GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Guanosine Triphosphate: Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.rho GTP-Binding Proteins: A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 126.96.36.199.GTP Phosphohydrolases: Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Guanosine Diphosphate: A guanine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Monomeric GTP-Binding Proteins: A class of monomeric, low molecular weight (20-25 kDa) GTP-binding proteins that regulate a variety of intracellular processes. The GTP bound form of the protein is active and limited by its inherent GTPase activity, which is controlled by an array of GTPase activators, GDP dissociation inhibitors, and guanine nucleotide exchange factors. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 188.8.131.52Guanosine 5'-O-(3-Thiotriphosphate): Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.rab GTP-Binding Proteins: A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that play a key role in cellular secretory and endocytic pathways. EC 3.6.1.-.ADP-Ribosylation Factors: MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that were initially recognized as allosteric activators of the MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE of the CHOLERA TOXIN catalytic subunit. They are involved in vesicle trafficking and activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE D. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 184.108.40.206Pertussis Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.Botulinum Toxins: Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.ADP Ribose Transferases: Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.Virulence Factors, Bordetella: A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.rhoA GTP-Binding Protein: A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 220.127.116.11.Thionucleotides: Nucleotides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors: Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.GTPase-Activating Proteins: Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.ras Proteins: Small, monomeric GTP-binding proteins encoded by ras genes (GENES, RAS). The protooncogene-derived protein, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS), plays a role in normal cellular growth, differentiation and development. The oncogene-derived protein (ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS)) can play a role in aberrant cellular regulation during neoplastic cell transformation (CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 18.104.22.168.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Rho Factor: A protein which effects termination of RNA synthesis during the genetic transcription process by dissociating the ternary transcription complex RNA;-RNA POLYMERASE DNA at the termination of a gene.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Poly(A)-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to the 3' polyadenylated region of MRNA. When complexed with RNA the proteins serve an array of functions such as stabilizing the 3' end of RNA, promoting poly(A) synthesis and stimulating mRNA translation.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.GTP Cyclohydrolase: (GTP cyclohydrolase I) or GTP 7,8-8,9-dihydrolase (pyrophosphate-forming) (GTP cyclohydrolase II). An enzyme group that hydrolyzes the imidazole ring of GTP, releasing carbon-8 as formate. Two C-N bonds are hydrolyzed and the pentase unit is isomerized. This is the first step in the synthesis of folic acid from GTP. EC 22.214.171.124 (GTP cyclohydrolase I) and EC 126.96.36.199 (GTP cyclohydrolase II).Tacrolimus Binding Proteins: A family of immunophilin proteins that bind to the immunosuppressive drugs TACROLIMUS (also known as FK506) and SIROLIMUS. EC 5.2.1.-Guanine NucleotidesHydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Poly(A)-Binding Protein I: A poly(A) binding protein that has a variety of functions such as mRNA stabilization and protection of RNA from nuclease activity. Although poly(A) binding protein I is considered a major cytoplasmic RNA-binding protein it is also found in the CELL NUCLEUS and may be involved in transport of mRNP particles.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Guanylyl Imidodiphosphate: A non-hydrolyzable analog of GTP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It binds tightly to G-protein in the presence of Mg2+. The nucleotide is a potent stimulator of ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins: A family of soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors and modulate their biological actions at the cellular level. (Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1992;39(1):3-9)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein: A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 188.8.131.52.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins: Intracellular proteins that reversibly bind hydrophobic ligands including: saturated and unsaturated FATTY ACIDS; EICOSANOIDS; and RETINOIDS. They are considered a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of proteins that may play a role in the metabolism of LIPIDS.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.rho-Associated Kinases: A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.Transducin: A heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein that mediates the light activation signal from photolyzed rhodopsin to cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase and is pivotal in the visual excitation process. Activation of rhodopsin on the outer membrane of rod and cone cells causes GTP to bind to transducin followed by dissociation of the alpha subunit-GTP complex from the beta/gamma subunits of transducin. The alpha subunit-GTP complex activates the cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase which catalyzes the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to 5'-GMP. This leads to closure of the sodium and calcium channels and therefore hyperpolarization of the rod cells. EC 3.6.1.-.Transglutaminases: Transglutaminases catalyze cross-linking of proteins at a GLUTAMINE in one chain with LYSINE in another chain. They include keratinocyte transglutaminase (TGM1 or TGK), tissue transglutaminase (TGM2 or TGC), plasma transglutaminase involved with coagulation (FACTOR XIII and FACTOR XIIIa), hair follicle transglutaminase, and prostate transglutaminase. Although structures differ, they share an active site (YGQCW) and strict CALCIUM dependence.Guanosine Monophosphate: A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety and found widely in nature.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Peptide Elongation Factor Tu: A protein found in bacteria and eukaryotic mitochondria which delivers aminoacyl-tRNA's to the A site of the ribosome. The aminoacyl-tRNA is first bound to a complex of elongation factor Tu containing a molecule of bound GTP. The resulting complex is then bound to the 70S initiation complex. Simultaneously the GTP is hydrolyzed and a Tu-GDP complex is released from the 70S ribosome. The Tu-GTP complex is regenerated from the Tu-GDP complex by the Ts elongation factor and GTP.ADP-Ribosylation Factor 1: ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1 is involved in regulating intracellular transport by modulating the interaction of coat proteins with organelle membranes in the early secretory pathway. It is a component of COAT PROTEIN COMPLEX I. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 184.108.40.206.Poly(A)-Binding Protein II: A poly(A) binding protein that is involved in promoting the extension of the poly A tails of MRNA. The protein requires a minimum of ten ADENOSINE nucleotides in order for binding to mRNA. Once bound it works in conjunction with CLEAVAGE AND POLYADENYLATION SPECIFICITY FACTOR to stimulate the rate of poly A synthesis by POLY A POLYMERASE. Once poly-A tails reach around 250 nucleotides in length poly(A) binding protein II no longer stimulates POLYADENYLATION. Mutations within a GCG repeat region in the gene for poly(A) binding protein II have been shown to cause the disease MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY, OCULOPHARYNGEAL.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Peptide Elongation Factor G: Peptide Elongation Factor G catalyzes the translocation of peptidyl-tRNA from the A to the P site of bacterial ribosomes by a process linked to hydrolysis of GTP to GDP.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.GTP Phosphohydrolase-Linked Elongation Factors: Factors that utilize energy from the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP for peptide chain elongation. EC 3.6.1.-.Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras): Cellular proteins encoded by the H-ras, K-ras and N-ras genes. The proteins have GTPase activity and are involved in signal transduction as monomeric GTP-binding proteins. Elevated levels of p21 c-ras have been associated with neoplasia. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 220.127.116.11.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Dynamins: A family of high molecular weight GTP phosphohydrolases that play a direct role in vesicle transport. They associate with microtubule bundles (MICROTUBULES) and are believed to produce mechanical force via a process linked to GTP hydrolysis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 18.104.22.168.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.rac GTP-Binding Proteins: A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 22.214.171.124.Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3: One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level.Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Periplasmic Binding Proteins: Periplasmic proteins that scavenge or sense diverse nutrients. In the bacterial environment they usually couple to transporters or chemotaxis receptors on the inner bacterial membrane.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Adenylosuccinate Synthase: A carbon-nitrogen ligase. During purine ribonucleotide biosynthesis, this enzyme catalyzes the synthesis of adenylosuccinate from GTP; IMP; and aspartate with the formation of orthophosphate and GDP. EC 126.96.36.199.Peptide Elongation Factors: Protein factors uniquely required during the elongation phase of protein synthesis.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Tacrolimus Binding Protein 1A: A 12-KDa tacrolimus binding protein that is found associated with and may modulate the function of calcium release channels. It is a peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase which is inhibited by both tacrolimus (commonly called FK506) and SIROLIMUS.rab5 GTP-Binding Proteins: A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in transport from the cell membrane to early endosomes. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 188.8.131.52.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Oncogene Protein p21(ras): Transforming protein encoded by ras oncogenes. Point mutations in the cellular ras gene (c-ras) can also result in a mutant p21 protein that can transform mammalian cells. Oncogene protein p21(ras) has been directly implicated in human neoplasms, perhaps accounting for as much as 15-20% of all human tumors. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 184.108.40.206.Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.rac1 GTP-Binding Protein: A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 220.127.116.11.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Latent TGF-beta Binding Proteins: A family of secreted multidomain proteins that were originally identified by their association with the latent form of TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTORS. They interact with a variety of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS and may play a role in the regulation of TGB-beta bioavailability.rab2 GTP-Binding Protein: A protein involved in transport between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 18.104.22.168.Affinity Labels: Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2: One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Septins: A family of GTP-binding proteins that were initially identified in YEASTS where they were shown to initiate the process of septation and bud formation. Septins form into hetero-oligomeric complexes that are comprised of several distinct septin subunits. These complexes can act as cytoskeletal elements that play important roles in CYTOKINESIS, cytoskeletal reorganization, BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, and membrane dynamics.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.TATA-Box Binding Protein: A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 1: One of the six homologous proteins that specifically bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions. The function of this protein is not completely defined. However, several studies demonstrate that it inhibits IGF binding to cell surface receptors and thereby inhibits IGF-mediated mitogenic and cell metabolic actions. (Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1993;204(1):4-29)COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)rab3 GTP-Binding Proteins: A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in calcium-dependent EXOCYTOSIS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 22.214.171.124.Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein: A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Retinol-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind with RETINOL. The retinol-binding protein found in plasma has an alpha-1 mobility on electrophoresis and a molecular weight of about 21 kDa. The retinol-protein complex (MW=80-90 kDa) circulates in plasma in the form of a protein-protein complex with prealbumin. The retinol-binding protein found in tissue has a molecular weight of 14 kDa and carries retinol as a non-covalently-bound ligand.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Cholera Toxin: An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.S100 Calcium Binding Protein G: A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.CREB-Binding Protein: A member of the p300-CBP transcription factor family that was initially identified as a binding partner for CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN. Mutations in CREB-binding protein are associated with RUBINSTEIN-TAYBI SYNDROME.PhosphoproteinsPeptide Termination Factors: Proteins that are involved in the peptide chain termination reaction (PEPTIDE CHAIN TERMINATION, TRANSLATIONAL) on RIBOSOMES. They include codon-specific class-I release factors, which recognize stop signals (TERMINATOR CODON) in the MESSENGER RNA; and codon-nonspecific class-II release factors.CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins: A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Protein Prenylation: A post-translational modification of proteins by the attachment of an isoprenoid to the C-terminal cysteine residue. The isoprenoids used, farnesyl diphosphate or geranylgeranyl diphosphate, are derived from the same biochemical pathway that produces cholesterol.Guanine Nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitors: Protein factors that inhibit the dissociation of GDP from GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.rho-Specific Guanine Nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitors: A subcategory of guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors that are specific for RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors: Signaling proteins which function as master molecular switches by activating Rho GTPases through conversion of guanine nucleotides. Rho GTPases in turn control many aspects of cell behavior through the regulation of multiple downstream signal transduction pathways.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 126.96.36.199.Vitamin D-Binding Protein: An alpha-globulin found in the plasma of man and other vertebrates. It is apparently synthesized in the liver and carries vitamin D and its metabolites through the circulation and mediates the response of tissue. It is also known as group-specific component (Gc). Gc subtypes are used to determine specific phenotypes and gene frequencies. These data are employed in the classification of population groups, paternity investigations, and in forensic medicine.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.ran GTP-Binding Protein: A monomeric GTP-binding protein involved in nucleocytoplasmic transport of proteins into the nucleus and RNA into the cytoplasm. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 188.8.131.52.Polypyrimidine Tract-Binding Protein: A RNA-binding protein that binds to polypyriminidine rich regions in the INTRONS of messenger RNAs. Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein may be involved in regulating the ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of mRNAs since its presence on an intronic RNA region that is upstream of an EXON inhibits the splicing of the exon into the final mRNA product.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.rhoB GTP-Binding Protein: A GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating a signal transduction pathway that controls assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 184.108.40.206.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 4: One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 5: One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)rho Guanine Nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitor alpha: An abundantly-expressed rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor subtype that regulates a broad variety of RHO GTPASES.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1: A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Dynamin I: A subtype of dynamin found primarily in the NEURONS of the brain.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go: A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that were originally identified by their ability to inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES. Members of this family can couple to beta and gamma G-protein subunits that activate POTASSIUM CHANNELS. The Gi-Go part of the name is also spelled Gi/Go.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Peptide Elongation Factor 2: Peptide Elongation Factor 2 catalyzes the translocation of peptidyl-tRNA from the A site to the P site of eukaryotic ribosomes by a process linked to the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP.RGS Proteins: A large family of evolutionarily conserved proteins that function as negative regulators of HETEROTRIMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. RGS PROTEINS act by increasing the GTPase activity of the G alpha subunit of a heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein, causing it to revert to its inactive (GDP-bound) form.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits: The GTPase-containing subunits of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins. When dissociated from the heterotrimeric complex these subunits interact with a variety of second messenger systems. Hydrolysis of GTP by the inherent GTPase activity of the subunit causes it to revert to its inactive (heterotrimeric) form. The GTP-Binding protein alpha subunits are grouped into families according to the type of action they have on second messenger systems.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Insulin-Like Growth Factor I: A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Nerve Tissue ProteinsMaltose-Binding Proteins: Periplasmic proteins that bind MALTOSE and maltodextrin. They take part in the maltose transport system of BACTERIA.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins: A family of ribonucleoproteins that were originally found as proteins bound to nascent RNA transcripts in the form of ribonucleoprotein particles. Although considered ribonucleoproteins they are primarily classified by their protein component. They are involved in a variety of processes such as packaging of RNA and RNA TRANSPORT within the nucleus. A subset of heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins are involved in additional functions such as nucleocytoplasmic transport (ACTIVE TRANSPORT, CELL NUCLEUS) of RNA and mRNA stability in the CYTOPLASM.Type C Phospholipases: A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 220.127.116.11), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Photoreceptor Cells: Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 18.104.22.168.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Signal Recognition Particle: A cytosolic ribonucleoprotein complex that acts to induce elongation arrest of nascent presecretory and membrane proteins until the ribosome becomes associated with the rough endoplasmic reticulum. It consists of a 7S RNA and at least six polypeptide subunits (relative molecular masses 9, 14, 19, 54, 68, and 72K).Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Microfilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Ribonucleoproteins: Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).Somatomedins: Insulin-like polypeptides made by the liver and some fibroblasts and released into the blood when stimulated by SOMATOTROPIN. They cause sulfate incorporation into collagen, RNA, and DNA synthesis, which are prerequisites to cell division and growth of the organism.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) bind activated forms of Rho GTPases and stimulate GTP hydrolysis. Through this catalytic ... GAPs may also serve as effector molecules and play a role in signaling downstream of Rho and other Ras-like GTPases.[supplied ... There are 3 subtypes of Rho GTPases in the Ras superfamily of small G proteins: RHO (see MIM 165370), RAC (see RAC1; MIM 602048 ... Rac GTPase-activating protein 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the RACGAP1 gene. Rho GTPases control a variety of ...
Clostridium difficile toxin A
Just I, Selzer J, von Eichel-Streiber C, Aktories K (March 1995). "The low molecular mass GTP-binding protein Rho is affected ... When RhoA is inactivated via TcdA, its interaction with downstream effectors is inhibited. This leads to changes in the actin ... Small GTPases such as Rho, Rac, and Cdc42 regulate their activity by alternating between an active GTP-bound state, and an ... The glucosylation prevents proper binding of GTP and blocks activation. TcdA acts preferentially on the GDP-bound form of the ...
in 1997 as a downstream effector of Rho. A mouse embryo cDNA library was screened to identify a RhoA-GTP-binding protein using ... Rho-GTP binds to the GDB domain and disrupts the DAD-DID-interaction thus promoting actin assembly. But this requires high ... The mDia1 polypeptide chain can be divided into four protein domains: GBD/FH3 (Rho GTPase-binding domain/formin homology 3) ... The formin homology protein mDia1 is a Rho GTPase effector protein, which appears to be universally present in eukaryotic cells ...
... a protein that mediates the cyclical regulation of small GTP binding proteins such as RhoA. ARHGAP29 is expressed in the ... "A novel GTPase-activating protein for Rho interacts with a PDZ domain of the protein-tyrosine phosphatase PTPL1". J Biol Chem. ... developing face and may act downstream of IRF6 in craniofacial development. ARHGAP29 contains four domains including a coiled- ... ARHGAP29 is a gene located on chromosome 1p22 that encodes Rho GTPase activating protein (GAP) 29, ...
... putative Rho-specific GDP/GTP exchange factor and a RhoA-binding protein: control of neuronal morphology". J. Cell Biol. 137 (7 ... Riento K, Guasch RM, Garg R, Jin B, Ridley AJ (June 2003). "RhoE binds to ROCK I and inhibits downstream signaling". Mol. Cell ... an SH3-binding protein and potential effector of Rho protein signaling". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (46): 28772-6. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... "Identification of the Rho-binding domain of p160ROCK, a Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase". J. Biol. Chem. ...
JIP4 binds to downstream kinases, MKK3 and MKK6. This complex then activates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). ... the GEF domain of Brx facilitates activation of Rho-type small G proteins from its inactive GDP state to active GTP state. ... Miyakawa H, Woo SK, Dahl SC, Handler JS, Kwon HM (1999). "Tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein, a Rel-like protein that ... 1999). "Tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein, a rel-like protein that stimulates transcription in response to ...
The binding of the Ras GAP to the Rho GAP inhibits the activity of the Rho GAP, thereby activating the Rho G protein. One GAP ... The activity of G proteins comes from their ability to bind guanosine triphosphate (GTP). Binding of GTP inherently changes the ... In this more active state, G proteins can bind other proteins and turn on downstream signalling targets. This whole process is ... G proteins can weakly hydrolyse GTP, breaking a phosphate bond to make GDP. In the GDP-bound state, the G proteins are ...
As with all small G proteins RhoG is able to signal to downstream effectors when bound to GTP (Guanosine triphosphate) and ... It is a member of the Rac subfamily of the Rho family of small G proteins and is encoded by the gene RHOG. RhoG was first ... Other proteins known to bind RhoG in its GTP-bound state include the microtubule-associated protein kinectin, Phospholipase D1 ... RhoG (Ras homology Growth-related) (or ARGH) is a small (~21 kDa) monomeric GTP-binding protein (G protein), and is an ...
"The small GTP-binding protein rho regulates the assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers in response to growth ... "Association of CNK1 with Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors controls signaling specificity downstream of Rho". Cell: ... In 1993, Alan Hall was awarded the Feldberg Foundation Prize for his work on the role GTP-binding proteins played on signal ... It was already known that other Ga proteins could induce Rho activation (i.e. Ga13 activates p115 Rho GEF, which in turn ...
Wang KL, Roufogalis BD (May 1999). "Ca2+/calmodulin stimulates GTP binding to the ras-related protein ral-A". The Journal of ... Cantor SB, Urano T, Feig LA (Aug 1995). "Identification and characterization of Ral-binding protein 1, a potential downstream ... "Bridging Ral GTPase to Rho pathways. RLIP76, a Ral effector with CDC42/Rac GTPase-activating protein activity". The Journal of ... "Identification and characterization of a novel protein interacting with Ral-binding protein 1, a putative effector protein of ...
It cycles between inactive GDP-bound and active GTP-bound states and function as molecular switches in signal transduction ... "Cell Motility Mediated by Rho and Rho-Associated Protein Kinase Plays a Critical Role in Intrahepatic Metastasis of Human ... a Fromin downstream target, which is used to regulate where Rac1 is active MAPK pathway: upregulating VEGF, Basic fibroblastic ... Rho proteins promote reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and regulate cell shape and motility. RhoC can activate formins ...
Rho-associated protein kinase
The kinase activity is switched on when Rho-GTP binds to the Rho-binding domain of ROCK, disrupting the autoinhibitory ... ROCK is a downstream effector molecule of the Rho GTPase Rho that increases ROCK kinase activity when bound to it. ... glial fibrillaric acidic protein), NF-L (neurofilament L protein) F-actin binding proteins: Adducin, EF-1α (elongation factor, ... as ROCK is a downstream effector protein of the small GTPase Rho, which is one of the major regulators of the cytoskeleton. 1. ...
When a substrate such as GTP-bound RhoA binds to the Rho-binding region of the coiled-coil domain, the interactions between the ... coiled-coil-containing protein kinase 1. Other common names are ROKβ and P160ROCK. ROCK1 is a major downstream effecter of the ... G-protein RhoE binds to the N-terminus of ROCK1 and inhibits its activity by preventing RhoA binding. Small G-proteins, Gem and ... "Identification of the Rho-binding domain of p160ROCK, a Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase". The Journal of ...
G protein-coupled receptor
Rho. Once bound to GTP, Rho can then go on to activate various proteins responsible for cytoskeleton regulation such as Rho- ... The ERK2 mitogen-activated protein kinase, a key signal transduction mediator downstream of receptor activation in many ... The GPCR can then activate an associated G protein by exchanging the GDP bound to the G protein for a GTP. The G protein's α ... binding of G proteins to receptors affects the receptor's affinity for ligands. Activated G proteins are bound to GTP. ...
GC-GAP is part of the Rho GTP-ase activating protein family (RICS). It contains a highly proline-rich motifs that allow ... Mutagenesis and Binding assays have helped to identify which molecules and what pathways are downstream of GAB2. The two main ... GRB2-associated-binding protein 2 also known as GAB2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GAB2 gene. GAB2 is a docking ... GAB2 was initially discovered as a binding protein and substrate of protein tyrosine phosphatase Shp2/PTPN11. Two other groups ...
Clostridium difficile toxin B
Aktories K, Just I (December 1995). "Monoglucosylation of low-molecular-mass GTP-binding Rho proteins by clostridial cytotoxins ... but in downstream pathway activity, may lead to the deterioration of actin filaments and finally, cell death. In 1993, a study ... When TcdB binds to Rho and other small GTPases, GTP hydrolyzes to GDP, which leads to GTP-bound (active) to GDP-bound (inactive ... a family of glycosyltransferases modifying small GTP-binding proteins". Trends in Microbiology. 4 (10): 375-82. doi:10.1016/ ...
... interacting only with the GTP bound forms of rho and rac 1. Displaying a distinctive protein organization, this protein defines ... Riento K, Guasch RM, Garg R, Jin B, Ridley AJ (Jun 2003). "RhoE binds to ROCK I and inhibits downstream signaling". Molecular ... "Citron rho-interacting kinase, a novel tissue-specific ser/thr kinase encompassing the Rho-Rac-binding protein Citron". The ... This GTPase cycles between an inactive GDP-bound form and an active GTP-bound form, and this RhoA flux seems important for ...
... interacting only with the GTP bound forms of rho and rac 1. Displaying a distinctive protein organization, this protein defines ... "RhoE binds to ROCK I and inhibits downstream signaling". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 23 (12): 4219-29. doi:10.1128/MCB. ... protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • GO:0001948 protein binding. • ATP binding. • Rho GTPase binding. ... protein kinase activity. • PDZ domain binding. • SH3 domain binding. • scaffold protein binding. • metal ion binding. • kinase ...
... proteins that bind GTP play a major role in signal transduction from the activated RTK into the cell. In this case, the G ... The activated G protein subunits detach from the receptor and initiate signaling from many downstream effector proteins such as ... proteins are members of the Ras, Rho, and Raf families, referred to collectively as small G proteins. They act as molecular ... Many adaptor proteins and enzymes activated as part of signal transduction possess specialized protein domains that bind to ...
These proteins serve as targets for the small GTP binding proteins Cdc42 and Rac and have been implicated in a wide range of ... PAK proteins are critical effectors that link the Rho family of GTPases (Rho GTPases) to cytoskeleton reorganization and ... Functions of PAK1 are regulated by its ability to phosphorylate downstream effector substrates, scaffold activity, ... ARG-binding protein 2γ, hepatitis B virus X protein, STE20-related kinase adaptor protein α, RhoI, Klotho, N-acetylglucosaminyl ...
... which interact with the GDP-bound Rho proteins to keep them in a resting complex (see MIM 601925); GEFs, which promote GDP/GTP ... 2003). "RhoE binds to ROCK I and inhibits downstream signaling". Mol. Cell. Biol. 23 (12): 4219-29. doi:10.1128/MCB.23.12.4219- ... Like Ras, Rho family members appear to cycle between an inactive GDP-bound form and an active GTP-bound form. Three major ... which stimulate GTP hydrolysis and return the activated Rho protein to its inactive form (see MIM 602680) (Nobes et al., 1998 ...
Rho family of GTPases
Bustelo XR, Sauzeau V, Berenjeno IM (2007). "GTP-binding proteins of the Rho/Rac family: regulation, effectors and functions in ... Each Rho protein affects numerous proteins downstream, all of which having roles in various cell processes. Over 60 targets of ... A second target to explain the role of the Rho proteins in cancer is their regulatory proteins. Rho proteins are very tightly ... This protein cannot be inactivated normally, through GTP hydrolysis, and is thus "stuck on". When a Rho protein activated in ...
The guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-bound, active form of RhoA (GTP.RhoA) specifically interacted with the myosin-binding subunit ... Myosin phosphatase regulates the interaction of actin and myosin downstream of the guanosine triphosphatase Rho. The small ... Somlyo AP (1999). "Kinases, myosin phosphatase and Rho proteins: curiouser and curiouser". J. Physiol. 516 (3): 630. doi: ... Rho-associated kinase (Rho-kinase), which is activated by GTP. RhoA, phosphorylated MBS and consequently inactivated myosin ...
They serve as targets for the small GTP binding proteins Cdc42 and Rac and have been implicated in a wide range of biological ... PAK proteins are critical effectors that link Rho GTPases to cytoskeleton reorganization and nuclear signaling. ... "A PAK4-LIMK1 pathway drives prostate cancer cell migration downstream of HGF". Cellular Signalling. 20 (7): 1320-8. doi:10.1016 ... PAK4 interacts specifically with the GTP-bound form of Cdc42Hs and weakly activates the JNK family of MAP kinases. PAK4 is a ...
... for the Rho family of GTP binding proteins. The protein is important in hematopoiesis, playing a role in T-cell and B-cell ... "Activation of Vav by Nef induces cytoskeletal rearrangements and downstream effector functions". Mol. Cell. 3 (6): 729-39. doi: ... This particular GEF has been identified as the specific binding partner of Nef proteins from HIV-1. Coexpression and binding of ... Proto-oncogene vav is a protein that in humans is encoded by the VAV1 gene. The protein encoded by this proto-oncogene is a ...
"Regulator of G protein signalling"). Receptors stimulate GTP binding (turning the G protein on). RGS proteins stimulate GTP ... see Rho family of GTPases). This is through the RhoGEF superfamily involving the RhoGEF domain of the proteins' structures). ... PKA can phosphorylate a myriad downstream targets. The cAMP-dependent pathway is used as a signal transduction pathway for many ... They are small (20-kDa to 25-kDa) proteins that bind to guanosine triphosphate (GTP). This family of proteins is homologous to ...
... and their activation requires the dissociation of GDP and binding of guanosine triphosphate (GTP). GEFs activate G proteins by ... It functions as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for RhoG, a small G protein of the Rho family. SGEF was discovered ... van Buul JD, Allingham MJ, Samson T (September 2007). "RhoG regulates endothelial apical cup assembly downstream from ICAM1 ... that function to activate small G proteins. In their resting state G proteins are bound to guanosine diphosphate (GDP) ...
The PAK proteins are a family of serine/threonine kinases that serve as targets for the small GTP binding proteins, CDC42 and ... The human PAK2 was identified as a downstream effector of Rac or Cdc42. The PAK2 gene is about 92.7-kb long. The gene contains ... The p21 activated kinases (PAK) are critical effectors that link Rho GTPases to cytoskeleton reorganization and nuclear ... The PAK proteins are a family of serine/threonine kinases that serve as targets for the small GTP binding proteins, CDC42 and ...
... "an important downstream effector of Rho guanosine trisphosphates (GTP)," proteins that are significant in the contractile ... ripasudil hydrochloride hydrate showed no binding affinity for receptors of the adrenergic, angiotensin II, endothelin, ... It is a selective Rho-associated coiled/coil-containing protein kinase (ROCK1) inhibitor, where ROCK1 is " ... Futakuchi, A; Inoue, T; Fujimoto, T; Inoue-Mochita, M; Kawai, M; Tanihara, H (2016). "The effects of ripasudil (K-115), a Rho ...
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein
WASp and N-WASP are analogs, they contain an N-terminal EVH1 domain, a C-terminal VCA domain and central B and GBD (GTP binding ... Rho protein signal transduction. • regulation of actin polymerization or depolymerization. • regulation of lamellipodium ... Other functions of WASP depend on its activity as a scaffold protein for assembly of effective signalling complexes downstream ... SH3 domain binding. • protein binding. • identical protein binding. • actin binding. • protein kinase binding. • small GTPase ...
"Regulator of G protein signalling"). Receptors stimulate GTP binding (turning the G protein on). RGS proteins stimulate GTP ... Gα12/13 are involved in Rho family GTPase signaling (see Rho family of GTPases). This is through the RhoGEF superfamily ... PKA can phosphorylate a myriad downstream targets. ... GTP-binding protein regulators. *see GTP-binding protein ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to G proteins.. *GTP-Binding Proteins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical ...
GTP-binding protein regulators. *see GTP-binding protein regulators. Other. *Activating transcription factor 6 ... Indirect/downstream NO modulators: ACE inhibitors/AT-II receptor antagonists (e.g., captopril, losartan) ... Membrane bound guanylate cyclases include an external ligand-binding domain (e.g., for peptide hormones such as BNP and ANP), a ... Guanylyl cyclase activator (protein). References. *^ Sakurai K.; Chen J.; Kefalov V. (2011). "Role of guanylate cylcase ...
... and their activation requires the dissociation of GDP and binding of guanosine triphosphate (GTP). GEFs activate G proteins by ... Signalling downstream of Dock2. Like other DOCK-A and DOCK-B subfamily proteins Dock2 GEF activity is specific for Rac. ... Meller N, Merlot S, Guda C (November 2005). "CZH proteins: a new family of Rho-GEFs". J. Cell Sci. 118 (Pt 21): 4937-46. doi: ... protein binding. • T cell receptor binding. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • cytosol. • membrane. • extracellular exosome. • ...
... a gene which encodes a protein that acts as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rho GTPase proteins. ... BCR-ABL fusion cells also exhibit constitutively high levels of activated Ras bound to GTP, activating a Ras-dependent ... when bound to ATP and triggers downstream pathways. The ABL tyrosine kinase activity of BCR-Abl is elevated relative to wild- ... DNA binding and apoptosis. The c-Abl gene in wild-type cells is implicated in DNA binding, which affects such processes ...
GTP-binding protein regulators. *see GTP-binding protein regulators. Other. *Activating transcription factor 6 ... The pathway may also be deactivated downstream by directly inhibiting adenylyl cyclase or dephosphorylating the proteins ... The Gs alpha subunit of the stimulated G protein complex exchanges GDP for GTP and is released from the complex. ... The Gs alpha subunit slowly catalyzes the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP, which in turn deactivates the Gs protein, shutting off the ...
In bacteria, termination of RNA transcription can be rho-dependent or rho-independent. The former relies on the rho factor, ... It must maintain promoter contacts while unwinding more downstream DNA for synthesis, "scrunching" more downstream DNA into the ... RNAP I/III subunit AC40 found in some eukaryotes share similar sequences, but does not bind iron. This domain, in ... Messenger RNA (mRNA)-template for the synthesis of proteins by ribosomes.. *Non-coding RNA or "RNA genes"-a broad class of ...
GDP binding. • GO:0032403 macromolecular complex binding. • GTP binding. • GMP binding. • GO:0001948 protein binding. • GTPase ... "Calmodulin binds to K-Ras, but not to H- or N-Ras, and modulates its downstream signaling". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 21 ... to a molecule of GTP. The K-Ras protein is turned off (inactivated) when it converts the GTP to GDP. When the protein is bound ... it is unlikely that drug-like small molecule inhibitors could compete with GTP/GDP binding. Other than where GTP/GDP binds, ...
Serine/threonine-specific protein kinase
GTP-binding protein regulators. *see GTP-binding protein regulators. Other. *Activating transcription factor 6 ... protein were identified in 1987.By 1995 it had been found that Akt kinases function as mitogen-activated kinases downstream ... Protein kinase C ('PKC'). is actually a family of protein kinases consisting of ~10 isozymes. They are divided into three ... Receptor protein serine/threonine kinase (EC 22.214.171.124). *Bone morphogenetic protein receptors *BMPR1 ...
Ren, X.-D. (1999). "Regulation of the small GTP-binding protein Rho by cell adhesion and the cytoskeleton". The EMBO Journal. ... September 2004). "EB1 and APC bind to mDia to stabilize microtubules downstream of Rho and promote cell migration". Nature Cell ... The GTP bound to α-tubulin is stable and it plays a structural function in this bound state. However, the GTP bound to β- ... Since tubulin adds onto the end of the microtubule in the GTP-bound state, a cap of GTP-bound tubulin is proposed to exist at ...
G beta-gamma complex
Logothetis DE, Kurachi Y, Galper J, Neer EJ, Clapham DE (1987). "The beta gamma subunits of GTP-binding proteins activate the ... and that Gβγ was largely responsible for inactivating the Gα subunit and enhancing membrane binding. However, downstream ... The Gβγ subunit has been shown to activate a Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (RhoGef) gene PLEKHG2 which is upregulated ... and is a component of heterotrimeric G proteins. Heterotrimeric G proteins, also called guanosine nucleotide-binding proteins, ...
Pleckstrin homology domain
Mouse protein citron, a putative rho/rac effector that binds to the GTP-bound forms of rho and rac. Several S. cerevisiae ... function by modulating the localization of downstream signaling proteins that possess PH domains that are capable of binding ... BUD4 and the BEM1-binding proteins BOI2 (BEB1) and BOI1 (BOB1). C. elegans protein MIG-10. Ceramide kinase, a lipid kinase that ... and proteins such as the βγ-subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins, and protein kinase C. Through these interactions, PH domains ...
rho GTP-Binding Proteins | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst
Pleines I, Cherpokova D, Bender M. Rho GTPases and their downstream effectors in megakaryocyte biology. Platelets. 2019; 30(1): ... "rho GTP-Binding Proteins" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "rho GTP-Binding Proteins" was a major or ... rho GTP-Binding Proteins*rho GTP-Binding Proteins. *GTP-Binding Proteins, rho ... "rho GTP-Binding Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ...
RACGAP1 - Wikipedia
GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) bind activated forms of Rho GTPases and stimulate GTP hydrolysis. Through this catalytic ... GAPs may also serve as effector molecules and play a role in signaling downstream of Rho and other Ras-like GTPases.[supplied ... There are 3 subtypes of Rho GTPases in the Ras superfamily of small G proteins: RHO (see MIM 165370), RAC (see RAC1; MIM 602048 ... Rac GTPase-activating protein 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the RACGAP1 gene. Rho GTPases control a variety of ...
Net1 (Neuroepithelial Cell Transforming Gene 1 Protein) | SpringerLink
ARHGEF8; Net1A Rho family small GTPases control multiple cell functions, including organization of the actin cytoskeletal, cell ... When bound to GTP, Rho GTPases initiate intracellular signaling by binding to downstream proteins known as effectors (Jaffe and ... Rho GDIs). Rho GEFs activate Rho proteins by stimulating the release of GDP, thereby allowing the binding of GTP (Rossman et al ... 2005). Rho GAPs accelerate the intrinsic GTPase activity of Rho proteins to hydrolyze GTP to GDP (Tcherkezian and Lamarche-Vane ...
Frontiers | Hijacking Host Cell Highways: Manipulation of the Host Actin Cytoskeleton by Obligate Intracellular Bacterial...
A subset of effectors contains eukaryotic-like motifs that mimic host proteins to exploit signaling and modify specific ... A subset of effectors contains eukaryotic-like motifs that mimic host proteins to exploit signaling and modify specific ... For successful infection and replication, many pathogens hijack the cytoskeleton using effector proteins introduced into the ... For successful infection and replication, many pathogens hijack the cytoskeleton using effector proteins introduced into the ...
Clostridium difficile toxin A - Wikipedia
Just I, Selzer J, von Eichel-Streiber C, Aktories K (March 1995). "The low molecular mass GTP-binding protein Rho is affected ... When RhoA is inactivated via TcdA, its interaction with downstream effectors is inhibited. This leads to changes in the actin ... Small GTPases such as Rho, Rac, and Cdc42 regulate their activity by alternating between an active GTP-bound state, and an ... The glucosylation prevents proper binding of GTP and blocks activation. TcdA acts preferentially on the GDP-bound form of the ...
John R. Pringle | Stanford Medicine Profiles
... the GTP-bound proteins in turn interact with their downstream effectors to transmit the signal. Biochemical assays using Rho- ... binding domains of effector proteins have been used to specifically pull down GTP-bound Rho proteins from cell extracts. Here, ... Rho proteins function as molecular switches by cycling between the active GTP-bound and inactive GDP-bound states; ... that this function involves a cycling between GTP-bound and GDP-bound forms of the protein, and that the suppression of cdc24 ...
Frontiers | Metabolic Health, Insulin, and Breast Cancer: Why Oncologists Should Care About Insulin | Endocrinology
Rho proteins belong to the RAS superfamily and are activated when bound to GTP (130). Rho controls the stress fibers and focal ... Rho downstream proteins Rac and Cdc42, regulate membrane ruffling and filopodium formation, respectively (130). Rho/Rac/Cdc42- ... RHEB is bound to the TSC protein complex and is inactive (45, 66). GDP-bound TSC2 binds RHEB and inactivates it; GTP-bound TSC2 ... protein, or girders of actin filaments (girdin), is an actin-binding protein that maintains the integrity of actin filaments. ...
Direct cadherin-activated cell signaling | JCB
Rho family GTPases, like other GTP-binding proteins, function as molecular switches (Hall, 1998; Braga, 2000). Their ... Like other GTPases, nucleotide status determines whether Rho family proteins can interact with, and activate, downstream ... it is also possible that proteins of the cadherin-catenin complex can associate directly with Rho family proteins. Of note, ... Homophilic binding of C-cadherin inhibited Rho GTPase activity (Noren et al., 2001), whereas adhesion of mouse C2C12 cells to ...
JCI - Neuroprotection mediated by changes in the endothelial actin cytoskeleton
The small GTP-binding protein Rho binds to and activates a 160 kDa Ser/Thr protein kinase homologous to myotonic dystrophy ... p160 Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinase (31-33). A primary downstream effect of Rho kinase is the ... Rho-associated kinase, a novel serine/threonine kinase, as a putative target for small GTP binding protein Rho. EMBO J 1996. 15 ... GTP-binding) protein Rho (15). We recently reported that Rho negatively regulates the eNOS expression in endothelial cell ...
A genome-wide survey of RAS transformation targets. - PubMed - NCBI
... the small GTP-binding proteins RAC and RHO, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and others. We have used subtractive suppression ... invasion and metastasis via downstream pathways involving the RAF/MEK/ERK cascade of cytoplasmic kinases, ... RAS genes encode small GTP-binding proteins that affect gene expression in a global way by acting as major switches in signal ...
RhoE Binds to ROCK I and Inhibits Downstream Signaling - PubMed
RhoE belongs to the Rho GTPase family, the members of which control actin cytoskeletal dynamics. RhoE induces stress fiber ... RhoE belongs to the Rnd subfamily of small Rho-related GTP-binding proteins. Similar to other Rho proteins, RhoE regulates ... The three Rnd proteins, Rnd1, Rnd2 and RhoE/Rnd3, are a subset of Rho family proteins that are unusual in that they bind but do ... ROCK proteins were pulled down by GST-RhoA-V14 or GST-RhoE on glutathione beads. After washes the bound proteins were separated ...
rho, a Small GTP-Binding Protein, Is Essential for Shigella Invasion of Epithelial Cells | JEM
... is a downstream event in rho-regulated signal transduction ((25)) which precedes cell spreading or tyrosine phosphorylation of ... rho, a Small GTP-Binding Protein, Is Essential for Shigella Invasion of Epithelial Cells. Masahisa Watarai, Yoichi Kamata, ... 1995) Monoglucosylation of lowmolecular-mass GTP-binding Rho proteins by clostridial cytotoxins. Trends Cell Biol 5:441-443, ... 1992) The small GTP-binding protein rho regulates the assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers in response to growth ...
Figure 1, [Activation of Rho, Rac and...]. - Madame Curie Bioscience Database - NCBI Bookshelf
GEF-dependent activation of one or more Rho GTP-binding proteins, which will activate-through downstream effectors-the Arp2/3 ... that activate or inhibit the function or one or more Rho proteins, thereby modulating actin polymerization and phagocytosis. ... Type I phagocytosis is characterized by the independent activation of Rac and Cdc42, whereas only Rho activity is required ... Yersinia outer protein; FcγR, Fcγ receptor; AC, apoptotic cell; CR3, complement receptor type 3; WASp, Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome ...
Vascular Function | Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Rho-kinase is an important downstream effector of the small GTP-binding protein Rho and plays a crucial role in migration and ... In addition, Iso et al9 clearly demonstrated that capillary endothelial fatty acid-binding protein 4/5 is required for fatty ... Capillary endothelial fatty acid binding proteins 4 and 5 play a critical role in fatty acid uptake in heart and skeletal ... Because secretion is regulated by Rho-kinase activity, the cyclophilin A/Rho-kinase pathway contributes to augmentation of ...
... including the inhibition of small GTP-binding protein Rho (Liao, 2002). ROCKs were found to be one of the first downstream ... 1996) The small GTP-binding protein Rho binds to and activates a 160 kDa Ser/Thr protein kinase homologous to myotonic ... as a putative target for small GTP binding protein Rho. EMBO J 15: 2208-2216. ... statin-induced inhibition of RhoA geranylgeranylation decreases membrane GTP-bound active RhoA and subsequent ROCK activity, ...
Atypical Protein Kinases Cλ and -ζ Associate with the GTP-Binding Protein Cdc42 and Mediate Stress Fiber Loss | Molecular and...
Proteins in the pathways that regulate contractility and actin depolymerization downstream of Rho and ROK, such as myosin light ... 1995) A downstream target of RHO1 small GTP-binding protein is PKC1, a homolog of protein kinase C, which leads to activation ... Both the Rho family of low-molecular-weight GTP-binding proteins and protein kinases C (PKCs) mediate responses to a variety of ... Protein kinases C (PKCs) regulate many of the same pathways regulated by Rho family GTP binding proteins. The mammalian PKC ...
Cell Migration: Integrating Signals from Front to Back | Science
Rho family proteins: Central regulators of protrusion. Rho family small guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins (GTPases ... When bound to GTP, they are active and interact with their downstream target proteins, which include protein kinases, lipid- ... can itself mediate Cdc42 activation downstream of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors, which are ... Many proteins are enriched at filopodial tips, including Ena/VASP proteins, which bind barbed ends of actin filaments and ...
rho GTP-Binding Proteins - rho GTP-Binding Protein Summary Report | CureHunter
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and ... rho; P21, rho Protein; rho G Proteins; rho GTP Binding Protein; rho GTP Binding Proteins; rho Small GTP Binding Proteins; rho G ... rho GTP-Binding Protein; P21 (rho)Protein; rho Protein P21; G-Proteins, rho; GTP-Binding Protein, rho; GTP-Binding Proteins, ... "Accumulating evidence from basic and clinical studies supports the concept that signaling pathways downstream of Rho GTPases ...
Statins for heart failure: at the crossroads between cholesterol reduction and pleiotropism? | Heart
It serves as a lipid attachment to the GTP binding protein rho, which is involved in stress fibre formation,9 monocyte adhesion ... Indeed, substrates downstream from mevalonate in the synthesis cascade contribute to a number of other metabolic pathways.8 ... Chan DC, Watts GF, Barrett PH, et al. Effect of atorvastatin and fish oil on plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein ... Amano M, Fukata Y, Kaibuchi K. Regulation and functions of Rho-associated kinase. Exp Cell Res2000;261:44-51. ...
Diffuse glioma growth: a guerilla war | SpringerLink
When bound to GTP, these proteins can interact with downstream target proteins, including protein kinases, phosphatases, and ... Members of the Rho family of small GTP binding proteins, esp. Rac and cell division cycle protein Cdc42, are pivotal regulators ... binds with high affinity with IGF-Binding Protein 2 (IGFBP2), a soluble protein that is frequently overexpressed in high-grade ... an insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP-2) binding protein, antagonizes IGFBP-2 stimulation of glioma cell ...
Phospho-Bad (Ser136) Antibody, UniProt ID Q92934 #9295 to Phospho-C/EBPα (Ser21) Antibody, UniProt ID P49715 #2841 from Cell...
... and a region of sequence similarity to the guanine nucleotide exchange factors for the Rho family of GTP binding proteins. The ... These signaling molecules bind to BLNK through their SH2 domains and together activate downstream signaling pathways (3,4). ... Background: A-Raf, B-Raf, and c-Raf (Raf-1) are the main effectors recruited by GTP-bound Ras to activate the MEK-MAP kinase ... Background: A-Raf, B-Raf, and c-Raf (Raf-1) are the main effectors recruited by GTP-bound Ras to activate the MEK-MAP kinase ...
Honors Thesis Archive - Thomas Library - Wittenberg University
Rac1 is a member of the Ras superfamily and Rho subfamily of small GTP-binding proteins or GTPases. It functions as a molecular ... Active Rac1 signals to downstream effectors to control cellular processes such as membrane ruffling. While the downstream ... GTP-bound) and inactive (GDP-bound) conformation, to regulate diverse physiological processes within mammalian cells. ... Glutathionylation is the addition of glutathione to a target protein, via a disulfide bond. Recent studies have shown that ...
Rho GTPase Function in Cell Morphogenesis
Ridley AJ and Hall A (1992) The small GTP‐binding protein rho regulates the assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers ... Riento K, Guasch RM, Garg R, Jin B and Ridley AJ (2003) RhoE binds to ROCK I and inhibits downstream signaling. Molecular and ... GTP. is facilitated by GAPs. . GDIs. sequestrate inactive Rho GTPases. . Only in their GTP. ‐bound form, Rho GTPases. can ... Rho GTPase cycle. Rho GTPases. cycle between an active GTP. ‐bound and an inactive GDP. ‐bound form. Activation is catalysed by ...
Human Ect2 Is an Exchange Factor for Rho Gtpases, Phosphorylated in G2/M Phases, and Involved in Cytokinesis | Journal of Cell...
The GTP-bound form of Rho proteins can specifically interact with their effectors or targets and transmit signals to downstream ... The GTP-bound form of Rho proteins is active, whereas the GDP-bound form is inactive. Activation of the Rho proteins is ... Rho proteins are inactivated through the hydrolysis of bound GTP to GDP by intrinsic GTPase activity, assisted by GTPase ... The small GTP-binding protein Rho regulates cortical activities in cultured cells during division ...
gq g11 gtp binding protein alpha subunits
Research Grants about gq g11 gtp binding protein alpha subunits ... of Rho and of Protein Kinases acting upstream and downstream of ... heterotrimeric gtp binding proteins , gtp binding protein alpha subunits , gq g11 gtp binding protein alpha subunits ... protein kinase c*gtp binding proteins*enzyme activation*muscarinic receptors*signal transduction*gs gtp binding protein alpha ... heterotrimeric gtp binding proteins*gi go gtp binding protein alpha subunits*phospholipase c*g protein coupled receptors* ...
Impact of Rac1 and Cdc42 Signaling during Early Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection of Keratinocytes | Journal of Virology
When bound to GTP, the Rho proteins can activate various downstream effectors, thereby stimulating diverse biological responses ... The Rho GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42 function as molecular switches and cycle between an active GTP-bound state and an inactive GDP- ... A) Total protein extracts were prepared, and proteins were resolved on SDS-PAGE gels (15%). Expression of the Rho GTPases was ... The bound GTP-Rac1 or GTP-Cdc42 were detected with mouse anti-Rac1 (monoclonal antibody 23A8; Upstate) diluted 1:500 or anti- ...
NF-κB Mediates αvβ3 Integrin-induced Endothelial Cell Survival | JCB
... regulation of small GTP-binding proteins like Rho and Ras, and interaction with intracellular proteins like c-Src and c-Fyn, ... To explore the downstream mechanism of protection, we examined the activity of NF-κB, a recently described cell survival factor ... Activation of NF-κB by osteopontin depended on the small GTP-binding protein Ras and the tyrosine kinase Src, since NF-κB ... Finally, we provide evidence that the small GTP-binding protein Ras and the tyrosine kinase Src are required for osteopontin- ...
The Role of RhoJ in Endothelial Cell Biology and Tumor Pathology
In the GTP-bound state, these Rho proteins bind to a large collection of downstream effector molecules, thereby simulating a ... Rho family small GTPases are molecular switches that cycle between an active GTP-bound and inactive GDP-bound form . ... by pull-down of the active GTP-bound forms of the PAK1 CRIB domain versus cellular lysates, whereas binding of semaphorin 3E ( ... whereas GAPs promote the intrinsic GTP hydrolysis of Rho GTPases; therefore GEFs can activate the Rho GTPases. Arhgef15 (also ...
Role of Rho-Kinase in the Pathogenesis of Coronary Hyperconstricting Responses Induced by Drug-Eluting Stents in Pigs In Vivo |...
Rho-kinase is one of the down-stream effectors of the small GTP-binding protein Rho and consists of 2 isoforms, Rho-kinase beta ... Rho-kinase beta. ROCK2. Rho-kinase alpha. SES. sirolimus-eluting stent(s). VSMC. vascular smooth muscle cell. ... 1999) Rho and Rho kinase mediate thrombin-stimulated vascular smooth muscle cell DNA synthesis and migration. Circ Res 84:1186- ... PES enhances coronary Rho-kinase expression and Rho-kinase activity. Immunohistological analysis showed that ROCK1 (Figs. 5Ato ...
SMART: RHO domain annotation
G proteins from a diverse family of regulatory GTPases which, in the GTP-bound state, bind to and activate downstream effectors ... The Rho family small GTP-binding proteins are subjected to regulation by Rho GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) in the course of ... Ras-related GTP-binding proteins function as molecular switches which cycle between GTP-bound on- and GDP-bound off-states ... that specifically bound to GTP-Rho. The Rho-binding domain of this protein has 40 percent identity with a putative regulatory ...
- A subset of effectors contains eukaryotic-like motifs that mimic host proteins to exploit signaling and modify specific cytoskeletal components such as actin and microtubules. (frontiersin.org)
- Phagocytosis generally involves the receptor-mediated, GEF-dependent activation of one or more Rho GTP-binding proteins, which will activate-through downstream effectors-the Arp2/3 complex and actin polymerisation. (nih.gov)
- Several bacterial pathogens have the capacity to produce toxins or bacterial effectors (shown in double-lined boxes) that activate or inhibit the function or one or more Rho proteins, thereby modulating actin polymerization and phagocytosis. (nih.gov)
- Active Rac1 signals to downstream effectors to control cellular processes such as membrane ruffling. (wittenberg.edu)
- When bound to GTP, the Rho proteins can activate various downstream effectors, thereby stimulating diverse biological responses, such as actin dynamics, cell cycle progression, cell adhesion, and gene transcription ( 5 ). (asm.org)
- Rho-kinase is one of the down-stream effectors of the small GTP-binding protein Rho and consists of 2 isoforms, Rho-kinase beta (ROCK1) and Rho-kinase alpha (ROCK2) ( 11,12 ). (onlinejacc.org)
- Further evidence of the importance of these effectors in Ras signaling comes from new Ras point mutants, known as effector mutants, that bind and activate only subsets of Ras effectors ( 56 ). (asm.org)
- Signals from Ras through the alternate effectors utilize other small G proteins. (asm.org)
- Bem1 and Cdc24) and downstream effectors (i.e. (biologists.org)
- To identify novel effectors downstream of the TCR, we designed a retroviral-based functional genetic screen to select for proteins that inhibit receptor-mediated T cell activation. (jimmunol.org)
- Among these effectors are several protein kinases that either are or might be amenable to small-molecule inhibition ( Fig. 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- RhoA cycles between an inactive GDP-bound and active GTP-bound form that is targeted to cell membranes where it stimulates its downstream effectors. (78stepshealth.us)
- ROCK and PAK are downstream protein kinase effectors. (sinobiological.com)
- All RHO proteins have conserved residues at Gly14, Thr19, Phe30 and Gln93 which are involved in binding, stabilization or regulation of GTP hydrolysis. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- The exchange of bound GDP for GTP converts these small G proteins to an active form, which returns to the GDP-bound inactive form by hydrolysis of GTP. (ahajournals.org)
- This GAP assay kit measures the amount of inorganic phosphate (P i ) that is produced as a result of G-protein dependent hydrolysis of GTP to GDP + P i . (cytoskeleton.com)
- Thus, in activating the hydrolysis of GTP, Rgd1p negatively regulates the action of these two Rho proteins. (sdbonline.org)
- PAK1 negatively regulates the activity of the Rho exchange factor NET1. (springer.com)
- MLK3 regulates bone development downstream of the faciogenital dysplasia protein FGD1 in mice. (umassmed.edu)
- Rho regulates reorganization of actin filaments and is implicated in at least maintenance … More of cell morphology, cell motility, and cytokinesis in mammalian cells. (nii.ac.jp)
- BNI1 and BNR1 directly interact with profilin at the FH1 domains, suggesting that Rho regulates the reorganization of actin filaments through the BNI1/BNR1-profilin system. (nii.ac.jp)
- RhoG protein regulates platelet granule secretion and thrombus formation in mice. (antikoerper-online.de)
- We have previously shown that the activated Rho-kinase pathway plays a central role in the molecular mechanism of coronary vasospasm in animals and humans. (onlinejacc.org)
- There are members of the Rho family in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in which powerful molecular genetical approaches are applicable. (embl.de)
- Each domain has a specific molecular composition, which includes protein complexes composed of distinct transmembrane, membrane-associated, and cytosolic components. (jci.org)
- These are structurally conserved elements with unique molecular specificities that can be found in proteins of many different functions. (jci.org)
- Publications] Masuda, T.: 'Molecular cloning and characterization of yeast rho GDP dissociation inhibitor. (nii.ac.jp)
- Using a panel of small molecular inhibitors, we subsequently established phenotypic effects, downstream signaling cascades, and associated gene expression signatures of FGF receptor signals. (mpg.de)
- The ECM is a complex network of polysaccharides and proteins with high molecular weight, such as laminins, collagens, vitronectin, and fibronectin (1, 2). (schoolbag.info)
- Small molecular weight GTP-binding proteins (small G proteins) are molecular switches that control various cell functions. (ahajournals.org)
- At the molecular level, one would expect that the PAK-PIX-GIT complex mediates cross talk between Arf- and Rho-family G proteins to regulate the activity of class I PAKs. (childrenshospital.org)
- Yet, despite our studies and those of others, defining the molecular mechanisms underlying the diverse properties of class I PAKs, PIX and GIT proteins remains a major ongoing challenge. (childrenshospital.org)
- Molecular weight determination can also detect modifications of proteins, such as glycosylation, and insertions or deletions of amino acids. (scienceonstageturkey.com)
- Side-by-side assessment of the obvious molecular pounds from the proteins from different resources provides compelling proof for equivalence because main differences in changes from the proteins would bring about changes in flexibility. (scienceonstageturkey.com)
- The analysis shows that mEPSPS produced from recombinant and from GA21 maize bind rabbit anti-EPSPS polyclonal antibodies, and also have the same obvious molecular pounds. (scienceonstageturkey.com)
- Intact mass The perseverance from the molecular pounds of the proteins by traditional GYKI-52466 dihydrochloride western blots is certainly fairly imprecise (Sadeghi et al. (scienceonstageturkey.com)
- 2007). Q-TOF machines are able to distinguish between proteins with single amino acid substitutions, or other low GYKI-52466 dihydrochloride molecular excess weight modifications, such as for example methionine oxidation. (scienceonstageturkey.com)
- The ArhGAP7/DLC1 gene is normally localized on chromosome 8p21-22 and encodes a 1091-amino acidity protein using a forecasted molecular mass of 122?kDa. (themodernsolution.com)
Member of the Rho family1
- Rac, the next member of the Rho family to be analyzed, could be activated by a distinct set of agonists (for example, platelet-derived growth factor or insulin), leading to the assembly of a meshwork of actin filaments at the cell periphery to produce lamellipodia and membrane ruffles (Fig. 1 E) ( 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
- n = 12 each), and were abolished by hydroxyfasudil (90 and 300 μg/kg intracoronary administration), a selective Rho-kinase inhibitor. (onlinejacc.org)
- These responses were inhibited in cells scrape-loaded with the Rho inhibitor C3 transferase. (ucl.ac.uk)
- The present invention relates to an aqueous pharmaceutical formulation comprising at least one inhibitor of Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK). (patentsencyclopedia.com)
- RhoGDIβ, a Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor, induced hypertrophic growth and cell migration in a cultured cardiomyoblast cell line, H9c2. (biomedcentral.com)
- We identified RhoGDIβ(Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor beta) as a ZAK effector. (biomedcentral.com)
- Due to its homology with other proteins of similar function, as well as the location of the gene between tcdA and tcdB, tcdE is predicted to function as the lytic protein that facilitates release since TcdA and TcdB lack a signal peptide for secretion. (wikipedia.org)
- GIN4 encodes a protein with strong homology to the Snflp serine/threonine kinase. (mendeley.com)
- TAZ shares homology with the WW domain of Yes-associated protein (YAP) (1). (cellsignal.com)
- During the sequencing of the genome of S. cerevisiae , a new gene encoding a protein with a Rho-GAP homology domain was identified. (sdbonline.org)
- The ERM family (Ezrin, Radixin, and Moesin), which directly interacts with actin filaments through its C-terminal region and with a transmembrane protein, CD44, through its N-terminal region, is located at these areas. (nii.ac.jp)
- We also found that Rho GDI directly interacts with ERM,initiating the activation of Rho by reducing the Rho GDI activity. (nii.ac.jp)
- The GTP-bound form interacts with its specific target and performs its cell functions. (sdbonline.org)
- Cla4p kinase activity was not reduced by mutational inactivation of gin4, suggesting that Gin4p may be downstream or parallel to Cla4p in the regulation of cytokinesis. (mendeley.com)
- The most common alteration reported for Rho regulators in malignancy is definitely inactivation of RhoGAPs. (themodernsolution.com)
- the β subunits provide a structural link between the other subunits and also contain a specialized sequence that binds to glycogen, whereas the γ subunits contain the binding sites that enable AMP to activate the complex. (ahajournals.org)
- Ras V12S35 and Ras V12G37 , two effector mutant proteins which fail to activate PI 3-kinase, did not activate Pak when tested alone but activated Pak when they were cotransfected. (asm.org)
- Similarly, Rac V12H40 , an effector mutant that does not bind Pak, and Rho both cooperated with Raf to activate Pak. (asm.org)
- Essmann CL, Ryan KR, Elmi M, Bryon-Dodd K, Porter A, Vaughan A, McMullan R, Nurrish S. Activation of RHO-1 in cholinergic motor neurons competes with dopamine signalling to control locomotion. (harvard.edu)
- Figure 1, [Activation of Rho, Rac and. (nih.gov)
- The glucosylation prevents proper binding of GTP and blocks activation. (wikipedia.org)
- Activation of NF-κB by osteopontin depended on the small GTP-binding protein Ras and the tyrosine kinase Src, since NF-κB reporter activity was inhibited by Ras and Src dominant-negative mutants. (rupress.org)
- Excessive and/or persistent activation of calcium-calmodulin protein kinase II (CaMKII) is detrimental in acute and chronic cardiac injury. (readbyqxmd.com)
- In Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts, it was shown that Rho can be activated by the addition of extracellular ligands [for example, lysophosphatidic acid] and that Rho activation leads to the assembly of contractile actin-myosin filaments (stress fibers) and of associated focal adhesion complexes (Fig. 1 , C and D) ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
- In the present research project, we studied the functions and modes of activation and action of small G proteins. (nii.ac.jp)
- A dominant negative Rho mutant also inhibited Ras activation of Pak. (asm.org)
- Furthermore, the strong correlation between Pak activation and cooperative transformation suggests that Pak activation is necessary, although not sufficient, for cooperative transformation of Rat-1 fibroblasts by Ras, Rac, and Rho. (asm.org)
- The need for reciprocal activation during cell motility is perhaps the reason why no activating mutations, such as those identified for Ras, have been found for Rho in human cancers. (biomedcentral.com)
- We show that this construct binds directly to the kinase domain of PAK2 and inhibits anti-TCR-stimulated T cell activation. (jimmunol.org)
- Such processes are usually rapid, lasting in the order of milliseconds in the case of ion flux, to minutes for the activation of protein and lipid mediated kinase cascades. (gim-academy.com)
- Objective- The function of the endothelial cell (EC)-enriched Rho family guanine nucleotide exchange factor, facio-genital dysplasia-5 (FGD5), is poorly understood. (ahajournals.org)
- The protein encoded by this gene acts as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the RHO family of small GTP-binding proteins (RACs). (genecards.org)
- Functions as a RAC guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), which activates the Rac proteins by exchanging bound GDP for free GTP. (genecards.org)
- section describes a region in the protein which binds nucleotide phosphates. (uniprot.org)
- It always involves more than one amino acid and includes all residues involved in nucleotide-binding. (uniprot.org)
- This family of small (20-30?kDa) signaling G proteins (guanine nucleotide-binding proteins) constitutes Rabbit polyclonal to ZNF286A a major branch of the Ras superfamily (3). (themodernsolution.com)
- I n recent years it has become evident that integrin- mediated adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) 1 proteins is required for growth and survival of many cell types. (rupress.org)
- The protein tyrosine kinase focal adhesion kinase (FAK) plays a prominent role in integrin signaling. (biologists.org)
- Thus, the N-terminal FERM domain may direct FAK to sites of integrin or growth factor receptor clustering as well as regulating its interactions with other potential activating proteins. (biologists.org)
- Requirement for Rho in integrin signalling. (ucl.ac.uk)
- A functional integrin is a heterodimeric protein complex consisting of an α and a β subunit. (schoolbag.info)
- Although this approach in other systems has typically required a translation-enhancing element such as an internal ribosome entry site for the downstream marker, we found that a short stretch of unstructured junction sequence was sufficient to obtain adequate expression of the downstream gene, presumably through post-termination reinitiation. (stanford.edu)
- PREX1 (Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-Trisphosphate Dependent Rac Exchange Factor 1) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
- Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include enzyme binding and phospholipid binding . (genecards.org)
- The gene encoding G-protein-coupled receptor 65 (GPR65) has recently been reported to be a genetic risk factor for IBD. (biomedcentral.com)
- The protein phosphatase calcineurin performs a critical function in the procedures by which various kinds AT13387 cells react to extracellular indicators or environmental strains through adjustments in gene appearance. (cylch.org)
- For example, HMGB1 facilitates the binding of Hox proteins, Oct-1, p53, Rel proteins, and steroid hormone receptor proteins to their target gene promoters (1,2). (cellsignal.com)
- In the past due 80s, the id of the gene discovered to become removed in liver organ tumors typically, the so-called DLC1, concentrated the attention over the role of the protein family members in tumorigenesis. (themodernsolution.com)
Extracellular matrix p1
Family of proteins3
- The NF-κB family of proteins consists of homo- or heterodimeric subunits of the Rel family, including p50 and p65. (rupress.org)
- VEGFs are a family of proteins that are crucial to regulate vascular development in the embryo and angiogenesis during tissue repair in adults. (ahajournals.org)
- The neurotrophins are a family of proteins that regulate cell survival, differentiation and growth in the vertebrate nervous system. (sigmaaldrich.com)