RLIP76 using antibodies in the absence of chemotherapy drug causes apoptosis in multiple small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and in the presence of doxorubicin (DOX), marked synergy is observed. (nih.gov)
  • Doxorubicin also significantly increased apoptosis and decreased cell viability after reoxygenation compared to control. (bmj.com)
  • Chondroitin nanocapsules enhanced doxorubicin induced apoptosis against leishmaniasis via Th1 immune response. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In this study, we determined whether TM enhances doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in SUM149 inflammatory breast carcinoma cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Moreover, SUM149 cells were relatively resistant to doxorubicin-induced apoptosis ranging from 9.9 ± 2.9% to 21.5 ± 2.0% apoptotic cells for 0.1 to 2.5 μ m doxorubicin treatment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A greater-than-additive increase (33.8 ± 4.6%, 57.5 ± 5.2%, or 83.7 ± 1.0% apoptosis with TM and 0.1, 0.5, or 2.5 μ m doxorubicin, respectively) in apoptosis was observed in cells treated with the combination therapy of TM and doxorubicin. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Assess left ventricular cardiac function prior to initiation of doxorubicin hydrochloride, during treatment, and after treatment ( 5.1 ). (nih.gov)
  • Do not administer doxorubicin HCl in combination with trastuzumab due to increased risk of cardiac dysfunction ( 5.1 , 7.2 ). (nih.gov)
  • Exercise preconditioning protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiac dysfunction. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Little is known about the interactions of doxorubicin with cardiac biomolecules. (mdpi.com)
  • Although issues relating to Doxorubicin and cardiac safety have been well established in normal conditions, the effects of this drug on the myocardium during ischaemia-reperfusion have not been investigated in detail to date. (bmj.com)
  • Doxorubicin hydrochloride can cause myocardial damage, including acute left ventricular failure. (nih.gov)
  • We found that doxorubicin directly influences myocardial amino acid representation even at low concentrations. (mdpi.com)
  • This is the first study to show that the anticancer drug Doxorubicin exacerbates myocardial ischaemia reperfusion injury. (bmj.com)
  • Further studies are being undertaken to determine the cellular mechanism via which Doxorubicin mediates increased myocardial injury in conditions of ischaemia-reperfusion. (bmj.com)
  • The rate of this side effect limits the dose of this formulation that can be given as compared with plain doxorubicin in the same treatment regimen, thereby limiting potential substitution. (wikipedia.org)
  • No "lifetime maximum dose" has been established for doxorubicin (liposomal). (chemocare.com)
  • In conclusion, pretreatment with doxorubicin at the total dose of 12 mg/kg significantly reduced CI and increased TPR. (nih.gov)
  • In the phase I dose-findingstudy, 19 enrolled patients received bolus doxorubicin (50 mg/m²)and, after a 16-hour interval, a three-hour infusion of paclitaxel in escalatingdoses from 130 to 250 mg/m², increased by 30-mg/m² incrementsfor each dose-level group. (cancernetwork.com)
  • In the phase I study, patients with advanced breast cancer were treatedwith a fixed dose of doxorubicin (50 mg/m²) by intravenous bolus,16 hours before receiving a three-hour infusion of paclitaxel (in escalatingdoses from 130 mg/m² to 250 mg/m²). (cancernetwork.com)
  • The goals of the study were to definethe maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of paclitaxel given in combination withfixed-dose doxorubicin in treating patients with breast cancer that hadrelapsed after adjuvant therapy or had not been treated previously withchemotherapy, and to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a short(three hours) paclitaxel infusion. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Consider alternate therapy or monitor for therapeutic/adverse effects of Doxorubicin if Terbinafine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. (nextbio.com)
  • OBJECTIVES: I. Estimate the maximum tolerated dose of weekly intravenous doxorubicin (DOX) that can be given in combination with oral estramustine (EM) in patients with metastatic prostate cancer refractory to treatment with hormonal agents. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Doxorubicin treatment also produced dose-dependent reductions in glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase domain containing 6 (GDPD6), phospholipase D1 (PLD1), and choline kinase α (ChKα) protein levels, which are upregulated in cancers and are involved in cell migration, invasion, and cancer progression. (bruker.com)
  • Each single-dose vial of sterile, lyophilized red powder, contains doxorubicin HCl 10 mg. (medbroadcast.com)
  • The recommended dose of doxorubicin varies according to the specific condition being treated, the response to therapy, the other medications being used, and body size. (medbroadcast.com)
  • In the clinical trial 3-6 patients will be assigned to L19TNFalfa at one of the following sequential dose levels (10.4 µg/kg, 13 µg/kg and 17 µg/kg) in combination with a fixed dose of doxorubicin. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To determine the maximum tolerated dose and safety of intravenous doxorubicin hydrochloride and intraperitoneal carboplatin in patients with platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer. (knowcancer.com)
  • Doxorubicin is in the anthracycline and antitumor antibiotic family of medications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Doxorubicin is classified as an "anthracycline antibiotic. (chemocare.com)
  • Whereas ligand-binding design enables the binding of either the antibiotic doxycycline or the anticancer compound doxorubicin, the reengineering of an existing allosteric coupling mechanism enables the release of the bound ligands on occurrence of a proteinase trigger signal. (pnas.org)
  • Doxorubicin is an antibiotic broadly used in treatment of different types of solid tumors. (hindawi.com)
  • In this respect, the use of doxorubicin, an antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces peucetius var. (scielo.br)
  • Doxorubicin, an anthracycline antibiotic, is widely used to treat a number of cancers [ 1 - 3 ], including as breast and lung cancers [ 4 - 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • 1 Doxorubicin is an anthracycline antibiotic used in cancer therapy. (bmj.com)
  • Doxorubicin also known as doxorubicin hydrochloride is an antibiotic belonging to class of medication known as anthracycline antibiotics, and is the first liposomal encapsulated anticancer drug to receive clinical approval and is used in the treatment of several types of carcinomas. (sbwire.com)
  • It contains the active ingredient doxorubicin hydrochloride. (nps.org.au)
  • Substitution would be desirable because liposome-encapsulated doxorubicin is less cardiotoxic than unencapsulated doxorubicin. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is the drug doxorubicin encapsulated in a closed lipid sphere (liposome). (chemocare.com)
  • In this present work, a doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded, Lf-modified, polyethylene glycol (PEG)ylated liposome (Lf-PLS) system was developed, and its targeting effect and antitumor efficacy to HCC was also explored. (dovepress.com)
  • On the contrary, a treatment with combination of trastuzumab and doxorubicin showed severe cytotoxicity to human cardiomyocytes (>90% cell death after 3 day exposure). (scirp.org)
  • Although doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective anti-cancer drug with cytotoxicity in a variety of different tumors, its effectiveness in treating glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is constrained by insufficient penetration across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). (nature.com)
  • Despite its cytotoxicity, cells can develop drug resistance to Doxorubicin. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Methods: The MTT assay was first used to determine the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin, the alkaloids, and digitonin alone, and then their combinations. (mdpi.com)
  • Results: Capsaicin and piperine synergistically enhanced the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin in Caco-2 and CEM/ADR 5000 cells. (mdpi.com)
  • The liposomes enclose clinically used photosensitizer m-THPC (Foscan) and anti-cancer drug doxorubicin, in its hydrophobic lipid bilayers, and contains magnetite nanoparticles in hydrophilic core. (cancerindex.org)
  • In this study we find that ultra-small (mean diameter, 2.8 nm) Au nanoparticles conjugated to doxorubicin (Au-Dox) are up to five-fold more cytotoxic to B16 melanoma cells than Dox alone. (nsti.org)
  • Doxorubicin-loaded functionalized selenium nanoparticles for enhanced antitumor efficacy in cervical carcinoma therapy. (medworm.com)
  • From these results, nanoparticles could serve as an effective vehicle/formulation to deliver doxorubicin transsclerally to treat intraocular tumors. (arvojournals.org)
  • It is thus possible that the resistance mechanism that lowers the efficacy of doxorubicin, results from an increased density in membrane regions where the efflux proteins are present. (nature.com)
  • Using siRNA directed against PLD1, the authors increased the efficacy of doxorubicin killing cancer cells, specifically in the triple negative line, and not in ER+ cells. (bruker.com)
  • Our data indicate that TM can enhance the efficacy of doxorubicin and thus suggest a testable clinical hypothesis of using TM in combination with an anthracycline in neoadjuvant therapy of primary or refractory tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Doxorubicin (DXR) is a 14-hydroxylated version of daunorubicin, the immediate precursor of DXR in its biosynthetic pathway. (bionity.com)
  • Doxorubicin is widely used for the treatment of several solid tumors while daunorubicin and idarubicin are used exclusively for the treatment of leukemia. (nextbio.com)
  • Epirubicin and idarubicin have similar profiles of activity and adverse events as doxorubicin, but have been less commonly used and their potential for causing liver injury has been less well defined. (nih.gov)
  • Doxorubicin (dox" oh roo' bi sin), epirubicin (ep" i roo' bi sin), idarubicin (eye" da roo' bi sin) and valrubicin (val roo' bi sin) are cytotoxic, anthracycline antibiotics which are believed to act by intercalating between DNA base pairs and uncoiling the DNA helix, which results in inhibition of DNA synthesis and the normal DNA breaking and resealing action of DNA toposiomerase II. (nih.gov)
  • Epirubicin is an analogue of doxorubicin that has activity against many forms of cancer, but is used largely in the treatment of advanced breast cancer. (nih.gov)
  • occasionally happen with prolonged usage of some chemotherapy drugs, especially doxorubicin and epirubicin. (evidence.nhs.uk)
  • Therefore, the need for development of doxorubicin with liposomal formulation arose improving therapeutic index of conventional doxorubicin. (sbwire.com)
  • It contains the anticancer agents bortezomib and doxorubicin liposomal. (patientslikeme.com)
  • Doxorubicin (Dox), an anthracycline anticancer drug, was successfully incorporated into block copolymer vesicles of poly(trimethylene carbonate)-b-poly(L-glutamic acid) (PTMC-b-PGA) by a solvent-displacement (nanoprecipitation) method. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Cardiotoxic side-effects represent a serious complication of anticancer therapy with anthracyclines, in particular with doxorubicin (DXR) being the leading drug of the group. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Doxorubicin followed by paclitaxel. (cancernetwork.com)
  • The sequence in which doxorubicin was followed by paclitaxel producedthe best results, showing a clearcut synergistic effect in the BRC-230cell line and an additive effect in MCF-7. (cancernetwork.com)
  • This effect was confirmed in 11 cultures of human breast cancer (synergisticand additive effects were observed in four and six cases, respectively).On the basis of these preclinical data, we designed a clinical trial toevaluate the efficacy of a sequential regimen in which doxorubicin wasfollowed by paclitaxel. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Topotecan, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride, paclitaxel, trabectedin and gemcitabine for advanced recurrent or. (evidence.nhs.uk)
  • This may affect decisions on using topotecan, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride, paclitaxel, trabectedin and gemcitabine. (nice.org.uk)
  • This guidance replaces NICE technology appraisal guidance on paclitaxel, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride and topotecan for second-line or subsequent treatment of advanced ovarian cancer (TA91) and trabectedin for the treatment of relapsed ovarian cancer (TA222). (nice.org.uk)
  • Ten patients with locally advanced breast cancer were given doxorubicin i.v., and an incision biopsy was subsequently taken. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, conventional doxorubicin treatment imposes several side effects such as nausea and vomiting that may last 24-48 hours after treatment, hair loss, myelosuppression, loss of appetite, diarrhea, localized swelling etc. (sbwire.com)
  • This trial compared brostallicin with doxorubicin for soft tissue sarcoma that could not be completely removed by surgery, or had spread. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • The aim of this trial was to see if brostallicin works better than doxorubicin for advanced soft tissue sarcoma. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • The trial team found that brostallicin was not better than doxorubicin for advanced soft tissue sarcoma. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • The research team concluded that brostallicin was not as good as doxorubicin for advanced soft tissue sarcoma. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • Doxorubicin may cause serious or life-threatening heart problems at any time during your treatment or months to years after your treatment has ended. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Doxorubicin lipid complex is used to treat ovarian cancer that has not improved or that has worsened after treatment with other medications. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Doxorubicin lipid complex is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma (a type of cancer that causes abnormal tissue to grow on different parts of the body) related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) that has not improved or that has worsened after treatment with other medications. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Doxorubicin lipid complex is also in combination with another chemotherapy drug to treat multiple myeloma (a type of cancer of the bone marrow) that has not improved or that has worsened after treatment with other medications. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The minimization of this side effect may allow for one-for-one (1:1) substitution with doxorubicin in the same treatment regimen, thereby improving safety with no loss of efficacy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liposomal doxorubicin HCl was approved by the FDA on November 17, 1995, for the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma individuals whose bodies cannot tolerate other cancer medicines or whose Kaposi's sarcoma has advanced despite treatment. (thebody.com)
  • Assess left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) before and regularly during and after treatment with doxorubicin HCl. (nih.gov)
  • Your doctor will check your heart function (with an ECHO test) before you may take any Doxorubicin and will monitor your heart closely during your treatment. (chemocare.com)
  • Bortezomib-doxorubicin liposomal is a regimen that may be used for the treatment of multiple myeloma. (patientslikeme.com)
  • Zoptarelin doxorubicin has been used in trials studying the treatment of Breast Cancer, Ovarian Cancer, Prostate Cancer, Endometrial Cancer, and Urothelial Carcinoma, among others. (drugbank.ca)
  • Is doxorubicin available for his further treatment? (meds.com)
  • Compared with the mean ablation (coagulative necrosis) volume obtained immediately after RFA, that obtained after further treatment with doxorubicin-eluting beads was greater by a relative 61%, he said. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Please read this leaflet carefully before treatment with DOXORUBICIN SZ. (nps.org.au)
  • This study demonstrated that trastuzumab conjugated with doxorubicin (T-Dox) can provide valuable alternative to the combination treatment with doxorubicin and trastuzumab for high HER2 expressing cancer patients. (scirp.org)
  • Breast cancer treatment often includes Doxorubicin as adjuvant as well as neoadjuvant chemotherapy. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Doxorubicin loading in the composite micelles significantly increased its cellular uptake, improved drug retention, and enhanced its antitumor effect relative to free doxorubicin, thereby providing a novel approach for treatment of cancer. (dovepress.com)
  • Treatment groups (n=7-10) were perfused in the presence or absence of Doxorubicin. (bmj.com)
  • Although no active form was documented for either collagenase, the duration of the treatment with doxorubicin played a role in the alteration of plasma pro-forms activity. (scielo.br)
  • Recently, researchers used magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to identify specific markers of doxorubicin-induced side effects during breast cancer treatment, finding a way to block these negative effects and improve efficacy at the same time. (bruker.com)
  • Similar results were observed in both cell lines, which harbor distinct genetic backgrounds, implying a wide potential for application of these metabolic patterns as a marker of doxorubicin treatment response in breast cancer. (bruker.com)
  • Because luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone receptors are expressed in a great number of prostate cancers, we believe that zoptarelin doxorubicin, which specifically targets those receptors, may represent a novel targeted treatment for men with this disease. (news-medical.net)
  • Doxorubicin is one of the most effective agents for the treatment of epithelial cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The authors conclude that the combination of VP/CY is effective treatment for osteosarcoma, and when combined with cisplatin/doxorubicin (CIS/DOX), is as effective as any previously reported chemotherapy for osteosarcoma. (uni-bonn.de)
  • Anthracycline especially doxorubicin has been the mainstay of cancer treatment since many years. (sbwire.com)
  • Furthermore, increasing use of drug in the treatment of ovary cancer is further expected to increase the sales of the doxorubicin over the forecast period. (sbwire.com)
  • Overexpression of ABCB4 contributes to acquired doxorubicin resistance in breast cancer cells in vitro. (bioportfolio.com)
  • An in vitro interaction study was performed as a comparison of amino acid profiles in heart tissue before and after application of doxorubicin. (mdpi.com)
  • LNCaP cells, however, secreted sufficient amounts of enzymatically active PSA to activate the doxorubicin prodrug to a cytotoxic form in vitro . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Terbinafine may reduce the metabolism and clearance of Doxorubicin. (nextbio.com)
  • Molecular Effects of Doxorubicin on Choline Metabolism in Breast Cancer. (bruker.com)
  • In humans, doxorubicin is involved in doxorubicin metabolism pathway. (hmdb.ca)
  • New work by University of Colorado Cancer Center members at Colorado State University Flint Animal Cancer Center presented at the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Annual Meeting 2015 demonstrates a gene expression model that predicts canine osteosarcoma response to doxorubicin, potentially allowing veterinary oncologists to better choose which drug to use with their patients. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Following administration of this form of doxorubicin, small amounts of the drug can leak from capillaries in the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. (wikipedia.org)
  • Doxorubicin is a type of chemotherapy drug called an anthracycline. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • These spheres keep the doxorubicin in the bloodstream longer, so that more of the drug reaches the cancer cells. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • The side effects of doxorubicin (liposomal) and their severity depend on how much of the drug is given. (chemocare.com)
  • A serious but uncommon side effect of doxorubicin - parent drug to doxorubicin (liposomal) - can be interference with the pumping action of the heart. (chemocare.com)
  • You can receive only up to a certain amount of the parent drug, doxorubicin, during your lifetime. (chemocare.com)
  • In May 2017 the results were disclosed, showing that the drug did not extend overall survival nor did it improve the safety profile compared to doxorubicin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another rare, yet serious risk that is associated with doxorubicin therapy is the risk of developing a blood cancer, such as leukemia, up to years after taking the drug. (chemocare.com)
  • LIPOSOMAL DOXORUBICIN (LIP oh som al dox oh ROO bi sin) is a chemotherapy drug. (cvs.com)
  • Within 24 hours, the patients underwent Precision TACE (transarterial chemoembolization) with drug-eluting beads (DC Bead, Biocompatibles International, Farnham, UK) loaded with doxorubicin. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Drug information on Duxocin (Doxorubicin) from Biochem Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. (medindia.net)
  • Doxorubicin chemotherapy drug, molecular model. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The drug they use most often is called doxorubicin . (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • To avoid such drug loss, we used cryosections for measuring doxorubicin fluorescence without further contact of the sections with solvents. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, ongoing shortages of the drug has also affected the revenues of the doxorubicin market contently. (sbwire.com)
  • Doxorubicin is a drug. (hmdb.ca)
  • Doxorubicin has antimitotic and cytotoxic activity through a number of proposed mechanisms of action: Doxorubicin forms complexes with DNA by intercalation between base pairs, and it inhibits topoisomerase II activity by stabilizing the DNA-topoisomerase II complex, preventing the religation portion of the ligation-religation reaction that topoisom. (nextbio.com)
  • What are the possible side effects of doxorubicin? (cigna.com)
  • A phase I trial in prostate cancer indicated that nine out ten evaluable patients achieved disease stabilization through administration of zoptarelin doxorubicin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Madrid, January 13, 2015: Zeltia announces today that its pharmaceutical division PharmaMar will start a Phase III trial with PM1183 in combination with doxorubicin against topotecan in SCLC, given the activity observed in an interim analysis of an ongoing Phase Ib trial. (eurekalert.org)
  • pharmamar-start-phase-iii-pm1183-doxorubicin-relapsed-sclc. (eurekalert.org)
  • Aeterna Zentaris Inc. (NASDAQ: AEZS, TSX: AEZ) (the 'Company') today announced that an article on final data for the Phase 1 portion of the ongoing Phase 1/2 trial in prostate cancer with zoptarelin doxorubicin (formerly AEZS-108), a hybrid molecule composed of a synthetic peptide carrier and a well-known chemotherapy agent, doxorubicin, has been published in the December issue of Clinical Cancer Research . (news-medical.net)
  • Expansion into prostate cancer with zoptarelin doxorubicin after positive Phase 2 results in endometrial and ovarian cancer, is further demonstration of the potential of this innovative compound in a variety of cancer indications which affect men as well as women, and could provide the Company with a significant market opportunity. (news-medical.net)
  • Doxorubicin is in a class of medications called anthracyclines. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Secondary Malignancies: Secondary acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) occur at a higher incidence in patients treated with anthracyclines, including doxorubicin HCl. (nih.gov)
  • Doxorubicin has potent activity in several forms of cancer, including acute leukemia, lymphomas, sarcomas and solid tumors. (nih.gov)
  • Liposomal doxorubicin HCl comes in liquid form that is given by intravenous infusion into a vein. (thebody.com)
  • Along with its desired effects, liposomal doxorubicin HCl can cause some serious unwanted effects. (thebody.com)
  • Doxorubicin was originally made from the bacterium Streptomyces peucetius. (wikipedia.org)
  • Feedback regulation of doxorubicin biosynthesis in Streptomyces peucetius. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, only one known non- wild type species, streptomyces peucetius subspecies cesius ATCC 27952, was initially found to be capable of producing the more widely used doxorubicin. (bionity.com)
  • [2] Subsequently, Hutchinson's group showed that under special environmental conditions, or by the introduction of genetic modifications, other strains of streptomyces can produce doxorubicin. (bionity.com)
  • The anthracycline skeleton of doxorubicin (DXR) is produced by a Type II polyketide synthase (PKS) in streptomyces peucetius . (bionity.com)
  • Doxorubicin is produced by the soil fungus belonging to genus Streptomyces. (sbwire.com)
  • Long term folllow up studies of treated patients suggest that secondary malignancies may arise more frequently in those who receive high, total accumulative doses of doxorubicin. (nih.gov)
  • This study shows that we can use the COXEN model to accurately predict our patients' responses to doxorubicin," Gustafson says. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Chemotherapy agents, such as doxorubicin, pose additional safety risks both for patients and for healthcare workers handling these agents. (ashp.org)
  • Evaluate the health-care system's total supply of doxorubicin liposomal before beginning patients on combination chemotherapy regimens containing doxorubicin liposomal. (ashp.org)
  • Preliminary results presented last year at the 15th World Conference on Lung Cancer showed that 71% of SCLC patients responded to PM1183 plus doxorubicin as second-line therapy. (eurekalert.org)
  • Arm I: Patients receive single agent doxorubicin by bolus infusion on day 1. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patients then receive four courses of doxorubicin given on day 1 every 14 days, provided ANC and platelet count are in the appropriate range. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Doxorubicin lipid complex comes as a liquid to be injected intravenously (into a vein) over 1 hour by a doctor or nurse in a medical facility. (medlineplus.gov)
  • When doxorubicin lipid complex is used to treat ovarian cancer, it is given once every 4 weeks. (medlineplus.gov)
  • When doxorubicin lipid complex is used to treat multiple myeloma, it is given on certain days every 3 weeks. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Thereby, interaction with lipid membranes is an unavoidable step in doxorubicin activity, whatever the exact mechanism of action proves to be. (nature.com)
  • Thus, doxorubicin is considered to be an aromatic polyketide lipid molecule. (hmdb.ca)
  • Doxorubicin may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. (cigna.com)
  • Heart problems may occur during doxorubicin therapy or months to years after receiving this medication. (medicinenet.com)
  • Doxorubicin possesses an antitumor effect against a wide spectrum of tumors, either grafted or spontaneous. (nextbio.com)
  • There is an FDA black box warning that trastuzumab cannot be used in concurrent combination with doxorubicin, only in sequential combination. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, we constructed a trastuzumab-doxorubicin conjugate (T-Dox) using a thioether linkage and characterized both biophysical stability and anti-cancer potency of the T-Dox using a panel of HER2 expressing cancer cell lines. (scirp.org)
  • Doxorubicin is typically given intravenously in doses of 60 to 75 mg per meter squared 2 body surface area every 21 to 28 days. (nih.gov)
  • Doxorubicin may increase your risk for developing leukemia (cancer of the white blood cells), especially when it is given in high doses or together with certain other chemotherapy medications and radiation (x-ray) therapy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • group 2, 3 and 4 were injected every other day with doxorubicin (3 mg/kg, i.p.), to obtain treatments with cumulative doses of 6, 12 and 18 mg/kg. (hindawi.com)
  • In order to better understand the mechanisms underlying doxorubicin efficacy and side effects, Dr. Menglin Cheng and colleagues at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, treated two breast cancer cell lines (estrogen receptor positive (ER+) MCF7, and triple negative MDA-MB-231) with doxorubicin, using clinically relevant doses. (bruker.com)
  • The amount of doxorubicin (liposomal) you will receive depends on many factors, including your height and weight, your general health or other health problems, and the type of cancer you have. (chemocare.com)
  • Therefore, there is a lifetime maximum on the amount of doxorubicin you can receive. (chemocare.com)
  • Fractions were measured for fluorescence using a fluorometer to determine the amount of doxorubicin that diffused across the sclera. (arvojournals.org)
  • A serious, but uncommon side effect of Doxorubicin is a decrease in the heart's pumping capability . (chemocare.com)
  • Star-shaped polymer of β‑cyclodextrin-g-vitamin E TPGS for doxorubicin delivery and multidrug resistance inhibition. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Idarubicin is an analogue of doxorubicin that has activity against many forms of cancer, but most convincingly in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). (nih.gov)
  • Zoptarelin doxorubicin (developmental code names AEZS-108, AN-152) consists of doxorubicin linked to a small peptide agonist to the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proposed method of action is that upon administration zoptarelin doxorubicin binds to the LHRH receptor and is subsequently internalized, concentrating the toxic doxorubicin within cancer cells and the small subset of normal tissues, as opposed to the completely systemic distribution observed with untargeted chemotherapeutics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zoptarelin doxorubicin was invented by Andrew V. Schally while at the Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans and subsequently at the Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zoptarelin doxorubicin was discontinued for all indications under development in May 2017. (wikipedia.org)
  • Doxorubicin was approved for use in the United States in 1974, and it remains an important agent in many cancer chemotherapeutic regimens. (nih.gov)
  • Doxorubicin is also used alone and in combination with other medications to treat certain types of thyroid cancer and certain types of soft tissue or bone sarcomas (cancer that forms in muscles and bones). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Doxorubicin works by stopping the cancer cells from dividing and multiplying. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Liposomal doxorubicin is used to treat breast and ovarian cancer , myeloma , and HIV-related Kaposi's sarcoma . (macmillan.org.uk)
  • Liposomal doxorubicin can be given in combination with other cancer drugs. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • There are two chemotherapies commonly used to treat bone cancer in dogs: doxorubicin and carboplatin. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Doxorubicin is sometimes given together with other cancer medications. (cigna.com)
  • Doxorubicin-loaded photosensitive magnetic liposomes for multi-modal cancer therapy. (cancerindex.org)
  • In particular, we study liposomal doxorubicin with attached F3 ligand specific to nucleolin overexpressing cancer cells. (mit.edu)
  • Doxorubicin is an anthracycline type of chemotherapy that is used alone or with other treatments/medications to treat several different types of cancer . (medicinenet.com)
  • Doxorubicin works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells. (medicinenet.com)
  • Doxorubicin liposomal is labeled for use in adults with refractory multiple myeloma, refractory ovarian cancer, and AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma. (ashp.org)
  • Doxorubicin liposomal is used off-label in adults for treating refractory metastatic breast cancer. (ashp.org)
  • DOXORUBICIN SZ is thought to work by killing cancer cells and stopping cancer cells from growing and multiplying. (nps.org.au)
  • ETV7-Mediated DNAJC15 Repression Leads to Doxorubicin Resistance in Breast Cancer Cells. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Doxorubicin is one of the most active agents in the first-line therapy for metastatic breast cancer, but its utility is partially limited by the frequent emergence of doxorubicin resistance. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of composite doxorubicin-loaded micelles for enhancing doxorubicin radiosensitivity in multicellular spheroids from a non-small cell lung cancer cell line. (dovepress.com)
  • 8 The study found that incubation of cancer cells with doxorubicin resulted in GPC levels 3 times higher than those of control cells, while PC levels were halved, leading to an increased PC/GPC ratio. (bruker.com)
  • ChKα-targeted siRNA improved the anti-cancer effects of doxorubicin in ER+ cells, but not in triple negative cells, whereas GDPD6 siRNA resulted in elevated doxorubicin efficacy in both cell lines. (bruker.com)
  • GDPD6 silencing, unlike PLD1 or ChKα, mitigated the doxorubicin-induced side effect of increased cancer cell motility. (bruker.com)
  • Doxorubicin prevents the growth of cancer cells by interfering with the genetic material DNA, which is necessary for reproduction of cells. (medbroadcast.com)
  • Doxorubicin should only be given by health care professionals familiar with the use of chemotherapy medications used to treat cancer. (medbroadcast.com)
  • Global doxorubicin market is expected to witness upsurge in its revenue over the forecast period attributed to growing prevalence of cancer worldwide. (sbwire.com)
  • Increasing prevalence of several cancer types have resulted in increasing usage of doxorubicin in clinical practice thus driving the revenues for the same. (sbwire.com)
  • Breast cancer and prostate cancer segments are expected to account for maximum revenue share in global doxorubicin market over the forecasted period. (sbwire.com)
  • North America will continue to dominate the global doxorubicin market attributed to growing number of cancer epidemiology in the region. (sbwire.com)
  • Asia Pacific is expected to be the fastest growing region in global doxorubicin market attributed to increasing prevalence of breast and lung cancer. (sbwire.com)
  • Your nurse will give you liposomal doxorubicin as a drip (infusion) into your cannula or line. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • Doxorubicin is given as an infusion into a vein. (cigna.com)
  • Liposomal doxorubicin is a light red liquid that you have through a drip (infusion) into your bloodstream. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • Withhold doxorubicin hydrochloride for infusion-related reactions and resume at a reduced rate. (nih.gov)
  • Discontinue doxorubicin hydrochloride infusion for serious or life-threatening infusion-related reactions ( 5.2 ). (nih.gov)
  • Doxorubicin can also be given by continuous infusion through a central catheter line. (chemocare.com)
  • Read the Patient Information Leaflet if available from your pharmacist before you start receiving doxorubicin and each time you get an infusion. (medicinenet.com)
  • Doxorubicin will be administered as a 15 minutes i.v. infusion on day 1 of each 3-week cycle prior L19TNFα administration. (clinicaltrials.gov)