Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.GATA4 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is expressed in the MYOCARDIUM of developing heart and has been implicated in the differentiation of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. GATA4 is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION and regulates transcription of cardiac-specific genes.GATA6 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is expressed predominately in SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and regulates vascular smooth muscle CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.GATA2 Transcription Factor: An essential GATA transcription factor that is expressed primarily in HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.GATA3 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is found predominately in LYMPHOID CELL precursors and has been implicated in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of HELPER T-CELLS. Haploinsufficiency of GATA3 is associated with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; and renal anomalies syndrome.GATA Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that contain two ZINC FINGER MOTIFS and bind to the DNA sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G).GATA1 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is specifically expressed in hematopoietic lineages and plays an important role in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of ERYTHROID CELLS and MEGAKARYOCYTES.GATA5 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is expressed predominately in SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and is involved in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. In the developing heart, GATA5 becomes restricted to the ENDOCARDIUM and regulates transcription of genes such as cardiac TROPONIN C.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Sp1 Transcription Factor: Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Transcription Factor AP-1: A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Chromatin Immunoprecipitation: A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.Zinc Fingers: Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors: A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. They contain a highly conserved seven amino acid spacer sequence in between their ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Transcription Factor AP-2: A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Transcription Factors, TFII: The so-called general transcription factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE II and that are required to initiate transcription. They include TFIIA; TFIIB; TFIID; TFIIE; TFIIF; TFIIH; TFII-I; and TFIIJ. In vivo they apparently bind in an ordered multi-step process and/or may form a large preinitiation complex called RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.STAT3 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay: An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Erythroid-Specific DNA-Binding Factors: A group of transcription factors that were originally described as being specific to ERYTHROID CELLS.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.NFATC Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.YY1 Transcription Factor: A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Paired Box Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.Transcription Factor TFIID: The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Activating Transcription Factor 3: An activating transcription factor that plays a key role in cellular responses to GENOTOXIC STRESS and OXIDATIVE STRESS.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Transcription Initiation Site: The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.E2F1 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Sp3 Transcription Factor: A specificity protein transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.RNA Polymerase II: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.MEF2 Transcription Factors: Activating transcription factors of the MADS family which bind a specific sequence element (MEF2 element) in many muscle-specific genes and are involved in skeletal and cardiac myogenesis, neuronal differentiation and survival/apoptosis.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that contain regions rich in basic residues, LEUCINE ZIPPER domains, and HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIFS.Transcription Factor TFIIB: An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It plays a role in assembly of the pol II transcriptional preinitiation complex and has been implicated as a target of gene-specific transcriptional activators.Mice, Inbred C57BLActivating Transcription Factor 2: An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of GENES including C-JUN GENES; CYCLIN A; CYCLIN D1; and ACTIVATING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 3.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.TCF Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding proteins that are primarily expressed in T-LYMPHOCYTES. They interact with BETA CATENIN and serve as transcriptional activators and repressors in a variety of developmental processes.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Transcription Factor RelA: A subunit of NF-kappa B that is primarily responsible for its transactivation function. It contains a C-terminal transactivation domain and an N-terminal domain with homology to PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-REL.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Helix-Loop-Helix Motifs: Recurring supersecondary structures characterized by 20 amino acids folding into two alpha helices connected by a non-helical "loop" segment. They are found in many sequence-specific DNA-BINDING PROTEINS and in CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.T-Box Domain Proteins: Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.STAT1 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERFERONS. Stat1 interacts with P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN and regulates expression of GENES involved in growth control and APOPTOSIS.E2F Transcription Factors: A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor: A basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates the CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development of a variety of cell types including MELANOCYTES; OSTEOCLASTS; and RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. Mutations in MITF protein have been associated with OSTEOPETROSIS and WAARDENBURG SYNDROME.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Activating Transcription Factors: Activating transcription factors were originally identified as DNA-BINDING PROTEINS that interact with early promoters from ADENOVIRUSES. They are a family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element, and are closely related to CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein: A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets: A family of transcription factors that share a unique DNA-binding domain. The name derives from viral oncogene-derived protein oncogene protein v-ets of the AVIAN ERYTHROBLASTOSIS VIRUS.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Activating Transcription Factor 4: An activating transcription factor that regulates the expression of a variety of GENES involved in amino acid metabolism and transport. It also interacts with HTLV-I transactivator protein.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.TATA Box: A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Activating Transcription Factor 1: An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including C-JUN GENES and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA2.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).Transcription Factor 7-Like 1 Protein: A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway where it may play a role in the differentiation of KERATINOCYTES. The transcriptional activity of this protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN.SOX9 Transcription Factor: A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Transcription Factor TFIIIA: One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. It is a zinc finger (ZINC FINGERS) protein and is required for transcription of 5S ribosomal genes.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins: A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.STAT5 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to a variety of CYTOKINES. Stat5 activation is associated with transcription of CELL CYCLE regulators such as CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P21 and anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL-2 GENES. Stat5 is constitutively activated in many patients with acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.NFI Transcription Factors: Transcription factors that were originally identified as site-specific DNA-binding proteins essential for DNA REPLICATION by ADENOVIRUSES. They play important roles in MAMMARY GLAND function and development.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Transcription Factor TFIIH: A general transcription factor that is involved in basal GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION REPAIR. It consists of nine subunits including ATP-DEPENDENT DNA HELICASES; CYCLIN H; and XERODERMA PIGMENTOSUM GROUP D PROTEIN.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Nerve Tissue ProteinsImmunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Transcription Factor DP1: A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.DNA Footprinting: A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Transcription Factor TFIIA: An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It may play a role in transcriptional activation of gene expression by interacting with the TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID.Gene Regulatory Networks: Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Proto-Oncogene Protein c-ets-1: An ets proto-oncogene expressed primarily in adult LYMPHOID TISSUE; BRAIN; and VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.High Mobility Group Proteins: A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Regulatory Elements, Transcriptional: Nucleotide sequences of a gene that are involved in the regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Response Elements: Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Leucine Zippers: DNA-binding motifs formed from two alpha-helixes which intertwine for about eight turns into a coiled coil and then bifurcate to form Y shaped structures. Leucines occurring in heptad repeats end up on the same sides of the helixes and are adjacent to each other in the stem of the Y (the "zipper" region). The DNA-binding residues are located in the bifurcated region of the Y.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Acetylation: Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Active Transport, Cell Nucleus: Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.Early Growth Response Protein 1: An early growth response transcription factor that has been implicated in regulation of CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS.Octamer Transcription Factor-1: A ubiquitously expressed octamer transcription factor that regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of SMALL NUCLEAR RNA; IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES; and HISTONE H2B genes.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 Protein: A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway. The activity of the protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN. Transcription factor 7-like 2 protein plays an important role in the embryogenesis of the PANCREAS and ISLET CELLS.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Immunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.PhosphoproteinsXenopus Proteins: Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.TATA-Box Binding Protein: A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Twist Transcription Factor: A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that was originally identified in DROSOPHILA as essential for proper gastrulation and MESODERM formation. It plays an important role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and CELL DIFFERENTIATION of MUSCLE CELLS, and is found in a wide variety of organisms.NF-E2 Transcription Factor, p45 Subunit: A tissue-specific subunit of NF-E2 transcription factor that interacts with small MAF PROTEINS to regulate gene expression. P45 NF-E2 protein is expressed primarily in MEGAKARYOCYTES; ERYTHROID CELLS; and MAST CELLS.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Transcription Factors, TFIII: Factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE III and aid in transcription. They include the assembly factors TFIIIA and TFIIIC and the initiation factor TFIIIB. All combine to form a preinitiation complex at the promotor that directs the binding of RNA POLYMERASE III.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.GA-Binding Protein Transcription Factor: A heterotetrameric transcription factor composed of two distinct proteins. Its name refers to the fact it binds to DNA sequences rich in GUANINE and ADENINE. GA-binding protein integrates a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and regulates expression of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE control, PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS, and cellular METABOLISM.Deoxyribonuclease I: An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.
BCL6-corepressor target genes The MTA3-NuRD complex interacts with GATA3 to regulate the expression of GATA3 downstream targets ... The estrogen receptor-stimulates the expression of MTA3 in breast cancer cells. The SP1 transcription factor stimulates the ... Fujita N, Jaye DL, Kajita M, Geigerman C, Moreno CS, Wade PA (Apr 2003). "MTA3, a Mi-2/NuRD complex subunit, regulates an ... Fujita N, Jaye DL, Kajita M, Geigerman C, Moreno CS, Wade PA (Apr 2003). "MTA3, a Mi-2/NuRD complex subunit, regulates an ...
BCL6-corepressor target genes The MTA3-NuRD complex interacts with GATA3 to regulate the expression of GATA3 downstream targets ... The estrogen receptor-stimulates the expression of MTA3 in breast cancer cells. The SP1 transcription factor stimulates the ... Fujita N, Jaye DL, Kajita M, Geigerman C, Moreno CS, Wade PA (Apr 2003). "MTA3, a Mi-2/NuRD complex subunit, regulates an ... Fujita N, Jaye DL, Kajita M, Geigerman C, Moreno CS, Wade PA (Apr 2003). "MTA3, a Mi-2/NuRD complex subunit, regulates an ...
... and the downstream transcription factors c-maf and GATA-3 (7-9). The pathways downstream of CD28 and other costimulatory ... Human PDK1 and PKA β catalytic subunit 2 were amplified from Jurkat cDNA by PCR and cloned into the expression vector pCDEF, ... NFAT transcription factors have been shown to be critical for IL-4 expression in gene knockout studies, with NFATc1 defined as ... The transcription factor GATA-3 is necessary and sufficient for Th2 cytokine gene expression in CD4 T cells. Cell. ...
In contrast, IRF-4 is required for the expression of the transcription factor GATA-3 that governs Th2 responses.. ... Ongoing studies of the above and other gene-targeted mutant mice and examination of the expression levels of various gene ... HDAC2 Regulates Site-Specific Acetylation of MDM2 and Its Ubiquitination Signaling in Tumor Suppression. ... We generated mice lacking NEMO, a scaffolding subunit of the IKK complex responsible for phosphorylating IkB and promoting its ...
... as well as transcription factor (Bcl-6, c-Maf, STAT3) signaling and repressor miR155. On the other hand Tfh generation is ... On the other hand Tfh generation is negatively regulated at specific steps of Tfh generation by specific cytokine (IL-2, IL-7 ... 17-92 and FOXO1 acts as a positive as well as a negative regulator of Tfh differentiation depending on the time of expression ... transcription factors Blimp-1, STAT5, T-bet, KLF-2 signaling and repressor miR 146a. Interestingly, miR 17-92 and FOXO1 acts as ...
CARMA1 Controls Th2 Cell-Specific Cytokine Expression through Regulating JunB and GATA3 Transcription Factors Marzenna Blonska ... Tcra Enhancer Activation by Inducible Transcription Factors Downstream of Pre-TCR Signaling Beatriz del Blanco, Alberto García- ... Regulating Mammalian Target of Rapamycin To Tune Vaccination-Induced CD8+ T Cell Responses for Tumor Immunity Qingsheng Li, ... MF59 and Pam3CSK4 Boost Adaptive Responses to Influenza Subunit Vaccine through an IFN Type I-Independent Mechanism of Action ...
T cells from p47phox−/− mice have the diminished expression of T-bet, STAT-1, and STAT-4 transcription factors and the lowered ... Multiple protein classes have been shown to be regulated by sulfenylation, including phosphatases and kinases, transcription ... The stark differences in T-bet and IFNγ expression between the two studies might be explained by the different NOX-2 subunits ... Mitochondria-targeted small molecule therapeutics and probes. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2011;15(12):3021-38.View ArticlePubMed ...
11254498:The Protooncogene c-Maf Is an Essential Transcription Factor for IL-10 Gene Expression in Macrophages ... 11254155:BCL-6 Negatively Regulates Expression of the NF-B1 p105/p50 Subunit ... 11254262:Streptococcus iniae Phosphoglucomutase Is a Virulence Factor and a Target for Vaccine Development ... 11254199:GATA-3 Is an Important Transcription Factor for Regulating Human NKG2A Gene Expression ...
Conversely, RORγt/Gata3 transcription factor mRNA expression, which is indicative of the opposite Th17/Th2 activation, is ... to up-regulate tissue factor expression both in human endothelial cells [32] and in activated monocytes [33], and to occur ... fine-tune final impact of PTX3 on its target structures. The most prominent ones are activator protein-1 (AP-1), nuclear factor ... MyD88 is a cellular adaptor protein downstream of the receptors for TLR and IL-1R. MyD88- or IL-1R-deficient mice are unable to ...
TGF-beta failed to inhibit IL-4-mediated upregulation of the Th2 transcription factor GATA-3. Addition of IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL- ... Naive CD4 T Cell Proliferation Is Controlled by Mammalian Target of Rapainaycin Regulation of GRAIL Expression JOURNAL OF ... Eukaryotic transcription is known to be regulated by chromatin-associated proteins containing conserved protein domains that ... Despite the widespread clinical use of agents that target β-ARs, the signaling pathways that operate downstream of β-AR ...
CTCF may serve as a typical transcription factor to regulate target gene expression or an insulator that defines boundaries in ... GATA3, and SPDEF and known essential target genes and downstream signaling molecules such as MYC, CCND1, and CDK4 (Fig. 1A and ... a mitochondrial large ribosomal subunit protein, and COX4I1, a cytochrome C oxidase subunit. ... This may be because FOXA1 works together with other transcription factors such as ER and AR to regulate gene expression, and ...
Transcript profiling studies identified caspase (zeige GATA3 Antikörper)-14 as a novel downstream target of Gata-3, in keeping ... CASP14 and CLDN1 expression through transcription and microRNA modulation. in FEBS letters 2013 (PubMed) Show all 2 Pubmed ... Caspase-14 is required for filaggrin (zeige FLG Antikörper) degradation to natural moisturizing factors in the skin. ... Dog (Canine) Polyclonal CASP14 Primary Antibody für IHC (p), IP - ABIN537403 : Ratovitski: Phospho-?Np63? regulates AQP3, ...
Ching GY & Liem RK RE1 silencing transcription factor is involved in regulating neuron-specific expression of alpha-internexin ... Yokoyama A et al. Identification of Myelin Transcription Factor 1 (MyT1) as a Subunit of the Neural Cell Type-specific Lysine- ... promotes the expression of genes targeted by DNA methylation. Nucleic Acids Res 44:608-20 (2016). ChIP . PubMed: 26400170 ... Nakata Y et al. c-Myb, Menin, GATA-3, and MLL form a dynamic transcription complex that plays a pivotal role in human T helper ...
... and initiate downstream signaling events that lead to the activation of the transcription factor and its translocation into the ... ArtinM Targets TLR2 N-Glycans to Induce IL-12 Production. The role of the 70-kDa heterodimeric cytokine IL-12 in the activation ... Its bioactive IL-12p70 form is composed of two disulfide-linked subunits: a 40-kDa heavy chain of (p40) and a 35-kDa light ... Detection of IL-10 production in ArtinM-treated animals reveals that the induced Th1-prone immune response is regulated in a ...
RBPJ Controls Development of Pathogenic Th17 Cells by Regulating IL-23 Receptor Expression. Cell reports Meyer Zu Horste, G., ... Transcription activator-like effectors have enabled the creation of customizable designer transcriptional factors and sequence- ... We packaged SaCas9 and its single guide RNA expression cassette into a single AAV vector and targeted the cholesterol ... This distinct dysfunction module is downstream of intracellular metallothioneins that regulate zinc metabolism and can be ...
1 protein B-cell-activating transcription factor (BATF) regulates the development of TH17 cells by interacting with target ... activation and results in the expression of the transcription factor T-bet. TH2 cells predominantly produce IL-4, IL-5, and IL- ... These downstream genes include the conserved intergenic elements in the Il17a-Il17f locus and to the Il17, Il21, and Il22 ... Similarly, the upregulation of GATA-3 transcription factor of TH2 cells by IL-4/5/13 could also restrict the expansion of TH17 ...
TH9 cells generated in vitro exhibit a heterogeneous phenotype based on the expression of the transcription factors GATA-3 and ... factors plays an important role in longevity and tumor suppression by regulating the expression of a wide range of target genes ... Ca2+ signaling through SOCE regulates several downstream responses such as transcriptional regulation, secretion, and cellular ... I showed that a mutation in the MED20 gene, which encodes one of the subunits of Mediator, a multiprotein complex that acts as ...
STAT6 transcription factor is a facilitator of the nuclear receptor PPARγ-regulated gene expression in macrophages and ... Krüppel-like factor 6 is a co-activator of NF-κB that mediates p65-dependent transcription of selected downstream genes. J Biol ... The inhibitory subunit p50 binds to the promoters of NF-κB-inducible inflammatory genes and blocks their transcription. ... The spectrum of AP-1 transcription targets overlaps substantially with that of NF-κB[90]. AP-1 comprises a group of ...
We focus on how the retinoblastoma protein and its downstream target E2F transcription factor mediate proliferation, ... YAP1 Regulates OCT4 Activity and SOX2 Expression to Facilitate Self-Renewal and Vascular Mimicry of Stem-Like Cells. Stem Cells ... GATA3 transcription factor abrogates Smad4 transcription factor-mediated fascin overexpression, invadopodium formation, and ... Pillai S, Chellappan S. α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit in angiogenesis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition. ...
Several activity to interferon-beta( IFNB, IFN-beta) Also factors in ROS insulin( Moiseeva et al. ROS are I( TXN), which O- ... and MINK1 and TNIK actively regulate MAP3K5 complement( Nicke et al. MAP3K5 contains and leads MAP2K3( MKK3) and MAP2K6( MKK6 ... active edition, required by been co-activator of alpha,1,3 degradation oligopeptides( ROS) in the entry, can make as a ... Another download Nous of Vectorial strand activation regulates reviewed by molecules by synapse with submitochondrial Aspects ...
... which regulates the transcription of target genes. The VDR gene is located on chromosome 12q12-q14 and comprises 11 exons and ... 2D with high affinity and regulates the expression of target genes through zinc finger-mediated DNA binding and protein-protein ... Modeling transcription factor binding sites with Gibbs Sampling and Minimum Description Length encoding. Proc Int Conf Intell ... EcoRV is located within the core sequence of a putative glutamyl-transfer RNA amidotransferase subunit A 3 (GATA-3) binding ...
In Nir-deficient embryonic epidermis, expression of the key epidermal transcription factor p63 is barely detectable. Nir is ... 2E). Consistent with the absence of stratification, Gata3, a positive target of p63 in suprabasal cells (Chikh et al., 2007), ... 2014). Inhibition of FoxO1 acetylation by INHAT subunit SET/TAF-Ibeta induces p21 transcription. FEBS Lett. 588, 2867-2873. doi ... We generated a floxed conditional Nir allele by inserting a selectable PGK neomycin resistance (Neo) marker downstream of exon ...
... the critical transcription factor for Th2 differentiation (11, 12). IL-4 negatively regulates T-bet expression and Th1 ... which is regulated by IL-12, may play a critical downstream role in mediating clonal expansion and contraction. Treatment with ... Tbx21−/− (B6.129Cg-Tbx21tm1.Yang) mice were generated by targeted deletion of exons 2-6, and were phenotypically identical to ... Inhibition of Th1 development mediated by GATA-3 through an IL-4-independent mechanism. Immunity 9: 745-755. ...
The transcription factor Sox4 is a downstream target of signaling by the cytokine TGF-β and suppresses T(H)2 differentiation. ... which translocate to the nucleus to regulate target gene expression. Additionally, other noncanonical TGF-β-activated pathways ... Munugalavadla V, Borneo J, Ingram DA, Kapur R. p85α subunit of class IA PI-3 kinase is crucial for macrophage growth and ... TGF-β also potently inhibits Th1 and Th2 differentiation via downregulation of the TFs T-bet and GATA3 (158, 159). In concert ...
Gata3, Tbx3, Tbx20, Foxa1, Nkx2-9 and Nkx2-2 (S1 Table). Previous ChIP-seq data indicates that these transcription factor genes ... Although hnRNP K regulates the expression of pro-apoptotic genes Bcl-Xs and Bik under certain conditions [44], these genes were ... Fkbp6, Dazl, Mael, Taf7l are direct SETDB1/H3K9me3 target genes. Data are relative mean expression level (+ s.d.) for three ... such as the PRC2 subunit EED [60] and KRAB-ZFPs Zik1 and Kid1 [25, 26], indicating that it may regulate Polycomb and/or KRAB- ...
It is during this time that the expression of zinc-finger transcription factor KLF5 is induced by C/EBPβ and C/EBPΔ, and these ... C/EBPα activates PPARγ expression, after which the two factors cross regulate each other (Wu et al., 1999). The absence of C/ ... however no transcription takes place until SWI/SNF subunit Ini1 and complexes with Brg1 and Brm subunits are shown to bind. ... to promote expression of its target genes, and RXRα colocalization to PPARγ DNA targets has been shown to be extensive ( ...
  • Collectively, our data highlight the unexpected central importance of IL-27 in the generation of robust, high-affinity cellular immune responses to subunit immunization. (pnas.org)
  • May be critical in regulating inflammatory and immune responses (By similarity). (cusabio.com)
  • We now report that IL-12, a signature of cell-mediated immunity, represses Eomes while positively regulating T-bet in effector CD8 + T cells during infection with Listeria monocytogenes . (jimmunol.org)
  • The fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L) ( 12 , 13 ) and GM-CSF ( 14 , 15 ) are well known positive regulators of DC development. (rupress.org)
  • We also found that ligand-dependent GR occupancy of common ER-bound enhancer regions suppressed both wild-type and mutant ER chromatin association and decreased corresponding gene expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These studies demonstrate that liganded GR can suppress ER chromatin occupancy at shared ER-regulated enhancers, including CCND1 ( Cyclin D1 ), regardless of whether the ligand is a classic GR agonist or antagonist. (biomedcentral.com)
  • At early time points (15 and 30 min), newly ligand-bound GR associated with the CCND1 , CDK2 , and CDK6 enhancer regions normally targeted by ER. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The epidermis is a complex tissue formed from embryonic progenitor cells that undergo coordinated changes in gene expression. (biologists.org)
  • In mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, the enzyme SETDB1 safeguards the genome against transcription of specific ERVs by depositing a repressive mark H3K9 trimethylation (H3K9me3). (prolekare.cz)
  • Although DNA methylation suppresses ERV transcription in differentiated somatic cells [ 5 ], pluripotent stem cell lines derived from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst, such as murine embryonic stem cells (mESCs) utilize a DNA methylation-independent pathway to maintain ERV silencing [ 6 ]. (prolekare.cz)
  • The number of studies demonstrating the importance of Blimp-1 expression in different subsets of T lymphocytes for the regulation of immune networks has grown dramatically over recent years. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The balance between different NF-κB homo- and heterodimers will determine which dimers are bound to specific κB sites and thereby regulate the level of transcriptional activity. (asm.org)
  • Sundararajan, White: E1B 19K blocks Bax oligomerization and tumor necrosis factor alpha-mediated apoptosis. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Adaptation of tumor cells to hypoxic conditions and glucose deprivation also induces the ER stress response ( 3 ). (rupress.org)
  • These studies suggest that the PRMT5 (zeige PRMT5 ELISA Kits )/ MEP50 is required for tumor growth and that reduced expression of this complex is a part of the mechanism of SFN (zeige SFN ELISA Kits ) suppression of tumor formation. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Breast CSCs (CD44 high /CD24 low/− ) were first identified based on their ability to initiate tumor growth and differentiate into non-CSCs when injected at limiting dilution ( 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors were the first anti-psoriatic biologics to be developed, and also show good efficacy for psoriatic arthritis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Secukinumab and ixekizumab are currently available IL-17 inhibitors that block the development of psoriasis lesions in the downstream events of psoriasis pathogenesis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Sphingosine-1-phosphate, elevated in the lungs of asthmatics, regulates pulmonary epithelium permeability and contributes to the pathogenesis of anaphylaxis. (springer.com)
  • We recently reported that phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) partially corrects the defect in IL-4 production present in CD28-deficient T cells, suggesting that PDK1 regulates IL-4 independently of Akt. (rupress.org)
  • PDK1 localizes to the immune synapse in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent manner, partially colocalizes with PKA at the synapse, and physically interacts with PKA. (rupress.org)
  • Pillars Article: Deficient Expression of a B Cell Cytoplasmic Tyrosine Kinase in Human X-linked Agammaglobulinemia. (jimmunol.org)
  • Wnt signalling induces nuclear translocation of transcriptionally active β-catenin through interference with the β-catenin-destruction complex, composed of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3α and β), Axin (Axin1 and 2) and APC. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We showed that boundary-expressing HAN communicates with the meristem through PNH, regulates floral organ development via JAG and BOP2, and maintains boundary morphology through CYTOKININ OXIDASE 3 (CKX3)-mediated cytokinin homeostasis. (prolekare.cz)
  • Chloride channel-3 (CLC-3), a member of the voltage-gated chloride channel family, mainly mediates the extra- and intracellular ion homeostasis and acidification of intracellular compartments. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This paper is focused on the inherent effects of pentraxin 3 in inflammatory responses, mainly in coronary artery disease and in Aspergillus fumigatus infection. (hindawi.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze effects of certain inflammatory gene and some clinical factors on patient survival.The clinical information of 269 glioma patients conceived operation from September 2010 to May 2014 to decide the 1-, 3-year survival rates according to follow-up results and analyze age, gender, the WHO classification, extent of surgical resection, radiotherapy and chemotherapy factors effects on prognosis. (cancerindex.org)
  • Intraspecific comparisons revealed the association of an early regulation of pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8 and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) with the improved chalimus expulsion in resistant species, which was attributed to the exaggerated T helper 1-type (Th1) responses (normally targeting viruses and bacteria) [ 12 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The major research interest is to understand the mechanisms by which extra-cellular signals regulate the cell cycle machinery and how a loss of this regulation leads to oncogenesis. (moffitt.org)
  • However, the underlying transcriptional mechanisms that control their expression are largely unknown. (biologists.org)
  • In this study, we have been able to advance in the knowledge of the genetic overlap existing in autoimmunity, thus shedding light on common molecular mechanisms of disease and suggesting novel drug targets that could be explored for the treatment of the autoimmune diseases studied. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The molecular mechanisms by which CLC-3 is regulated in GC are unclear. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Robust regulation of Tfh cell response and subsequent antibody maturation are critical for infection clearance ( 2 , 3 ), whereas aberrancy in controlling Tfh immune response is implicated in progression of autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), arthritis, and type I/II diabetes ( 4 - 10 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • A decrease of MTA3 expression leads to the up-regulation of Snail and triggers the process of EMT by repressing E-cadherin, thereby causing a loss of cell-to-cell adhesion and promoting cancer invasion and metastasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The highly specialized intrinsic membrane and firing properties that allow cortical FS interneurons to perform these functions are attributable to equally specialized gene expression, which is ultimately coordinated by cell-type-specific transcriptional regulation. (jneurosci.org)
  • To conclude, changes in blood sugar utilization price with severe change in blood sugar level through the culture moderate towards the assay mixture arise mainly from unidentified effects that are unrelated to the maximal rate of hexokinase or the lumped constant and probably involve regulation of glucose metabolism at downstream sites. (stemcellethics.net)
  • Previously, it was noted that ER binding to a subset of ER target gene enhancer regions could be inhibited by GR agonism with dexamethasone (Dex) [ 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genome-wide occupancy studies coupled with gene expression profiling reveal that Bcl11b, in association with Foxp3, is primarily responsible in establishing a T reg -specific gene activation program. (sciencemag.org)
  • Knockdown of BNIP3L or SQSTM1 alters cellular response to mitochondria target drugs. (abcam.com)
  • OBJECTIVES: Previously, we found that by regulating T helper (Th) cell polarization, calcitriol intervention inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced alveolar bone loss in an animal periodontitis model, but the underlying cellular events remain unknown. (bvsalud.org)
  • During these cellular events, increased expression of Th2 promoters (such as OX-40L and CCL17) and decreased expression of Th17 promoters (such as IL-23 and IL-6) were found in DCs. (bvsalud.org)
  • download III folding interacts transferred used with form formation subunit in apical enzymes, with the release III on the glutamate, destabilizing a murine response( Fleischmajer et al. (erik-mill.de)
  • 1 ] De novo DNA methylation is mediated through the Dnmt3-class of methyltransferases,[ 2, 3 ] whereas maintenance of a pre-existing methylation pattern during DNA replication is catalysed by Dnmt1. (wiley.com)
  • BA is characterized predominantly by type 2 inflammation with eosinophils and CD4 + T lymphocytes, whereas COPD is mainly characterized by neutrophilic inflammation and by CD8 + T lymphocytes and macrophages [3- (oatext.com)
  • Steady increase of MMP expression in all tissues except liver was a remarkable feature of SL infected fish. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The results showed that CLC-3 was overexpressed in human GC tissues and that overexpression of CLC-3 was a poor prognostic biomarker for GC patients ( P = 0.012). (biomedcentral.com)
  • NF-κB 1 and NF-κB 2 are synthesized as large polypeptides that are posttranslationally cleaved to generate the DNA binding subunits p50 and p52, respectively. (asm.org)
  • The encoded preproprotein is proteolytically processed to generate each subunit of the disulfide-linked homodimer. (genecards.org)
  • Thus, a major goal at the interface of chemistry, biology, and molecular medicine is the ability to generate synthetic molecules that function as transcription factors. (schoolbag.info)
  • Optimally, the advancement of "-omic" data will facilitate the development of non-invasive diagnostic biomarkers as well as therapeutics that target the pathophysiology of the disease and halt, or even reverse, progression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chloride channels are promising cancer biomarkers, and their family member chloride channel-3 (CLC-3) is involved in multiple biological behaviors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The N-terminal domain can repress transcription when tethered to a heterologous DNA-binding domain [ 27 ]. (beds.ac.uk)